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Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

Zollweg, J.E.



Deadly Lahars from Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia: November 13, 1985  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site describes a series of Lahars that occurred from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in the Andes mountains, the northernmost and highest volcano in Colombia. Beginning in November 1984, the volcano began showing clear signs of unrest. An explosive eruption from Ruiz's summit crater on November 13, 1985, at 9:08 p.m. generated an eruption column and sent a series of pyroclastic flows and surges across the volcano's summit. Within minutes, pumice and ash began to fall to the northeast along with heavy rain that had started earlier in the day. Within four hours, lahars had traveled 100 km and left behind a wake of destruction: more than 23,000 people killed, about 5,000 injured, and more than 5,000 homes destroyed along the Chinchina, Guali, and Lagunillas rivers and destroying the town of Armero, Columbia. This deadly eruption of Nevado del Ruiz offers lessons on the generation of lahars for scientists, emergency-response professionals, and communities located downstream of such ice- and snow-covered volcanoes. The narrative is illustrated with 9 photographs.

N. Banks


The 2012 Reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nevado Del Ruiz volcano is most known for its tragic November 13, 1985 explosive event, when a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, again where a small explosive eruption was followed by a large lahar. Other minor explosive events occurred in 1805, 1828-9, and 1989. The Armero tragedy was a major factor in the establishment of a volcano monitoring program in Colombia. The network monitoring Nevado del Ruiz volcano has dramatically improved since the 1985 eruption and now includes geodetic, geophysical, geochemical and visual monitoring. The activity of Nevado Del Ruiz between 1985 and 1991 saw significant increases in seismicity and significant gas emissions with the main eruptive events of November 13, 1985 and September 1st, 1989. The volcano became seismically active again in 1995 and 2002, whit an increase in seismicity, without any gas emission or eruption. In October 2010 the volcano entered in a new phase of unrest with increased seismicity (HB events), deformation and gas emissions, likely associated with a new magma intrusion. In February, 2012 the volcano had a new and significant increase in seismicity (VT-LP), followed in May and June 2012 by small phreatic and phreato-magmatic eruption. This eruptive activity is still ongoing. Deformation measurements at Nevado Del Ruiz volcano have been carried out since just after the tragic eruption of the 13th of November 1985. In 2007 seven new electronic tilt meters were set up to monitor the deformation. Significant uplift was measured from August 2007 to October 2010, for a total cumulative value of more than 500 microradians. From the end of 2011 to July 2012, moderate changes of uplift were detected for a total of 70 microradians. The analysis of these deformation data shows a pattern of surface displacement associated with an intrusion of new magma coming from a reservoir located approximately at a depth of approximately 8 km and accumulating in shallow reservoir less than 2 km beneath the main crater. We fit the data with both a spherical and a vertical spheroid source. The spherical source indicates the existence of an intrusion at a depth of 1823±1056 m with a volume change of (7±17)×106 m3 . The vertical spheroidal source suggests a source 1855 m deep with a volume change of 6×106 m3 . These results imply that while we have strong bounds on the depth of the intrusion, the actual volume of the source is less certain. Gas emission from Nevado del Ruiz volcano in April 7, 2012.

Ordoñez, M.; Lopez, C.; Cortes, G. P.; Londoño, J.; Battaglia, M.



Quaternary eruptive history of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nevado del Ruiz has a 1.8-m.y.-long eruptive record that includes alternate construction and destruction of three edifices during three main eruptive periods, termed "ancestral Ruiz", "older Ruiz" and "Ruiz". Nevado del Ruiz is located on a complex intersection of four groups of faults, the most significant being the N20° E Palestina strike-slip fault and the N50° W Villamaria-Termales normal fault. Ancestral Ruiz was a broad stratovolcano built by two eruptive stages of lava flows starting about 1.8 Ma ago and ending 1.0 Ma ago. A partial collapse and formation of a caldera are thought to have occurred between 1.0 and 0.8 Ma ago. Older Ruiz was a stratovolcano constructed by lava flows in three stages starting about 0.8 Ma ago and ending about 0.2 Ma ago. Extensive and voluminous welded and nonwelded pyroclastic-flow deposits that partly fill preexisting valleys record the formation of a young summit caldera between 0.2 and 0.15 Ma ago. Present Ruiz is formed by a cluster of composite lava domes that probably filled the summit caldera of older Ruiz. Present Ruiz eruptive activity is mostly explosive, but also includes dome growth, and parasitic dome activity of La Olleta and Alto La Piramide. Twelve eruptive stages occurred during the last 11,000 years, accompanied by rockslide-debris avalanches, pyroclastic flows or surges, and their subsequent interactions with the ice cap, as well as by glacial erosion and mass-wasting. Diverse processes within these twelve stages have led to a partial destruction of the summit domes. This long and complex Pleistocene and Holocene eruptive sequence helps to put the November 13, 1985, eruption into a broader perspective.

Thouret, J.-C.; Cantagrel, J. M.; Salinas, R.; Murcia, A.



Eruption of the nevado del ruiz volcano, Colombia, on 13 november 1985: tephra fall and lahars.  


A small Plinian eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia ejected 3.5 x 10(10) kilograms of mixed dacite and andesite tephra on 13 November 1985, with a maximum column height of 31 kilometers above sea level. Small pyroclastic flows and surges, generated during the initial stage of the eruption, caused surface melting of approximately 10% of the volcano's ice cap, leading to meltwater floods. The erosive floods incorporated soils and loose sediments from the volcano's flanks and developed into lahars, which claimed at least 25,000 lives. PMID:17732038

Naranjo, J L; Sigurdsson, H; Carey, S N; Fritz, W



Deformation monitoring at Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia - October 1985 - March 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deformation studies began at Nevado del Ruiz 23 days before the devastating 13 November 1985 eruption, at least 12 months after precursory seismicity and fumarolic activity began. The late start in geodetic monitoring, limited number of stations in the pre-eruption network, and inconsistent patterns in the observed deformation limit conclusions about intrusive activity in the months and weeks prior to the eruption. However, the data require that the magma source of the devastating eruption was either deeper than 7 km or, if shallow, recovered the same volume and position within one week of the eruption. Geodetic monitoring resumed 1 week after the eruption and, by April 1986, included 11 tilt-leveling stations, 38 EDM lines, and 7 short leveling lines - a network capable of detecting emplacement or movement of magma volumes as small as 3 MCM (3 ?? 106 m3) to a depth of 2-3 km (using a point-source model), 10 MCM to 7 km, 50 MCM to 10 km, and 200 MCM to 15 km beneath Ruiz. In addition, 4 telemetered tiltmeters provided the capability of detecting, in real time, the fairly rapid ascent of much smaller magma bodies. Stations established to detect instability of the summit ice cap after the eruption were discontinued in early 1986. The data collected from the geodetic networks have higher than normal variance but demonstrate that little or no cumulative deformation of Ruiz occurred from October 1985 through March 1988. Thus, little, if any, magma intruded above 5 km beneath the summit during or after the 13 November 1985 eruption. This lack of significant intrusive activity agrees with the surprisingly low seismic energy release under Ruiz and makes direct degassing of a large batholith an improbable explanation of the large sulfur flux to date at Ruiz. Part of the variance in the geodetic data results from real but noncumulative deformation that may in part be pressure-buffered by a fairly large geothermal water-gas mixture for which abundant physical evidence exists. Part of the noncumulative deformation, some of the fairly dispersed and low-level seismicity under Ruiz, and some phreatic events appear to correlate with seasonal precipitation patterns. Hence rain/snow-loading and groundwater interaction may cause deformation events and possibly help trigger some phreatic explosions and seismic events at Ruiz and, as search of the literature reveals, at other volcanoes in metastable states. ?? 1990.

Banks, N.G.; Carvajal, C.; Mora, H.; Tryggvason, E.



Space Radar Image of Ruiz Volcano, Colombia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This spaceborne radar image shows the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic region in central Colombia, about 150 kilometers (93 miles) west of Bogata. The town of Manizales, Colombia, is the pinkish area in the upper right of the image. Ruiz Volcano, also known as Nevado del Ruiz, is the dark red peak below and right of the image center. A small circular summit crater is visible at the top of Ruiz. Tolima Volcano is the sharp peak near the lower left corner of the image. The red color of the image is due to the snow cover and the lack of vegetation at high elevations in these volcanic mountains. Ruiz Volcano, at 5,389 meters (17,681 feet) elevation, is capped by glaciers. In 1985, an explosive eruption melted parts of these glaciers, triggering mudflows along narrow canyons on the sides of the volcano. The town of Armero, located just off the right side of the image, was buried by mud and 21,000 residents were killed. Scientists are using radar images of these remote yet dangerous volcanoes to understand the threats they pose to local populations. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. The image is centered at 4.8 degrees north latitude and 75.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 40 kilometers by 48 kilometers (24.8 miles by 29.8 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.



Impacts of acid emissions from Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, on selected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of acidic gases and thermal waters from Nevado del Ruiz volcano have recently increased in concert with the November 13, 1985 eruption. This study examines the downwind and downstream effects of these emissions on alpine ecosystems high on the slopes of the volcano (4100 m) and on coffee plantations at lower elevations (< 2000 m) and greater distances from the active vent (> 30 km). Samples of bulk deposition, rain, soils, soil solutions, and streams were collected over a six-month period (January-July, 1987) to examine the impacts of this volcanogenic acidity. Bulk deposition falling on the higher slopes of the volcano is usually acidified; however, deposition reaching the distal coffee plantations seldom is acidic. The sources of the acids are hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide in the plume of the volcano. Although sulfur dioxide is by far the more abundant gas, hydrogen chloride is most responsible for acidification of rain falling on the slopes of the volcano. With distance from the vent, the chloride/sulfate ratio drops exponentially. The only major influence on regional precipitation chemistry in addition to the volcano appears to be land-use-related activities around the coffee plantations. Deposition on these areas is enriched by an order of magnitude in nitrate and base cations, compared to all other stations. Throughfall chemistry in the coffee plantations shows a dramatic response to occasional acid-rain events. A base-leaching process on coffee plant leaves is triggered by acid rain. For each equivalent of hydrogen ion in rain on the leaf surface, over 23 equivalents of potassium ion are leached from the leaf. In spite of this dramatic response by the vegetation, the plantation soils appear relatively unaffected by acidic deposition. In contrast, the alpine soils on the volcano exhibit low pHs, high sulfate and chloride concentrations in soil solutions, and high extractable sulfate concentrations. All of these factors indicate that these soils have undergone significant acid loading. While the deposition of the region is acidified by hydrogen chloride, the streams flowing off the volcano are apparently acidified by sulfuric acid in thermal waters discharging into the streams. The acidity of these streams decreases downstream, while the silica concentrations increase downstream. The composition of stream water is most influenced by thermal-water discharges as well as equilibrium dissolution of amorphous silica glass and non-equilibrium leaching of unweathered ash. The impacts of acid gases and thermal water released from the volcano appear to be restricted to ecosystems on the slope of the volcano. The only impact of Nevado del Ruiz on surrounding coffee plantations appears to be potassium leaching of coffee leaves from occasional acid-deposition events.

Parnell, Roderic A.; Burke, Kelly J.



Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobilization, flow and deposition of lahars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A complex sequence of pyroclastic flows and surges erupted by Nevado del Ruiz volcano on 13 November 1985 interacted with snow and ice on the summit ice cap to trigger catastrophic lahars (volcanic debris flows), which killed more than 23,000 people living at or beyond the base of the volcano. The rapid transfer of heat from the hot eruptive products to about 10 km2 of the snowpack, combined with seismic shaking, produced large volumes of meltwater that flowed downslope, liquefied some of the new volcanic deposits, and generated avalanches of saturated snow, ice and rock debris within minutes of the 21:08 (local time) eruption. About 2 ?? 107 m3 of water was discharged into the upper reaches of the Molinos, Nereidas, Guali, Azufrado and Lagunillas valleys, where rapid entrainment of valley-fill sediment transformed the dilute flows and avalanches to debris flows. Computed mean velocities of the lahars at peak flow ranged up to 17 m s-1. Flows were rapid in the steep, narrow upper canyons and slowed with distance away from the volcano as flow depth and channel slope diminished. Computed peak discharges ranged up to 48,000 m3 s-1 and were greatest in reaches 10 to 20 km downstream from the summit. A total of about 9 ?? 107 m3 of lahar slurry was transported to depositional areas up to 104 km from the source area. Initial volumes of individual lahars increased up to 4 times with distance away from the summit. The sedimentology and stratigraphy of the lahar deposits provide compelling evidence that: (1) multiple initial meltwater pulses tended to coalesce into single flood waves; (2) lahars remained fully developed debris flows until they reached confluences with major rivers; and (3) debris-flow slurry composition and rheology varied to produce gradationally density-stratified flows. Key lessons and reminders from the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcanic eruption are: (1) catastrophic lahars can be generated on ice- and snow-capped volcanoes by relatively small eruptions; (2) the surface area of snow on an ice cap can be more critical than total ice volume when considering lahar potential; (3) placement of hot rock debris on snow is insufficient to generate lahars; the two materials must be mechanically mixed together for sufficiently rapid head transfer; (4) lahars can increase their volumes significantly by entrainment of water and eroded sediment; and (5) valley-confined lahars can maintain relatively high velocities and can have catastrophic impacts as far as 100 km downstream. ?? 1990.

Pierson, T.C.; Janda, R.J.; Thouret, J.-C.; Borrero, C.A.



Spectral Characterization of Volcanic Earthquakes at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano Using  

E-print Network

Spectral Characterization of Volcanic Earthquakes at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano Using Spectral Band methods in a two-class classification problem of volcanic earthquakes recorded at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, seismic-volcanic events, spectral analysis. 1 Introduction Nevado del Ruiz is an ice-capped volcano placed

Duin, Robert P.W.



E-print Network

1 DISSIMILARITY-BASED CLASSIFICATION OF SEISMIC SIGNALS AT NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO Orozco words: Classification, dissimilarity, Ruiz, seismic, signals, volcano. RESUMEN La clasificación volcano is capped by a large volume of snow and ice, forming a glacier which has a volume of about 1200

Duin, Robert P.W.


Selection of time-variant features for earthquake classification at the Nevado-del-Ruiz volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic event recognition is an important task for hazard assessment, eruption prediction and risk mitigation, since it can be used to determine the state of a volcano. Usually, expert technicians read features extracted from the seismogram, such as, cepstral derived coefficients, energy centroids, instant frequency, instant envelop, among others. However, there are few studies about the selection of important features for classifying several types of seismic events, i.e., taking into account the temporal contribution of each considered feature. This paper presents a feature selection strategy based on a relevance measure of time-variant features for seismic event classification. In this research, features are selected as those with the maximal information preserved within the time analysis. Since features selection stage is performed by incremental training, a simple k-nearest neighbor classification rule is used to properly determine the dimension of the final feature set. The employed feature extraction and feature selection methodologies are tested on an isolated event recognition task. The database used to test the methodology is composed of the following classes: volcano-tectonic, long period earthquakes, tremors and hybrid events. Data was recorded at the seismic monitoring stations located at the Nevado-del-Ruiz volcano, Colombia. Using a classifier based on hidden Markov models, accomplished results exhibit a performance improvement from 78% to 88% using the proposed methodology in comparison to the state-of-the-art feature sets.

Cárdenas-Peña, David; Orozco-Alzate, Mauricio; Castellanos-Dominguez, German



Internal [sup 238]U-series systematics of pumice from the November 13, 1985, eruption of Nevado de Ruiz, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

High-precision mass spectrometer and alpha scintillation measurements of [sup 238]U-series nuclides were obtained for whole-rock pumice and constituent mineral and glass separates to help interpret the timing and nature of magmatic processes that led up to the 1985 eruption of Nevado de Ruiz volcano. Internal isochron diagrams for [sup 226]Ra/Ba vs. [sup 230]Th/Ba and [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th vs. [sup 238]U/[sup 232]Th show that data define linear arrays, indicating an average crystallization age of 6.1 [+-] 0.5 ka (Ra-Th isochron) and 7 [+-] 6 ka (Th-U isochron). Stratigraphic, petrographic geochemical, repose time, and eruption volume data for the Holocene eruptive sequence of Nevado del Ruiz indicate that significant changes occurred in the subvolcanic magma chamber between eruptions R9 ([approx]8.6 ka) and R8 ([approx]3.0 ka). This coincides with the average crystallization age derived from the U-series data and may represent the injection of a new batch (or batches) of mantle-derived magma into the subvolcanic magma chamber. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Schaefer, S.J.; Williams, S.N. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Sturchio, N.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Murrell, M.T. (Los Almos National Lab., NM (United States))




E-print Network

loci involved in predisposition to Bipolar mood disorder in the population of Antioquia, Colombia in Antioquia, Colombia. #12;Andres Ruiz-Linares 2 2. "Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Bipolar Disorder to the identification of gene regions involved in susceptibility to Bipolar Disorder in Antioquian patients. 3. "A

Linares, Andrés Ruiz


Competitividad del sector del vidrio templado en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

La industria nacional del vidrio templado es un sector en crecimiento, que necesita desarrollar ventajas competitivas como la innovación en sus procesos y productos a través de tecnología dura y blanda, y desplegar una logística integrada que permita la articulación de la cadena de valor y la orientación al cliente. Las empresas del sector vienen desarrollando, de acuerdo con su

Javier Mauricio Mendoza Paredes



Gynandromorphs in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.  


Gynandromorphs of Culex nigripalpus Theobald (2), Cx. pedroi Sirivanakarn and Belkin (1) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (2) are described. Two individuals of the latter species were reared in the laboratory, while the remaining three specimens were wild-caught with different traps in rural areas in Valle del Cauca department, southwestern Colombia. All of the individuals were mounted on microscopic slides with Canada balsam. From each mosquito, main morphological characteristics are described and illustrated. Due to the paucity of information about this subject, these findings as well as other relevant cases are discussed. PMID:18641900

Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María E; Barreto, Pablo



El crimen como oficio: una interpretación del aprendizaje del delito en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer un marco de análisis que permita entender el aprendizaje del delito en Colombia. El articulo supone que el delito puede ser entendido como un actividad que requiere cierta experticia. En esta medida, el crimen requiere una compleja y extensa preparación, lo cual va en contra de la creencia de que cualquier persona, en

Isaac De León Beltrán; Eduardo S. Albarán




Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se analiza el desarrollo del modelo de regulación en la prestación del servicio público de telecomunicaciones en Colombia, a partir de la liberalización de los servicios públicos domiciliarios (SPD) establecida en el marco normativo de la Constitución Política de Colombia de 1991 y la Ley 142 de 1994. Basado en la revisión de la literatura existente sobre

Raúl Andrés Tabarquino Muñoz




Microsoft Academic Search

El presente informe tiene por objeto identificar y medir los factores determinantes de la evolución del déficit fiscal del sector publico no financiero en Colombia a lo largo de la última década. La técnica de medición que se emplea en este trabajo está basada en la metodología propuesta por Marshall y Schmidt Hebbel (1989), la cual permite descomponer las diferentes

Igancio Lozano; Ligia Melo





This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers. PMID:12177933



Aproximación al cálculo del crecimiento real de Colombia: aportes metodológicos para la inclusión en las cuentas nacionales de los impactos del  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El sistema de contabilidad integrada considera el problema del agotamiento de los recursos naturales. En este trabajo se analiza la diferencia entre este sistema y el de cuentas nacionales utilizando datos del sector minero en Colombia para gas natural y carbón. Los resultados muestran que al incorporar los impactos del agotamiento del gas natural y del carbón el PIB

Michee Lachaud; Jorge Maldonado




Microsoft Academic Search

Between December 2000 and June 2002 a total of 117 roosts were located for house bats in Cali, Colombia. Seven species of house bats were registered in buildings, aproximately one-half of the bat species reported for the city. Molossus molossus was by far the most frequent and abundant bat species encountered in man- made structures, followed by Eumops glaucinus, Noctilio



El comercio internacional en Colombia: una perspectiva diferente del TLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

La nueva teoría del comercio internacional deja de lado las diferencias entre los países en cuanto a recursos y se enfoca en las decisiones de los empresarios para presentar una visión alternativa de las implicaciones de la firma del Tratado de libre Comercio. La nueva teoría pone énfasis en la heterogeneidad de las empresas, en la relevancia de la productividad

Jan Ter Wengel; Luz Karine Ardila; Beatriz Ferreira Villegas; Luís Miguel Suárez Cruz



Determinantes inmediatos y fundamentales del Crecimiento económico en Colombia bajo el Método Bayesiano de selección de variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento presenta un análisis del crecimiento en Colombia a partir de un modelo de selección de variables basado en el método bayesiano y modelos de series de tiempo de rezagos distribuidos (ARDL). El aporte del ejercicio consiste principalmente en el análisis de diversos factores que la teoría económica identifica como determinantes del desempeño económico usando una metodología standard y

Juan Ricardo Perilla Jiménez



El origen político del déficit fiscal en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente artículo desarrolla la tesis que la Constitución de 1991 elevó el gasto público total a niveles no sostenibles generando serios problemas fiscales que no han podido ser corregidos en su raíz estructural. La gran limitante a esta corrección ha sido la insuficiencia de apoyo político para proteger la estabilidad macroeconómica del país y verla como un patrimonio político




A geological and engineering reservoir characterization of the Caballos Formation (Cretaceous), Puerto Colon field Putumayo basin, Colombia  

E-print Network

A GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CABALLOS FORMATION (CRETACEOUS), PUERTO COLON FIELD, PUTUMAYO BASIN, COLOMBIA A Thesis by HECTOR RUIZ CASTELLANOS Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...: Petroleum Engineering ABSTRACT A Geological and Engineering Reservoir Characterization of the Caballos Formation (Cretaceous), Puerto Colon Field Putumayo Basin Colombia. (December 1994) Hector Ruiz Castellanos, B. S. , Universidad Industrial de...

Ruiz Castellanos, Hector



El Teatro Taller de Colombia: La resurrección del atavismo  

E-print Network

saben que esas profundidades anímicas existen; sólo algunos de ellos logran expresar luego coherentemente ese fondo en el mundo del conciente, por medio de leyes físicas o matemáticas, de intuiciones religiosas o de grandes obras de arte. ¿Cómo? Por... California los afirmó en su búsqueda; el teatro chicano trabajaba las creencias populares de grupos segregados en una amplia sociedad cosmopolita, era la afirmación de su propia identidad; ellos, que andaban en el extranjero, sin duda sintieron con fuerza...

Gonzá lez Cajiao, Fernando



Determinantes financieros y operativos del nivel de inventarios en el sector de la producción de papel en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se trata de establecer la influencia que el nivel de inventarios mantenido por las empresas del sector de producción del papel en Colombia tiene de factores investigados previamente en otros países; factores correspondientes a la Teoría Clásica como el nivel de ventas, y otros propios de la Teoría de la Agencia, como el flujo de caja, el nivel de la

Guillermo Buenaventura Vera; Elver Alfonso Bermeo; Jorge Santiago Rosillo



Earthquake on June 6, 1994, Triggers Landslides and Catastrophic Lahar Near Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how quickly an earthquake-triggered lahar happened and the losses that occurred. Some losses may have occurred because people did not know they should flee to high ground after an earthquake. Within minutes of the 1994 magnitude 6.4 earthquake beneath the south-southwest flank of Nevado del Huila volcano in Colombia, dozens of landslides swept down from the steep valleys above Rio Paez. The landslides quickly turned into debris flows, which joined to produce a single enormous flow. That lahar destroyed most of or parts of several towns along the river and displaced about 20,000 people from their homes. There were several hundred casualties. Bridges and roads were destroyed. The location map of Nevado del Huila volcano shows the path of the 1994 lahar.

R. Schuster


Evaluación del desempeño del sector de distribución de electricidad en Colombia: una aplicación del análisis de frontera estocástica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeño en la eficiencia técnica de las empresas que distribuyen energía en Colombia durante el período 2004-2007, usando el análisis de frontera estocástica (SFA). Se emplea una función de distancia translogorientada a los insumos, lo que permite considerar a los productos como dados y a los insumos como variables de control. Los resultados

Yeinni Andrea Patiño Moya; Gustavo Adolfo Gómez Flórez; Emma Osorio Medina



Utilizing NASA EOS Data for Fire Management in el Departmento del Valle del Cauco, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, fire incidence in Colombian wild areas has increased, damaging pristine forests into savannas and sterile lands. Fire poses a significant threat to biodiversity, rural communities and established infrastructure. These events issue an urgent need to address this problem. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) can play a significant role in the monitoring fires and natural disasters. SERVIR, the Regional Visualization and Monitoring Network, constitutes a platform for the observation, forecasting and modeling of environmental processes in Central America. A project called "The GIS for fire management in Guatemala (SIGMA-I)" has been already conducted to address the same problem in another Latin American country, Guatemala. SIGMA-I was developed by the Inter-agency work among the National protected areas council (CONAP), National Forestry Institution (INAB), the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction / National Forest Fire Prevention and Control System (CONRED/SIPECIF), and the Ministry of the Environment and National Resources (MARN) in Guatemala under the guidance and assistance of SERVIR. With SIGMA-I as an example, we proposed to conduct a similar project for the country of Colombia. First, a pilot study in the area of the watershed of the Cali River, Colombia was conducted to ensure that the data was available and that the maps and models were accurate. The proposed study will investigate the technical resources required: 1.) A fire map with a compilation of ignition data (hot spots) utilizing Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products MOD14 and MYD14 2.) A map of fire scars derived from medium resolution satellite data (ASTER) during the period 2003-2011 for the entire country, and a map of fire scar recurrence and statistics derived from the datasets produced. 3.) A pattern analysis and ignition cause model derived from a matrix of variables statistically exploring the demographic and environmental factors of fire risk, such as land surface temperature, precipitation, and NDVI .4.) A dynamic fire risk evaluation able to generate a dynamic map of ignition risk based on statistical analysis factors. This study aims to research integrating MODIS, Landsat and ASTER data along with in-situ data on environmental parameters from the Corporation of the Cauca Valley River (CVC) along with other data on social, economical and cultural variables obtained by researchers of the Wild Fire Observatory (OCIF) from the "Universidad Autónoma de Occidente" in order to create an ignition cause model, dynamic fire risk evaluation system and compile any and all geospatial data generated for the region. In this way the research will help predict and forecast fire vulnerabilities in the region. The team undertook this project through SERVIR with the guidance of the scientist, Victor Hugo Ramos, who was the leader and principal investigator on the SIGMA-I.

Brenton, J. C.; Bledsoe, N.; Alabdouli, K.



Keeping watch over Colombia’s slumbering volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Located in the Central Cordillera (Colombian Andes), Nevado del Ruiz is a volcanic complex, topped by glaciers, rising 5,321 m above sea level. A relatively small explosive eruption from Ruiz's summit crater on November 13, 1985, generated an eruption column and sent a series of pyroclastic flows and surges across the volcano's ice-covered summit. Pumice and meltwater produced by the hot pyroclastic flows and surges swept into gullies and channels on the slopes of Ruiz as a series of lahars. Within two hours of the beginning of the eruption, lahars had traveled 100 km and left behind a wake of destruction: more than 25,000 people were killed (23,000 in the town of Armero and 2,000 in the town of Chinchiná), about 5,000 injured, and more than 5,000 homes destroyed along the Chinchiná, Gualí, and Lagunillas rivers.

Ordoñez, Milton; López, Christian; Alpala, Jorge; Narváez, Lourdes; Arcos, Dario; Battaglia, Maurizio



Evaluación ecológica rápida de los quirópteros del parque ecológico de Montelíbano, Córdoba, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid survey for assessing the composition and structure of a bat community present in a semi-urban ecological park, Northwestern Colombia, was carried out from March to May 2005. Five biotopes: wetland, secondary rain forest, wetland, acacia plantation and pasture were assessed, totaling 368 hours\\/net. We collected 17 bat species belonging to five families and four subfamilies, in our survey.

Elkin Y. Suárez-Villota; Javier Racero-Casarrubia; Giovany Guevara; Jesús Ballesteros



Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael




Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento empleamos el filtro de Butterworth para analizar la producción industrial total y por ramas de actividad mediante la extracción de señales en las frecuencias bajas y altas. En las frecuencias bajas la tendencia de la producción al interior del sector exhibe una dinámica que difiere fuertemente entre actividades. En las frecuencias altas, la mayoría de las ramas

Constanza Martínez; Diana Mesa Téllez




Microsoft Academic Search

El presente artículo desarrolla la tesis que la Constitución de 1991 elevó el gasto público total a niveles no sostenibles generando serios problemas fiscales que no han podido ser corregidos en su raíz estructural. La gran limitante a esta corrección ha sido la insuficiencia de apoyo político para proteger la estabilidad macroeconómica del país y verla como un patrimonio político

Eduardo Wiesner



Peace Summit in Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peace talks between Colombian President Andres Pastrana and guerrilla leader Manuel Marulanda entered their second day today, fueling hopes for some breakthrough in ending the country's 37-year conflict. On Thursday, Pastrana rather boldly placed himself in the hands of the enemy, flying into the town of San Vicente del Caguan with a minimal security detail. The town is held by the main rebel army in Colombia, the 17,000 strong Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, known by its Spanish initials, FARC. Two years ago, Pastrana ceded a 16,200 square mile area of the country to FARC as a goodwill gesture to jumpstart peace talks. So far, these talks have been disappointing, as kidnappings and violence by both the rebels and right-wing paramilitaries have continued unabated. Popular fatigue and anger at continued insecurity in Colombia has inspired Pastrana's latest efforts to secure peace. At the very least, he is expected to get FARC to return to the formal negotiations they left in November, claiming the government had made insufficient efforts to halt attacks by right-wing paramilitary groups. The outcome of this meeting will also most likely impact US policy in the region, as Colombia is now the second-largest recipient of US foreign aid, mostly in the form of combat helicopters and troop training. These have been provided ostensibly to battle the drug trade, which is protected and taxed by the FARC, but in reality, Colombia's civil war and drug war are now almost impossible to segregate.

de Nie, Michael Willem.



Cepstral Analysis of Photonic Nanojet-Illuminated Biological Cells Csar Mndez Ruiz and Jamesina J. Simpson  

E-print Network

. Simpson Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA, Abstract It is currently believed that nanometer

Simpson, Jamesina J.


Constraining Holocene Uplift Rates For The Serrania Del Baudo, Northwestern Colombia, Using Luminescence Dating On A Raised Beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A beach deposit on the southern tip of the Serrania del Baudo, perched 4.5 m above spring high tide, was dated at ~3,000 years using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The average uplift rate necessary to raise this deposit is ~1.5 mm/yr. This rate combines the long-term regional deformation associated with the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate and the collision of the Choco Block microplate against the South American continent, as well as uplift from local faults. We propose that rapid emergence probably as several pulses, each involving decimeter scale coseismic uplift, is likely to have occurred to elevate the beach above the intertidal zone and offset destructive wave erosion in this sand-limited coast.

Gonzalez, J.; Shen, Z.; Mauz, B.



El sector industrial del Tolima: aproximación histórica, estructura y dinámica  

Microsoft Academic Search

En virtud de las exenciones tributarias y arancelarias que dispuso el gobierno con el fin de reactivar la economía de la zona afectada por la erupción del volcán-nevado del Ruiz en 1985, la industria tolimense experimentó un período de auge entre 1990 y 1995, durante el cual creció la base industrial y se logró cierto grado de diversificación; sin embargo,

Alvaro Augusto Campos Martínez



Reformas pensionales y costos fiscales en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia realizó en 1993 una reforma de todo su Sistema de Seguridad Social: pensiones (invalidez, vejez y muerte), salud, y protección contra riesgos profesionales. Se abrió la administración del aseguramiento, la inversión del ahorro, la prevención y la provisión de servicios médicos a firmas privadas así como a entidades públicas, para promover la competencia y mejorar los servicios, bajo regulación

Olga Lucía Acosta; Ulpiano Ayala



Fuzzy-Based Electric Current Dependency on an MR Damper Model Javier A. Ruiz-Cabrera, Ruben Morales-Menendez,  

E-print Network

current inputs. J. A. Ruiz-Cabrera is an MSc student at Tec de Monterrey, Monterrey, NL, Mexico. R. Morales-Menendez, L. E. Garza-Casta~non, and R. A. Ramirez- Mendoza are with Tec de Monterrey, Monterrey, NL, Mexico. {rmm, legarza, ricardo.ramirez} O. Sename is with INPG, France. olivier

Boyer, Edmond



Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio presenta una revisión de la regulación ambiental en Colombia y de sus resultados, concentrándose en el análisis del desempeño ambiental de la industria manufacturera y del sector energético. La evaluación detallada del rol que ha jugado la regulación ambiental permite las siguientes conclusiones: (1) Colombia enfrenta el reto de hacer la regulación ambiental más flexible, dando espacio a

Marcela Meléndez; Eduardo Uribe



Biographical Sketches from Interviews Conducted by Lourdes Ruiz, Teacher, Dulce Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight biographical sketches of some Jicarilla Apache and Spanish American people who live and work in Dulce, New Mexico are given. These sketches contain brief descriptions of the lives of Jose Gabriel Abeyta, Cevero Caramillo, Chon LaBrier, Espeedie Garcia Ruiz, Raleigh Tafoya, Norman Tecube, Hubert Velarde, and Henry "Buster" L. Vicenti. At the…

Pono, Filomena P., Comp.


Acoustic properties of perforated plates and screens H.L. Ruiz Villamila  

E-print Network

Acoustic properties of perforated plates and screens H.L. Ruiz Villamila , P. Coboa , T. Dupontb of a system composed of a thin mesh (or screen) glued onto a perforated plate. An alternative approach parameters: the tortuosity, the thermal and viscous characteristic lengths, the porosity and the flow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Phenotypic instability and epigenetic variability in a diploid potato of hybrid origin, Solanum ruiz-lealii  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The wild potato Solanum ruiz-lealii Brüch. (2n = 2x = 24), a species of hybrid origin, is endemic to Mendoza province, Argentina. Recurrent flower malformations, which varied among inflorescences of the same plant, were observed in a natural population. These abnormalities could be the result of genomic instabilities, nucleus-cytoplasmic incompatibility or epigenetic changes. To shed some light on their

Carlos F Marfil; Elsa L Camadro; Ricardo W Masuelli



Only Aggressive Elephants are Fast Elephants Jens Dittrich, Jorge-Arnulfo Quiane-Ruiz, Stefan Richter,  

E-print Network

Only Aggressive Elephants are Fast Elephants Jens Dittrich, Jorge-Arnulfo Quian´e-Ruiz, Stefan:// ABSTRACT Yellow elephants are slow. A major reason is that they consume their inputs entirely before responding to an elephant rider's orders. Some clever riders have trained their yellow elephants to only con

Tsotras, Vassilis J.



Microsoft Academic Search

La revaluación del peso frente al dólar y el importante crecimiento que tuvo la economía colombiana en los años 2005 y 2006, dispararon las ventas de vehículos en Colombia. Para poder aprovechar ese importante aumento de la demanda, SsangYong Motor Colombia S.A., empresa especializada en la importación y comercialización de vehículos diésel de última generación, se enfrentó a grandes retos




Doble jornada escolar y calidad de la educación en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

La calidad de la educación es uno de los principales determinantes del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo. El objetivo fundamental del presente documento es evaluar si la doble jornada escolar tiene efectos negativos sobre la calidad de la educación en Colombia. Para esto se estima el efecto local promedio del tratamiento a partir de regresiones con variables instrumentales. Los resultados

Leonardo Bonilla M



Doble jornada escolar y calidad de la educación en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

La calidad de la educación es uno de los principales determinantes del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo. El principal objetivo del presente documento es evaluar si la doble jornada escolar tiene efectos negativos sobre la calidad de la educación en Colombia. Para esto se estima el efecto local promedio del tratamiento a partir de regresiones con variables instrumentales. Los resultados

Leonardo Bonilla Mejía



Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru  

PubMed Central

Abstract A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided. PMID:24596488

Dillon, Michael O.; Luebert, Federico



Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.  


A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided. PMID:24596488

Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico



Examination of the hybrid origin of the wild potato Solanum ruiz-lealii Brücher  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common potato, tetraploid Solanum tuberosum spp. tuberosum L. (tbr), has a narrow genetic base but a large number of related tuber-bearing species that harbor genetic diversity for agronomic characters. The taxonomic status of Solanum ruiz-lealii Brücher (rzl), a diploid species endemic to Mendoza province, Argentina, is controversial. It has been described as a new species of non-hybrid origin and

J. P. Raimondi; I. E. Peralta; R. W. Masuelli; S. Feingold; E. L. Camadro



Reply to the letter from J. I. Minguela and R. Ruiz-de-Gauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sirs, We disagree with the interpretation of the results by Minguela and Ruiz-de-Gauna. Indeed, by protocol design the dose of sevelamer hydrochloride was increased by one tablet per meal every month to maintain serum phosphorus levels below 6.5 mg\\/dl as stated in the Methods [1]. Although final serum phosphorus levels were higher than baseline, such values were not statistically significant.

Isidro B. Salusky; Robert Elashoff




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Esta investigación busca identificar las mejores prácticas de entrenamiento organizacional que garantizan la transferencia del conocimiento impartido a los empleados a sus lugares de trabajo, determinando los factores que influyen en su generación y conservación, basado en la aplicación de metodologías tanto cua- litativas como cuantitativas que diagnostican los procesos actuales de una empresa de telecomunicaciones, permitiendo un control

M. L. Granados


Education in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of the more traditional Latin American societies, Colombia's educational policies have been affected by long-standing cultural beliefs including class values and social stratification. This paper examines the educational history of Colombia, provides a thorough background on its educational achievements and difficulties, and discusses…

Renner, Richard R.


Parlament de l'Acte Acadmic de Graduaci Cristina Carreo Ruiz 11 de desembre del 2010  

E-print Network

maduració personal. Avui, aquí, m'agradaria compartir amb tots vosaltres un d'aquells bons consells que en constant pel poder; però heu de tenir present que són els equips humans els que fan moure les empreses

Geffner, Hector


Dental education in Colombia  

PubMed Central

This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi



Seasonal inundation patterns in two large savanna floodplains of South America: the Llanos de Moxos (Bolivia) and the Llanos del Orinoco (Venezuela and Colombia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inundation patterns in two of the largest savanna floodplains of South America were studied by analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (Nimbus-7 satellite). Flooded area was estimated at monthly intervals for January 1979 through to August 1987 using mixing models that account for the major landscape units with distinctive microwave emission characteristics. Results are presented separately for five subregions in each of the two floodplain regions to show the spatial as well as temporal variability in inundation patterns. The total area inundated during the 9 years varied between 2069 and 78 460 km2 in the Llanos de Moxos (also spelled as Mojos; median area, 23 383 km2) and 1278 and 105 454 km2 in the Llanos del Orinoco (median, 25 374 km2), not including the open-water area of permanent lakes and river channels. The correlation between flooded area and river stage was used to extend the inundation records over a 30-year period in the Moxos (1967-97) and a 58-year period (1927-85) in the Orinoco. Interannual variability in inundation is greater in the Moxos than the Orinoco. Comparison of these data, however, with a previously published analysis of the Pantanal wetland shows that inundation patterns in these two floodplain regions are not as variable across years as they are in the Pantanal.

Hamilton, Stephen K.; Sippel, Suzanne J.; Melack, John M.



Indicadores de gestión urbana. Los observatorios urbano-territoriales para el desarrollo sostenible. Manizales, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Observatorios para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Municipio de Manizales en Colombia, hacen parte del Sistema de Monitoreo diseñado por el Municipio como apoyo a la gestión urbana local. A partir de los resultados de indicadores económicos, sociales y ambientales, los ciudadanos podrán evaluar de forma permanente el desempeño de programas y proyectos del Plan de Desarrollo Municipal y participar

Luz Stella Velásquez



Cronología de los ciclos de crecimiento recientes en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo utiliza el concepto de ciclos de crecimiento y lo diferencia del de ciclo de negocios. Se estiman las fechas de ocurrencia de los ciclos de crecimiento en Colombia entre 1980 y 2007 utilizando los métodos de Bry y Boschan (1971) y Boschan y Ebanks (1978) conocido, este último, como \\

Luis Eduardo Arango; Fernando Arias; Luz Adriana Flórez


Recruiting Teachers in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about a system of special schools in Colombia which introduces students to teaching careers as early as the 8th grade. The Colombian system is based on a simple idea: Every student is a potential teacher. Principals talk about molding "ciudadano-pedagogos"--citizen-educators who view teaching as a way of…

Blair, Robert



Anthropological Film in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the conceptualization and design of anthropological film in Colombia since the 1960's. The intent has been to establish this type of film as a culturally appropriate communication technique related to the solution of social problems and involving the expression of culturally specific values. The paper describes the historical…

Duncan, Ronald J.


Colombia's cocaine syndicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia's main drug trafficking coalitions — the Medellín and Cali syndicates — constitute powerful illegitimate interest groups. Traffickers (especially the Medellín coalition) exert political influence partly through violence and intimidation; yet the drug lords' political arsenal also includes non-coercive means-bribery, contributions to political campaigns and even open lobbying in the media. Conventional law enforcement strategies have been ineffective against the

Rensselaer W. Lee



Crossability relationships among the wild diploid potato species Solanum kurtzianum , S. chacoense and S. ruiz-lealii from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wild tuber-bearing Solanumspecies represent a genetic pool of enormous diversity, embracing high variability for many agronomic traits. S. kurtzianum (ktz), S. chacoense(chc) and S. ruiz-lealii (rzl) are wild diploid self-incompatible relatives of the common potato, Solanum tuberosumssp. tuberosum, with resistance to adverse biotic and abiotic factors. Pollen-pistil\\/style compatibility relations and seed set in intra-\\u000a and interspecific crosses among ktz,

Juan Pablo Raimondi; Rodrigo Germán Sala; Elsa Lucila Camadro



Phenotypic instability and epigenetic variability in a diploid potato of hybrid origin, Solanum ruiz-lealii  

PubMed Central

Background The wild potato Solanum ruiz-lealii Brüch. (2n = 2x = 24), a species of hybrid origin, is endemic to Mendoza province, Argentina. Recurrent flower malformations, which varied among inflorescences of the same plant, were observed in a natural population. These abnormalities could be the result of genomic instabilities, nucleus-cytoplasmic incompatibility or epigenetic changes. To shed some light on their origin, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of plants with normal and plants with both normal and malformed flowers (from here on designated as plants with normal and plants with abnormal flower phenotypes, respectively) were analyzed by AFLP and restriction analyses, respectively. Also, the wide genome methylation status and the level of methylation of a repetitive sequence were studied by MSAP and Southern blots analyses, respectively. Results AFLP markers and restriction patterns of mitochondrial DNA did not allow the differentiation of normal from abnormal flower phenotypes. However, methylation patterns of nuclear DNA discriminated normal and abnormal flower phenotypes into two different groups, indicating that abnormal phenotypes have a similar methylation status which, in turn, was different from the methylation patterns of normal phenotypes. The abnormal flower phenotype was obtained by treating a normal plant with 5-Azacytidine, a demethylating agent, giving support to the idea of the role of DNA methylation in the origin of flower abnormalities. In addition, the variability detected for DNA methylation was greater than the detected for nucleotide sequence. Conclusion The epigenetic nature of the observed flower abnormalities is consistent with the results and indicates that in the diploid hybrid studied, natural variation in methylation profiles of anonymous DNA sequences could be of biological significance. PMID:19232108

Marfil, Carlos F; Camadro, Elsa L; Masuelli, Ricardo W



Predicting Neuropsychological Development from Skull Imaging H. J. Lin, S. Ruiz-Correa, L. G. Shapiro, M. L. Speltz, M.L. Cunningham and R. W. Sze  

E-print Network

Predicting Neuropsychological Development from Skull Imaging H. J. Lin, S. Ruiz-Correa, L. G pedi- atric disease caused by the premature fusion of sutures of the skull. Although studies have shown for this association is still unclear. It is hypothesized that an abnormally shaped skull produces a secondary defor

Washington at Seattle, University of


Probabilistic Model of Error in Fixed-Point Arithmetic Gaussian Pyramid Antoine Meler John A. Ruiz-Hernandez James L. Crowley  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Model of Error in Fixed-Point Arithmetic Gaussian Pyramid Antoine M´eler John A. Ruiz pyramid is an important tool in computer vision and image processing. The existence of a fast algorithm with linear computational complexity makes it feasible to implement the half-octave Gaussian pyramid

Crowley, James L.


The Vanishing Mexicana/o: (Dis)Locating the Native in Ruiz de Burton's "Who Would Have thought It?" and "The Squatter and the Don"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article complements the existing body of Ruiz de Burton scholarship by providing the first sustained examination of her literary representations of American Indians in both "Who Would Have Thought It?" (1872) and "The Squatter and the Don" (1885), and by exploring how these representations serve her broader aims of social and political…

Szeghi, Tereza M.



Archaeology and Left in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Colombia is not a country of dictatorships. It is usually known for its civic tradition, alien to military governments (Deas\\u000a 1999). These circumstances do not imply that repression did not exist in Colombia or that archaeologists did not suffer persecution\\u000a – especially during Laureano Gómez’s conservative administration (1950–1951, 1953). But the thing is that the most well-known\\u000a academic magazine in

Carl Henrik Langebaek


Exito para el XVI Festival Internacional de Teatro Hispano del Teatro Avante  

E-print Network

Nueva York del 20 al 30 de junio 2001 en el New 42nd Street Studios logró traer maravillosos representantes del teatro latinoamericano y español contemporáneo. En Miami el programa incluyó: Cenizas sobre el mar (Colombia/Miami), La ciudad sitiada...) y Melodrama (Brasil). Y hubo tres obras de teatrodanza: Jacinta-todas las plegarias (Ecuador/EEUU), Seque volverás (Colombia) y Materia (Brasil). Por último el Teatro Taller de Colombia presentó Los cíngaros, obra para espacios abiertos públicos...

Marrero, Marí a Teresa



The Colombia Seismological Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage of the RSNC network is presented along with the improvement in earthquake location and the quality of the data. New tools to calculate moment magnitude and focal mechanism are implemented as a result of the network expansion. The principal seismic sources in Colombia and the challenges for the future of the network are discussed.

Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.



Colombia: Periplo Teatro  

E-print Network

, el Festival Internacional de Teatro Universitario Ciudad de Cúcuta, un evento organizado por la Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander (UFPS) y los integrantes del grupo El Portón, de dicha universidad, y cuyo principal objetivo es promover la... sentado de García Márquez; el Teatro Experimental Mutantes de Ocaña con Recogiendo los pasos de Rodolfo Valenzuela; el Teatro Escombros de la Extensión de Ocaña de 198 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW la UFPS con la creación colectiva No mueras tierra mía...

King, Robert E.



Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Action thresholds for Tibraca limbativentris Stall (TL) on rice were calculated to be 8.8 and 25.8 TL/10 sweep nets for 30 and 40 day old plants respectively. Population dynamics of TL in two localities of Valle del Cauca Colombia, indicates a density of 1.2 TL/ sweep (12 TL/10 sweeps). Densities e...


Desempeño financiero empresarial en Colombia en 2009: un análisis por sectores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Este artículo presenta los resultados de la evaluación del desempeño financiero empresarial por sectores en 2009, utilizando como técnica el análisis financiero integral. Para ello, se tomó la información financiera de las empresas que reportaron información en este periodo a la Superintendencia de Sociedades en Colombia y se clasificó según las actividades económicas en seis sectores: agricultura, minería, servicios,

Jaime Andrés Correa G; Carlos Eduardo Castaño R; Ramón Javier Mesa C



Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis sp. n. (Teleostei, Characidae) una nueva especie para el Alto Cauca, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se describe Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis sp. n. (Characiformes, Characidae) perteneciente al grupo heterorhabdus (Gery, 1977) de la cuenca alta del río Cauca, Colombia. La nueva especie se distingue de las otras especies descritas por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: tres radios simples y ocho radios ramificados en la aleta dorsal; un maxilar corto con un diente o sin dientes; cuatro pequeños

C. A. García-Alzate; C. Román-Valencia



Incentivos económicos a la reducción de la contaminación industrial en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tradicionalmente en Colombia se habían privilegiado instrumentos regulatorios de control directo sobre el nivel de vertimientos para buscar mejoras en la calidad de los cuerpos de agua receptores de efluentes contaminantes. Actualmente aplicando el principio de quien contamina debe pagar por el daño causado, las tasas retributivas por contaminación del agua operan como un instrumento económico para incentivar a quienes

Guillermo Rudas Lleras



Infraestructura y pobreza: el caso de los servicios públicos en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. Este trabajo analiza el sistema de servicios públicos domiciliarios en Colombia y su relación con la pobreza. En particular, pretende estudiar la focalización de los subsidios cruzados establecidos en 1994 los cuales buscan que los hogares de ingresos altos financien una parte del consumo de los hogares de ingresos bajos, con el fin de garantizar el acceso y consumo

Mónica Parra Torrado



Biocombustibles Densificados: Análisis de su Posible Producción en una Empresa Maderera en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se presentan los resultados de un estudio hecho para la ejecución de un proyecto de biocombustibles sólidos en Colombia. Se centra en buscar una solución, dentro del marco de las energías renovables, a una problemática ambiental generada por el almacenamiento de residuos sólidos al aire libre. Usando dichos residuos se plantea la fabricación de biocombustibles sólidos como

Almonacid Sánchez; Andrés Fernando


Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils from the Genus Baccharis. Part II: Baccharis obovata Hooker et Arnott and B. salicifolia (Ruiz et Pav.) Pers. Species from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile compounds from Baccharis obovata Hooker et Arnott and B. salicifolia (Ruiz et Pav.) Pers. leaves collected in the Argentinean Patagonia were isolated by steam distillation. Yields on the essential oils were 2.81% for B. obovata and 1.50% for B. salicifolia. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The main constituents of each oil were: (i) B. obovata oil:

Rubén A. Malizia; Daniel A. Cardell; José S. Molli; Silvia González; Pedro E. Guerra; Ricardo J. Grau



Experiencias en la incorporación del enfoque poblacional en la planeación del desarrollo territorial. Memorias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento contiene las ponencias presentadas durante el Encuentro Experiencias en la incorporación del enfoque poblacional en la planeación del desarrollo territorial realizado en Bogotá los días 6 y 7 de noviembre de 2008 en la Universidad Externado de Colombia. El evento fue organizado por el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas -UNFPA-, el Departamento Nacional de Planeación -DNP-,

Yolanda Bodnar Contreras



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Este estudio descriptivo investiga las cardiopatías congénitas en menores de cinco años; se basó en una serie de casos consecutivos que consultaron o fueron remitidos a un hospital nivel dos en la región norte del departamento del Cauca, Colombia, entre el primero de julio de 2003 y el 31 de diciembre de 2005. Objetivo: Describir la situación actual con

Victor Hugo Rodríguez; Richard G. Shoemaker


Prevention of School Desertion in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families…

Walker, Sarah



78 FR 21603 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Perochena, Ignacio del Valle Ruiz and Adolfo del Valle Ruiz, all of Mexico City, Mexico...Mexico, and Eduardo Tricio Gomez, Coahuila, Mexico; Tenedora...Mexico City, Mexico, Jaime Ruiz Sacristan, Mexico City,...



Regulación ambiental en Colombia: el caso de la tasa retributiva para el control de la contaminación hídrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

En los últimos años, en Colombia se han dado cambios importantes en materia de regulación de la calidad de los cuerpos de agua receptores de efluentes contaminantes. Es así como se ha pasado del control directo a la utilización de impuestos a la contaminación a través de las tasas retributivas. Así, este trabajo establece un marco teórico para la tasa

Francisco Javier Correa Restrepo; Angélica de la Ossa Arteaga; Zuly Vallejo Chanci



¿Qué determina la eficiencia de las entidades microfinancieras en Colombia? Una mirada a las ONG asociadas a Bancoldex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo busca demostrar empíricamente si para Colombia se cumple la misma lógica presente en la evidencia internacional sobre si las Entidades de Microfinanzas (EMF) son costo-efectivas y si sus costos son decrecientes a través del tiempo, independientemente a que sean o no auto-sostenibles y a que dependan mucho de donaciones. Se realiza una estimación por el algoritmo de la

Francisco Perdomo N



Wastewater use in agriculture: Irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Valle del Cauca, south?west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater

C. A. Madera; J. Silva; D. D. Mara; P. Torres



Análisis de las economías de escala y alcance en los servicios de acueducto y alcantarillado en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Una de las principales características del sector de acueducto y alcantarillado en Colombia es el alto nivel de atomización en la prestación de tales servicios. Este nivel es el resultado de los procesos de descentralización de fines de la década de los ochenta y los cambios implementados en los noventa, que modificaron el esquema de prestación al pasar de un

Daniel Revollo; Giovanna Londoño



Reseña del VIII Festival Internacional de Teatro  

E-print Network

los diferentes medios del país. Este vacío que fue protuberante se debió a la falta de recursos económicos para sostener esta clase de invitados. Mas como efecto positivo se percibió que durante la semana del evento el Festival Internacional no giró... una acción viva que requiere de crónica aparte. El Teatro Taller de Colombia merece página aparte por la validez e importancia de su trabajo que es toda una propuesta que cobija factores de indudable calidad, en especial su "circo invisible" que...

Dí az, Né stor Gustavo



78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...13-16] RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U...customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective...November 22, 2006, the United States and Colombia signed the United States-Colombia...



Identifying structural styles in Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Much of our understanding of the Earth is from the study of surface geology and seismic, but many surface structures are responses to deformation which occurred below sedimentary layers. The practice within the petroleum industry is to use top-down processes of analyzing the surface to understand the subsurface, and observed surface structural styles tend to influence seismic interpretations. Yet many conditions which influenced the structural styles seen at the surface are different at depth. Since seismic is a time representation of the Earth, many interpretation pitfalls may exist within areas of complex geology. Also, its reliability decreases with depth and with increasing geologic complexity. Forward modeling and pre-stack depth migration technologies are used to provide true depth images of the seismic data. Even with these advances in seismic imaging technology, the interpreter needs to incorporate additional data into the interpretation. Accurate structural identification requires the interpreter to integrate seismic with surface geology, remote sensing, gravity, magnetic data, geochemistry, fault-plane solutions from earthquakes, and regional tectonic studies. Incorporating these types of data into the interpretation will help us learn how basement is involved in the deformation of overlying sediments. A study of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia shows the deformation to be dominantly transpressional in style. Euler deconvolution of the areomagnetic data shows a highly fractured basement, steep fault lineaments, en echelon structures, and complex fault patterns, all of which would be typical of wrench-type deformation. Available surface geology, regional studies, earthquake data, and forward modeling support this interpretation.

Wilson, W.P.; Van Nieuwenhuise, R.E.; Steuer, M.R. [Amoco, Houston, TX (United States)][and others



76 FR 53165 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice: 7565] Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of State...The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements...



The Proposed U.S.Colombia Free Trade Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] The proposed U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement, also called the U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement (CFTA), was signed by the United States and Colombia on November 22, 2006. The agreement must be approved by Congress before it can enter into force. Upon congressional approval, it would immediately eliminate duties on 80% of U.S. exports of consumer and industrial products to Colombia.

M Angeles Villarreal



Colombia: why coal won't wait  

SciTech Connect

Colombia's coal production target is 68-million tons by the year 2000, with hopes to export 10% of world thermal-coal demand. Colombia's economic commitment to coal marketing is not an option, but an imperative. There are indications that coal production in the US - bogged down by complex transportation, environmental, and other disputes - will be revitalized, partly because Colombia will be added to the list of international coal-market competitors. Some coal-industry analysts recognize that the Colombian factor could, through stimulating price competition, encourage world coal consumption. Despite monumental infrastructure requirements that will turn the area between El Cerrejon and the Caribbean Sea into one integrated complex, the government is throwing itself heart and soul back into the coal age. This issue has the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for May 1983 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Not Available



Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from medellín, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 5% of all breast cancers can be attributed to a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. The genetic component of breast cancer in Colombia has been, for the most part, studied on cases from the Bogota region. Five different founder mutations were in two studies of breast cancer patients in the Bogota region. It is important that the frequency of mutations be established among unselected cases of breast cancer of other regions of Colombia in order to estimate the genetic burden of this cancer in Colombia and to plan genetic services. The aim of this study was to establish the mutation frequencies of the BRCA genes in breast cancer patients unselected for family history or age, from Medellin, Colombia. Methods We enrolled 280 unselected women with breast cancer from a large public hospital in Medellin, Colombia. A detailed family history from each patient and a blood sample was obtained and processed for DNA analysis. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were sought using a combination of techniques including a panel of recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations which consists of fifty BRCA1 mutations and forty-six BRCA2 mutations, including the five recurrent Colombian BRCA mutations. All mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Genetic testing was successfully completed for 244 of the 280 cases (87%). Among the 244 cases, three deleterious mutations were identified (two in BRCA1 and one in BRCA2) representing 1.2% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 34 years. The two BRCA1 mutations were known founder mutations (3450del4 in exon 11 and A1708E in exon 18). The BRCA2 mutation was in exon 11 (5844del5) and has not been previously reported in individuals of Colombian descent. Among the three mutation-positive families was a breast cancer family and two families with no history of breast or ovarian cancer. Conclusion The frequency of BRCA mutations in unselected breast cancer cases from the Medellin region of Colombia is low and is approximately 1.2%. PMID:24742220



Un sistema casi ideal de demanda para el gasto en Colombia: Una estimación utilizando el método generalizado de los momentos en el período 1968-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo utiliza una Aproximación Lineal del Modelo Casi Ideal de Demanda (Linear Approximation\\/Almost Ideal Demand System) para examinar los gastos de los colombianos en la canasta básica, y estimar sus respectivas elasticidades precio y gasto, a partir de datos de series de tiempo para Colombia en el período de 1968-2007. Las elasticidades gasto y precio, compensadas y no

Daniel Londoño Cano; Edwar Londoño Zapata; Andrés Ramirez Hassan





Twelve species of introduced land molluscs, including seven slug species, have been found in the cold zone above 2000 m altitude in the Departamentos Cundinamarca and Boyacá, and the Distrito Especial in Colombia. The introduced land molluscs remain generally restricted to disturbed environments, from which native species are often absent. Most recorded species originated from Europe. Deroceras laeve has been present in Colombia for more than a century, whereas the other species are probably more recent introductions. The records of Boettgerilla pallens, which is indigenous to the Caucasus and has spread over Europe only during the last decades, demonstrates that the process of introduction of alien molluscs is continuing. PMID:12011238

Hausdorf, BERNHARD



Catastrophic volcanic collapse: relation to hydrothermal processes.  


Catastrophic volcanic collapse, without precursory magmatic activity, is characteristic of many volcanic disasters. The extent and locations of hydrothermal discharges at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, suggest that at many volcanoes collapse may result from the interactions between hydrothermal fluids and the volcanic edifice. Rock dissolution and hydrothermal mineral alteration, combined with physical triggers such as earth-quakes, can produce volcanic collapse. Hot spring water compositions, residence times, and flow paths through faults were used to model potential collapse at Ruiz. Caldera dimensions, deposits, and alteration mineral volumes are consistent with parameters observed at other volcanoes. PMID:17793659

López, D L; Williams, S N



Colombia Exports Its "New School" Blueprint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compensate for disadvantages of traditional rural schools, Colombia's Escuela Nueva (New School) movement offers solutions such as self-instruction guides geared to aspects of daily life and flexible school schedules. Teacher training that encourages student and community involvement is a key element. Escuela Nueva successes have led to its…

Lopez, Asbel



Rural-Urban Migration in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rural-urban migration pattern in Colombia during the last 25 years has resulted in a population increase in urban areas from 30 to 52 percent of the total population. This study explores the causes of internal migration. Migration rates are estimated for various groups in the population to clarify who migrates and to where. A model of…

Schultz, T. Paul


English in Colombia: A Sociolinguistic Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of Colombia and its linguistic makeup, briefly tracing the presence of the English language from the eighteenth century to date. Characterizes the users and uses of English documenting how the personal, instrumental, and creative and innovative functions are manifested in this setting. Concludes by highlighting the need for…

Velez-Rendon, Gloria



Fuelling a National Innovation System in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation of the innovation-driven environment in Colombia derives from important national efforts to gather and store pertinent information. Two large surveys have tested the "innovative behaviour" of Colombian manufacturing firms--the more recent of these was in 2005. Another information source is the Scienti platform, an online effort…

Lucio-Arias, Diana



Sixteen bird species new for Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document 16 bird species (Anas platyrhynchos, Anas strepera, Phalacrocorax auritus, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Stercorarius pomarinus, Stercorarius longicaudus, Larus fuscus, Columbina cruziana, Chalcostigma stanleyi, Empidonax minimus, Vireo griseus, Anthus rubescens Passerculus sandwichensis, Vermivora ruficapilla, Limnothlypis swainsonii and Dives warszewiczi) and one bird subspecies (Oxyura j. jamaicensis) new to Colombia. These comprise three species whose presence in the country or wider region

Paul Salaman; Nick Bayly; Robert Burridge; Mark Gurney; Alonso Quevedo; Luis Eduardo Urueña; Thomas Donegan



Premio Ollantay 1989 - Acta del jurado  

E-print Network

, personas e instituciones cuyas trayectorias, dedicadas al desarrollo del teatro a nivel continental, ameriten ser destacadas como ejemplo. El Jurado designado por el CELCIT para otorgar los Premios Ollantay correspondientes al año 1989, integrado por... Colombia 2. Grupo de Teatro al Teatro Imagen, de Chile 3. Institución de Apoyo al Teatro al Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, CONCYTEC, de Perú 4. Teatro Infantil al Grupo de Teatro de Muñecos "Quijotillo," de Cumaná, Venezuela 5. Publicación...




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN - Esta ponencia recoge los resultados obtenidos con el desarrollo del proyecto Expansión Nacional Conexiones, entendida ésta desde el análisis de la instalación de los productos tecnológicos, los modelos y programas resultado d e la investigación con el proyecto Conexiones, en tres nodos regionales, su pertinencia y aceptación en otras regiones de Colombia y el diseño d e la

Claudia Maria Zea Restrepo; Maria del Rosario Atuesta; Lilia Nayibe; Gelvez Pinto


Bacterial wilt of potatoes in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  On the basis of physical and biochemical tests plus host range studies a wilt disease of potatoes in Colombia, known as “la\\u000a dormidera,” has been determined to be caused by the bacteriumPseudomonas solanacearum E.F.S. Colombian isolates of the organism differ from those described in other regions with respect to reaction to antibiotics\\u000a and other therapeutic materials, optimum temperature for growthin

H. David Thurston



Nevado del Huila, Columbia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.



Leprosy in Colombia: post elimination stage?  


Leprosy in Colombia is not considering as a public health problem since a prevalence rate less than 1/10000 was achieved more than ten years ago. Nevertheless, reports of 2012 from 11 of 27 departments (48%) showed incidence rates from 0.12 to 4.73 cases per 100000 inhabitants. The Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Health direct and organize the National Leprosy Program (NLP), which plan the activities for prevention, surveillance, and control at national level. The operational activities are delegated to the regional levels (municipalities, districts, departments) however in many areas poor hospital infrastructure, high costs, lack of health personnel trained, difficult access to the health services are some of the barriers that impede the development and access to the activities that the NLP publishes in guides. The above mentioned facts have as consequence late case detection with 30% of disability rates (grade 1 and 2) at the time of diagnosis. Also, there is not awareness in general population neither in health professionals about the existence of leprosy cases in Colombia. This is a review of the situation of leprosy in Colombia, taking into account not only statistical data, but also some aspects that influence late diagnosis and disability found in patients at the time of diagnosis. In this review may appear author's personal perceptions that may differ from others. PMID:24428118

Cardona-Castro, Nora



Mineral resources of Colombia (other than petroleum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The following report summarizes data acquired during 1942-45, in Colombia, by geologists and engineers of the Foreign Economic Administration, with whom the United States Geological Survey cooperated. Twenty-nine mineral commodities are considered, but the data for five of them are scant because they were of no interest to FEA personnel. Petroleum is not considered. Preliminary to a review of individual mineral commodities, resumes are given of the general geography and geology of Colombia and of the country's mining laws. The principal mineral commodities, besides petroleum, produced in Colombia are (1) emeralds, gold, platinum, and silver, mainly for export, and (2) barite, cement, clay, coal, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, silica, and stone, mainly for the domestic market. A large number of other mineral commodities are known in "raw" prospects, some of which may eventually become productive. Their distribution and apparent potentialities, as of 1945, are given. Factors unfavorable to mining are the ruggedness of the terrain, the scarcity of outcrops, and the very high transportation costs.

Singewald, Quentin Dreyer



Los años ochenta en Colombia: El derecho a ser distintos  

E-print Network

SPRING 1992 37 Los años ochenta en Colombia: El derecho a ser distintos Fernando González Cajiao Panorama general La década teatral de los noventa se inicia en Colombia bajo el signo de la pluralidad. Nuestro tiempo, guardadas importantes... fórmula. Como expresa el crítico Eduardo Gómez en 1988: Si el teatro moderno se inicia en Colombia estimulado e influido de diversas maneras por la firme esperanza de una próxima revolución, o al menos por una expectativa en torno a cambios...

Gonzá lez Cajiao, Fernando



3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State...I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of...



77 FR 50557 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Federal Register...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State...I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of...



78 FR 6810 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY: International...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama published at 77 FR 71778...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama published at 77 FR...



Cryphonectria canker on Tibouchina in Colombia By M. J. WINGFIELD  

E-print Network

canker disease on Tibouchina spp. (Melastomataceae) in Colombia. We used morphological studies on Tibouchina urvilleana (DC). Logn. (Melastomataceae), which is native to Brazil. In a subsequent survey


Late blight resistance gene from Solanum ruiz-ceballosii is located on potato chromosome X and linked to violet flower colour  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal organism of late blight, is economically the most important pathogen of potato and resistance against it has been one of the primary goals of potato breeding. Some potentially durable, broad-spectrum resistance genes against this disease have been described recently. However, to obtain durable resistance in potato cultivars more genes are needed to be identified to realize strategies such as gene pyramiding or use of genotype mixtures based on diverse genes. Results A major resistance gene, Rpi-rzc1, against P. infestans originating from Solanum ruiz-ceballosii was mapped to potato chromosome X using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and sequence-specific PCR markers. The gene provided high level of resistance in both detached leaflet and tuber slice tests. It was linked, at a distance of 3.4 cM, to violet flower colour most likely controlled by the previously described F locus. The marker-trait association with the closest marker, violet flower colour, explained 87.1% and 85.7% of variance, respectively, for mean detached leaflet and tuber slice resistance. A genetic linkage map that consisted of 1,603 DArT markers and 48 reference sequence-specific PCR markers of known chromosomal localization with a total map length of 1204.8 cM was constructed. Conclusions The Rpi-rzc1 gene described here can be used for breeding potatoes resistant to P. infestans and the breeding process can be expedited using the molecular markers and the phenotypic marker, violet flower colour, identified in this study. Knowledge of the chromosomal localization of Rpi-rzc1 can be useful for design of gene pyramids. The genetic linkage map constructed in this study contained 1,149 newly mapped DArT markers and will be a valuable resource for future mapping projects using this technology in the Solanum genus. PMID:22369123



The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis



Education in Rural Colombia: An Investment in Human Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis examined in this study is that education as an active force will perform two functions: (1) develop technical innovations and transform the productive structure, and (2) produce men who can undertake social and political innovations in Colombia. The plight of education in rural Colombia is revealed when contrasted with the urban…

Havens, A. Eugene


Outbreak of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Córdoba, Colombia.  


Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Although RMSF was first reported in Colombia in 1937, it remains a neglected disease. Herein, we describe the investigation of a large cluster of cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in a new area of Colombia. PMID:21340366

Hidalgo, Marylin; Miranda, Jorge; Heredia, Damaris; Zambrano, Pilar; Vesga, Juan Fernando; Lizarazo, Diana; Mattar, Salim; Valbuena, Gustavo



Self-reversal of natural remanent magnetization in andesitic pumice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural remanent magnetization of andesitic pumice erupted from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Colombia) in 1985 is reversed with respect to the present geomagnetic field because of self-reversal. Laboratory thermoremanent magnetization acquired in fields of < 1 mT fully re-establishes the self-reversal mechanism. Hysteresis experiments indicate that the mechanism is caused by antiparallel coupling as a result of exchange

M. Haag; F. Heller; R. Allenspach; K. Roche



Primer registro de Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) en Colombia First record of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: Centrocestus, Cichlidae, Colombia, Digenea, Melanoides tuberculata, Poeciliidae. Abstract. Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea:Heterophyidae) is reported for the fi rst time from Colombia, parasitizing snails and fi sh from the lake of the Joaquín Antonio Uribe botanical garden, Medellín. Rediae and cercariae were obtained from MAD morphs of the snail Melanoides tuberculata. Metacercariae were found encysted on gills of fi sh

Luz Elena Velásquez; Juan Carlos Bedoya; Astrid Areiza; Imelda Vélez



Burden of disease in Nariño, Colombia, 2010  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study sought to measure burden of disease and identifies health priorities from the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) indicator. Methods: This is the first study on burden of disease for a department in Colombia by using a standardized methodology. By using the DALYs indicator, burden of disease was identified in the department of Nariño according to the guidelines established by the World Health Organization. Results: The DALYs in the Department of Nariño highlight the emergence of communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional diseases during the first years of life; of accidents and lesions among youth, and non-communicable diseases in older individuals. Also, accidents and lesions are highlighted in men and non-communicable diseases in women. Conclusions: This study is part of the knowledge management process in the Departmental Health Plan for Nariño - Colombia 2012-2015 and contributes to the system of indicators of the 2012 ten-year public health plan. This research evidences that communicable diseases generate the biggest part of the burden of disease in the Department of Nariño, that DALYs due to non-communicable diseases are on the rise, and that accidents and lesions, especially due to violence are an important cause of DALYs in this region, which is higher than that of the country. PMID:25386034

Trujillo-Montalvo, Elizabeth; Hidalgo-Patiño, Carlos; Hidalgo-Eraso, Angela



Debate on abortion in Colombia and Uruguay.  


Colombia and Uruguay are the sites of active movements aimed at decriminalizing abortion. The Colombian Network for Women's Sexual and Reproductive Rights supported a decriminalization bill that was based on operationalization of rights guaranteed in the country's Constitution as well as United Nations resolutions adopted by the Republic; however, the bill lacked sufficient public and legislative support to be presented. Although Colombia's Constitution acknowledges the right of couples to determine their family size, there is no sex education and effective methods of contraception are not available. In Uruguay, representatives of the four political parties have introduced a bill that permits abortion in the first trimester, although the reason for pregnancy termination must be stipulated and the father must agree. Second-trimester abortions would be legal only if necessary to save the life of the mother or in cases of fetal deformities. Specific regulations are outlined for adolescents and the disabled. Finally, physicians with moral objections to abortion are excused from performing the procedure. The observance of a Day of Action to Decriminalize Abortion in Latin America and the Caribbean (September 28, 1994) is indicative of the growing strength of the pro-choice movement. PMID:12318725



Finding common ground: redefining women's work in Colombia.  


Colombia's women's organizations which help household workers are profiled. In Bogota the Asociacion de Mujeres Trabajadoras del Hogar (AMUTRAHOGAR) provides legal counseling, educational courses, and a friendly gathering place. The experiences of several women are highlighted, e.g., Emma Ojeda comes to the weekly meetings for legal and moral support. AMUTRAHOGAR is an alliance of unskilled and largely rural workers and professional and urban women who are concerned with the joint recognition of the importance of domestic service. The stigma is by gender, social rank, and sometimes race. This informal economy does not have very accurate figures on workers. The estimate is half a million of mostly rural migrants. Another important organization is the Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poplacion (ACEP) which is a nongovernmental organization in Bogota begun in 1981. The aim was to review existing labor laws and evaluate how well the code was meeting women's needs. Magdalena Leon has been a research sociologist studying women's issues for 20 years through ACEP. ACEP has worked with the Sindicato de Trabajadoras del Servicio Domesticao (SINTRASEDOM) which represents and lobbies for household workers. Violation of the law on live-ins, wages, and time off duty was discovered a common occurrence. In the application of the law, employers found loopholes, and, for instance, subtracted food, clothing, and shelter which left little pocket money. The ACEP program was expanded to other cities in 1983. Program expansion included informal courses on citizenship, sexuality, and the role of women in Colombian society. When the social security code was reformed in 1977, household workers became eligible for benefits, but many employers were unaware of it. The law also excluded those with wages under the minimum wage. A public campaign was begun in 1985 by ACEP and SINTRASEDOM to inform people about the law. Community action was disrupted by unrelated political violence and a volcanic eruption. In January 1988 after 5 years of hard work Law 11 was passed which assured household workers social security benefits. A by-product was consciousness raising of many women and the formation of autonomous women's groups. Radio broadcasts now use the term professional household workers. PMID:12286185

Donaldson, J K



Personal Docente del Nivel Primario. Series Estadisticas Basicas: Colombia (Teaching Personnel in Primary Schools. Basic Statistics Series: Colombia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides statistical data on the distribution and education of teacher personnel working in Colombian elementary schools between 1940 and 1968. The statistics cover the number of men and women, public and private schools, urban and rural location, and the amount of education of teachers. (VM)

Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.


Las corporaciones autonomas regionales del caribe colombiano: Un analisis de sus finanzas y gobierno corporativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales (car) y las Corporaciones de Desarrollo Sostenible (cds) son las instituciones encargadas de la protección del medio ambiente en Colombia. Este trabajo estudia el desempeño de las corporaciones que tienen jurisdicción sobre la Costa Caribe. En particular, examina sus principales fortalezas y limitaciones administrativas, y analiza si en sus presupuestos se reproducen las desigualdades regionales que

Joaquin Viloria de la Hoz



Una evaluación del Plan de Consolidación Integral de la Macarena (PCIM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo presenta una descripción de la nueva estrategia de la lucha contra las drogas implementada en Colombia desde el año 2007. El Salto Estratégico, como ha llamado el gobierno colombiano a este programa, o la Iniciativa de Desarrollo Estratégico, como lo llama USAID (la agencia del gobierno de Estados Unidos para la ayuda a los países en desarrollo) es

Daniel Mejía; María José Uribe; Ana María Ibáñez



Perfil socioeconómico de Tubará: Población dormitorio y destino turístico del Atlántico  

Microsoft Academic Search

El municipio de Tubará en el departamento del Atlántico se caracteriza por los marcados rasgos indígenas de sus habitantes, por sus paisajes montañosos exuberantes, por su tranquilidad, por haber sido el primer lugar donde se explotó petróleo en Colombia y en la actualidad por ser un municipio “dormitorio” de la ciudad de Barranquilla. El presente documento estudia las principales características

Juan David Barón Rivera



Policy learning : new challenges for smart value capture in Colombia  

E-print Network

Contribucion por Valorizacion is a form of value capture similar to Special Assessment, used in Colombia to complement Local revenues for major public infrastructure programs. SA's continued use countrywide and its resulting ...

Acosta, Patricia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Colombia: A New Ethanol Producer on the Rise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia's sugarcane-based ethanol industry, after operating for only 3 years, is the second most developed in the Western Hemisphere. Most Colombian ethanol plants are energy self-suffi cient and even generate surplus power that is sold to the national electric grid. Colombia's sugarcane-based ethanol production is increasing; proposed expansion projects have the potential to more than triple daily production from 277,000

Jose Toasa


This series introduces the subject of Colombia by presenting all sides of the country: environment, drugs, political history (Plan Colombia),  

E-print Network

, drugs, political history (Plan Colombia), youth, political violence (the Patriotic Union), forced displacement, and more. The key film topic will be discussed before and analyzed after each screening. The post

Liblit, Ben


Colombia's space policy: An analysis of six years of progress and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes Colombia's space policy: its successes, its failures and what it still needs to achieve. The paper examines the interaction among the different players, and how this policy contributes to economic and social development of the country. And postulates that, unless a real national plan of action, with specific milestones and budget as well as a managing agency are developed, this policy may be in danger of disappearing. The Colombian Space Commission (Comisión Colombiana del Espacio, or CCE) was created by Presidential Decree 2442 in 2006. It is a multi-sectorial entity, in charge of coordinating, planning, and leading in the implementation of national policies for the development and application of space technologies. The CCE was also charged with the drafting of plans and programs in this field. The CCE began with only a few members (15) and today is comprised of 47 members: 13 ministries, 4 administrative departments, another 21 governmental entities and 9 universities, the latter acting as consultants. The Vice-President of the Republic is the President of the CCE. These different actors gave great importance to the development of Colombia's space sector, and 6 years later, they are continuing support and development the country's space policy. This analysis takes into account three aspects: first, achieving the objectives of the CCE: the creation and development of a national space policy for Colombia; secondly, focussing on “target groups” and “end users”; and thirdly, the “outcomes” or achievements to date. Some conclusions are worth highlighting: first, the warm reception and support of the CCE by both the public and private sectors on high levels, but the poor knowledge of the national space policy by the Colombian people and the small and medium companies. Secondly, in the context of public policy [9], the strategic plan called “National Policy in regard to Space Activities”, is caught between two phases: the formulation and decision-making regarding the program, and its implementation. And finally, the members of the CCE do not necessarily act in accordance with a national strategy, but follow their own interests, resulting in undue influence (and perhaps interference) in the development of a coherent national space policy. In brief, the author hopes that this first analysis of Colombia's experience with its Space Commission will serve as an example to other developing countries that also are seeking to develop their space sector, and implement a national space policy. Further, the author hopes that this analysis will allow the various politico-administrative actors “policy makers” in Colombia, as well as the general public, to realize that, while much has been accomplished, much still remains to be done. It is essential to keep alive the interest shown in space activities; otherwise, Colombia's space policy may become an “endangered species”, in danger of failing and disappearing.

Becerra, Jairo



Colombia frente a la coyuntura financiera internacional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las perspectivas de la economía colombiana y en particular su situación fiscal y cambiaria se analizan a la luz de las políticas sugeridas por el Consenso de Washington (ajuste fiscal, privatización y apertura) y las críticas a este enfoque realizadas por el premio Nobel, Joseph Stiglitz. A partir de la experiencia de los países del sudeste asiático y su respuesta

Fernando E. Suescún



HLA genes in Wayu Amerindians from Colombia.  


Amerindians origins and prehistory are still debated. HLA profile is different to all other World populations, although they have particular alleles in common with Asians, Australians and Pacific Islanders. In the present work, HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1 alleles have been studied in Wayu Amerindians from Colombia. HLA alleles haplotypes, genetic distances and NJ dendrograms were calculated by Arlequin and DISPAN software. Only a few both class I and class II alleles have been observed. Most common extended haplotypes include: A*24-B*51-DRB1*0403-DQB1*0302, A*2-B*15-DRB1*1602-DQB1*0301, A*2-B*35-DRB1*0407-DQB1*0302, but also A*68-B*15-DRB1*0403-DQB1*0302. No trace of Caucasoid or Negroid admixture is detected. The Wayu HLA profile is typical from Amerindians and shows how languages and genes do not correlated particularly in this case (i.e., Wayu closest HLA genetic group is North Argentinian Guarani group). Results obtained in this work may be useful for future transplant programs and also for HLA linked diseases and individualized pharmacogenetics. PMID:20923327

Silvera, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Areces, Cristina; Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Gomez-Prieto, Pablo; Barbolla, Luz; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio



Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

Mengual, Ximo



75 FR 55626 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice 7162] Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement...The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements...



Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer

La edición electrónica del Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer se publicó mensualmente desde septiembre de 2009 hasta enero de 2013, con el objetivo de difundir información sobre la investigación del cáncer, tanto de estudios financiados por el NCI y otras dependencias federales, así como de investigaciones realizadas por instituciones en Estados Unidos y alrededor del mundo.


Women in Physics and Scientific Research in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally speaking, scientists in Colombia do not have a role in changing the social or economic situation of the nation. Although the proportion of women who study physics increases slowly year by year, the number of women who work in physics research has not considerably increased. Many problems in Colombia might be solved if women's status as researchers in Colombia changed. It is necessary to promote a national project for improving women's status in the sciences and to present this project to the Colombian government. Many Colombian women have grown up believing they are not able to take scientific jobs, and therefore choose to study other disciplines "for women." If Colombian women found opportunities in physics and the sciences in general, they would likely pursue such disciplines, but we need government support to promote an efficient program that will give women more information about physics as a feasible career option.

Girata, Doris



The Great Tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 December 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

Herd, D.G.; Youd, T.L.; Meyer, H.; Arango, C.J.L.; Person, W.J.; Mendoza, C.



A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1–)4–6(–7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto



78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for the Colombia FTA is $7,777,000 for construction. The excluded services for the Colombia FTA are the same as for the Bahrain FTA, Dominican Republic--Central American FTA, Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and Peru FTA. Because the Colombia...



Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden  

PubMed Central

In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9–12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva



Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV vaccines; and (ii) secondary prevention by increasing the accuracy of cervical cancer screening. PMID:24893303

Muñoz, Nubia



Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia’s Health Insurance Program for the Poor  

PubMed Central

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia’s Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a “fuzzy” regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services – with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana



Residents, Decision Makers, and Scientists Discuss Volcanic Hazard in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia; Pasto, Colombia, 6-11 July 2009; Galeras volcano, located in southwestern Colombia, imposes several hazards on the surrounding population: pyroclastic flows, lahars, ashfall, and shock waves. The current hazard map shows three zones: high, medium, and low (see A. D. Hurtado Artunduaga and G. P. Cortés Jiménez, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 77, 89-100, 1997). The pyroclastic flow hazard on this map defines the Zone of High Volcanic Hazard (ZAVA) for civil authorities. Current activity of Galeras has provoked two contentious issues related to hazard management: (1) Decision makers announce an evacuation order of ZAVA whenever the volcanic alert reaches a high level, and (2) the Colombian government initiated a relocation program for the inhabitants within ZAVA (Colombian Decrees-Laws 4106 and 3905). However, communities within ZAVA refuse to obey both the evacuation orders and the relocation process. To help resolve this situation, the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. A daily average of 92 people attended, including residents of ZAVA, decision makers, Colombian technical and scientific personnel, international scientists and researchers, students, and academics from the University of Nariño.

Sheridan, Michael F.; Cordoba, Gustavo



Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo



Teaching Writing in the Republic of Colombia, 1800-1850  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform…

Clark, Meri L.



Eects of Public Health Insurance on Newborn Health in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia's rapid expansion of health insurance coverage in the 1990s provides an opportunity to evaluate whether health insurance coverage positively aects health care usage and outcomes. We use the discontinuity in eligibility for the Subsidized Regime (SR), the public health insurance for the poor, to see if the Subsidized Regime increased the incidence of doctor assisted births, prenatal care, and

Adriana Camacho; Emily Conovery


Government accounting for Colombia's customhouses during the nineteenth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the nineteenth century Colombia's economy relied heavily on foreign trade, and the country's major source of revenues was the tariffs collected by the government customhouses. Because of their importance, the government was compelled to establish proper accounting for these and other duties. In 1844, it mandated a formal accounting and reporting system for all state customhouses. This system, built

Stephen F. Laribee; Janet F. Laribee; Stephen D. Hogan



Gasto, inversión y financiamiento para el desarrollo sostenible en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Sistema Nacional Ambiental (SINA) se estableció mediante la Ley 99 de 1993, caracterizado por una estructura descentralizada, democrática y participativa. Su función es el manejo ambiental de Colombia y la expectativa es que se fundamente en la acción coordinada y descentralizada de las autoridades locales y regionales, así como en la participación de las etnias y la ciudadanía en

Francisco Alberto Galán; Francisco Javier Canal



International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.



The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.



Teacher Training in Colombia: A Need for Continuous Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational authorities of most countries, including those of Colombia, typically associate the quality of education with the teacher's role. The teacher then is conceived as a fundamental actor in an educational process and as such assembles and directly transmits pertinent knowledge. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals…

Camargo, M.; Calvo, G.; Franco, M. C.; Londono, S.; Vergara, M.



Critical Literacy as Policy and Advocacy: Lessons from Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, the first column for this issue's Policy and Advocacy department, features a discussion about a recent experience in a graduate program in Medellín, Colombia introducing students to critical literacy. Graduate students used ideas from critical literacy to engage in an in-depth analysis of textbooks they had used in their…

Mora, Raúl Alberto



Education, Conflict and Social (In)Justice: Insights from Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the dynamics of repression and resistance within the Colombian education system through exploring human rights violations against educators. Drawing on the findings of several fieldwork visits carried out since 2005 across Colombia, the paper focuses on the darker side of the education/conflict relationship, demonstrating…

Novelli, Mario



The Urgent Situation of the Cuiva Indians of Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Cuiva Indians of Colombia are now threatened with cultural and physical extermination at the hands of Colombian cattle herders. The Cuiva build no permanent houses and have no permanent settlements. They do not practice agriculture, obtaining their food from hunting and gathering. For more than 4 centuries after their discovery, little has…

Arcand, Bernard


Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. PMID:24893193



Primary Mental Health Care in Disasters: Armero, Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the mental health consequences of the disaster in Armero, Colombia which resulted from a volcanic eruption and mudslide, and highlights the role of the primary care worker in delivering mental health care to disaster victims. Eight characteristics of disasters that are closely related to their psychopathogenetic potential…

Lima, Bruno R.


Two new species of Piaroa (Arachnida: Schizomida, Hubbardiidae) from Colombia, with comments on the genus taxonomy and the flagellar setae pattern of Hubbardiinae.  


Two new species of the genus Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008, P. escalerete sp. nov. and P. bacata sp. nov. are described from Valle del Cauca, and Cundinamarca departments, Colombia, respectively. The female flagellum is fully illustrated for a Piaroa species for the first time; the generic diagnosis is also emended and the relationships of the new species with those previously described are discussed. New characters for Piaroa species, a new nomenclature for the chitinized arch and a reinterpretation of the Hubbardiinae flagellar setae pattern are proposed. A distribution map of the known species of Piaroa is provided.  PMID:25284395

Moreno-González, Jairo A; Delgado-Santa, Leonardo; De Armas, Luis F



Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held periodically between 1997 and 2012, the year of the sixth edition. As well, national and international research groups have been formed to work actively on global projects, such as the Geophysics Laboratory of Universidad de Los Andes in Venezuela. In the future, international groups will be formed to jointly treat issues including localization and size of destructive events along borders, common scales for the evaluation of intensities, integrated data bases, etc. Additionally the methods employed will be validated by paleoseismology, neotectonics and instrumental seismicity, among others.

Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.



Heat flow from eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heat flows were determined at 12 sites in four distinct areas between longitude 77?? and 80??W in eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia. Evidently, most of the region is underlain by mafic oceanic crust so that the crustal radiogenic component of heat flow is very small (??? 0.1 ??cal cm-2 sec-1). Low heat-flow values (??? 0.7 ??cal cm-2 sec-1) in northwestern Colombia may reflect thermal transients associated with shallow subduction. The normal values (??? 1) at about 78??W are consistent with the mean heat flow from the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. At 80??W, a fairly high value of 1.8 may define the easterly limit of thermal transients due to Cenozoic volcanic activity in Central America. ?? 1974.

Sass, J.H.; Munroe, R.J.; Moses, T.H., Jr.



Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla.

Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy



The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.

Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo


Frequency and Clinical Manifestations of Dengue in Urban Medellin, Colombia  

PubMed Central

A dengue fever surveillance study was conducted at three medical facilities located in the low-income district of San Javier in Medellin, Colombia. During March 2008 to 2009, 781 patients with fever regardless of chief complaint were recruited for acute dengue virus infection testing. Of the 781 tested, 73 (9.3%) were positive for dengue infection. Serotypes DENV-2 (77%) and -3 (23%) were detected by PCR. One patient met the diagnostic criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Only 3 out of 73 (4.1%) febrile subjects testing positive for dengue infection were diagnosed with dengue fever by the treating physician. This study confirms dengue virus as an important cause of acute febrile illness in Medellin, Colombia, but it is difficult to diagnose without dengue diagnostic testing. PMID:24987421

Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Beatty, Mark E.; Goez, Yenny; Ramirez, Ruth E.; Letson, G. William; Diaz, Francisco J.; Piedrahita, Leidy Diana; Osorio, Jorge E.



Instantánea del cáncer infantil

Información sobre la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer en los niños, tendencias en el financiamiento del NCI para la investigación del cáncer infantil; así como ejemplos de actividades y adelantos en la investigación relevantes para esta población.


Diversity of the calabash tree ( Crescentia cujete L.) in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germplasm of the calabash tree (Crescentia cujete L.) was collected in five major regions of Colombia, i.e. the Andes, Caribbean, Amazon, Orinoco, and Pacific regions. Collecting\\u000a this multipurpose tree was guided by the indigenous knowledge of farmers and artisans in each region. Large variation in fruit\\u000a shapes and sizes was found, of which some forms were typical for certain regions.

Johanna Arango-Ulloa; Adriana Bohorquez; Myriam C. Duque; Brigitte L. Maass



The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare. PMID:19015725

Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martínez, Mónica Flórez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid



Determining factors of catastrophic health spending in Bogota, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests whether the low-income population in Bogota not insured under the General Social Security Health System is\\u000a able to economically handle unexpected health problems or not. It used data from the Health Services Use and Expenditure Study\\u000a conducted in Colombia in 2001, for which each household recorded its monthly out-of-pocket health expenditure during the year\\u000a and the household

Jeannette Liliana Amaya Lara; Fernando Ruiz Gómez



The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The so-called “Coffee Triangle” region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region\\u000a is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production\\u000a of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions\\u000a to compete

Albeiro Cuesta; Luis Joyanes; Marcelo López



Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Chytridiomycosis in Anuran Amphibians of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the possible presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Chytridiomycota: Chytridiales) in frogs (Amphibia: Anura) of Colombia, we made a retrospective examination of formalin-fixed\\u000a specimens preserved in natural history collections. Using the staining technique of hematoxylin and eosin to identify B. dendrobatidis in histological slices, we found evidence of the fungus in 3 of the 53

Angélica Ruiz; José Vicente Rueda-Almonacid



Environmental occurrence of arsenic in Colombia: a review.  


The international literature on the presence of arsenic (As) in Latin America does not disclose the true magnitude of the presence of As in Colombia. In this paper, we summarize the literature on As occurrence in Colombia. The data reveal that As is present in matrices such as soil, sediments and water and in the food chain. Some of the As concentrations exceed the limits specified by national and international regulations. Arsenic higher concentrations are associated with mining regions (e.g., soils, up to 148 mg/kg; sediments, up to 1400 mg/kg) and agricultural areas (e.g., vegetables, up to 5.40 mg/kg; irrigation water, up to 255 ?g/L), and underscore the potential human and environmental risks associated with the presence of As in the country. This review highlights the importance of focusing research on understanding the occurrence, origin and distribution of As in Colombia to better understand its environmental and public health impact. PMID:24388765

Alonso, David L; Latorre, Sergio; Castillo, Elianna; Brandão, Pedro F B



Progreso técnico y sustitución de insumos. El caso de la industria del cemento en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes technical change and efficiency level in the Colombian cement industry. We use the short-run production function approach in order to estimate efficiency measures and the main features of technical change. A time series covers the period between 1968 and 1988. The data base of this study includes all individual cement companies. This study shows that the Colombian

Osvaldo Salas



A mediated modelling approach to promote collaborative learning in Andean rural micro-catchments in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rural catchments of developing countries water-related diseases, due to land use patterns (agriculture and livestock), microbial pollution, inadequate sanitation systems, access to water of poor quality, and lack of institutional support are common problems which disproportionally affect poor and vulnerable people. This research aims at developing a system dynamic model to improve the understanding of the macro and micro factors that influence human health and environmental health in rural micro-catchments in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In this catchment livelihoods for most people depend on agriculture, particularly coffee. The research uses a mediated modeling approach, in which different stakeholders in modeling sessions, develop a STELLA model that allows them to identify relations between the economic, social and environmental factors and driving forces over the performance of their system. Stakeholders jointly develop the model structure in sessions facilitated by the researcher and the data required is gathered using secondary information from the different relevant institutions and primary information from field surveys that cover socioeconomic and environmental aspects that has not been previously collected by any institution or organization (i.e. household survey, stream water survey, and drinking water survey). Representation and understanding of their system will allow the stakeholders to test the effect of different management strategies in the micro-catchment and their associated socioeconomic, environmental and human health outcomes.

Gowing, John; Dominguez, Isabel



In A. Abraham, J. Ruiz-del-Solar, and M. Kppen (eds), Soft Computing Systems: Design, Man-agement and Applications, pp. 153-162, IOS Press, Netherlands, 2002.  

E-print Network

but also #12;2 to the kind of genetic operators available to create genetic modification. The initial, however, due to the variety of genetic operators that continually introduce genetic modification the un- constrained operation of important genetic operators such as mutation, transposition

Fernandez, Thomas


Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes

El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.


78 FR 16470 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...



Políticas del sitio web

En el sitio web del NCI se proporcionan enlaces a otros sitios web con fines informativos y para conveniencia del público. Si el usuario selecciona un sitio web externo, saldrá del sitio web del NCI y estará sujeto a las políticas de privacidad y seguridad de dicho sitio.


78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Officer, U.S. Embassy Bogota, Colombia, Nicole A. DeSilvis, Commercial Attach[eacute], U.S. Embassy Bogota, Colombia, Elnora Moye, Trade Program Assistant. [FR...




E-print Network

COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA Y URUGUAY Enrico GIACOMETTI SARTHOU Universidad de Salamanca giacometti estudiar estos procesos de cambio, los casos escogidos serán Costa Rica, Colombia y Uruguay. Palabras Clave

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


78 FR 15346 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Brazil, Colombia and Panama; May 12-18...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...transportation, energy, environment, ports, and ICT sectors. Colombia Colombia ranks solidly...Improved security, sound government policies, steady economic growth, moderate inflation...mission, and (2) maintain and enforce a policy that prohibits the bribery of...



Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909



Petroleum system of the Cano Limon field, Llanos Basin, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

The Chipaque-Lower Carbonera({circ}) Petroleum System of the northernmost Llanos Basin of Colombia, covers 11,100 km{sup 2} and includes two major oil fields: Caho Limon in Colombia, and Guafita in Venezuela, jointly with three more relatively small fields in Colombia: Redondo, Cano Rondon, and Jiba. Ultimate recoverable reserves are in the order of 1.4 BBO. The sedimentary section penetrated in the Northern Llanos has been informally subdivided into four Cretaceous formations: K3, K2B, K2A, and Lower K1 deposited during the Albian-Senonian, and into four Tertiary formations: Lower Carbonera, Upper Carbonera, Leon, and Guayabo deposited during the Late Eocene to Pliocene time. The main reservoir is the Lower Carbonera Formation, which contains 81% of the total reserves. The Cretaceous K2A and Lower K1 reservoirs contain 6% and 8%, respectively of the reserves. Minor reserves are accumulated in the discontinuous sandstones of the Oligocene Upper Carbonera Formation Geochemical analyses of the Cano Limon/Guafita oils indicate that these are aromatic intermediate to paraffinic-naphthenic, non degradated, genetically related to a common marine-derived type of kerogen. These oils were generated by a mature, marine clastic source rock with a small contribution of continental organic matter. The geochemistry of the hydrocarbon suggest a genetic relationship with the shales of the Chipaque formation, basin-ward equivalent of the K2 Formation, which presents kerogen type II organic matter and has been recognized as a good source rock. The petroleum system is hypothetical because a definite oil-source rock correlation is lacking. The development of the petroleum system is directly related to the history of movement of the Santa Maria, La Yuca, Caho Limon, and Matanegra wrench faults. It has been determined that these faults of pre-Cretaceous rifting origin, created the Santa Maria Graben of which the Espino Graben is the continuation in Venezuela.

Molina, J. [Occidental de Colombia, Inc., Bogota (Colombia)



Colombia an approach to create a national space agency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre- Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phas e of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

Arenales, O.


Social effects of labour migration: the Colombia experience.  


Colombia has traditionally been classified as a net exporter of manpower. However, the US's restrictions on immigration and the economic crisis in Venezuela, Colombia's sister republic, have affected both the volume and composition of emigration. It could be initially concluded that despite domestic difficulties and external problems, favorable economic prospects explain the present reduced outflow of immigrants. On the basis of a sample survey of applications taken during the last 2 years, 94% of arrivals were classified as professionals and technicians; the remainder were administrative workers. This achievement (which contrasts with high levels of unemployment among Colombian professionals) reflects new technological innovations. It appears that while Colombia exports engineers, it imports engineering. Opinion surveys conducted among employers, migrants, and educational authorities show that costs are not fully compensated by the migrant's improved standard of living in the country of destination, even if he has sent remittances to his country of origin. Investments in education and training yield no returns to the country if the recipient emigrates. The advantages of emigration, identified in the same surveys, include 1) reduction in internal pressure on the labor market, 2) improvement in the incomes of those who do not emigrate, and 3) resolution of economic problems for migrants. The Social Economics Plan implemented by the current government indirectly affects migratory processes by focusing on: 1) eradication of poverty; 2) the National Rehabilitation Plan, by which regional growth is stimulated in poor and economically precarious districts; and 3) the Integral Rural Development Plan which aims to eradicate poverty and improve production and commercialization in small-holding areas. The author concludes that the effects of migration on social structures must be examined in depth. PMID:12315892

Cely Martinez, J N



77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...9000-AM24 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Colombia AGENCY: Department...Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement that provides for designated in the FAR as the Colombia Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The FTA...



Results of Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in Public Schools in Bogota, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Bogota, Colombia, in 2001 and 2007 to examine changes in tobacco use among youth 13-15 years of age. The current tobacco control effort in Bogota will be accessed relative to Colombia ratifying the World Health Organization Framework…

Pardo, Constanza; Pineros, Marion; Jones, Nathan R.; Warren, Charles W.



Colombia is considered among the countries with the highest levels of amphibian species richness  

E-print Network

. Cepeda5 & Sergio A. Balaguera-Reina6 1,2,3,4 Centro de Desarrollo Sostenible Námaku, Minca, MagdalenaColombia is considered among the countries with the highest levels of amphibian species richness Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1633-1636. Copyright: © José F

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad


76 FR 53299 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary...U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...



75 FR 67011 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary...U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...



Labor Rights Comments to United States Trade Representatives Regarding Colombia Free Trade Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments submitted to the United States Trade Representative following a request for comments concerning the Free Trade Agreement with the Republic of Colombia. They describe labor rights violations in Colombia and the role of the Colombian government in the repression of labor rights. The document urges the US government to support labor rights by requiring preconditions to be met by

Bama Athreya



Race and Ethnic Inequality in Health and Health Care in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore race and ethnic health inequalities in Colombia. We first characterize the situation of Afro-Colombians and indigenous populations in Colombia. Second, we document racial\\/ethnic disparities in health outcomes and access to health care using data from the Living Standards Survey and the evaluation of the Familias en Acción program. Third, we set up a statistical model

Raquel Bernal; Mauricio Cárdenas Santa María



Re-Imagining Teacher Professional Development and Citizenship Education: Lessons for Import from Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the role of teachers in the implementation of citizenship education in Colombia. Consistent with its highly-decentralized school system, Colombia's National Program of Citizenship Competencies was developed with the participation of many local, national, and international partners. Among the most involved and most critical…

Noonan, James M.



Validación de escala de la seguridad alimentaria doméstica en Antioquia, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To adapt and validate in households of Antio- quia, Colombia, a food security scale previously applied in households of Caracas, Venezuela. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in 44 municipalities in the depar- tment of Antioquia, Colombia, in 2003 and 2004, with a ran- domly selected sample of 1 624 rural and urban households with children under

Marta Cecilia Álvarez; Alejandro Estrada; Elizabeth Cristina Montoya; Hugo Melgar-Quiñónez



75 FR 9578 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change...Panama, September 20-24, 2010, to be led by a senior Commerce official. The mission...interested in participating in the Executive-led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama...



New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia  

E-print Network

New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia M. Van Wyk. The aim of this study was to compare representatives of these two groups of isolates from coffee, citrus. fimbriata s.l. in Colombia is found on a wide range of hosts other than coffee. These include citrus (Citrus


The Batá Formation of Colombia is truly Cretaceous, not Jurassic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Batá Formation has been a key unit in paleogeographic reconstructions of Colombia since it was first described as a Jurassic unit. However, the paleontologic evidence for this age was not beyond doubt. The trigoniids collected from the upper part of the unit were misidentified and should be referred to the late late Jurassic-early Cretaceous genus Syrotrigonia. On palynomorph evidence, the Interulobites triangularis, Cyclusphaera psilata, Classopolis, and Balmeiopsis limbatus assemblage indicates that the section should be late Valanginian-Hauterivian in age.

Serna, F. Etayo; Solé De Porta, N.; De Porta, J.; Gaona, T.



Bayesian-inversion adjusted methane fluxes in Colombia and Panama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is the second most important long lived greenhouse gas (GHG) in the Earth's atmosphere accounting for ~20% of the positive radiative forcing. The first step towards developing GHG mitigation strategies is to obtain sufficiently accurate and detailed source and sinks estimations. While ~2/3 of the global methane emissions are anthropogenic, the wetlands are the single largest source. Therefore, in many cases, wetland emissions must be included in inverse modeling calculations aimed at validating anthropogenic emission inventories from ambient air concentration measurements. High accuracy and precision methane measurements carried out in 2007 during NASA's TC4 mission revealed elevated enhancements over Colombia and Panama (up to ~500 ppbv CH4 over Uraba, Colombia). Aiming at identifying the origin of these enhancements and at validating the anthropogenic emission inventory, we used STILT to estimate methane mixing ratios based on surface fluxes at regional level over four regions of both Colombia and Panama. STILT was applied along with assimilated (GDAS and ECMWF) meteorological fields and a priori methane inventories for anthropogenic (EDGAR) and wetland emissions (Kaplan's and Matthews and Fung's). The modeled mixing ratios were compared to the TC4 mission measurements. A Bayesian inversion analysis allowed us to scale prior fluxes taking into account the uncertainty on modeled mixing ratios due to transport errors, which were calculated by comparison with meteorological observations. We obtained flux scaling factors for the whole domain of study and for each one of the four regions. Overall, the Bayesian inversion indicates that the prior anthropogenic inventory is reasonably accurate and the a priori wetland methane fluxes are overestimated almost by a factor 2. Although the posterior enhancements show a better agreement with measurements, the discrepancies cannot be reduced for 4 regions simultaneously, which points to the calculated meteorological fields as the main source of uncertainty. This is not surprising bearing in mind the complexity of horizontal and vertical transport in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, particularly over the strong moist convection period experienced during the TC4 mission. Our calculations show a significant anthropogenic influence in the Savanna and Uraba regions. This is unexpected for Uraba. Our posterior wetland flux estimate for Colombia is ~4 Tg/year. This is relatively large when compared for instance with the Hudson Bay Lowlands (~ 2 Tg/year).

Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez, R.; Lin, J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Kort, E. A.; Kaplan, J. O.



Disfiguring disease, degeneration and climate in Colombia, 1880-1920.  


This text aims to unite two neglected areas of study in Colombian medical historiography: disfiguring disease and the concept of climate. It seeks to show how physicians in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Colombia associate a clinical semiology of disfiguring disease with the influence of certain climatic and hereditary conditions. Characterizing disfiguring disease associated with climate implies revising the way in which, at the close of the nineteenth century, medical discourse constructed etiological explanations using the applied rationalism of the period. Thus, the ideal pathological terrain was both the body of the patient and the territory he or she inhabited. PMID:21779688

Rodas, Hilderman Cardona; Valencia, María Fernanda Vásquez



The Quindio, Colombia, Earthquake of January 25, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) recently released a Special Earthquake Report on the Quindio, Colombia Earthquake of January 25, 1999. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, this report is part of the EERI's Learning from Earthquakes project. Sections contained in the report include an Introduction, Geosciences and Geotechnical Aspects, Structural and Nonstructural Damage, Observations on Lifelines, Health Impacts, Emergency Response, Emergency Shelter and Temporary Housing, Recovery and Reconstruction, and Lessons Learned. Figures and images supplement the report and help make more complicated material easier to understand. This report provides an excellent example of a case study.


Mössbauer analysis of coal coke samples from Samacá, Boyacá, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three samples of coke produced from coal from a mine in the municipality of Samacá, department of Boyacá, Colombia, were studied essentially with Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were treated with NaOH 5 mol L - 1 in order to increase the proportion of iron oxides, by selectively dissolving silicate minerals and any remaining gibbsite, before the physical analysis. Room temperature Mössbauer data revealed that all samples do contain major proportions (>50 % of the relative subspectral area) of hematite along with (super) paramagnetic species as iron-bearing chemical compounds. The superparamagnetic contribution may be due to very fine grains of iron oxides, including nanometric hematite.

Pacheco Serrano, W. A.; Quintão Lima, D.; Fabris, J. D.



Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introducción Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cáncer, no existe suficiente información en la literatura científica sobre su forma de utilización ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta práctica terapéutica. Objetivos Conocer métodos de utilización y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cáncer. Materiales y métodos Diseño cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cáncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Análisis de texto basado en enfoque temático inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cáncer. La forma de utilización mas común es la ingesta de la sangre fresca y el mecanismo de acción asociado es la transferencia de defensas a quien lo consume. Conclusiones La utilización del Coragyps atratus como tratamiento para el cáncer es una terapia alternativa usada popularmente en Colombia. El uso de este animal debe estudiarse más a fondo para conocer los efectos clínicos en los pacientes con cáncer. PMID:22651097



77 FR 77035 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama May 13-16, 2013. The subject...Carlos Suarez, U.S. Commercial Service Colombia, Tel: 57-1-2752519, Email:...



78 FR 29779 - Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of...Pursuant to Article 17.5 of the U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA), the...the Labor Chapter) of the U.S.-Colombia TPA, including activities of the...



[Colombia: what has happened with its health reform?].  


The health reform adopted in Colombia in 1993 was promoted by different agencies as the model to follow in matters of health policy. Following the guidelines of the Washington Consensus and the World Bank, the Government of Colombia, with the support of national political and economic elites, reorganized the management of health services based on market principles, dismantled the state system, increased finances of the sector, assigned the management of the system to the private sector, segmented the provision of services, and promoted interaction of actors in a competitive scheme of low regulation. After 20 years of implementation, the Colombian model shows serious flaws and is an object of controversy. The Government has weakened as the governing entity for health; private groups that manage the resources were established as strong centers of economic and political power; and violations of the right to health increased. Additionally, corruption and service cost overruns have put a strain on the sustainability of the system, and the state network is in danger of closing. Despite its loss of prestige at the internal level, various actors within and outside the country tend to keep the model based on contextual reforms. PMID:25597727

Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Nieto, Emmanuel



Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.  


Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined. PMID:23856724

López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto



Spatial pattern recognition of seismic events in South West Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognition of seismogenic zones in geographical regions supports seismic hazard studies. This recognition is usually based on visual, qualitative and subjective analysis of data. Spatial pattern recognition provides a well founded means to obtain relevant information from large amounts of data. The purpose of this work is to identify and classify spatial patterns in instrumental data of the South West Colombian seismic database. In this research, clustering tendency analysis validates whether seismic database possesses a clustering structure. A non-supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm creates groups of seismic events. Given the sensitivity of fuzzy clustering algorithms to centroid initial positions, we proposed a methodology to initialize centroids that generates stable partitions with respect to centroid initialization. As a result of this work, a public software tool provides the user with the routines developed for clustering methodology. The analysis of the seismogenic zones obtained reveals meaningful spatial patterns in South-West Colombia. The clustering analysis provides a quantitative location and dispersion of seismogenic zones that facilitates seismological interpretations of seismic activities in South West Colombia.

Benítez, Hernán D.; Flórez, Juan F.; Duque, Diana P.; Benavides, Alberto; Lucía Baquero, Olga; Quintero, Jiber



Internal travel and risk of dengue transmission in Colombia.  


Human behavior plays a key role in the dynamics of dengue transmission. However, research on the relationship between human movement and dengue transmission within endemic countries is limited. From January 2008 to December 2011, the authors of this study conducted a retrospective analysis of imported dengue infections in Bogotá, Colombia. Bogotá is a vector-transmission-free city that is also the capital district and most populated municipality in Colombia. The study revealed that 1) Bogotá inhabitants acquired dengue infection in diverse localities throughout the country but the largest proportion of cases (35.6%) were contracted at popular tourist destinations in dengue-endemic areas near Bogotá (<200-km radius from city limits), and 2) the number of imported dengue cases increased after major holidays, a transmission pattern not seen in dengue-endemic areas, where disease incidence correlates with rainy periods. It is therefore recommended that physicians consider the effect of travel when diagnosing their patients' illnesses, especially outside dengue-endemic areas where diagnosis of the disease can be challenging due to its nonspecific symptoms. The study also showed that analysis of dengue cases imported to regions free of vector transmission can generate an evidence-based model for characterizing the impact of human movement on the spread of diseases like dengue in countries where they are endemic. PMID:25418771

Chaparro, Pablo E; de la Hoz, Fernando; Lozano Becerra, Juan C; Repetto, Silvia A; Alba Soto, Catalina D



[Foods native to indigenous and afro-descendents in Colombia].  


For social programs in Colombia, like those administered by the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF), it's important to know what native foods minority groups consume. This research obtained information on native foods consumed by indigenous and afro-descendents living in 10 Colombian departments: Cauca, Nariño, Amazonas, Chocó, Guainia, Vichada, Magdalena, Guajira, Cesar y Vaupés. A questionnaire was applied to key informants (individually or in groups), addressing the following topics: personal information on the informant, name and type of food, if consumed by indigenous and/or afro-Colombians, climate where produced, time of year when harvested, if consumed raw or cooked, preparations, properties ascribed to the food, and current production, use and availability. Key informants included participants in ICBF's programs, indigenous authorities, teachers, traditional healers, and others, under the supervision of professionals from ICBF's mobile unit in each department. Bibliography (n = 123 documents) was compiled and reviewed. In the departments selected, 13 municipalities were visited, 139 individuals were interviewed and at least 92 new foods (i.e., not currently included in the Colombian Food Composition Table) were identified. Among the 92, the scientific name was obtained for 62 foods. Of these, 2 were classified as other, 18 as meats, 3 as insects, and 39 as plants. Among the plants, informants mentioned fruit (n=29), leaves (n=4), seed (n=3) and roots (n=3). Indigenous and afro-descendent communities in Colombia report consuming dozens of foods that are not currently in the Colombian Food Composition Table. PMID:21614816

Rivas Abadía, Ximena; Carolina Pazos, Sonia; Castillo Castillo, Silvana Katerin; Pachón, Helena



[Acute diarrheal disease caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Colombia].  


Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years in Latin America, Africa and Asia and a leading cause of death in children living in poorest communities in Africa and South East Asia. Studies on the role of E. coli pathogens in childhood diarrhea in Colombia and other countries in Latin America are limited due to the lack of detection assays in clinical laboratories at the main urban medical centers. Recent studies report that enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common E. coli pathogens associated with diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Other E. coli pathotypes have been detected in children with diarrhea including enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, shiga-toxin producing and diffusely adherent E. coli. It was also found that meat and vegetables at retail stores are contaminated with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, suggesting that food products are involved in transmission and infection of the susceptible host. More studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of transmission, the impact on the epidemiology of diarrheal disease, and management strategies and prevention of these pathogens affecting the pediatric population in Colombia. PMID:25491457

Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G



Anthropophilic Anopheles species composition and malaria in Tierradentro, Córdoba, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Malaria is still a primary health problem in Colombia. The locality of Tierradentro is situated in the municipality of Montelíbano, Córdoba, in the northwest of Colombia, and has one of the highest annual parasite index of malaria nationwide. However, the vectors involved in malaria transmission in this locality have not yet been identified. In this study, the local anthropophilic Anopheles composition and natural infectivity with Plasmodium were investigated. In August 2009, 927 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in eight localities using the human landing catch method and identified based on their morphology. Cryptic species were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer (ITS)2 molecular analysis. Eight species [Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. (92.8%), Anopheles darlingi (5.1%), Anopheles triannulatus s.l. (1.8%), Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. (0.2%), Anopheles punctimacula s.l. (0.2%), Anopheles apicimacula (0.1%), Anopheles albimanus (0.1%) and Anopheles rangeli (0.1%)] were identified and species identity was confirmed by ITS2 sequencing. This is the first report of An. albimanus, An. rangeli and An. apicimacula in Tierradentro. Natural infectivity with Plasmodium was determined by ELISA. None of the mosquitoes was infectious for Plasmodium. An. nuneztovari s.l. was the predominant species and is considered the primary malaria vector; An. darlingi and An. triannulatus s.l. could serve as secondary vectors.

Schiemann, David Joachim; Pinzón, Martha Lucía Quiñones; Hankeln, Thomas



Phylogenetic reconstruction of dengue virus type 2 in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever is perhaps the most important viral re-emergent disease especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries, affecting about 50 million people around the world yearly. In Colombia, dengue virus was first detected in 1971 and still remains as a major public health issue. Although four viral serotypes have been recurrently identified, dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) has been involved in the most important outbreaks during the last 20 years, including 2010 when the fatality rate highly increased. As there are no major studies reviewing virus origin and genotype distribution in this country, the present study attempts to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of DENV-2 using a sequence analysis from a 224 bp PCR-amplified product corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of the envelope (E) gene from 48 Colombian isolates. Results As expected, the oldest isolates belonged to the American genotype (subtype V), but the strains collected since 1990 represent the American/Asian genotype (subtype IIIb) as previously reported in different American countries. Interestingly, the introduction of this genotype coincides with the first report of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Colombia at the end of 1989 and the increase of cases during the next years. Conclusion After replacement of the American genotype, several lineages of American/Asian subtype have rapidly spread all over the country evolving in new clades. Nevertheless, the direct association of these new variants in the raise of lethality rate observed during the last outbreak has to be demonstrated. PMID:22405440



Operational fog collection and its role in environmental education and social reintegration: A case study in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental efforts with fog collection in Colombia began eight years ago, and in recent papers we have suggested the implementation of operational fog collection as an alternative to meet water requirements in rural areas of the Andes Mountain Range. Since then, an increasing number of individuals from academia and environmental organizations in the country have shown a remarkable interest on this appropriate technology, and some started its exploration in a larger scale. In this work we describe the implementation process of the first operational fog collection project in Colombia and discuss its role in rural water supply, in environmental education issues and in the process of "social reintegration" of people who have been victims of forced displacement. Both the fog collection evaluation stage and construction and administration of the operational system involved the participation of the community of a rural village. The study zone, located in the Andes Mountains of the Valle del Cauca Department and with altitudes ranging from 2600 to 2800 meters a.s.l., has serious limitations in water availability. Eight standard fog collectors (SFC) were implemented and used during the period May/2008 - Feb/2009 in order to assess the water yield from fog. The best average monthly collection rate in the period of study was around 2.0 The constructed large fog collector (LFC), with a vertical collection surface of 25 m2, and the associated hydraulic system are currently managed and administered by the village inhabitants. The fog collection system benefits a rural school, and the water is mainly used in small-scale irrigation activities for horticultural crops and livestock development. The project has also brought positive impacts in the community organization, mainly comprising people who have been forced out of their rural homes by the country's nearly half-century old armed conflict. The system also allows agriculture- and environment-related issues to be incorporated in children's current education. We highly recommend exploring this technology in the search for solutions of water and food security for victims of forced displacement in Colombia. Additional efforts to increase the number of LFCs in the study zone are underway.

Escobar, C. M.; Lopez, A.; Aristizabal, H. F.; Molina, J. M.



Targeting "Plan Colombia": A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Political Visual Narratives by the Beehive Collective and the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the Beehive Collective's "Plan Colombia" to a museum exhibition representing the official U.S. position on Plan Colombia. Through a dialectical (Kellner & Share, 2007; Greene, 1988) reading of "Plan Colombia" and "Target America," I examine how each uses visual narrative to promote a particular reading of Plan Colombia

Erler, Carolyn



Omnipresencia del paralelismo Objetivos del proyecto  

E-print Network

-Secundaria Incorporaci´on de contenidos de programaci´on paralela en la rama de tecnolog´ias inform´aticas Facultad;Omnipresencia del paralelismo Objetivos del proyecto Material a desarrollar Programaci´on paralela Para explotar componentes computacionales, para lo que se utiliza la programaci´on paralela. Tipos b´asicos: Dentro de un

Giménez, Domingo


Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Redes sociales del NCI

Instituto Nacional del CáncerLa página de Facebook cuenta con información de cáncer dirigida al público de habla hispana. Visite nuestra página para leer noticias sobre la investigación del cáncer, conocer los recursos del NCI y publicar sus comentarios y preguntas relacionadas con el cáncer.



E-print Network


Bürger, Raimund


Spatial variation of coda wave attenuation in northwestern Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One thousand seven hundred and eighty-six vertical-component, short-period observations of microearthquake codas from regional earthquakes recorded by 17 stations belonging to the National Seismological Network of Colombia were used to estimate seismic wave attenuation in Colombia. Local magnitudes range from 2.9 to 6.0 and only events occurring at hypocentral distances up to 255 km were considered for the analysis. The frequencies of interest lay between 1 and 19 Hz and the analysis was performed for each seismic station separately. Coda-wave attenuation (Q-1c) was estimated by means of a single-scattering method whereas the separation of intrinsic absorption (Q-1i) and scattering attenuation (Q-1s) from total attenuation (Q-1t) was performed using a multiple lapse time-window analysis based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering and uniform distribution of scatterers. A regionalization of the estimated Q0 (Qc at 1 Hz) values was performed and a contour map of seismic coda attenuation in Colombia is presented, where four zones with significant variations of attenuation related to different geological and tectonic characteristics can be observed. The highest attenuation is linked to the central and western regions (Q0 around 50 and 56) whereas a lower attenuation (Q0 around 69 and 67) is assigned to the northern and eastern regions. Results show that the Q-1 values are frequency dependent in the considered frequency range, and are approximated by a least-square fit to the power law Q-1(f) =Q-10(f/f0)-?. The exponents of the frequency dependence law ranged from ?= 0.65 to 1.01 for Q-1c, ?= 0.62 to 1.78 for Q-1i, ?= 0.28 to 1.49 for Q-1s, and ?= 0.53 to 1.67 for Q-1t. On the other hand, intrinsic absorption is found to dominate over scattering in the attenuation process for most of the stations and frequency bands analysed. Some discrepancies have been observed between the theoretical model and the observations for some frequency bands which indicate that it would be necessary to consider models for depth-dependent velocity structure and/or non-isotropic scattering patterns.

Vargas, Carlos A.; Ugalde, Arantza; Pujades, Lluís G.; Canas, José A.



Characterization of a malaria outbreak in Colombia in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Although malaria has presented a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality worldwide during the last decade, it remains a serious global public health problem. In Colombia, during this period, many factors have contributed to sustained disease transmission, with significant fluctuations in an overall downward trend in the number of reported malaria cases. Despite its epidemiological importance, few studies have used surveillance data to describe the malaria situation in Colombia. This study aims to describe the characteristics of malaria cases reported during 2010 to the Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA) of the National Institute of Health (INS) of Colombia. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using malaria information from SIVIGILA 2010. Cases, frequencies, proportions, ratio and measures of central tendency and data dispersion were calculated. In addition, the annual parasite index (API) and the differences between the variables reported in 2009 and 2010 were estimated. Results A total of 117,108 cases were recorded by SIVIGILA in 2010 for a national API of 10.5/1,000 habitants, with a greater number of cases occurring during the first half of the year. More than 90% of cases were reported in seven departments (=states): Antioquia: 46,476 (39.7%); Chocó: 22,493 (19.2%); Cordoba: 20,182 (17.2%); Valle: 6,360 (5.4%); Guaviare: 5,876 (5.0%); Nariño: 4,085 (3.5%); and Bolivar: 3,590 (3.1%). Plasmodium vivax represented ~71% of the cases; Plasmodium falciparum ~28%; and few infrequent cases caused by Plasmodium malariae. Conclusions Overall, a greater incidence was found in men (65%) than in women (35%). Although about a third of cases occurred in children <15 years, most of these cases occurred in children >5 years of age. The ethnic distribution indicated that about 68% of the cases occurred in mestizos and whites, followed by 23% in Afro-descendants, and the remainder (9%) in indigenous communities. In over half of the cases, consultation occurred early, with 623 complicated and 23 fatal cases. However, the overall incidence increased, corresponding to an epidemic burst and indicating the need to strengthen prevention and control activities as well as surveillance to reduce the risk of outbreaks and the consequent economic and social impact. PMID:24044437



Morning Edition's Series on the Crisis in Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week National Public Radio's (NPR) Morning Edition featured a five-part investigative series on the crisis in Columbia, source of most of the cocaine and roughly half the heroin sold in the US. The drug trade, a guerilla insurgency, and a spiraling economy have created a vacuum of sorts in Columbia that the US is trying to fill with vastly increased military aid. Averaging just under nine minutes each, the audio reports offer an overview of the situation and more detailed looks at the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the Columbian military, the paramilitaries, and potential US involvement in the civil war. At time of review only the first three reports were available at the site, but the remaining two are expected shortly.


Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Colombia  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. Design Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 108 Colombian families. Results Fathers reported higher uncontrollable success attributions and higher authoritarian attitudes than did mothers, whereas mothers reported higher modernity of attitudes than did fathers; only the gender differences related to parental attitudes remained significant after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Medium effect sizes were found for concordance between parents in the same family for attributions regarding uncontrollable success and progressive attitudes after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Conclusions This work elucidates ways that parent gender relates to attributions regarding parents’ success and failure in caregiving and to progressive versus authoritarian parenting attitudes in Colombia. PMID:21927585

Di Giunta, Laura; Tirado, Liliana M. Uribe; Márquez, Luz A. Araque



A Social-Medical Approach to Violence in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Violence is the main public health problem in Colombia. Many theoretical and methodological approaches to solving this problem have been attempted from different disciplines. My past work has focused on homicide violence from the perspective of social medicine. In this article I present the main conceptual and methodological aspects and the chief findings of my research over the past 15 years. Findings include a quantitative description of the current situation and the introduction of the category of explanatory contexts as a contribution to the study of Colombian violence. The complexity and severity of this problem demand greater theoretical discussion, more plans for action and a faster transition between the two. Social medicine may make a growing contribution to this field. PMID:14652328

Franco, Saul



Epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in La Guajira, Colombia, 1995.  


In 1995, the first Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) outbreak in Colombia in 22 years caused an estimated 75,000 human cases, 3000 with neurologic complications and 300 fatal, in La Guajira State. Of the state's estimated 50,000 equines, 8% may have died. An epizootic IC virus, probably introduced from Venezuela, was rapidly amplified among unvaccinated equines. Record high rainfall, producing high densities of vector Aedes taeniorhynchus, led to extensive epidemic transmission (30% attack rate) in the four affected municipalities. Native Wayuu Indians, constituting 24% of the state's population, were at increased risk of infection (risk ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-5.3). Epidemiologic studies found no evidence of human-to-human transmission. A higher-than-expected number of abortions during the outbreak confirmed a previously suspected abortifacient role of VEE infection. Pesticide applications and a mass equine vaccination program contributed to preventing the outbreak's spread south of La Guajira. PMID:9086137

Rivas, F; Diaz, L A; Cardenas, V M; Daza, E; Bruzon, L; Alcala, A; De la Hoz, O; Caceres, F M; Aristizabal, G; Martinez, J W; Revelo, D; De la Hoz, F; Boshell, J; Camacho, T; Calderon, L; Olano, V A; Villarreal, L I; Roselli, D; Alvarez, G; Ludwig, G; Tsai, T



Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe



Geodynamics of the northern Andes: Subductions and intracontinental deformation (Colombia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New regional seismological data acquired in Colombia during 1993 to 1996 and tectonic field data from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) permit a reexamination of the complex geodynamics of northwestern South America. The effect of the accretion of the Baudó-Panama oceanic arc, which began 12 Myr ago, is highlighted in connection with mountain building in the EC. The Istmina and Ibagué faults in the south and the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga fault to the northeast limit an E-SE moving continental wedge. Progressive indentation of the wedge is absorbed along reverse faults located in the foothills of the Cordilleras (northward of 5°N) and transpressive deformation in the Santander Massif. Crustal seismicity in Colombia is accurately correlated with active faults showing neotectonic morphological evidences. Intermediate seismicity allows to identify a N-NE trending subduction segment beneath the EC, which plunges toward the E-SE. This subduction is interpreted as a remnant of the paleo-Caribbean plateau (PCP) as suggested by geological and tomographic profiles. The PCP shows a low-angle subduction northward of 5.2°N and is limited southward by a major E-W transpressive shear zone. Normal oceanic subduction of the Nazca plate (NP) ends abruptly at the southern limit of the Baudó Range. Northward, the NP subducts beneath the Chocó block, overlapping the southern part of the PCP. Cenozoic shortening in the EC estimated from a balanced section is ˜120 km. Stress analysis of fault slip data in the EC (northward of 4°N), indicates an ˜E-SE orientation of ?1 in agreement with the PCP subduction direction. Northward, near Bucaramanga, two stress solutions were observed: (1) a late Andean N80°E compression and (2) an early Andean NW-SE compression.

Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Luis A.; Fuenzalida, AndréS.; Cisternas, Armando; Philip, Hervé; Bijwaard, Harmen; Olaya, José; Rivera, Clara



Colombia: A source of hydrocarbons for the world  

SciTech Connect

Colombia progressively has become attractive to those exploring for oil. The policy established by the government in 1974 has attracted large-, medium-, and small-sized companies to come to the country in search for petroleum and gas reserves in the 780,000 km[sup 2] which encompass its 13 sedimentary basins. The dynamics with which association contracts can be signed with the state company Ecopetrol, has been a decisive factor in the success of its oil policy, a success reflected in the existence of over 90 contracts in force and the involvement of more than 40 foreign oil companies in operations in Colombia. Historically, exploration was carried out to search for hydrocarbons in known zones and in pursuit of traditional structures, which brought both, great discoveries and resounding failures. State of the art in exploration has permitted a better understanding of the geological phenomena which have led to the accumulation of hydrocarbons. Ecopetrol has begun to explore with the new [open quotes]play concepts[close quotes] taking into account aspects never before considered, weighing risk factors against the possibility of discovering important quantities of hydrocarbons in [open quotes]frontier regions.[close quotes] These new ideas allow the construction of geological models before deciding to drill. This [open quotes]new focus[close quotes] is based on global geological analogies. We can say, for example, that the important hydrocarbon discoveries in the Eastern Plains alongside the Colombian Eastern Range foothill, have been the result of geological concepts evolution, now managed with highly adaptable designing and planning with universal criteria. All along its 1200 km appears to be the area of greatest oil potential.

Olivella, J.B.



Molecular systematics and phylogeography of Cebus capucinus (Cebidae, Primates) in Colombia and Costa Rica by means of the mitochondrial COII gene.  


We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis for the origin and evolution of Cebus capucinus based on an analysis of 710 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) mitochondrial gene in 121 C. capucinus specimens sampled in the wild. The animals came from the borders of Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, and eight different departments of Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Sucre, Bolivar, Córdoba, Magdalena, Cauca, and Valle del Cauca). Three different and significant haplotype lineages were found in Colombia living sympatrically in the same departments. They all presented high levels of gene diversity but the third Colombian gene pool was determined likely to be the most ancestral lineage. The second Colombian mitochondrial (mt) haplogroup is likely the source of origin of the unique Central America mt haplogroup that was detected. Our molecular population genetics data do not agree with the existence of two well-defined subspecies in Central America (limitaneus and imitator). This Central America mt haplogroup showed significantly less genetic diversity than the Colombian mt haplogroups. All the C. capucinus analyzed showed evidence of historical population expansions. The temporal splits among these four C. capucinus lineages were related to the completion of the Panamanian land bridge as well as to climatic changes during the Quaternary Period. PMID:21455949

Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Ledezma, Andrea; Leguizamon, Norberto; Sánchez, Ronald; Chinchilla, Misael; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A



A new species of Grotea Cresson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Labeninae) from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Grotea has 18 described species. A new species, Grotea villosissima sp. n., is described here and its host information included. This is the first record of Grotea for Colombia. PMID:24715772

Herrera-Flórez, Andrés Fabián



The centipedes (Arthropoda, Myriapoda, Chilopoda) from Colombia: Part I. Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha.  


This study presents an updated list of centipedes of the orders Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha from Colombia based on data from the literature, the World Catalogue of Centipedes (CHILOBASE), and specimens examined in museum collections. Four families, nine genera, 37 species and four subspecies are listed. One species belongs to Scutigeromorpha, and 36 species and four subspecies to Scolopendromorpha. Eleven species and four subspecies of scolopendromorphs are recorded for the first time from Colombia. Newportia Gervais, 1847 is the most diverse genus with 12 species and three subspecies. Six species of Scolopendromorpha are endemic. Three species-Otostigmus inermis Porat, 1876, O. scabricauda (Humbert & Saussure, 1870) and Cryptops iheringi Brölemann, 1902-are deleted from the fauna of Colombia. The Andean Región in Colombia has the most records of Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha. Maps showing the geographical distribution are given for the orders, genera, and some species. PMID:24871718

Chagas, Amazonas; Chaparro, Elisa; Jiménez, Sebastián Galvis; Triana, Hernán Darío Triana; Flórez D, Eduardo; Seoane, José Carlos Sícoli



78 FR 47046 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8403] Suggestions for...Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental Cooperation Agreement AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of preparation of...



Flies (Calliphoridae, Muscidae) and beetles (Silphidae) from human cadavers in Cali, Colombia.  


Adult specimens of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, Lucilia sp. (Calliphoridae), Musca domestica (Muscidae), Oxelytrum discicolle (Silphidae) and Sarcophagidae were recovered from 12 human cadavers in Cali, Valle, Colombia. Information regarding these findings is presented. PMID:11992165

Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María Elena; Barreto, Pablo



Cuando llovió dinero en Macondo: Literatura y narcotráfico en Colombia y México  

E-print Network

This study deals with the representation of drug trafficking in six narrative texts from Colombia and Mexico. Narco-narratives examine the social structures that drug trafficking has brought to Latin American society, which ...

Fonseca, Alberto



Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia<\\/span>is a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands located on sloping areas, where food crops and cash products such as corn, potato and specially vegetables are cultivated.

N. Urrutia Cobo



Revision of the status of bird species occurring in Colombia 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following species are added to Colombia's bird checklist: Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus (observations), Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (observations), Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri (photographic record), Grey-backed Hawk Leucopternis occidentalis (observations), Rio Orinoco Spinetail Synallaxis beverlyae (newly described) and Yellow-cheeked Becard Pachyramphus xanthogenys (new record). First confirmed records for Colombia of White Tern Gygis alba (photograph), Point-tailed Palmcreeper Berlepschia rikeri (sonogram

Thomas Donegan; Paul Salaman; David Caro; Miles McMullan



Seismic reprocessing, interpretation and petroleum prospectivity of the East Cano Rondon Area, Llanos Basin, Colombia  

E-print Network

of the rctluiremcnts for thc degree of MASTEI& OF SGIENC:l'. December 1999 Major Sublcct: Geophysics SEISMIC REPROCESSING, INTERPRETATION AND PETROLEUM PROSPECTIVITY OF THE EAST CANO RONDON AREA, LLANOS BASIN, COLOMBIA A Thests by GERMAN D. MOLINA Submitted.... (Head of Department) December l999 Malor Subject: Geophystcs ABSTRACT Seisimc Reprocessing, Interpretation and Petroleum Prospectivity of thc I-:ast Cano Rondon Area, Llanos Basin Colombia. (December 1999) German D. Molina, B. S. , Wichita State...

Molina, German D



Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas



History of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.  


The formal training of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia started in 1958 at Hospital Sanjos6, thanks to the titanic work of Waldemar Wilhelm, a German-born surgeon who settled in BogotA in 1950. Today there are seven institutions in Colombia that offer residency programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad El Bosque in Bogota. PMID:22916408

Castro-Núñez, Jaime



Jose R. Ruiz Ayala Kwangjin Lee  

E-print Network

intermittent sliding con- tact. For example, in an automotive disk brake, the brake pads do not cover the entire disk surface and hence points on the braking surfaces of the disk will experience periods) and is of critical importance in the design of high perfor- mance brakes (Thoms, 1988; Anderson and Knapp, 1989; Ken

Barber, James R.


Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-five percent of the ?19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating GPS sites in the region. Studies of tsunami deposits on the Dutch Antilles suggest that the provenance of paleotsunami responsible for moving 10-100 ton blocks of coral onshore in the past two millennia has been from the east (Sheffers, 2002), and not from the north or south as we might expect from a NW Venezuelan earthquake. The existence of precariously balanced rocks in the region provides an alternative constraint on the occurrence of large local accelerations. The survival of at least four precariously balanced megablocks on the island of Aruba suggests that horizontal accelerations here have not exceeded 1 g for the past several millennia, but refined numerical estimates of potential shaking intensity consistent with their survival have yet to be completed. Accelerations exceeded 2.5 g in the Tohuko 2011 earthquake but above the Mexican subduction zone, accelerations have typically not exceeded 0.5 g in recent Mw~7.5 earthquakes, and hence the existence of these blocks may not exclude the historical occurrence of damaging earthquakes. A broader search for surviving strong-motion indicators in Colombia and Venezuela is planned during the installation of the GPS array.

Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.



Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver ?340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr-1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers. The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998-2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8-12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

Restrepo, Juan Camilo; Ortíz, Juan Carlos; Pierini, Jorge; Schrottke, Kerstin; Maza, Mauro; Otero, Luís; Aguirre, Julián



Evaporite deposits of Bogota area, Cordillera Oriental, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four evaporite-bearing stratigraphic zones are known in Cretaceous strata of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia north and east of Bogota. The easternmost and oldest zone is probably of Berriasian to Valanginian age. The next oldest is probably late Barremian to early Aptian in age. The third appears to be Aptian. The westernmost and best known sequence in the Sabana de Bogota is Turonian to early Coniacian in age. This youngest sequence contains the thickest salt deposits known in Colombia and is probably the most widespread geographically. Most of the rock salt exposed in the three accessible mines (at Zipaquira, Nemocon, and Upin) has a characteristic lamination of alternating slightly argillaceous and highly argillaceous salt layers of varied but moderate thickness. Black, calcareous claystone, commonly very pyritic, is interbedded conformably with the laminated salt in many places throughout the deposits. Fragments of black claystone derived from the thinner interbeds are ubiquitous in all deposits, both as concordant breccia zones and as isolated clasts. Anhydrite is scarce at Zipaquira and apparently even rarer at Nemocon and Upin. Gypsum is produced at three small deposits in the oldest evaporite zone where it probably was concentrated by leaching of salt initially associated with it. The two intervening evaporite zones are not exposed, but their existence and distribution are indicated by brine springs and locally by "rute," a distinctive black, calcareous mud formed by the leaching of salt beds. Fossils show that the youngest salt-claystone zone, in the Sabana de Bogota, is contemporary with associated hematitic sandstone and siltstone, and with carbonaceous and locally coaly claystone. Although evidence is poor, this same facies relation probably exists within the other three evaporite zones. All salt deposits in this study probably are associated with anticlines, a relation best exemplified by the deposits on the Sabana de Bogota. Within these anticlines the salt deposits appear to be contained stratigraphically in fault-bound crestal, claystone cores that have not been mobilized over great vertical distances. The deposits of this study are not salt domes.

McLaughlin, Donald H.



Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the South American continent includes three of the largest river basins of the world, the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Paraná, with some of the highest discharges and sediment loads, a number of comparatively smaller systems in Colombia carry a significant share of sediment and dissolved loads from the continent. Fifteen rivers west of the Cordilleras in South America discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. The San Juan River has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16 x 106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. The best estimate of total sediment load into the Pacific Ocean from both gauged and ungauged rivers is 96 x 106 t yr-1. These results in a sediment yield estimate of 1,260 t km-2 yr-1. Analysis of 22 rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea indicate that the combined water discharge and sediment load are 338 km3 yr-1 and 168 x 106 t yr-1, respectively, corresponding to a sediment yield for the Colombia Caribbean drainage basins of 541 t km-2 yr-1, or approximately half of the yield for the Pacific basins of Colombia. The Magdalena River, the largest river system in Colombia, has an annual discharge of 7,232 m3 s-1. Load measurements during the 21 year period yielded an annual sediment load of 144 x 106 t yr-1. The Magdalena has the highest sediment yield (559 t km-2 yr-1) of any medium-sized or large river along the entire east coast of South America and contributes 9% of the total sediment load discharged into the Atlantic Ocean from eastern South America. The concentrations of major dissolved constituents and mass transport rates for major Colombian rivers were based on averages calculated from monthly samples from 1990-1993. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant ions, indicating that the water corresponds to the rock-dominated type. Dissolved inorganic carbon, present mostly as bicarbonate ions, constitutes almost 50% of the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the Colombian rivers. Values of solute concentrations show that the Sinú and Magdalena have the highest dissolved solute content followed by the El Dique canal and Patía River. The estimates of dissolved materials exported to the Caribbean and Pacific basins are mainly controlled by water discharge. Thus, the Magdalena transports 30 x 106 t yr-1 of dissolved materials into the Caribbean. It is of the same magnitude as the Orinoco (30.5 x 106 t yr-1), ten times lower than that of the Amazon (259 x 106 t yr-1), and similar to the Parana River (38.3 x 106 t yr-1). The specific transport rate is highest in the Sinú basin, 167 t km-2 yr-1, followed by that of the Magdalena with 117 t km-2 yr-1. The more diluted rivers on the Pacific basins, Mira and Patía, have values ranging between 31 and 90 t km-2 yr-1. In Colombia, pristine fluvial systems like those draining the Pacific basins have much less PO4-3 and NO3- loads when compared to the Caribbean rivers. The Magdalena and Atrato rivers are by far the Colombian systems which contribute the highest P and N fluxes to the sea, with total phosphate and nitrate fluxes up to 186 x 103 t yr-1 and 47 x 103 t yr-1, respectively. Many causes are responsible for these high nutrient loads, including massive sewage collection in cities and towns for NH4+ and PO4-3, mainly in the Magdalena basin, and also due to fertilization of banana plantations in the lower course of the Atrato River. Many Colombian rivers, including the larger Magdalena, are affected by deforestation and rapid changes in land use, thus accelerating the transfer of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter, from the river basins to the sea. Due to the magnitude of fluvial fluxes to the oceans from the Colombian rivers, the fluctuations of dissolved and suspended loads need to be monitored for a period of at least 10 years, in order to be able to quantify the influences of man’s activities and assess global climate

Restrepo, J. D.



Investigación Instituciones y Desarrollo Caso: Aerocivil de Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El debate convencional en países en desarrollo sobre la administración pública se ha centrado en las últimas décadas alrededor de los (restringidos) alcances y (amplios) límites del Estado1. El paradigmático punto que plantea esta literatura consiste en que el interés individual, así como gobierna el comportamiento de otros agentes en el sistema económico, también gobierna el comportamiento de los agentes

Ivan Hernández



Acelerador Financiero y Ciclos Económicos en Colombia: Un Ejercicio Exploratorio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partir del debate sobre la respuesta de política a fluctuaciones en los precios de los activos, en el presente documento se estudia la importancia de estos precios en el contexto de una economía emergente como la colombiana, caracterizada por un grado variable de represión financiera y vulnerabilidad a choques externos, en particular de flujos de capital y términos de

Fernando Tenjo Galarza; Luisa F. Charry; Martha López P; Juan M. Ramírez C


Acuerdo del Programa del Mal Comportamiento Nombre del Nio: _______________________ Fecha_____________________  

E-print Network

: _______________________ Fecha_____________________ Nombre del padre_______________________ Problemas de la conducta son niño es capaz a esta edad de aprender esta conducta? Sí____ No____ ¿Se portan los otros niños de la misma edad con la conducta deseada? Sí_____ No_____ Si el niño nunca se ha portado con la conducta


Regional frontier exploration in Sinu basin, northwestern Colombia  

SciTech Connect

In 1983, Gulf and Ecopetrol undertook a regional hydrocarbon evaluation of northwestern Colombia, during the course of which much of the Sinu basin was mapped by field geologists aided by low-altitude aerial photographs. Additional seismic and airborne radar data were acquired to assist in developing a regional structural model. The dominant structures of the Sinu basin were produced by westward-vergent thrust faults, which are offset on the order of 10 to 20 km by northwest-southeast-trending compartmental faults. Numerous mud volcanos are surface expressions of overpressured shales, which migrate upward along both thrust and strike-slip faults. Thrust faults are expressed, on the surface, by steep-sided, asymmetrical anticlines, which are separated by broad synclines filled with clastics shed during Tertiary thrusting. The extremely thick section of Tertiary sediments is dominated by shale but contains some potential reservoir sandstones. These resistive sandstones could be accurately mapped on the radar imagery and projected into the subsurface allowing traps to be better defined. Combining field geology with geologic interpretation of aerial photographs and radar images was very effective in developing a regional structural framework of the Sinu basin.

Lindberg, F.A.; Ellis, J.M.; Dekker, L.L.



Leishmania (Viannia) Infection in the Domestic Dog in Chaparral, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasingly reported and dogs may be a reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia) in this setting. We investigated the prevalence of infection in dogs in Chaparral County, Colombia, the focus of an epidemic of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. Two (0.72%) of 279 dogs had lesions typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis that were biopsy positive by kinetoplast DNA polymerase chain reaction–Southern blotting. Seroprevalence was 2.2% (6 of 279) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Buffy coat and ear skin biopsy specimens were positive by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blotting in 7.3% (10 of 137) and 11.4% (12 of 105) of dogs, respectively. Overall 20% of dogs (21 of 105) showed positive results for one or more tests. Amplification and sequencing of the Leishmania 7SL RNA gene identified L. guyanensis in one dog and L. braziliensis in two dogs. No association was identified between the risk factors evaluated and canine infection. Dogs may contribute to transmission but their role in this focus appears to be limited. PMID:21540374

Santaella, Julián; Ocampo, Clara B.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Méndez, Fabián; Góngora, Rafael; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Quinnell, Rupert J.



Attainments and limitations of an early childhood programme in Colombia.  


The Growth and Development Monitoring Programme is a longstanding early childhood social intervention in Colombia. The programme's goal is the prevention and early identification of problems affecting children's health and nutrition. To achieve this aim, the programme's basic strategy is to educate parents about the overall health care of infants. The objective of this study is to measure the impact of this programme on children's nutrition and health status and maternal child-care practices. To address potential selection bias, we employ quasi-experimental techniques. This article uses data from the Demographic Health Survey of 2010. The evidence suggests that the programme improved immunization status and the likelihood of health care for acute respiratory infection or fever. As expected, the programme has a greater impact on children from among the poorest people in the country. In the most advanced regions and for the beneficiaries of private health care, the effects of the programme have tended to be negligible. In this sense, our central policy recommendation is to optimize the programme for the poorest households in the country. PMID:25237133

Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J; Trujillo, Juan C



Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia  

PubMed Central

A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, ?-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres



Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.  


A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, ?-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres



Two new species of Atractus from Colombia (Reptilia, Squamata, Dipsadidae).  


We describe two new species of Atractus from Colombia: one from the Serrania de la Lindosa, south of San José de Guaviare in the province Guaviare, and another from Punta de Betin in the province Magdalena, close to the Caribbean coast. The first new species differs from all congeners by having a combination of 17 smooth dorsal scale rows; loreal present, approximately as long as high; temporals 1+2; seven supralabials; seven infralabials; five maxillary teeth; four gular scale rows; four pre-ventrals; 187 ventrals in single male; 29/31 subcaudals in single male; dorsum of body with longitudinal stripes; venter uniformly dark gray. The second new species differs from all congeners by having a combination of 17 smooth dorsal scale rows; loreal absent; temporals 1+2; seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; eight maxillary teeth; three gular scale rows; three pre-ventrals; 146 ventrals in single male; 31/32 subcaudals in single male; dorsum of body and tail reddish brown with paired, occasionally slightly alternating lateral vertical cream blotches, approximately one dorsal scale broad, not contacting in vertebral region; venter cream with reddish brown blotches, forming two parallel series on anterior body and a checkered pattern on the rest of body. PMID:25544086

Köhler, Gunther; Kieckbusch, Max



Hydrodynamic Entrapment of Petroleum within the Llanos Basin, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed to evaluate hydrodynamic effects on secondary oil migration within the Llanos Basin, Colombia (Fig. 1a). Hydrodynamic stagnation zones formed within the Carbonara reservoir (Fig. 1b) in the eastern portion of the Llanos Basin where structural slopes are low and hydraulic head mounds associated with river networks drives ground water flow eastward down structural dip. Computed Hubbert oil potentials within the Carbonara-7 reservoir indicate a hydrodynamic stagnation zone formed in the vicinity of the Rubiales oil field (gray pattern, Fig. 1b); a giant, enigmatic hydrocarbon accumulation with no known structural closure. Flat to titled oil water contacts predicted by Hubbert oil potentials (Fig. 1c) were found to be consistent with observed oil-water contacts (Fig. 1d). Best agreement for the location of this stagnation zone occurred when using an oil density of API 12 suggesting that the Rubiales field's position is in dynamic equilibrium with modern head conditions and present-day oil densities.

Person, M. A.; Villamil, T.; Gable, C. W.



[Current situation with abortion in Colombia: between illegality and reality].  


This article discusses the illegality of abortion in Colombia, situating this country within the 0.4% of the world population where abortion is completely banned. Absolute criminalization of abortion turns it into a public health matter and produces social inequality. The Colombian legislation has always disregarded women as individuals and as persons in full possession of their legal rights. In contrast to a comprehensive conceptualization of sexual and reproductive rights, the various abortion bills merely refer either to "morally unacceptable" situations such as pregnancy resulting from rape or to therapeutic motives. Contradictions between illegality and reality give rise to a public discourse that features rejection of abortion practices, in keeping with the prevailing stance of the ecclesiastic hierarchy, while in practice, and at the private level, people resort to voluntary interruption of pregnancy under conditions of safety and confidentiality, at least for women from the higher socioeconomic strata. This situation not only causes social inequality but also reflects how laws lose meaning and create the collective impression of being useless or unnecessary, thus undermining the state's governing role. PMID:15905926

González Vélez, Ana Cristina



A preliminary study of forensic entomology in Medellín, Colombia.  


This is the first report of an ongoing study of insect succession on carrion carried out in Medellín, Colombia, using pigs (Sus scrofa) as a model to determine the insect sequence over 207 days. During this period, 2314 insects belonging to the following orders and families were collected: Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Otitidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae, Formicidae, Halictidae, Mutilidae, Vespidae; Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Nitidulidae; Dermaptera: Forficulidae; Hemyptera: Gelastocoridae, Coreidae; Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae. Five decomposition stages were observed (fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay, and dry remains) and four insect ecological categories (necrophagous, predators, omnivorous, and incidental). During the fresh stage, the first insects that appeared were flies of the families Sarcophagidae and Muscidae and specimens of Formicidae (Hymenoptera). During the bloated period, species of Calliphoridae (Diptera) were predominant and the first to oviposit. During the third and fourth stages (active decay and advanced decay), the most abundant families were Calliphoridae and Muscidae, although Staphilinidae (Coleoptera) also stood out. During the last stage (dry remains), the dominant family was Formicidae (Hymenoptera) followed by Dermestidae (Coleoptera) with a large number of immature insects. PMID:11457610

Wolff, M; Uribe, A; Ortiz, A; Duque, P



Fatigue and crashes: the case of freight transport in Colombia.  


Truck drivers have been involved in a significant number of road fatalities in Colombia. To identify variables that could be associated with crashes in which truck drivers are involved, a logistic regression model was constructed. The model had as the response variable a dichotomous variable that included the presence or absence of a crash during a specific trip. As independent variables the model included information regarding a driver's work shift, with variables that could be associated with driver's fatigue. The model also included potential confounders related with road conditions. With the model, it was possible to determine the odds ratio of a crash in relation to several variables, adjusting for confounding. To collect the information about the trips included in the model, a survey among truck drivers was conducted. The results suggest strong associations between crashes (i.e., some of them statistically significant) with the number of stops made during the trip, and the average time of each stop. Survey analysis allowed us to identify the practices that contribute to generating fatigue and unhealthy conditions on the road among professional drivers. A review of national regulations confirmed the lack of legislation on this topic. PMID:25150524

Torregroza-Vargas, Nathaly M; Bocarejo, Juan Pablo; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P



Colombia, Many Countries in One: Economic Growth, Environmental Sustainability, Sociocultural Divergence and Biodiversity. Profile and Paradox. Volumes I and II. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1997 (Colombia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Fulbright Summer Seminar focused on the environmental challenge posed by Colombia's biodiversity and addressed the relationship between the last decade of Colombian economic development and the country's sociocultural situation, taking into account its historical background and the role of natural resources in a context of sustainable…



Teaching EFL Academic Writing in Colombia: Reflections in Contrastive Rhetoric (La enseñanza de escritura académica en Colombia: reflexiones en retórica contrastiva)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay relates observations to the reasons that advanced students of English as a foreign language in Colombia struggle with English composition. It identifies some cultural, academic, and disciplinary influences that may obfuscate their assimilation of the conventions of written English. It concludes by proposing that the teaching of context…

Gómez, Juan D.




E-print Network

EVALUACIÓN DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL Grado en Ciencias Ambientales Universidad de Alcalá Curso DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL Código: 670020 Titulación en la que se imparte: Grado en Ciencias Ambientales que se imparte: Español 1. PRESENTACIÓN La evaluación de impacto ambiental de proyectos es un

Espigares, Tíscar



E-print Network

ESCUELA UNIVERSITARIA Masó Pareja, Alfredo - 4 - #12;Memoria del Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis. Mariscal Arlabán, Asier, doctor por la University of Chicago. Martínez Gorricho, Silvia, doctora por la Chicago. Turino, Francesco, doctor por la Universitat Pompeu Fabra. PROFESORES ASOCIADOS Ariza Jiménez

Escolano, Francisco


Cervical and thoracic vertebral malformation ("weak neck") in Colombia lambs.  


The purpose of this study is to describe a developmental defect of the caudal cervical and cranial thoracic vertebrae in 11 purebred Colombia lambs. The lambs were either affected at birth, or developed the condition within the first 18 days of age. Cervicothoracic kyphosis, with a compensatory cervical lordosis and ataxia were common; 8 lambs had abnormal head posture, characterized by inability to lift the head from the ground. One lamb had rigid head and neck, and had to move the entire body to look to the left or right. Neurological signs included ataxia, tetraparesis, diminished conscious proprioception, and increased patellar and triceps reflexes. One lamb had inspiratory stridor because of compression of the trachea in the area overlying the abnormal vertebrae (cervical vertebrae 6 [C6] and 7 [C7]). Radiographic and pathological abnormalities included malalignment and malarticulation of the caudal cervical and cranial thoracic spine, rounded cranioventral margins in the bodies of vertebrae C7 and T1, wedging of the intervertebral disc spaces between C6 and T1 vertebrae, and hypoplasia of the dens. Pathological changes in the soft tissues included hypoplasia of the cervical epaxial and hypaxial musculature, with associated focal areas of myodegeneration. Mild Wallerian axonal degeneration, compatible with a mild cord compression syndrome, was found in 3 lambs in the cervicothoracic spinal cord adjacent to the vertebral anomalies. The concentrations of copper and selenium in blood, plasma, or tissues were normal in 10 of 11 lambs. All but one of the lambs in which pedigree information was provided were genetically related. Siblings born as twins to 5 of the affected lambs were normal, but both lambs from one twin pregnancy were affected. Owners reported that breeding stock had been shared among the ranches. Because of the close familial relationships of the affected lambs, the condition is suspected to have a hereditary basis. PMID:8558486

Lakritz, J; Barr, B C; George, L W; Wisner, E R; Glenn, J S; East, N E; Pool, R R



Petroleum geology of the Cusiana Field, Llanos Basin Foothills, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Cusiana field is located in the Llanos Foothills, 150 mi (240km) northeast of Bogota, Colombia. Light oil, gas, and condensate in Cusiana occur at drilling depths that average 15,000 ft (4575 m) in an asymmetric, hanging-wall anticlinal trap 15 mi (25 km) long and 3-4 mi (5-6 km) across, formed during the Miocene-Holocene deformation of the Eastern Cordillera. Top and lateral seals are provided by marine mudstones of the Oligocene Carbonera Group, and support a hydrocarbon column of over 1500 ft (460 m). Biomarker data from the hydrocarbons indicate a marine mudstone source interpreted to be the Turonian-Coniacian Gacheta Formation. Over 50% of the reserves occur in upper Eocene Mirador Formation sandstones, which were deposited predominantly in estuarine environments. Additional, deeper reservoirs include estuarine sandstones of the Paleocene Barco Formation and the shallow-marine Santonian-Campanian Upper Guadalupe Sandstone. Porosity in Cusiana is relatively low. Good permeability is retained, however, because the reservoirs are pure quartz-cemented quartzarenites that lack permeability-reducing authigenic clays and carbonate cements. Core and well test analyses indicate matrix permeability, not fracture permeability, provides the high deliverability of Cusiana wells. Cusiana hydrocarbon phases exist in a near-miscible, critical-point state. Reservoir simulation indicates very high liquid hydrocarbon recoveries should be possible from all reservoirs by using the reinjection of produced gas to maintain reservoir pressure and to vaporize residual liquids. The field contains up to 1.5 MSTB of hydrocarbon liquid reserves and 3.4 Tcf of gas.

Cazier, E.C.; Hayward, A.B. [BP Exploration Co., Santafe de Bogota (Colombia); Espinosa, G. [Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia)] [and others



Structural evolution of the Llanos foothills, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Llanos foothills are located in the frontal thrust zone of the Eastern Cordillera in Colombia in a complex environment that BP has been exploring actively since 1988. This exploration has resulted in the discovery of several fields with a variety of hydrocarbon fluids (gas condensate and volatile oil) in very tight quartz-arenites. The structural style and complexity of this fold-and-thrust belt changes along the trend from single frontal structures to an imbricate of up to five thrust sheets in a triangle zone. In highly complex environments, the seismic image quality is poor, and interpretation becomes very challenging. The structural models of the area have evolved as more data have been acquired. The initial structural model required inversion of the basin at the end of the Andean orogeny. The structural style changed to an in-sequence imbricate thrust stack with very long, trailing back limbs that return to regional elevation and finalize in a tighter structures with short back limbs. The concept of early deformation and multiple phases has been introduced. Three main phases have been distinguished: (1) an early event during the deposition of the Lower Carbonera (39-29 Ma), with incipient structures formed to create syntectonic deposition; (2) a phase of steady subsidence that increased notably at the end of the period (29-7 Ma); and (3) the latest phase (7-0 Ma), when most deformation and uplifting occurred. The migration of hydrocarbons happened simultaneously with the deformation, and its final distribution, amount, and variation in composition is related to the structural evolution of the area.

Martinez, Jaime A.



[Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia)].  


Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests). A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20 x 50 m) in primary forests and sixteen (20 x 25 m) in secondary forests. All trees with diameter > or =1.0 cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests' age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years). In total, 1,143 and 1,766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4 m2 ha(-1)), above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1,011.5 t ha(-1)) and species richness (4 to 69) directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3,180 to 590). Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.). PMID:20411733

Yepes, Adriana P; del Valle, Jorge I; Jaramillo, Sandra L; Orrego, Sergio A



Análisis de las tendencias de mortalidad por cáncer de mama en Colombia y Bogotá 1981-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Introduction: In Colombia, breast cancer mortality has increased. Paradoxically, Bogota with the highest rates showed a decreasing trend. In this study we examined age, cohort and period effects over breast cancer mortality trends in Bogotá and Colombia as a whole (excluding Bogota) between,1981 and 2000.

Gustavo Hernández; Santiago Herrán; Luis Fernando Cantor


Comparing the Effectiveness of Regulation and Pro-Social Emotions to Enhance Cooperation: Experimental Evidence from Fishing Communities in Colombia  

E-print Network

: Experimental Evidence from Fishing Communities in Colombia Maria Claudia Lopez James J. Murphy John M. Spraggon of Regulation and Pro-Social Emotions to Enhance Cooperation: Experimental Evidence from Fishing Communities in fishing communities off the Caribbean coast of Colombia. The goal is to investigate the relative

Murphy, James J.



Microsoft Academic Search

This document makes an estimation of the bovine cattle inventory in Colombia, tend to give lights on the probability of the policies of cattle development in the country, basically with a view to contributing methodological instruments like Arima models and other models of series of time in the estimation of the cattle inventory in Colombia. The analysis begins with a




Environmental impact assessment in Colombia: Critical analysis and proposals for improvement  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is a highly recommended strategy for enhancing their effectiveness and quality. This paper describes an evaluation of EIA in Colombia, using the model and the control mechanisms proposed and applied in other countries by Christopher Wood and Ortolano. The evaluation criteria used are based on Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment Best Practice, such as effectiveness and control features, and they were contrasted with the opinions of a panel of Colombian EIA experts as a means of validating the results of the study. The results found that EIA regulations in Colombia were ineffective because of limited scope, inadequate administrative support and the inexistence of effective control mechanisms and public participation. This analysis resulted in a series of recommendations regarding the further development of the EIA system in Colombia with a view to improving its quality and effectiveness.

Toro, Javier, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.e [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.e [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Campus de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)



Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia  

PubMed Central

The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest. PMID:24130438

Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Emilio J.



Diatoms from lentic and lotic systems in Antioquia, Chocó and Santander Departments in Colombia.  


In the tropical and subtropical regions, there is a large number of species which has not been yet described. The high possibility of extinction makes their inventory a priority. In this paper, 23 diatoms taxa from Andean lotic systems and lentic waterbodies localized in the Departments of Antioquia, Santander and Chocó, Colombia, are analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Each taxon is described and information about environmental characteristic of the sites where they were collected and distribution in Colombia is given. The studied taxa belong to the orders Thalassiosirales (1), Aulacoseirales (1), Fragilariales (4), Cymbellales (7), Achnanthales (2), Naviculales (7), and Thalassiophysales (1). Fifteen of them are recorded for the first time in Colombia and Encyonema jemtlandicum in South America. A comparison with the diatom flora of the Colombian Amazonia showed that there were only three taxa in common to these two equatorial regions probably due to the influence of altitudinal gradient. PMID:19419036

Sala, Silvia E; Ramírez, John J; Plata, Yasmín



From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: modeling the evolution of Colombia's counter-insurgency.  


Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia's insurgency poses the challenge of assessing population behavior in a non-traditional revolutionary climate. Factors prevalent in traditional insurgency are not applicable in Colombia, specifically between the years 1993 and 2001 with the democratization of the drug cartels. The catastrophic events of September 11th reverberated in Colombia resulting in a new policy and strategy to the waging the counter-insurgency there. This research introduces a structured methodology to modeling the Colombian counter-insurgency incorporating qualitative assessment, mathematical representation, and a System Dynamics approach to represent the effects of the policy change. PMID:19569297

Banks, Catherine M; Sokolowski, John A



Prevalence of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus in women in Colombia.  


The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in 2109 females inhabiting five cities of Colombia was determined. Of the 49.2% with an HPV infection, 59.8% were infected with more than one viral type. Species 7 (of the the genus Alphapapillomavirus) was associated with multiple infections. Analysis of the socio-demographic data revealed a statistically significant protective effect associated with the status of civil union (civil recognition of cohabitation without marriage), and indigenous ethnicity proved to be a risk factor for HPV infection. This is the first study comparing HPV infection among women from geographical regions of Colombia with different socio-cultural structures. PMID:19154481

Soto-De Leon, S C; Camargo, M; Sanchez, R; Leon, S; Urquiza, M; Acosta, J; Monsalve, D; Rodriguez, L E; Patarroyo, M E; Patarroyo, M A



Highlights of NASA/DOE photovoltaics market assessment visit to Colombia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA/DOE sponsored photovoltaic market assessment team composed of representatives of NASA-Lewis Research Center, DHR, Inc., and Associates in Rural Development, Inc. recently conducted a month-long study in Colombia (June 28 - July 23). The team contacted government officials and private sector representatives in Bogota and Cali, and visited rural development and agricultural sites in the departments of Cundinamarca, Caldas, Valle, and chada to determine the potential market for American photovoltaic products in the Colombia agricultural and rural sectors.



Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.  


Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment. PMID:25626660

Santos, Solange Laurentino Dos; Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Silva, Mírcia Betânia Costa E; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva



Hojas informativas del NCI

La colección de hojas informativas del NCI trata de una variedad de temas relacionados con el cáncer. Las hojas informativas se revisan y ponen al día de acuerdo a las investigaciones más recientes sobre el cáncer.


Fisiopatología del estreñimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEl estreñimiento es un trastorno extremadamente frecuente en la infancia, responsable de hasta el 25% de todas las consultas gastroenterológicas pediátricas y el 3% de todas las consultas pediátricas ambulatorias. En el 90% de los casos el origen del trastorno es funcional y sólo en un 10% existe un problema orgánico subyacente. Entre las causas orgánicas corrientes del estreñimiento infantil

Peter J. Milla



Il problema del litio.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

D'Antona, F.



A thermodynamic-like characterization of Colombia’s presidential elections in 2010, and a comparison with other Latin American countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic-like characterization of Colombia’s presidential election is presented. We assume that the electoral system consists of citizens embedded in a political environment, and that this environment can be considered as an information bath characterized by the entropic parameter q ( q?[0,?]). First, for q=1, the electoral outcomes of 2010 are translated into a set of probabilities (relative frequencies of the events) P={P1,P2,…,PN}, with N possible independent results. Then, for 0?q

Campos, Diógenes



Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)

En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science Translational Medicine sobre “La integración del control del cáncer en la salud mundial" (Integrating Cancer Control into Global Health).


Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.  


Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that street youths often continue high-risk behaviors even though they know the potential negative consequences; help them find substitutes for the income, pleasure, power, and communication stemming from sex; convince them of their personal risk through participatory activities; use a multifaceted approach to promote condoms; use an integrated approach; and integrated prevention activities with other services designed to meet their basic needs regarding health, education, and income. PMID:12287663

Ruiz, J



Protected areas in Northern Colombia on track to sustainable development? Carla Marchant & Axel Borsdorf  

E-print Network

subsume the combination of climate change and globalization in the term global change. Any change also Colombia Abstract On the way to more peace, Colombian biosphere reserves, national parks and privately undergoing change. This is not only true for its increasing integration in the global economy in the course

Borsdorf, Axel


Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Colombia (2000-2011): A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

A systematic literature review was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia. Searches of published literature in epidemiological studies of dengue disease encompassing the terms “dengue”, “epidemiology,” and “Colombia” were conducted. Studies in English or Spanish published between 1 January 2000 and 23 February 2012 were included. The searches identified 225 relevant citations, 30 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria defined in the review protocol. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia was characterized by a stable “baseline” annual number of dengue fever cases, with major outbreaks in 2001–2003 and 2010. The geographical spread of dengue disease cases showed a steady increase, with most of the country affected by the 2010 outbreak. The majority of dengue disease recorded during the review period was among those <15 years of age. Gaps identified in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Colombia may provide several avenues for future research, namely studies of asymptomatic dengue virus infection, primary versus secondary infections, and under-reporting of the disease. Improved understanding of the factors that determine disease expression and enable improvement in disease control and management is also important. PMID:25790245

Villar, Luis Angel; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Besada-Lombana, Sandra; Sarti, Elsa



Primates and their habitats in northern Colombia with recommendations for future management and research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report covers a survey of forests and wild primates carried out by its authors in northern Colombia during May, July, and August 1974. The results of a 1973 field report on this report by Bernstein et al. (1) are also included.

Scott, Norman J., Jr.; Struhsaker, Thomas T.; Glander, Kenneth; Chiriví, Hernano



Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman



Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment. NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of Colombia's Programa de Ampliacion de Cobertura de la Educacion Secundaria (PACES), which provided over 125,000 poor students with private secondary school vouchers, many of which were awarded by lottery. Researchers surveyed lottery winners and losers to compare educational and other outcomes. Results showed no…

Angrist, Joshua D.; Bettinger, Eric; Bloom, Erik; King, Elizabeth; Kremer, Michael


Origin and alteration of oils and oil seeps from the Sinú-San Jacinto Basin, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid hydrocarbons have been detected in the subsurface as well as in the surface in the Sinú-San Jacinto Basin (northwestern Colombia). The origin of the oils has not been conclusively established especially in the southern part of the basin. The most likely source rocks in the basin are the Ciénaga de Oro Fm. of the Oligocene-Early Miocene and the Cansona

Christian Sánchez; Albert Permanyer



The hydrocarbon habitat of northern South America: Colombia-Venezuela-Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

A prolific hydrocarbon province extends across the northern margin of South America from Colombia to east of Trinidad. Two key components are a world-class source rock, formed on a regional Late Cretaceous passive margin, and a complex tectonic setting in which a variety of structural and stratigraphic traps, reservoirs, seals and hydrocarbon kitchens have evolved through time. Convergence between the Farallon and Caribbean plates with South America culminated in the late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene with emplacement of Colombia`s Central Cordillera in the west and a nappe-foreland basin system in the north. Regional hydrocarbon generation probably occurred below associated basins. Subsequent oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South America, partitioned into strike-slip and compressional strain, generated an eastward migrating and ongoing uplift-foredeep (kitchen) system from central Venezuela to Trinidad. Similarly, oblique interaction of western Colombia with the Nazca Plate caused segmentation of the earlier orogen, northward extrusion of elements such as the Maracaibo Block, and eastward migration of uplift progressively dividing earlier kitchens into localized foredeeps.

James, K.H. [Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)



Minimum Wages in Colombia: Holding the Middle With a Bite on the Poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper exploits the long history of the minimum wage in a relatively stable developing economy like Colombia in order to see whether it may alleviate the living conditions of low income families and reduce income inequality. The paper does not only explore how the minimum wage may serve these purposes, but also how it may distort market outcomes to

Carlos A. Arango; Angélica Pachón



Maastrichtian?danian dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy and biogeography from two equatorial sections in Colombia and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two outcrop sections from the Maastrichtian Colón and Mito Juan Formations were analyzed for dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy. Samples from the Río Molino section (Cesar?Ranchería Basin, Colombia) represent a subset of samples from the 240 m?thick hemipelagic limestones and calcareous mudstones reported in Martinez's (1989) foraminiferal study. The upper Campanian, lower Maastrichtian and uppermost Maastrichtian intervals were identified in this section

Oscar Yepes



"This Great Emptiness We Are Feeling": Toward a Decolonization of Schooling in Simunurwa, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the decolonization of schooling in an Arhuaco community in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of Colombia. Interweaving ethnographic description with accounts of key events that took place between 1915 and 2006, I trace the community's struggle to develop an Indigenous school capable of appropriating Western forms of…

Murillo, Luz A.



Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.  


This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change. PMID:22676567

Thoumi, Francisco E



Spatial Double Generalized Beta Regression Models: Extensions and Application to Study Quality of Education in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a proposed Bayesian extension of the generalized beta spatial regression models is applied to the analysis of the quality of education in Colombia. We briefly revise the beta distribution and describe the joint modeling approach for the mean and dispersion parameters in the spatial regression models' setting. Finally, we…

Cepeda-Cuervo, Edilberto; Núñez-Antón, Vicente



Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia  

E-print Network

1 of 2 Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia Principal to assess the Colombian solar and wind resources, looking at different technology options, anticipated performance, and evaluating the economics of solar and wind power technologies. The NMSU team also evaluates

Johnson, Eric E.


Identification and Type Distribution of Astroviruses among Children with Gastroenteritis in Colombia and Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Astrovirus infections were detected by enzyme immunoassay in 12 (5%) of 251 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis from Bogota, Colombia. In addition, astroviruses were detected by reverse transcription-PCR in 3 (10%) of 29 stool samples negative for other enteric pathogens collected in Caracas, Venezuela, from children with gastroenteritis. Astrovirus type 1 was the most frequently detected virus. PMID:10970410

Medina, Sandra M.; Gutierrez, María F.; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.



‘Masters of today’: military intelligence and counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1990–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military intelligence forms a vital element of counter-insurgency operations. When the Colombian military suffered setbacks at the hands of the FARC in the 1990s, military intelligence received much of the blame. It was also accused of human rights violations. With the help of US. financed Plan Colombia, military intelligence has been reorganized, expanded, strengthened with upgraded technical capabilities, constrained to

Douglas Porch; Jorge Delgado



Direct genotyping of animal and human isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Colombia (South America)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the main genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (SAG2 types I, II, and III) associated with humans, cats, birds and guinea pig toxoplasmosis in Colombia. This typing was directly performed on clinical samples and autopsy material from human or animals. A total of 50 from 146 samples were positive

Carolina Gallego; Carlos Saavedra-Matiz; Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marín



Privatizing Grassroots Development: Lessons Learned from Artisanal Fishermen in Northern Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents the transformation of a subsidized international development project into a for-profit "environmental enterprise," an ecological business run by and for small-scale fishermen on Colombia's Caribbean coast. Demonstrates the need for development projects to become businesses and the critical role of social investments (literacy education,…

Allred, Timothy F.



Experiencias de zonificación y restauración de los manglares en la costa caribe de Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los ecosistemas de manglares de Colombia proporcionan una serie de bienes y servicios de gran valor para el hombre y desempeñan un papel sobresaliente en la vida de las comunidades humanas costeras, caracterizadas por su alta pobreza. Entre 1995 y 2004 se realizaron en el país dos proyectos: PD 171-91 (F) y PD 60 - 01 (F), financiados por la

Heliodoro Sánchez



Eduardo Posada Carbó - Colombia Hews to the Path of Change - Journal of Democracy 17:4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond its impact on parties and the party system, President Alvaro Uribe's reelection raises questions about the future shape of Colombia's democratic polity. In a country where for almost two centuries, presidential terms have generally been four years, having a president in power for eight continuous years is a substantial break with tradition that may yield unforeseen consequences. In order

Eduardo Posada-Carbó


Who switches to hybrids? A study of a fuel conversion program in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution from mobile sources is an important environmental problem in larger cities. In 2001, a program was implemented to encourage the use of natural gas in vehicles in the Aburrá Valley in Colombia, with incentives to convert small cars from gasoline and diesel to hybrid engines with natural gas, most notably a cash subsidy. Using a survey administered to

C. Adrián Saldarriaga-Isaza; Carlos Vergara




E-print Network

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA for Southern Tropical America (STA), covering coral reef areas of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Atlantic. The coral reefs have been limited in their growth because of the strong influence of the major continental

Bermingham, Eldredge


Internationalisation in Higher Education in Latin America: Policies and Practice in Colombia and Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is now an extensive literature about internationalisation in higher education. However, much of the research relates to North America and Europe. This paper is concerned with internationalisation in Latin America and seeks to consider perceptions and experiences in Colombia and Mexico, and to compare practice in the public and private…

Berry, Caroline; Taylor, John



Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey of fungal endophytes in coffee plants was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Coffee plant sections were sterilized and fungal endophytes were isolated using standard techniques, followed by DNA extraction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of...


Educational Inequality in Colombia: Family Background, School Quality and Student Achievement in Cartagena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of family socio-economic disadvantage and differences in school resources on student achievement in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Using data from the ICFES and C-600 national databases, we conduct a multilevel analysis to determine the unique contribution of school-level factors above and beyond family…

Rangel, Claudia; Lleras, Christy



Tertiary Education in Colombia: Paving the Way for Reform. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great challenge facing Colombia is how to become an active member of the new global information and knowledge society. The changes required for this transition mean that the role of tertiary education must also shift to add to the traditional tasks of the transmission of knowledge and providing basic research the roles of training adaptable…

World Bank, Washington, DC.


Beyond the Mincer Equation: The Internal Rate of Return to Higher Education in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to present an estimation of the internal rate of return (IRR) to higher education in Colombia, we take advantage of recent updates on the methodological approach towards earnings equations. In order to overcome the criticism that surrounds interpretations of the education coefficient of Mincer equations as being the rate of return to…

García-Suaza, Andrés Felipe; Guataquí, Juan Carlos; Guerra, José Alberto; Maldonado, Darío



Piercing the Bubble: How Management Students Can Confront Poverty in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the current relationship between management education in Colombia and the efforts of the management program at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in Medellin to reduce local poverty. The article uses the metaphor of "the bubble" to illustrate how social class, family socialization, and the current UPB management…

Rosenbloom, Al; Cortes, Juan Alejandro



Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...


Many Paths to Skilled Employment: A Reverse Tracer Study of Seven Occupations in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employs reverse tracer techniques to identify alternative training paths for selected skilled and semiskilled occupations in Colombia. Shows that workers pursue various alternative training paths to acquire essential occupational skills. Strong public intervention in training markets should be discouraged, as choices would be narrowed and the…

Ziderman, Adrian; Horn, Robin



Polymorphism of serum proteins (C3, BF, HP and TF) of six populations in Colombia.  


Five hundred and eighty-five serum samples from six populations in Colombia (Baranoa, Choco, Uitoto Indians, Subachoque, Pasto and Urban Bogotan) were investigated for four genetic markers. For the HP, C3 and BF systems but not for TF there is a wide range of gene frequency variation and these differences are compared with those in the few previous studies. PMID:2759637

Bernal, J E; Sarmiento, P; Briceno, I; Papiha, S S



La evolución y el futuro de la producción más limpia en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

EIn 1997 the Ministry of Environmental Affairs of Colombia adapted its National Cleaner Production Policy as a complementary environmental strategy to introduce prevention oriented approach into management practices of industry. Since then a range of different initiatives have been developed, all focused on the improvement of the environmental performance of companies. The results of the demonstration projects, voluntary agreements, capacity

Bart van Hoof; Carlos Manuel Herrera



Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates from northern Colombia, South America.  


Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

Guerra, Julio A; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G



Heat Flow Assessment From Bottom Simulating Reflectors at the Southern Colombia-Northern Ecuador Convergent Margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) identified on seismic reflection profiles across sedimentary margins generally coincide with the base of the gas hydrate stability field. BSRs are controlled by temperature and pressure conditions. Therefore BSRs can be used to assess heat flow and hence the thermal regime of the margin. Multichannel seismic reflection data acquired during the SISTEUR cruise along the Ecuador-Colombia

B. Marcaillou; G. Spence; J. Collot



Reviews of National Policies for Education: Tertiary Education in Colombia 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Colombia, the beginning of a new century has brought with it a palpable feeling of optimism. Colombians and visitors sense that the country's considerable potential can be realised, and education is rightly seen as crucial to this process. As opportunities expand, Colombians will need new and better skills to respond to new challenges and…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013



Access to Higher Education in Colombia: An Assessment of Public Policy and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research analyzes a set of national policy initiatives, 2002-2010, regularly referred to as Colombia's "Educational Revolution". Together these policies constitute a Colombian effort to increase access to higher education, an effort in partnership with the World Bank. The dissertation presents findings on policy goals, efforts,…

Uribe Correa, Lina



The paths of coffee: A brief economic history of coffee in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a brief history of coffee in Colombia identifying the processes of change in the geography and populations. From the eighteenth to the twentieth century, coffee cultivation represented the basis of household income. Changes in rural and urban culture of the nineteenth century were influenced by the coffee trade, likewise the fundamental transformations of the Colombian economy during

Fernando Estrada



Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Northern Colombia, South America  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

Guerra, Julio A.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C.; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.



Un modelo de cointegración estacional de la producción industrial, Colombia 1993-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se explora la relación de equilibrio de largo plazo entre producción industrial e importación de bienes de capital y de materias primas en Colombia entre enero de 1993 y abril de 2005. Esta relación se determina mediante un modelo de cointegración estacional; con el modelo resultante se hacen ejercicios de impulso respuesta para simular la trayectoria de

Álvaro Chaves Castro



Perceptions of Connectedness: Public Access Computing and Social Inclusion in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the benefits public access computers (PAC) offer users, one stands apart: stronger personal connections with friends and family. A closer look at the results of a qualitative study among users of libraries, telecenters, and cybercafes in Colombia, South America, shows that social media and personal relationships can also have an important community and sociopolitical dimension. By fostering a

Luis Fernando Baron; Ricardo Gomez




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii was determined in serum, feces, and tissues 170 unwanted cats from Colombia, South America. Ant...


78 FR 72972 - Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Colombia EAC/ECC Meeting''; and (2) Sarah Stewart, Office of Environment and Natural...Representative, by electronic mail at with the subject...Kastenberg, Telephone (202) 736-7111 or Sarah Stewart, Telephone (202)...



Canasta básica alimentaria e índice de precios en Santander, Colombia, 1999-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To establish indicators for food security (FS) in two Colombian municipalities. Material and Methods. In 1999-2000, a descriptive study was carried out in two municipalities of the department of Santander, Colombia, that determined the cost of basic food baskets (BFB), to estimate price indices (PI), their variation, and indicators of FS related to the legally set minimum wage (MW).

Oscar Fernando Herrán-Falla; Gloria Esperanza Prada-Gómez; Gonzalo Alberto Patiño-Benavides



A new species of Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. Geotrigona joearroyoi sp. n. belongs to the fulvohirta species group and is distinguished on the basis of color and type of pubescence on the metasomal terga. New geographical records and an updated key to the species of Geotrigona are provided. PMID:22448115

Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.



The Association between Financial Aid Availability and the College Dropout Rates in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study is to estimate the association between financial aid and college dropout rates of postsecondary students in Colombia. We use a unique dataset from the Colombian Ministry of Education that includes all enrolled college students in the country between 1998 and 2008. Logistic regression is used to identify the…

Melguizo, Tatiana; Torres, Fabio Sanchez; Jaime, Haider




E-print Network

inhabiting Triplaris, Cecropia and Acacia trees in the vicinity of Rio Frio, Colombia, were made of the ants which regularly inhabit the trunks and twigs of Triplaris and Cecropia and the large thorns the observations were made. I. TRIPLARIS AND ITS INHABITANTS Two forms of this tree were found, one (Plate 1, lower

Villemant, Claire


The Persistence of Educational Semantics: Patterns of Variation in Monitorial Schooling in Colombia (1821-1844)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This contribution deals with the adoption and interpretation of the monitorial system of education in Colombia between 1821 and 1844, a period during which this pedagogical method was almost mandatory for all the country's elementary schools. The analysis focuses on the differences between "local necessities" and "local semantic resources" in the…

Caruso, Marcelo



A Portrayal of Art Music in Colombia through Four Works for Bassoon  

E-print Network

interpret as based in the tradition of marches that were very popular in the Gran Colombia during the battles for Independence. The layout of this rondo is A-B-A-C-A. There is evidence of use of syncretized Colombian tropical rhythms in the piano line...

Southern, Lia



Why Justice is unresponsive to crime: The Case of Cocaine in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, over ninety percent of all crimes in Colombia have gone unpunished. This paper addresses the reasons for this extreme unresponsiveness of the country's judicial system to high rates of violence, in particular since the end of the seventies when drug trafficking bacame a major source of crime. A model of justice provision is presented where the reaction

Juán Carlos Echeverry; Zeinab Partow


The Beauty of State Construction: Juan Valdez, Miss Colombia and Crisis Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colombian state was in acute crisis in the 1990s. Widely considered a failed state, Colombia suffered from uncontrollable violence and an acute economic crisis that left over half of the population impoverished. Yet shortly after the turn of the century, it was being touted as one of the great successes in crime reduction, economic growth, and democratic stability. In

Stacey Hunt


Estudio del CH interestelar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.


Dialysis outcomes in Colombia (DOC) study: a comparison of patient survival on peritoneal dialysis vs hemodialysis in Colombia.  


The goal of the Dialysis Outcomes in Colombia (DOC) study was to compare the survival of patients on hemodialysis (HD) vs peritoneal dialysis (PD) in a network of renal units in Colombia. The DOC study examined a historical cohort of incident patients starting dialysis therapy between 1 January 2001 and 1 December 2003 and followed until 1 December 2005, measuring demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables. Only patients older than 18 years were included. As-treated and intention-to-treat statistical analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. There were 1094 eligible patients in total and 923 were actually enrolled: 47.3% started HD therapy and 52.7% started PD therapy. Of the patients studied, 751 (81.3%) remained in their initial therapy until the end of the follow-up period, death, or censorship. Age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, creatinine, calcium, and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) variables did not show statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups. Diabetes, socioeconomic level, educational level, phosphorus, Charlson Co-morbidity Index, and cardiovascular history did show a difference, and were less favorable for patients on PD. Residual renal function was greater for PD patients. Also, there were differences in the median survival time between groups: 27.2 months for PD vs 23.1 months for HD (P=0.001) by the intention-to-treat approach; and 24.5 months for PD vs 16.7 months for HD (P<0.001) by the as-treated approach. When performing univariate Cox analyses using the intention-to-treat approach, associations were with age > or =65 years (hazard ratio (HR)=2.21; confidence interval (CI) 95% (1.77-2.755); P<0.001); history of cardiovascular disease (HR=1.96; CI 95% (1.58-2.90); P<0.001); diabetes (HR=2.34; CI 95% (1.88-2.90); P<0.001); and SGA (mild or moderate-severe malnutrition) (HR=1.47; CI 95% (1.17-1.79); P=0.001); but no association was found with gender (HR=1.03, CI 95% 0.83-1.27; P=0.786). Similar results were found with the as-treated approach, with additional associations found with Charlson Index (0-2) (HR=0.29; Cl 95% (0.22-0.38); P<0.001); Charlson Index (3-4) (HR=0.61; Cl 95% (0.48-0.79); P<0.001); and SGA (mild-severe malnutrition) (HR=1.43; Cl 95% (1.15-1.77); P<0.001). Similarly, the multivariate Cox model was run with the variables that had shown association in previous analyses, and it was found that the variables explaining the survival of patients with end-stage renal disease in our study were age, SGA, Charlson Comorbidity Index 5 and above, diabetes, healthcare regimes I and II, and socioeconomic level 2. The results of Cox proportional risk model in both the as-treated and intention-to-treat analyses showed that there were no statistically significant differences in survival of PD and HD patients: intention-to-treat HD/PD (HR 1.127; CI 95%: 0.855-1.484) and as-treated HD/PD (HR 1.231; CI 95%: 0.976-1.553). In this historical cohort of incident patients, there was a trend, although not statistically significant, for a higher (12.7%) adjusted mortality risk associated with HD when compared to PD, even though the PD patients were poorer, were more likely to be diabetic, and had higher co-morbidity scores than the HD patients. The variables that most influenced survival were age, diabetes, comorbidity, healthcare regime, socioeconomic level, nutrition, and education. PMID:18379541

Sanabria, M; Muñoz, J; Trillos, C; Hernández, G; Latorre, C; Díaz, C S; Murad, S; Rodríguez, K; Rivera, A; Amador, A; Ardila, F; Caicedo, A; Camargo, D; Díaz, A; González, J; Leguizamón, H; Lopera, P; Marín, L; Nieto, I; Vargas, E



DIANA: Anlisis del discurso para la comprensin del conocimiento  

E-print Network

DIANA: Análisis del discurso para la comprensión del conocimiento DIANA: DIscourse ANAlysis by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. Paolo Rosso coordinates the DIANA project and leads

Rosso, Paolo


Pruebas de Papanicolaou y del virus del papiloma humano (VPH)

Hoja informativa que describe los exámenes selectivos de detección del cáncer de cérvix, los cuales incluyen la prueba de Papanicolaou y la prueba de los virus del papiloma humano. La hoja informativa incluye también información acerca de las pautas de exámenes de detección del cáncer de cérvix.


Publicacin en Internet de los Datos del Herbario del  

E-print Network

Publicación en Internet de los Datos del Herbario del Departamento de Biología del Recinto-MAPR · Upgrading and Internet publication of the Herbarium of the Department of Biology at the University of Puerto datos a través de la Internet. #12;Georeferenciación · Coordenadas e información obtenidas de la

Gilbes, Fernando


Variación Espacial y Temporal de la Captura de Grupos Funcionales en la Pesca Artesanal del Área de Surgencia del Mar Caribe de Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El manejo integral de pesquerías requiere considerar las dimensiones espaciales y temporales tanto en la dinámica de los recursos como en la operaciñn de las flotas, pues estas últimas modifican los artes, las estrategias de captura y los objetivos de pesca para ajustarse a las condiciones ecolñgicas y socioeconñmicas. Con el propñsito de explorar variaciones de los patrones de explotaciñn




Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3) in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

Tilling, R. I.



Instantánea del sarcoma de Kaposi

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de páncreas

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de pulmón

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de pulmón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de riñón

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de riñón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de tiroides

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de tiroides; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de próstata

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de próstata; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de endometrio

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de endometrio; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de ovario

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de ovario; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de vejiga

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de vejiga; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de estómago

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de estómago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


Instantánea del cáncer de esófago

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de esófago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.


78 FR 64691 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Five Foreign Bird Species in Colombia and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...individuals into the United States and five birds into...specimens from the United States to Colombia and Belgium...encroachment and ongoing deforestation throughout this species...heroin entering the United States came from opium...



77 FR 71778 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogotá, Columbia and Panama City...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and distribution solutions providers, port equipment, and intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Commercial Setting, participants will meet with pre-screened potential agents, distributors, and representatives, as well as other...



Microgeographic Genetic Variation of the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba and Antioquia, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia. PMID:20595475

Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Gómez, Giovan F.; González, John J.; Castro, Martha I.; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.



Tejiendo una red de resiliencia = weaving a web of resilience : Internal displacement, social networks and urban integration in Cartagena, Colombia  

E-print Network

There are over 28.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world today because of conflict, human rights violations and situations of generalized violence. Colombia's protracted internal armed conflict, which ...

Pollock, Jody (Jody Tamar)



77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...



Reservoir description of low resistivity sandstones in the Mugrosa Formation (Oligocene) of Gala-Llanito Fields, Colombia, South America  

E-print Network

The Gala-Llanito oil fields are located in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin in northern Colombia, South America. These fields are operated by Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (ECOPETROL) which is the oil national company. They are in the primary...

Bernal Guerrero, Maria Cristina



78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. DATES: Effective: November 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...



Depositional environment of the Monserrate Formation: Palogrande, Cebu, and Dina-K fields, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, South America  

E-print Network


Goddard, Curtis Fred



High proportion of BRCA1\\/2 founder mutations in Hispanic breast\\/ovarian cancer families from Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South America, a high proportion of the population is of Hispanic origin with an important representation in Colombia.\\u000a Since nothing is known about the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations to hereditary breast\\/ovarian cancer in the Hispanic population from Colombia, we conducted the first study\\u000a of 53 breast\\/ovarian cancer families from this country. Comprehensive BRCA mutation screening was

Diana Torres; Muhammad Usman Rashid; Fabian Gil; Angela Umana; Giancarlo Ramelli; Jose Fernando Robledo; Mauricio Tawil; Lilian Torregrosa; Ignacio Briceno; Ute Hamann



Discriminating between different streamflow regimes by using the Fisher-Shannon method: An application to the Colombia rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane, defined by the Fisher information measure (FIM) and the Shannon entropy power (N X ), was robustly used to investigate the complex dynamics of eight monthly streamflow time series in Colombia. In the FS plane the streamflow series seem to aggregate into two different clusters corresponding to two different climatological regimes in Colombia. Our findings suggest the use of the statistical quantity defined by the FS information plane as a tool to discriminate among different hydrological regimes.

Pierini, Jorge O.; Restrepo, Juan C.; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano



Grupos financieros al servicio del rey de Espaa Fines del siglo XVII -principios del XVIII  

E-print Network

Grupos financieros al servicio del rey de España Fines del siglo XVII - principios del XVIII Existe, en un primer momento, bajo el ángulo casi exclusivo de los servicios financieros al Estado2 . La financieros, arrendamientos de impuestos, derechos señoriales o ingresos privados, suministro de víveres, de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Maternal Clinical Findings in Malaria in Pregnancy in a Region of Northwestern Colombia  

PubMed Central

In malaria-endemic regions of Latin America, little is known about malaria in pregnancy. To characterize the clinical and laboratory findings of maternal infection, we evaluated 166 cases of pregnant women infected with Plasmodium spp. in a prospective study conducted in northwestern Colombia during 2005–2006. A total of 89.8% (149 of 166) had fever or a history of fever in the past 48 hours, 9.0% (15 of 166) had severe malaria, of which 66.7% was caused by Plasmodium vivax and 33.3% by P. falciparum. Hepatic dysfunction was the main complication (9 of 15) observed. The proportion of severe cases was similar for both species (P = 0.41). In malaria-endemic areas of Colombia, malaria in pregnancy has a broad clinical spectrum. In pregnant women, P. vivax infection frequently leads to organ-specific complications. PMID:23897991

Gabriel Piñeros, Juan; Tobon-Castaño, Alberto; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Portilla, Carmencita; Blair, Silvia



Seismic anisotropy and slab dynamics from SKS splitting recorded in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nazca, Caribbean, and South America plates meet in northwestern South America where the northern end of the Andean volcanic arc and Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity indicate ongoing subduction. However, the termination of Quaternary volcanism at ~5.5°N and eastward offset in seismicity underneath Colombia suggest the presence of complex slab geometry. To help link geometry to dynamics, we analyze SKS splitting for 38 broadband stations of the Colombian national network. Measurements of fast polarization axes in western Colombia close to the trench show dominantly trench-perpendicular orientations. Orientations measured at stations in the back arc, farther to the east, however, abruptly change to roughly trench parallel anisotropy. This may indicate along-arc mantle flow, possibly related to the suggested "Caldas" slab tear, or a lithospheric signature, but smaller-scale variations in anisotropy remain to be explained. Our observations are atypical globally and challenge our understanding of the complexities of subduction zone seismic anisotropy.

Porritt, Robert W.; Becker, Thorsten W.; Monsalve, Gaspar



An Epidemic Outbreak of Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia Caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis  

PubMed Central

The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia's history occurred during 2005–2009 in soldiers of the Colombian Army, with ?40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmines, and therefore, dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This work describes an epidemic outbreak of canine CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis in Colombia, South America. The clinical features of the disease and the response to treatment with pentavalent antimonials observed in 72 guard dogs from the Colombian Army are described. A program for prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed. PMID:22556078

Vélez, Iván D.; Carrillo, Lina M.; López, Liliana; Rodríguez, Erwin; Robledo, Sara M.



Simultaneous circulation of genotypes I and III of dengue virus 3 in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. In Colombia, dengue viruses (DENV) cause about 50,000 cases annually, 10% of which involve Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome. The picture is similar in other surrounding countries in the Americas, with recent outbreaks of severe disease, mostly associated with DENV serotype 3, strains of the Indian genotype, introduced into the Americas in 1994. Results The analysis of the 3'end (224 bp) of the envelope gene from 32 DENV-3 strains recently recovered in Colombia confirms the circulation of the Indian genotype, and surprisingly the co-circulation of an Asian-Pacific genotype only recently described in the Americas. Conclusion These results have important implications for epidemiology and surveillance of DENV infection in Central and South America. Molecular surveillance of the DENV genotypes infecting humans could be a very valuable tool for controlling/mitigating the impact of the DENV infection. PMID:18764951

Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Mendez, Jairo A; Tenorio, Antonio; Rey, Gloria J; Domingo, Cristina; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C



Bank financing to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to shed light on current trends and policy challenges in the financing of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by banks in Colombia. The paper is motivated by the well-documented financing gap for SMEs, whose causes are complex and multi-dimensional. Based on data collection and interviews with the authorities, a representative sample of banks, and

Camila Rodriguez; Constantinos Stephanou



A survey of Colombia's new outer space policy: Reforms in Colombian law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the changes the Colombian government needs to make in its legislation (including the Constitution), to provide a solid basis for its new outer space policy in consonance with international law. In Article 101 paragraph 3 the Colombian Constitution states: The segment of Geostationary Orbit over Colombia is part of your national territory. This article is at odds with international law, which prohibits any claim of sovereignty over outer space. Until now, the issue has not caused any difficulty; however, Colombia has recently embarked on an outer space policy and the existence of this article may deter other nations from entering any agreement or joint project due to the fear of implicitly accepting this claim of sovereignty. What is more, in Colombia such agreements or projects may be declared illegal, since they do not comply with the Constitution. However, the major problem is not this article, but the complex procedure required to change it. A Constitutional reform is necessary. Furthermore, outer space policy is not a priority issue on the public agenda. This barrier may hinder the efforts to set up a space program in Colombia. We introduce an alternative solution that does not reform the Colombian Constitution but allows the development of the country's space policy. This solution involves identifying the space sectors that would not be affected by Article 101, paragraph 3 and including them in the space policy; checking that the non-definition of the limits of outer space means that the agreements with other nations are not affected; and finally, considering the possibility of making specific declarations of non-recognition of sovereignty over outer space in the agreements signed with other nations (Similar to the American flag over the moon declaration. EEUU Law 83 Stat. 202, sect 8). All these measures can help the development of Colombian space policy as we wait for the country to reach a definitive solution in accordance with international law.

Ortiz, Jairo A. Becerra


Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela: a population-based study (DENSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. A 49-item questionnaire was completed by 1946 men aged 40 years and older. The age-adjusted combined prevalence of minimal, moderate, and complete ED for all three countries was 53.4%, with 19.8% of all men reporting moderate to complete ED. Age was

L E Morillo; J Díaz; E Estevez; A Costa; H Méndez; H Dávila; N Medero; N Rodriguez; M Chaves; R Vinueza; J A Ortiz; D B Glasser



Evolving source areas for upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary marine to continental strata of central Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Cretaceous marine conditions in the Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV) and the Sabana of Colombia ended with deposition of the regressive Guadalupe (Campanian-Maastrichtian) and Guaduas (Maastrichtian-Paleocene) Formations, followed by terrestrial deposition of the Gualanday Group (Eocene). X-ray diffraction, SEM, and thin-section analyses of samples from the southern UMV and the Sabana reveal compositional trends related to different depositional conditions and

R. Ressetar; M. P. Segall; F. E. Laverde; R. B. Allen



Petrology and geochemistry of komatiites and tholeiites from Gorgona Island, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Komatiitic rocks from Gorgona Island, Colombia, in contrast to their Archaean counterparts, occur as rather structureless flows. In addition, textural and mineralogical features indicate that the Gorgona komatiites may have crystallized from superheated liquids. Komatiitic rocks have MgO contents which range from 24 to 11 wt.% and plot on well-defined olivine (Fo90) control lines. Calculations show that potential evolved liquids

Bruce G. Aitken; Lina M. Echeverría



Comparative planktonic foraminiferal aminostratigraphy of the Colombia basin and the northeast Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in the proportion of D-amino acids in fossil shells with increasing age can be used as a relative dating method as far back as the mid-Miocene. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and mixed foraminiferal aminostratigraphy were determined for DSDP Site 502B (late Pliocene-Pleistocene) and 502A (late Miocene-Pliocene) in the Colombia basin. The aminostratigraphic analysis was conducted every 2.5-5.0 m in

R. R. Fletcher; J. F. Wehmiller; R. E. Martin; B. J. Johnson




E-print Network

-1967 46 1968 – Present 53 Chapter Three: American Accreditation 63 The History of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 64 The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Moves Into Latin America 68 SACS Moves... Into Colombia 72 Colegio Karl C. Parrish 74 The Accreditation of Colegio Karl C. Parrish 75 Altamira as an Example 79 Advantages of SACS Accreditation 88 Disadvantages of SACS Accreditation 89 Closing 94 Chapter Four...

Nalley, Joel Josiah



Emerald mineralisation in Colombia: fluid chemistry and the role of brine mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald mineralisation in Colombia is located in two distinct zones along the borders of the Eastern Cordillera, some 80?km\\u000a apart. Mineralisation in the western zone has been dated at ca. 35?Ma whereas in the eastern zone it is 30?Ma older. Crush\\u000a leach analysis of the electrolyte chemistry of fluid inclusions contained in emerald, quartz, calcite, dolomite and fluorite\\u000a from both

D. A. Banks; G. Giuliani; B. W. D. Yardley; A. Cheilletz



Maternal Mortality in Colombia in 2011: A Two Level Ecological Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Maternal mortality reduction is a Millennium Development Goal. In Colombia, there is a large disparity in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between and into departments (states) and also between municipalities. We examined socioeconomics variables at the municipal and departmental levels which could be associated to the municipal maternal mortality in Colombia. Methods A multilevel ecology study was carried out using different national data sources in Colombia. The outcome variable was the MMR at municipal level in 2011 with multidimensional poverty at municipal and department level as the principal independent variables and other measures of the social and economic characteristics at municipal and departmental level were also considered explicative variables (overall fertility municipal rate, percentage of local rural population, health insurance coverage, per capita territorial participation allocated to the health sector, transparency index and Gini coefficient). The association between MMR and socioeconomic contextual conditions at municipal and departmental level was assessed using a multilevel Poisson regression model. Results The MMR in the Colombian municipalities was associated significantly with the multidimensional poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 3.52; CI 95%: 1.09-11.38). This association was stronger in municipalities from departments with the highest poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 7.14; CI 95%: 2.01-25.35). Additionally, the MMR at municipal level was marginally associated with municipally health insurance coverage (relative ratio of MMR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.98-1.00), and significantly with transparency index at departmental level (relative ratio of MMR: 0.98; CI 95%: 0.97-0.99). Conclusion Poverty and transparency in a contextual level were associated with the increase of the municipal MMR in Colombia. The results of this study are useful evidence for informing the public policies discussion and formulation processes with a differential approach. PMID:25785719

Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery; Cotes-Cantillo, Karol; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo Enrique; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando



Revision of the status of various bird species occurring or reported in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following species are added to Colombia's bird checklist: Parkinson's Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni; Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorrhoa; Grey-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus; Tapaculo Scytalopus sp. (Alto de Pisones bird); and Black-and-white Tanager Conothraupis speculigera. The following species are removed: Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Scaly-naped Pigeon Patagioenas squamosa; Amazonian Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium hardyi; Long-tailed Hermit Phaethornis superciliosis; Spot-tailed Antwren Herpsilochmus sticturus; Caribbean Martin

Thomas Donegan; Paul Salaman; David Caro



Electrical power systems (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama and Peru)  

SciTech Connect

This 12-part set of reports contains market information on the following countries and topics: Brazil - potentiometers, steam turbines, gas turbines, electric generators; Chile - power systems; Colombia - electric generators; Dominican Republic - electric generators; Guatemala - power generation and distribution equipment, non-current carriers, electric generators, and turbines; Jamaica - power systems; Panama - power generation and control equipment; and Peru - power generation equipment. These reports have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available



Questioning Market-Led Agrarian Reform: Experiences from Brazil, Colombia and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market-led agrarian reform (MLAR) has been conceptualized out of the pro-market critique of classic state-led agrarian reform. The pro-market model has been implemented in Brazil, Colombia and South Africa, where its proponents have claimed impressive success. But close examination of the empirical evidence puts into question the basic theoretical and policy assump- tions and current claims of MLAR proponents. The




Forest use at the pacific coast of chocó, colombia: A quantitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest use by Afro-American people on the Pacific coast of Chocó, Colombia, was investigated using a quantitative methodology\\u000a based upon informant consensus. Information was obtained for all species ? cm dbh in three plots totaling 1.8 ha. Eighty-nine\\u000a uses were recorded; 62.8% of the species, 74% of the families and 83.3% of the individuals have some use. Most uses involve

Gloria Galeano



The response of precipitation and surface hydrology to tropical macro-climate forcing in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical South America, weather and climate are affected by the meridional oscillation of the inter-tropical convergence zone, the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the Amazon basin, and the Andes Mountains. The dominant mode of the inter-annual climate variability in the tropical Pacific is the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Colombia is among the South American countries that experiences large climate

Saul Marin; Jorge A. Ramírez



Global Marketing Strategy: The case of a born global software firm in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Born globals are a phenomenon that is increasingly being observed and researched around the globe. Yet, few studies exist that research born globals’ marketing strategies. This paper sheds light on the global marketing strategy of a small software firm in Colombia that globalized instantly and that serves global business-to-business markets by using an Internet-based sales channel strategy. Due to its

Sascha Fuerst



Detection of hepatitis E virus genome in pig livers in Antioquia, Colombia.  


Hepatitis E is a form of endemic acute hepatitis found in humans in many countries worldwide and is caused by the hepatitis E Virus (HEV). Detection of HEV in pigs indicates that they may be carriers, possibly through zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV in pigs in Colombia is unknown. Studies in the US found that 11% of pig livers sold in grocery stores are contaminated with HEV. It is also known that HEV can be inactivated when cooked, as it is labile to high temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine HEV contamination in pig livers sold in Medellín, Antioquia. A total of 150 livers from 5 slaughterhouses and 100 livers in grocery stores from different social strata of the city of Medellin analyzed to detect a segment of the HEV open reading frame-1 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that 41.3% of pig livers from slaughterhouses and 25% of livers from grocery stores tested positive for HEV. Thus, the HEV genome is present in pig livers sold in Antioquia, revealing the presence of this virus in pigs from Colombia and the need subject entrails to proper cooking processes before consumption. Further research is required to determine the role of this virus in public health and pork production in Colombia. PMID:25867439

Gutiérrez-Vergara, C; Quintero, J; Duarte, J F; Suescún, J P; López-Herrera, A



Contribution to the taxonomy of the family Membracidae Rafinesque (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) in Colombia.  


The Membracidae are a relatively diverse group with nearly 400 genera and 3200 species. For Colombia 93 genera and 394 species were previously known. Study of the literature and 3744 specimens deposited in ten colections in Colombia, as well as non-systematic collections and field observations done in Colombia between 2011 and 2014, led us to record 116 genera and 474 species grouped in 9 subfamilies and 23 tribes, distributed in 24 departments. Thirteen genera were new country records. In addition, 1449 records of host plants and 262 records of associated Hymenoptera were obtained from literature, the examined collections and new, non-systematic field trips. For each genus a differential diagnosis is presented, as well as notes on biology, distribution and some taxonomic comments. Illustrated keys for the genera of Colombian Membracidae and known distributional maps are given. After examination of several Anobilia species, we propose the new combinations Stilbophora flava (Tode, 1966) n. comb., Stilbophora luteimaculata (Funkhouser, 1914) n. comb., Stilbophora sagitatta (Tode, 1966) n. comb., Stilbophora silvana (Tode, 1966) n. comb., Stilbophora tripartita (Fairmaire, 1846) n. comb., and Stilbophora variabilis (Tode, 1966) n. comb.  The male of Sakakibarella sinuosa Creão-Duarte is described.  PMID:25661431

Flórez-V, Camilo; Wolff, Marta I; Cardona-Duque, Juliana



Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. METHODS: The "decision space" approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. FINDINGS: Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some specific policy mechanisms, can improve equity of resource allocation. In these countries, equitable levels of per capita financial allocations at the municipal level were achieved through different forms of decentralization--the use of allocation formulae, adequate local funding choices and horizontal equity funds. Findings on equity of utilization of services were less consistent, but they did show that increased levels of funding were associated with increased utilization. This suggests that improved equity of funding over time might reduce inequities of service utilization. CONCLUSION: Decentralization can contribute to, or at least maintain, equitable allocation of health resources among municipalities of different incomes. PMID:12751417

Bossert, Thomas J.; Larrañaga, Osvaldo; Giedion, Ursula; Arbelaez, José Jesus; Bowser, Diana M.



Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.



Genetic Diversity of Anopheles triannulatus s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) from Northwestern and Southeastern Colombia  

PubMed Central

Anopheles triannulatus s.l. is a species complex, however in Colombia its taxonomic status is unclear. This study was conducted to understand the level of genetic differentiation or population structure of specimens of An. triannulatus s.l. from northwestern and southeastern Colombia. Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence analyses suggested high genetic differentiation between the NW and SE populations. A TCS network and Bayesian inference analysis based on 814 bp of COI showed two main groups: group I included samples from the NW and group II samples from the SE. Two main ITS2-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) patterns were found. Pattern I is present in both the NW and SE, and pattern II is found in the SE specimens. To further elucidate the taxonomic status of An. triannulatus s.l. in Colombia and how these COI lineages are related to the Triannulatus Complex species, the evaluation of immature stages, male genitalia, and additional mitochondrial and nuclear markers will be needed. PMID:22949519

Rosero, Doris A.; Jaramillo, Luz M.; Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.



Serological diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a febrile patient in Colombia.  


Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis caused by any of at least 20 hantavirus genotypes distributed throughout the Americas. Although HPS has been documented in several bordering countries, it has not been reported in Colombia. Here we report seroconversion to a hantavirus in paired samples from a hospitalized patient with symptoms compatible with HPS from Montería, Córdoba Department, north-western Colombia. Tests for regionally endemic agents including Plasmodium, Leptospira, Salmonella, dengue virus, Brucella, Rickettsia, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses were negative. Because the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial for hemorrhagic fevers conducted by the University of Córdoba, serum samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Testing using Sin Nombre virus ELISA showed IgG and IgM seroconversion between samples. The eventual finding of this first clinical case of hantavirus infection in Colombia is consistent with the high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in humans in the region and the likely exposure of the patient to rodents. The clinical presentation was similar to that found in neighbouring Panama. PMID:24970702

Mattar, Salim; Garzon, Denisse; Tadeu, Luis; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Mills, James N



Temas y rumbos del teatro rural hispanoamericano del siglo XX.  

E-print Network

Argentina. Digno de encomio, pues, el esfuerzo de Buenaventura y Gene por continuar la tradición del teatro folklórico.3 En lo que atañe a las creencias y al temperamento del campesino criollo, los autores hispanoamericanos han dado en la escena un... hijo del patrón que abusó de la inocencia de su prometida. Sabe que el encuentro podría ser funesto. El hombre de campo es también supersticioso. A veces mezcla las creencias de orden supersticioso con las religiosas. La presencia de ciertas aves...

Neglia, Erminio G.



Understanding the main barriers to immunization in Colombia to better tailor communication strategies  

PubMed Central

Background The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Colombia has made great advances since its inception in 1979; however, by 2010 vaccination coverage rates had been declining. In 2010, the EPI commissioned a nationwide study on practices on immunization, attitudes and knowledge, perceived service quality, and barriers to childhood immunization in order to tailor EPI communication strategies. Methods Colombia’s 32 geographical departments were divided into 10 regions. Interviewers from an independent polling company administered a survey to 4802 parents and guardians of children aged <5 years in these regions. To better assess barriers to vaccination, the study was designed to have 70% of participants who had children with incomplete vaccination schedules. Explanatory factorial, principal component, and cluster analyses were performed to place participants into a group (segment) representing the primary category of reasons respondents offered for not vaccinating their children. Types of barriers were then compared to other variables, such as service quality, communication preferences, and parental attitudes on vaccination. Results Although all respondents indicated that vaccines have health benefits, and 4738 (98.7%) possessed vaccination cards for their children, attitudes and knowledge were not always favorable to immunization. Six groups of immunization barriers were identified: 1) factors related to caregivers (24.4%), 2) vaccinators (19.7%), 3) health centers (18.0%), 4) the health system (13.4%), 5) concerns about adverse events (13.1%), and 6) cultural and religious beliefs (11.4%); groups 1, 5 and 6 together represented almost half (48.9%) of users, indicating problems related to the demand for vaccines as the primary barriers to immunization. Differences in demographics, communication preferences, and reported service quality were found among participants in the six groups and among participants in the 10 regions. Additionally, differences between how participants reported receiving information on vaccination and how they believed such information should be communicated were observed. Conclusions Better understanding immunization barriers and the users of the EPI can help tailor communication strategies to increase demand for immunization services. Results of the study have been used by Colombia’s EPI to inform the design of new communication strategies. PMID:24981729



Tomographically-imaged subducted slabs and magmatic history of Caribbean and Pacific subduction beneath Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define the length and geometry of eastward and southeastward-subducting slabs beneath northwestern South America in Colombia using ~100,000 earthquake events recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from 1993 to 2012. Methods include: hypocenter relocation, compilation of focal mechanisms, and P and S wave tomographic calculations performed using LOTOS and Seisan. The margins of Colombia include four distinct subduction zones based on slab dip: 1) in northern Colombia, 12-16-km-thick oceanic crust subducts at a modern GPS rate of 20 mm/yr in a direction of 110 degrees at a shallow angle of 8 degrees; as a result of its low dip, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks are present 400 km from the frontal thrust; magmatic arc migration to the east records 800 km of subduction since 58 Ma ago (Paleocene) with shallow subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plateau starting ~24-33 Ma (Miocene); at depths of 90-150 km, the slab exhibits a negative velocity anomaly we associate with pervasive fracturing; 2) in the central Colombia-Panama area, we define an area of 30-km-thick crust of the Panama arc colliding/subducting at a modern 30/mm in a direction of 95 degrees; the length of this slab shows subduction/collision initiated after 20 Ma (Middle Miocene); we call this feature the Panama indenter since it has produced a V-shaped indentation of the Colombian margin and responsible for widespread crustal deformation and topographic uplift in Colombia; an incipient subduction area is forming near the Panama border with intermediate earthquakes at an eastward dip of 70 degrees to depths of ~150 km; this zone is not visible on tomographic images; 3) a 250-km-wide zone of Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate flanking the Panama indenter subducts at a rate of 25 mm/yr in a direction of 55 degrees and at a normal dip of 40 degrees; the length of this slab suggests subduction began at ~5 Ma; 4) the Caldas tear defines a major dip change to the south where a 35 degrees eastward-dipping slab is subducting in a direction of 120 degrees and has a well-developed Quaternary volcanic arc; subduction initiation of the southern slab has been recorded by Miocene magmatism that has migrated from west to east. Overall, Colombian slab segments are similar to other alternating flat/amagmatic and steep/magmatic slab segments found to the south in the Andes Ecuador, Peru, Chile and Argentina. Its major difference with these other parts of the central and southern Andes is the three-times wider zone of deformation attributed to the Panama indenter.

Bernal-Olaya, R.; Mann, P.; Vargas, C. A.; Koulakov, I.



Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogotá IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations are located on the three major plates that interact within the Wide Plate Margin Deformation Zone including existing permanent installations on IGS Galapagos and Malpelo Islands on the Nazca Plate, and San Andres Island on the Caribbean plate. The velocity vectors confirm the oblique subduction of the Nazca Plate and Carnegie aseismic ridge collision processes at the Colombia-Ecuador trench which are assumed to be the mechanism for the transpressional deformation and the "escape" of the North Andes Block (NAB). The northernmost vectors in Colombia are indicative of the ongoing collision of the Panama Arc with northwestern Colombia. Planned for the year 2013 is the installation of 10 additional GNSS continuously operating stations, and construction of 20 GPS campaign sites.

Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.



Frequency and tendency of malaria in Colombia, 1990 to 2011: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a serious health problem in Colombia. This paper intends to analyse the frequency and tendencies of the disease in Colombia over the last 22 years. The researchers used the Box-Jenkins (ARIMA) methodology for the analysis of time series. Methods This descriptive study was done retrospectively by using the morbidity records of the Ministry of Health and of the System for the Monitoring of Public Health (SIVIGILA). The information about the population was obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE). The incidence rate according to age and sex was calculated from 1990 to 2011. Also, the Annual Parasite Index (API) for Plasmodium falciparum and for Plasmodium vivax was calculated. The mortality rates per year, from 1990 to 2011, were determined. Finally, the Box-Jenkins (ARIMA) methodology was used for the analysis of time series, grouped weekly. Information for ARIMA modelling was used from the year 2001. Results The total number of reported cases from 1990 to 2011 was 2,964,818 cases with an annual average of 134,764. In the period from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2011 a significant decrease of annual cases was observed. In general, a predominance of P. vivax over P. falciparum was observed. With respect to the API, it must be noted that there were peaks in 1994 in the departments of Guainía and Guaviare, and in 1998 in Guaviare and Chocó. The department of Antioquia showed a tendency towards a decrease of the API through the years. In the time series model there were no statistically significant seasonal patterns for the total number of cases of malaria. However, for P. falciparum the number of cases was statistically significant. Lastly, between 1990 and 2009, there were 1,905 deaths caused by malaria in Colombia with a significant tendency towards a decrease in deaths over those years. Plasmodium falciparum was more lethal than P. vivax. Conclusions In Colombia, the transmission of malaria occurs in an endemic and epidemic context, which keeps an unstable endemic transmission pattern. Several factors specific to a country such as Colombia encourage the dissemination and permanence of the illness. PMID:24885393



Managing water scarcity in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia.An economic assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key words: global change, water scarcity, river basin In Colombia, serious water conflicts began to emerge with the economic development in the 70ies and 80ies and the term "water scarcity" became a common word in this tropical country. Despite a mean annual runoff of 1840 mm, which classifies Colombia as a water rich country, shortfalls in fresh water availability have become a frequent event in the last two decades. One reason for the manifestation of water scarcity is the long-held perception of invulnerable water abundance, which has delayed technical and political developments to use water more efficiently. The Magdalena watershed is the most important and complex area in Colombia, because of its huge anthropogenic present, economic development and increasing environmental problems. This river basin has a total area of 273,459 km2, equivalent to 24% of the territory of the country. It is home to 79% of the country's population (32.5 million of inhabitants) and approximately 85% of Gross Domestic Product of Colombia is generated in this area. Since the economic development of the 1970s and 1980s, large changes in land cover and related environmental conditions have occurred in the Magdalena basin. These changes include deforestation, agricultural land expansion, soil degradation, lower groundwater and increased water pollution. To assess the consequences of geophysical alteration and economic development, we perform an integrated analysis of water demand, water supply, land use changes and possible water management strategies. The main objective of this study is to determine how global and local changes affect the balance between water supply and demand in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia, the consequences of different water pricing schemes, and the social benefits of public or private investments into various water management infrastructures. To achieve this goal, a constrained welfare maximization model has been developed. The General Algebraic Modeling System based mathematical program uses information from spatially detailed Geographic Information System including topography, land cover and water systems. Spatially resolved economic data are included to depict price and income sensitive consumption decisions of major water users. Water management adaptation options include wet ponds and dams. The model maximizes economic net benefits subject to physical and technological constraints. The results of this study are relevant to water management stakeholders, and to governmental agencies for the development of better water policies.

Bolivar Lobato, Martha Isabel; Schneider, Uwe A.



Towards understanding the puzzling lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet (China): Insight from a comparison with Yellowstone (USA) and some active volcanic hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1-2 km) exhibit very acidic waters containing HCl and H2SO4. In contrast, the Tibetan hydrothermal systems, represented by Yangbajain, usually have fairly deep-seated magma chambers so that the released acid fluids are much more likely to be fully neutralized during transport to the surface. The absence of steam-heated acid waters in Tibet, however, may be primarily due to the lack of a confining layer (like young impermeable lavas at Yellowstone) to separate geothermal steam from underlying neutral chloride waters and the possible scenario that the deep geothermal fluids below Tibet carry less H2S than those below Yellowstone.

Guo, Qinghai; Kirk Nordstrom, D.; Blaine McCleskey, R.



Acerca del Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI

El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) coordina y fija las prioridades en las actividades que lleva a cabo el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer a nivel mundial. Su objetivo es avanzar la investigación mundial del cáncer y reducir las muertes causadas por esta enfermedad.


A shore-based preliminary survey of marine ribbon worms (Nemertea) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A checklist of benthic ribbon worm species from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is presented, including synonyms, distributions, a photographic record, and the main morphologic characters of each species for a rapid identification. This is the first research focused broadly on nemerteans in Colombia. 54 specimens of nemerteans were hand-collected from the rocky littoral of two different localities, and identified according to personal experience and specialist literature. 13 species were found; of which 11 represent new records for the country. These species belong to eight different traditionally used families: Tubulanidae, Valenciniidae, Lineidae, Amphiporidae, Cratenemertidae, Emplectonematidae, Drepanophoridae and Ototyphlonemertidae. The most common and abundant species was Dushia atra. The biodiversity of nemerteans in Colombia seems to overlap with the nemertean fauna from Florida and Brazil, explained by the convergence of the North Brazil Current, Guiana Current, Caribbean Currents and the Panama-Colombia Contracurrent in the sampled region. The results of this work suggest that the Caribbean coast of Colombia is a region with a high diversity of nemerteans, and provide important taxonomic data for environmental assessments and future biological research. PMID:25317057

Gonzalez-Cueto, Jaime; Quiroga, Sigmer; Norenburg, Jon



78 FR 62948 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014




Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Escuela politecnica superior  

E-print Network

POSICIONAMIENTO EN INTERIORES BASADO EN DISPOSITIVOS M´OVILES Ingenier´ia de Telecomunicaci´on Miguel Ruiz Cuesta Abril 2012 #12;#12;POSICIONAMIENTO EN INTERIORES BASADO EN DISPOSITIVOS M´OVILES AU T OR: Miguel Ruiz Clave Resumen La localizacion del usuario empleando dispositivos moviles es una demanda creciente en

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano

Hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.


DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Sand Fly Species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Sand flies include a group of insects that are of medical importance and that vary in geographic distribution, ecology, and pathogen transmission. Approximately 163 species of sand flies have been reported in Colombia. Surveillance of the presence of sand fly species and the actualization of species distribution are important for predicting risks for and monitoring the expansion of diseases which sand flies can transmit. Currently, the identification of phlebotomine sand flies is based on morphological characters. However, morphological identification requires considerable skills and taxonomic expertise. In addition, significant morphological similarity between some species, especially among females, may cause difficulties during the identification process. DNA-based approaches have become increasingly useful and promising tools for estimating sand fly diversity and for ensuring the rapid and accurate identification of species. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (COI) is currently being used to differentiate species in different animal taxa, including insects, and it is referred as a barcoding sequence. The present study explored the utility of the DNA barcode approach for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies in Colombia. We sequenced 700 bp of the COI gene from 36 species collected from different geographic localities. The COI barcode sequence divergence within a single species was <2% in most cases, whereas this divergence ranged from 9% to 26.6% among different species. These results indicated that the barcoding gene correctly discriminated among the previously morphologically identified species with an efficacy of nearly 100%. Analyses of the generated sequences indicated that the observed species groupings were consistent with the morphological identifications. In conclusion, the barcoding gene was useful for species discrimination in sand flies from Colombia. PMID:24454877

Contreras Gutiérrez, María Angélica; Vivero, Rafael J.; Vélez, Iván D.; Porter, Charles H.; Uribe, Sandra



Mycobacterium leprae in Colombia described by SNP7614 in gyrA, two minisatellites and geography.  


New cases of leprosy are still being detected in Colombia after the country declared achievement of the WHO defined 'elimination' status. To study the ecology of leprosy in endemic regions, a combination of geographic and molecular tools were applied for a group of 201 multibacillary patients including six multi-case families from eleven departments. The location (latitude and longitude) of patient residences were mapped. Slit skin smears and/or skin biopsies were collected and DNA was extracted. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis following a multiplex PCR-was developed for rapid and inexpensive strain typing of Mycobacterium leprae based on copy numbers of two VNTR minisatellite loci 27-5 and 12-5. A SNP (C/T) in gyrA (SNP7614) was mapped by introducing a novel PCR-RFLP into an ongoing drug resistance surveillance effort. Multiple genotypes were detected combining the three molecular markers. The two frequent genotypes in Colombia were SNP7614(C)/27-5(5)/12-5(4) [C54] predominantly distributed in the Atlantic departments and SNP7614 (T)/27-5(4)/12-5(5) [T45] associated with the Andean departments. A novel genotype SNP7614 (C)/27-5(6)/12-5(4) [C64] was detected in cities along the Magdalena river which separates the Andean from Atlantic departments; a subset was further characterized showing association with a rare allele of minisatellite 23-3 and the SNP type 1 of M. leprae. The genotypes within intra-family cases were conserved. Overall, this is the first large scale study that utilized simple and rapid assay formats for identification of major strain types and their distribution in Colombia. It provides the framework for further strain type discrimination and geographic information systems as tools for tracing transmission of leprosy. PMID:23291420

Cardona-Castro, Nora; Beltrán-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Romero-Montoya, Irma Marcela; Li, Wei; Brennan, Patrick J; Vissa, Varalakshmi



[Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].  


Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design conservation actions, to follow and evaluate the need for particular protected areas along their geographical gradients. PMID:22017133

Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio



Coupling between annual and ENSO timescales in the malaria-climate association in Colombia.  

PubMed Central

We present evidence that the El Niño phenomenon intensifies the annual cycle of malaria cases for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas of Colombia as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the normal annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. We used simultaneous analyses of both variables at both timescales, as well as correlation and power spectral analyses of detailed spatial (municipal) and temporal (monthly) records. During "normal years," endemic malaria in rural Colombia exhibits a clear-cut "normal" annual cycle, which is tightly associated with prevalent climatic conditions, mainly mean temperature, precipitation, dew point, and river discharges. During historical El Niño events (interannual time scale), the timing of malaria outbreaks does not change from the annual cycle, but the number of cases intensifies. Such anomalies are associated with a consistent pattern of hydrological and climatic anomalies: increase in mean temperature, decrease in precipitation, increase in dew point, and decrease in river discharges, all of which favor malaria transmission. Such coupling explains why the effect appears stronger and more persistent during the second half of El Niño's year (0), and during the first half of the year (+1). We illustrate this finding with data for diverse localities in Buenaventura (on the Pacific coast) and Caucasia (along the Cauca river floodplain), but conclusions have been found valid for multiple localities throughout endemic regions of Colombia. The identified coupling between annual and interannual timescales in the climate-malaria system shed new light toward understanding the exact linkages between environmental, entomological, and epidemiological factors conductive to malaria outbreaks, and also imposes the coupling of those timescales in public health intervention programs. PMID:11401760

Poveda, G; Rojas, W; Quiñones, M L; Vélez, I D; Mantilla, R I; Ruiz, D; Zuluaga, J S; Rua, G L



Receiver Function Study of the Crustal Structure Beneath the Northern Andes (colombia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated crustal thickness beneath the Northern Andes with the teleseismic receiver function technique. We used teleseismic data recorded by an array of 18 broadband stations deployed by the Colombian Seismological Network, and operated by the Colombian Geological Survey. We used the primary P-to-S conversion and crustal reverberations to estimate crustal thickness and average Vp/Vs ratio; using Wadati diagrams, we also calculated the mean crustal Vp/Vs ratio around stations to further constrain the crustal thickness estimation. In northern Colombia, near the Caribbean coast, the estimated crustal thickness ranges from 25 to 30 km; in the Middle Magdalena Valley, crustal thickness is around 40 km; beneath the northern Central Cordillera, the Moho depth is nearly 40 km; at the Ecuador-Colombia border, beneath the western flank of the Andes, the estimated thickness is about 46 km. Receiver functions at a station at the craton in South East Colombia, near the foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, clearly indicate the presence of the Moho discontinuity at a depth near 36 km. The greatest values of crustal thickness occur beneath a plateau (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) on the Eastern Cordillera, near the location of Bogota, with values around 58 km. Receiver functions in the volcanic areas of the south-western Colombian Andes do not show a systematic signal from the Moho, indicating abrupt changes in Moho geometry. Signals at stations on the Eastern Cordillera near Bogota reveal a highly complex crustal structure, with a combination of sedimentary layers up to 9 km thick, dipping interfaces, low velocity layers, anisotropy and/or lateral heterogeneity that still remain to be evaluated. This complexity obeys to the location of these stations at a region of a highly deformed fold and thrust belt.

Poveda, E.; Monsalve, G.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.



Mycobacterium leprae in Colombia described by SNP7614 in gyrA, two minisatellites and geography  

PubMed Central

New cases of leprosy are still being detected in Colombia after the country declared achievement of the WHO defined ‘elimination’ status. To study the ecology of leprosy in endemic regions, a combination of geographic and molecular tools were applied for a group of 201 multibacillary patients including six multi-case families from eleven departments. The location (latitude and longitude) of patient residences were mapped. Slit skin smears and/or skin biopsies were collected and DNA was extracted. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis following a multiplex PCR-was developed for rapid and inexpensive strain typing of M. leprae based on copy numbers of two VNTR minisatellite loci 27-5 and 12-5. A SNP (C/T) in gyrA (SNP7614) was mapped by introducing a novel PCR-RFLP into an ongoing drug resistance surveillance effort. Multiple genotypes were detected combining the three molecular markers. The two frequent genotypes in Colombia were SNP7614(C)/27-5(5)/12-5(4) [C54] predominantly distributed in the Atlantic departments and SNP7614 (T)/27-5(4)/12-5(5) [T45] associated with the Andean departments. A novel genotype SNP7614 (C)/27-5(6)/12-5(4) [C64] was detected in cities along the Magdalena river which separates the Andean from Atlantic departments; a subset was further characterized showing association with a rare allele of minisatellite 23-3 and the SNP type 1 of M. leprae. The genotypes within intra-family cases were conserved. Overall, this is the first large scale study that utilized simple and rapid assay formats for identification of major strain types and their distribution in Colombia. It provides the framework for further strain type discrimination and geographic information systems as tools for tracing transmission of leprosy. PMID:23291420

Cardona-Castro, Nora; Beltrán-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Romero-Montoya, Irma Marcela; Li, Wei; Brennan, Patrick J; Vissa, Varalakshmi



Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti in 10 localities in Colombia.  


Insecticide resistance is one of the major threats to the effectiveness of vector control programs. In order to establish a baseline susceptibility profile of Aedes aegypti in the southwest of Colombia, 10 localities in four Departments (States) were evaluated. Standardized WHO bioassay, CDC bottle bioassay and microplate biochemical assays of non-specific ?-esterase (NSE), mixed function oxidases (MFO) and acetylcholinesterase were used. Cross resistance was evaluated with field collected mosquitoes that underwent selection pressure in the laboratory from DDT, propoxur and lambdacyhalothrin during three alternate generations. Mosquitoes with mortality rates below 80% in bioassays were considered resistant. Insecticide resistance varied geographically. Insecticide resistance was observed in 100% of localities in which mosquitoes were exposed to DDT, bendiocarb and temephos using both assays. WHO bioassays showed susceptibility to pyrethroids in all the localities evaluated, however CDC bottle bioassays showed decreases in susceptibility especially with lambdacyhalothrin. All localities showed susceptibility to the organophosphate malathion. Mosquitoes from eight regions with evidence of resistance to any of the insecticide evaluated were also evaluated biochemically. Mosquitoes from five of these regions had increased levels of NSE and two regions had increased levels of MFO. Increase levels of NSE explain partially the low susceptibility to temephos found in all the localities. However, the biochemical mechanisms evaluated do not explain all the resistance observed. Cross resistance was observed between the DDT-selected strain and lambdacyhalothrin, and between the lambdacyhalothrin-selected strain and propoxur and vice versa. The selected strains do not show changes in the biochemical assays evaluated, therefore the observed cross-resistance suggests different biochemical mechanisms. This study shows that Ae. aegypti from Colombia can develop resistance to most of the insecticide classes in the market. Periodic surveillance of insecticide resistance is necessary in order to maintain effective interventions. This study helped to establish the National Network for the surveillance of the insecticide resistance in Colombia. PMID:21300017

Ocampo, Clara B; Salazar-Terreros, Myriam J; Mina, Neila J; McAllister, Janet; Brogdon, William



Typhoid Fever in nineteenth-century Colombia: between medical geography and bacteriology.  


This paper analyses how the Colombian medical elites made sense of typhoid fever before and during the inception of bacteriological ideas and practices in the second half of the nineteenth century. Assuming that the identity of typhoid fever has to be understood within the broader concerns of the medical community in question, I show how doctors first identified Bogotá's epidemics as typhoid fever during the 1850s, and how they also attached specificity to the fever amongst other continuous fevers, such as its European and North American counterparts. I also found that, in contrast with the discussions amongst their colleagues from other countries, debates about typhoid fever in 1860-70 among doctors in Colombia were framed within the medico-geographical scheme and strongly shaped by the fear of typhoid fever appearing alongside 'paludic' fevers in the highlands. By arguing in medico-geographical and clinical terms that typhoid fever had specificity in Colombia, and by denying the medico-geographical law of antagonism between typhoid and paludic fevers proposed by the Frenchman Charles Boudin, Colombian doctors managed to question European knowledge and claimed that typhoid fever had distinct features in Colombia. The focus on paludic and typhoid fevers in the highlands might explain why the bacteriological aetiology of typhoid fever was ignored and even contested during the 1880s. Anti-Pasteurian arguments were raised against its germ identity and some physicians even supported the idea of spontaneous origin of the disease. By the 1890s, Pasteurian knowledge had come to shape clinical and hygienic practices. PMID:24331213

García, Mónica



19 CFR 10.3027 - Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. 10.3027 Section...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate, CBP...



19 CFR 10.3027 - Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. 10.3027 Section...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate, CBP...



Impact of the 2010e2011 La Nia phenomenon in Colombia, South America: The human toll of an extreme weather event  

E-print Network

). The increase in global average temperatures is expected to cause increases in extreme weather events, which weather event N. Hoyos a,b,*, J. Escobar a,c , J.C. Restrepo d , A.M. Arango e , J.C. Ortiz d a Center, Colombia e iMMAP, Bogota, Colombia Keywords: ENSO Extreme weather events Spatial autocorrelation Spatial

Bermingham, Eldredge


Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor.  


Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia's Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services - with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana; Vera-Hernández, Marcos



[Description and key to the main species of Calliphoridae (Diptera) larvae of forensic importance from Colombia].  


Larvae of 13 blowfly species from Colombia are described and an illustrated key for all them is presented. All larval instars of Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani), Lucilia eximia (Weidemann) are described, but the second and third instars of Compsomyiops verena (Walter), and only the third instar of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), Lucilia peruviana Robineau-Desvoidy, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou). PMID:19618061

Florez, Eliana; Wolff, Marta



Provider Barriers and Facilitators to Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Bogotá, Colombia  

PubMed Central

We conducted interviews with 27 health care personnel in Bogotá, Colombia, to examine provider barriers and facilitators to screening for intimate partner violence (IPV). We used systematic qualitative analysis to identify the range and consistency of beliefs. We found that respondents did not routinely screen for IPV. Providers listed numerous barriers to screening. Ways to improve screening included increased clinician training, installing systematic IPV screening, providing patient education, and implementing health care setting interventions. Improving the care for IPV survivors will involve translating health care personnel preferred solutions into more systematic IPV screening interventions. PMID:22325025




Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

Not Available



Is anticoagulation required in plasmapheresis? A University Hospital Experience in Bogota, Colombia.  


Anticoagulation has been considered essential during plasmapheresis. International publications and guidelines state that anticoagulation should be administered during therapy to avoid circuit clotting and impaired effectiveness. However, anticoagulation has also been associated with bleeding, fluid and electrolyte imbalances and hematological alterations. No published studies have looked at the risk to benefit ratio of the common practice of circuit anticoagulation. We describe the experience with 367 plasmapheresis sessions, in the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, a tertiary care center in Bogota, Colombia, where no anticoagulation is used in any case. Patient characteristics and therapy complications are described. Coagulation of circuit was never reported. PMID:23619326

Córdoba, Juan Pablo; Larrarte, Carolina; Ruiz, Alvaro



The response of precipitation and surface hydrology to tropical macro-climate forcing in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tropical South America, weather and climate are affected by the meridional oscillation of the inter-tropical convergence zone, the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the Amazon basin, and the Andes Mountains. The dominant mode of the inter-annual climate variability in the tropical Pacific is the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Colombia is among the South American countries that experiences large climate anomalies because of ENSO. However, the hydrologic response in Colombia to a particular ENSO event is highly complex and non-linear.To describe this complex, non-linear hydro-climatic response to large-scale atmospheric forcing in Colombia, a one-way coupled atmospheric-land surface hydrologic modelling approach is implemented whose main components are Colorado State University's Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) and the Swedish Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning-Hydrologic Modelling System (HBV-HMS). RAMS is implemented in a two-nested grid domain for seasonal simulations and a four-nested grid domain for daily simulations. Seasonal simulations emphasize the annual cycle at regional scales, while daily simulations focus on describing the diurnal cycle for specific watersheds. The HBV-HMS is implemented for a specific watershed and used to examine its response at daily time scales.Results of the seasonal simulations reproduce quite well the observed spatial and temporal patterns of the hydro-climatic variables: simulated temperature, pressure, wind velocity, and precipitation distributions show good agreement with observations. Results also show that the 1992 warm phase of ENSO led to a generalized decrease of precipitation along the Andes ranges and that the low lands of Colombia received more precipitation than during the 1989 cold ENSO phase. Similarly, daily-simulated fields show good agreement with observed values. However, the simulated diurnal cycle of precipitation exhibits a temporal phase lag of several hours and simulated precipitation tends to underestimate both the total amount of precipitation and the duration of precipitation events. Despite these discrepancies, the results of the modelling effort clearly demonstrate the ability of this approach to capture the non-linear and complex interactions of large-scale atmospheric forcing and local characteristics as indicated by the satisfactory simulation of stream flow responses for a set of small watersheds. Copyright

Marin, Saul; Ramírez, Jorge A.



Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative/positive. The Foliar Emission Rate of banana plants also reflected negative/positive anomalies which are consistent with the increase/decrease observed in the Severity Index of BSD.

Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.



Shoot Down in Peru: The Secret US Debate Over Intelligence Sharing in Peru and Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once again, the inestimable National Security Archive (NSA) has created a timely and useful electronic briefing book with declassified documents that shed light on recent events. In this case, the event is the accidental shoot down of a civilian aircraft carrying missionaries in Peru on April 20. The site offers the full text of thirteen declassified documents from 1994 which shed light on internal debate within the Clinton administration over the decision to share aerial tracking intelligence with Peru and Colombia. The documents are preceded by an excellent concise introduction, and for each, a one-paragraph summary is provided.



V Festival Nacional del Nuevo Teatro: Las fuentes inagotables del arte  

E-print Network

Medellín: con mayor o menor intensidad los tres polos de desarrollo teatral más importantes de Colombia. Por supuesto, conjuntos teatrales de amplia trayectoria en el oficio han impulsado recientemente esta modalidad que sólo ahora en este festival se... siendo) un teatro comprometido con las luchas de las masas desprotegidas de Colombia y, para el efecto, se esmeraba por enfocar esta palpitante realidad mediante una escenografía sobria que enmarcaba imágenes sin mucho atractivo visual. Quizás bajo el...

Má rceles Daconte, Eduardo



Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer Show Same Phylogeographic Origin in the Andean Region in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background A recent report has shown that the phylogenetic origin of Helicobacter pylori based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was significantly associated with the severity of gastritis in Colombia. However, the potential relationship between phylogenetic origin and clinical outcomes was not examined in that study. If the phylogenetic origin rather than virulence factors were truly associated with clinical outcomes, identifying a population at high risk for gastric cancer in Colombia would be relatively straightforward. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic origins of strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients living in Bogota, Colombia. Methods We included 35 gastric cancer patients and 31 duodenal ulcer patients, which are considered the variant outcomes. The genotypes of cagA and vacA were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The genealogy of these Colombian strains was analyzed by MLST. Bacterial population structure was analyzed using STRUCTURE software. Results H. pylori strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients were scattered in the phylogenetic tree; thus, we did not detect any difference in phylogenetic distribution between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer strains in the hpEurope group in Colombia. Sixty-six strains, with one exception, were classified as hpEurope irrespective of the cagA and vacA genotypes, and type of disease. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that Colombian hpEurope strains have a phylogenetic connection to Spanish strains. Conclusions Our study showed that a phylogeographic origin determined by MLST was insufficient for distinguishing between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer risk among hpEurope strains in the Andean region in Colombia. Our analysis also suggests that hpEurope strains in Colombia were primarily introduced by Spanish immigrants. PMID:25121764

Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuo, Yuichi; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Tran, Trang Thu Huyen; Binh, Tran Thanh; Yamaoka, Yoshio



Organizational learning and environmental impact assessment at Colombia's Cauca Valley Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1976–1993 period, the design and implementation of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) program of the Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Cauca Valley Corporation, hereafter CVC or “the Corporation”) were affected by “learning by imitating” and “learning by doing.” Learning by imitating took place when CVC copied the use of the Leopold Matrix, an EIA procedure popular

Ernesto Sánchez-Triana; Leonard Ortolano



A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

Woodman, N.



New Genotype of Dengue Type 3 Virus Circulating in Brazil and Colombia Showed a Close Relationship to Old Asian Viruses  

PubMed Central

Dengue type 3 genotype V viruses have been recently detected in Brazil and Colombia. In this study, we described another Brazilian isolate belonging to this genotype. Phylogenetic analysis including dengue type 3 viruses isolated worldwide showed that Brazilian and Colombian viruses were closely related to viruses isolated in Asia more than two decades ago. The characteristic evolutionary pattern of dengue type 3 virus cannot explain the close similarity of new circulating viruses with old viruses. Further studies are needed to confirm the origin of the new dengue type III genotype circulating in Brazil and Colombia. PMID:19823677

Aquino, Victor Hugo; Amarilla, Alberto Anastacio; Alfonso, Helda Liz; Batista, Weber Cheli; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes



Differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli of Colombia using minicircle hybridization tests.  


Although Trypanosoma rangeli is harmless for humans, it is a serious problem since it may be confused with diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Both parasites overlap geographically, share antigenic protein, and are able to infect the same Triatominae vector and vertebrate host, including human. Our objective was to differentiate T. cruzi and T. rangeli isolates from Colombia based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the minicircles followed by appropriate hybridization tests with selected DNA probes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. We worked with highly characterized T. cruzi and T. rangeli isolates from different biologic origins and geographic areas of Colombia, and they were analyzed by RFLP and PCR amplification of variable region of minicircles and Southern blot analysis. Our results and experimental conditions demonstrate the usefulness of PCR amplification of the minicircles followed by Southern blot analysis to differentiate T. cruzi from T. rangeli, which can be highly important to improve diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:20850248

Botero, Adriana; Ortiz, Sylvia; Muñoz, Sergio; Triana, Omar; Solari, Aldo



Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.



Health care privatization in latin america: comparing divergent privatization approaches in chile, Colombia, and Mexico.  


The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization. PMID:24842976

Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Méndez, Claudio A



House-level risk factors for Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Colombia.  


In Colombia, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, are Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. T. dimidiata is present in the east region of Colombia as domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic populations, resulting in difficulties for its control. A cost-effective way to prioritize houses for treatment is to stratify houses based on risk factors. In this study, risk factors were evaluated for potential associations with domicile infestation of T. dimidiata. There was an increased likelihood of domestic infestation associated with the presence of mixed roofs (odds ratio [OR] = 36.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 12.21-106.97), cats (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 1.36-11.38), rock piles (OR = 5.28, 95% CI = 1.64-16.98), and bushes with height above 10 m (OR = 11.21, 95% CI = 2.08-60.45). These factors could be used to target surveillance and control of T. dimidiata to houses with an increased risk of being infested. PMID:25349372

Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Cardona, Ángela Segura; Quirós-Gómez, Oscar; Angulo, Víctor; Alexander, Neal



Community socioeconomic context and its influence on intermediary determinants of child health: evidence from Colombia.  


Intermediary determinants are the most immediate mechanisms through which socioeconomic position shapes health inequities. This study examines the effect of community socioeconomic context on different indicators representing intermediary determinants of child health. In the context of Colombia, a developing country with a clear economic expansion, but one of the most unequal countries in the world, two categories of intermediary determinants, namely behavioural and psychosocial factors and the health system, are analysed. Using data from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), the results suggest that whilst the community context can exert a greater influence on factors linked directly to health, in the case of psychosocial factors and parent's behaviours, the family context can be more important. In addition, the results from multilevel analysis indicate that a significant percentage of the variability in the overall index of intermediary determinants of child health is explained by the community context, even after controlling for individual, family and community characteristics. These findings underline the importance of distinguishing between community and family intervention programmes in order to reduce place-based health inequities in Colombia. PMID:24555557

Osorio, Ana María; Bolancé, Catalina; Madise, Nyovani



Geothermic Potential Assessment of hydrothermal vents of Township Barranca De Upia - Meta - Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal vents have been traditionally exploited in Colombia as a source of tourism revenue such as pools and saunas. Leaving aside its high potential for geothermal power generation in applications like heating, drying, cooling, extensive use in crops, livestock, electricity generation and more. Currently the use given to this natural resource in the town of Barranca de Upia in Meta department, central Colombia, is like Wellness Centre. However, the geothermal gradient for the area where hydrothermal vents occur, indicates that the water emerges at temperatures above 70 ° C (Alfaro et al., 2003), which opens a window of opportunity to assess their geothermal potential, in order to know the actual energy potential of the region as an option of augmenting their development. this research is the analysis of information gathered from databases in gravimetry and magnetometry of the study area and the temperatures measured in wells derived from the oil industry. Based on that information, a numerical analysis of the data will be performed in order to establish a model to parameterize the energy potential of the study area and identify possible uses of the energy contained by the hydrothermal vents.

Chica, J.; Chicangana, G.; Eco Energy Research Group



Bird conservation would complement landslide prevention in the Central Andes of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Conservation and restoration priorities often focus on separate ecosystem problems. Inspired by the November 11th (2011) landslide event near Manizales, and the current poor results of Colombia’s Article 111 of Law 99 of 1993 as a conservation measure in this country, we set out to prioritize conservation and restoration areas where landslide prevention would complement bird conservation in the Central Andes. This area is one of the most biodiverse places on Earth, but also one of the most threatened. Using the case of the Rio Blanco Reserve, near Manizales, we identified areas for conservation where endemic and small-range bird diversity was high, and where landslide risk was also high. We further prioritized restoration areas by overlapping these conservation priorities with a forest cover map. Restoring forests in bare areas of high landslide risk and important bird diversity yields benefits for both biodiversity and people. We developed a simple landslide susceptibility model using slope, forest cover, aspect, and stream proximity. Using publicly available bird range maps, refined by elevation, we mapped concentrations of endemic and small-range bird species. We identified 1.54 km2 of potential restoration areas in the Rio Blanco Reserve, and 886 km2 in the Central Andes region. By prioritizing these areas, we facilitate the application of Article 111 which requires local and regional governments to invest in land purchases for the conservation of watersheds. PMID:25737819

Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia



Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Different Flea Species from Caldas, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. Historically, the northern region of the province of Caldas in Colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both R. felis and R. typhi. In the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify gltA, ompB, and 17kD genes. Positive samples were sequenced to identify the species of Rickettsia. Of 1,341 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (76.7%). Positive PCR results in the three genes were evidenced in C. felis (minimum infection rates; 5.3%), C. canis (9.2%), and Pulex irritans (10.0%). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analyses of sequences showed high identity values (> 98%) with R. felis, and all were highly related by phylogenetic analyses. This work shows the first detection of R. felis in fleas collected from animals in Colombia. PMID:23878183

Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Pérez, Jorge E.; Mercado, Marcela; de la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Correa, Maria I.; Duque, Laura; Ariza, Juan S.; Henao, Cesar; Valbuena, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Marylin



Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.  


Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R



Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from stools samples and food products in Colombia  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among all clinical and food product samples tested. Four different pathotypes were identified from clinical samples, including enteroaggregative E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, shiga-toxin producing E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Food product samples were positive for enteroaggregative and shiga-toxin producing E. coli, suggesting that meat and vegetables may be involved in transmission of these E. coli pathotypes in the community. Most E. coli strains identified belong to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal rather than extraintestinal E. coli clones. Our data is the first molecular E. coli report that confirms the presence of E. coli pathotypes circulating in Colombia among children with diarrhea and food products for human consumption. Implementation of multiplex PCR technology in Latin America and other countries with limited resources may provide an important epidemiological tool for the surveillance of E. coli pathotypes from clinical isolates as well as from water and food product samples. PMID:20153069

Rúgeles, Laura Cristina; Bai, Jing; Martínez, Aída Juliana; Vanegas, María Consuelo; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar Gilberto



Malaria-related anemia in patients from unstable transmission areas in Colombia.  


Information about the prevalence of malarial anemia in areas of low-malaria transmission intensity, like Latin America, is scarce. To characterize the malaria-related anemia, we evaluated 929 malaria patients from three sites in Colombia during 2011-2013. Plasmodium vivax was found to be the most prevalent species in Tierralta (92%), whereas P. falciparum was predominant in Tumaco (84%) and Quibdó (70%). Although severe anemia (hemoglobin < 7 g/dL) was almost absent (0.3%), variable degrees of non-severe anemia were observed in 36.9% of patients. In Tierralta, hemoglobin levels were negatively associated with days of illness. Moreover, in Tierralta and Quibdó, the number of previous malaria episodes and hemoglobin levels were positively associated. Both Plasmodium species seem to have similar potential to induce malarial anemia with distinct cofactors at each endemic setting. The target age in these low-transmission settings seems shifting toward adolescents and young adults. In addition, previous malaria experience seems to induce protection against anemia development. Altogether, these data suggest that early diagnosis and prompt treatment are likely preventing more frequent and serious malaria-related anemia in Colombia. PMID:25510719

Lopez-Perez, Mary; Álvarez, Álvaro; Gutierrez, Juan B; Moreno, Alberto; Herrera, Sócrates; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam



Incomplete surveillance of a dengue-2 epidemic in Ibagué, Colombia, 1995-1997.  


From April 1995 through November 1997 a dengue epidemic occurred in Ibagué (400,000 population), Colombia, where 3,419 cases were reported and DEN 2 virus was isolated from seven patients. A sero-survey conducted in 1996 found evidence of previous dengue infection in 9.6% of the population, indicating that many infections had not been reported. The dengue infections occurred in all age groups, but children under five years of age were most frequently infected. Forty-five percent of this Ibagué population were born after the re-appearance of dengue in Colombia in 1972, but have never been infected with dengue virus. Most of the cases reported as dengue hemorrhagic fever did not fulfill the current case definition. Aedes aegypti larvae were found in 19% of dwellings surveyed, most often in uncovered low tanks used for water storage. Many residents were not acquainted with the domestic nature of the mosquito vector. Health workers attributed the failure of the dengue control programs to lack of leadership and other administrative problems. PMID:15495597

Camacho, Tania; de la Hoz, Fernando; Cárdenas, Victor; Sánchez, Carmen; de Calderón, Laura; Pérez, Ligia; Bermúdez, Antonio



Genetic diversity and relationships among Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus field isolates from Colombia and Venezuela.  


During field studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses associated with epizootic emergence, a large number of virus isolates were made in sylvatic foci of Venezuela and Colombia. To rapidly characterize these isolates, antigenic subtypes were determined by means of immunofluorescence and by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis by use of an 856-bp fragment from the P62 gene, which we used to distinguish genetic variants. Representative isolates were sequenced to assess the sensitivity of SSCP to detect genetic differences. The SSCP analysis distinguished isolates differing by as little as 1 nucleotide; overall, differences of > or = 1 nucleotide were recognized 89% of the time, and the sensitivity to distinguish strains that differed by only 1 or 4 nucleotides was 17 and 57%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of representative sequences showed that all recent isolates from the Catatumbo region of western Venezuela and the middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia were closely related to epizootic subtype IAB and IC strains; strains from Yaracuy and Miranda States were more distantly related. Cocirculation of the same virus genotype in both Colombian and Venezuelan foci indicated that these viruses are readily transported between enzootic regions separated by > 300 km. The SSCP analysis appears to be a simple, fast, and relatively efficient method of screening VEE virus isolates to identify meaningful genetic variants. PMID:11791968

Moncayo, A C; Medina, G M; Kalvatchev, Z; Brault, A C; Barrera, R; Boshell, J; Ferro, C; Freier, J E; Navarro, J C; Salas, R; De Siger, J; Vasquez, C; Walder, R; Weaver, S C



[Subtypes of dengue virus serotypes 2, 3 and 4 isolated in Santander District, Colombia].  


Virus serotypes 2, 3 and 4 that had circulated in Santander District, Colombia in the period 1998-2004 were analyzed. Identifying the subtype of a dengue virus serotype is a useful tool for surveillance of severe risk factors because the strain potential to cause hemorrhagic dengue makes the difference among them. Simultaneous sequence amplification technique known as restriction site specific-polymerase chain reaction (RSS-PCR) was used to determine the subtype by comparing the electrophoretic pattern of the local isolate to the reference virus. Virus serotype 2 corresponded to subtype A similar to the one isolated in Thailand (1996) and to the other isolated in Porto Rico (1986); virus serotypes 3 were of subtype C like the virus found in Sri Lanka (1990), Honduras (1995) and Porto Rico (2000); virus serotypes 4 were a variant of subtype B similar to a virus from Porto Rico (1987) and to another virus from Tahiti (1985). The study confirmed the presence in Colombia of dengue virus subtypes circulating now in the Americas. PMID:23427455

Cortés, Fabián M; Gómez, Sergio Y; Ocazionez, Raquel E



Real-time health monitoring of civil infrastructure systems in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colombia's topography, climatic conditions, intense seismic activity and acute social problems place high demands on the nations deteriorating civil infrastructure. Resources that are available for maintenance of the road and railway networks are often misdirected and actual inspection methods are limited to a visual examination. New techniques for inspection and evaluation of safety and serviceability of civil infrastructure, especially bridges, must be developed. Two cases of civil structures with health monitoring systems in Colombia are presented in this paper. Construction of the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct was completed in 1997 with a total cost of 58 million dollars, including 1.5 million dollars in health monitoring instrumentation provided and installed by foreign companies. This health monitoring system is not yet fully operational due to the lack of training of national personnel in system operation and extremely limited technical documentation. In contrast to the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct monitoring system, the authors have proposed a relatively low cost health monitoring system via telemetry. This system has been implemented for real-time monitoring of accelerations of El Hormiguero Bridge spanning the Cauca River using the Colombian Southwest Earthquake Observatory telemetry systems. This two span metallic bridge, located along a critical road between the cities of Puerto Tejada and Cali in the Cauca Valley, was constructed approximately 50 years ago. Experiences with this system demonstrate how effective low cost systems can be used to remotely monitor the structural integrity of deteriorating structures that are continuously subject to high loading conditions.

Thomson, Peter; Marulanda Casas, Johannio; Marulanda Arbelaez, Johannio; Caicedo, Juan



modelado y analisis del transporte del herbicida glifosato  

E-print Network

(2) Departamento de Ingeniería del Terreno, Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña (España). (3) Department of ... tools for the study of water and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone. ..... Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. Esevier ...




Microsoft Academic Search

We describe trajectories of selected ecological indicators used as performance measures to evaluate the success of a mangrove rehabilitation project in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) Delta-Lagoon complex, Colombia, as result of freshwater diversions initiated in 1995. There is a significant reduction in soil and water column salinity in all sampling stations following the hydraulic reconnection of the

Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Robert R. Twilley; Ernesto Mancera; Ariel Alcantara-Eguren; Edward Castañeda-Moya; Oscar Casas Monroy; Paola Reyes; Jorge Restrepo



Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer

Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prestó juramento hoy como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).  "Es muy estimulante que estés de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos Kathleen Sebelius en la ceremonia de toma de juramento. “Hoy se abre un nuevo capítulo para el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer”.


Antioxidantes y prevención del cáncer

Hoja informativa acerca de los antioxidantes, sustancias que pueden proteger las células del daño causado por moléculas inestables conocidas como radicales libres. El daño de los radicales libres puede resultar en cáncer.


NOTICIAS DEL 24/Julio/08  

E-print Network

de la materia oculta del Universo "Estamos mirando a los cielos, y usando los instrumentos más instrumentos más grandes para ayudarnos a predecir qué sucederá con las cosas más pequeñas", dijo David Toback

Toback, David


Case Study: del Amo Bioventing  

EPA Science Inventory

The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study....


The Measurement of the Development of Systems and General Thinking in Agricultural Areas of Colombia: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research started with two hypotheses: the development of an organic vegetable garden by children between 7 and 10 years old, living in agricultural areas in Colombia, develops their systems thinking, and there is a direct relationship between the development of system thinking and the level of general thinking of these children. The research has been based on the

Sjors Witjes; Pablo Muñoz Specht; Carolina Montoya Rodríguez


Petroleum resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of,

W. D. Dietzman; N. R. Rafidi



78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard...public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated...Colombia. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for...



Identification of risk factors and causes of persistence of Salmonella Gallinarum in laying hens farms from Colombia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) was recently identified in brown egg layers in Colombia. During 2013, twenty isolates were analyzed using Intergenic Sequence Ribotyping. Eighteen (90%) were SG and two (10%) were Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). SG was isolated mainly from organs of sick birds...


North-South Partnerships: A Case Study of Curriculum Development for Sustainable Agriculture in Norte de Santander, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1997, the Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander (UFPS), Cúcuta, Colombia, the Universidad de la República (UDELAR), Uruguay, and the Nova Scotia Agricultural College (NSAC), Nova Scotia, Canada, have been working to develop a new curriculum at UFPS with a focus on sustainable agriculture. The department of Norte de Santander is primarily agricultural with the majority of its rural population

Marta Chiappe; Norman Goodyear




Microsoft Academic Search

Density and natural history of Wattled Guan (Aburria aburri) in the Central Andes of Colombia. - Patterns of spatial distribution and population density of species depend on their intrinsic properties, interactions with other species, and availability and distribution of resources. Patterns of space use and population densities of Cracids, particularly montane species, are poorly documented. The Wattled Guan (Aburria aburri)

Margarita M. Ríos; Gustavo A. Londoño; Marcia C. Muñoz



An Educational Revolution to Support Change in the Classroom: Colombia and the Educational Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries strive to strengthen their educational institutions to meet the challenges of the economic and social demands of globalization, tension often arises between providing more access to traditional public education and reforming the quality of the education provided. With its Revolucion Educativa, Colombia offers an interesting…

Light, Daniel; Manso, Micaela; Noguera, Teresa



A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....


Prevalence of Suicide Risk Factors and Suicide-Related Outcomes in the National Mental Health Study, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A community survey in 4,426 adults was undertaken as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative reporting the prevalence and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes in Colombia. Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes were assessed. Retrospective reports of…

Posada-Villa, Jose; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Cendales, Juan Gabriel; Fajardo, Roosevelt



Presence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in commercial laying hens diagnosed with Fowl Typhoid Disease in Colombia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: A severe outbreak of salmonellosis in commercial brown table egg layers first occurred in Colombia in 2006. From 2008 to 2012, 35 samples collected from commercial layers farms in the states of Cundinamarca, Santander, Bolivar and San Andres, were positive to Salmonella enterica. Salmonella (S) wa...


A new species and species distribution records of Neoleucinodes (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Spilomelinae) from Colombia feeding on Solanum spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neoleucinodes silvaniae, n. sp., from Colombia, is described. The larvae feed on the fruit of a wild Solanum pseudolulo Heisser. The adults and larvae of the new species are figured and compared with Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée), a major pest of tomatoes throughout South America. Neoleucinod...



Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento se presenta un Índice de Precios de Vivienda Usada (IPVU) para Colombia (1988 y 2004), calculado a partir de una adaptación de la metodología de ventas repetidas ponderadas propuesta por Case y Shiller (1989). En su construcción se usaron 26.189 avalúos de las mismas viviendas en distintos periodos de tiempo, según la información suministrada por las principales

Julio Escobar; Carlos Huertas; Dora Alicia Mora; José Vicente Romero


World coffee markets and national coffee parastatals since 1989: A comparative study of Colombia and Cote d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Coffee Agreements (ICA) involved the majority of nations producing and consuming coffee and provided relative economic stability to the coffee sectors of the exporting Third World countries. This study focuses on the serious impact of the 1989 collapse of the ICA on the domestic coffee sectors of Colombia and Côte d'Ivoire. In particular, the dissertation examines the role

Laura Elizabeth Boudon



Economic Analysis about the Solid Waste Quantities and Optimal Hauling Distance to Install Transfer Stations in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to develop an economic analysis estimating the solid waste quantities and optimal hauling distance to install transfer stations in Colombia, according to landfill location. This goal is met by using a difference in differences approach (impact evaluation technique), means panel data (random effects), comparative static analysis and mathematical optimization. These methods allowed comparing

Jorge Andrés Perdomo Calvo; Juan Andrés Ramirez Orozco



7 Small Carnivore Conservation, Vol. 44: 713, June 2011 Research priorities for the small carnivores of Colombia  

E-print Network

7 Small Carnivore Conservation, Vol. 44: 7­13, June 2011 Research priorities for the small carnivores of Colombia José F. GONZÁLEZ-MAYA1,2 , Amancay A. CEPEDA1,3 , Jerrold L. BELANT4 , Diego A. ZÁRRATE- CHARRY1 , Sergio A. BALAGUERA-REINA1 and AbelardoRODRÍGUEZ-BOLA�OS5 Abstract Small carnivores

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad


The Role of Lexical Frequency in the Weakening of Syllable-Final /s/ in the Spanish of Barranquilla, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a quantitative analysis of /s/ in words of different lexical frequencies in a cohesive speech community. Speakers from Barranquilla, Colombia between 20-26 years of age read approximately 100 sentences, containing words with s + consonant sequences. These productions were submitted to auditory acoustical analysis; visual…

File-Muriel, Richard J.



Repellent activity of essential oils from seven aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils isolated from seven aromatic plants grown in Colombia were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and evaluated for repellent activity against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using the area preference method. Most oil components were oxygenated monoterpenoids or phenolic compounds. Six oils were repellent, with Lippia origanoides the most active. Eucalyptus citriodora and Tagetes lucida were also repellant at

Luz S. Nerio; Jesus Olivero-Verbel; Elena E. Stashenko



Alberto del Pozo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cuban Heritage Collection of the University of Miami Libraries was a recipient of 17 original illustrations by Alberto del Pozo in 1998 from the Campilli family. "The Oricha Collection" is their gift, and it contains illustrations in pen, crayon, and ink and the collection "pays homage to the primary gods and goddesses that comprise the Afro-Cuban religion of Santer'a." The "Introduction" near the top of the page, is a good place for visitors to start learning about Pozo, who was a Parson's School of Design-trained, Cuban artist who died at the age of 47. The "Biographical Sketch" is worth looking at as well. Examples of his colorful, heavily patterned and symbolism-intensive drawings of Santeria gods and goddesses can be found in the link "Gallery". The description of each drawing is given in English and Spanish. Finally, visitors interested in more information on the Santeria, can look at the "Further Readings" link for authoritative books on the subject.


Evidence for a Caribbean shallow slab beneath Northern Colombia from teleseismic travel time residual analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used differential and absolute travel time residuals of earthquakes occurred in the Northern Andes of Colombia recorded at stations at epicentral distances between 30 and 90 degrees, as well as records in Colombian seismic stations of earthquakes at the mentioned epicentral distances, in order to establish the presence of upper mantle anomalies beneath the North Andean region. Azimuthal analyses of differential travel time residuals reveal that rays traveling to the North East from the Northern Eastern Cordillera are faster than rays traveling in the same direction from the Northern Western Cordillera. To the south of a latitude around 6 degrees N, rays traveling to the North East from the Eastern Cordillera are slower than those from the Central and Western Cordilleras. Absolute travel time residuals at Colombian seismic stations suggest the presence of a positive seismic velocity anomaly beneath northernmost Colombia, to the north of a latitude around 6.5 degrees N in the Eastern Cordillera, and to the north of about 8 degrees N at the longitude of the Western Cordillera. This trend is also observed when considering differential time residuals at Colombian stations (for the same seismic event, travel time residuals at two stations are subtracted from each other), indicating that the bias in residual times is not a consequence of near-source structure. We interpret these anomalies as the shallowly subducting Caribbean Plate beneath Northern Colombia; we speculate that portions of the Caribbean slab should be as far south as the Middle Magdalena Valley, at a latitude of about 6.5 degrees N. We found no clear anomaly in the travel time residuals that could be related to a Nazca slab. We attribute this to the differences between Caribbean and Nazca slabs: whereas the Caribbean slab represents a heterogeneous and buoyant oceanic plateau of Upper Cretaceous age, the Nazca slab is composed by less buoyant Neogene oceanic crust. Furthermore, previous studies of thermal structure of the area of influence of the Nazca slab indicate a high heat flow anomaly in its northernmost portion (Hamza and Muñoz, 1996), which would prevent the generation of seismic velocity anomalies related with a cold subducting slab.

Yarce, J.; Monsalve, G.; Cardona, A.; Ordonez, O.



Counts, serovars, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Salmonella on raw chicken meat at retail in Colombia.  


The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella counts using the most-probable-number method as recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service protocol. A total of 378 isolates (268 from our previous study) were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall Salmonella count (mean log most probable number per carcass ± 95% confidence interval) and prevalence were 2.1 (2.0 to 2.3) and 37%, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) by Salmonella levels (i.e., counts and prevalence) by storage temperature (i.e., frozen, chilled, or ambient), retail store type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent markets), and poultry company (chicken produced by integrated or nonintegrated company). Frozen chicken had the lowest Salmonella levels compared with chicken stored at other temperatures, chickens from wet markets had higher levels than those from other retail store types, and chicken produced by integrated companies had lower levels than nonintegrated companies. Thirty-one Salmonella serovars were identified among 378 isolates, with Salmonella Paratyphi B tartrate-positive (i.e., Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+) the most prevalent (44.7%), followed by Heidelberg (19%), Enteritidis (17.7%), Typhimurium (5.3%), and Anatum (2.1%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 35.2% were resistant to 1 to 5 antimicrobial agents, 24.6% to 6 to 10, and 33.9% to 11 to 15. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg were the most antimicrobial resistant. Salmonella prevalence was determined to be high, whereas cell numbers were relatively low. These data can be used in developing risk assessment models for preventing the transmission of Salmonella from chicken to humans in Colombia. PMID:24490916

Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Arevalo, Alejandra; Castellanos, Ricardo; Bernal, Johan; Tafur, Mc Allister; Ovalle, Maria Victoria; Alali, Walid Q; Hume, Michael; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan Jose; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P




E-print Network

és el quart any que m'apropo a aquest faristol per desitjar-vos Bon Nadal i el millor per al proper aniversari de la Declaració Universal dels Drets Humans de les Nacions Unides. La declaració ­us en recomano, tot allò que causa la misèria dels humans: les guerres, la pobresa extrema, la crueltat. Uns versos de

Verschure, Paul


Inauguracin del "Frum del Mediterrneo" Alicante, 24 de marzo de 2004  

E-print Network

recordar a las víctimas del terror del 11 de marzo, a sus familiares y amigos, y en ellas a todas las nuestros malos sueños y presagios. Como negar que para muchos de nosotros, la percepción del islam por

Escolano, Francisco


Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated form captive American flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik



[Malaria in the triple border region between Brazil, Colombia and Peru].  


This article aims to analyze the malaria surveillance situation on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. This was a qualitative study using questionnaires in the border towns in 2011. The results were analyzed with the SWOT matrix methodology, pointing to significant differences between the malaria surveillance systems along the border. Weaknesses included lack of linkage between actors, lack of trained personnel, high turnover in teams, and lack of malaria specialists in the local hospitals. The study also showed lack of knowledge on malaria and its prevention in the local population. The strengths are the inclusion of new institutional actors, improvement of professional training, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and possibilities for complementary action between surveillance systems through cooperation between health teams on the border. Malaria control can only be successful if the region is dealt with as a whole. PMID:24356695

Peiter, Paulo César; Franco, Vivian da Cruz; Gracie, Renata; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia



[Rehabilitation of war disabled people in the tropics: example from Colombia].  


The purpose of this report is to describe collaboration between the health services of the Colombian and French armed forces. Colombia is a democratic country that has been undergoing a long period of insurrection resulting in a significant number of deaths and injuries. Permanent functional disabilities have taken high toll at both the individual and community level. Due to the use of landmines, civilians pay a heavier price than military personnel. In Columbia, a country of eternal snows and rain forests, disabilities are often compounded by concurrent diseases such as malaria or leishmaniasis. Otherwise, rehabilitation of soldiers wounded during a combat is fundamentally the same in tropical zones and Europe. Management of wounded servicemen takes place in teaching hospital where therapy is carried out at the same time as training in mine clearance. Reinsertion begins with job apprenticeship in conjunction with psychological support and prosthetic training. Current focus is on developing disability rights legislation modeled on the 2005 French law. PMID:22393619

Lagauche, D



[Necrotizing pneumonia by community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Colombia].  


The emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) as a cause of severe infections has been described in the recent years. In 2006, the first report of skin and soft tissue infection by CA-MRSA was published in Colombia. Herein, two additional cases of CA-MRSA are reported with a clinical course characterized by rapid progression, prolonged stay in the intensive care unit and complication of pneumonia with the onset of empyema. Both adult patients developed acute renal failure, and were treated with linezolide; the subsequent clinical response showed adequate treatment response. Molecular characterization of the isolates indicated the presence of the mecA gene carrying the cassette SCCmec type IV and the production of the toxin panton-valentine leukocidin. PMID:20440450

Gómez, Carlos Hernando; Perilla, Ana María; González, Camilo; Valderrama, Sandra Liliana; Vanegas, Natasha; Chavarro, Bibiana; Triana, Luis Carlos; Támara, José Roberto; Alvarez, Carlos Arturo



Dissemination of High-Risk Clones of Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Colombia.  


The ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to develop resistance to most antimicrobials represents an important clinical threat worldwide. We report the dissemination in several Colombian hospitals of two predominant lineages of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa strains. These lineages belong to the high-risk clones sequence type 111 (ST111) and ST235 and harbor blaVIM-2 on a class 1 integron and blaKPC-2 on a Tn4401 transposon, respectively. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ST1492, a novel single-locus variant of ST111, was identified. Clonal dissemination and the presence of mobile genetic elements likely explain the successful spread of XDR P. aeruginosa strains in Colombia. PMID:25605362

Correa, Adriana; Del Campo, Rosa; Perenguez, Marcela; Blanco, Victor M; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Perez, Federico; Maya, Juan J; Rojas, Laura; Cantón, Rafael; Arias, Cesar A; Villegas, Maria V



[Plans for the establishment of central vaccination committees in the institutionalization of Medicine in Colombia].  


The fight against smallpox epidemics in the Granada at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries involved a whole series of actions which demonstrated the new ways of treating the disease. First the application of the innoculation and then the vaccination coincided with a greater general concern for the health of the population. At this time and especially with the arrival of José Celestino Mutis on Latin-American soil science in Colombia embarked upon an institutionalization process which also involved Medicine. José Salvany's proposals of stablishing Central Vaccination Committees were made in this context. The analysis of these proposals and their contribution towards "establishing institutional spaces" are the axes upon which this study is based. PMID:11624953

Frias Nuñez, M



Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) tolimensis, a new species of phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia.  


A description is presented of Lutzomyia tolimensis sp. nov., a new species of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, series sanguinaria. It was collected in dwellings, peridomestic environment and in nearby forest patches located in the foothills of the Andean Central Cordillera, where in 2004-2006 occurred the largest epidemic ever recorded of leishmaniasis in Colombia. The male of this species is differentiated from other members of the series sanguinaria based on the following combination of characters: (i) base of coxite with 0-3 subequal setae, (ii) spines of gonostyle organized in positions 2.1.2, (iii) spines inserted on distal half of gonostyle and (iv) relationship of alar indices. The female is recognized principally by the following characters: (i) palpomere V longer than III, (ii) length of labro-epipharynx and (iii) relationship of the alar indices. PMID:23295748

Carrasquilla, María C; Munstermann, Leonard; Marín, Dairo; Ocampo, Clara; Ferro, Cristina



[Public demonstrations for health as a fundamental human right in Colombia: 1994-2010].  


This study reconstructs the health struggle in Colombia during implementation of the health reform from 1994 to 2010, based on an analysis of primary and secondary sources. The study focus is political struggle, a theory of collective action based on a relational perspective between collective actors and the political structure to comprehend historical transformations. Three episodes in the struggle are reconstructed, revealing a causal link between protests and structural reforms in social and health policy. The struggles by subordinate actors highlighted the dispossession of labor rights, crisis in public hospitals, and access barriers to services as adverse effects of the reform, even while government favored private capital interests. The protests continued despite anti-union violence and government crackdown, while new actors and a national health movement reshaped the public sphere, building an identity around the struggle for the fundamental right to health. PMID:25760169

Echeverry-López, María Esperanza; Borrero-Ramírez, Yadira Eugenia



Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.



Status and distribution of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical and recent information on the status and distribution of West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia was reviewed. Opportunistic and systematic interviews were also conducted. Historical information suggested that the distribution of manatees had been reduced in the Caribbean basin. Manatees can be found in the Atrato, Sinu??, San Jorge, Cauca, Cesar and Magdalena rivers and the Cie??naga Grande de Santa Marta marsh in the Caribbean basin, and in the Meta River in the Orinoco basin. The Magdalena riparian system provides the largest area of suitable habitat, which also has the highest frequency of captures. Most animals (81.20%) were killed for sale or to share meat in a subsistence base. Hunting is apparently increasing but capture with nets still represents the species' major direct threat. Habitat destruction occurs in all areas. International and national laws protect the species, however, funding is inadequate for effective enforcement of present laws. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Caicedo-Herrera, D.; Millan-Sanchez, S. L.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Lefebvre, L.W.



Structural and magnetic characterization of the "GASPAR" meteorite from Betéitiva, Boyacá, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A structural and magnetic characterization has been performed of a plate obtained from the "Gaspar" meteorite from the Otengá region of the Betéitiva municipality, Boyacá, Colombia. The sample was provided by Ingeominas (Colombian Geological Agency). After the studies the sample was classified as an octahedral iron meteorite, due the Fe and Ni concentrations and the Widmanstätten pattern which was observed on the surface of the sample. The plate shows a crack which divides the sample in two regions (side A and B, respectively). Both sides were studied using techniques like X-rays diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectrometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electronic microscopy (with EDAX). On both sides an iron Fe-Ni matrix (kamacite) was found; a large quantity of carbon in the form of graphite and in two types: nodular and laminar; and different preferential orientation in both sides of the sample. The studies permit to prove that Gaspar is a fragment of the registered Santa Rosa de Viterbo meteorite.

Flor Torres, L. M.; Pérez Alcazar, G. A.



Comparison of methods to obtain ash from coal of the Southwest of Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method for concentration of mineral matter at low temperature (about 250 °C), called Low Temperature Ash (LTA) was applied to a sample of coal from the mine "Las Mercedes" located in Colombia southwestern. This method provides better information about the content of mineral matter in natural coal (NC), removing the organic matter more efficiently without significant transformations of mineral phases present in that coal. These results were observed through Mössbauer spectra and X-ray patterns taken from samples of NC, (LTA) and the conventional method of High Temperature Ash (HTA). The results show that the LTA process provides more representative data of the mineral phases for natural coal than that using the conventional HTA process.

Medina, G.; Tabares, J. A.; Alcazar, G. A. Pérez; Barraza, J. M.



Structural and magnetic characterization of the "GASPAR" meteorite from Betéitiva, Boyacá, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A structural and magnetic characterization has been performed of a plate obtained from the "Gaspar" meteorite from the Otengá region of the Betéitiva municipality, Boyacá, Colombia. The sample was provided by Ingeominas (Colombian Geological Agency). After the studies the sample was classified as an octahedral iron meteorite, due the Fe and Ni concentrations and the Widmanstätten pattern which was observed on the surface of the sample. The plate shows a crack which divides the sample in two regions (side A and B, respectively). Both sides were studied using techniques like X-rays diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectrometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electronic microscopy (with EDAX). On both sides an iron Fe-Ni matrix (kamacite) was found; a large quantity of carbon in the form of graphite and in two types: nodular and laminar; and different preferential orientation in both sides of the sample. The studies permit to prove that Gaspar is a fragment of the registered Santa Rosa de Viterbo meteorite.

Flor Torres, L. M.; Pérez Alcazar, G. A.



HIV testing among MSM in Bogotá, Colombia: The role of structural and individual characteristics  

PubMed Central

This study used mixed methods to examine characteristics related to HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá, Colombia. A sample of 890 MSM responded to a computerized quantitative survey. Follow-up qualitative data included 20 in-depth interviews with MSM and 12 key informant interviews. Hierarchical logistic set regression indicated that sequential sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, risk appraisal, and social context each added to the explanation of HIV testing. Follow-up logistic regression showed that individuals who were older, had higher income, paid for their own insurance, had had a sexually transmitted infection, knew more people living with HIV, and had greater social support were more likely to have been tested for HIV at least once. Qualitative findings provided details of personal and structural barriers to testing, as well as interrelationships among these factors. Recommendations to increase HIV testing among Colombian MSM are offered. PMID:25068180

Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.; del Río González, Ana Maria; Romero, Rodrigo A. Aguayo; Pérez, Carolin



The collection of the Herpetological Museum of the University of Antioquia (northwestern Colombia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Northwestern South America harbors one of the richest herpetofauna in the world. The connection among several biogeographic provinces along with climatic and orographic complexity makes this region an important contributor to the Neotropical biodiversity. Despite of this importance, the amphibian and reptile fauna in this area remains largely unknown as few herpetological collections has been made in recent decades. Motivated by this, the Herpetological Museum at the Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) has been increasing the collection in the last 16 years to better understand the herpetofaunal diversity and thus contribute to ecological, systematic, biogeographic and conservation research in the Neotropics. Here, we present the results of this effort and highlight how future collection will impact our understanding of the Neotropical herpetofauna. PMID:25733961

Ortiz-Yusty, Carlos E.; Paez, Vivian P.; Bock, Brian C



Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice. PMID:22802436

Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik



Internally displaced women as knowledge producers and users in humanitarian action: the view from Colombia.  


The literature on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises commonly focuses on how inter-and non-governmental organisations can produce better knowledge and how this can be translated into improved programming. Yet, there is little recorded experience of, or concern about, how the beneficiaries of humanitarian relief can produce and use knowledge of their predicament. This paper is based on a case study of how the Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, an internally displaced women's organisation in northern Colombia, employs proactively research-generated data to advance its own agenda in its interactions with donor bodies and the government. The paper finds that beneficiaries of humanitarian aid can, and do, use participatory research to advance their own ends in the legal and political spaces created around humanitarian crisis. However, their agency is limited by poverty, violence, and local balances of power. The paper concludes that beneficiaries' priorities in the production of data about humanitarian crises warrant further study. PMID:23905766

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Lemaitre, Julieta



A new serotype of Bacillus thuringiensis from Colombia toxic to mosquito larvae.  


During a survey conducted in Colombia a new isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis that showed toxicity toward Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. pipiens, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi larvae was isolated. Parasporal crystals were spherical in shape and showed a great degree of similarity with those produced by the reference strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Supernatant fraction of the whole culture was not toxic, and heat-stable exotoxin production was negative. Catalase, urease, arginine dihydrolase, amylase, lecithinase, acetyl-methyl-carbinol, and gelatinase production were positive. Hemolysis on sheep blood agar was alpha-type. The isolate 163-131 showed natural resistance to azolocillin and was sensible to cephoperazone, cephalotin, nalidixic acid, and trimetoprin sulfametoxazole. Flagellar agglutination showed a specific H 30 antigen which allows individualization of this strain as a new serotype and the subspecies name of medellin is proposed. PMID:1347310

Orduz, S; Rojas, W; Correa, M M; Montoya, A E; de Barjac, H



HIV testing among MSM in Bogotá, Colombia: the role of structural and individual characteristics.  


This study used mixed methods to examine characteristics related to HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá, Colombia. A sample of 890 MSM responded to a computerized quantitative survey. Follow-up qualitative data included 20 in-depth interviews with MSM and 12 key informant interviews. Hierarchical logistic set regression indicated that sequential sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, risk appraisal, and social context each added to the explanation of HIV testing. Follow-up logistic regression showed that individuals who were older, had higher income, paid for their own insurance, had had a sexually transmitted infection, knew more people living with HIV, and had greater social support were more likely to have been tested for HIV at least once. Qualitative findings provided details of personal and structural barriers to testing, as well as inter-relationships among these factors. Recommendations to increase HIV testing among Colombian MSM are offered. PMID:25068180

Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J; del Río González, Ana Maria; Romero, Rodrigo A Aguayo; Pérez, Carolin



Influenza-like illness sentinel surveillance in one hospital in Medellin, Colombia. 2007–2012  

PubMed Central

Background The city of Medellin in Colombia has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). As part of an ongoing collaboration, we conducted an epidemiologic surveillance for influenza and other respiratory viruses. It described the influenza strains that were circulating in the region along with their distribution over time, and performing molecular characterization to some of those strains. This will contribute to the knowledge of local and national epidemiology. Objectives To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one General hospital in Medelllin, Colombia. Results From January 2007 to December 2012, a total of 2039 participants were enrolled. Among them, 1120 (54·9%) were male and 1364 (69%) were under the age of five. Only 124 (6%) were older than the age of 15. From all 2039 participants, 1040 samples were diagnosed by either isolation or RT-PCR. One or more respiratory viruses were found in 737 (36%) participants. Of those, 426 (57·8%) got influenza A or B. Adenoviral and parainfluenza infections represented 19·1% and 14·9% of viral infections, respectively. Influenza A was detected almost throughout the whole year except for the first quarter of 2010, right after the 2009 influenza A pandemic. Influenza B was detected in 2008, 2010, and 2012 with no pattern detected. During 2008 and 2010, both types circulated in about the same proportion. Unusually, in many months of 2012, the proportion of influenza B infections was higher than influenza A (ranging between 30% and 42%). The higher proportion of adenovirus was mainly detected in the last quarter of years 2007 and 2010. Adenoviral cases are more frequent in participants under the age of four. Conclusions The phylogenetic analysis of influenza viruses shows that only in the case of influenza A/H1N1, the circulating strains totally coincide with the vaccine strains each year. PMID:25100179

Arango, Ana Eugenia; Jaramillo, Sergio; Perez, Juan; Ampuero, Julia S; Espinal, David; Donado, Jorge; Felices, Vidal; Garcia, Josefina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto



Setting practical conservation priorities for birds in the Western andes of Colombia.  


We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have sharply restricted where species now live. Our aspirations for direct, practical actions were demanding. First, we identified the global, strategic conservation priorities and then downscaled to practical local actions within the selected priorities. In doing this, we recognized the limitations of incomplete information. We started such a process in Colombia and used the results presented here to implement reforestation of degraded land to prevent the isolation of a large area of cloud forest. We used existing range maps of 171 bird species to identify priority conservation areas that would conserve the greatest number of species at risk in Colombia. By at risk species, we mean those that are endemic and have small ranges. The Western Andes had the highest concentrations of such species-100 in total-but the lowest densities of national parks. We then adjusted the priorities for this region by refining these species ranges by selecting only areas of suitable elevation and remaining habitat. The estimated ranges of these species shrank by 18-100% after accounting for habitat and suitable elevation. Setting conservation priorities on the basis of currently available range maps excluded priority areas in the Western Andes and, by extension, likely elsewhere and for other taxa. By incorporating detailed maps of remaining natural habitats, we made practical recommendations for conservation actions. One recommendation was to restore forest connections to a patch of cloud forest about to become isolated from the main Andes. PMID:25065287

Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L



Developing an effective community conservation program for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia.  


Developing effective conservation programs that positively impact the survival of a species while considering the needs of local communities is challenging. Here we present an overview of the conservation program developed by Proyecto Tití to integrate local communities in the conservation of Colombia's critically endangered primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Our comprehensive assessment of the threats effecting the long-term survival of the cotton-top tamarin allowed us to establish the primary components of our program. Proyecto Tití has three areas of emphasis: (1) scientific studies detailing the biology and long-term survival of the cotton-top tamarin, (2) conservation education programs to increase public awareness and conservation knowledge, and (3) community empowerment programs that demonstrate a valuable economic incentive to protecting wildlife and forested areas in Colombia. This integrated approach to conservation that involves local communities in activities that benefit individuals, as well as wildlife, has proven to be remarkably effective in protecting cotton-top tamarins and their forested habitat. Our bindes program, which uses small cook stoves made from clay, has demonstrated a marked reduction in the number of trees that have been harvested for firewood. Developing environmental entrepreneurs, who create products made from recycled plastic for sale in national and international markets, has had a significant impact in reducing the amount of plastic that has been littering the environment and threatening the health of wildlife, while creating a stable economic income for rural communities. Proyecto Tití has provided economic alternatives to local communities that have dramatically reduced the illegal capture of cotton-top tamarins and forest destruction in the region that has positively impacted the long-term survival of this critically endangered primate. PMID:19998392

Savage, A; Guillen, R; Lamilla, I; Soto, L



Estimating HIV incidence from case-report data: method and an application in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Quantifying HIV incidence is essential for tracking epidemics but doing this in concentrated epidemic can be a particular challenge because of limited consistent high-quality data about the size, behaviour and prevalence of HIV among key populations. Here, we examine a method for estimating HIV incidence from routinely collected case-reporting data. Methods: A flexible model of HIV infection, diagnosis and survival is constructed and fit to time-series data on the number of reported cases in a Bayesian framework. The time trend in the hazard of infection is specified by a penalized B-spline. We examine the performance of the model by applying it to synthetic data and determining whether the method is capable of recovering the input incidence trend. We then apply the method to real data from Colombia and compare our estimates of incidence with those that have been derived using alternative methods. Results: The method can feasibly be applied and it successfully recovered a range of incidence trajectories in synthetic data experiments. However, estimates for incidence in the recent past are highly uncertain. When applied to data from Colombia, a credible trajectory of incidence is generated which indicates a much lower historic level of HIV incidence than has previously been estimated using other methods. Conclusion: It is feasible, though not satisfactory, to estimate incidence using case-report data in settings with good data availability. Future work should examine the impact on missing or biased data, the utility of alternative formulations of flexible functions specifying incidence trends, and the benefit of also including data on deaths and programme indicators such as the numbers receiving antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25406752

Vesga, Juan Fernando; Cori, Anne; van Sighem, Ard; Hallett, Timothy B.



Abrupt climate changes in northwestern Colombia during the Lateglacial and Holocene transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution pollen/spores records from Paramo de Frontino (6, 29N, 76, 6W) and Paramo de Belmira (6,42'N, 75,40'W) in Colombia (Velásquez C. and H. Hooghiemstra, Paleobotany, 2012 in press; Velásquez C., et al., in preparation) spanning 17300 and 34000 cal yr BP; are studied for abrupt climatic change and compared with a La Cocha diatom record (Gonzalez, Z, et al., 2012), Frontino and Cariaco Basin (offshore Venezuela) titanium records and a Cariaco sea surface temperatures record (Gorin, G., et al, in preparation; Haug, et al., 2001; Lea D., et al., 2003; respectively); in reference to detected vegetation and climate variations. The most remarkable events occurred at 8200, 9300, 10400, 12000, 13500, 14.5-14.7, 16.2 and 21.4 cal yr BP. Low frequency cycles of 1500-2500 yr are present along the records suggesting that the North Atlantic Bond Cycles are also registered in northwestern South American terrestrial records. Some of these changes were dry while others wet, showing that both patterns "Cold poles, dry tropics" and "Cold poles, wet tropics" can be expressed. It was also found that the estimated temperatures from Paramo de Frontino (pollen based) and sea surface temperatures in Cariaco followed a similar trend during the the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. However, in the case of moisture, the Titanium record (indicative of rainfall) from the Cariaco Basin, the aquatic vegetation pollen and titanium records from Paramo de Frontino and diatoms record from La Cocha lake, showed a clear antiphase behavior during the same periods. Position and shape of Intertropical Convergence Zone are postulated as responsible for this variation. Keywords: palinology, Intertropical Convergence Zone, titanium, Colombia, climatic and vegetation changes.

Velasquez Ruiz, C.



A phylogenetic reconstruction of the epidemiological history of canine rabies virus variants in Colombia.  


Historically, canine rabies in Colombia has been caused by two geographically distinct canine variants of rabies virus (RV) which between 1992 and 2002 accounted for approximately 95% of Colombian rabies cases. Genetic variant 1 (GV1) has been isolated up until 1997 in the Central Region and the Department of Arauca, and is now considered extinct through a successful vaccination program. Genetic variant 2 (GV2) has been isolated from the northern Caribbean Region and continues to circulate at present. Here we have analyzed two sets of sequence data based upon either a 147 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene or a 258 nucleotide region that combines a fragment of the non-coding intergenic region and a fragment of the polymerase gene. Using both maximum likelihood (ML) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods we have estimated the time of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the two variants to be between 1983 and 1988. Reconstructions of the population history suggest that GV2 has been circulating in Colombia since the 1960s and that GV1 evolved as a separate lineage from GV2. Estimations of the effective population size at present show the GV2 outbreak to be approximately 20 times greater than that of GV1. Demographic reconstructions were unable to detect a decrease in population size concurrent with the elimination of GV1. We find a raised rate of nucleotide substitution for GV1 gene sequences when compared to that of GV2, although all estimates have wide confidence limits. We demonstrate that phylogenetic reconstructions and sequence analysis can be used to support incidence data from the field in the assessment of RV epidemiology. PMID:15019589

Hughes, Gareth J; Páez, Andrés; Bóshell, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles E



Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarm