Note: This page contains sample records for the topic del ruiz colombia from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

A model of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A workshop was held at the Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia in Manizales, Colombia, March 28 to April 1, 1988, to review the accumulated data on the disastrous November 13, 1985, eruption and related activity of Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Figure 1). Approximately 30 scientists from eight countries presented data, developed a preliminary model, and addressed the future problems of Ruiz. The volcano (see Figure 2) erupted just prior to the meeting, covering the meeting site with 1-2 mm of ash.The workshop was convened by Stanley N. Williams (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge) and Hansjürgen Meyer (Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia). A special volume of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research is planned for the papers and letters presented at the workshop, with some additional contributions. Publication is expected in mid-1989.

Williams, Stanley N.; Meyer, Hansjürgen

2

The hydrothermal system of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot springs and steam vents on the slopes of Nevado del Ruiz volcano provide evidence regarding the nature of hydrothermal activity within the summit and flanks of the volcano. At elevations below 3000 m, alkali-chloride water is discharged from two groups of boiling springs and several isolated warm springs on the western slope of Nevado del Ruiz. Chemical and isotopic

Neil C. Sturchio; Stanley N. Williams; Nestor P. Garcia; Adela C. Londono

1988-01-01

3

Eruption of the nevado del ruiz volcano, Colombia, on 13 november 1985: tephra fall and lahars.  

PubMed

A small Plinian eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia ejected 3.5 x 10(10) kilograms of mixed dacite and andesite tephra on 13 November 1985, with a maximum column height of 31 kilometers above sea level. Small pyroclastic flows and surges, generated during the initial stage of the eruption, caused surface melting of approximately 10% of the volcano's ice cap, leading to meltwater floods. The erosive floods incorporated soils and loose sediments from the volcano's flanks and developed into lahars, which claimed at least 25,000 lives. PMID:17732038

Naranjo, J L; Sigurdsson, H; Carey, S N; Fritz, W

1986-08-29

4

Eruption of the Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Gas Flux and Fluid Geochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, in Colombia, released a small volume of pyroclastic material and a disproportionately large volume of volcanic gas. Before the eruption, summit fumarole gases became less water-rich, and the sulfur\\/chlorine ratio increased. Remote measurements of sulfur dioxide flux after the eruption indicated active degassing at levels associated with eruptive or inter-eruptive

Stanley N. Williams; Richard E. Stoiber; Nestor Garcia P; Adela Londono C; J. Bruce Gemmell; Donald R. Lowe; Charles B. Connor

1986-01-01

5

Volcanic disasters in Latin America and the 13th November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia.  

PubMed

Volcanic eruptions in Latin America have claimed about 61,000 lives since 1600 A.D. and the region's volcanoes are responsible for about a quarter of the world's fatalities from this type of hazard. Nearly all loss of life from volcanism in Latin America is due to pyroclastic surges, pyroclastic flows and lahars or volcanic mudflows. Lahars generated during the 13th November, 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia claimed 25,000 lives, underscoring the great hazard from lahars, which can be generated from the fifty-six, active, ice-capped Central and South American volcanoes during even very small eruptions. The probability of specific prediction of the timing of such events is currently low, whereas the probability of a general prediction of volcanic eruption is high, giving sufficient time to install telemetered lahar alarm systems, which could largely avoid the loss of life. PMID:20958632

Sigurdsson, H; Carey, S

1986-09-01

6

Eruption of the nevado del ruiz volcano, Colombia, on 13 november 1985: gas flux and fluid geochemistry.  

PubMed

The 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, in Colombia, released a small volume of pyroclastic material and a disproportionately large volume of volcanic gas. Before the eruption, summit fumarole gases became less water-rich, and the sulfur/chlorine ratio increased. Remote measurements of sulfur dioxide flux after the eruption indicated active degassing at levels associated with eruptive or inter-eruptive stages of other volcanoes. Thermal water analyses revealed increases in magnesium, calcium, and potassium and an increase in the magnesium/chlorine ratio, suggesting that these elements may have been leached from new magma. Ash leachate data showed sulfate and chloride concentrations and ratios that would be expected for the late stages ofa major Plinian eruption. Water from the lahar contained high concentrations of sulfate and had a sulfur/chlorine ratio of 4.67, suggesting that water ejected from the crater lake and turbulent mixing of pyroclasts and glacial ice triggered the lahar. Microprobe analyses of pumice from this eruption and the most recent previous event showed similar mixed andesites. The uniform composition of the pumices and the unusually high ratio of gas to magma suggest that, although a new batch of magma triggered this eruption, the pumice that erupted may actually be old. Large volumes of new magma and glacial ice make the volcano dangerous and should stimulate development of an integrated long-term monitoring program to include Tolima volcano, 25 kilometers to the south. PMID:17732039

Williams, S N; Lowe, D R; Stoiber, R E; Gemmell, J B; Connor, C B; P, N G; C, A L

1986-08-29

7

Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobilization, flow and deposition of lahars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A complex sequence of pyroclastic flows and surges erupted by Nevado del Ruiz volcano on 13 November 1985 interacted with snow and ice on the summit ice cap to trigger catastrophic lahars (volcanic debris flows), which killed more than 23,000 people living at or beyond the base of the volcano. The rapid transfer of heat from the hot eruptive products to about 10 km2 of the snowpack, combined with seismic shaking, produced large volumes of meltwater that flowed downslope, liquefied some of the new volcanic deposits, and generated avalanches of saturated snow, ice and rock debris within minutes of the 21:08 (local time) eruption. About 2 ?? 107 m3 of water was discharged into the upper reaches of the Molinos, Nereidas, Guali, Azufrado and Lagunillas valleys, where rapid entrainment of valley-fill sediment transformed the dilute flows and avalanches to debris flows. Computed mean velocities of the lahars at peak flow ranged up to 17 m s-1. Flows were rapid in the steep, narrow upper canyons and slowed with distance away from the volcano as flow depth and channel slope diminished. Computed peak discharges ranged up to 48,000 m3 s-1 and were greatest in reaches 10 to 20 km downstream from the summit. A total of about 9 ?? 107 m3 of lahar slurry was transported to depositional areas up to 104 km from the source area. Initial volumes of individual lahars increased up to 4 times with distance away from the summit. The sedimentology and stratigraphy of the lahar deposits provide compelling evidence that: (1) multiple initial meltwater pulses tended to coalesce into single flood waves; (2) lahars remained fully developed debris flows until they reached confluences with major rivers; and (3) debris-flow slurry composition and rheology varied to produce gradationally density-stratified flows. Key lessons and reminders from the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcanic eruption are: (1) catastrophic lahars can be generated on ice- and snow-capped volcanoes by relatively small eruptions; (2) the surface area of snow on an ice cap can be more critical than total ice volume when considering lahar potential; (3) placement of hot rock debris on snow is insufficient to generate lahars; the two materials must be mechanically mixed together for sufficiently rapid head transfer; (4) lahars can increase their volumes significantly by entrainment of water and eroded sediment; and (5) valley-confined lahars can maintain relatively high velocities and can have catastrophic impacts as far as 100 km downstream. ?? 1990.

Pierson, T. C.; Janda, R. J.; Thouret, J. -C.; Borrero, C. A.

1990-01-01

8

Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

9

Time Average Field and Secular Variations of Pleistocene to Recent Lava Flows From the Ruiz-Tolima Volcanic Complex (Colombia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty three Pleistocene to recent lava flows from the Ruiz-Tolima Volcanic Complex (Colombian Andes) have been sampled for time average field (TAF) and paleosecular variation studies. A total of 10 cores were drilled per flow (site) and stepwise AF demagnetization has been carried out. After principal component analysis and mean-site direction calculations, 29 sites (25 and 4 with normal and reverse polarity, respectively), with ?95 < 5.5° were selected for further calculations. The overall mean direction among the sites (D = 1.8°, I = 6.3°, ?95 = 5.6°) closely fits (at the 95% confidence level) the expected paleomagnetic direction (at the area of study) of a geomagnetic field composed primarily by a geocentric axial dipole with 5% axial quadrupole component (I = 5.72°), but also coincides with a simple GAD model. VGP scatter (13°) is similar to that expected from Model G (12.8°).

Mejia, V.; Sánchez-Duque, A.; Opdyke, N. D.; Huang, K.; Rosales, A.

2009-05-01

10

Review and reassessment of hazards owing to volcano-glacier interactions in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cordillera Central in Colombia hosts four important glacier-clad volcanoes, namely Nevado del Ruiz, Nevado de Santa Isabel, Nevado del Tolima and Nevado del Huila. Public and scientific attention has been focused on volcano-glacier hazards in Colombia and worldwide by the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz/Armero catastrophe, the world's largest volcano-glacier disaster. Important volcanological and glaciological studies were undertaken after 1985. However, recent decades have brought strong changes in ice mass extent, volume and structure as a result of atmospheric warming. Population has grown and with it the sizes of numerouscommunities located around the volcanoes. This study reviews and reassesses the current conditions of and changes in the glaciers, the interaction processes between ice and volcanic activity and the resulting hazards. Results show a considerable hazard potential from Nevados delRuiz, Tolima and Huila. Explosive activity within environments of snow and ice as well as non-eruption-related mass movements induced by unstable slopes, or steep and fractured glaciers, can produce avalanches that are likely to be transformed into highly mobile debris flows. Such events can have severe consequences for the downstream communities. Integrated monitoring strategies are therefore essential for early detection of emerging activity that may result in hazardous volcano-ice interaction. Corresponding efforts are currently being strengthened within the framework of international programmes.

Huggel, Christian; Ceballos, Jorge Luis; Pulgarín, Bernardo; Ramírez, Jair; Thouret, Jean-Claude

11

Challenges of modeling current very large lahars at Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nevado del Huila, a glacier-covered volcano in the South of Colombia’s Cordillera Central, had not experienced any historical\\u000a eruptions before 2007. In 2007 and 2008, the volcano erupted with phreatic and phreatomagmatic events which produced lahars\\u000a with flow volumes of up to about 300 million m3 causing severe damage to infrastructure and loss of lives. The magnitude of these lahars

Raphael Worni; Christian Huggel; M. Stoffel; B. Pulgarín

12

Captura y Reconfiguración Cooptada del Estado en Guatemala, México y Colombia Análisis conceptual de las memorias de la Primera Discusión Internacional Sobre Captura y Reconfiguración Cooptada del Estado  

Microsoft Academic Search

La evidencia muestra que el narcotráfico es importante en el fortalecimiento de la corrupción de Guatemala, México y Colombia; por lo tanto, es problemático analizar de modo separado ambos fenómenos. Los hechos muestran también que las organizaciones narcotraficantes de los tres países han aprendido a regular la coerción del Estado. Este aprendizaje ha representado un salto que va desde la

Luis Jorge Garay-Salamanca; Isaac de León-Beltrán; Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán

2010-01-01

13

Determinantes psicológicos, clínicos y sociales del diagnóstico temprano del cáncer de mama en Bogotá, Colombia Psychological, Social, and Clinical Determinants of Breast Cancer Early Detection in Bogotá, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Various determinants of breast cancer early detection have been described (psychological, socio-demographic, clinical, health systems). Early detection of breast cancer is crucial to improve survival rates and quality of life. This paper analyzes determinants of breast cancer early detection in women form Bogota, Colombia. Methodology: A case-control study matched by socio economical strata was conducted. 102 women were included.

2007-01-01

14

Recent Eruptions of Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia after 500 Years Resting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nevado del Huila Volcano (NHV) unrest for more than 500 years, on February 18, 2007 produced a sudden eruption, and started a new cycle of activity. On April 18, 2007 a second eruption occurred. On November 21, 2008 a big eruption took place. The three eruptions produced huge lahars. The promptly warning prior the eruptions allowed to evacuate more than 100000 people living near the volcano, thanks to the permanent monitoring of the volcano by INGEOMINAS (Colombia Geological Survey) since 1992, although at the moment of the eruption only one seismic stations was installed. Changes in several parameters have been observed through these years. Seismicity has shown the most remarkable changes. "drum beat" - type seismicity was observed previous the emplacement of a dacitic dome at the top of the crater. Temporal changes in coda Q and b-value were observed previous the eruptions. In addition, changes in SO2 flux are correlated with seismicity associated to fluid activity (such as LP events, hybrid events and tremor). On the other hand, temporal changes in frequency content of LP events were observed before (decrease), during (increase) and after (decrease) the eruptions. This behavior suggests a change in phase of the material inside the volcano, probably from more gas-rich previous the eruption to gas-poor at the end of the eruption. This example of the transition from a rested to an unrested volcano, shows that the continuous monitoring of a rested volcano can help to foretold an impending eruption, even with very few instruments installed, if the monitoring has been continuous and for several years.

Santacoloma, C. C.; Londono, J. M.; Cardona, C. E.

2011-12-01

15

A pair of new sister species of Loneura (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, representing a new infrageneric group.  

PubMed

Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura. PMID:22423192

Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Nieto, Julián A Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo González

2012-01-31

16

A pair of new sister species of Loneura (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, representing a new infrageneric group  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura.

Aldrete, Alfonso N. Garcia; Nieto, Julian A. Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo Gonzalez

2012-01-01

17

Flebótomos (Diptera: Psychodidae) del departamento de Guaviare, Colombia, con nuevos registros para el país  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Although cases of leishmaniasis have been reported in the province of Guaviare, Colombia, no entomological studies were included to identify the Lutzomyia sand fly vector species in that area. Objective. Lutzomyia species were identified from four townships of Guaviare. Probable vectors were named based on those species involved in transmission in other areas. Materials and methods. Sampling was undertaken

Olga Lucía Cabrera; Laureano Mosquera; Erika Santamaría; Cristina Ferro

18

La evaluación del desempeño de las empresas privatizadas en Colombia: ¿Coincide con la experiencia internacional?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio pretende evaluar si las empresas que fueron privatizadas en Colombia durante los años 1990 mejoraron sustancialmente su productividad y rentabilidad, como consecuencia de los cambios gerenciales que se debieron dar, o si por el contrario, continuaron en niveles similares, contrariando la hipótesis de que los nuevos dueños propiciarían cambios sustanciales en su estrategia, como lo demuestra la experiencia

Héctor Ochoa Díaz; Jaime Andrés Collazos Rodríguez

2004-01-01

19

Predictive value of molecular drug resistance testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Valle del Cauca, Colombia.  

PubMed

Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases. PMID:23658272

Ferro, Beatriz E; García, Pamela K; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick

2013-05-08

20

Mössbauer study of archaeological ceramics from Valle del Alto Sinu (Colombia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physico-chemical characterization of ceramic samples from the arachaeological sites of El Cabrero, El Gallo, and El Frasquillo (Valle del Alto Sinú) is presented. Extensive use of Mössbauer spectroscopy data reveals that the currently used typological classification scheme of Dolmatoff is related to the production technology of the different artifacts. In addition, a model for firing conditions for “Rojo Sencillo”, “Tierra Impresa”, “Tierra Incisa”, and “Blanco” types of ceramics is proposed.

Useche, L. A.; Gaviria, S.; Alabart, J. R.; Fontcuberta, J.

1990-07-01

21

Sobre la eficiencia de la industria del cuero en los sectores de calzado y marroquinería en Colombia 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

in this paper we are interested in characterizing and investigating the efficiency of a set of firms in the sector of leather and footwear in Colombia (Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cúcuta and Metropolitan Area of Valle de Aburrá). For such aim, this work is based on a large survey that asked for multiple factors associated to footwear´ leather production (inputs, integration of

Jorge Barrientos; David Tobón; Edwin Gutiérrez

22

La reforma del sector salud en Colombia y sus efectos en los programas de control de tuberculosis e inmunización  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effects of health reform in Colombia on public health pro- grams at the local level, particularly the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) and the tu- berculosis control program. The research was developed in three health districts in two States by analysis of documents, direct observation, and longitudinal follow-up of the transition process. The health districts were

Carlos Ayala Cerna; Axel Kroeger

2002-01-01

23

Phenotypic instability and epigenetic variability in a diploid potato of hybrid origin, Solanum ruiz-lealii  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The wild potato Solanum ruiz-lealii Brüch. (2n = 2x = 24), a species of hybrid origin, is endemic to Mendoza province, Argentina. Recurrent flower malformations, which varied among inflorescences of the same plant, were observed in a natural population. These abnormalities could be the result of genomic instabilities, nucleus-cytoplasmic incompatibility or epigenetic changes. To shed some light on their

Carlos F Marfil; Elsa L Camadro; Ricardo W Masuelli

2009-01-01

24

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Jose A. Torres-Ruiz, Ph.D.  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Torres-Ruiz is Director of the National Institutes of Health-Minority Biomedical Research Support (NIH-MBRS) Program, Chairman of the Biochemistry Department, Director of the Office for Sponsored Research Projects and Programs, and the Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies.

25

Dinámica poblacional y fenología del salivazo de los pastos Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand) (Homoptera: Cercopidae) en el valle geográfico del río Cauca, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the population fluctuation of nymphs, adults, eggs and natural enemies of the spittlebug Zulia carbonaria(Lallemand) (Homoptera: Cercopidae) associated with Brachiaria dictyoneura pastures of the Cauca River Valley, Colombia. Our objective was to describe spittlebug phenology under seasonal conditions of bimodal precipitation (March-May and September-November). Weekly, over two years, populations of spittlebugs and certain natural enemies were quantified using

Ulises Castro; Anuar Morales; Daniel C. Peck

2005-01-01

26

Anotaciones sobre cultura en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente documento hace una revisión de conceptos como raza, etnia, clases sociales, vida familiar y tendencias poblacionales en Colombia y busca hacer un recuento de la forma en la que han sido utilizados para explicar alguas realidades colombianas y cómo pueden seguir vigentes en el análisis del país. Adicionalmente, se hace una revisión de la legislación para cada concepto,

Juanita Villaveces Niño; Marcela Anzola Gil

2005-01-01

27

Polimorfismos genéticos de aislamientos del género Malassezia obtenidos en Colombia de pacientes con lesión dermatológica y sin ella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. Las especies del género Malassezia se consideran levaduras oportunistas emergentes de gran importancia. Han sido asociadas a diferentes patologías dermatológicas y sistémicas de las cuales se aislan una o más especies de este género. El papel de estas levaduras en las enfermedades dermatológicas no se ha aclarado completamente, ya que la Malassezia spp. pertenece a la flora normal de

Adriana M. Celis; Maria Caridad Cepero de García

28

Comportamiento del cáncer de vulva durante 16 años en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (Colombia) Behavior of Vulvar Cancer over a 16-year Period at the National Cancer Institute (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe patient mortality among patients with vulvar cancer at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia (INC). Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study among vulvar cancer patients at the INC from 1990-2006. Survival estimated by Kaplan-Meyer; comparison with logarithmic trial rankings. Results: 303 patients were diagnosed with vulvar cancer, including. One hundred and ninety cases fulfilled inclusion criteria. Average

Mónica Medina; Ricardo Sánchez; Natascha Ortíz; Alexánder Rodríguez; Simón Oróstegui

29

Crimen en Colombia: análisis y sugerencias de política  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción: Las tasas de homicidio en Colombia están entre las más altas del mundo. En el pico de 1991, casi mil colombianos fueron asesinados en un año. La tasa de homicidios en Colombia es tres veces más alta que la de Brasil o México, y diez veces mayor que la de Argentina, Uruguay o que la de los Estados Unidos.

Levitt Steven; Mauricio Rubio

2000-01-01

30

United States v. Ruiz-Gaxiola: Setting the Standard For Medicating Defendants Involuntarily in the Ninth Circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In United States v. Ruiz-Gaxiola, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that the government could not medicate a defendant involuntarily for the sole purpose of rendering the defendant competent to stand trial. The court relied on the Sell test in making its determination. In Sell v. United States, the United States Supreme Court established a

Michelle R. Cruz

2011-01-01

31

PRESENCIA DE LA COROCORA (EUDOCIMUS RUBER) EN EL VALLE DEL RÍO CAUCA, OCCIDENTE DE COLOMBIA Presence of the Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus ruber) in the Río Cauca valley, western Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

I report three recent observations of the Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus ruber) from the Laguna de Sonso reserve, Valle del Cauca Department, one of which suggests nesting, plus one long-overlooked citation of this species from the same region and two additional recent reports from Cauca Department. I suggest four hypotheses for its current occurrence there (wandering individuals, escapes from captivity, a

Luis Germán Naranjo

32

Phenotypic instability and epigenetic variability in a diploid potato of hybrid origin, Solanum ruiz-lealii  

PubMed Central

Background The wild potato Solanum ruiz-lealii Brüch. (2n = 2x = 24), a species of hybrid origin, is endemic to Mendoza province, Argentina. Recurrent flower malformations, which varied among inflorescences of the same plant, were observed in a natural population. These abnormalities could be the result of genomic instabilities, nucleus-cytoplasmic incompatibility or epigenetic changes. To shed some light on their origin, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of plants with normal and plants with both normal and malformed flowers (from here on designated as plants with normal and plants with abnormal flower phenotypes, respectively) were analyzed by AFLP and restriction analyses, respectively. Also, the wide genome methylation status and the level of methylation of a repetitive sequence were studied by MSAP and Southern blots analyses, respectively. Results AFLP markers and restriction patterns of mitochondrial DNA did not allow the differentiation of normal from abnormal flower phenotypes. However, methylation patterns of nuclear DNA discriminated normal and abnormal flower phenotypes into two different groups, indicating that abnormal phenotypes have a similar methylation status which, in turn, was different from the methylation patterns of normal phenotypes. The abnormal flower phenotype was obtained by treating a normal plant with 5-Azacytidine, a demethylating agent, giving support to the idea of the role of DNA methylation in the origin of flower abnormalities. In addition, the variability detected for DNA methylation was greater than the detected for nucleotide sequence. Conclusion The epigenetic nature of the observed flower abnormalities is consistent with the results and indicates that in the diploid hybrid studied, natural variation in methylation profiles of anonymous DNA sequences could be of biological significance.

Marfil, Carlos F; Camadro, Elsa L; Masuelli, Ricardo W

2009-01-01

33

Institutional Reforms in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Colombia faces a critical juncture in its recent history. One road leads to violence, chaos and economic collapse. The other leads to peace, reforms and economic progress. Hoping that the second road will be chosen, this document offers ideas about institutional reforms and governance. The need for nstitutional reforms in Colombia is quite self-evident. Violence, crime and terrorism are

Alberto Alesina

2000-01-01

34

The Vanishing Mexicana/o: (Dis)Locating the Native in Ruiz de Burton's "Who Would Have thought It?" and "The Squatter and the Don"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article complements the existing body of Ruiz de Burton scholarship by providing the first sustained examination of her literary representations of American Indians in both "Who Would Have Thought It?" (1872) and "The Squatter and the Don" (1885), and by exploring how these representations serve her broader aims of social and political…

Szeghi, Tereza M.

2011-01-01

35

Genetic population analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in three states (Valle del Cauca, Cauca and Nariño) from Southwestern Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen Y-chromosomal (DYS19, DYS389 I\\/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA-H4 and DYS385a\\/b) short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic systems were typed in three South West Colombian populations: Valle (short term for Valle del Cauca), Cauca and Nariño. DYS385a\\/b showed the highest gene diversity in the three populations. A total of 287 different Y-chromosome haplotypes

Sandra Julieta Ávila; Ignacio. Briceño; Alberto. Gómez

2009-01-01

36

The Coffee Economy of Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on the findings of a mission to Colombia in September/October 1967, sponsored by the Tripartite Coffee Study. It provides a step-by-step summation and assessment of the coffee economy of Colombia, covering Colombia in world coffee tra...

G. Kalmanoff

1968-01-01

37

Situation Report--Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in Colombia are presented in this situation report. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups, language, religion, economy, communication/education, medical/social welfare, and…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

38

Child health in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and

G Arias Nieto; F Suescun Mutis; R Mercer; M Bonati; I Choonara

2009-01-01

39

English in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|English language education in Colombia has been improved because the teachers have organized professional associations and have received assistance and support from the Colombian and United States governments to improve teaching methods, teacher preparation, and teaching materials. With the help of the University of California at Los Angeles, the…

Quintanilla, Victor

40

LÓGICA DIFUSA COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA LA BIOINDICACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DEL AGUA CON MACROINVERTEBRADOS ACUÁTICOS EN LA SABANA DE BOGOTÁ - COLOMBIA Application of fuzzy logic as bioindication tool for the water quality with aquatic macroinvertebrates in the Sabana de Bogotá - Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of fuzzy logic (LD) is present in order to calculate the biologic water quality in the Plain of Bogotá, Colombia. Due to the interactions between aquatic organisms and physical and chemiscal variables are a non-linear mathematic prob- lem of great complexity, powerful methods for the analysis of such models are needed. Fuzzy logic offers a possibility due to

JUAN DAVID GUTIÉRREZ; WOLFGANG RISS; RODULFO OSPINA

41

Estructura a plazo, hipótesis de expectativas y paridad descubierta de intereses en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El desarrollo del mercado financiero en Colombia, ha hecho que la integración con los merados financieros internacionales sea cada vez más evidente. Es por esto que el estudio del grado de relación de nuestras tasas de interés con las tasas de interés de las tasas internacionales, cobra relevancia. Este estudio, busca evidencia sobre el cumplimiento de la hipótesis de paridad

Juan Camilo Rojas

2008-01-01

42

Impacto de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC) en el desarrollo y la competitividad del país  

Microsoft Academic Search

La primera parte de este estudio caracteriza al sector de telecomunicaciones en Colombia, comparando a Colombia con otros países y regiones del mundo, mostrando la evolución de algunos de los principales indicadores de telecomunicaciones. En la segunda parte se hacen estimaciones cuantitativas del impacto socioeconómico del sector en la economía colombiana, a través de dos herramientas: la metodología insumo-producto y

Juan Benavides; Felipe Castro; Lina Devis; Mauricio Olivera

2011-01-01

43

Entre metrópolis y periferias. Análisis de los movimientos migratorios a partir del censo de población de 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Área de Demografía y Estudios de Población, del Centro de Investigaciones sobre Dinámica Social –CIDS– de la Universidad Externado de Colombia, definió como objetivo de una de sus Líneas estratégicas de investigación el análisis de los procesos migratorios en Colombia. Aunque la migración constituye un elemento central en la determinación del crecimiento, volumen y composición de la población, este

Alejandro González Pulido; Norma Rubiano

44

Geological and geomorphological insights into Antarctic ice sheet evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galeras, a volcano in the south of Colombia, has historically been very active. Nevertheless, the memory of the tragic eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in 1985 caused great anxiety in the surrounding region as the first signs of reawakening were perceived in early 1989. Decision makers were unprepared as they tried to organize their communities. The media were obsessed with

David E. Sugden; Michael J. Bentley; Colm Ó. Cofaigh

2006-01-01

45

Discoveries, financial strength lift Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Colombia plans to play a growing role in international oil markets while expanding and privatizing its domestic gas and electricity industries. Officials intend to curb the government`s spending on energy development while increasing its energy revenues. Their plans imply growing participation in energy projects by private companies. Also certain to help attract investment capital is the country`s new standing as a world-class oil and gas province. Discovery of Cusiana oil field in 1989 and of Cupiagua oil field in 1992 added 2 billion bbl of oil and 3 tcf of gas reserves, effectively doubling Colombia`s totals. Exploration near the giant Cusiana-Cupiagua complex, in the eastern foothills of the Andes about 100 miles northeast of Bogota, has turned up an estimated 10 tcf of gas and 1 billion bbl of oil in Volcanera field and two discoveries overlying it, Florena and Pauto Sur. Colombia`s critics say that, despite its laudable economic stability and improving oil and gas prospectivity, political impediments could interfere with progress toward its lofty energy goals. The paper discusses the heightened political risks, unequal pace of reform, gas pipeline construction, gas regulations, tying gas to power, reform in the oil sector, achieving sustainable change, and the appeal to investors.

Koen, A.D.

1996-07-15

46

Identificación y caracterización preliminar del agente causal de la mancha necrótica de las hojas de la mora (Rubus glaucus) en el muncipio de  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and characterization of the leaf necrotic spot of blackberry (Rubus glaucus) in the municipality of Trujillo (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) The blackberry crop in the Chuscales and Monteloro regions of the municipality of Trujillo (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) generates 100% of the familiar income. To improve productivity and income of these communities, a diagnostic and development of disease control

María José Botero; Germán Franco

2007-01-01

47

La descentralización en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. La asignación de responsabilidades entre las autoridades del gobierno central y el local, así como la relación fiscal entre estas dos instancias, constituye uno de los temas más complejos e importantes de las finanzas públicas. En la última década se ha presentado una tendencia mundial hacia la mayor descentralización, esto es, la delegación de un mayor número de prerrogativas

Alberto Alesina; Alberto Carrasquilla; Juan José Echavarría Soto

2000-01-01

48

Biblored, Colombia's Innovative Library Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes Biblored, the library network in Bogota, Colombia, that received the 2002 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Access to Learning Award. Biblored is a network of 19 libraries that attract about 200,000 users per month and serve some of the poorest neighborhoods in Bogota. The network's success in making information and…

Caballero, Maria Cristina

49

Adolescent Girls in Colombia's Guerrilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

Armed combat in childhood and adolescence is a form of child abuse and a violation of International Humanitarian Law. This study explores the impact of guerrilla life in adolescent peasant girls coerced to join the Armed Revolutionary Forces of Colombia (FARC). It analyzes their stories within the social context of the ongoing conflict in the country. Seven adolescent peasant girls

Pilar Hernández; Amanda Romero

2003-01-01

50

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia  

PubMed Central

We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae.

Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

2007-01-01

51

History of earthquakes in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of earthquake disasters in Colombia, South America is discussed in detail to promote scientific investigations, and to call attention to engineers, architects, contractors, insurance companies and building owners as to the conditions that must be included in the construction of earthquake resistant structures for the protection of city dwellers.

J. E. Ramirez

1969-01-01

52

Epidemiology of paragonimiasis in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five newly discovered endemic foci for paragonimiasis in Colombia are described for the first time. The disease was diagnosed in 24 people from the Embera Indian communities located at the Colombian Pacific Coast and investigated in 1993–1998. We also describe the clinical, epidemiological and treatment response aspects. In these foci an Aroapyrgus sp. snail different from A. colombiensis was found

Iván Darío B. Vélez; Jorge Ortega; Martha Inés M. Hurtado; Alba Lucía Salazar; Sara M. Robledo; Judy Natalia Jimenez; Luz Elena T. Velásquez

2000-01-01

53

Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.  

PubMed

This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady 15 year decline in average household size from 6.1 people in 1970 to 5 people in 1985 is likely to continue. Because of government support, the general standard of housing for the urban migrant populations is superior to that in other Latin American countries. No single racial/ethnic group has ever had more than a regional importance in Colombia. The national culture has been developed almost exclusively from traditional Spanish customs. The economically active population increased annually by 3.4% in the 1970s, but jobs expanded at about 6.2% each year. Since school attendance also increased during the decade, unemployment declined. Colombia's media are reasonably free of government controls. Radio and television are directly controlled through the National Institute of Radio and Television. PMID:12339912

Canak, W L

1985-03-01

54

OBTENCIÓN DE OLEORRESINAS A PARTIR DE 3 ESPECIES DE CAPSICUM sp. CULTIVADAS EN COLOMBIA (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. RESUMEN El ají es un cultivo de importancia en Colombia con una gran perspectiva en el crecimiento de sus áreas para el mercado de agro exportación. La oleorresina es el extracto líquido del fruto maduro seco de pimientos Capsicum que contiene una mezcla compleja de aceites esenciales, ceras, materiales coloreados y capsaicinoides. Se obtiene en forma de aceite, con

L. Rodríguez; J. Arango; F. Urrego

55

78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-16] RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U...customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective...November 22, 2006, the United States and Colombia signed the United States-Colombia...

2013-10-01

56

RESEARCH ON CASSAVA FOLIAGE PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava cultivation in Colombia has been increasing recently due to its multiplicity of uses and markets. One of the most important uses for the crop is the foliage in animal feeding, as a source of protein in balanced feeds for monogastrics and ruminants. In Colombia, the animal production sector is growing very fast and domestic production of cereals such us

Bernardo Ospina; Luis Fernando Cadavid; Jorge Luis Gil; Álvaro Andrés Albán

57

Prevention of School Desertion in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families…

Walker, Sarah

2004-01-01

58

Late blight resistance gene from Solanum ruiz-ceballosii is located on potato chromosome X and linked to violet flower colour  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal organism of late blight, is economically the most important pathogen of potato and resistance against it has been one of the primary goals of potato breeding. Some potentially durable, broad-spectrum resistance genes against this disease have been described recently. However, to obtain durable resistance in potato cultivars more genes are needed to be identified to realize strategies such as gene pyramiding or use of genotype mixtures based on diverse genes. Results A major resistance gene, Rpi-rzc1, against P. infestans originating from Solanum ruiz-ceballosii was mapped to potato chromosome X using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and sequence-specific PCR markers. The gene provided high level of resistance in both detached leaflet and tuber slice tests. It was linked, at a distance of 3.4 cM, to violet flower colour most likely controlled by the previously described F locus. The marker-trait association with the closest marker, violet flower colour, explained 87.1% and 85.7% of variance, respectively, for mean detached leaflet and tuber slice resistance. A genetic linkage map that consisted of 1,603 DArT markers and 48 reference sequence-specific PCR markers of known chromosomal localization with a total map length of 1204.8 cM was constructed. Conclusions The Rpi-rzc1 gene described here can be used for breeding potatoes resistant to P. infestans and the breeding process can be expedited using the molecular markers and the phenotypic marker, violet flower colour, identified in this study. Knowledge of the chromosomal localization of Rpi-rzc1 can be useful for design of gene pyramids. The genetic linkage map constructed in this study contained 1,149 newly mapped DArT markers and will be a valuable resource for future mapping projects using this technology in the Solanum genus.

2012-01-01

59

United States National Security Strategy for Colombia. Is plan Colombia the Right solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The security relationship between the United States and Colombia has reached a critical junction, and the entire South American continent is watching. Colombia is on the brink of overcoming many of the problems the country has experienced in the past half...

M. L. Waggett

2004-01-01

60

The Proposed U.S.Colombia Free Trade Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] The proposed U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement, also called the U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement (CFTA), was signed by the United States and Colombia on November 22, 2006. The agreement must be approved by Congress before it can enter into force. Upon congressional approval, it would immediately eliminate duties on 80% of U.S. exports of consumer and industrial products to Colombia.

M Angeles Villarreal

2011-01-01

61

Contiuous gas monitoring at the volcano Galeras, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany (e.faber@bgr.de), (2) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia (3) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, Manizales, Colombia A gas monitoring system has been installed on the volcano Galeras in Colombia as part of a multi-parameter station. Gases

E. Faber; C. Morán; J. Poggenburg; G. Garzón; M. Teschner; F. H. Weinlich

2003-01-01

62

State Power and Its Implications for Civil War Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following article examines the relationship between state power and civil war in Colombia. It presents three key findings. First, state weakness has provided armed groups with the political opportunity for rebellion. In this respect, most rebel consolidation takes place in areas of Colombia that lack a strong state presence. Second, the growth and evolution of Colombia's armed groups are

Alex McDougall

2009-01-01

63

Technical Assistance for Vanilla: Colombia Alternative Development Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The consultant was required to carry out two tasks while in Colombia: (1) Import into Colombia a total of 200 vanilla seedlings to be used to establish a test plot for vanilla at the facilities of CIAT in Cali, Colombia; (2) Provide guidance to CIAT techn...

D. Gardella

2012-01-01

64

Returns to Education in Bogota, Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This memorandum derives estimates of the private rate of return to schooling for men and women based on a 1965 labor force survey, past cross-sectional data, and the long-term educational public policy of Bogota, Colombia. Here resources may be viewed as an investment in the future productive capacity of people. Depending on the costs and…

Schultz, T. P.

65

Historiography of Education and Pedagogy in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the most significant advances in research into the history of education in Colombia. It is structured around the theoretical and methodological ideas that have influenced approaches to the subject. Three broad groups are identified. Episodic and apologetic history is the name given to the earliest writings, which tended to be highly descriptive. This group is most appreciated

Alejandro Alvarez Gallego

2000-01-01

66

Infectious Chlorosis of Bananas in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DISEASE probably identical or closely allied to the `infectious chlorosis' or `heart rot' of bananas, of a virus nature, has recently been found in Cauca Valley, on the Pacific side of Colombia, South America, and is now being studied by the staff of the Agricultural Experimental Station of Palmira.

R. Ciferri

1949-01-01

67

Bilingual Curriculum Construction and Empowerment in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traced development of a bilingual curriculum in a monolingual private school in Cali, Colombia, with particular reference to the creation of a curricular proposal in accord with the philosophy and expectations of the school community and the process of particular empowerment generated throughout the research. (Author/VWL)|

de Mejia, Anne-Marie; Tejada, Harvey

2003-01-01

68

Violent crime and modernization in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses violent crime in Colombia by focusing on police arrest data from 1938 to 1967. Social and political conditions provide the cultural context from which the effects of modernization on crime are examined. Shelley's modermization perspective claims that violent crime increases when a country modernizes, but property crimes increase after relative wealth and prosperity are achieved. Regression results

EUGENE E. BOULEY JR; Michael S. Vaughn

1995-01-01

69

Tightening the Screws: Restoring Security in Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With these words, the Bush Administration reaffirms Colombia's importance in its Latin American policy, and highlights the country's central position in the 'wars' on drugs and terrorism. As the source for 80 percent of the cocaine imported into the U.S.,...

M. S. Stough

2003-01-01

70

Country Analysis Briefs: Colombia, March 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colombia has seen an increase in oil production in recent years following a period of steady decline. The Colombian government has enacted a series of regulatory reforms to make the sector more attractive to foreign investors. In addition, it has implemen...

2010-01-01

71

Caracterización de entornos y determinantes de la eficiencia en los sectores del cuero, el calzado y la marroquinería  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio permite caracterizar al sector en Colombia en seis entornos principales e identificar los principales aspectos que marcan la diferenciaentre las empresas de calzado y marroquinería en cuero, ubicadas en el Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (Amva),1 seleccionadas a partir de una muestra representativa, y comparadas con otras ciudades del país. Adicionalmente, y lo más importante, ayuda a

David Tobón Orozco; Jorge Barrientos Marín

72

Epidemiology of endemic goitre in western Colombia  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on recent epidemiological observations in western Colombia, which further demonstrate the presence of naturally-occurring goitrogens contaminating water supplies in areas where goitre persists despite prolonged and continuous iodine supplementation. 'Prospective' and 'cross-sectional' studies in 41 localities where the populations have been on a uniform and adequate iodine supplementation for the last 10-20 years indicate that, in the endemia of western Colombia, environmental factors other than nutritional iodine deficiency are responsible for differences in goitre prevalence. Further epidemiological studies to determine the causal factors for the persistence of the endemia established a correlation between the sources of drinking water and goitre prevalence rates. Organic compounds containing sulfur with marked thionamide-like antithyroid activity were isolated from water supplying endemic goitre districts, and results are presented supporting the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens. Bacteriological investigations showed that the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in drinking water and bacterial concentration were related significantly with goitre prevalence only in the presence of other variables, particularly the presence of sedimentary rocks. In the light of these epidemiological observations and experimental studies it may be concluded that, at present, endemic goitre in western Colombia is not due to nutritional iodine deficiency, but that water supplies are contaminated with sulfur-bearing organic compounds with thionamide-like antithyroid activity most probably deriving from sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter and that these compounds are the main factor underlying the endemia.

Gaitan, E.; Merino, H.; Rodriguez, G.; Medina, P.; Meyer, J. D.; DeRouen, T. A.; MacLennan, R.

1978-01-01

73

Colombia: Postured for Failure, a Lesson in Counterinsurgency Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little solid research that explores counterinsurgency practices against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), not only from the standpoint of what is being done, but, rather, what should be done based on past COIN successes. Notable works on counterinsurgency in Colombia include the research of Tom Marks, who focused on operational strategy and tactics; Kevin Self, who

Abdullah Brodie

2009-01-01

74

Drugs and Violence in Colombia: a VECM Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely argued that the production of illegal drugs, particularly cocaine, has financed guerrilla activity in Colombia. This paper uses quarterly time-series data for Colombia 1994-2005 to examine the interaction between legal agricultural production, illegal agricultural production of drugs and the number of guerrilla attacks. The time series analysis suggests that drug production acts as a weakly exogenous

Tomás González; Ron P Smith

2009-01-01

75

Conflict-Induced Displacement and Violence in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work in the refugee literature finds that both insurgents hiding in camps and aid to refugees may increase violence. This article assesses whether this theory applies to Conflict Induced Displaced People (IDPs). Specifically, it asks if the arrival of IDPs increases leftist violence in Colombia. Colombia has high numbers of IDPs, significant insurgent violence, and available sub-national data to

Jennifer S. Holmes; Sheila Amin Gutiérrez De Piñeres

2011-01-01

76

The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

2001-01-01

77

Fácies Orgânica da Formação La Luna, Bacia do Valle Superior del Magdalena, Colômbia: Implicações para a Geração de Petróleo e Caracterização Paleoambiental Organic Facies of the La Luna Formation, Upper Valley Magdalena Basin, Colômbia: Implication to Oil Generation and Characterization Paleoenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper Cretaceous pelitic rocks generate most of the oil reserves in Colombia. In Del Magdalena Upper Valley (MUV), the existence of good quality outcrops and thermal evolution levels that vary from immaturity to the end of the oil generation \\

Juliana Andrade Iemini; João Graciano; Mendonça Filho; Felix Thadeu; Teixeira Gonçalves; Taíssa Rêgo Menezes

2007-01-01

78

Primer registro de Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) en Colombia First record of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: Centrocestus, Cichlidae, Colombia, Digenea, Melanoides tuberculata, Poeciliidae. Abstract. Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea:Heterophyidae) is reported for the fi rst time from Colombia, parasitizing snails and fi sh from the lake of the Joaquín Antonio Uribe botanical garden, Medellín. Rediae and cercariae were obtained from MAD morphs of the snail Melanoides tuberculata. Metacercariae were found encysted on gills of fi sh

Luz Elena Velásquez; Juan Carlos Bedoya; Astrid Areiza; Imelda Vélez

2006-01-01

79

Prospects for Peace in Colombia: Plan Colombia and the El Salvador Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the year 2000 begins, the disintegration of Colombia in a situation of violence, political unrest, and economic upheaval is a very real threat to the national interests of the United States. It is critical that Washington's concern for failed states, s...

P. J. Shaha

2000-01-01

80

Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

Bueno Salazar, R.

1986-07-01

81

Blood parasites of some birds from Colombia.  

PubMed

Blood films from 421 birds of 142 species, representing 29 avian families, from the environs of Cali, Colombia, were examined for blood parsites. Only 30 (7.1%) birds of 26 species harbored hematozoa. Species of Haemoproteus (3.1%) and microfilaria (2.3%) were the most commonly encountered blood parasites; species of Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, Akiba and Lankesterella were found in a few birds. Mixed infections with more than one genus of blood parasite were rare; most infections encountered were of low intensity. PMID:16498894

Bennett, G F; Borrero, J I

1976-07-01

82

Abortion decision making: some findings from Colombia.  

PubMed

The reasons why some women seek to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, while others do not, were investigated in interviews with 108 women in Cali, Colombia (where abortion is illegal but reportedly widespread). All the women in the study had experienced an unwanted pregnancy, and in more than half the cases one major or several minor attempts were made to end it. The prospects for economic support from the father of the child emerged as the most important factor in decision making. Single women, separated women, and women in unions that seemed in danger of dissolving were most likely to take strong steps to terminate the unwanted pregnancy. PMID:473263

Browner, C

1979-03-01

83

Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress.  

PubMed

Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded. PMID:12282910

Kendall, S

1989-01-01

84

Colombia's national plan for sexual education.  

PubMed

The brief summary of Colombia's government's plan for sex education emphasized the active involvement of all sectors of society and targeted individuals, families, and society. The National Plan for Sex Education (PNES) was established by the Colombian presidential program for youth, women, and the family (PROMOVER). The plan is an evolution of rights and duties laid out in the National Constitution of 1991 on sexuality. The plan has the support of the First Lady of Colombia. The Foundation of Human and Social Development will provide technical support, and activities will be coordinated between the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and the Colombian Institute of Family Welfare. The objectives of PNES are to promote the development of attitudes that value sexuality, value social gender equality, value autonomy, value responsibility, value harmony of interactions and solidarity, and value sexual health. PNES will begin with planning, coordinating between ministries and sectors, and implementing the decentralized and participatory action plan. The plan involves training, research, communication, services, and institutionalization. Training will be the first priority and will be directed to sensitizing officials and officials administering the plan about sexuality and sex education, to case workers involved with therapeutic interventions, and to youth, parents, and sexually active adolescents. The plan includes criteria for selecting legal advisors and staff from nongovernmental organizations, who will administer the training and evaluations. PMID:12290480

85

Globalization and Latin America: Understanding the global links of Colombia’s capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Colombia has been identified as one of the globalized countries in the developing world, it does not stand out among\\u000a the countries of Latin America. However, the economy performed better after 1990 when liberalization reforms were introduced.\\u000a Employment and economic growth were particularly strong, especially between 1993 and 1997, but then the economy collapsed.\\u000a Bogota followed this cycle, but

Alan Gilbert

86

Industry Sector Analysis: Automotive Engines and Parts (Colombia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is derived from a report titled: The Automotive Engines and Parts Market in Colombia, dated January 1993, prepared by Soledad De Salguero, American Embassy - Bogota. The report consists of 19 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview...

1993-01-01

87

Characteristics of Concrete Masonry Architecture and Construction in Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concrete Masonry has developed in Colombia with very special architectural and technical characteristics, due to the restrictions of a developing economy (quality and availability of materials; training necessities; scale of application and cost relation ...

G. G. Madrid L. G. Pelaez

1994-01-01

88

THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM AND ITS FISCAL IMPACT IN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document analyzes the structure of the health-care system in Colombia with the aim of establishing the magnitude of the public fiscal deficit generated by such a system. We first explain its complex funding structure (full of \\

Sergio Clavijo; Camila Torrente

89

Peace Processes of Colombia and El Salvador: A Comparative Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colombia and El Salvador, two Latin American countries, have developed similar counterinsurgency processes and started similar processes of peace negotiations between the insurgent armies and the forces of order. One peace process was concluded in 1992, w...

D. A. Gantiva M. A. Palacios

1997-01-01

90

Democratic Governance and the Rule of Law: Lessons from Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colombia has experienced conflict for decades. In the 1990s it was a paradigm of the failing state, beset with all manner of troubles: terrorism, kidnapping, murder, drug trafficking, corruption, an economic downturn of major scope, general lawlessness, a...

G. Marcella

2009-01-01

91

Management of Ocean and Coastal Resources in Colombia: An Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the result of an 18-month study of marine resource development in Colombia. Observations of the present situation and potential for four marine resources sectors are presented - fisheries, and aquaculture, marine mineral and energy, ...

R. W. Knecht B. Cicin-Sain J. M. Broadus M. Silva R. E. Bowen

1984-01-01

92

HOSTAGE NEGOTIATION IN COLOMBIA AND THE FARC: DECONSTRUCTING THE PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conflict in the Republic of Colombia has been going on for more than 50 years. The international media, however, has greatly overlooked the conflict's international ramifications and its dangerous liaison with the illicit drug trafficking business, due to more \\

David J. Topel

93

Guerrilla Violence in Colombia: Examining Causes and Consequences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colombia's history is replete with acts of political violence. Guerrilla violence has been of major historical significance in the country, where guerrilla groups have operated without interruption since the mid-1940s. This thesis investigates the causes ...

J. F. Roman

1994-01-01

94

Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

95

Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention  

SciTech Connect

The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

Matthews, A.J. (Intera Information Technologies Ltd., Henley (United Kingdom)); Portilla, O. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))

1994-05-23

96

From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: Modeling the evolution of Colombia’s counter-insurgency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia’s

Catherine M. Banks; John A. Sokolowski

2009-01-01

97

Industry Sector Analysis - Plastics Production Machinery and Chemicals, (Argentina, Colombia, Guatemala, and Honduras).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The package includes the following ISA's: Argentina, Plastics Packaging Machinery; Colombia, Injection/Extrusion/Blow/Molding/Equipment; Colombia, Chemicals/Raw Materials for the Plastics Industry; Guatemala, Plastics Production Machinery: Extrusion/Injec...

1991-01-01

98

Better lead than bread? A critical analysis of the US's plan Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia's continuing 35?year civil war has claimed over 300,000 lives. Plan Colombia is a $1.3 billion dollar US military aid package to the Colombian military. It is the largest international intervention into Colombia's civil war and will make Colombia the third largest US military aid recipient in the world today. The US government claims the aid will be used to

Doug Stokes

2001-01-01

99

Personal Docente del Nivel Primario. Series Estadisticas Basicas: Colombia (Teaching Personnel in Primary Schools. Basic Statistics Series: Colombia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides statistical data on the distribution and education of teacher personnel working in Colombian elementary schools between 1940 and 1968. The statistics cover the number of men and women, public and private schools, urban and rural location, and the amount of education of teachers. (VM)|

Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

100

Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. Methods The ''decision space'' approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. Findings Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some

Thomas J. Bossert; Osvaldo Larranaga; Ursula Giedion; JoseJesus Arbelaez; Diana M. Bowser

2003-01-01

101

APROXIMACIÓN AL ANÁLISIS ZOOGEOGRÁFICO DE LAS HORMIGAS CAZADORAS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) DE COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Colombia has one of the most diverse myrmecofaunas in the Neotropics. There are nearly 200 hunting ant species reported for Colombia grouped in 23 genera. The following study presents a numerical analysis of the distribution of hunting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae, Paraponerinae, Proceratiinae, Amblyopon- inae, Ectatomminae, Heteroponerinae) in Colombia, using the group analysis method (Hagmeier & Stultz 1964 and

Fabio Herney Lozano-Zambrano; Fernando Fernández

102

Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported.

Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.

2004-01-01

103

Malaria vector species in Colombia: a review.  

PubMed

Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species' geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

2011-08-01

104

Genetic Structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Five Anopheles marajoara Galvão and Damasceno populations, representing diverse ecological conditions, were sampled throughout Colombia and analyzed using nine hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci. The overall genetic diversity (H = 0.58) was lower than that determined for some Brazilian populations using the same markers. The Caquetá population (Colombia) had the lowest gene diversity (H = 0.48), and it was the only population at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium in the remaining four populations was probably caused by the Wahlund effect. The assignment analyses showed two incompletely isolated gene pools separated by the Eastern Andean cordillera. However, other possible geographical barriers (rivers and other mountains) did not play any role in the moderate genetic heterogeneity found among these populations (FST = 0.069). These results are noteworthy, because this species is a putative malaria vector in Colombia.

Brochero, Helena; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard; Conn, Jan E.; Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel

2010-01-01

105

Women in Physics and Scientific Research in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally speaking, scientists in Colombia do not have a role in changing the social or economic situation of the nation. Although the proportion of women who study physics increases slowly year by year, the number of women who work in physics research has not considerably increased. Many problems in Colombia might be solved if women's status as researchers in Colombia changed. It is necessary to promote a national project for improving women's status in the sciences and to present this project to the Colombian government. Many Colombian women have grown up believing they are not able to take scientific jobs, and therefore choose to study other disciplines ``for women.'' If Colombian women found opportunities in physics and the sciences in general, they would likely pursue such disciplines, but we need government support to promote an efficient program that will give women more information about physics as a feasible career option.

Girata, Doris

2009-04-01

106

Secondary Syphilis in Cali, Colombia: New Concepts in Disease Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18–68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with

Adriana R. Cruz; Allan Pillay; Ana V. Zuluaga; Lady G. Ramirez; Jorge E. Duque; Gloria E. Aristizabal; Mary D. Fiel-Gan; Roberto Jaramillo; Rodolfo Trujillo; Carlos Valencia; Linda Jagodzinski; David L. Cox; Justin D. Radolf; Juan C. Salazar

2010-01-01

107

Teaching Writing in the Republic of Colombia, 1800-1850  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform…

Clark, Meri L.

2010-01-01

108

Educational Quality and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Bogota, Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a study of the relationship of several measures of educational quality to labor market outcomes among 4,000 workers in Bogota, Colombia. Finds that the score on university entrance examinations and the university's prestige have a significant positive impact on the earnings and occupational status of adults. (CFR)|

Psacharopoulos, George; Velez, Eduardo

1993-01-01

109

International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

2005-01-01

110

Primary Mental Health Care in Disasters: Armero, Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the mental health consequences of the disaster in Armero, Colombia which resulted from a volcanic eruption and mudslide, and highlights the role of the primary care worker in delivering mental health care to disaster victims. Eight characteristics of disasters that are closely related to their psychopathogenetic potential…

Lima, Bruno R.

111

A Comparative Study of School Effectiveness in Aguablanca, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The principal aim of this article is to describe and document a comparison of public and private school effectiveness in the marginalized (often referred to as slum) district of Aguablanca, in the city of Cali, Colombia. The data suggest that teachers and parents are largely satisfied with the current status of education provision in Aguablanca.…

Burgess, Michael; Dixon, Pauline

2012-01-01

112

Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

113

Remote sensing for geologic mapping in Eastern Cordillero, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic mapping in frontier areas can be done accurately and efficiently by integrating various remote sensing and photometric methods with field mapping. Interpretations of Landsat, airborne radar, and aerial photographs were integrated with field mapping to geologically map part of a northwest-directed fold-thrust belt in the Eastern Cordillera, southwest of Santafe de Bogota, Colombia. Each sensor provided particular advantages: (1)

J. M. Ellis; W. Narr

1993-01-01

114

Oceanographic coral records from South Western Caribbean: Isla Fuerte, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southwestern corner of the Caribbean Sea is considered a coastal warm pool oceanographically linked to the Panama Colombia Gyre. The atmosphere - ocean variability there is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITZC), the Andean river runoff, the northeasterly trade winds, and a tropical low level jet (San Andrés jet), all of them connected to global variability. This warm

G. Bernal; M. Qiceno; K. Hughen; L. Urrego

2009-01-01

115

Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from Colombia.  

PubMed

Hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease whose transmission to dogs occurs by ingestion of oocysts infected ticks or feeding on preys infested by infected ticks. Until now, there is no previous report of molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. in dogs from Colombia. EDTA blood samples were collected from 91 dogs from central-western region of Colombia (Bogotá, Bucaramanga, and Villavicencio cities) and submitted to 18S rRNA Hepatozoon sp. PCR and blood smears confection. Phylogenetic analysis was used to access the identity of Hepatozoon species found in sampled dogs. From 91 sampled dogs, 29 (31.8%) were positive to Hepatozoon sp. (25 dogs were only positive in PCR, 1 was positive only in blood smears, and 3 were positive in both blood smears and PCR). After sequencing, the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA showed 100% of identity with Hepatozoon canis DNA isolates. The phylogenetic tree supported the identity of the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA, showing that the isolates from Colombia were placed in the same clade than other H. canis isolates from Venezuela, Spain, and Taiwan. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in dogs from Colombia. PMID:22068216

Vargas-Hernandez, Giovanni; André, Marcos R; Munhoz, Thiago D; Faria, Joice M L; Machado, Rosangela Z; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

2011-11-09

116

Dynamics of Human Trafficking: The Colombia-East Asia Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes the dynamics of transnational trafficking in humans for commercial sexual exploitation from a business dimension. Based on a review of Colombian judicial records (2005-2011), this study analyses the interaction between victims, traffickers and intermediaries involved in cases of trafficking between Colombia and East Asia. This research argues that victims occasionally have a double-condition for a trafficking network:

Monica Hurtado

2012-01-01

117

Low-Cost Concrete Masonry Housing in Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of Concrete Masonry (CM) for low-cost housing in Colombia is influenced by local physical, technical, economic and social conditions, some of which can exist in other places in different combinations. Even though it is difficult to talk about spec...

G. G. Madrid L. G. Pelaez

1994-01-01

118

TRANSMISSION MECHANISM AND INFLATION TARGETING: THE CESE OF COLOMBIA'S DISINFLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia has been on a steady disinflation path since the early 1990s. In this paper, we model the transmission mechanism of monetary policy during this disinflation. We describe how inflation evolves in response to important shocks that occurred during disinflation such as the terms of trade and to the risk premium, comparing the responses across different assumptions about inflation persistence.

Javier Gómez; Juan Manuel Julio

2001-01-01

119

Endemic Melastomataceae of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 16 species of Melastomataceae restricted to the middle and upper slopes of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia,\\u000a are listed. Included are seven previously undescribed species:Graffenrieda santamartensis, Miconia insueta, Miconia oreogena, Miconia tricaudata, Huilaea kirkbridei, Kirkbridea tetramera,\\u000a Kirkbridea pentamera. The newly described genusKirkbridea is placed in the tribe Miconieae.

J. J. Wurdack

1976-01-01

120

Social Representations of Human Papillomavirus in Bogotá, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying DNA of Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as a new screening method for cervical cancer control. Conventionally, health education for screening programs is based on scientific information without considering any community cognitive processes. We examine HPV social representations of 124 men and women from diverse educational status living in Bogotá, Colombia. The social representation of HPV involves a

Carolina Wiesner; Jesús Acosta; Adriana Díaz del Castillo; Sandra Tovar

2012-01-01

121

Determinants of Civil Conflict in Colombia: How Robust are they?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze how the determinants of the civil conflict in Colombia at the municipal level respond to changes in the empirical strategy. We estimate several econometric models that vary in three dimensions: 1) the data set, 2) the measure of conflict, and 3) the estimation method. We find substantial differences in the signs and statistical significance of the marginal effects

Mauricio A. Rodríguez; Nancy A. Daza

2012-01-01

122

Who Bears the Burden of Crime in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the distribution of crime and violence across victims in Colombia. Property and violent crimes as well as incidents of domestic violence are considered. The paper shows that rich households bear a disproportionate share of the burden of property crime: they are more likely to be victimized, to modify their behavior because of fear of crime, to feel

Alejandro Gaviria Uribe; Carlos Eduardo Vélez

2001-01-01

123

Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBreast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which

Raúl Murillo; Sandra Díaz; Oswaldo Sánchez; Fernando Perry; Marion Piñeros; César Poveda; Edgar Salguero; Dimelza Osorio

2008-01-01

124

Conceptualizations of Nature from Science Students in Northeastern Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore rural and provincial students' conceptualizations of nature in Colombia alongside the science education offered in their school communities. Students' perceptions of nature were produced from interviews that revolved around a focusing event and two eliciting devices to document their views about home,…

Medina-Jerez, William

2007-01-01

125

The Role of Children as Peace-makers in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sara Cameron reports on the Children's Movement for Peace in Colombia which, with the support of organizations like UNICEF, has put into practice the fundamental principles of child rights and participation. Cameron shows how the Convention on the Rights of the Child gave the power to these children to protest against war in ways that have profoundly transformed communities across

Sara Cameron

2000-01-01

126

Gestión empresarial y valuación de empresas en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se analiza la separación de la propiedad y el control de 108 empresas inscritas en bolsa en Colombia entre 1996 y 2002, y se descubre que los derechos de voto son mayores que los derechos referentes al flujo de caja debido a la propiedad indirecta entre empresas. También se analiza la relación de varias medidas de propiedad

Carlos Pombo; Luis H. Gutiérrez

2007-01-01

127

A review of bartonellosis in Ecuador and Colombia.  

PubMed

A review of the literature regarding bartonellosis or Carrion's disease in Colombia and Ecuador is presented, together with observations made by the author in areas of both countries from which the disease has been recorded. There is evidence from pre-Columbian artifacts that verruga peruana, the cutaneous form of the disease, was present in Ecuador at least 1,000 years prior to the arrival of Europeans. These artifacts were discovered in the coastal province of Manabi, a low-lying area very different from the high Andean valleys of Peru with which bartonellosis is normally associated. Most of the cases recorded in recent years from this coastal area. The disease does not appear to have occurred in Colombia before the 1930s and only one case has been reported during the past 40 years. The possibility of many more subclinical cases being present in both Ecuador and Colombia is discussed, together with the possibility that the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic will reveal a higher prevalence among the inhabitants of endemic areas than previously suspected. Although the suspected vector of Bartonella bacilliformis, the sand fly Lutzomyia verrucarum, has not been recorded from Ecuador or Colombia, related species are present in endemic areas and may be involved in transmission. PMID:7741177

Alexander, B

1995-04-01

128

Decisive Phase of Colombia's War on Narco-Terrorism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plan Colombia was drafted as a 6-year strategy to overhaul almost every aspect of Colombian society. The plan was developed with considerable U.S. assistance and in essence focused on five critical areas: (1) curbing narco-trafficking, (2) reforming the j...

D. E. Teicher

2005-01-01

129

Undergrad biomedical engineering program to be offered in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using NASA and IEEE definitions of biotechnology and biomedical engineering plus the results of a survey of health care professionals and educators, the authors present a group of courses for a ten-semester program. This program, which is divided into three parts, is designed to satisfy the technical and scientific development of biotechnology and biomedical engineering in Colombia. The three parts

F. Ortiz-Nieto

1988-01-01

130

Multi-scalar globalization and political governance: Lessons from negotiations over Colombia’s Poverty and Inequality Reduction Strategy, 2006–2015  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on an analysis of negotiations between the Colombian government and international donors over Colombia’s Poverty and Inequality Reduction Strategy, this article describes the normative, institutional and technical patterns that configure a political governance structure within the international cooperation and development system. The article argues that this structure works as an interface that integrates global governance processes aimed at the

Alexander González Chavarría

2012-01-01

131

Balance Energetico Rural de Colombia y su Contexto Socioeconomico 1981 (Rural Energy Balance of Colombia and Its Socioeconomic Context 1981).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the methodology used and results obtained from a two-year study of the energy behavior of family and production units in rural Colombia. It gives a brief outline of a theoretical discussion of methodology and then an analysis of the ...

J. E. Torres

1982-01-01

132

Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia.  

PubMed

The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia velezi sp.nov. was described and illustrated from male specimens collected by light trap in the Reserva Natural Cañon del Río Claro in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The new species belongs to the series sanguinaria of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which is represented in Colombia by Lutzomyia cirrita, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia scorzai, Lutzomyia sp. of Pichindé and Lutzomyia tortura. The new species can be differentiated from others of the subgenus by the combination of the following characteristics: long antennal ascoids, reaching level of the papilla, coxite with a single basal seta and fifth palpomere longer than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the third and fourth palpomeres. PMID:20512248

Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Vivero, Rafael José; Uribe, Sandra

2010-05-01

133

Colombia: the widening gap between health care reform and gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss Colombia’s recent health care reform and subsequent social implications regarding\\u000a gastric cancer, which is a common cancer in Colombia. This review explores the use of Helicobacter pylori prevalence classifying as an indicator of failing implementation of health policy, specifically H. pylori should be explored in the context of socioeconomic inequity. A review

Faisal H. Aboul-Enein; Diana Carolina Caceres

2007-01-01

134

The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.

Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo

135

The 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic in Boyac?, Colombia  

PubMed Central

To quantify age-specific excess-mortality rates and transmissibility patterns for the 1918–20 influenza pandemic in Boyacá, Colombia, we reviewed archival mortality records. We identified a severe pandemic wave during October 1918–January1919 associated with 40 excess deaths per 10,000 population. The age profile for excess deaths was W shaped; highest mortality rates were among infants (<5 y of age), followed by elderly persons (>60 y) and young adults (25–29 y). Mean reproduction number was estimated at 1.4–1.7, assuming 3- or 4-day generation intervals. Boyacá, unlike cities in Europe, the United States, or Mexico, experienced neither a herald pandemic wave of deaths early in 1918 nor a recrudescent wave in 1920. In agreement with reports from Mexico, our study found no death-sparing effect for elderly persons in Colombia. We found regional disparities in prior immunity and timing of introduction of the 1918 pandemic virus across populations.

Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Diaz, Juan M. Ospina; Martinez-Martin, Abel Fernando

2012-01-01

136

A reference architecture for integrated EHR in Colombia.  

PubMed

The implementation of national EHR infrastructures has to start by a detailed definition of the overall structure and behavior of the EHR system (system architecture). Architectures have to be open, scalable, flexible, user accepted and user friendly, trustworthy, based on standards including terminologies and ontologies. The GCM provides an architectural framework created with the purpose of analyzing any kind of system, including EHR system´s architectures. The objective of this paper is to propose a reference architecture for the implementation of an integrated EHR in Colombia, based on the current state of system´s architectural models, and EHR standards. The proposed EHR architecture defines a set of services (elements) and their interfaces, to support the exchange of clinical documents, offering an open, scalable, flexible and semantically interoperable infrastructure. The architecture was tested in a pilot tele-consultation project in Colombia, where dental EHR are exchanged. PMID:21893762

de la Cruz, Edgar; Lopez, Diego M; Uribe, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Carolina; Blobel, Bernd

2011-01-01

137

Colombia: reasons to create a national space agency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All modern nations are concerned with their independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support countries which are in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields which hold promise for our future. The present moment is one of serious crises in Colombia's history. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how the nation could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

2004-01-01

138

Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18–20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5–4.0 mg\\/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 ?g) of venom, seven of

R Otero; V Núñez; S. L Jiménez; R Fonnegra; R. G Osorio; M. E Garc??a; A D??az

2000-01-01

139

Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8–4000 ?g\\/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 ?g) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the

R Otero; V Núñez; J Barona; R Fonnegra; S. L Jiménez; R. G Osorio; M Saldarriaga; A D??az

2000-01-01

140

The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare.

Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martinez, Monica Florez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid

2008-01-01

141

The San Juan Delta, Colombia: tides, circulations, and salt dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Juan River delta (Colombia) with an area of 800km2 is the largest delta environment on the Pacific coast of South America. It consists of active distributaries maintained by an average discharge of 2500m3s?1, is tide dominated, and has relatively narrow estuarine mixing zones <17km wide and typically ?7km wide. Water level and current time series in two distributary

Juan D. Restrepo; Björn Kjerfve

2002-01-01

142

A mediated modelling approach to promote collaborative learning in Andean rural micro-catchments in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rural catchments of developing countries water-related diseases, due to land use patterns (agriculture and livestock), microbial pollution, inadequate sanitation systems, access to water of poor quality, and lack of institutional support are common problems which disproportionally affect poor and vulnerable people. This research aims at developing a system dynamic model to improve the understanding of the macro and micro factors that influence human health and environmental health in rural micro-catchments in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In this catchment livelihoods for most people depend on agriculture, particularly coffee. The research uses a mediated modeling approach, in which different stakeholders in modeling sessions, develop a STELLA model that allows them to identify relations between the economic, social and environmental factors and driving forces over the performance of their system. Stakeholders jointly develop the model structure in sessions facilitated by the researcher and the data required is gathered using secondary information from the different relevant institutions and primary information from field surveys that cover socioeconomic and environmental aspects that has not been previously collected by any institution or organization (i.e. household survey, stream water survey, and drinking water survey). Representation and understanding of their system will allow the stakeholders to test the effect of different management strategies in the micro-catchment and their associated socioeconomic, environmental and human health outcomes.

Gowing, John; Dominguez, Isabel

2013-04-01

143

Security Assistance: Efforts to Secure Colombia's Cano Limon-Covenas Oil Pipeline Have Reduced Attacks, but Challenges Remain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oil is one of Colombia's principal exports. The Cano Limon-Covenas oil pipeline transports almost 20 percent of Colombia's oil production. The pipeline originates in the Department of Arauca in northeast Colombia. It carries oil nearly 500 miles to the Ca...

2005-01-01

144

Caracterización de los ladrillos constitutivos de un puente histórico en Popayán (Colombia) Characterising a historical bridge's bricks in Popayán (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the procedures and results of studying the physical-mechanical and chemical-mineralogical cha- racterisation of the bricks originally used in a masonry arch bridge; the bridge was built in the first half of the 18th century in the city of Popayán, Colombia. Core-samples were thus extracted from the bridge's lower area and sub- jected to different laboratory tests. Physical-mechanical

Jorge Alberto; Galindo Díaz; Andrés Mauricio Muñoz; Marisol Caicedo Muñoz

2008-01-01

145

Targeting "Plan Colombia": A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Political Visual Narratives by the Beehive Collective and the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article compares the Beehive Collective's "Plan Colombia" to a museum exhibition representing the official U.S. position on Plan Colombia. Through a dialectical (Kellner & Share, 2007; Greene, 1988) reading of "Plan Colombia" and "Target America," I examine how each uses visual narrative to promote a particular reading of Plan Colombia.…

Erler, Carolyn

2008-01-01

146

Results of Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in Public Schools in Bogota, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Bogota, Colombia, in 2001 and 2007 to examine changes in tobacco use among youth 13-15 years of age. The current tobacco control effort in Bogota will be accessed relative to Colombia ratifying the World Health Organization Framework…

Pardo, Constanza; Pineros, Marion; Jones, Nathan R.; Warren, Charles W.

2010-01-01

147

Discourse research in Colombia: developing a methodological approach to media discourse about poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to present an approach to discourse studies in Colombia. It provides a critical reflection on the ways discourse analysis is carried out and on the procedures structuring the interpretation of socio-cultural problems in order to establish their particularities and implications for Colombia. In addition, the paper illustrates the analytical procedures by applying them to some of the

Neyla Graciela Pardo Abril

2010-01-01

148

Transmission expansion and pricing in Colombia: An appraisal of current practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the current practices of transmission expansion and pricing in Colombia. Transmission expansion in Colombia is formulated by a central governmental agency that is commissioned to establish the required transmission enhancements. The commission consolidates all the needs based on economic growth and the current regulation into a single plan. We review how the single plan is elaborated and

Harold Salazar; Luis J. Zuluaga-López; Ramón A. León

2009-01-01

149

Resource curse in reverse: The coffee crisis and armed conflict in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1998 and 2003 production increases in Brazil and Vietnam drove down the price of coffee by 73 percent in global markets, triggering the “international coffee crisis”. We examine the effect of this exogenous price shock on Colombia’s civil war, exploring whether politically-motivated violence presented different dynamics in the coffee –growing regions relative to the non- coffee regions, during the

OEINDRILA DUBE; JUAN FERNANDO VARGAS

2006-01-01

150

CTX-M-12 beta-lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate in Colombia.  

PubMed

We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 beta-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia. PMID:14742223

Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, José María; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P

2004-02-01

151

CTX-M-12 ?-Lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate in Colombia  

PubMed Central

We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 ?-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia.

Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, Jose Maria; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P.

2004-01-01

152

Poverty, armed conflict and human rights: An analysis of the objective causes of violence in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyses the influence of economic variables, poverty and armed conflict on violence in Colombia. For this purpose, a time series method is used to analyse economic and social data through which different long-term coefficients are estimated in order to determine the effects of these variables on violence in Colombia from 1950 to 2006. Socioeconomic characteristics, poverty and variables

Alexander Cotte Poveda

2010-01-01

153

Validación de escala de la seguridad alimentaria doméstica en Antioquia, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To adapt and validate in households of Antio- quia, Colombia, a food security scale previously applied in households of Caracas, Venezuela. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in 44 municipalities in the depar- tment of Antioquia, Colombia, in 2003 and 2004, with a ran- domly selected sample of 1 624 rural and urban households with children under

Marta Cecilia Álvarez; Alejandro Estrada; Elizabeth Cristina Montoya; Hugo Melgar-Quiñónez

2006-01-01

154

Counterinsurgency in Colombia: A United States national security perspective, 1958--1966  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation analyzes the key role played by the United States in the development of Colombia's internal security structures during the latter phase of the Violencia era, 1958--1966. It utilizes Realism as the primary framework of analysis to understand US security strategies designed to neutralize radical actors and promote stability, democratization, and institutional reform in Colombia.The first chapter sets the

Dennis M. Rempe

2002-01-01

155

Inside the 'Crystal Triangle': The US 'War on Narcoterrorism' in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

For half a century, the United States and its client state in Colombia have been unsuccessful in eliminating Latin America's oldest and most powerful Marxist insurgency the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), via the Cold War, the 'War on Drugs,' and the 'War on Terror' after 9\\/11. This is an astonishing feat for a so-called 'terrorist' organisation in the

Oliver Villar

2009-01-01

156

Colombia's Higher Education Quality Control System and Potential for Further Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to examine the past and current developments of the higher education quality control system in Colombia. The extensive quality control reforms of recent years are discussed and conclusions are drawn as to their effectiveness and efficiency. In addition, comparisons are made between Colombia's situation and international examples of higher education systems in Chile, Brazil and the United

Maria Otilia Orozco

2005-01-01

157

Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introducción Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cáncer, no existe suficiente información en la literatura científica sobre su forma de utilización ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta práctica terapéutica. Objetivos Conocer métodos de utilización y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cáncer. Materiales y métodos Diseño cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cáncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Análisis de texto basado en enfoque temático inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cáncer. La forma de utilización mas común es la ingesta de la sangre fresca y el mecanismo de acción asociado es la transferencia de defensas a quien lo consume. Conclusiones La utilización del Coragyps atratus como tratamiento para el cáncer es una terapia alternativa usada popularmente en Colombia. El uso de este animal debe estudiarse más a fondo para conocer los efectos clínicos en los pacientes con cáncer.

2012-01-01

158

Operational fog collection and its role in environmental education and social reintegration: A case study in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental efforts with fog collection in Colombia began eight years ago, and in recent papers we have suggested the implementation of operational fog collection as an alternative to meet water requirements in rural areas of the Andes Mountain Range. Since then, an increasing number of individuals from academia and environmental organizations in the country have shown a remarkable interest on this appropriate technology, and some started its exploration in a larger scale. In this work we describe the implementation process of the first operational fog collection project in Colombia and discuss its role in rural water supply, in environmental education issues and in the process of "social reintegration" of people who have been victims of forced displacement. Both the fog collection evaluation stage and construction and administration of the operational system involved the participation of the community of a rural village. The study zone, located in the Andes Mountains of the Valle del Cauca Department and with altitudes ranging from 2600 to 2800 meters a.s.l., has serious limitations in water availability. Eight standard fog collectors (SFC) were implemented and used during the period May/2008 - Feb/2009 in order to assess the water yield from fog. The best average monthly collection rate in the period of study was around 2.0 l.m-2.day-1. The constructed large fog collector (LFC), with a vertical collection surface of 25 m2, and the associated hydraulic system are currently managed and administered by the village inhabitants. The fog collection system benefits a rural school, and the water is mainly used in small-scale irrigation activities for horticultural crops and livestock development. The project has also brought positive impacts in the community organization, mainly comprising people who have been forced out of their rural homes by the country's nearly half-century old armed conflict. The system also allows agriculture- and environment-related issues to be incorporated in children's current education. We highly recommend exploring this technology in the search for solutions of water and food security for victims of forced displacement in Colombia. Additional efforts to increase the number of LFCs in the study zone are underway.

Escobar, C. M.; Lopez, A.; Aristizabal, H. F.; Molina, J. M.

2010-07-01

159

Colombia an approach to create a national space agency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre- Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phas e of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

Arenales, O.

160

Mössbauer analysis of coal coke samples from Samacá, Boyacá, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three samples of coke produced from coal from a mine in the municipality of Samacá, department of Boyacá, Colombia, were studied essentially with Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were treated with NaOH 5 mol L - 1 in order to increase the proportion of iron oxides, by selectively dissolving silicate minerals and any remaining gibbsite, before the physical analysis. Room temperature Mössbauer data revealed that all samples do contain major proportions (>50 % of the relative subspectral area) of hematite along with (super) paramagnetic species as iron-bearing chemical compounds. The superparamagnetic contribution may be due to very fine grains of iron oxides, including nanometric hematite.

Pacheco Serrano, W. A.; Quintão Lima, D.; Fabris, J. D.

2013-06-01

161

First Detection of Metallo-?-Lactamase VIM-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Carbapenem resistance rates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Colombia, as in many South American countries, are high for reasons that remain unclear. From our nationwide network, we describe the first detection of the metallo-?-lactamase VIM-2 in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from multiple cities within Colombia. Metallo-?-lactamases were not detected in the two centers with the highest imipenem resistance rates. Clonality was noted in five of the eight centers with strains meeting the criteria for molecular typing. The high carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa in Colombia may be attributable to a combination of factors, including the presence of metallo-?-lactamases and nosocomial transmission.

Villegas, Maria Virginia; Lolans, Karen; del Rosario Olivera, Maria; Suarez, Carlos Jose; Correa, Adriana; Queenan, Anne Marie; Quinn, John P.

2006-01-01

162

Políticas del sitio web  

Cancer.gov

En el sitio web del NCI se proporcionan enlaces a otros sitios web con fines informativos y para conveniencia del público. Si el usuario selecciona un sitio web externo, saldrá del sitio web del NCI y estará sujeto a las políticas de privacidad y seguridad de dicho sitio.

163

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed.

Ramirez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunuba, Zulma M.; Florez, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

2013-01-01

164

Spatial pattern recognition of seismic events in South West Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognition of seismogenic zones in geographical regions supports seismic hazard studies. This recognition is usually based on visual, qualitative and subjective analysis of data. Spatial pattern recognition provides a well founded means to obtain relevant information from large amounts of data. The purpose of this work is to identify and classify spatial patterns in instrumental data of the South West Colombian seismic database. In this research, clustering tendency analysis validates whether seismic database possesses a clustering structure. A non-supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm creates groups of seismic events. Given the sensitivity of fuzzy clustering algorithms to centroid initial positions, we proposed a methodology to initialize centroids that generates stable partitions with respect to centroid initialization. As a result of this work, a public software tool provides the user with the routines developed for clustering methodology. The analysis of the seismogenic zones obtained reveals meaningful spatial patterns in South-West Colombia. The clustering analysis provides a quantitative location and dispersion of seismogenic zones that facilitates seismological interpretations of seismic activities in South West Colombia.

Benítez, Hernán D.; Flórez, Juan F.; Duque, Diana P.; Benavides, Alberto; Lucía Baquero, Olga; Quintero, Jiber

2013-09-01

165

Phylogenetic reconstruction of dengue virus type 2 in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever is perhaps the most important viral re-emergent disease especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries, affecting about 50 million people around the world yearly. In Colombia, dengue virus was first detected in 1971 and still remains as a major public health issue. Although four viral serotypes have been recurrently identified, dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) has been involved in the most important outbreaks during the last 20 years, including 2010 when the fatality rate highly increased. As there are no major studies reviewing virus origin and genotype distribution in this country, the present study attempts to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of DENV-2 using a sequence analysis from a 224 bp PCR-amplified product corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of the envelope (E) gene from 48 Colombian isolates. Results As expected, the oldest isolates belonged to the American genotype (subtype V), but the strains collected since 1990 represent the American/Asian genotype (subtype IIIb) as previously reported in different American countries. Interestingly, the introduction of this genotype coincides with the first report of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Colombia at the end of 1989 and the increase of cases during the next years. Conclusion After replacement of the American genotype, several lineages of American/Asian subtype have rapidly spread all over the country evolving in new clades. Nevertheless, the direct association of these new variants in the raise of lethality rate observed during the last outbreak has to be demonstrated.

2012-01-01

166

[The taxonomy and distribution of Nathalis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in Colombia].  

PubMed

In Colombia, Nathalis has two described species: N. iole and N. plauta. Previous authors did not make detailed descriptions of its distribution in meridional regions and failed to differentiate both species based on genitalic characters. Some wing marks have been enough to separate them, but co-specificity was a possibility. They inhabit Colombia above 2000 m in the paramo, and have a vicariant distribution from the remaining population of N. iole in the Antillean and Central and North America. An analysis focused on male and female genitalia, as well as the wing pattern of more than 100 specimens from the Colombian Andes (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Sierra de Perijá) and Mexico, indicates that the two species differ in their genitalia, and considering their allopatric distribution, we support the specific distinction of N. iole and N. plauta. We describe a new endemic subspecies found exclusively in the paramo above 3000 m, an area where other endemics occur. It has phenotypic plasticity related to environmental factors. PMID:20411722

Pulido-B, Hannier W; Andrade-C, M Gonzalo; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

2010-03-01

167

Molecular systematics and phylogeography of Cebus capucinus (Cebidae, Primates) in Colombia and Costa Rica by means of the mitochondrial COII gene.  

PubMed

We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis for the origin and evolution of Cebus capucinus based on an analysis of 710 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) mitochondrial gene in 121 C. capucinus specimens sampled in the wild. The animals came from the borders of Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, and eight different departments of Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Sucre, Bolivar, Córdoba, Magdalena, Cauca, and Valle del Cauca). Three different and significant haplotype lineages were found in Colombia living sympatrically in the same departments. They all presented high levels of gene diversity but the third Colombian gene pool was determined likely to be the most ancestral lineage. The second Colombian mitochondrial (mt) haplogroup is likely the source of origin of the unique Central America mt haplogroup that was detected. Our molecular population genetics data do not agree with the existence of two well-defined subspecies in Central America (limitaneus and imitator). This Central America mt haplogroup showed significantly less genetic diversity than the Colombian mt haplogroups. All the C. capucinus analyzed showed evidence of historical population expansions. The temporal splits among these four C. capucinus lineages were related to the completion of the Panamanian land bridge as well as to climatic changes during the Quaternary Period. PMID:21455949

Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Ledezma, Andrea; Leguizamon, Norberto; Sánchez, Ronald; Chinchilla, Misael; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

2011-03-31

168

78 FR 49972 - Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...49972-49975] [FR Doc No: 2013-19959...Friday, August 16, 2013 / Proposed Rules [[Page...or before October 15, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may...States. Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) from Colombia...

2013-08-16

169

A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

170

Flies (Calliphoridae, Muscidae) and beetles (Silphidae) from human cadavers in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed

Adult specimens of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, Lucilia sp. (Calliphoridae), Musca domestica (Muscidae), Oxelytrum discicolle (Silphidae) and Sarcophagidae were recovered from 12 human cadavers in Cali, Valle, Colombia. Information regarding these findings is presented. PMID:11992165

Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María Elena; Barreto, Pablo

2002-01-01

171

Colombia's Children at Risk of Recruitment into Armed Groups: Exploring a Community Based, Psychosocial Pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protracted violent conflict in Colombia has resulted in the internal displacement of over 4.3 million people (IDMC, 2008) and the enlistment of 11,000 to 14,000 children into one of the guerrilla or paramilitary groups. At least 30 percent of the combatants in Colombia's armed groups are children, and over tens of thousands more child soldiers exist in the world.

Ryan Burgess

2009-01-01

172

Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia.

Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

2010-01-01

173

The relative importance of foreign and domestic shocks to output and prices in Mexico and Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Relative Importance of Foreign and Domestic Shocks to Output and Prices in Mexico and Colombia. — This paper utilizes\\u000a structural VARs to evaluate the relative importance of foreign and domestic sources of variation in output and prices in Mexico\\u000a and Colombia. The real exchange rate and commodity export price have a large impact on both output and prices in

Joseph P. Joyce; Linda Kamas

1997-01-01

174

Two decades of economic and social development in urban Colombia: amixed outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines urban Colombia’s socio-economic development from 1978 to 1999, including analysis of income inequality and welfare, and the evolution of poverty and its determinants. The evidence shows mixed results. First, social progress appears contradictory. Although most of the indicators pertaining to education, health, and infrastructure show substantial long-term improvements during the last two decades, the simultaneous escalation of

Carlos Eduardo VELEZ; Mauricio SANTA MARIA; Natalia MILLAN; Bénédicte DE LA BRIERE

2002-01-01

175

Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia<\\/span>is a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands located on sloping areas, where food crops and cash products such as corn, potato and specially vegetables are cultivated.

N. Urrutia Cobo

2006-01-01

176

Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawai'i, Mexico and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee (Coffea arabica) plant tissues were surface-sterilized and fungal endophytes isolated using standard techniques, followed by DNA extraction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A total of 843 fungal isolates were recovered and sequenced (Colombia, 267; Hawai'i, 393; Mexico, 109; Puerto Rico, 74) yielding 257 unique ITS genotypes (Colombia, 113; Hawai'i, 126; Mexico, 32; Puerto Rico, 40).

Fernando E. Vega; Ann Simpkins; M. Catherine Aime; Francisco Posada; Stephen W. Peterson; Stephen A. Rehner; Francisco Infante; Alfredo Castillo; A. Elizabeth Arnold

2010-01-01

177

History of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.  

PubMed

The formal training of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia started in 1958 at Hospital Sanjos6, thanks to the titanic work of Waldemar Wilhelm, a German-born surgeon who settled in BogotA in 1950. Today there are seven institutions in Colombia that offer residency programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad El Bosque in Bogota. PMID:22916408

Castro-Núñez, Jaime

178

Epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in La Guajira, Colombia, 1995.  

PubMed

In 1995, the first Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) outbreak in Colombia in 22 years caused an estimated 75,000 human cases, 3000 with neurologic complications and 300 fatal, in La Guajira State. Of the state's estimated 50,000 equines, 8% may have died. An epizootic IC virus, probably introduced from Venezuela, was rapidly amplified among unvaccinated equines. Record high rainfall, producing high densities of vector Aedes taeniorhynchus, led to extensive epidemic transmission (30% attack rate) in the four affected municipalities. Native Wayuu Indians, constituting 24% of the state's population, were at increased risk of infection (risk ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-5.3). Epidemiologic studies found no evidence of human-to-human transmission. A higher-than-expected number of abortions during the outbreak confirmed a previously suspected abortifacient role of VEE infection. Pesticide applications and a mass equine vaccination program contributed to preventing the outbreak's spread south of La Guajira. PMID:9086137

Rivas, F; Diaz, L A; Cardenas, V M; Daza, E; Bruzon, L; Alcala, A; De la Hoz, O; Caceres, F M; Aristizabal, G; Martinez, J W; Revelo, D; De la Hoz, F; Boshell, J; Camacho, T; Calderon, L; Olano, V A; Villarreal, L I; Roselli, D; Alvarez, G; Ludwig, G; Tsai, T

1997-04-01

179

Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Colombia  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. Design Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 108 Colombian families. Results Fathers reported higher uncontrollable success attributions and higher authoritarian attitudes than did mothers, whereas mothers reported higher modernity of attitudes than did fathers; only the gender differences related to parental attitudes remained significant after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Medium effect sizes were found for concordance between parents in the same family for attributions regarding uncontrollable success and progressive attitudes after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Conclusions This work elucidates ways that parent gender relates to attributions regarding parents’ success and failure in caregiving and to progressive versus authoritarian parenting attitudes in Colombia.

Di Giunta, Laura; Tirado, Liliana M. Uribe; Marquez, Luz A. Araque

2011-01-01

180

First case report of turcot syndrome type 1 in Colombia.  

PubMed

Turcot syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by the occurrence of primary tumors of the central nervous system and adenomatous colonic polyps during the first or second decades of life, with a spectrum of clinical features such as "café-au-lait" spots, axillary freckling, and hyperpigmented spots. Currently its prevalence globally and in Colombia remains unknown. We present the case of a 20-year-old male with a clinical presentation of both glioblastoma multiforme and multiple adenomatous colonic polyps. The molecular genetics study revealed a mutation in Kras(Asp12) gene and altered expression of HMSH2 and HMSH6 proteins encoded by the DNA mismatch repair genes in two of the colonic polyps. Even though this clinical presentation may suggest a shorter survival rate, this patient is still alive after seven months of treatment. A literature review complements this report. PMID:23320220

Dora, Vallejo; Diego, Garnica; Rómulo, Bonilla; Natalia, Olaya

2012-12-18

181

Colombia's discharge fee program: incentives for polluters or regulators?  

PubMed

Colombia's discharge fee system for water effluents is often held up as a model of a well-functioning, economic incentive pollution control program in a developing country. Yet few objective evaluations of the program have appeared. Based on a variety of primary and secondary data, this paper finds that in its first 5 years, the program was beset by a number of serious problems including limited implementation in many regions, widespread noncompliance by municipal sewerage authorities, and a confused relationship between discharge fees and emissions standards. Nevertheless, in some watersheds, pollution loads dropped significantly after the program was introduced. While proponents claim the incentives that discharge fees created for polluters to cut emissions in a cost-effective manner were responsible, this paper argues that the incentives they created for regulatory authorities to improve permitting, monitoring, and enforcement were at least as important. PMID:18086514

Blackman, Allen

2007-12-20

182

First Case Report of Turcot Syndrome Type 1 in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Turcot syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by the occurrence of primary tumors of the central nervous system and adenomatous colonic polyps during the first or second decades of life, with a spectrum of clinical features such as “café-au-lait” spots, axillary freckling, and hyperpigmented spots. Currently its prevalence globally and in Colombia remains unknown. We present the case of a 20-year-old male with a clinical presentation of both glioblastoma multiforme and multiple adenomatous colonic polyps. The molecular genetics study revealed a mutation in KrasAsp12 gene and altered expression of HMSH2 and HMSH6 proteins encoded by the DNA mismatch repair genes in two of the colonic polyps. Even though this clinical presentation may suggest a shorter survival rate, this patient is still alive after seven months of treatment. A literature review complements this report.

Dora, Vallejo; Diego, Garnica; Romulo, Bonilla; Natalia, Olaya

2012-01-01

183

Climate-based risk models for Fasciola hepatica in Colombia.  

PubMed

A predictive Fasciola hepatica model, based on the growing degree day-water budget (GDD-WB) concept and the known biological requirements of the parasite, was developed within a geographical information system (GIS) in Colombia. Climate-based forecast index (CFI) values were calculated and represented in a national-scale, climate grid (18 x 18 km) using ArcGIS 9.3. A mask overlay was used to exclude unsuitable areas where mean annual temperature exceeded 25 °C, the upper threshold for development and propagation of the F. hepatica life cycle. The model was then validated and further developed by studies limited to one department in northwest Colombia. F. hepatica prevalence data was obtained from a 2008-2010 survey in 10 municipalities of 6,016 dairy cattle at 673 herd study sites, for which global positioning system coordinates were recorded. The CFI map results were compared to F. hepatica environmental risk models for the survey data points that had over 5% prevalence (231 of the 673 sites) at the 1 km2 scale using two independent approaches: (i) a GIS map query based on satellite data parameters including elevation, enhanced vegetation index and land surface temperature day-night difference; and (ii) an ecological niche model (MaxEnt), for which geographic point coordinates of F. hepatica survey farms were used with BioClim data as environmental variables to develop a probability map. The predicted risk pattern of both approaches was similar to that seen in the forecast index grid. The temporal risk, evaluated by the monthly CFIs and a daily GDD-WB forecast software for 2007 and 2008, revealed a major July-August to January transmission period with considerable inter-annual differences. PMID:23032286

Valencia-López, Natalia; Malone, John B; Carmona, Catalina Gómez; Velásquez, Luz E

2012-09-01

184

La virtualización del cuerpo a través del \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hablar de un cuerpo virtualizado es hablar de su problematización y consecuente actualización, una de las principales consecuencias de este proceso de transfiguración del cuerpo estaría marcada por una adjudicación actualizada de un cambio. El cuerpo es simultáneamente un cuerpo-materia prima, modelo físico para la conversión óptico-iconográfica digital, y un cuerpo interfaz, que permite el acceso a la morfogénesis del

Eduardo Castro Pinzón; José Luis Troncoso

2005-01-01

185

Dinámica del Desempeño Académico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo se ocupa del progreso, luego del ingreso, de los estudiantes de la cohorte 2000 de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Si bien hay antecedentes de medición del rendimiento de los estudiantes de la Facultad y sus factores explicativos, se trata de estudios realizados en base a encuestas a alumnos regulares en

Luciano Di Gresia; Alberto Porto

2004-01-01

186

Plan Colombia: Drug Reduction Goals Were Not Fully Met, But Security Has Improved; U.S. Agencies Need More Detailed Plans for Reducing Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1999, the government of Colombia announced a strategy, known as 'Plan Colombia,' to (1) reduce the production of illicit drugs (primarily cocaine) by 50 percent in 6 years and (2) improve security in Colombia by re-claiming control of areas h...

2008-01-01

187

Colombia, Many Countries in One: Economic Growth, Environmental Sustainability, Sociocultural Divergence and Biodiversity. Profile and Paradox. Volumes I and II. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1997 (Colombia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Fulbright Summer Seminar focused on the environmental challenge posed by Colombia's biodiversity and addressed the relationship between the last decade of Colombian economic development and the country's sociocultural situation, taking into account its historical background and the role of natural resources in a context of sustainable…

1997

188

Biochemical Education in Colombia and Peru: Report on IUB Workshops Held in Cali, Colombia, 3-6 July 1990 and Lima, Peru, 9-13 July 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the activities at the International Union of Biochemistry workshops held in Cali, Colombia, and Lima, Peru, during July 1990. Includes background about the education systems at the college level in these two countries, current teaching practices, and recommendations drafted by the workshop participants. (JJK)|

Wood, E. J., Ed.

1991-01-01

189

Libertad de prensa en Colombia: la contradicción en la búsqueda de la verdad Freedom of the Press in Colombia: The Contradiction in the Search for the Truth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freedom of the press in Colombia is an issue ripe with contradiction. There is no consensus among those who govern and the agencies that investigate or monitor this phenomenon. The Media Observatory of the School of Communication conducted a study among journalists throughout the country to provide input for the discussion. It warns of the primary factors and agents that

Juan Carlos Gómez; Juan Camilo Hernández

2008-01-01

190

Contiuous gas monitoring at the volcano Galeras, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(1) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany (e.faber@bgr.de), (2) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia (3) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, Manizales, Colombia A gas monitoring system has been installed on the volcano Galeras in Colombia as part of a multi-parameter station. Gases are extracted from the fumarolic vapour through a short pipe. After the water has been condensed the gas passes over sensors for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and radon. Other parameters measured are temperature of the fumarolic vapour, fumarolic pressure, temperature of the ambient air and the ambient atmospheric pressure. The signals of the sensors are digitised in the electronics. The digital data are transmitted every 6 seconds by a telemetry system to the observatory down in the city of Pasto via a repeater station at the rim of the Galeras. The system at the volcano is powered by batteries connected to solar panels. Data are stored in the observatory, they are plotted and compared with all the other information of the multi-parameter station. Although the various compounds of the gas system are well preserved for the very aggressive environment close to the fumarole some problems still remain: Sulphur often plugs the pipe to the sensors and requires maintenance more often than desired. As the volcano is most of the time in clouds the installed solar power system (about 400 Watts maximum power) does not enable to run the system at the fumarole (consumption about 15 Watts) continuously during all nights. Despite these still existing problems some results have been obtained encouraging us to continue the operation of the system, to further develop the technical quality and to increase the number of fumaroles included into a growing monitoring network. In March 2000 seismic activity in the crater increased accompanied by a small eruption. Several hours before the eruption occurred the usually high CO2-concentration of the fumarolic gas was no longer constant as before but started to oscillate. It continued to oscillate until the seismic events started. Then the CO2-concentration as well as the radon counts decreased and the pressure of the fumarolic vapour increased. Some hours later the seismic activity ceased and the CO2 and radon readings increased again. From other observations it is suggested that meteorological parameters like wind direction and wind speed at the volcano do influence the pressure and flow regime in the conduits of the fumarole. The observations made so far are important to improve the understanding of processes within the volcano. However, more “events” have to be waited for during the coming years before processes in the volcano can be modelled.

Faber, E.; Morán, C.; Poggenburg, J.; Garzón, G.; Teschner, M.; Weinlich, F. H.

2003-04-01

191

77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...notice that the tariff-rate quota for sugar established by the United States-Colombia...establishes a tariff-rate quota for imports of sugar from Colombia. USTR is providing...

2012-04-25

192

Trauma Care Training for National Police Nurses in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction In response to a requirement for advanced trauma care nurses to provide combat tactical medical support, the antinarcotics arm of the Colombian National Police (CNP) requested the Colombian National Prehospital Care Association to develop a Combat Tactical Medicine Course (MEDTAC course). Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of this course in imparting knowledge and skills to the students. Methods We trained 374 combat nurses using the novel MEDTAC course. We evaluated students using pre-and postcourse performance with a 45-question examination. Field simulations and live tissue exercises were evaluated by instructors using a Likert scale with possible choices of 1 to 4. Interval estimation of proportions was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Differences in didactic test scores were assessed using a t-test at 0.05 level of statistical significance. Results Between March 2006 and July 2007, 374 combat nursing students of the CNP were trained. The difference between examination scores before and after the didactic part of the course was statistically significant (p < 0.01). After the practical session of the course, all participants (100%) demonstrated competency on final evaluation. Conclusions The MEDTAC course is an effective option improving the knowledge and skills of combat nurses serving in the CNP. MEDTAC represents a customized approach for military trauma care training in Colombia. This course is an example of specialized training available for groups that operate in austere environments with limited resources.

Rubiano, Andres M.; Sanchez, Alvaro I.; Guyette, Francis; Puyana, Juan C.

2010-01-01

193

[Oral health: social representations among pregnant mothers. Medellin, Colombia].  

PubMed

Based on the theory of social representations, a qualitative investigation was conducted in order to assess social representations in oral heath in pregnant mothers living in an urban environment. Twenty-eight pregnant adult women attending a prenatal program at a health institution in the city of Medellín, Colombia, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded and transcribed; analysis was performed through open, axial and selective coding, in line with grounded theory. Findings revealed that although pregnant mothers are not greatly concerned about oral health after birth and in early childhood, it increases in importance during growth and development of the child when, besides chewing and feeding aspects, it acquires a socially important role. Analysis revealed how social representations anchored in tradition, with new elements from health professional discourses as well as mass media influences coexist in mothers in an urban environment. These include the close relationship between oral health and teeth, health linked to healthy practices as well as recourse to health services and oral health as a social advantage, related to esthetic aspects. PMID:22124835

Escobar-Paucar, Gloria; Sosa-Palacio, Catalina; Sánchez-Mejía, Angela

2011-11-01

194

A preliminary study of forensic entomology in Medellín, Colombia.  

PubMed

This is the first report of an ongoing study of insect succession on carrion carried out in Medellín, Colombia, using pigs (Sus scrofa) as a model to determine the insect sequence over 207 days. During this period, 2314 insects belonging to the following orders and families were collected: Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Otitidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae, Formicidae, Halictidae, Mutilidae, Vespidae; Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Nitidulidae; Dermaptera: Forficulidae; Hemyptera: Gelastocoridae, Coreidae; Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae. Five decomposition stages were observed (fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay, and dry remains) and four insect ecological categories (necrophagous, predators, omnivorous, and incidental). During the fresh stage, the first insects that appeared were flies of the families Sarcophagidae and Muscidae and specimens of Formicidae (Hymenoptera). During the bloated period, species of Calliphoridae (Diptera) were predominant and the first to oviposit. During the third and fourth stages (active decay and advanced decay), the most abundant families were Calliphoridae and Muscidae, although Staphilinidae (Coleoptera) also stood out. During the last stage (dry remains), the dominant family was Formicidae (Hymenoptera) followed by Dermestidae (Coleoptera) with a large number of immature insects. PMID:11457610

Wolff, M; Uribe, A; Ortiz, A; Duque, P

2001-08-15

195

[Thirty years of homicides in Medellín, Colombia, 1979-2008].  

PubMed

In Medellín, Colombia, homicides have been the leading cause of death since 1986. Their proportion among total deaths increased from 3.5% in 1976 to 42% in 1991 and subsequently decreased to 7% in 2006. From 1979 to 2008, there were 81,166 homicides (annual mean, 2,706). The homicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants were 44 in 1979 and 47 in 2008, with a peak of 388 in 1991. The current article analyzes homicides in 30 years (1979-2008) using a random sample of 3,414 forensic autopsy reports. The vast majority of victims were males, 92.8% (95%CI: 91.8%; 93.6%), mostly low-income young people from 27 to 33 years of age. Most homicides involved revenge, fights, or armed robberies. The study showed different periods in the homicide epidemic: the first 15 years, with a rapid increase, the second, with a steady decline until 1998, and the third, with a fluctuating but overall steep decline in the last 10 years. This long-term study on violence in Medellin opens possibilities for analyzing and identifying more consistent policies for intervention. PMID:23033185

García, Héctor Iván; Giraldo, Carlos Alberto; López, María Victoria; Pastor, María del Pilar; Cardona, Marleny; Tapias, Clara Eugenia; Cuartas, Deiman; Gómez, Vanessa; Vera, Claudia Yaneth

2012-09-01

196

Anthropometric measurements by ethnicity in Colombia, 1965-1990.  

PubMed

We analyzed the evolution of height in Colombia of cohorts born in the period 1965-1990 by ethnic groups. We found that Afro-Colombian men and women were the tallest: 6cm taller than indigenous people and 2cm taller than the rest of the population. We also found that the height gap between Afro-Colombians and others decreased during the period under study by 0.7cm for both men and women. While improvements were noticeable among the Afro-Colombians and those who chose not to be classified by ethnicity, in the case of the indigenous population only female cohorts registered an average-height increase of 1.5cm. Moreover, we found that indigenous Colombians were more likely than other ethnic groups to experience an increase in biological well-being as a consequence of an improvement in their socio-economic status, thereby reducing the average-stature gap between them and the rest of the population by 2.1 and 3.6cm for men and women, respectively. PMID:23602686

Acosta, Karina; Meisel, Adolfo

2013-04-01

197

The Garzon fault: active southwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose active right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Garzon fault zone of the Neiva basin, Colombia, based on the identification of two active right-stepping releasing bend basins along the fault using stereoscopic analysis of 1/250 000 SPOT images. The Garzon fault connects the Bocono-Pamplona-Guaicaramo fault zones of Venezuela and Colombia with the Romeral, Dolores and Guayaquil faults of Colombia. Together these faults form a continuous, active right-lateral fault between accreted terranes in northwestern South America and a more stable South America plate. We infer 5-km right-lateral offset of the Garzon fault based on the width of the Algeciras releasing bend basin.

Chorowicz, J.; Chotin, P.; Guillande, R.

198

The Garzon fault: active southwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose active right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Garzon fault zone of the Neiva basin, Colombia, based on the identification of two active right-stepping releasing bend basins along the fault using stereoscopic analysis of 1/250000 SPOT images. The Garzon fault connects the Bocono-Pamplona-Guaicaramo fault zones of Venezuela and Colombia with the Romeral, Dolores and Guayaquil faults of Colombia. Together these faults form a continuous, active right-lateral fault between accreted terranes in northwestern South America and a more stable South America plate. We infer 5-km right-lateral offset of the Garzon fault based on the width of the Algeciras releasing bend basin.

Chorowicz, J.; Chotin, P.; Guillande, R.

1996-03-01

199

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia  

PubMed Central

The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest.

Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Emilio J.

2013-01-01

200

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia.  

PubMed

The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest. PMID:24130438

Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Emilio J

2013-08-30

201

[Sterilization determinants and their demographic effect on Colombia and Costa Rica].  

PubMed

This article is based on data gathered during contraceptive prevalence surveys carried out in Costa Rica and Colombia in 1978, and in 1980 in Colombia and 1981 in Costa Rica. The groups studied consisted of women aged 14-49, and ranged in population from n=3,400 to n=4,580. Colombia Ministry of Health policy limits access to sterilization to couples over 30 with at least 3 children. Profamilia, private family planning organization, has similar though less stringent norms. The majority of sterilizations are of females. Sterilization has come under some attack by the Roman Catholic church, family planning programs continue to be viable. In Costa Rica, sterilization has not been practiced as a family planning method officially, but was performed by the national social service system as well as private providers when it was medically indicated. Since 1982, sterilization has been illegal in Costa Rica. Comparing the 2 countries, the Colombian sterilization rate rose from about 17/1000 ever married women in 1970 to 19.8 in 1980. The rate for Costa Rica rose to 21.6 in 1976, after which there was an attempt to restrict the practice. The effects of the restriction had become negligible by 1980. Women married for 19-20 years were the group with the highest % of sterilizations in both countries. Women with 6 or more live children in Costa Rica, and 4 in Colombia, women 30-39 in Colombia and 35-44 in Costa Rica, women having previously used contraceptives and women in urban areas were more likely sterilized. It is projected that a high potential demand for sterilization exists in Colombia, but the demand in Costa Rica is considerably less. The acceptor characteristics (e.g. years married, age) are quite similar for the 2 countries. Generally speaking, fertility is higher among sterilized women in both countries. PMID:12267934

Hollerbach, P E

1986-01-01

202

A preliminary survey of the epidemiology of bluetongue in Costa Rica and northern Colombia.  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence of bluetongue (BT) virus infection of livestock in scattered localities in the neotropics prompted a serologic survey of cattle in Colombia and Costa Rica. In Costa Rica 48.1% of 1435 bovine animals had BT virus antibody in the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). In Colombia 51.8% of 635 cattle were AGPT-positive for BT virus. Antibody prevalence ranged from over 50% in the lowlands to 0% in Costa Rica and 19% in Colombian cattle above 2000 m altitude. Neutralization tests indicated that Costa Rican cattle had been exposed to BT virus types 6, 12, 14 and 17.

Homan, E. J.; Lorbacher de Ruiz, H.; Donato, A. P.; Taylor, W. P.; Yuill, T. M.

1985-01-01

203

Secondary syphilis in cali, Colombia: new concepts in disease pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18-68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with SS, a reactive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR-titer > or = 1 : 4), and a confirmatory treponemal test (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption test- FTA-ABS). Most subjects enrolled were women (64.9%), predominantly Afro-Colombian (38.6%) or mestizo (56.1%), and all were of low socio-economic status. Three (5.3%) subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV infection at study entry. The duration of signs and symptoms in most patients (53.6%) was less than 30 days; however, some patients reported being symptomatic for several months (range 5-240 days). The typical palmar and plantar exanthem of SS was the most common dermal manifestation (63%), followed by diffuse hypo- or hyperpigmented macules and papules on the trunk, abdomen and extremities. Three patients had patchy alopecia. Whole blood (WB) samples and punch biopsy material from a subset of SS patients were assayed for the presence of Tp DNA polymerase I gene (polA) target by real-time qualitative and quantitative PCR methods. Twelve (46%) of the 26 WB samples studied had quantifiable Tp DNA (ranging between 194.9 and 1954.2 Tp polA copies/ml blood) and seven (64%) were positive when WB DNA was extracted within 24 hours of collection. Tp DNA was also present in 8/12 (66%) skin biopsies available for testing. Strain typing analysis was attempted in all skin and WB samples with detectable Tp DNA. Using arp repeat size analysis and tpr RFLP patterns four different strain types were identified (14d, 16d, 13d and 22a). None of the WB samples had sufficient DNA for typing. The clinical and microbiologic observations presented herein, together with recent Cali syphilis seroprevalence data, provide additional evidence that venereal syphilis is highly endemic in this region of Colombia, thus underscoring the need for health care providers in the region to be acutely aware of the clinical manifestations of SS. This study also provides, for the first time, quantitative evidence that a significant proportion of untreated SS patients have substantial numbers of circulating spirochetes. How Tp is able to persist in the blood and skin of SS patients, despite the known presence of circulating treponemal opsonizing antibodies and the robust pro-inflammatory cellular immune responses characteristic of this stage of the disease, is not fully understood and requires further study. PMID:20502522

Cruz, Adriana R; Pillay, Allan; Zuluaga, Ana V; Ramirez, Lady G; Duque, Jorge E; Aristizabal, Gloria E; Fiel-Gan, Mary D; Jaramillo, Roberto; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Valencia, Carlos; Jagodzinski, Linda; Cox, David L; Radolf, Justin D; Salazar, Juan C

2010-05-18

204

Secondary Syphilis in Cali, Colombia: New Concepts in Disease Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18–68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with SS, a reactive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR-titer ?1?4), and a confirmatory treponemal test (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption test- FTA-ABS). Most subjects enrolled were women (64.9%), predominantly Afro-Colombian (38.6%) or mestizo (56.1%), and all were of low socio-economic status. Three (5.3%) subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV infection at study entry. The duration of signs and symptoms in most patients (53.6%) was less than 30 days; however, some patients reported being symptomatic for several months (range 5–240 days). The typical palmar and plantar exanthem of SS was the most common dermal manifestation (63%), followed by diffuse hypo- or hyperpigmented macules and papules on the trunk, abdomen and extremities. Three patients had patchy alopecia. Whole blood (WB) samples and punch biopsy material from a subset of SS patients were assayed for the presence of Tp DNA polymerase I gene (polA) target by real-time qualitative and quantitative PCR methods. Twelve (46%) of the 26 WB samples studied had quantifiable Tp DNA (ranging between 194.9 and 1954.2 Tp polA copies/ml blood) and seven (64%) were positive when WB DNA was extracted within 24 hours of collection. Tp DNA was also present in 8/12 (66%) skin biopsies available for testing. Strain typing analysis was attempted in all skin and WB samples with detectable Tp DNA. Using arp repeat size analysis and tpr RFLP patterns four different strain types were identified (14d, 16d, 13d and 22a). None of the WB samples had sufficient DNA for typing. The clinical and microbiologic observations presented herein, together with recent Cali syphilis seroprevalence data, provide additional evidence that venereal syphilis is highly endemic in this region of Colombia, thus underscoring the need for health care providers in the region to be acutely aware of the clinical manifestations of SS. This study also provides, for the first time, quantitative evidence that a significant proportion of untreated SS patients have substantial numbers of circulating spirochetes. How Tp is able to persist in the blood and skin of SS patients, despite the known presence of circulating treponemal opsonizing antibodies and the robust pro-inflammatory cellular immune responses characteristic of this stage of the disease, is not fully understood and requires further study.

Cruz, Adriana R.; Pillay, Allan; Zuluaga, Ana V.; Ramirez, Lady G.; Duque, Jorge E.; Aristizabal, Gloria E.; Fiel-Gan, Mary D.; Jaramillo, Roberto; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Valencia, Carlos; Jagodzinski, Linda; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Salazar, Juan C.

2010-01-01

205

Synanthropy of sarcophagidae (Diptera) in La Pintada, Antioquia-Colombia.  

PubMed

Recently, populations of flies have increased in numbers given the elevated levels of organic matter waste produced by anthropic activities and domestication of animals. Such increase represents a worldwide health concern, since flies can be vectors of human diseases. The great variety of feeding and developmental habits of flies of the family Sarcophagidae taking place on animal corpses, feces and decomposed organic matter make them potential vectors of pathogens. Herein, we evaluated the synanthropic index (SI), as well as other ecological aspects of this family, through simultaneous monthly samplings in three areas with different degrees of human disturbance (urban, rural and forest). Each area had four van Someren Rydon traps, each one with a different bait (i.e., human feces, chicken viscera, fish and decomposing onion). Traps were active during 48 hours each month, and specimen collection was made every 12 hours. A total of 7 446 Sarcophagidae individuals were collected (1275 males and 6171 females), belonging to 27 species and nine genera. Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) canuta (Sl = +96.67), Oxysarcodexia taitensis (SI = +93.85), Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (SI = +90.00) and Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) occidua (SI = +88.76) exhibited the highest values of synanthropy index, revealing a strong preference for human settlements. The most abundant species were Oxysarcodexia conclausa (21.80%), Ravinia effrenata (18.67%), Oxysarcodexia bakeri (11.45%) and Oxysarcodexia taitensis (10.20%), all of which exhibited preference for urban environments. Additionally, we are reporting seven new records of Sarcophagid flies for Colombia: Oxysarcodexia angrensis, Oxysarcodexia bakeri, Oxysarcodexia diana, Oxysarcodexia similata, Oxysarcodexia timida, Peckia (Peckia) pexata and Titanogrypa (Cucullomyia) placida. PMID:24027923

Yepes-Gaurisas, Daniela; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan David; de Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes; Wolff Echeverri, Marta

2013-09-01

206

Oceanographic coral records from South Western Caribbean: Isla Fuerte, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southwestern corner of the Caribbean Sea is considered a coastal warm pool oceanographically linked to the Panama Colombia Gyre. The atmosphere - ocean variability there is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITZC), the Andean river runoff, the northeasterly trade winds, and a tropical low level jet (San Andrés jet), all of them connected to global variability. This warm pool has a significant (>95%) warming trend (0.6°C between 1981 and 2000), with the warmest record just in front of the Sinu River, where Isla Fuerte is located, 11 km from the coast, to the western of Sinu Delta. Sea surface temperature (SST) and the Multivariate ENSO index have a significant (>95%) correlation of 0.4 with a 7 months lag. The Sinu River flow does not show a long trend between 1985 and 2000, but has a significant correlation with ENSO (0.5) with no lag. Two corals from Isla Fuerte, a Siderastrea siderea colony with a maximum length of 72.5 cm and a Montastrea annularis colony of 30.5 cm, were studied in order to test the climatic potential of these records and to understand the oceanographic variability at the SW Caribbean. Fluorescence has better resolution than density bands in both corals. Chronology based on them indicates an age of 127 and 32 years respectively. We present and discuss growth and Sr/Ca series. The signal is produced by the interaction between the river flow and local winds. The river reaches the island when northeastern winds deflect their plume to the east. However, there are not in situ instrumental records for calibration and interpretation of the signals and we used world data bases with low spatial resolution.

Bernal, G.; Qiceno, M.; Hughen, K.; Urrego, L.

2009-04-01

207

Epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the oriental plains of Colombia.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies to define the domiciliary and extradomiciliary transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in the Oriental Plains of Colombia were conducted in the gallery forests near Carimagua and El Porvenir. One-hundred and seven palm trees belonging to nine genera were examined; triatomines were found in only three palm species, the leaves of which are locally used for roof thatching: 2/29 Maximiliana elegans, 1/7 Mauritia flexuosa and 7/7 Scheelea sp. Bugs were also found in 5/14 hollow Mauritia inhabited by bats, 4/21 bird nests and 1/4 armadillo burrows. Five species of triatomines were collected: Rhodnius prolixus was the most abundant, 192 of the total 207 (92%) collected; the bugs were found in Maximiliana and Mauritia but especially in Scheelea, and 8% were infected with T. cruzi and T. rangeli; Cavenicola pilosa and Triatoma maculata were found associated with bats; Psammolestes arthuri and Panstrongylus lignarius with bird nests and Panstrongylus geniculatus with armadillos. Although triatomine colonies were not found in human dwellings, flying adults of R. prolixus occasionally reached houses by their own locomotion and fed on man, but did not become established. Only 12 of 199 persons (6%) tested serologically were reactors to T. cruzi antigens and all 12 had lived in areas of domiciliary transmission elsewhere in the country, indicating that domiciliary transmission is not occurring in this region. Whether the presence of domiciliary R. prolixus in houses located in the ecologically altered piedmont of the oriental plains, a known area of domiciliary transmission of T. cruzi, is due to importation of domiciliary bugs from endemic areas or to the domiciliarization of wild R. prolixus remains to be determined. PMID:6439062

D'Alessandro, A; Barreto, P; Saravia, N; Barreto, M

1984-11-01

208

Estructura y dinámica del manglar del delta del río Ranchería, Caribe colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure and dynamics of the mangrove forest in the Ranchería river delta, Colombian Caribbean. We registered seedling survival and biomass increase for Rhizophora mangle L., Avicennia ger- minans L. and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., main mangrove species in the Rancheria River delta, Colombia. Only seedlings of R. mangle were found to survive. We also measured maximum rate of litterfall.

Luisa Fernanda; Lema Vélez; Jaime Polanía

2007-01-01

209

Urbanization in Colombia. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This survey paper will deal with the form and possible explanations of Colombia's urban diversity; the conscious effort to encourage it which is taking place both in the national government and in the regions and cities themselves; with the international interest in the phenomenon and the supportive efforts which follow; and with the relatively…

Robin, John P.; Terzo, Frederick C.

210

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Psychoactive Drug Use among High School Students in Bogota, Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated health behaviors practiced by 10th graders in Bogota, Colombia. Data from a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that there was a high use of gateway substances (tobacco and alcohol) among respondents, but lower usage, when compared to U.S. students, of other mind-altering substances such as marijuana,…

Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda

2000-01-01

211

Adolescents' Expectations for Higher Education in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on status attainment models, the authors examine the effects of family, peer, and school factors on expectations to graduate from a university for a sample of high school students in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia. The expansion of higher education in these countries has followed different strategies. In Bolivia, the policy has…

Forste, Renata; Heaton, Tim B.; Haas, David W.

2004-01-01

212

Media bias and central bank response. Evidence from the nominal exchange rate behavior in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia introduced a market-determined Nominal Exchange Rate (NER) with the US Dollar in 1991, after more than 20 years of controlled and multiple exchange rates. The first nine years the NER was set by an exchange rate band system, since 1999 the exchange rate is determined in a “dirty float” market. The behavior (revaluation \\/ devaluation) of the NER is

Rodrigo Taborda

2011-01-01

213

Mercury levels in muscle of some fish species from the Dique Channel, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Gold mining is an activity that has been increasing during the last ten years in Colombia. Most mining activities are carried out using mercury for gold amalgamation. In a recent publication we stated that in the Sur de Bolivar, the main gold mining zone in Colombia, the highest mercury concentration in hair was observed in fishermen. The Magdalena River, the largest and most important river in Colombia, receives all this contamination and carries it to the Atlantic Ocean through two means: The main river course and the Dique Channel. The Dique Channel is surrounded by many marshes, which are a major source of fish for nearly two hundred thousands people in northwestern Colombia. The goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the content of mercury in muscle tissue of the four most popular fish species purchased in some towns along the Dique Channel, to establish whether these concentrations fall within the WHO guidelines, and to identify those species which can be consumed with less risk. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Olivero, J.; Navas, V.; Perez, A. [Univ. of Cartagena (Colombia)] [and others

1997-06-01

214

United States and Colombia: The Journey from Ambiguity to Strategic Clarity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been a remarkable turnaround in the policy of the United States towards Colombia. It has gone from an exclusive focus on counter narcotics to a comprehensive recognition of that nation's deeply-rooted problems. The factors that drove this change...

G. Marcella

2003-01-01

215

Molecular organic geochemistry of the Apiay field in the Llanos basin, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk properties and molecular organic geochemical composition for crude oils from the Apiay, Suria and Reforma/Libertad producer areas, which integrate the Apiay field located in the southwest area of the Llanos Basin in Colombia were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID), isotopic analysis and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis.

Cortes, J. E.; Niño, J. E.; Polo, J. A.; Tobo, A. G.; Gonzalez, C.; Siachoque, S. C.

2013-11-01

216

Pequeños científicos program: STEM K5-K12 education in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Colombian national ST EM program, promoted by a networ k of 10 Colombian universities, coordinated by University of the Andes in Bogotá, Colombia and their engineering and education schools, oriented towards the professional development of science and technology teachers from primary and secondary schools. This initiative, the Pequeños Científicos Program (little scientist) has achieved high national

Mauricio Duque; Jose Tiberio Hernandez; Margarita Gomez; Claudia Vasquez

2011-01-01

217

Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHow do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area

German Forero-Medina; Lucas Joppa

2010-01-01

218

Endangered Species Protection: A Proposal to Modify the Legislation in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (“CITES”) is praised as a successful international treaty in protecting and preserving endangered species. However, the effectiveness of CITES is reliant upon member States enforcing and implementing CITES provisions. Colombia has enacted laws implementing CITES but has experienced an increase in the number of endangered species despite

Adriana Campuzano

2000-01-01

219

Drug Control: U. S. Assistance to Colombia Will Take Years to Produce Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For more than two decades, the United States has supported Colombias efforts to reduce drug-trafficking activities and to stem the flow of illegal drugs into the United States. The U.S. National Drug Control Strategy calls for a 15-percent reduction in th...

2000-01-01

220

Frecuencia de lesiones gástricas halladas post mortem en cerdos en la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this study the macroscopic inspection of 900 stomachs from pigs slaughtered in an abattoir at Medellin (Colombia) were performed, with the aim to determine the frequency of gastric injuries. Sample size calculation was made on the basis of an infinite population with a 99.7% confidence interval and a 5% alpha error. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistic

Berardo de J Rodríguez; Diego Aranzazu Taborda; Francisco Valencia; Oscar I Franco; Laura C Ortiz

221

Perceptions of Connectedness: Public Access Computing and Social Inclusion in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the benefits public access computers (PAC) offer users, one stands apart: stronger personal connections with friends and family. A closer look at the results of a qualitative study among users of libraries, telecenters, and cybercafes in Colombia, South America, shows that social media and personal relationships can also have an important community and sociopolitical dimension. By fostering a

Luis Fernando Baron; Ricardo Gomez

2012-01-01

222

Comparison of Offenders with Early and Late-Starting Antisocial Behavior in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 223 detained offenders in five cities in Colombia, South America, were divided according to childhood or adolescent onset of antisocial behavior and compared on type of offense, characteristics of family of origin, and personal history. No significant differences were found as to type of offense committed between these two groups, but individuals with childhood onset of antisocial

Joanne Klevens; Ofelia Restrepo; Juanita Roca; Adriana Martinez

2000-01-01

223

Consolidating Security and Development in Colombia: Lessons for Peru and Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia's increasingly effective efforts to mitigate the power of the FARC and other illegitimately armed groups in the country can offer important lessons for the Peruvian government as it strives to prevent a resurgence of Sendero Luminoso and other illegal non-state actors. Both countries share certain particular challenges: deep economic, social, and in the case of Peru ethnic divisions, the

Ambassador Peter DeShazo

2010-01-01

224

From Failure to Success: Tapping the Creative Energy of Sikuani Culture in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a participatory research project among the Sikuani Indians of Colombia that uncovered solutions to a failing government-imposed health program. Discusses promoting community involvement in and control of its own health care, integrating traditional and modern medical practices, and adapting national health dictums to local circumstances.…

Herrera, Xochitl; Lobo-Guerrero, Miguel

1988-01-01

225

CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF MOSQUITO NETS AGAINST MALARIA IN THE AMAZON REGION OF COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of effectiveness of mosquito nets against malaria in the Americas has remained uncertain. We carried out a case-control study of net use and mild malaria in the Amazonas state of Colombia. Two hundred ninety cases were enrolled via the Health Department services, and 977 community-based controls matched for age, sex, and place of residence. We found that a

NEAL ALEXANDER; MAURICIO RODRÍGUEZ; LIGIA PÉREZ; JUAN CARLOS CAICEDO; JESÚS CRUZ; GUILLERMO PRIETO; JOSÉ ANTONIO ARROYO; MARIA CRISTINA COTACIO; MARTHA SUÁREZ; FERNANDO DE LA HOZ; ANDREW J. HALL

2005-01-01

226

Citizenship Education as a Response to Colombia's Social and Political Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the difficult social, economic and political problems that Colombia faces, such as inequality, discrimination, weak civil society--fuelled by illegality and drug trafficking--the Colombian Ministry of Education has embarked on an ambitious citizenship education program, with the hope of strengthening the role of education by…

Jaramillo, Rosario; Mesa, Jose A.

2009-01-01

227

Colombia's Economic Recession: The Impact of Guerrilla Violence, Illicit Drug Trafficking, and the 1991 Constitution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colombia has tolerated for almost fifty years the oldest guerrilla movements in the region, but at the same time the country has showed stable economic growth up until 1998. Now, in the face of an economic recession, the puzzle is to establish which of th...

P. A. Acosta

2001-01-01

228

Why justice is unresponsive to crime: The case of cocaine in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, over ninety percent of all crimes in Colombia have gone unpunished. This paper addresses the reasons for this extreme unresponsiveness of the country's judicial system to high rates of violence, in particular since the end of the seventies when drug trafficking became a major source of crime. A model of justice provision is presented where the reaction

Juan Carlos Echeverry; Zeinab Partow

2005-01-01

229

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in biological samples from the north coast of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds are widespread pollutants of toxicological importance that have been detected in environmental matrices. However, little is known on their distribution in South America. In this study, distribution of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was determined in the bile of mullet, Mugil incilis, and in tissues of pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) collected from North Colombia.

Jesus Olivero-Verbel; Lin Tao; Boris Johnson-Restrepo; Jorge Guette-Fernández; Rosa Baldiris-Avila; Indira O'byrne-Hoyos; Kurunthachalam Kannan

2006-01-01

230

SocioEconomic Development and Violence: An Empirical Application for Seven Metropolitan Areas in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work uses several empirical approaches to examine the effects of poverty and inequality on violence in the seven metropolitan areas in Colombia. To this end, this study describes the main determinants of violence in these cities; these determinants are all fundamental features of social instability. For this description, this paper uses several econometric approximations to compare and determine an

Alexander Cotte Poveda

2011-01-01

231

Economic Development, Inequality and Poverty: An Analysis of Urban Violence in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses some determinants of urban violence in seven major Colombian cities. The empirical research is intended to explore variations in violence across these Colombian cities and the influence of these variations on Colombia's economic development. In this study, several econometric data panel models and various estimate types are applied to control heterogeneity across the cities and to address

Alexander Cotte Poveda

2011-01-01

232

La política de vivienda de interés social en Colombia en los noventa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analiza el desarrollo de la política de vivienda de interés social en Colombia a partir de 1991, cuando se adoptó el sistema de subsidios a la demanda. Este sistema sustituyó al antiguo esquema en el cual el Estado era directamente constructor de viviendas, proveedor de créditos y de subsidios. La nueva política persigue incrementar la demanda efectiva de

María Luisa Chiappe de Villa

1999-01-01

233

Bullet Proof? Program Evaluation in Conflict Areas: Evidence from Rural Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCT) became increasingly popular in developing countries due to their positive outcomes on health and education. In this paper, we are particularly interested in testing if children participating in CCT (treated) in conflict affected regions benefit more (or less) than their counterparts in peaceful areas. To test this, we combine longitudinal CCT data from Colombia

Nina Wald; Carlos Bozzoli

2011-01-01

234

PIXE analysis and fission track dating of obsidian from South American prehispanic cultures (Colombia, Ecuador)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we have coupled PIXE with fission track dating to characterise obsidian artefacts from about 40 archaeological sites of Colombia and Ecuador. PIXE analysis, carried out with the external beam line of the AGLAE tandem accelerator, yields the content in about 15 elements with Z>8, whereas fission track dating is applied to ages in excess of about

L. Bellot-Gurlet; Th. Calligaro; O. Dorighel; J.-C Dran; G. Poupeau; J. Salomon

1999-01-01

235

Novel VIM Metallo-?-Lactamase Variant, VIM-24, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from Colombia?  

PubMed Central

We report the emergence of a novel VIM variant (VIM-24) in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in Colombia. The isolate displays MICs for carbapenems below the resistance breakpoints, posing a real challenge for its detection. The blaVIM-24 gene was located within a class 1 integron carried on a large plasmid. Further studies are needed to clarify its epidemiological and clinical impact.

Montealegre, Maria Camila; Correa, Adriana; Briceno, David F.; Rosas, Natalia C.; De La Cadena, Elsa; Ruiz, Sory J.; Mojica, Maria F.; Camargo, Ruben Dario; Zuluaga, Ivan; Marin, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Villegas, Maria Virginia

2011-01-01

236

First Identification of OXA-72 Carbapenemase from Acinetobacter pittii in Colombia  

PubMed Central

OXA-72 has been reported in few countries around the world. We report the first case in Colombia in an Acinetobacter pittii clinical isolate. The arrival of a new OXA, into a country with high endemic resistance, poses a significant threat, especially because the potential for widespread dissemination is considerable.

Montealegre, Maria Camila; Maya, Juan Jose; Correa, Adriana; Espinal, Paula; Mojica, Maria F.; Ruiz, Sory J.; Rosso, Fernando; Vila, Jordi; Quinn, John P.

2012-01-01

237

The Military Dimension of the War on Drugsin Mexico and Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Armed Forces of Colombia andMexico have characteristics thatdifferentiate them from the rest of theirLatin American counterparts. They areatypical armed forces that are shaped bythe realities of their contemporarypolitical history. The failure of lawenforcement institutions has forced bothmilitaries to take on the mission ofcombating drug trafficking andinternational criminal cartels. In orderfor these militaries to successfullyaccomplish this mission, they must besubordinated

Marcos Pablo Moloeznik

2003-01-01

238

Experiences with Concrete Block Paving through 18 Years of Labor-Intensive Programs in Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concrete Block Paving (CB Paving), as many other foreign technologies, have to be adapted when transferred to developing countries, if they are intended to survive and prosper. It has been crucial for the success of CB Paving in Colombia, permeating every...

G. G. Madrid

1994-01-01

239

Deaths and injuries in the eruption of Galeras Volcano, Colombia, 14 January 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six volcanologists and three tourists were killed in the crater of Galeras Volcano, Colombia, when it erupted without warning. The scientists were attending the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Workshop which had been convened to improve monitoring, research and disaster mitigation at Galeras, at the time the most active and one of the most hazardous volcanoes in

Peter J. Baxter; Austin Gresham

1997-01-01

240

Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water

W. Steigelmann; S. Neyeloff

1981-01-01

241

Structure and tectonics of the central segment of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, a new structural model constrained by field data, paleontologic determinations, and interpretations of seismic reflection profiles is proposed. The model implies 70km of shortening, including reactivation of basement structures as inverse faults in both flanks of the chain. These faults propagated within the lower Cretaceous strata, inducing passively rooted and transported thrust sheets as

Martín Cortés; Bernard Colletta; Jacques Angelier

2006-01-01

242

Reviews of National Policies for Education: Tertiary Education in Colombia 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Colombia, the beginning of a new century has brought with it a palpable feeling of optimism. Colombians and visitors sense that the country's considerable potential can be realised, and education is rightly seen as crucial to this process. As opportunities expand, Colombians will need new and better skills to respond to new challenges and…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

2013-01-01

243

Market impact on cassava's development potential in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of markets on agricultural development was analyzed by means of a case study on cassava in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia. In the development process, the demand for agricultural products changes considerably. Traditional food products, such as roots and tubers, face a decreasing demand in the course of urbanization and income growth. Feed grains and animal products

W. G. Janssen

1986-01-01

244

Morphological Analysis of Three Populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Nuneztovari Gabaldon (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the results of comparative analyses of 1,039 specimens of several progenies of Anopheles nuneztovari from three localities in Colombia, eight costal wing spot patterns were observed. Patterns I and III were the most frequent: 77.96% and 11.36%, r...

D. Lopez M. F. Ramos M. F. Suarez R. Wilkerson R. G. Obando

2008-01-01

245

PYROCLASTIC FLOW MODELING TO RECONSTRUCT A VOLCANIC EDIFICE IN PAIPA (BOYACÁ-COLOMBIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyroclastic deposits produced by the domes collapse (resurgence of a caldera collapse), at the west of the Honda Grande creek (Paipa, Boyacá-Colombia) were related by INGEOMINAS. These deposits fill the valleys of Olitas, Calderitas and a creek at the south of the Alto de los Volcanes reaching distances near to 3 km from the focus between the Alto de los

Óscar Rodríguez; Milton Obando; Luis Castillo; Héctor Cepeda

246

Piercing the Bubble: How Management Students Can Confront Poverty in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the current relationship between management education in Colombia and the efforts of the management program at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in Medellin to reduce local poverty. The article uses the metaphor of "the bubble" to illustrate how social class, family socialization, and the current UPB management…

Rosenbloom, Al; Cortes, Juan Alejandro

2008-01-01

247

Colombia: aumento de las exportaciones y sus efectos sobre el crecimiento, empleo y pobreza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia reduced import protection along with explicit export promotion schemes in the early 1990s. Capital flows were liberalized although some restrictions on short-term inflows were retained to reduce volatility. Output growth was led by exports in the second half of the 1980s, but the rise in capital inflows and the related real exchange rate appreciation, triggered a domestic demand boom

Sánchez Fabio y Hernández Gustavo Adolfo

2004-01-01

248

Spacio-temporal history of the deep Colombia earthquake of 1970  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep Colombia earthquake of July 31, 1970, showed a very high multiple-shock activity. The hypocentres of the seven events forming the multiple shock were determined by a relative location method. They cluster on a plane which coincides fairly well with the westerly-dipping nodal plane and show a southwards and upwards migration with time. The hypocentre distribution suggests that the

Muneyoshi Furumoto

1977-01-01

249

Gender differences in competitiveness and risk taking: Comparing children in Colombia and Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore gender differences in preferences for competition and risk among children aged 9–12 in Colombia and Sweden, two countries differing in gender equality according to macro indices. We include four types of tasks that vary in gender stereotyping when looking at competitiveness: running, skipping rope, math and word search. We find that boys and girls are equally competitive in

Juan-Camilo Cárdenas; Anna Dreber; Emma von Essen; Eva Ranehill

2010-01-01

250

Building a roadmap for the implementation of marine renewable energy in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine renewable energy presents itself as a reliable, clean and abundant source of energy. However, its harnessing is highly dependent on the local oceanographic and environmental conditions, and there are still many research challenges to produce electric power in a commercial scale. This work strives to build a road map for harnessing marine renewable energy for Colombia, taking into account

A. F. Osorio; P. Agudelo; J. Correa; L. Otero; S. Ortega; J. A. Hernandez; J. P. Restrepo

2011-01-01

251

Obstacles and challenges following the partial decriminalisation of abortion in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a highly contested process, abortion was partially decriminalised in Colombia in 2006 by the Constitutional Court: when the pregnancy threatens a woman's life or health, in cases of severe fetal malformations incompatible with life, and in cases of rape, incest or unwanted insemination. However, Colombian women still face obstacles to accessing abortion services. This is illustrated by 36 cases

Eduardo Díaz Amado; Maria Cristina Calderón García; Katherine Romero Cristancho; Elena Prada Salas; Eliane Barreto Hauzeur

2010-01-01

252

Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from stools samples and food products in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont

Laura Cristina Rúgeles; Jing Bai; Aída Juliana Martínez; María Consuelo Vanegas; Oscar Gilberto Gómez-Duarte

2010-01-01

253

The Beauty of State Construction: Juan Valdez, Miss Colombia and Crisis Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colombian state was in acute crisis in the 1990s. Widely considered a failed state, Colombia suffered from uncontrollable violence and an acute economic crisis that left over half of the population impoverished. Yet shortly after the turn of the century, it was being touted as one of the great successes in crime reduction, economic growth, and democratic stability. In

Stacey Hunt

254

A new species of Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (Hymenoptera, Apidae).  

PubMed

A new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. Geotrigona joearroyoisp. n. belongs to the fulvohirta species group and is distinguished on the basis of color and type of pubescence on the metasomal terga. New geographical records and an updated key to the species of Geotrigona are provided. PMID:22448115

Gonzalez, Victor H; Engel, Michael S

2012-03-01

255

Measurement invariance of self-continuity strategies: Comparisons of early adolescents from Brazil, Canada and Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 655 early adolescents from three contexts (Curitiba, Brazil; Montreal, Canada and Barranquilla, Colombia) were used to test for measurement invariance in the constructs of essentialism and narrativism. These two different strategies have been proposed to explain the perceptions of stability of self-continuity over time. Essentialism predicates self-continuity on some fundamental, unchanging aspect of the self. In contrast, narrativism

Jonathan Bruce Santo; Josafa da Cunha; Lina María Saldarriaga; Holly E. Recchia; Alexa Martin-Storey; Luz Stella-Lopez; Gina Carmago; William M. Bukowski

2012-01-01

256

CIVIL CONFLICT AND FORCED MIGRATION: THE MICRO DETERMINANTES AND THE WELFARE LOSSES OF DISPLACEMENT IN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, forced internal displacement in Colombia has been a growing phenomenon closely linked to the escalation of the internal armed conflict - particularly in rural areas. The displacement problem has affected nearly every region and vulnerable groups of the population. Two emerging policy questions are whether the magnitude of the response to this problem has been proportional

Ana Maria Ibáñez; Carlos Eduardo Vélez

2005-01-01

257

Civil Conflict and Forced Migration: The Micro Determinants and Welfare Losses of Displacement in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Forced displacement in Colombia has soared due to the escalating internal conflict. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to identify adequate instruments for addressing the problem of displacement by estimating its determinants and comparing these findings with the standard migration literature; second, to estimate its welfare losses, thus providing evidence as to whether the response to this

Carlos Eduardo Vélez

2008-01-01

258

Morphodynamics of the Pacific and Caribbean deltas of Colombia, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the physical factors controlling the recent morphology of major deltas along the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The study considers the fluvial, coastal, and oceanographic contributions to changes in delta morphology and uses different approaches, including (1) remote sensing techniques; (2) time series analysis of river discharge, sea level, wave climate and tidal variability; (3) analysis

Juan D. Restrepo; Sergio A. López

2008-01-01

259

Predicting high-risk years for malaria in Colombia using parameters of El Niño Southern Oscillation.  

PubMed

The interannual variation in malaria cases in Colombia between 1960 and 1992 shows a close association with a periodic climatic phenomenon known as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Compared with other years, malaria cases increased by 17.3% during a Niño year and by 35.1% in the post-Niño year. The annual total number of malaria cases is also strongly correlated (r = 0.62, P < 0.001) with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific, a principal parameter of ENSO. The strong relation between malaria and ENSO in Colombia can be used to predict high and low-risk years for malaria with sufficient time to mobilize resources to reduce the impact of epidemics. In view of the current El Niño conditions, we anticipate an increase in malaria cases in Colombia in 1998. Further studies to elucidate the mechanisms which underlie the association are required. As Colombia has a wide range of climatic conditions, regional studies relating climate and vector ecology to malaria incidence may further improve an ENSO-based early warning system. Predicting malaria risk associated with ENSO and related climate variables may also serve as a short-term analogue for predicting longer-term effects posed by global climate change. PMID:9438466

Bouma, M J; Poveda, G; Rojas, W; Chavasse, D; Quiñones, M; Cox, J; Patz, J

1997-12-01

260

The hydrocarbon habitat of northern South America: Colombia-Venezuela-Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

A prolific hydrocarbon province extends across the northern margin of South America from Colombia to east of Trinidad. Two key components are a world-class source rock, formed on a regional Late Cretaceous passive margin, and a complex tectonic setting in which a variety of structural and stratigraphic traps, reservoirs, seals and hydrocarbon kitchens have evolved through time. Convergence between the Farallon and Caribbean plates with South America culminated in the late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene with emplacement of Colombia`s Central Cordillera in the west and a nappe-foreland basin system in the north. Regional hydrocarbon generation probably occurred below associated basins. Subsequent oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South America, partitioned into strike-slip and compressional strain, generated an eastward migrating and ongoing uplift-foredeep (kitchen) system from central Venezuela to Trinidad. Similarly, oblique interaction of western Colombia with the Nazca Plate caused segmentation of the earlier orogen, northward extrusion of elements such as the Maracaibo Block, and eastward migration of uplift progressively dividing earlier kitchens into localized foredeeps.

James, K.H. [Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-08-01

261

Assessment of Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Earthquake Victims in Colombia Using the MMPI-A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earthquake that hit Armenia, Colombia, on January 25, 1999, dramatically impacted the lives of thousands of people, including children and adolescents. This study used the Hispanic MMPI-A to clinically assess for ongoing psychopathology in a group of 59 adolescent earthquake victims. Their scores on the basic, content, and supplementary scales of the instrument were compared to those of a

Ronald L. Scott; Russell L. Knoth; Monica Beltran-Quiones; Nelson Gomez

2003-01-01

262

Implementation of the Center-East Broadband Seismic Network in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic phenomenon is one of the most important natural hazards for Colombia (e.g. Armenia, 1999, M=6.1; Calima, 2004, M=6.7). In spite of big efforts implemented by different institutions in order to reduce the seismic vulnerability in Colombia, the understanding of the nature of the seismic phenomena and its spatial and temporal distribution and evolution is insufficient. In order to estimate the seismic hazard it is necessary to know the geological conditions of those regions where the cities are developing, it is necessary to study their structure, dynamics and behavior, looking for information which allows understand the processes which generate the seismic events and to obtain an adequate model of ruptures of the system. In this paper we show the implementation of an instrumental seismological network for the Colombia's capital city: Bogota. This project: "The Center-East Broadband Seismic Network" consists on fifteen seismological three components, broadband stations, located near the coordinates: 4.5 N latitude and 73.5 W longitude joined to a similar distribution of geodetic stations (GEORED). This network is expected to be a complementary, high sensitive addition to the National Seismological Network of Colombia. This network has to bring the possibility of improving the understanding of the seismic hazard in the Bogota's region, considering the better understanding of the spatial and temporal microseismic activity in this region, where live more than 15 millions people (30% of Colombia's population), and more than 40% of the GIP is concentrated. Based on the obtained information it will be possible to incorporate structural elements to the adequate development of this region considering the seismic hazard and supply the guidelines to designs and constructions.

Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.; Caneva, A.; Montes v., L. A.

2007-12-01

263

Lipoidal Labellar Secretions in Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labella of Maxillaria acuminata Lindl., M. cerifera Barb. Rodr. and M. notylioglossa Rchb.f., all members of the M. acuminata alliance, produce a viscid wax-like secretion. Histochemical analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the secretion is similar in all three species, consisting largely of lipid and protein. Light microscopy and low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the

K. L. D AVIES; M. P. T URNER; A. G REGG

264

Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.  

PubMed

Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that street youths often continue high-risk behaviors even though they know the potential negative consequences; help them find substitutes for the income, pleasure, power, and communication stemming from sex; convince them of their personal risk through participatory activities; use a multifaceted approach to promote condoms; use an integrated approach; and integrated prevention activities with other services designed to meet their basic needs regarding health, education, and income. PMID:12287663

Ruiz, J

1994-01-01

265

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 07-20-2010  

Cancer.gov

El doctor Harold Varmus, acompañado de su esposa Constance Casey (centro), presta juramento como director del NCI ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos, Kathleen Sebelius, el lunes 12 de julio. (Foto cortesía de Chris Smith) El 12 de julio, el doctor Harold Varmus prestó juramento ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos, Kathleen Sebelios, como el decimocuarto director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

266

The Legal Insecurity of Rural Property in Colombia: A Case Study of the Notarial and Registry Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description and analysis of legal and administrative systems used in Colombia to title, transfer, and register agricultural land is coupled with an examination of a number of title registration and transfer cases. An effective system must minimize land ...

L. Arevalo-Salazar

1972-01-01

267

Industry Sector Analysis - Automotive Parts/Accessories/Supplies/Automotive Service Equipment (Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Venezuela).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The package contains the following ISA's: Bolivia, Automotive and Auto Parts Market Survey; Colombia, Automotive Parts and Accessories; Costa Rica, Automotive Parts and Service Equipment; Guatemala, Automotive Parts and Service Equipment; Honduras, Automo...

1992-01-01

268

El pronóstico del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa sobre la predicción de resultados y recuperación de una enfermedad, y sobre cómo las estadísticas ayudan a los médicos a hacer una estimación del pronóstico de un paciente con cáncer.

269

Il problema del litio.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

D'Antona, F.

1995-03-01

270

Fisiopatología del estreñimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEl estreñimiento es un trastorno extremadamente frecuente en la infancia, responsable de hasta el 25% de todas las consultas gastroenterológicas pediátricas y el 3% de todas las consultas pediátricas ambulatorias. En el 90% de los casos el origen del trastorno es funcional y sólo en un 10% existe un problema orgánico subyacente. Entre las causas orgánicas corrientes del estreñimiento infantil

Peter J. Milla

2007-01-01

271

Characterization of Phytophthora infestans populations in Colombia: first report of the A2 mating type.  

PubMed

Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight in crops of the Solanaceae family, is one of the most important plant pathogens in Colombia. Not only are Solanum lycopersicum, and S. tuberosum at risk, but also several other solanaceous hosts (Physalis peruviana, S. betaceum, S. phureja, and S. quitoense) that have recently gained importance as new crops in Colombia may be at risk. Because little is known about the population structure of Phytophthora infestans in Colombia, we report here the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 97 isolates collected from these six different solanaceous plants in Colombia. All the isolates were analyzed for mating type, mitochondrial haplotypes, genotype for several microsatellites, and sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. This characterization identified a single individual of A2 mating type (from Physalis peruviana) for the first time in Colombia. All isolates had an ITS sequence that was at least 97% identical to the consensus sequence. Of the 97 isolates, 96 were mitochondrial haplotype IIa, with the single A2 isolate being Ia. All isolates were invariant for the microsatellites. Additionally, isolates collected from S. tuberosum and P. peruviana (64 isolates) were tested for: aggressiveness on both hosts, genotype for the isozymes (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and peptidase), and restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint pattern as detected by RG57. Isolates from S. tuberosum were preferentially pathogenic on S. tuberosum, and isolates from P. peruviana were preferentially pathogenic on P. peruviana. The population from these two hosts was dominated by a single clonal lineage (59 of 64 individuals assayed), previously identified from Ecuador and Peru as EC-1. This lineage was mating type A1, IIa for mitochondrial DNA, invariant for two microsatellites, and invariant for both isozymes. The remaining four A1 isolates were in lineages very closely related to EC-1 (named EC-1.1, CO-1, and CO-2). The remaining lineage (the A2 mating type) had characteristics of the US-8 lineage (previously identified in Mexico, the United States, and Canada). These results have important epidemiological implications for the production of these two crops in Colombia. PMID:19055438

Vargas, Angela M; Quesada Ocampo, Lina M; Céspedes, Maria Catalina; Carreño, Natalia; González, Adriana; Rojas, Alejandro; Zuluaga, A Paola; Myers, Kevin; Fry, William E; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana J; Restrepo, Silvia

2009-01-01

272

Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.  

PubMed

Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880

Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

2012-03-30

273

Simultaneous circulation of genotypes I and III of dengue virus 3 in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. In Colombia, dengue viruses (DENV) cause about 50,000 cases annually, 10% of which involve Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome. The picture is similar in other surrounding countries in the Americas, with recent outbreaks of severe disease, mostly associated with DENV serotype 3, strains of the Indian genotype, introduced into the Americas in 1994. Results The analysis of the 3'end (224 bp) of the envelope gene from 32 DENV-3 strains recently recovered in Colombia confirms the circulation of the Indian genotype, and surprisingly the co-circulation of an Asian-Pacific genotype only recently described in the Americas. Conclusion These results have important implications for epidemiology and surveillance of DENV infection in Central and South America. Molecular surveillance of the DENV genotypes infecting humans could be a very valuable tool for controlling/mitigating the impact of the DENV infection.

Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Mendez, Jairo A; Tenorio, Antonio; Rey, Gloria J; Domingo, Cristina; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C

2008-01-01

274

Diagnosis of environmental problems related to vein gold mining in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1985 the annual gold production in Colombia has been fluctuating between 30 and 35 tons (1-1.4 million ounces troy). Exploitation plants can be found in vein and placer gold deposits. During 1992 a preliminary study was undertaken, resulting in a diagnosis of problems in small scale mining in 6 gold areas (vein type) of Colombia. In order to evaluate the general impact caused to the environment due to mining activities, six gold districts located in Nariño, Antioquia, Bolivar, Valle and Caldas Departments were visited. Geochemical analysis (ES, AAS, HGAAS, GFAAS) of orebodies, tailings and waters were carried out, with results that showed high levels of heavy metals in the environmental compartments studied.

Prieto, Gloria R.; Gonzalez, Myriam L.

275

An interrupted time series analysis of parenteral antibiotic use in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A University-based hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, developed and implemented an educational intervention to complement a new structured antibiotic order form. This intervention was performed after assessing the appropriateness of the observed antibiotic prescribing practices using a quasi-experimental study. An application of interrupted time series intervention analysis was conducted in three antibiotic groups (aminoglycosides, cephradine\\/cephalothin, and ceftazidime\\/cefotaxime) and their hospital weekly

Adriana Pérez; Rodolfo J. Dennis; Benigno Rodr??guez; Amparo Y. Castro; Victor Delgado; Juan Manuel Lozano; Maria Clara Castro

2003-01-01

276

Electrical power systems (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama and Peru)  

SciTech Connect

This 12-part set of reports contains market information on the following countries and topics: Brazil - potentiometers, steam turbines, gas turbines, electric generators; Chile - power systems; Colombia - electric generators; Dominican Republic - electric generators; Guatemala - power generation and distribution equipment, non-current carriers, electric generators, and turbines; Jamaica - power systems; Panama - power generation and control equipment; and Peru - power generation equipment. These reports have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1992-01-01

277

Characterization of bacterial diversity at different depths in the Moravia Hill landfill site at Medellín, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods was used to assess bacterial diversity at different depths within a former solid waste dump in Medellín, Colombia. Sampling sites included a densely populated area, which is built upon 40 m of solid waste (domestic, industrial, agricultural, and medical). The soil and leachate contain high levels of contaminants and the natural soil is highly

Andres M. Gomez; Anthony C. Yannarell; Gerald K. Sims; Gloria Cadavid-Restrepo; Claudia X. Moreno Herrera

2011-01-01

278

Novel VIM metallo-beta-lactamase variant, VIM-24, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Colombia.  

PubMed

We report the emergence of a novel VIM variant (VIM-24) in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in Colombia. The isolate displays MICs for carbapenems below the resistance breakpoints, posing a real challenge for its detection. The blaVIM-24 gene was located within a class 1 integron carried on a large plasmid. Further studies are needed to clarify its epidemiological and clinical impact. PMID:21282438

Montealegre, Maria Camila; Correa, Adriana; Briceño, David F; Rosas, Natalia C; De La Cadena, Elsa; Ruiz, Sory J; Mojica, Maria F; Camargo, Ruben Dario; Zuluaga, Ivan; Marin, Adriana; Quinn, John P; Villegas, Maria Virginia

2011-01-31

279

Prevalence of Delayed Neurodevelopment in Children from Bogotá, Colombia, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Undiagnosed children with neurodevelopment delay disorders (NDD) frequently experience school difficulties, leading to school desertion or academic failure with subsequent familial, social and work-related problems. Methods: In 2004–2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of developmental delay among preschoolers in Bogotá (Colombia); convenience samples in several socioeconomic areas of the city were screened to define the

Alberto Velez van Meerbeke; Claudia Talero-Gutierrez; Rodrigo Gonzalez-Reyes

2007-01-01

280

Evolving source areas for upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary marine to continental strata of central Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Cretaceous marine conditions in the Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV) and the Sabana of Colombia ended with deposition of the regressive Guadalupe (Campanian-Maastrichtian) and Guaduas (Maastrichtian-Paleocene) Formations, followed by terrestrial deposition of the Gualanday Group (Eocene). X-ray diffraction, SEM, and thin-section analyses of samples from the southern UMV and the Sabana reveal compositional trends related to different depositional conditions and

R. Ressetar; M. P. Segall; F. E. Laverde; R. B. Allen

1989-01-01

281

Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence in multi-transfused patients in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a public health problem worldwide, with particular relevance in multi-transfusedpatients given that HCV is principally transmitted by exposure to infected blood.Study design: Between February and September 2003 a cross-sectional study was carried out in four hospital centres in Bogotá and Medellin, Colombia, to determine the risk factors for HCV infection in 500 multi-transfused

Mauricio Beltrân; Maria-Cristina Navas; Fernando De la Hoz; Maria Mercedes Muñoz; Sergio Jaramillo; Cecilia Estrada; Lucia del Pilar Cortés; Maria Patricia Arbelâez; Jorge Donado; Gloria Barco; Martha Luna; Gustavo Adolfo Uribe; Amalia de Maldonado; Juan Carlos Restrepo; Gonzalo Correa; Paula Borda; Gloria Rey; Marlen de Neira; Angela Estrada; Sandra Yepes; Oscar Beltrân; Javier Pacheco; Iván Villegas; Jorge Boshell

2005-01-01

282

A survey of Colombia's new outer space policy: Reforms in Colombian law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the changes the Colombian government needs to make in its legislation (including the Constitution), to provide a solid basis for its new outer space policy in consonance with international law. In Article 101 paragraph 3 the Colombian Constitution states: The segment of Geostationary Orbit over Colombia is part of your national territory. This article is at odds with international law, which prohibits any claim of sovereignty over outer space. Until now, the issue has not caused any difficulty; however, Colombia has recently embarked on an outer space policy and the existence of this article may deter other nations from entering any agreement or joint project due to the fear of implicitly accepting this claim of sovereignty. What is more, in Colombia such agreements or projects may be declared illegal, since they do not comply with the Constitution. However, the major problem is not this article, but the complex procedure required to change it. A Constitutional reform is necessary. Furthermore, outer space policy is not a priority issue on the public agenda. This barrier may hinder the efforts to set up a space program in Colombia. We introduce an alternative solution that does not reform the Colombian Constitution but allows the development of the country's space policy. This solution involves identifying the space sectors that would not be affected by Article 101, paragraph 3 and including them in the space policy; checking that the non-definition of the limits of outer space means that the agreements with other nations are not affected; and finally, considering the possibility of making specific declarations of non-recognition of sovereignty over outer space in the agreements signed with other nations (Similar to the American flag over the moon declaration. EEUU Law 83 Stat. 202, sect 8). All these measures can help the development of Colombian space policy as we wait for the country to reach a definitive solution in accordance with international law.

Ortiz, Jairo A. Becerra

283

Colombia in the Crucible: Civil War, Citizenship and the Disintegration of the State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia is in a prolonged spiral of political and economic crisis, at least as profound as the infamous violencia of the 1940s-50s. Arguably the current situation is even more desperate. Today the national territory is being fragmented as a multi-dimensional battle is waged for state power in which the government finds its ability to rule challenged by a number of

Jeff Browitt; Barry Carr; Stephen Niblo

2001-01-01

284

Distal degassing of radon and carbon dioxide on Galeras volcano, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse degassing at Galeras volcano, Colombia, was studied during three consecutive field seasons from 1993 to 1995. Measurements of222Rn and CO2 were made at 30 stations which were distributed on the volcano and on regional faults intersecting the edifice. Time series data show a decline of radon soil gas of up to 50% prior to a M 2.8 earthquake on

Martin Heiligmann; John Stix; Glyn Williams-Jones; Barbara Sherwood Lollar; V. Gustavo Garzón

1997-01-01

285

Educational inequality in Colombia: family background, school quality and student achievement in Cartagena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of family socio?economic disadvantage and differences in school resources on student achievement in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Using data from the ICFES and C?600 national databases, we conduct a multilevel analysis to determine the unique contribution of school?level factors above and beyond family background. The results from the hierarchical linear models show that while

Claudia Rangel; Christy Lleras

2010-01-01

286

Energy efficiency in the automotive industry evidence from Germany and Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of energy efficiency performance in the automotive industry from evidence of Germany and Colombia\\u000a in order to show important features in energy use between countries with the different income between 1998 and 2007. We found\\u000a that the automotive industry improved its energy efficiency in each country. In order to understand the driving forces behind\\u000a these

Clara Inés Pardo Martínez

2011-01-01

287

Trypanosoma cruzi-associated cerebrovascular disease: a case-control study in Eastern Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a common cause of cardiopathy in South America leading it eventually to an established stroke; however, the association between T. cruzi infection itself and cerebrovascular disease is still unknown. We did a case-control study at Eastern Colombia and found that T. cruzi infection was more frequent and statistically significant in stroke cases (24.4%) than controls (1.9%),

Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento; Eder Mendoza; Martin Torres-Hillera; Neyla Pinto; Clara A. Silva; Silvia J. Vera C; Erwin Castillo; Vladimir Valderrama; Didier G. Prada; Jaime Bayona-Prieto; Ingrid Garcia

2004-01-01

288

Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infections in Selected Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Colombia, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to identify risk factors for nosocomial infections among infants admitted into eight neonatal intensive care units in Colombia. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors could be used to guide the design of interventions to prevent the problem.STUDY DESIGN:Data were collected prospectively from eight neonatal units. Nosocomial infection was defined as culture-proven infection diagnosed after 72 hours of

Mario A Rojas; Meica M Efird; Juan M Lozano; Carl L Bose; María X Rojas; Martín A Rondón; Gloria Ruiz; Juan G Piñeros; Catherine Rojas; Guillermo Robayo; Angela Hoyos; Maria H Gosendi; Hernan Cruz; Michael O'Shea; Angela Leon

2005-01-01

289

Opon gas renews interest in the hydrocarbon prolific middle Magdalena basin, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 45 fields have been discovered in the Middle Magdelena basin of Colombia since 1918. In August 1994, the Amoco-operated Opon-3 well tested significant hydrocarbons in the basin. The well flowed 45 MMCFGPD and 2000 BCPD from 1118 ft of perforations between 10,018 and 12,348 feet. A second well, Opon-4, tested 58 MMCFGPD from the same interval. Opon

D. M. Stone; R. Elliott; G. Latimer; M. Steuer

1996-01-01

290

A Systemic Framework to Develop Sustainable Engineering Solutions in Rural Communities in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several rural areas in Colombia there is a serious lack of water quality supply. Thereby the problematic situation is understood\\u000a as complex one that involves stakeholders with pluralistic interests, multiple variables and requires the development of sustainable\\u000a and suitable solutions. In order to address this issue, this paper proposes an integration of engineering design framework\\u000a (CDIO) with a systemic

María Catalina Ramírez; Jaime Plazas; Camilo Torres; Juan Camilo Silva; Luis Camilo Caicedo; Miguel Angel González

291

TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN BOGOTA, COLOMBIA: BUILDING A TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM FOR THE PEOPLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative policies implemented in Bogota, Colombia, during the 3-year (1998-2000) administration of Mayor Enrique Pealosa were intended to transform a car-centered transportation system into a people-oriented one. To achieve this, the administration established policies in seven areas: institutional strengthening, restraining private car use, public space, mass transit, nonmotorized transport, road maintenance, and traffic management. Bogota's transportation system was to become

Arturo Ardila; Gerhard Menckhoff

2002-01-01

292

Seasonality in ENSO-related precipitation, river discharges, soil moisture, and vegetation index in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of hydrologic variability in Colombia shows different seasonal effects associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Spectral and cross-correlation analyses are developed between climatic indices of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the annual cycle of Colombia's hydrology: precipitation, river flows, soil moisture, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our findings indicate stronger anomalies during December-February and weaker during March-May. The effects of ENSO are stronger for streamflow than for precipitation, owing to concomitant effects on soil moisture and evapotranspiration. We studied time variability of 10-day average volumetric soil moisture, collected at the tropical Andes of central Colombia at depths of 20 and 40 cm, in coffee growing areas characterized by shading vegetation ("shaded coffee"), forest, and sunlit coffee. The annual and interannual variability of soil moisture are highly intertwined for the period 1997-1999, during strong El Niño and La Niña events. Soil moisture exhibited greater negative anomalies during 1997-1998 El Niño, being strongest during the two dry seasons that normally occur in central Colombia. Soil moisture deficits were more drastic at zones covered by sunlit coffee than at those covered by forest and shaded coffee. Soil moisture responds to wetter than normal precipitation conditions during La Niña 1998-1999, reaching maximum levels throughout that period. The probability density function of soil moisture records is highly skewed and exhibits different kinds of multimodality depending upon land cover type. NDVI exhibits strong negative anomalies throughout the year during El Niños, in particular during September-November (year 0) and June-August (year 0). The strong negative relation between NDVI and El Niño has enormous implications for carbon, water, and energy budgets over the region, including the tropical Andes and Amazon River basin.

Poveda, GermáN.; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Gil, Marta MaríA.; Quiceno, Natalia; Mantilla, Ricardo I.

2001-08-01

293

Illegal Drugs in Colombia: From Illegal Economic Boom to Social Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past thirty years, the illegal drug industry has marked Colombia's development. In no other country has the illegal drug industry had such dramatic social, political, and economic effects. This short article provides a synthesis of the development of the marijuana, coca-cocaine, and poppy-opium-heroin illegal industries. It studies the development of the drug cartels and marketing networks and the

Francisco E. Thoumi

2002-01-01

294

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in ageing earthworm casts in grasslands of the eastern plains of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a large species of anecic earthworm, Martiodrilus carimaguensis Jimnez and Moreno, on soil C and N dynamics were investigated in a native savanna and a man-made pasture of the eastern\\u000a plains of Colombia. We compared, across time (11 months), the total C, total N, NH+\\u000a 4 and NO–\\u000a 3 contents in the earthworm casts, the underlying soil

T. Decaëns; A. F. Rangel; N. Asakawa; R. J. Thomas

1999-01-01

295

Human exposure to mercury in San Jorge river basin, Colombia (South America)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During May–September 1999 human hair samples were collected from the village of Caimito, a fishing community of the state of Sucre (Colombia), in the San Jorge River basin area, and analyzed for total mercury (t-Hg) by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg was measured in both male and female people aged 15–65 years, whose diet mainly consists of fish collected

Jesus Olivero; Boris Johnson; Eduardo Arguello

2002-01-01

296

High genetic polymorphism of relapsing P. vivax isolates in northwest Colombia.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium populations has been more extensively documented in Colombia for Plasmodium falciparum than for Plasmodium vivax. Recently, highly variable microsatellite markers have been described and used in population-level studies of genetic variation of P. vivax throughout the world. We applied this approach to understand the genetic structure of P. vivax populations and to identify recurrence-associated haplotypes. In this, three microsatellite markers of P. vivax were amplified and the combined size of the fragments was used to establish genotypes. Patients from an ongoing treatment efficacy trial who were kept either in endemic or non-endemic regions in the northwest of Colombia were included in the study. In total 58 paired clinical isolates, were amplified. A total of 54 haplotypes were observed among the two regions. Some haplotypes were exclusive to the endemic region where the highest degree of polymorphism was detected. In addition, we confirmed the different genotypes of recurrent-relapsing and primary infection isolates suggesting the activation of heterologous hypnozoite populations. We conclude that analysis of the three microsatellites is a valuable tool to establish the genetic characteristics of P. vivax populations in Colombia. PMID:21497586

Restrepo, Eliana; Imwong, Mallika; Rojas, Winston; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda

2011-04-07

297

[Resistance in a strain of Culex quinquefasciatus coming from Medellín, Colombia].  

PubMed

The levels of susceptibility and/or resistance to 5 organophosphate insecticides (malathion, methyl-pyrimifos, clorpirifos, temephos and fenthion), 4 pyrethroids (cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), and a carbamate (propoxur) were determined in order to know the state of resistance in a strain of Culex quinquefasciatus from a locality of the city of Medellín, Colombia. Resistance to all organophosphate insecticides, though with relatively lower values for methyloirimifos and fenthion, was observed. No resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin or to propoxur was found. These insecticides may be useful for the control of mosquitoes in Colombia. It was demonstrated by using the piperonil butoxide synergist that the oxidases of multiple function played an important role in the resistance to organophosphate insecticides and pyrethroids. The utilization of S.S.S. tributyl phosphotritiate revealed that the superproduction of unspecific esterases was a mechanism of resistance to organophosphate insecticides, except methyl-pirimifos and for perythroids, except lambda-cyhalothrin. This result should be taken into consideration for the strategies to be used to control Culex quinquefasciatus in Colombia. These two mechanism of resistance are not responsible for the resistance to propoxur. The electrophoretic analysis showed the presence of esterases B1, A6 and B6, which seem to have an important function in resistance. PMID:10349433

Bisset, J; Rodríguez, M M; Díaz, C; Soca, A

1998-01-01

298

Identification of Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) lutzi (Lucena, 1939) from Turdus fuscater (Great Thrush) in Colombia.  

PubMed

This study reports a broadening of the altitudinal range and a new host for Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) lutzi in Colombia. The study was conducted in the city of Bogotá, located in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia at 2,560 m asl (meters above sea level) with an average annual temperature of 15 C. In total, 156 specimens of birds belonging to 25 species and 14 families were captured using mist nets. The blood samples were collected through venipuncture and analyzed by light microscopy. Plasmodium (H.) lutzi was only found in 2 individuals of Turdus fuscater (Great Thrush). This parasite has previously been reported in Aramides cajaneus (before: Aramides cajanea) (Grey-Necked Wood Rail), a bird found in the lowlands of Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia. This finding provides evidence for a broad host range for P. lutzi that include 2 different orders, Gruiformes and Passeriformes, and also altitudinal expansion of its distribution. The blood stages were compared with the parasite's original descriptions, and the sequence of the parasite's mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) confirms that P. lutzi is a sister taxa of Plasmodium relictum, as previously proposed. PMID:23517409

Mantilla, Juan S; Matta, Nubia E; Pacheco, M Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A; González, Angie D; Moncada, Ligia I

2013-03-21

299

Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

2013-04-01

300

New views on the Late Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Cenozoic strain field in northern Colombia is often described as resulting from both the continuous subduction of the Caribbean plate, ongoing since Late Cretaceous at least, and the tectonic escape of the North Andean Block, starting in early Pliocene. Pieces of evidence from geological field work, interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection profiles, section restoration, seismotectonic data and analysis of satellite images allowed us to precise the timing and mode of interaction for these two main tectonic processes in northern Colombia during the last 5 Ma. This work was part of the GIRCAR project (Groupement Industrie-Recherche CARaïbes), funded by TOTAL S.A.. The San Jacinto fold and thrust belt is usually known as the older part of an accretionary wedge related to the Caribbean subduction. We argue that this fold belt is actually a left-lateral transpressive belt, active since Pliocene time, that reuse older structures formed during an older accretionary episode. This left-lateral transpressive fold belt may be interpreted as the western boundary of the North Andean Block escaping northward. The Sinu wedge, known as the offshore Plio-Quaternary part of the accretionary wedge, accommodates less than 3 mm/yr of convergence. This shortening is at least partly compensated internally by a number of contemporaneous normal faults. The morphology of the Sinu wedge is more likely the one of a gravity collapse, affecting the whole sedimentary pile, towards the deep Colombian basin. Additionally, the Late Miocene to Holocene Magdalena fan, deposited along the northwestern margin of Colombia, above the subduction zone, remains undeformed even after being abandoned. Also, GPS data demonstrate that no shortening is to be expected at present across the subduction zone. Finally, no significant earthquakes was recorded between 0 and 30 km along the subduction zone. These observations can be well reconciled by postulating that the deformation, along the northwestern margin of Colombia, is not more controlled by the caribbean subduction. We propose that the Plio-Quaternary tectonic escape uplifted the margin through left-lateral transpression, reworking inherited structures. The thick Tertiary sedimentary cover subsequently collapsed down in the Colombian basin when the critical slope was reached. Since Pliocene time at least, the Caribbean-South American plate convergence might be accommodated diffusely across the whole North Andean Block, and most prominently along the Venezuelan Andes and the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, at the eastern boundary of the Block.

Maurin, T.; Stéphan, J. F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Dhont, D.

2012-04-01

301

Wild-weed-crop complexes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) in the Andes of Peru and Colombia, and their implications for conservation and breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

During germplasm explorations carried out in Peru and Colombia, interbreeding complexes of wild and cultivated common bean were observed in both countries, eight in Apurimac and Cusco departments of Peru and eight in Cundinamarca and Boyaca´ departments of Colombia. The existence of complexes was evidenced both by segregation of wild and cultivated morphological traits in certain populations, and by the

Stephen Beebe; Orlando Toro Ch; Alma Viviana Gonza´lez; María Isabel Chaco´n; Daniel G. Debouck

1997-01-01

302

19 CFR 10.3027 - Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. 10.3027 Section...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate, CBP...

2013-04-01

303

Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)  

Cancer.gov

En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science Translational Medicine sobre “La integración del control del cáncer en la salud mundial" (Integrating Cancer Control into Global Health).

304

Trading in birds: imperial power, national pride, and the place of nature in U.S.-Colombia relations.  

PubMed

Between the 1910s and the 1940s, American naturalists carried out a number of ornithological expeditions in Colombia. With the help of Colombian naturalists, thousands of skins were brought to natural history museums in the United States. By 1948 these birds had become an important treasure: American ornithologists declared Colombia the nation with the most bird species. This story sheds new light on the role science played in the expansion of U.S. political, economic, and cultural influence in Latin America in the early twentieth century, as well as on the relation between nationalist movements in Latin America and the study of the natural world. Recognizing a complex but fruitful interaction between nationalist policies and imperial practices proves important for understanding the success of the naturalists' enterprise in Colombia. PMID:22073769

Quintero, Camilo

2011-09-01

305

[Challenges of the medical entomology for the surveillance in public health in Colombia: reflections on the state of malaria].  

PubMed

The relevance of the medical entomology was considered with respect to current framework of malaria control programs in Colombia. A responsibility is indicated for balancing control efforts along with providing information on the malaria vectors. This knowledge must be acquired in order to focus the related activities that are required. The malaria control program must be based on results of local entomological surveillance, and the data must be in a form to give practical answers to questions regarding the control program. Difficulties in undertaking the required studies are described, particularly regarding the taxonomic identification of Colombian Anopheles in Colombia and which of these can be incriminated as malaria vectors. PMID:18645658

Brochero, Helena; Quiñones, Martha L

2008-03-01

306

Commodity Specific Food Safety Guidelines for the Production ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Ruiz, Unión Agrícola Regional de Productores de Hortalizas del Valle de Mexicali Robert Whitaker, Produce Marketing Association Brian Stepien ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

307

Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti in 10 localities in Colombia.  

PubMed

Insecticide resistance is one of the major threats to the effectiveness of vector control programs. In order to establish a baseline susceptibility profile of Aedes aegypti in the southwest of Colombia, 10 localities in four Departments (States) were evaluated. Standardized WHO bioassay, CDC bottle bioassay and microplate biochemical assays of non-specific ?-esterase (NSE), mixed function oxidases (MFO) and acetylcholinesterase were used. Cross resistance was evaluated with field collected mosquitoes that underwent selection pressure in the laboratory from DDT, propoxur and lambdacyhalothrin during three alternate generations. Mosquitoes with mortality rates below 80% in bioassays were considered resistant. Insecticide resistance varied geographically. Insecticide resistance was observed in 100% of localities in which mosquitoes were exposed to DDT, bendiocarb and temephos using both assays. WHO bioassays showed susceptibility to pyrethroids in all the localities evaluated, however CDC bottle bioassays showed decreases in susceptibility especially with lambdacyhalothrin. All localities showed susceptibility to the organophosphate malathion. Mosquitoes from eight regions with evidence of resistance to any of the insecticide evaluated were also evaluated biochemically. Mosquitoes from five of these regions had increased levels of NSE and two regions had increased levels of MFO. Increase levels of NSE explain partially the low susceptibility to temephos found in all the localities. However, the biochemical mechanisms evaluated do not explain all the resistance observed. Cross resistance was observed between the DDT-selected strain and lambdacyhalothrin, and between the lambdacyhalothrin-selected strain and propoxur and vice versa. The selected strains do not show changes in the biochemical assays evaluated, therefore the observed cross-resistance suggests different biochemical mechanisms. This study shows that Ae. aegypti from Colombia can develop resistance to most of the insecticide classes in the market. Periodic surveillance of insecticide resistance is necessary in order to maintain effective interventions. This study helped to establish the National Network for the surveillance of the insecticide resistance in Colombia. PMID:21300017

Ocampo, Clara B; Salazar-Terreros, Myriam J; Mina, Neila J; McAllister, Janet; Brogdon, William

2011-02-12

308

Mycobacterium leprae in Colombia described by SNP7614 in gyrA, two minisatellites and geography.  

PubMed

New cases of leprosy are still being detected in Colombia after the country declared achievement of the WHO defined 'elimination' status. To study the ecology of leprosy in endemic regions, a combination of geographic and molecular tools were applied for a group of 201 multibacillary patients including six multi-case families from eleven departments. The location (latitude and longitude) of patient residences were mapped. Slit skin smears and/or skin biopsies were collected and DNA was extracted. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis following a multiplex PCR-was developed for rapid and inexpensive strain typing of Mycobacterium leprae based on copy numbers of two VNTR minisatellite loci 27-5 and 12-5. A SNP (C/T) in gyrA (SNP7614) was mapped by introducing a novel PCR-RFLP into an ongoing drug resistance surveillance effort. Multiple genotypes were detected combining the three molecular markers. The two frequent genotypes in Colombia were SNP7614(C)/27-5(5)/12-5(4) [C54] predominantly distributed in the Atlantic departments and SNP7614 (T)/27-5(4)/12-5(5) [T45] associated with the Andean departments. A novel genotype SNP7614 (C)/27-5(6)/12-5(4) [C64] was detected in cities along the Magdalena river which separates the Andean from Atlantic departments; a subset was further characterized showing association with a rare allele of minisatellite 23-3 and the SNP type 1 of M. leprae. The genotypes within intra-family cases were conserved. Overall, this is the first large scale study that utilized simple and rapid assay formats for identification of major strain types and their distribution in Colombia. It provides the framework for further strain type discrimination and geographic information systems as tools for tracing transmission of leprosy. PMID:23291420

Cardona-Castro, Nora; Beltrán-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Romero-Montoya, Irma Marcela; Li, Wei; Brennan, Patrick J; Vissa, Varalakshmi

2013-01-03

309

Hyperlexia in Spanish-speaking children: report of 2 cases from Colombia, South America.  

PubMed

Hyperlexia is a condition rarely reported in Spanish-speaking children, characterized by the ability to recognize written words without formal training. We present two unrelated autistic children with hyperlexia from Colombia (South America) who were followed for 8 years with formal neuropsychological evaluations of language, motor skills, visual perception, attention and behavior. Both children taught themselves to read before 5 years of age but showed minimal comprehension; both displayed obsessional reading and difficulties in social skills and attention. Brain CT scans were normal. Hyperlexia has been associated with hyperactivation of the left superior temporal cortex; we conclude that the orthographic route is a probable mechanism for the development of hyperlexia. PMID:16843492

Talero-Gutierrez, Claudia

2006-07-14

310

Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by\\u000a gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing\\u000a to a subduction-related magmatic event. K\\/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for\\u000a the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we

Mónica Vásquez; Uwe Altenberger; Rolf L. Romer

2009-01-01

311

Wide Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Producing ?-Lactamase blaKPC-2 Gene in Colombia?  

PubMed Central

Ten blaKPC-2-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded blaAmpC and blaOXA-50 genes and the acquired blaKPC-2 gene. In most cases, the blaKPC-2 genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing blaKPC-2 are disseminating in Colombia.

Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Nordmann, Patrice

2011-01-01

312

77 FR 2606 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POB Cali, Colombia; Cedula No. 6064636 (Colombia) Passport 6064636 (Colombia) (INDIVIDUAL) [SDNT] 12. RENTERIA CAICEDO, Beatriz Eugenia, c/o INVERSIONES AGROINDUSTRIALES DEL OCCIDENTE LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; c/o COMPANIA...

2012-01-18

313

MICROFLORA CULTIVABLE Y ENDOMICORRIZAS OBTENIDAS EN HOJARASCA DE BOSQUE (PÁRAMO GUERRERO - FINCA PUENTE DE TIERRA) ZIPAQUIRÁ, COLOMBIA Cultivable Microflora and Endomycorrhizas Obtained in Litter Forest (Paramo Guerrero - Finca Puente de Tierra) Zipaquirá, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The count of cultivable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), cellulolytic microor- ganisms and endomycorrhizas present in litter forest (property Puente de Tierra) in the Guerrero's moor, Colombia was made. The most frequently isolated microor- ganisms belonged to the Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Penicillium and Rhodotorula genus and Cladosporium sp., which is a cellulolytic microorganism, was iso- lated in carboxymethyl cellulose agar.

ELEONORA BERNAL; SEBASTIÁN CELIS; XIMENA GALÍNDEZ; CLAUDIA MORATTO; JIMENA SÁNCHEZ; DANIEL GARCÍA

314

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 02-02-2010  

Cancer.gov

En un estudio clínico en fase inicial que probó una vacuna terapéutica en pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica (LMC) que tomaban el fármaco imatinib (Gleevec), no se pudieron detectar células cancerosas en 7 de los 19 participantes por un tiempo promedio de 22 meses. Los resultados del estudio fueron publicados en el número del 1º de enero de la revista Clinical Cancer Research.

315

SEISMICITY, FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS, DEPTH OF FAULTING, AND ACTIVE TECTONICS OF THE ANDES OF PERU, ECUADOR, AND SOUTHERN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracontinental seismicity of the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and southern Colombia is concentrated along the easternmost flank of the Cordillera beneath the western margin of the sub-Andes. The focal depths and fault plane solutions of the largest events were constrained by comparing the observed long-period P waves with synthetic waveforms. In general, the fault plane solutions show reverse faulting

Gerardo Suárez; Peter Molnar; B. Clark Burchfiel

1983-01-01

316

Tagging along with the Urban Poor in Colombia 1973-1983. A Contribution to the Chapala Workshop 1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The history of an urban squatter settlement in Bogota, Colombia, and the author's experiences with its residents in the last ten years are summarized. Topics covered include the unfriendly relationship between the government and squatter settlements; the history of the relationship between the government and this particular barrio; the demography…

Vasco, Carlos E.

317

Rehabilitation of the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, a mangrove-estuarine system in the Caribbean coast of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colombian government has been implementing, during the last five years, a project for the rehabilitation of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a coastal estuarine lagoon in the Caribbean coast of Colombia where anthropogenic activities resulted in massive mortality of the mangrove forests, water quality degradation and concomitant diminution of biodiversity, fishing resources and life quality of human populations

Leonor Botero; Horst Salzwedel

1999-01-01

318

The ~ 2500 yr B.P. Chicoral non-cohesive debris flow from Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerro Machín Volcano (CMV) is located in the central part of the Colombian Andes (2750 m asl), 150 km southwest of Bogotá. It is considered the most dangerous active volcano of Colombia. CMV has experienced at least six major explosive eruptions during the last 5000 years. These eruptions have emplaced many types of pyroclastic deposits with associated lahars that have traveled more than

H. F. Murcia; B. O. Hurtado; G. P. Cortés; J. L. Macías; H. Cepeda

2008-01-01

319

Late Holocene environmental history of southern Chocó region, Pacific Colombia; sediment, diatom and pollen analysis of core El Caimito  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multi-proxy study of pollen, diatoms, sediment characteristics and major elements of a 610-cm sediment core from lake El Caimito, located in the humid rain forest of southern Chocó, Pacific Colombia. We propose an integrated reconstruction of the local basin development and of the regional vegetation which is possibly related to the tectonic activity of an unstable coastal

M. I. Velez; M. Wille; H. Hooghiemstra; S. Metcalfe; J. F. Vandenberghe; K. van der Borg

2001-01-01

320

Strong Amerind\\/White Sex Bias and a Possible Sephardic Contribution among the Founders of a Population in Northwest Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and genetic evidences suggest that the recently founded population of Antioquia (Colombia) is potentially useful for the genetic mapping of complex traits. This population was established in the 16th-17th centuries through the admixture of Amerinds, Europeans, and Africans and grew in relative isolation until the late 19th century. To examine the origin of the founders of Antioquia, we typed

Iván D. Soto; Nicolás Pineda; Constanza Duque; Mark McCarthy; Patricia Montoya; Victor M. Alvarez; Gabriel Bedoya

2000-01-01

321

Distribution and diversity of cry genes in native strains of Bacillus thuringiensis obtained from different ecosystems from Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia is a tropical country located at the north of South America. It is considered to be one of the most important countries in terms of its biodiversity worldwide. One hundred and eight soil samples obtained from agricultural crops and wild ecosystems were evaluated in terms of the presence of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) native strains. One hundred and eight different

D. Uribe; W. Martinez; J. Cerón

2003-01-01

322

Draft Genome Sequences of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Regions of Low and High Gastric Cancer Risk in Colombia.  

PubMed

The draft genome sequences of six Colombian Helicobacter pylori strains are presented. These strains were isolated from patients from regions of high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia and were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. The data provide insights into differences between H. pylori strains of different phylogeographic origins. PMID:24051318

Sheh, Alexander; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Wilson, Keith T; Correa, Pelayo; Fox, James G

2013-09-19

323

Genetic and biologic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Colombia, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 77 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Colombia, South America was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and found in

J. P. Dubey; Jorge E. Gomez-Marin; Angela Bedoya; Fabiana Lora; M. C. B. Vianna; D. Hill; O. C. H. Kwok; S. K. Shen; P. L. Marcet; T. Lehmann

2005-01-01

324

Earnings determinants for own-account workers in the urban informal economy: The case of Bogotá, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores earnings determinants for own-account workers in the urban informal economy of Bogotá, Colombia. Descriptive statistics show differences in individual, household and business characteristics when gender and business location are compared. Own-account workers operating in the street, on average, earn less than those in other locations and are the most dissatisfied with their jobs. For all regressions, the

Lacey Ann Wrubel

2010-01-01

325

World coffee markets and national coffee parastatals since 1989: A comparative study of Colombia and Cote d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Coffee Agreements (ICA) involved the majority of nations producing and consuming coffee and provided relative economic stability to the coffee sectors of the exporting Third World countries. This study focuses on the serious impact of the 1989 collapse of the ICA on the domestic coffee sectors of Colombia and Côte d'Ivoire. In particular, the dissertation examines the role

Laura Elizabeth Boudon

2000-01-01

326

The FARC's Best Friend: U.S. Antidrug Policies and the Deepening of Colombia's Civil War in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strengthening of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) during the 1990s was an unintended consequence of a series of tactical successes in U.S. antidrug policies. These included dismantling the Medellín and Cali drug cartels, interdicting coca coming into Colombian processing facilities, and using drug certification requirements to pressure the Colombian government to attack drug cartels and allow aerial

Mark Peceny; Michael Durnan

2008-01-01

327

Population, Land Use and Deforestation in the Pan Amazon Basin: a Comparison of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the linkages between population change, land use, and deforestation in the Amazon regions of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela. We begin with a brief discussion of theories of population–environment linkages, and then focus on the case of deforestation in the PanAmazon. The core of the paper reviews available data on deforestation, population growth, migration and

Stephen G. Perz; Carlos Aramburú; Jason Bremner

2005-01-01

328

Earthquake Risk Assessment of Quibdó city, Northwestern Colombia using HAZUS: It is the HAZUS methodology applicable in others countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quibdó, the capital of Chocó state in Colombia, is located near the convergence of three tectonic plates: Nazca, Caribbean and South American plates. Very active seismicity is associated with the subduction of the Nazca plate as well as the Caribbean plate underneath the South American plate. Disastrous crustal and subduction earthquakes in Chocó during the last century have generated significant

S. Mosquera-Machado

2006-01-01

329

Dissertation abstract: Three essays on the determinants of behavior in the commons-experimental evidence from fishing communities in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents the results of a series of common pool experiments conducted in three regions of rural Colombia with individuals who face a social dilemma in their everyday lives that is similar to what was presented in the experiment. The research objectives are to develop an empirical characterization of how individual behavior deviates from purely self-interested Nash behavior and

2007-01-01

330

INDICE DE PRECIOS DE LA VIVIENDA USADA EN COLOMBIA - I P V U - Método de ventas repetidas  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento se presenta un Índice de Precios de Vivienda Usada (IPVU) para Colombia (1988 y 2004), calculado a partir de una adaptación de la metodología de ventas repetidas ponderadas propuesta por Case y Shiller (1989). En su construcción se usaron 26.189 avalúos de las mismas viviendas en distintos periodos de tiempo, según la información suministrada por las principales

Julio Escobar; Carlos Huertas; Dora Alicia Mora; José Vicente Romero

331

Child Education and Work Choices in the Presence of a Conditional Cash Transfer Programme in Rural Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies the effects of Familias en Acción, a conditional cash transfer programme implemented in rural areas in Colombia in 2002, on school enrolment and child labour. Using a quasi-experimental approach, our methodology makes use of an interesting feature of the data, which allows us to identify anticipation effects. Our results show that the programme increased school participation of

Orazio Attanasio; Emla Fitzsimons; Ana Gomez; Martha Isabel Gutiérrez; Costas Meghir; Alice Mesnard

2006-01-01

332

BODY MASS INDEX AS A STANDARD OF LIVING MEASURE: A DIFFERENT INTERPRETATION FOR THE CASE OF COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the Body Mass Index (BMI) in a distinct way of its traditional use and it lets us use it as a proxy of standard of living for the case of Colombia. Our approach is focused on studying how far the people are from the normal range and not on the score of each one and this lets us

Luis Fernando Gamboa; Nohora Y. Forero Ramírez

2009-01-01

333

Does Society Win or Lose as a Result of Privatization? The Case of Water Sector Privatization in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the impact of water sector privatization in Colombia on access, price and water quality, as well as health outcomes using differences-in-differences methodology. The main findings of the impact of water privatization are: (i) an improvement in the quality of water and an increase in the frequency of the service in privatized urban municipalities for the lower quintiles;

FELIPE BARRERA-OSORIO; MAURICIO OLIVERA; CARLOS OSPINO

2009-01-01

334

Trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States: effects on trade, production and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computable General Equilibrium model, based on the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, is used to evaluate the impact of separate bilateral free trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States of America (USA). As the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) is to expire shortly, a number of different scenarios have been analyzed:

José Elías Durán Lima; Carlos J. De Miguel; Andrés R. Schuschny

2006-01-01

335

New Genotype of Dengue Type 3 Virus Circulating in Brazil and Colombia Showed a Close Relationship to Old Asian Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue type 3 genotype V viruses have been recently detected in Brazil and Colombia. In this study, we described another Brazilian isolate belonging to this genotype. Phylogenetic analysis including dengue type 3 viruses isolated worldwide showed that Brazilian and Colombian viruses were closely related to viruses isolated in Asia more than two decades ago. The characteristic evolutionary pattern of dengue

Victor Hugo Aquino; Alberto Anastacio Amarilla; Helda Liz Alfonso; Weber Cheli Batista; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo; Darren P. Martin

2009-01-01

336

Does Society Win or Lose as a Result of Privatization? The Case of Water Sector Privatization in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effects of water sector privatization on consumers’ welfare in 46 municipalities in Colombia. First, the privatization process is described. Second, the paper evaluates the impact of privatization on access, price, and quality of water as well as health outcomes using differences-in-differences methodology with variation across time (before and after privatization) and between treatment and control groups

Mauricio Olivera; Felipe Barrera

2007-01-01

337

Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

338

A knowledge based analytical model of propaedeutic cycles for higher education: Linking with media education in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Knowledge based system model to face the new methodological strategy on Higher Education in Colombia is presented: the propaedeutic cycles. A great challenge is presented to Superior Education Institutions: to establish the link between traditional cycles: technical, technology and professional ones with the secondary, basic and media levels. Our solution is presented linking each phase with a propedaeutic component

Alfonso Perez-Gama; A. Mena-Mena; Guillermo Hoyos; B. Perez-Gutierrez

2010-01-01

339

Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

340

78 FR 15346 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Brazil, Colombia and Panama; May 12-18...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1\\ An SME is defined as a firm...representative (large firm or SME) Colombia and Panama...representative (large firm or SME) Expenses for travel...applicant intends to pursue investment and major project opportunities...to partisan political activities (including...

2013-03-11

341

The evolution of the Piedemonte Llanero petroleum system, Cordillera Oriental, Colombia: (1) Structural evolution and play definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Piedemonte Llanero petroleum trend of the Cordillera Oriental in Colombia has proven to be one of the most prolific hydrocarbon provinces discovered in recent years. The Piedemonte Llanero is a fold and thrust belt of complex, multi-phase structuration and hydrocarbon generation. Following the discovery of the Cusiana and Cupiagua fields in the southern part of the trend, BP and

R. Graham; S. Howe

1996-01-01

342

Los efectos de la estructura monopolística de los mercados en la evaluación de las empresas privatizadas en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio pretende evaluar si las empresas que fueron privatizadas en Colombia durante los años noventa mejoraron sustancialmente su productividad y rentabilidad, como consecuencia de los cambios gerenciales que se debieron dar, o si por el contrario, continuaron en niveles similares, contrariando la hipótesis de que los nuevos dueños propiciarían cambios sustanciales en su estrategia, como lo demuestra la experiencia

Jaime Andrés Collazos R; Héctor Ochoa D

2005-01-01

343

LA RELACIÓN ENTRE LAPOLÍTICA PARA PROMOVER EL DESARROLLO DE LAS MIPYMES EN COLOMBIA Y LOSMODELOS DE DESARROLLO E INDUSTRIALIZACIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo busca evidencia en la literatura sobre la posible relación existente en Colombia entre los instrumentos de política de promoción de micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMES) y los modelos de desarrollo económico e ndustrialización. Por lo tanto, se analizan los planes de desarrollo económico y se estudian las leyes y documentos aprobados por el Consejo Nacional de Política

MARÍA TERESA VICTORIA

2003-01-01

344

Prevalence of Suicide Risk Factors and Suicide-Related Outcomes in the National Mental Health Study, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A community survey in 4,426 adults was undertaken as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative reporting the prevalence and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes in Colombia. Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes were assessed. Retrospective reports of…

Posada-Villa, Jose; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Cendales, Juan Gabriel; Fajardo, Roosevelt

2009-01-01

345

Small-Grants Program for Promoting Peace and Human Rights in Colombia Index. Second Quarterly Report July - September 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although projects were pre-selected and informally approved in the first semester of 2001, official approval and funds disbursement to IOM for the Small-Grants Program for Promoting Peace and Human Rights in Colombia (hereafter referred to as Peace and Hu...

2002-01-01

346

The current tectonic motion of the Northern Andes along the Algeciras Fault System in SW Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riedel, synthetic and antithetic type faults, principal displacement zones (PDZ), pull-apart basins (such as lazy-S shaped releasing bend, extensive and rhomboidal shaped and releasing sidestep basins) and minor folds located oblique to the main trace of the Algeciras Fault System (AFS) are interpreted from Landsat TM 5 images and geological mapping. These tectonic features are affecting Quaternary deposits and are related to major historical earthquakes and recent registered seismic events, indicating neotectonic activity of the structure. The AFS is classified as a right lateral wrench complex structure, with an important vertical component in which sedimentary cover and basement rocks are involved. In addition, the system represents a simple shear caused by the oblique convergence between the Nazca Plate and the northern Andes. The transpressive boundary in SW Colombia was previously located along the Eastern Frontal Fault System. However, this paper shows that the AFS constitutes the actual boundary of the current transpressive regime along the Northern Andes, which begins at the Gulf of Guayaquil in Ecuador and continues into Colombia and Venezuela.

Velandia, Francisco; Acosta, Jorge; Terraza, Roberto; Villegas, Henry

2005-04-01

347

Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from stools samples and food products in Colombia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among all clinical and food product samples tested. Four different pathotypes were identified from clinical samples, including enteroaggregative E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, shiga-toxin producing E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Food product samples were positive for enteroaggregative and shiga-toxin producing E. coli, suggesting that meat and vegetables may be involved in transmission of these E. coli pathotypes in the community. Most E. coli strains identified belong to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal rather than extraintestinal E. coli clones. Our data is the first molecular E. coli report that confirms the presence of E. coli pathotypes circulating in Colombia among children with diarrhea and food products for human consumption. Implementation of multiplex PCR technology in Latin America and other countries with limited resources may provide an important epidemiological tool for the surveillance of E. coli pathotypes from clinical isolates as well as from water and food product samples. PMID:20153069

Rúgeles, Laura Cristina; Bai, Jing; Martínez, Aída Juliana; Vanegas, María Consuelo; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar Gilberto

2010-01-28

348

Real-time health monitoring of civil infrastructure systems in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colombia's topography, climatic conditions, intense seismic activity and acute social problems place high demands on the nations deteriorating civil infrastructure. Resources that are available for maintenance of the road and railway networks are often misdirected and actual inspection methods are limited to a visual examination. New techniques for inspection and evaluation of safety and serviceability of civil infrastructure, especially bridges, must be developed. Two cases of civil structures with health monitoring systems in Colombia are presented in this paper. Construction of the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct was completed in 1997 with a total cost of 58 million dollars, including 1.5 million dollars in health monitoring instrumentation provided and installed by foreign companies. This health monitoring system is not yet fully operational due to the lack of training of national personnel in system operation and extremely limited technical documentation. In contrast to the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct monitoring system, the authors have proposed a relatively low cost health monitoring system via telemetry. This system has been implemented for real-time monitoring of accelerations of El Hormiguero Bridge spanning the Cauca River using the Colombian Southwest Earthquake Observatory telemetry systems. This two span metallic bridge, located along a critical road between the cities of Puerto Tejada and Cali in the Cauca Valley, was constructed approximately 50 years ago. Experiences with this system demonstrate how effective low cost systems can be used to remotely monitor the structural integrity of deteriorating structures that are continuously subject to high loading conditions.

Thomson, Peter; Marulanda Casas, Johannio; Marulanda Arbelaez, Johannio; Caicedo, Juan

2001-08-01

349

Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.  

PubMed

Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

2013-03-25

350

Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

2013-01-01

351

Water-supply systems for rural areas and small communities in Colombia*  

PubMed Central

As part of a rural-sanitation campaign in Colombia, the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia (NFCG) in 1942 initiated a scheme for ensuring an adequate provision of water to coffee-growers in rural, mountainous areas, both for domestic use and for coffee-processing. Where farms are reasonably closely grouped collective water-supply systems are used, but it is also frequently necessary to construct individual systems. In either case, the cost of installation is shared by the NFCG and those who directly benefit. The average cost of the collective system has been Colombian pesos 12,000 per system, while the cost of individual installations has varied between Colombian pesos 650 and 935. Each collective system is administered and operated by a rural water board composed of local farmers, while technical problems are referred to the engineering staff of the NFCG. In general, the cheaper gravity system is preferred, but in individual installations it has often proved necessary to provide hand pumps or hydraulic rams. Through improvement in the water supply, the prevalence of water-borne diseases has considerably decreased, while the rate of coffee-production has increased.

Pachon-Rojas, Luis

1954-01-01

352

Prevalence and characterization of influenza viruses in diverse species in Los Llanos, Colombia  

PubMed Central

While much is known about the prevalence of influenza viruses in North America and Eurasia, their prevalence in birds and mammals in South America is largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a baseline for future ecology and epidemiology studies, we conducted 2 years of influenza surveillance in the eastern plains (Los Llanos) region of Colombia. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified influenza viruses in wild birds, domestic poultry, swine and horses. Prevalence ranged from 2.6% to 13.4% across species. Swine showed the highest prevalence and were infected primarily with 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses genetically related to those in humans. In addition, we isolated H5N2 viruses from two resident species of whistling ducks (genus Dendrocygna) that differed completely from previous South American isolates, instead genetically resembling North American wild bird viruses. Both strains caused low pathogenicity in chickens and mammals. The prevalence and subtype diversity of influenza viruses isolated from diverse species within a small area of Colombia highlights the need for enhanced surveillance throughout South America, including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of low-pathogenic H5N2 viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry and the emergence of reassortant viruses in domestic swine.

Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl; Freiden, Pamela J; Seufzer, Bradley; Jones, Jeremy C; Johnson, Jordan; Parra, Rocio; Gongora, Agustin; Cardenas, Dario; Barajas, Diana; Osorio, Jorge E; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

2013-01-01

353

Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Different Flea Species from Caldas, Colombia.  

PubMed

Abstract. Rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. Historically, the northern region of the province of Caldas in Colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both R. felis and R. typhi. In the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify gltA, ompB, and 17kD genes. Positive samples were sequenced to identify the species of Rickettsia. Of 1,341 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (76.7%). Positive PCR results in the three genes were evidenced in C. felis (minimum infection rates; 5.3%), C. canis (9.2%), and Pulex irritans (10.0%). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analyses of sequences showed high identity values (> 98%) with R. felis, and all were highly related by phylogenetic analyses. This work shows the first detection of R. felis in fleas collected from animals in Colombia. PMID:23878183

Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Pérez, Jorge E; Mercado, Marcela; de la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Correa, Maria I; Duque, Laura; Ariza, Juan S; Henao, Cesar; Valbuena, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Marylin

2013-07-22

354

Differing approaches to falls and fracture prevention between Australia and Colombia  

PubMed Central

Falls and fractures are major causes of morbidity and mortality in older people. More importantly, previous falls and/or fractures are the most important predictors of further events. Therefore, secondary prevention programs for falls and fractures are highly needed. However, the question is whether a secondary prevention model should focus on falls prevention alone or should be implemented in combination with fracture prevention. By comparing a falls prevention clinic in Manizales (Colombia) versus a falls and fracture prevention clinic in Sydney (Australia), the objective was to identify similarities and differences between these two programs and to propose an integrated model of care for secondary prevention of fall and fractures. A comparative study of services was performed using an internationally agreed taxonomy. Service provision was compared against benchmarks set by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and previous reports in the literature. Comparison included organization, administration, client characteristics, and interventions. Several similarities and a number of differences that could be easily unified into a single model are reported here. Similarities included population, a multidisciplinary team, and a multifactorial assessment and intervention. Differences were eligibility criteria, a bone health assessment component, and the therapeutic interventions most commonly used at each site. In Australia, bone health assessment is reinforced whereas in Colombia dizziness assessment and management is pivotal. The authors propose that falls clinic services should be operationally linked to osteoporosis services such as a “falls and fracture prevention clinic,” which would facilitate a comprehensive intervention to prevent falls and fractures in older persons.

Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Suriyaarachchi, Pushpa; Demontiero, Oddom; Duque, Gustavo

2013-01-01

355

North Andean “Escape” and Transpressive Strain in the Eastern Cordillera Foothills, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements suggest that a large part of the northern Andes is “escaping” to the northeast relative to stable South America at a rate of 6 ± 2 mm/a. The displacement rates of seven sites in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador are statistically identical at the 95% confidence level. This study compares this GPS rate to 20 published field geologic estimates of displacement rates, such as displaced glacial moraines and offset pyroclastic flow. Dated displacements compiled in this study were obtained from the Gulf of Guayaquil, Pallatanga, Chingual-la Sofia, and Cayambe-Afiladores-Sibundoy fault systems in Ecuador and southern Colombia and the Bocono fault system in Venezuela. Right-lateral slip estimates on the individual fault segments range from 2.3 mm/a to 9.7 mm/a. The mean estimated geologic slip rate for the last 86,000 years is 7.6 mm/a with an R2 value of 0.97. This estimate is very similar to the GPS measurements of present day motion at the 2 sigma level. Four estimates indicate that slip rates of 4 to 10 mm/a continued back to 1.8 Ma. No geologic slip estimates have been reported for Ecuador prior to that time period. The “escape” of the North Andes is believed to be a result of increased coupling between the obliquely subducting Nazca plate and the overriding South American plate due to the subduction of the Carnegie ridge in the Ecuador-Colombia trench. If this is correct, the slip estimates for the North Andes suggest that the Carnegie Ridge arrived at the trench at least 1.8 Ma. In the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, the main deformation styles are basement involved and basement detached shortening produced by the Panama arc-South America collision, with approximately 160 km of shortening and up to 20 km of right-lateral range-parallel strike-slip displacement across the region. These estimates of overall shear strain and range normal shortening are generally consistent with our structural interpretation of a 3D seismic survey of the Foothills of the Eastern Cordillera. However, GPS measurements in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia suggest that the present day range normal shortening rate is only 4 ± 3 mm/a. Present day permanent strain associated with the Panama collision is apparently being accommodated in the Central and Western Cordillera. Hence, right-lateral shear may be a more important component of the present day strain field in the Eastern Cordillera than range-normal shortening. Strike-slip crustal earthquakes reflect slip partitioning on high angle faults located above crustal detachment ramps across a 200 km wide zone. Intermediate depth mantle earthquakes indicate that brittle shearing extends to the base of the lithosphere. The on-going northeastward slip of the northern Andes poses a continued seismic risk for Quito, Bogota, and Merida.

Egbue, O. K.; Kellogg, J.

2009-12-01

356

Mejoramiento del Curriculo (Improving the Curriculum).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document states the general philosophy behind curriculum planning and improvement in Colombia. Topics covered are recognized educational needs and objectives, the role of the school, curriculum structure and development, teacher and student roles, factors that need to be considered for educational improvement, and steps for carrying out that…

Castro C., Maria Margarita

357

Human and crab exposure to mercury in the Caribbean coastal shoreline of Colombia: impact from an abandoned chlor-alkali plant.  

PubMed

Human hair samples from male and female people aged 6-85 years, as well as muscle of crabs (Callinectes sapidus and Callinectes bocourti) were collected from different fishing places along the Caribbean coastal shoreline of Colombia and analyzed for total mercury (T-Hg) in order to establish the impact of mercury-polluted sediments in Cartagena bay on the ecosystem. Hair T-Hg in inhabitants varied between 0.1 and 21.8 microg/g, with average and median of 1.52 microg/g and 1.1 microg/g, respectively. Differences between sampling locations were significant (P<0.01) and median values decreased in the order: Caño del Oro (1.5 microg/g)

Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Baldiris-Avila, Rosa; Güette-Fernández, Jorge; Magallanes-Carreazo, Elizabeth; Vanegas-Ramírez, Lenis; Kunihiko, Nakamura

2007-12-21

358

Cáncer de cuello del útero o uterino  

Cancer.gov

Información acerca del cáncer de cérvix (cervical o cuello uterino), lo cual incluye temas como tratamiento, prevención, causas, factores de riesgo, exámenes selectivos de detección, estudios clínicos y estadísticas del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

359

EL ORIGEN BIOLÓGICO DEL DERECHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen evolutivo del derecho como una consecuencia del desarrollo social de nuestra especie. Otras especies con sistemas sociales similares presentan varias reglas para la convivencia en grupo. Algunas de estas reglas son comunes en todas las especies con comportamiento social. El desarrollo de la sociobiología en las últimas décadas es una herramienta importante

Axel P. Retana-Salazar

360

Confirmation of Anopheles(Anopheles) calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia and Ecuador through Molecular and Morphological Correlation with Topotypic Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The morphologically similar taxa Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles malefactor and Anopheles guarao are commonly misidentified. Isofamilies collected in Valle de Cauca, Colombia, showed morphological characters most similar to An. cald...

F. Ruiz J. Alarcon J. Alarcon-Omasa J. Loaiza N. Carrego R. Bhatia R. Gonzalez R. C. Wilkerson Y. Linton

2010-01-01

361

Evaluating An Alternative To Finance Higher Education: Human Capital Contracts In Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Se presenta un ejercicio para la valuación de Contratos de Capital Humano (CCH), siguiendo a Palacios (2004), en el cual se utilizan datos del Observatorio Laboral para la Educación y su Encuesta de Seguimiento a Graduados–2007. El análisis se hace a través de un modelo Minceriano y uno de Splines para encontrar los pronósticos determinísticos del ingreso. Se encuentra

Felipe Lozano R

2009-01-01

362

Heat Flow Assessment From Bottom Simulating Reflectors at the Southern Colombia-Northern Ecuador Convergent Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) identified on seismic reflection profiles across sedimentary margins generally coincide with the base of the gas hydrate stability field. BSRs are controlled by temperature and pressure conditions. Therefore BSRs can be used to assess heat flow and hence the thermal regime of the margin. Multichannel seismic reflection data acquired during the SISTEUR cruise along the Ecuador-Colombia convergent margin show a distinct BSR along both strike and dip seismic lines. The BSRs locally show a negative polarity and extend to depths of 0.15 s below the seafloor (bsf) on the upper margin (~800 m of water depth) and to 0.78 s bsf at trench depths (3800 m). We assumed a purely conductive model to determine heat flow and its variation across the margin; seafloor temperature was obtained from local CTD measurements and the thermal conductivity of the sediments was extrapolated from ODP Leg112 offshore Peru. Preliminary heat flow values range between 30-40 mW/m2 along the middle and upper margin slopes, whereas heat flow increases to 60-90 mW/m2 close to the trench. The highest near-trench values appear to coincide with the subduction of the young, hot lithosphere beneath the Colombia margin, whereas lower values fit with the subduction of the older and thicker Carnegie Ridge crust beneath Ecuador. From these data, a preliminary thermal model of the Colombia convergent margin, in the area of the great 1906 subduction earthquake, is presented. The late (?) Miocene (8-14 Ma) subducting Nazca plate is considered as the main thermal source because the interpreted ophiolitic nature of the margin is believed to have negligible radiogenic heat production. The model also integrates a 7 cm/year plate convergence rate, as well as the margin geometry and structures as obtained from the new SISTEUR multichannel seismic reflection and refraction data. Temperatures at the top of the subducting plate, as determined from the thermal model, provide important constraints on the width and nature of the seismically locked rupture zone associated with the great subduction earthquakes on the margin.

Marcaillou, B.; Spence, G.; Collot, J.

2001-12-01

363

The role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden by region, 1960-2006  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria remains a serious problem in Colombia. The number of malaria cases is governed by multiple climatic and non-climatic factors. Malaria control policies, and climate controls such as rainfall and temperature variations associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), have been associated with malaria case numbers. Using historical climate data and annual malaria case number data from 1960 to 2006, statistical models are developed to isolate the effects of climate in each of Colombia's five contrasting geographical regions. Methods Because year to year climate variability associated with ENSO causes interannual variability in malaria case numbers, while changes in population and institutional control policy result in more gradual trends, the chosen predictors in the models are annual indices of the ENSO state (sea surface temperature [SST] in the tropical Pacific Ocean) and time reference indices keyed to two major malaria trends during the study period. Two models were used: a Poisson and a Negative Binomial regression model. Two ENSO indices, two time reference indices, and one dummy variable are chosen as candidate predictors. The analysis was conducted using the five geographical regions to match the similar aggregation used by the National Institute of Health for its official reports. Results The Negative Binomial regression model is found better suited to the malaria cases in Colombia. Both the trend variables and the ENSO measures are significant predictors of malaria case numbers in Colombia as a whole, and in two of the five regions. A one degree Celsius change in SST (indicating a weak to moderate ENSO event) is seen to translate to an approximate 20% increase in malaria cases, holding other variables constant. Conclusion Regional differentiation in the role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden during 1960–2006 was found, constituting a new approach to use ENSO as a significant predictor of the malaria cases in Colombia. These results naturally point to additional needed work: (1) refining the regional and seasonal dependence of climate on the ENSO state, and of malaria on the climate variables; (2) incorporating ENSO-related climate variability into dynamic malaria models.

Mantilla, Gilma; Oliveros, Hugo; Barnston, Anthony G

2009-01-01

364

An interrupted time series analysis of parenteral antibiotic use in Colombia.  

PubMed

A University-based hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, developed and implemented an educational intervention to complement a new structured antibiotic order form. This intervention was performed after assessing the appropriateness of the observed antibiotic prescribing practices using a quasi-experimental study. An application of interrupted time series intervention analysis was conducted in three antibiotic groups (aminoglycosides, cephradine/cephalothin, and ceftazidime/cefotaxime) and their hospital weekly rate of incorrect prescriptions before and after the intervention. A fourth time series was defined on prophylactic antibiotic use in elective surgery. Preintervention models were used in the postintervention series to test for pre-post series level differences. An abrupt constant change was significant in the first, third, and fourth time series indicating a 47, 7.3, and 20% reduction of incorrect prescriptions after the intervention. We conclude that a structured antibiotic order form, coupled with graphic and educational interventions can improve antibiotic use in a university hospital. PMID:14568634

Pérez, Adriana; Dennis, Rodolfo J; Rodríguez, Benigno; Castro, Amparo Y; Delgado, Victor; Lozano, Juan Manuel; Castro, Maria Clara

2003-10-01

365

Status and distribution of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical and recent information on the status and distribution of West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia was reviewed. Opportunistic and systematic interviews were also conducted. Historical information suggested that the distribution of manatees had been reduced in the Caribbean basin. Manatees can be found in the Atrato, Sinu??, San Jorge, Cauca, Cesar and Magdalena rivers and the Cie??naga Grande de Santa Marta marsh in the Caribbean basin, and in the Meta River in the Orinoco basin. The Magdalena riparian system provides the largest area of suitable habitat, which also has the highest frequency of captures. Most animals (81.20%) were killed for sale or to share meat in a subsistence base. Hunting is apparently increasing but capture with nets still represents the species' major direct threat. Habitat destruction occurs in all areas. International and national laws protect the species, however, funding is inadequate for effective enforcement of present laws. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Caicedo-Herrera, D.; Millan-Sanchez, S. L.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Lefebvre, L. W.

2001-01-01

366

Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.  

PubMed Central

The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection.

Cadavid, D.; Restrepo, A.

1993-01-01

367

Mössbauer and XRD Characterization of the Mineral Matter of Coal from the Guachinte Mine in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was the characterization and differentiation, using Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), of coal samples with different ash and sulfur contents obtained in three places corresponding at cuts in different seams from the Guachinte mine, Valle, Colombia. The mineral phases identified by XRD were in general kaolinite, quartz, pyrite and gypsum, and in particular dolomite and calcite. MS confirms the presence of pyrite and kaolinite, besides evidences the additional presence of jarosite which was not detected by the XRD results due their low amounts. In the high mineral matter ash sample quartz and hematite was identified by XRD, the last one confirmed by MS results. A second phase in this sample was detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy, which could be superparamagnetic hematite. Rietveld refinement for XRD pattern from a sample is reported.

Reyes, F.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Barraza, J. M.; Bohórquez, A.; Tabares, J. A.; Speziali, N. L.

2003-06-01

368

[Proximal determinants of fertility: reproductive behavior among Chamibida indigenous women in Antioquia, Colombia].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive timing used by Chamibida indigenous women in Antioquia, Colombia. This socio-demographic study used the reproductive history technique and was conducted in the year 2000. Two hundred and thirty-four homes on the Cristianía indigenous reservation were visited to obtain 253 reproductive histories (83.1% of the women ages 15 to 49). Reproductive behavior was characterized by sexual debut at age 17.8 years (mean), with short intergenesic intervals in 69.0% and an adjusted fertility rate of 5.12 children. This reproductive pattern differs from all other indigenous groups and subgroups in Antioquia. As an explanation, Chamibida women are familiar with and accept Western birth control methods, besides having more access to formal schooling. Current Colombian health system policies are far from appropriate, since they fail to take the indigenous groups' specificities into account. PMID:16021246

Arias-Valencia, Maria Mercedes

2005-07-11

369

Population data on 15 autosomal STRs in a sample from Colombia.  

PubMed

We present population genetic data of 15 STRs (CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, PENTA D, PENTA E, TH01, TPOX and VWA) obtained from a sample of 617 unrelated individuals from Colombia. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were assessed and allele frequencies and parameters of forensic interest for each STR were calculated. The combined power of exclusion (PE) and the combined power of discrimination (PD) for the 15 tested STR loci were 0, 99999895 and more than 0, 9999999, respectively. The combined MP value was 1 in 1, 07888 x 10(-17). Population comparisons between our sample and neighbouring populations from Latin America were carried out. Significant differences in above six markers were observed between our sample and two populations from Rio de Janeiro. PMID:19414157

Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Acosta, María Amparo; Fonseca, Dora; Fernández, Marcela; Gómez, Yenny; Jay, Manuela; Alape, Joseph; Lareu, María Victoria; Carracedo, Angel; Restrepo, Carlos Martín

2008-09-13

370

Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

2012-01-01

371

Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated form captive American flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

2012-01-01

372

Between Local Culture and School Science: The Case of Provincial and Urban Students from Eastern Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lack of congruency between the teaching and learning of science and the student’s personal worlds has long been recognised by the international science education community as an issue deserving space in the research agenda. The purpose of this study was to explore the diversity of student reactions when subcultures such as family, community peers, and personal worldviews are considered along side the subculture of school science. Two-hundred and fifty students from urban and provincial schools in the northeastern region of Colombia (South America) participated. From this group, 18 students were interviewed. It was observed that students adopt a compartmentalisation of knowledge that is evident as both an avoiding strategy in the classroom and as a mechanism to differentiate between the natural world of their everyday situations and the one portrayed by a Westernised science instruction in the classroom. The findings reflect how multiple worldviews correlate with student frameworks as implanted by school science.

Medina-Jerez, William

2008-03-01

373

Comparison of methods to obtain ash from coal of the Southwest of Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method for concentration of mineral matter at low temperature (about 250 °C), called Low Temperature Ash (LTA) was applied to a sample of coal from the mine "Las Mercedes" located in Colombia southwestern. This method provides better information about the content of mineral matter in natural coal (NC), removing the organic matter more efficiently without significant transformations of mineral phases present in that coal. These results were observed through Mössbauer spectra and X-ray patterns taken from samples of NC, (LTA) and the conventional method of High Temperature Ash (HTA). The results show that the LTA process provides more representative data of the mineral phases for natural coal than that using the conventional HTA process.

Medina, G.; Tabares, J. A.; Alcazar, G. A. Pérez; Barraza, J. M.

2013-03-01

374

Lack of efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia.  

PubMed

In a nonblinded, therapeutic trial conducted in Colombia, 1.25-1.5 grams of mefloquine base given as a single oral dose or as 250 mg a day for 5-6 consecutive days was not efficacious in the treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. The drug had cured only 30.8 % of patients with leishmaniasis skin lesions by the 10th week after start of therapy as compared with a 27.9% complete cicatrization rate in historical controls treated with placebo tablets and an 86.3% cicatrization rate in historical controls who received meglumine antimoniate, 20 mg/ kg/day intramuscularly for 20 days, with no upper limit to daily dose. It is concluded that a single course treatment with mefloquine is not indicated as monotherapy in the treatment of Colombian cutaneous leishmaniasis primarily due to L. panamensis. PMID:9886195

Hendrickx, E P; Agudelo, S P; Munoz, D L; Puerta, J A; Velez Bernal, I D

1998-12-01

375

New Constraints on the Paleoelevation History of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia from Lipid Biomarkers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have suggested that the Eastern Cordillera of the central Andes uplifted extremely rapidly during the late Miocene, rising as much as 3000 m from approximately 10-6 Ma. But, it remains unknown whether this uplift event was restricted to the central Andes, or whether it occurred throughout the Andean origin. In the northern Andes, pollen-based reconstructions of elevation from sediments in Colombia have suggested that a similar phase of rapid uplift occurred after 6 Ma. However, the exact timing and magnitude of this event are not well-constrained; the pollen data show a clear shift to from low- to high-elevation species assemblages, but the actual elevation corresponding to each species assemblage cannot be accurately constrained. We attempt to resolve this uncertainty by presenting new paleoelevation data and an updated paleomagnetic stratigraphy for Miocene-Pliocene fluvial and lacustrine sediments in the Sabana de Bogota, a hinterland (intermontane) basin contained within the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. Because the climate of the northern Andes is too wet to preserve most carbonates and authigenic minerals necessary for traditional isotope-based paleoaltimetry techniques, we employ two lipid-based paleoaltimeters. The first uses the dD and d13C value of abundant leaf waxes as a proxy for the isotopic depletion of precipitation with elevation, while the second uses tetraether lipids as a proxy for paleotemperature. We foresee that these methods could have applicability in other paleoelevation studies in climates not suited to the preservation of carbonates and other minerals necessary for traditional paleoaltimetry techniques.

Anderson, V. J.; Saylor, J.; Shanahan, T. M.; Horton, B. K.

2011-12-01

376

Phylogenetic history demonstrates two different lineages of dengue type 1 virus in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue Fever is one of the most important viral re-emergent diseases affecting about 50 million people around the world especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In Colombia, the virus was first detected in the earliest 70's when the disease became a major public health concern. Since then, all four serotypes of the virus have been reported. Although most of the huge outbreaks reported in this country have involved dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1), there are not studies about its origin, genetic diversity and distribution. Results We used 224 bp corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of envelope (E) gene from 74 Colombian isolates in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate time divergences. Analyzed DENV-1 Colombian isolates belonged to the formerly defined genotype V. Only one virus isolate was clasified in the genotype I, likely representing a sole introduction that did not spread. The oldest strains were closely related to those detected for the first time in America in 1977 from the Caribbean and were detected for two years until their disappearance about six years later. Around 1987, a split up generated 2 lineages that have been evolving separately, although not major aminoacid changes in the analyzed region were found. Conclusion DENV-1 has been circulating since 1978 in Colombia. Yet, the phylogenetic relationships between strains isolated along the covered period of time suggests that viral strains detected in some years, although belonging to the same genotype V, have different recent origins corresponding to multiple re-introduction events of viral strains that were circulating in neighbor countries. Viral strains used in the present study did not form a monophyletic group, which is evidence of a polyphyletic origin. We report the rapid spread patterns and high evolution rate of the different DENV-1 lineages.

2010-01-01

377

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses) sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life.

Villa-Roel, Cristina; Buitrago, Adriana; Rodriguez, Diana C; Cano, Diana J; Martinez, Maria P; Camacho, Paul A; Ruiz, Alvaro J; Duran, Alvaro E

2009-01-01

378

Temephos Resistance in Aedes aegypti in Colombia Compromises Dengue Vector Control  

PubMed Central

Background Control and prevention of dengue relies heavily on the application of insecticides to control dengue vector mosquitoes. In Colombia, application of the larvicide temephos to the aquatic breeding sites of Aedes aegypti is a key part of the dengue control strategy. Resistance to temephos was recently detected in the dengue-endemic city of Cucuta, leading to questions about its efficacy as a control tool. Here, we characterize the underlying mechanisms and estimate the operational impact of this resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings Larval bioassays of Ae. aegypti larvae from Cucuta determined the temephos LC50 to be 0.066 ppm (95% CI 0.06–0.074), approximately 15× higher than the value obtained from a susceptible laboratory colony. The efficacy of the field dose of temephos at killing this resistant Cucuta population was greatly reduced, with mortality rates <80% two weeks after application and <50% after 4 weeks. Neither biochemical assays nor partial sequencing of the ace-1 gene implicated target site resistance as the primary resistance mechanism. Synergism assays and microarray analysis suggested that metabolic mechanisms were most likely responsible for the temephos resistance. Interestingly, although the greatest synergism was observed with the carboxylesterase inhibitor, DEF, the primary candidate genes from the microarray analysis, and confirmed by quantitative PCR, were cytochrome P450 oxidases, notably CYP6N12, CYP6F3 and CYP6M11. Conclusions/Significance In Colombia, resistance to temephos in Ae. aegypti compromises the duration of its effect as a vector control tool. Several candidate genes potentially responsible for metabolic resistance to temephos were identified. Given the limited number of insecticides that are approved for vector control, future chemical-based control strategies should take into account the mechanisms underlying the resistance to discern which insecticides would likely lead to the greatest control efficacy while minimizing further selection of resistant phenotypes.

Grisales, Nelson; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Gomez, Santiago; Fonseca-Gonzalez, Idalyd; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey

2013-01-01

379

Alberto del Pozo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cuban Heritage Collection of the University of Miami Libraries was a recipient of 17 original illustrations by Alberto del Pozo in 1998 from the Campilli family. "The Oricha Collection" is their gift, and it contains illustrations in pen, crayon, and ink and the collection "pays homage to the primary gods and goddesses that comprise the Afro-Cuban religion of Santer'a." The "Introduction" near the top of the page, is a good place for visitors to start learning about Pozo, who was a Parson's School of Design-trained, Cuban artist who died at the age of 47. The "Biographical Sketch" is worth looking at as well. Examples of his colorful, heavily patterned and symbolism-intensive drawings of Santeria gods and goddesses can be found in the link "Gallery". The description of each drawing is given in English and Spanish. Finally, visitors interested in more information on the Santeria, can look at the "Further Readings" link for authoritative books on the subject.

380

Sulla struttura eletronica del nitrobenzolo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto  È presentato un calcolo di alcune grandezze fisiche del nitrobenzolo mediante il metodo M.O. con una ragionevole scelta dei\\u000a parametri necessari. Per il momento elettrico, la frequenza del primo massimo di assorbimento nell’ultravioletto, le densità\\u000a elettroniche, gli ordini di legame, gli indici di valenza libera e l’energia di risonanza si ottengono valori in ottimo accordo\\u000a con le previsioni. Anche il

M. Simonetta; A. Vaciago

1954-01-01

381

Assessing Voters' Attitudes towards Electronic Voting in Latin America: Evidence from Colombia's 2007 E-Voting Pilot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic voting could increase citizens’ electoral participation and trust in countries characterized by fragile democratic institutions and public discredit of the political system such as those in Latin America. This paper examines attitudes towards e-voting among participants in a large scale pilot project conducted in Colombia in 2007, focusing on the perceived reliability and usability of different automated voting technologies. Using a multivariate probit model, we determine the effect of socio-demographic, geographic and technical factors on users’ evaluations of electronic voting vis a vis the traditional paper ballot system. Our results show that users find e-voting not only easier than the current voting system, but also substantially more reliable. While voters’ opinions on usability are driven by technical issues, their trust in the new technologies is strongly affected by individual characteristics. We conclude that e-voting entails a promising opportunity to empower voters and increase confidence in elections in Colombia.

Alvarez, R. Michael; Katz, Gabriel; Llamosa, Ricardo; Martinez, Hugo E.

382

Sexual reproduction of the reef coral Montastreacavernosa (Scleractinia: Faviidae) in the Santa Marta area, Caribbean coast of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual reproduction of the reef-building coral Montastreacavernosa was studied in the Santa Marta area, Caribbean coast of Colombia, from October 1990 to October 1991. The area is subjected\\u000a to a seasonal upwelling–outwelling regime. From microscopical analysis of tissue sections sampled each lunar month around\\u000a the full moon, it was confirmed that this is a gonochoric, broadcasting species, with a single

A. Acosta; S. Zea

1997-01-01

383

Implications of Magmatic Events on Hydrocarbon Generation: Occurrences of Gabbroic Rocks in the Orito Field, Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mafic dikes and sills intruded the sedimentary succession in the Orito Oil Field, located in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia. One sample from the Orito-4 well yields a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (40K\\/40Ar on amphibole 6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous event in the basin. This coincides with the widely recognized regional Andean orogenic uplift that affected most

M. Vásquez; U. Altenberger; R. L. Romer

2005-01-01

384

The quest for equity in Latin America: a comparative analysis of the health care reforms in Brazil and Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brazil and Colombia have pursued extensive reforms of their health care systems in the last couple of decades. The purported goals of such reforms were to improve access, increase efficiency and reduce health inequities. Notwithstanding their common goals, each country sought a very different pathway to achieve them. While Brazil attempted to reestablish a greater level of State control through a public national health system, Colombia embraced market competition under an employer-based social insurance scheme. This work thus aims to shed some light onto why they pursued divergent strategies and what that has meant in terms of health outcomes. Methods A critical review of the literature concerning equity frameworks, as well as the health care reforms in Brazil and Colombia was conducted. Then, the shortfall inequality values of crude mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and life expectancy for the period 1960-2005 were calculated for both countries. Subsequently, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed and controlled for possibly confounding factors. Results When controlling for the underlying historical time trend, both countries appear to have experienced a deceleration of the pace of improvements in the years following the reforms, for all the variables analyzed. In the case of Colombia, some of the previous gains in under-five mortality rate and crude mortality rate were, in fact, reversed. Conclusions Neither reform seems to have had a decisive positive impact on the health outcomes analyzed for the defined time period of this research. This, in turn, may be a consequence of both internal characteristics of the respective reforms and external factors beyond the direct control of health reformers. Among the internal characteristics: underfunding, unbridled decentralization and inequitable access to care seem to have been the main constraints. Conversely, international economic adversities, high levels of rural and urban violence, along with entrenched income inequalities seem to have accounted for the highest burden among external factors.

2012-01-01

385

Paleostress evolution of the northern Andes (Eastern Cordillera of Colombia): Implications on plate kinematics of the South Caribbean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

New tectonic field data and paleostress determinations in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia enable us to identify stress regimes that prevailed in the northern Andes since Late Cretaceous times until present day. These regimes were characterized by an E-W to WSW-ENE active contraction from Late Cretaceous to late Paleocene. This direction subsequently changed to NW-SE and finally became WNW-ESE during

Martín Cortés; Jacques Angelier; Bernard Colletta

2005-01-01

386

The bamboo sector in Colombia and Ecuador: a state of the art analysis of opportunities and constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—To get a deeper understanding,of the factors influencing the bamboo,sectors in Ecuador and Colombia with an emphasis on the countries’ export potential, an elaborate SWOT analysis was conducted based on interviews with various key stakeholders in the countries’ bamboo,sectors. The analysis shows that the sector is improving but nevertheless is still hampered by various constraints, mostly based on a lack

P. van der Lugt

2005-01-01

387

Chemical composition, anthocyanins, non-anthocyanin phenolics and antioxidant activity of wild bilberry ( Vaccinium meridionale Swartz) from Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berries of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz native to Colombia were analysed for chemical composition, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC–DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI–MS\\/MS) were used to determine anthocyanin and phenolic composition. Anthocyanin content was 329.0±28.0mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents\\/100g (fresh weight) FW and total phenolic content

G. A. Garzón; C. E. Narváez; K. M. Riedl; S. J. Schwartz

2010-01-01

388

Dissertation abstract: Three essays on the determinants of behavior in the commons-experimental evidence from fishing communities in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents the results of a series of common pool experiments conducted in three regions of rural Colombia\\u000a with individuals who face a social dilemma in their everyday lives that is similar to what was presented in the experiment.\\u000a The research objectives are to develop an empirical characterization of how individual behavior deviates from purely self-interested\\u000a Nash behavior and

María Alejandra Vélez

2007-01-01

389

Proteomic and biological characterization of the venom of the redtail coral snake, Micrurus mipartitus (Elapidae), from Colombia and Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venoms of the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus from Colombia and Costa Rica were analyzed by “venomics”, a proteomic strategy to determine their composition. Proteins were separated by RP-HPLC, followed by SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion, identification by MALDI or ESI tandem mass spectrometry, and assignment to known protein families by similarity. These analyses were complemented with a characterization of venom

Paola Rey-Suárez; Vitelbina Núñez; José María Gutiérrez; Bruno Lomonte

390

Ethical and economic considerations of rare diseases in ethnic minorities: the case of mucopolysaccharidosis VI in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder associated with severe disability and premature death. The presence of a mucopolysaccharidosis-like disease in indigenous ethnic groups in Colombia can be inferred from archaeological findings. There are several indigenous patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VI currently receiving enzyme replacement therapy. We discuss the ethical and economic considerations, regarding both direct and indirect costs, of a high-cost orphan disease in a marginalised minority population in a developing country.

Rueda, Juan-David; Solano, Martha

2013-01-01

391

Cardiac Autoantibodies from Patients Affected by a New Variant of Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus in Colombia, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia (El Bagre-EPF) have experienced\\u000a a sudden death syndrome, including persons below the age of 50. El Bagre-EPF patients share several autoantigens with paraneoplastic\\u000a pemphigus patients, such as reactivity to plakins. Further, paraneoplastic pemphigus patients have autoantibodies to the heart.\\u000a Therefore, we tested 15 El Bagre-EPF

Ana Maria Abreu-Velez; Michael S. Howard; Zhe Jiao; Weiqing Gao; Hong Yi; Hans E. Grossniklaus; Mauricio Duque-Ramírez; Samuel C. Dudley Jr

392

Multi-disciplinary evidence of the Holocene history of a cultivated floodplain area in the wetlands of northern Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   An environmental reconstruction of the last 10,000 14C years of a frequently flooded wetland ecosystem in the lower Magdalena valley in northern Colombia is presented, on the\\u000a basis of a multi-disciplinary study of the sediments of the upper 15 m of the core from Boquillas (74°33'E, 9°7'N; 20 m a.\\u000a s. l.). We used the following studies: pollen, lithology,

Juan Carlos Berrío; Arnoud Boom; Pedro José Botero; Luisa Fernanda Herrera; Henry Hooghiemstra; Freddy Romero; Gustavo Sarmiento

2001-01-01

393

Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus as a potential biological insecticide: Genetic and phenotypic comparison of field isolates from Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight isolates of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV), collected from infected larvae on pastures, maize, and sorghum plants in three different geographical regions of Colombia, were subjected to molecular characterization and were compared with a previously characterized Nicaraguan isolate (SfNIC). Restriction endonuclease analysis (REN) using six different enzymes showed two different patterns among Colombian isolates, one profile was particularly frequent

Gloria Barrera; Oihane Simón; Laura Villamizar; Trevor Williams; Primitivo Caballero

2011-01-01

394

Relationship Between Localization of Gold Mining Areas and Hair Mercury Levels in People from Bolivar, North of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting\\u000a ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena\\u000a Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed\\u000a for T-Hg

Jesús Olivero-Verbel; Karina Caballero-Gallardo; José Negrete-Marrugo

395

GENEALOGÍA DEL GERMOPLASMA DE PALMA DE ACEITE (Elaeis guineensis) DEL PROYECTO DE MEJORAMIENTO GENÉTICO DE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genealogy of the Oil Palm germoplasm (Elaeis guineensis), incorporated in the project of genetic improvement that executes the Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria - CORPOICA, indicates that its origin and their ancestral parents are as much in Africa as in Asia. The introduction of the African material to Colombia begins in 1933 with the ornamental planting of oil palms

Silvio Bastidas Pérez; Eduardo Peña Rojas; Rafael Reyes Cuesta

396

Reassessment of Colombia's tropical glaciers retreat rates: are they bound to disappear during the 2010-2020 decade?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clear-cut evidences of global environmental change in Colombia are discussed for diverse hydro-climatic records, and illustrated herein for increasing minimum temperature and decreasing annual maximum river flows records. As a consequence, eight tropical glaciers disappeared from the Colombian Andes during the 20th century, and the remaining six have experienced alarming retreat rates during the last decade. Here we report an updated estimation of retreat rates in the six remaining glacierized mountain ranges of Colombia for the period 1987-2007, using Landsat TM and TM+ imagery. Analyses are performed using detailed pre-processing, processing and post-processing satellite imagery techniques. Alarming retreat rates are confirmed in the studied glaciers, with an overall area shrinkage from 60 km2 in 2002, to 55.4 km2 in 2003, to less than 45 km2 in 2007. Assuming such linear loss rate (~3 km2 per year), for the near and medium term, the total collapse of the Colombian glaciers can be foreseen by 2022, but diverse physical mechanisms discussed herein would exacerbate the shrinkage processes, thus prompting us to forecast a much earlier deadline by the late 2010-2020 decade, long before the 100 years foreseen by the 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. This forecast demands detailed monitoring studies of mass and energy balances. Our updated estimations of Colombia's glacier retreat rates posse serious challenges for highly valuable ecosystem services, including water supply of several large cities and hundreds of rural settlements along the Colombian Andes, but also for cheap and renewable hydropower generation which provides 80% of Colombia's demand. Also, the identified changes threaten the survivability of unique and fragile ecosystems like paramos and cloud forests, in turn contributing to exacerbate social unrest and ongoing environmental problems in the tropical Andes which have been identified as the most critical hotspot for biodiversity on Earth. Colombia requires support from the global adaptation fund to develop research, and to design policies, strategies and tools to cope with these urgent social and environmental threats.

Poveda, G.; Pineda, K.

2009-12-01

397

3D tomographic structure of the north andean subduction zone at the Colombia-Ecuador border  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the latitude of Ecuador - southern Colombia, the Nazca plate converges toward the South American plate along an ~E-W direction at a rate of about 6 cm/yr. Several large subduction earthquakes affected this area during the last century. Near the Ecuador-Colombia border the 500 km long rupture zone of the 1906 event (M = 8.8) was partially reactivated, from south to north, by a sequence of 3 thrust events in 1942 (Mw = 7.8), 1958 (Mw = 7.7) and 1979 (Mw = 8.2). From 1998 to 2005, this zone was the target of five marine geophysical campaigns in order to determine the shallow and deep structure of the margin, its deformation and the possible relation with the rupture zone of the major earthquakes. Bathymetric data, passive and active seismic data were collected off South-Colombia and Ecuador. The data suggest that the interplate earthquakes and the extension of their rupture zone are at least partly controlled by structures on the downgoing and upper plates. To the south the subduction of the buoyant Carnegie Ridge, with a up to 19 km thick crust, is inferred to partially lock the plate interface along central Ecuador. This is illustrated by the rupture zones during the 1942 and 1906 earthquakes that terminated against the subducted northern flank of the ridge. The margin wedge is segmented by transverse crustal faults that correlate with the limits of the earthquake coseismic slip zones at the limit between the 1942 and 1958 rupture zones as well as at the limit between the 1958 and 1979 rupture zones. Furthermore, seaward of the 1958 rupture zone, a 2D profile from the SALIERI experiment (2001) highlights that the margin seems to overthrust a low velocity outer basement high along a splay fault that would decouple the bulk of the margin basement from its frontal part during great earthquake rupture. During, the 3D Esmeraldas experiment, conducted from February to June 2005, 34 3-components portable stations were installed on land and 26 3-components Ocean Bottom Seismometers were deployed offshore on top of the 1958 earthquake rupture zone. This network of seismometers recorded over 19,000 shots, using a 8x16 liters air-gun seismic source, along 25 crossing profiles for a total of ~3,000 km as well as seismic activity during a period of ~3 months. We first constrained a 1-D velocity model that best fits the bathymetry-corrected travel times of Pg and Pn arrivals from OBS located on the margin by forward modeling. This velocity model is used as an initial model for tomographic inversion using the FAST code. Preliminary results of the tomographic inversion provide some new insights of the structure of the margin and of the interplate contact.

Garcia Cano, L. C.; Galve, A.; de La Torre, G.; Charvis, P.; Pontoise, B.; Hello, Y.; Anglade, A.; Yates, B. A.

2007-12-01

398

Assessing socioeconomic vulnerability to dengue fever in Cali, Colombia: statistical vs expert-based modeling  

PubMed Central

Background As a result of changes in climatic conditions and greater resistance to insecticides, many regions across the globe, including Colombia, have been facing a resurgence of vector-borne diseases, and dengue fever in particular. Timely information on both (1) the spatial distribution of the disease, and (2) prevailing vulnerabilities of the population are needed to adequately plan targeted preventive intervention. We propose a methodology for the spatial assessment of current socioeconomic vulnerabilities to dengue fever in Cali, a tropical urban environment of Colombia. Methods Based on a set of socioeconomic and demographic indicators derived from census data and ancillary geospatial datasets, we develop a spatial approach for both expert-based and purely statistical-based modeling of current vulnerability levels across 340 neighborhoods of the city using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results of both approaches are comparatively evaluated by means of spatial statistics. A web-based approach is proposed to facilitate the visualization and the dissemination of the output vulnerability index to the community. Results The statistical and the expert-based modeling approach exhibit a high concordance, globally, and spatially. The expert-based approach indicates a slightly higher vulnerability mean (0.53) and vulnerability median (0.56) across all neighborhoods, compared to the purely statistical approach (mean?=?0.48; median?=?0.49). Both approaches reveal that high values of vulnerability tend to cluster in the eastern, north-eastern, and western part of the city. These are poor neighborhoods with high percentages of young (i.e., < 15 years) and illiterate residents, as well as a high proportion of individuals being either unemployed or doing housework. Conclusions Both modeling approaches reveal similar outputs, indicating that in the absence of local expertise, statistical approaches could be used, with caution. By decomposing identified vulnerability “hotspots” into their underlying factors, our approach provides valuable information on both (1) the location of neighborhoods, and (2) vulnerability factors that should be given priority in the context of targeted intervention strategies. The results support decision makers to allocate resources in a manner that may reduce existing susceptibilities and strengthen resilience, and thus help to reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases.

2013-01-01

399

Assesment of pesticide fluxes to surface water using Uranine in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the highlands of Colombia, potato farmers maximize their yields by the application of pesticides. Properly applied pesticides can significantly reduce yield loss and improve product quality; however their misuse leads to human health and environmental problems, i.e. water bodies contaminated with pesticides. Due to the lack of control regarding local pesticide use, unmeasured hydrological parameters and use of local water runoff as a drinking water supply, an assessment of the impact of agricultural practice on water quality is mandatory as first stage. In order to accomplish this, our study assesses pesticide fluxes to surface water using the tracer Uranine. The experimental area La Hoya main basin (3 km2) contains the Pantano Verde river which flows into the Teatinos river in the Boyaca region (Colombia). Some facts such as the deep soils in the area and the importance of the unsaturated zone for the sorption and degradation of pesticides suggest a lack of contaminants in groundwater. However, due to the humid conditions, steep slopes and an intensive agricultural with high pesticide use, we expect surface water to be highly contaminated. In order to assess pesticide pathways, a tracer (Uranine), detectable at very low amount was used. Four local farmers applied the tracer instead of the pesticide mixture covering a total surface of 1.2 10-2 km2. Meteorological data were measured every 15 min with one compact meteorological station installed within the basin and water flow and water sampling were obtained using an ISCO-6700 water sampler, during one week every 10 min in the outlet of Pantano Verde River. In addition, three pairs of membranes were installed down the river and collected 1 week, one month and 4 months after the experiment to measure tracer accumulation. The tracer in water was analysed using a fluorescent spectrometer. Results of this study show first variations of tracer concentration in water in La Hoya basin and constitute an initial steep in assessing the impact of agricultural practices in the local water quality under the influence of pesticides.

Garcia-Santos, G.; Scheiben, D.; Diaz, J.; Leuenberger, F.; Binder, C. R.

2009-04-01

400

Are classification criteria for vasculitis useful in clinical practice? Observations and lessons from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Idiopathic systemic vasculitis represents a group of clinical entities having non-specific etiology with the common characteristic of acute or chronic inflammatory compromise of the small and large vessels walls, associated with fibrinoid necrosis. Objectives To describe the most common inflammatory vascular diseases in a long historical cohort of patients from San Juan de Dios Hospital located in Bogota, Colombia using two different systems and a clinical histopathological correlation format, and to make a comparison between them. Methods We reviewed all previously ascertained cases of vasculitis confirmed by biopsy processed between 1953 and 1990, and systematically collected data on all new cases of vasculitis from 1991 to 1997 at the Hospital San Juan de Dios (Bogota – Colombia). The cases were classified in accordance with the Chapel Hill Consensus criteria, and the system proposed by J.T. Lie. Results Of 165,556 biopsy tissue specimens obtained during this period from our hospital, 0.18% had vasculitis, perivasculitis or vasculopathy. These included 304 histopathological biopsies from 292 patients. Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (64 histological specimens) was the most frequently encountered type of "primary" vasculitis followed by thromboangiitis obliterans (38 specimens), and polyarteritis nodosa (24 specimens). Vasculitis associated with connective tissue diseases (33 specimens) and infection (20 specimens) were the main forms of secondary vasculitis, a category that was omitted from the Chapel Hill consensus report. We found that 65.8% of our histopathological diagnoses could not be classified according to the Chapel Hill classification, and 35.2% could not be classified according to the classification of Lie. Only 8.9% of cases remained unclassified by our system after clinical and histological correlation. Conclusion Current vasculitis classification schemes are designed for classification, rather that diagnosis of disease and do not adequately address some common forms of inflammatory vascular diseases, including those of infectious etiology and unusual etiology seen in clinical practice. Based on our clinical experience, we suggest a classification outline which practitioners can use which emphasizes correlation of the clinical picture to the histopathology findings for diagnosis and therapy, which may promote better clinical practice and standardization for clinical trials.

Patarroyo, Paul Alejandro Mendez; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Rojas, Samanda Adriana; Rondon, Federico; Matteson, Eric L; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio

2009-01-01

401

Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae) in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia.  

PubMed

Vaccinium meridionale is a promising crop for the Andean region of South America and is currently available only in the wild. Spontaneous populations of this plant are found across the Colombian mountains, but very few published records on this plant morphology are available. A zonification study of V. meridionale was conducted in four principal areas of a low mountain forest of Colombia (Provinces of Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander and Nariño) in 2007. A total of 20 populations and 100 plants of V. meridionale were individually characterized and surveyed, using a list of 26 characters of morphological variables (9 quantitative and 17 qualitative characters). Our results indicated that natural populations of V. meridionale might be found in the tropical forest under a highly heterogeneous climate and microclimate conditions, at different mountain regions between 2 357 and 3 168masl. The shrubs of V. meridionale exhibited a high level of intra-population variation in several quantitative (plant height, stem diameter) and qualitative (growth habit, ramification density, presence of anthocyanins in stems) morphological characters, suggesting an environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity. Plant height, stem diameter and foliar density were the most variable morphological traits, with coefficients of variation higher than 50%. However, several quantitative characters of its reproductive potential, such as berry dimensions, rachis length and number of flowers per inflorescence, resulted with low plasticity with coefficients of variation lower than 30.2%, indicating that these characters were genetically determined. The highest correlation coefficients (p < 0.05) resulted to be between fruit length and fruit width (0.90), leaf length and leaf width (0.78), plant height and stem diameter (0.60), and inflorescence length and flowers number per inflorescence (0.57). The results suggest that an important genetic resource exists for this species in the wild. Low variation in fruit size, which constitutes a target trait for plant breeders, could be useful for selection of cultivars of V. meridionale. The results of this study could also be applied in conservation programs aimed to protect these diverse populations in the mountain forests of Colombia. PMID:21717851

Ligarreto, Gustavo A; Patiño, Maria del Pilar; Magnitskiy, Stanislav V

2011-06-01

402

FENOLOGÍA DEL CULTIVO DEL CHILE (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Datos diarios de temperaturas máximas y mínimas del aire fueron usados para determinar las unidades calor, que sirvieron como referencia para definir las principales etapas fenológicas en seis tipos diferentes de chile (Capsicum annuum). Las unidades calor sirvieron para inferir el período de mayor requerimiento de nutrimentos, así como la relación con la sintomatología de las enfermedades más importantes

Salvador Montes Hernández; Elena Heredia García; J. Alfonso; Aguirre Gómez

403

Space as a Metafictional Marker: Borges' 'Tema del traidor y del héroe' and Bertolucci's Strategia del ragno  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In this study, I analyse space as a key marker of the metafictional characteristic of Jorge Luis Borges' story 'Tema del traidor y del héroe' (in Ficciones) and Bernardo Bertolucci's film Strategia del ragno. I contend that the presentation of space – this understudied 'other' with regard to time in criticism of Borges – is a major aspect of the

Ilka Kressner

404

Space as a Metafictional Marker: Borges' 'Tema del traidor y del héroe' and Bertolucci's Strategia del ragno  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, I analyse space as a key marker of the metafictional characteristic of Jorge Luis Borges' story 'Tema del traidor y del héroe' (in Ficciones) and Bernardo Bertolucci's film Strategia del ragno. I contend that the presentation of space – this understudied 'other' with regard to time in criticism of Borges – is a major aspect of the

Ilka Kressner

405

Considerazioni sulla proprieta' insulino-legante del siero del soggetto normale e del diabetico mai trattato con insulina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto Gli AA. rilevano che i sieri dell'individuo normale e del diabetico mai trattato con insulina sono provvisti di proprietà insulino-legante di entità analoga. In alcuni sieri, sia del soggetto normale che del diabetico, è presente un'attività insulino-legante superiore ai valori massimi normali, che diminuisce dopo aggiunta di µU 500 di insulina bovina.

Michele Lunetta; Giuseppe Calcagno; Luciano Motta; Turiddu Lombardo

1968-01-01

406

Placental malaria in Colombia: histopathologic findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum infections.  

PubMed

Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated changes were observed in 37%. The most common changes were villitis, intervillitis, deciduitis, increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots, mononuclear (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes), polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and trophozoites in fetal erythrocytes. No association was found between type of placental changes observed and histopathologic classification of placental malaria. The findings are consistent with those reported for placental malaria in other regions. Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite responsible for placental and gestational malaria, but its role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria was not conclusive. PMID:23546807

Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda

2013-04-01

407

Diagnosis and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Dairy Cows in Colombia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was the serological, bacteriological and molecular diagnosis, as well as the molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in adult cows of five Colombian dairy herds. Serum samples were tested by an indirect absorbed enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-C). All fecal samples were tested by pooled culture. After that, fecal samples of Map positive pools were tested individually by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In one herd, slurry and tissue samples from one animal were also taken and tested by PCR and culture. Map isolates were analyzed by the Multilocus Short Sequence Repeat (MLSSR) and the Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) methods. ELISA produced positive results in 1.8% (6/329) of the animals and 40% (2/5) of the herds. Four fecal, two tissue, and two slurry samples from a herd were Map positive by culture and PCR. MLSSR and MIRU-VNTR revealed two different strain profiles among eight Map isolates recovered. This study reports the first molecular characterization of Map in one dairy herd in Colombia, the limitations for individual diagnosis of subclinical Map infections in cattle, and the usefulness of pooled fecal samples and environmental sampling for Map diagnosis.

Fernandez-Silva, J. A.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Bulte, M.

2011-01-01

408

Antigenic Diversity of the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein in Parasite Isolates of Western Colombia  

PubMed Central

Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a malaria antigen involved in sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, and thus considered to have good vaccine potential. We evaluated the polymorphism of the Plasmodium vivax CS gene in 24 parasite isolates collected from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia. We sequenced 27 alleles, most of which (25/27) corresponded to the VK247 genotype and the remainder to the VK210 type. All VK247 alleles presented a mutation (Gly ? Asn) at position 28 in the N-terminal region, whereas the C-terminal presented three insertions: the ANKKAGDAG, which is common in all VK247 isolates; 12 alleles presented the insertion GAGGQAAGGNAANKKAGDAG; and 5 alleles presented the insertion GGNAGGNA. Both repeat regions were polymorphic in gene sequence and size. Sequences coding for B-, T-CD4+, and T-CD8+ cell epitopes were found to be conserved. This study confirms the high polymorphism of the repeat domain and the highly conserved nature of the flanking regions.

Hernandez-Martinez, Miguel Angel; Escalante, Ananias A.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates

2011-01-01

409

[Sporangia ontogeny and sporogenesis of the lycopodium Huperzia brevifolia (Lycopodiaceae) from the high mountains of Colombia].  

PubMed

Huperzia brevifolia is one of the dominant species of the genus Huperzia living in paramos and superparamos from the Colombian Andes. A detailed study of the sporangium's ontogeny and sporogenesis was carried out using specimens collected at 4200m above sea level, in Parque Natural Nacional El Cocuy, Colombia. Small pieces of caulinar axis bearing sporangia were fixed, dehydrated, paraffin embedded, sectioned in a rotatory microtome, and stained using the common Safranin O-Fast Green technique; handmade cross sections were also made, stained with aqueous Toluidine Blue (TBO). The sporangia develops basipetally, a condition that allows observation of all the developmental stages taking place throughout the caulinar axis of adult plants. Each sporangium originates from a group of epidermal cells, axilar to the microphylls. These cells undergo active mitosis, and produce new external and internal cellular groups. The sporangium wall and the tapetum originate from the external group of cells, while the internal cellular group leads to the sporogenous tissue. Meiosis occur in the sporocytes and produce simultaneous types tetrads, each one giving rise four trilete spores, with foveolate ornamentation. During the sporangium ripening, the outermost layer of the wall develops anticlinally, and inner periclinal thickenings and the innermost one perform as a secretory tapetum, which persists until the spores are completely mature. All other cellular layers colapse. PMID:20073340

Barón, Edgar Javier Rincón; Landazábal, Leidy Vivivana Gélvez; Ballesteros, Helkin Giovany Forero; Prieto, Dagoberto Arrieta; Hleap, José Sergio

2009-12-01

410

[Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) of the northwestern slope of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia].  

PubMed

The community structure of dung beetles in the middle and lower river basin of the Gaira river, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described. Four sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient of 50-940 m for sampling from June to October, 2004. Dung beetles were captured using modified pitfall traps and manual recollections. We captured 7,872 individuals belonging to 29 species, distributed in 15 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Canthon and Onthophagus were the most diverse genera, each represented by six species. The sampled sites shared the following species: Onthophagus acuminatus Harold, O. clypeatus Blanchard, O. marginicollis Harold. Bocatoma was the most diverse site with 23 species; whereas Port Mosquito presented the highest abundance, with 3,262 individuals. Seven species represented 89% of all captures: Canthidium sp., Dichotomius sp., Uroxys sp. 1, Uroxys sp. 2, O. marginicollis, O. clypeatus and O. acuminatus. Of the 29 captured species, 17 belonged to the functional group of diggers and 10 were ball-rollers. We did not observe significant among-site differences in community structure. Abiotic factors such as altitude, temperature and humidity cannot explain observed variation in community structure across sites, indicating other variables such as vegetation cover, density of the vegetation and soil type may play a role in the community structure of these insects. PMID:20098915

Martínez, Neis J; García, Héctor; Pulido, Luz A; Ospino, Deibi; Harváez, Juan C

411

Coca and poppy eradication in Colombia: environmental and human health assessment of aerially applied glyphosate.  

PubMed

The production of coca and poppy as well as the processing and production of cocaine and heroin involve significant environmental impacts. Both coca and poppy are grown intensively in a process that involves the clearing of land in remote areas, the planting of the crop, and protection against pests such as weeds, insects, and pathogens. The aerial spray program to control coca and poppy production in Colombia with the herbicide glyphosate is conducted with modern state-of-the-art aircraft and spray equipment. As a result of the use of best available spray and navigation technology, the likelihood of accidental off-target spraying is small and is estimated to be less than 1% of the total area sprayed. Estimated exposures in humans resulting from direct overspray, contact with treated foliage after reentry to fields, inhalation, diet, and drinking water were small and infrequent. Analyses of surface waters in five watersheds showed that, on most occasions, glyphosate was not present at measurable concentrations; only two samples had residues just above the method detection limit of 25 microg/L. Concentrations of glyphosate in air were predicted to be very small because of negligible volatility. Glyphosate in soils that are directly sprayed will be tightly bound and biologically unavailable and have no residual activity. Concentrations of glyphosate plus Cosmo-Flux will be relatively large in shallow surface waters that are directly oversprayed (maximum instantaneous concentration of 1,229microgAE/L in water 30cm deep); however, no information was available on the number of fields in close proximity to surface waters, and thus it was not possible to estimate the likelihood of such contamination. The formulation used in Colombia, a mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux, has low toxicity to mammals by all routes of exposure, although some temporary eye irritation may occur. Published epidemiological studies have not suggested a strong or consistent linkage between glyphosate use and specific human health outcomes. An epidemiology study conducted in Colombia did not show any association between time to pregnancy in humans and the use of glyphosate in eradication spraying. The mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux was not toxic to honeybees. The mixture was, however, more toxic to the alga Selenastrum, the cladoceran Daphnia magna, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout than formulated glyphosate (Roundup) alone. Studies on the use of glyphosate in agriculture and forestry have shown that direct effects on nontarget organisms other than plants are unlikely. Indirect effects on terrestrial arthropods and other wildlife may be the result of habitat alteration and environmental change brought about by the removal of plants by glyphosate. Because of the lack of residual activity, recovery of glyphosate-treated areas in Colombia is expected to be rapid because of good plant growth conditions. However, return to the conditions of tropical old-growth forest that existed before clear-cutting and burning may take hundreds of years, not from the use of glyphosate but because of the clear-cutting and burning, which are the primary cause of effects in the environment. The risk assessment concluded that glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux did not present a significant risk to human health. In the entire cycle of coca and poppy production and eradication, human health risks associated with physical injury during clear-cutting and burning and the use of pesticides for protection of the illicit crops were judged to be considerably more important than those from exposure to glyphosate. For the environment, direct risks from the use of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux to terrestrial mammals and birds were judged to be negligible. Moderate risks could occur in aquatic organisms in shallow surface waters that are oversprayed during the eradication program. However, the frequency of occurrence and extent to which this happens are unknown as data on the proximity of surface waters to coca fields were not available. Considering the effects of the entire cycle of coca and p

Solomon, Keith R; Anadón, Arturo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Cerdeira, Antonio L; Marshall, Jon; Sanin, Luz-Helena

2007-01-01

412

[Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia].  

PubMed

Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia. High Andean paramo ecosystems are an important water resource for many towns, and major cities in this region. The aquatic and wetland vegetation of different paramo lakes, pond, swamps and bogs was studied according to the classical phytosociological approach, which is based on homogenous stands, but excludes any border phenomena or transitional zone. The present research aimed at determining the aquatic and wetland vegetation along different moisture gradients. A total of 89 species in 30 transects were reported, of which Crassula venezuelensis, Carex honplandii, Callitriche nubigena, Eleocharis macrostachya, Ranunculus flagelliformis, R. nubigenus, Eleocharis stenocarpa, Galium ascendens y Alopecurus aequalis were present in more than one third of the transects. Numerical classification and indicator species analysis resulted in the definition of the next 18 communities: 1) Calamagrostis effusa, 2) Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3) Cyperus rufus, 4) Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5) Carex acutata, 6) Poa annua,7) Valeriana sp., 8) Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9) Carex bonplandii, 10) Festuca andicola. 11) Muhlenbergia fustigiata, 12) Elatine paramoana, 13) Isoëtes palmeri, 14) Crassula venezuelensis, 15) Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16) Callitriche nubigena, 17) Potamogeton paramoanus and 18) Potamogeton illinoensis. The ordination of communities reveals the presence of three different aquatic-terrestrial gradients which are related to the life form structure of species that characterized the various communities. We concluded that patchiness and heterogeneity of the vegetation is mainly the result of alterations caused by human activities (burning, cattle raise and material extraction for road and dam construction). PMID:22458208

Schmidt-Mumm, Udo; Vargas Ríos, Orlando

2012-03-01

413

Relationship between fumarole gas composition and eruptive activity at Galeras Volcano, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Forecasting volcanic eruptions is critical to the mitigation of hazards for the millions of people living dangerously close to active volcanoes. Volcanic gases collected over five years from Galeras Volcano, Colombia, and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition show the effects of long-term degassing of the magma body and a gradual decline in sulfur content of the gases. In contrast, short-term (weeks), sharp variations are the precursors to explosive eruptions. Selective absorption of magmatic SO{sub 2} and HCl due to interaction with low-temperature geothermal waters allows the gas emissions to become dominated by CO{sub 2}. Absorption appears to precede an eruption because magmatic volatiles are slowed or retained by a sealing carapace, reducing the total flux of volatiles and allowing the hydrothermal volatiles to dominate gas emissions. Temporal changes in gas compositions were correlated with eruptive activity and provide new evidence bearing on the mechanism of this type of `pneumatic` explosive eruptions. 18 refs., 5 figs.

Fischer, T.P.; Williams, S.N. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Arehart, G.B.; Sturchio, N.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1996-06-01

414

Obstacles and challenges following the partial decriminalisation of abortion in Colombia.  

PubMed

During a highly contested process, abortion was partially decriminalised in Colombia in 2006 by the Constitutional Court: when the pregnancy threatens a woman's life or health, in cases of severe fetal malformations incompatible with life, and in cases of rape, incest or unwanted insemination. However, Colombian women still face obstacles to accessing abortion services. This is illustrated by 36 cases of women who in 2006-08 were denied the right to a lawful termination of pregnancy, or had unjustified obstacles put in their path which delayed the termination, which are analysed in this article. We argue that the obstacles resulted from fundamental disagreements about abortion and misunderstandings regarding the ethical, legal and medical requirements arising from the Court's decision. In order to avoid obstacles such as demands for a judge's authorisation, institutional claims of conscientious objection, rejection of a claim of rape, or refusal of health insurance coverage for a legal termination, which constitute discrimination against women, three main strategies are suggested: public ownership of the Court's decision by all Colombian citizens, a professional approach by those involved in the provision of services in line with the law, and monitoring of its implementation by governmental and non-governmental organisations. PMID:21111356

Amado, Eduardo Díaz; Calderón García, Maria Cristina; Cristancho, Katherine Romero; Salas, Elena Prada; Hauzeur, Eliane Barreto

2010-11-01

415

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in biological samples from the north coast of Colombia.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds are widespread pollutants of toxicological importance that have been detected in environmental matrices. However, little is known on their distribution in South America. In this study, distribution of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was determined in the bile of mullet, Mugil incilis, and in tissues of pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) collected from North Colombia. Analysis was performed by HPLC mass spectrometry after ion-pair extraction. PFOS was found in all bile samples and PFOA and PFHxS were detected at lower frequency. Average concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in bile of fish from Cartagena Bay, an industrialized site, and Totumo marsh, a reference site, were 3673, 370, 489 and 713, 47.4, 1.27 ng/mL, respectively. PFOS concentrations in pelican organs decreased in the order of spleen>liver>lung>kidney>brain>heart>muscle. These results suggest, for the first time, that perfluorinated compounds are also found in wildlife from Latin American countries. PMID:16303219

Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Tao, Lin; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Guette-Fernández, Jorge; Baldiris-Avila, Rosa; O'byrne-Hoyos, Indira; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2005-11-21

416

Xiphinema llanosum and Trophurus vultus, Two New Plant Nematode Species from Pasture Soils in Colombia.  

PubMed

Xiphinema llanosum n. sp. and Trophurus vultus n. sp. are described and illustrated from grass soils in Llanos Orientales, Colombia. Xiphinema llanosum is a bisexual species. The female body length is 2.3-2.7 mm, odontostyle 86-96 mum, and odontophore 58-65 mum long; vulva at 42-47%; anterior ovary is absent; the anterior uterus and oviduct are similar to the posterior branch but slightly reduced; and the tail is dorsally convex-conoid with a blunt hemispherical terminus. Male body length is 2.06-2.96 mm; spicules are 40-44 mum long; and four (rarely three or five) anterior ventromedian supplementary papillae are present. Trophurus vultus females are 0.52-0.67 mm long; vulva at 56-60%; stylet is 10.5-13.5 mum long; isthmus is as long as the basal esophageal bulb; the tail is subclavate, 1.6-2.2 times anal body width long; and the terminal cuticle thickness is about one-sixth of the tail length. PMID:19287719

Siddiqi, M R; Lenne, J M

1990-07-01

417

[Historical review of the plague in South America: a little-known disease in Colombia].  

PubMed

The plague is an infectious disease that has transcended through history and has been responsible for three pandemics with high mortality rates. During the third pandemic that started in Hong Kong (1894), the disease spread through maritime routes to different regions in the world, including South America. In this region, approximately 16 million people are thought to be at risk in relation to this disease due to specific situations like human-rodent coexistence inside houses in rural areas, homes built with inadequate materials that are vulnerable to invasion by these animals, inappropriate storage of crops and an increase in rainfall and deforestation, which allows for the displacement of wild fauna and man invasion of the natural foci of the disease. Between 1994 and 1999, five countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and the United States of America, reported approximately 1,700 cases with 79 related deaths. In Colombia we have historical data about an "infectious pneumonia" with high mortality rates that occurred during the same months, for three consecutive years (1913 to 1915) in the departments of Magdalena, Atlántico and Bolívar, located in the Colombian Atlantic coast, which suggested plague, but could not be confirmed. PMID:23715302

Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Sotomayor, Hugo A

418

Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.  

PubMed

The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates. PMID:19439189

Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

2009-05-09

419

Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral.

Ferro, Cristina; Marin, Dairo; Gongora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, Maria C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marin, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Perez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

2011-01-01

420

Prevalence and determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women from Bogota, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix and uterus has been hypothesised to be a co-factor for cervical cancer. We performed a cross sectional study in Bogota, Colombia, where cervical cancer rates are high, to determine the prevalence and determinants of C trachomatis infection, and in particular its association with human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods: 1829 low income sexually active women were interviewed and tested for C trachomatis, using an endogenous plasmid PCR-EIA, and for 37 HPV types, using a general primer GP5+/6+ mediated PCR-EIA. Results: The overall prevalence of C trachomatis was 5.0%, and it did not differ substantially between women with normal (5.0%) and those with abnormal (5.2%) cervical cytology. Women infected with any HPV type (15.1%) had a slightly increased risk of being simultaneously infected with C trachomatis (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI: 0.8 to 2.4). This association was stronger when multiple HPV infections (adjusted OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.9) were present. No other lifestyle or reproductive characteristics were clearly associated with risk of C trachomatis infection. Conclusions: HPV infected women, particularly women with multiple HPV infections, are at increased risk of being infected with C trachomatis.

Molano, M; Weiderpass, E; Posso, H; Morre, S; Ronderos, M; Franceschi, S; Arslan, A; Meijer, C; Munoz, N; van den Brule, A J C

2003-01-01

421

Ecological distribution of Fusarium solani and its opportunistic action related to mycotic keratitis in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed Central

Corneal ulcera in patients treated at the University Hospital Cali, Colombia have been attributed to the fungus Fusarium solani, which was isolated from patients' eyes by deep scraping. The fungus, which was characterized by culture and morphology, was found to grow well at 37 degrees C in Sabouraud and potato dextrose agars and in liquid asparagine medium, in which it produced very few spores; at 40 degrees C, it survived for 3 weeks. Different levels of pathogenicity were shown by the fungus when 3-week-old bean, corn, and tomato plants were inoculated. Controlled experiments in which an inoculum of F. solani was instilled in rabbit eyes were also carried out; it evoked a clinical reaction producing irritation and erythema. The F. solani isolated from eyes was the same species as that isolated by an agar plate method with Fusarium-selective medium from sugar cane, bean, tomato, or corn fields throughout December 1976 to November 1977. Nonfarming areas and urban sites were also air sampled, but only a few (less than 1%) colonies of F. solani were isolated at one of four sites. A preliminary attempt to identify the physiologically active substance of the fungus was carried out through chemical extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and ultraviolet and infrared spectra analysis. Images

Cuero, R G

1980-01-01

422

Ecological distribution of Fusarium solani and its opportunistic action related to mycotic keratitis in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed

Corneal ulcera in patients treated at the University Hospital Cali, Colombia have been attributed to the fungus Fusarium solani, which was isolated from patients' eyes by deep scraping. The fungus, which was characterized by culture and morphology, was found to grow well at 37 degrees C in Sabouraud and potato dextrose agars and in liquid asparagine medium, in which it produced very few spores; at 40 degrees C, it survived for 3 weeks. Different levels of pathogenicity were shown by the fungus when 3-week-old bean, corn, and tomato plants were inoculated. Controlled experiments in which an inoculum of F. solani was instilled in rabbit eyes were also carried out; it evoked a clinical reaction producing irritation and erythema. The F. solani isolated from eyes was the same species as that isolated by an agar plate method with Fusarium-selective medium from sugar cane, bean, tomato, or corn fields throughout December 1976 to November 1977. Nonfarming areas and urban sites were also air sampled, but only a few (less than 1%) colonies of F. solani were isolated at one of four sites. A preliminary attempt to identify the physiologically active substance of the fungus was carried out through chemical extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and ultraviolet and infrared spectra analysis. PMID:7217337

Cuero, R G

1980-09-01

423

[Drug use and sexual practices of teenagers in the city of Medellin (Colombia)].  

PubMed

The purpose of this research project was to study the relationship between drug consumption and sexual practices in teenagers in the city of Medellin, Colombia. A transversal studied was designed in order to identify the variables related to having had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs or alcohol. The sample was made up of 955 teenagers between 14 and 17, who were in 9th, 10th and 11th grades in public and private schools in the city of Medellin. The results show that the prevalence of drug and alcohol influence in sexual intercourse is 43,67%. The most common drugs used for sexual practices are alcohol, marihuana, popper, cocaine and ecstasy. Consuming alcohol or drugs and having sexual practices shows an associated meaningful statistic (p= .001). The more common sexual practices under psychoactive substances are the exploratory ones (caresses and touching) (71%), vaginal penetration (63.67%), oral sex (45.30%) and masturbation (19.59%). Regarding the protection methods during sexual intercourse under drug or alcohol influence 55,9% always use a condom, 37,3% sometimes use it, and 6,8% never do it. This study proves what had been previously established by other research projects that show a high statistic association between drug consumption and sexual practices, but realizes that there is no statistically significant association between sexual practices under the influence of alcohol or drugs and the use or non-use of protective methods, which is the most important finding. PMID:23241721

Castaño Pérez, Guillermo A; Arango Tobon, Eduardo; Morales Mesa, Santiago; Rodríguez Bustamante, Alexander; Montoya Montoya, Carolina

2012-01-01

424

Food, sanitation, and the socioeconomic determinants of child growth in Colombia.  

PubMed Central

To describe the causes of growth failure in a developing country, we studied family food availability, anthropometric measurements of preschool children, and family and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions in a stratified random sample of Cali, Colombia families. The influences on preschool child growth of food availability, neighborhood socioeconomic conditions, and family socioeconomic conditions were separated statistically. Neither food availability nor other family factors were related directly to growth, but neighborhood factors did have a strong relationship to growth. Children decreased progressively from 97.5 percent of expected weight in the top one-sixth of neighborhoods we studied to 89 per cent in the botton one-sixth. Food availability, although not related to growth, was strongly related to family factors. The top one-sixth of families had 115 percent of FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) protein allowances, while the bottom one-sixth had only 75 per cent. These finding are inconsistent with food availability or family factors being the prinicipal causes of growth retardation. They are consistent with neighborhood determined factors, possibly enteric infections, being the principal cause of growth retardation in preschool children in Cali.

Koopman, J S; Jajardo, L; Bertrand, W

1981-01-01

425

Comparative planktonic foraminiferal aminostratigraphy of the Colombia basin and the northeast Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The increase in the proportion of D-amino acids in fossil shells with increasing age can be used as a relative dating method as far back as the mid-Miocene. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and mixed foraminiferal aminostratigraphy were determined for DSDP Site 502B (late Pliocene-Pleistocene) and 502A (late Miocene-Pliocene) in the Colombia basin. The aminostratigraphic analysis was conducted every 2.5-5.0 m in the Pleistocene and every 5-10 m in the Pliocene. Previously established planktonic foraminiferal datums and subzonal boundaries were used to establish the geochronology of DSDP Site 502B-502A. Sediment accumulation rates were then calculated and used to estimate the absolute age at a particular depth in each core. Aminostratigraphic analysis indicates a logarithmic increase in D-alloisoleucine/L-isoleucine (A/I) ratios with increasing age, where equilibrium is not reached until ca. 5 Ma. Using the logarithmic curve that best fits the A/I data, one can estimate the numerical age of a bulk sample given the A/I ratio. The mixed species assemblage A/I ratios from ODP Site 625B (Gulf of Mexico) and 502B are comparable from the late Pliocene-Pleistocene, which suggests that aminostratigraphic analysis of a mixed foraminiferal assemblage offers a very useful and unique opportunity to estimate ages in other Pliocene-Pleistocene sections in regions where independent geochronologic control may be lacking.

Fletcher, R.R.; Wehmiller, J.F.; Martin, R.E.; Johnson, B.J. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

1991-03-01

426

Colombia and Cuba, contrasting models in Latin America's health sector reform.  

PubMed

Latin American national health systems were drastically overhauled by the health sector reforms the 1990s. Governments were urged by donors and by the international financial institutions to make major institutional changes, including the separation of purchaser and provider functions and privatization. This article first analyses a striking paradox of the far-reaching reform measures: contrary to what is imposed on public health services, after privatization purchaser and provider functions are reunited. Then we compare two contrasting examples: Colombia, which is internationally promoted as a successful--and radical--example of 'market-oriented' health care reform, and Cuba, which followed a highly 'conservative' path to adapt its public system to the new conditions since the 1990s, going against the model of the international institutions. The Colombian reform has not been able to materialize its promises of universality, improved equity, efficiency and better quality, while Cuban health care remains free, accessible for everybody and of good quality. Finally, we argue that the basic premises of the ongoing health sector reforms in Latin America are not based on the people's needs, but are strongly influenced by the needs of foreign--especially North American--corporations. However, an alternative model of health sector reform, such as the Cuban one, can probably not be pursued without fundamental changes in the economic and political foundations of Latin American societies. PMID:17002735

De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

2006-10-01

427

An outbreak of Candida spp. bloodstream infection in a tertiary care center in Bogotá, Colombia.  

PubMed

Several cases of Candida bloodstream infections were documented from June to October 2004 at a tertiary care center in Bogotá, Colombia. Since no cases of candidemia had occurred during the preceding four months, an outbreak was declared. As a result, a microbiological study, a revision of infection control practices and a case-control study were performed. In all, 18 cases of candidemia were ascertained. Parenteral nutrition (p=0.04), presence of a central line (p=0.03), and severity of illness (p=0.03) were associated with candidemia in bivariate analysis. Diverse Candida species were observed. Candida parapsilosis contamination was found in plastic containers used for transient intravenous (IV) medication storage at the bedside, plastic bags reused for the transportation of IV medicines and cotton used for disinfection of IV ports. Poor infection control practices were widely observed. The outbreak was controlled after elimination of plastic bags used for transportation, instauration of daily disinfection of IV medication containers, acquisition of sterile alcohol swabs for port disinfection and staff education. It was concluded that candidemia was associated with previously-described risk factors and that poor infection-control practices were likely responsible for the outbreak. PMID:19219278

DiazGranados, Carlos A; Martinez, Adriana; Deaza, Ceneth; Valderrama, Sandra

2008-10-01

428

Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in the North of Caldas Province, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Rickettsia typhi and R. felis are the etiological agents of murine typhus and flea-borne spotted fever, respectively. Both are emerging acute febrile zoonotic diseases for which fleas are vectors; they also have similar clinical characteristics and global distribution. In 2005, we identified the circulation of murine typhus in 6 towns within the mountainous coffee-growing area north of Caldas, Colombia. We now report the specific seroprevalence against R. typhi and R. felis, and associated risk factors in 7 towns of this province. The combined seroprevalence against the 2 flea-borne rickettsioses is the highest yet reported in the literature: 71.7% (17.8% for R. felis, 25.2% for R. typhi, and 28.7% for both). We also report a prospective analysis of 26 patients with a febrile illness compatible with rickettsioses, including murine typhus; 9 of these patients had a rickettsiosis. This supports our sero-epidemiological results and highlights the diagnostic complexity of febrile syndromes in this region.

Montoya, Viviana; Martinez, Alejandra; Mercado, Marcela; De la Ossa, Alberto; Velez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Perez, Jorge E.; Faccini-Martinez, Alvaro A.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Valbuena, Gustavo

2013-01-01

429

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori from Bogotá D.C., Colombia.  

PubMed

Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to clarithromycin is the most common cause of treatment failure in patients with H. pylori infections. This study describes the MICs and the presence of 23S rRNA mutations of H. pylori isolates from Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. H. pylori were isolated from gastric biopsies from patients with functional dyspepsia. Clarithromycin susceptibility was investigated by agar dilution and strains were considered resistant if the MIC was ?1 ?g/ml. DNA sequences of the 23S rRNA gene of strains resistant and sensitive to clarithromycin were determined to identify specific point mutations. Clarithromycin resistance was present in 13.6% of patients by agar dilution. The A2143G, A2142G and A2142C mutations were found in 90.5, 7.1, and 2.4% of H. pylori strains with resistance genotype.The resistant phenotype was associated with 23S rRNA resistance genotype in 85.7% of isolates. The point mutations in 23S rRNA were well correlated with MICs values for clarithromycin. PMID:23990295

Trespalacios, Alba A; Otero, William; Caminos, Jorge E; Mercado, Marcela M; Avila, Jenny; Rosero, Liliana E; Arévalo, Azucena; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Graham, David Y

2013-08-30

430

Cusiana trend exploration, Llanos Foothills thrustbelt, Colombia: The opening of a new hydrocarbon province  

SciTech Connect

The Llanos Foothills petroleum trend of the Eastern Cordillera in Colombia containing the giant Cusiana Field has proven to be one of the most exciting hydrocarbon provinces discovered in recent years. The Llanos Foothills trend is a fold and thrust belt with cumulative discovered reserves to date of nearly 6 billion barrels of oil equivalent. This paper summarizes the critical exploration techniques used in unlocking the potential of this major petroleum system. The first phase of exploration in the Llanos Foothills lasted from the early 1960's to the mid-70's. Several large structures defined by surface geology and seismic data were drilled. Although no major discoveries were made, evidence of a petroleum play was found. The seismic imaging and drilling technology combined with the geological understanding which was then available did not allow the full potential of the trend to be realized. In the late 1980's better data and a revised geological perception of the trend led BP, Triton and Total into active exploration, which resulted in the discovery of the Cusiana Field. The subsequent discovery of the Cupiagua, Volcanera, Florena and Pauto Sur Fields confirmed the trend as a major hydrocarbon province. The exploration programme has used a series of geological and geophysical practices and techniques which have allowed the successful exploitation of the trend. The critical success factor has been the correct application of technology in seismic acquisition and recessing and drilling techniques.

O'Leary, J.; Hayward, T.; Addison, F. (BP Exploration, Bogota (Colombia)); Espinosa, G. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))

1996-01-01

431

Flea-borne rickettsioses in the north of Caldas province, Colombia.  

PubMed

Rickettsia typhi and R. felis are the etiological agents of murine typhus and flea-borne spotted fever, respectively. Both are emerging acute febrile zoonotic diseases for which fleas are vectors; they also have similar clinical characteristics and global distribution. In 2005, we identified the circulation of murine typhus in 6 towns within the mountainous coffee-growing area north of Caldas, Colombia. We now report the specific seroprevalence against R. typhi and R. felis, and associated risk factors in 7 towns of this province. The combined seroprevalence against the 2 flea-borne rickettsioses is the highest yet reported in the literature: 71.7% (17.8% for R. felis, 25.2% for R. typhi, and 28.7% for both). We also report a prospective analysis of 26 patients with a febrile illness compatible with rickettsioses, including murine typhus; 9 of these patients had a rickettsiosis. This supports our sero-epidemiological results and highlights the diagnostic complexity of febrile syndromes in this region. PMID:23473218

Hidalgo, Marylin; Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Mercado, Marcela; De la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Pérez, Jorge E; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Valbuena, Gustavo

2013-03-08

432

The evolution of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia: from the dental school of Bogotá to Waldemar Wilhelm and his legacy.  

PubMed

The evolution of the dental specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) in Colombia can be attributed to a myriad of altruistic, visionary leaders who paved the way for future generations. The process started with the indigenous groups who inhabited Colombia before Spanish rule, and continued with the founding of the Dental School of Bogotá in 1888 and the subsequent efforts of Waldemar Wilhelm in 1950, and consolidated with Wilhelm's legacy and surgical descendants. This article recognizes the pioneers, analyzes the circumstances under which they worked, describes how Colombian oral and maxillofacial surgeons fought plastic surgeons for the right to be in the operating room, and details the events involved in the structuring of the different oral and maxillofacial surgery residency programs in Colombia today. PMID:23691775

Castro-Núñez, Jaime

2013-01-01

433

Marina Del Rey Subregional Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Marina del Ray Subregional Plan was created for submission to the South Coast Regional Commission of the California Coastal Zone Conservation Commission. Since there are not, as yet, any other coastal subregional plans to use as examples, this plan fo...

M. McCoy C. Walecka

1975-01-01

434

Del Mar College GIS Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Del Mar College offers a comprehensive geospatial program with certificates and Associates degrees in GIS. This site includes description of the program and courses, along with further contact information. By clicking on the link for "Geographic Information Systems" you may download a PDF with information about the program.

2010-10-28

435

Del Pezzo surfaces with Du Val singularities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the problem of existence of orbifold Kaehler-Einstein metrics on del Pezzo surfaces of degree 1 with Du Val singular points. Moreover we compute global log canonical thresholds of del Pezzo surfaces of degree 1 with Du Val singularities and of del Pezzo surfaces of Picard rank 1 with Du Val singularities.

Kosta, Dimitra

2009-04-01

436

Juridical and sociocultural problems on the definition of a law concerning property, usage and access to genetic resources in Colombia.  

PubMed

The property, usage, and access to genetic resources, is today one of the primary topics in international business, as a result of the strategic importance of the resources for the biotechnology industry. Internationally, the sovereignty that each country has over its natural patrimony is recognized. However, the new laws of international marketing have obligated countries in the process of development, such as Colombia, to adopt and copy a concept of intellectual property on living resources that does not have anything to do with the country's sociocultural identity, and sometimes even does not take into account its material enjoyment. The new juridical movement that treats genetic resources as private property produces a cultural conflict between indigenous populations, Afro-Americans and peasants, because for them the genetic resources are an element of community life. In these communities, knowledge is freely transmitted; it is an understanding that they have to conserve their agricultural customs and the relationship that they have with the environment. They do not recognize the term "property' according to patenting laws. These elements have to be considered, respected, and guaranteed in the laws that recognize the genetic resources in the country. On the other hand, not even countries that are pioneers in biotechnological development can adopt a concept about patents that is in agreement with the particularities that the living materials possess. This is obviously the reason for the numerous discussions on the legal interpretation, as well as complicated debates in court. Confronting that situation, there are countries rich in biodiversity, such as Colombia, but which do not have a proper concept and are not economically strong in the international context. These countries have to copy inadequate protection policies that do not take into account all their rights. This paper describes some of the technical, juridical, and sociocultural difficulties which Colombia has to confront, in order to set a guideline on patenting living organisms, and on the access and usage of the genetic resources. PMID:9213609

Calle, R

1996-04-01

437

Molecular characterization of the Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Colombia: a Bayesian inference on the genotype F.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B is a worldwide health problem affecting about 2 billion people and more than 350 million are chronic carriers of the virus. Nine HBV genotypes (A to I) have been described. The geographical distribution of HBV genotypes is not completely understood due to the limited number of samples from some parts of the world. One such example is Colombia, in which few studies have described the HBV genotypes. In this study, we characterized HBV genotypes in 143 HBsAg-positive volunteer blood donors from Colombia. A fragment of 1306 bp partially comprising HBsAg and the DNA polymerase coding regions (S/POL) was amplified and sequenced. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to obtain the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree using BEAST v.1.5.3. Of all samples, 68 were positive and 52 were successfully sequenced. Genotype F was the most prevalent in this population (77%) - subgenotypes F3 (75%) and F1b (2%). Genotype G (7.7%) and subgenotype A2 (15.3%) were also found. Genotype G sequence analysis suggests distinct introductions of this genotype in the country. Furthermore, we estimated the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for each HBV/F subgenotype and also for Colombian F3 sequences using two different datasets: (i) 77 sequences comprising 1306 bp of S/POL region and (ii) 283 sequences comprising 681 bp of S/POL region. We also used two other previously estimated evolutionary rates: (i) 2.60 × 10(-4)s/s/y and (ii) 1.5 × 10(-5)s/s/y. Here we report the HBV genotypes circulating in Colombia and estimated the TMRCA for the four different subgenotypes of genotype F. PMID:20951841

Alvarado Mora, Mónica Viviana; Romano, Camila Malta; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Gutierrez, Maria Fernanda; Botelho, Livia; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

2010-10-15

438

RIESGO DE INFECCIONES RESPIRATORIAS AGUDAS EN TRABAJADORES INDUSTRIALES DE FIQUE POPAYÁN, CAUCA, COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Este estudio analítico, tipo cohorte retrospectivo, tuvo el objetivo de cuantificar el grado de asociación entre las afecciones agudas de las vías respiratorias altas y la exposición al polvo de fique aéreo en trabajadores industriales de una fabrica de cabuya. La hipótesis del estudio fue: \\

Doris Duque; Richard Shoemaker

439

Regulación ambiental sobre la contaminación vehicular en Colombia: ¿hacia donde vamos?  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gran aumento de los niveles de contaminación del aire constituye en la actualidad uno de los problemas más importantes que afronta la sociedad en general, dado su impacto negativo sobre el medio ambiente y la calidad de vida. A nivel internacional se están implementando variadas medidas de política ambiental —instrumentos económicos— en el sector transporte con el fin de

David Tobón Orozco; Andrés Felipe Sánchez Gandur; Maria Victoria Cárdenas Londoño

2006-01-01

440

Un índice de carencias en la niñez. Una aproximación por Dpartamentos para Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En este trabajo se construye un indicador sintético, denominado Índice de Carencias para la Niñez Colombiana (ICNC). El ICNC resume el acceso a un conjunto de bienes y servicios en áreas clave para el bienestar y cumplimiento de los derechos del niño. En particular, las carencias que mide el ICNC tienen el objeto de dar a conocer si los

Luis Fernando Aguado Quintero; Ana María Osorio Mejía; Carlos Alberto García González

2009-01-01

441

Genetic profile characterization and segregation analysis of 10 X-STRs in a sample from Santander, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten X-chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs: DXS8378, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS101, GATA172D05, HPRTB, DXS8377,\\u000a and DXS7423) were analyzed in a sample of unrelated individuals (108 males and 110 females) from the Santander Department\\u000a in Colombia. In this sample, gene diversities varied between 63.56%, for DXS8378, and 91.41%, for DXS8377. For this set of\\u000a 10 X-STRs, a high discrimination power

Adriana Pico; Adriana Castillo; Clara Vargas; António Amorim; Leonor Gusmão

2008-01-01

442

Cyclicality, Mortality, and the Value of Time: The Case of Coffee Price Fluctuations and Child Survival in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Recent studies demonstrate procyclical mortality in wealthy countries, but there are reasons to expect a countercyclical relationship in developing nations. We investigate how child survival in Colombia responds to fluctuations in world Arabica coffee prices – and document starkly procyclical child deaths. In studying this result’s behavioral underpinnings, we highlight that: (1) The leading determinants of child health are inexpensive but require considerable time, and (2) As the value of time declines with falling coffee prices, so does the relative price of health. We find a variety of direct evidence consistent with the primacy of time in child health production.

Miller, Grant; Urdinola, B. Piedad

2011-01-01

443

Desulfomicrobium thermophilum sp. nov., a novel thermophilic sulphate-reducing bacterium isolated from a terrestrial hot spring in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moderately thermophilic, sulphate-reducing bacterium, designated strain P6-2T, was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring located at a height of 2,500 m in the Andean region, Colombia (5°43?69?N, 73°6?10?W).\\u000a Cells of strain P6-2T were rod-shaped, stained Gram-negative and were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. The strain grew lithotrophically\\u000a with H2 as the electron donor and organotrophically on lactate,

Marie-Laure Fardeau; Bernard Ollivier; Catherine Joulian; Sandra Baena

2007-01-01

444

Política de comentarios del NCI  

Cancer.gov

Animamos a los usuarios a compartir sus ideas relacionadas con los temas en discusión en las secciones o foros determinados para tal fin en este sitio web u otros sitios administrados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer. Revisamos y publicamos los comentarios de acuerdo a la política indicada a continuación. Nos reservamos el derecho, a nuestra completa discreción, a no publicar o eliminar comentarios que no están de acuerdo con nuestra política.

445

Essential oil composition from two species of Piperaceae family grown in Colombia.  

PubMed

Essential oil compositions of aerial parts from two species in the Piper (Piperaceae family) genera: Piper lanceaefolium Kunth and Piper hispidum Sw., frequently called deflated (for the anti-inflammatory activity) or cord. Piperaceae leaves were collected in different regions of the Chocó department in northwestern Colombia and identified by botanists from Colombian National Herbarium, where a voucher of each specimen were deposited (No- COL 519993 and No- COL 519969, respectively). The essential oils were obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The P. lanceaefolium essential oil was sesquiterpenoid type (71.7%). This composition was represented by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (58.5%) and by their oxygenated derivates (13.2%); the main compounds were, trans-beta-caryophyllene (11.6%) and germacrene D (10.7%) followed by alpha-selinene (7.8%), beta-pinene (5.4%), beta-selinene (4.8%), and alpha-cubebene (4.3%). The Piper hispidum essential oil also was sesquiterpene type (74.4%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (46.4%) followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (28.0%). The main compounds were trans-nerolidol (23.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.4%) followed by beta-elemene (5.1%), trans-beta-caryophyllene (5.1%), curzerene (4.9%), and germacrene B (4.5%). Trans-beta-caryophyllene presents the higher percentage of the common compounds in the two species' essential oil (11.6% and 5.1% in P. lanceaefolium and P. hispidum, respectively). PMID:19835693

Pino Benitez, Nayive; Meléndez León, Erika M; Stashenko, Elena E

2009-10-01

446

Air quality modelling over Bogota, Colombia: Combined techniques to estimate and evaluate emission inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two versions of the Emission Inventory (EI) are generated for the city of Bogota, Colombia. In the first version (EI-1), CORINAIR traffic emission factors (EFs) are used. In the second (EI-2), bulk traffic EFs calculated for the city, using in situ measurements and inverse modelling techniques at street level, are used. EI-2 traffic emissions are 5, 4 and 3 times bigger than the corresponding values in EI-1, for CO, PM10 and NMVOCs, respectively. The main goal of this study consists in evaluating the two versions of the EI when introduced into a mesoscale air quality model. The AOT (accumulated exposure over a threshold) index is calculated for comparison between observed and simulated concentrations of primary pollutants. Simulated concentrations using EI-2 are closer to the observed values. This comparison allows us to extract some conclusions of the methodology used to calculate the EFs. Local factors like the driving behavior, the altitude, vehicle technology and an aged fleet cannot be totally included and corrected in the standard methodologies, and seem to be more important than obtaining very detailed and precise information on the classification of the fleet or driving speeds. Under financially limited and fast changing situations, as in the case of many developing countries, a simple methodology to estimate bulk traffic EFs and to evaluate the EI, is of utmost importance. The use of combined techniques such as in situ measurements to estimate bulk traffic EFs, and further evaluation of the inventories with numerical models, proved to be a useful tool for this purpose.

Zárate, Erika; Carlos Belalcázar, Luis; Clappier, Alain; Manzi, Veronica; Van den Bergh, Hubert

447

Physician migration: views from professionals in Colombia, Nigeria, India, Pakistan and the Philippines.  

PubMed

There has been much debate recently about several issues related to the migration of physicians from developing to developed countries. However, few studies have been conducted to address these issues in a systematic fashion. In an attempt to begin the process of generating systematic data, we designed and distributed a questionnaire addressing several core issues surrounding physician migration to respondents selected on the basis of their special expertise or experience in India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Colombia, and the Philippines. The issues addressed relate to the reasons physicians migrate to developed countries, how migration is related to the structure of medical education, the effect that migration has on the health care infrastructure of developing countries, and various policy options for dealing with physician migration. Though responses varied somewhat by country, a desire for increased income, greater access to enhanced technology, an atmosphere of general security and stability, and improved prospects for one's children were the primary motivating factors for physician migration. A majority of respondents believed that physicians in developing counties are provided with highly specialized skills that they can better utilize in developed countries, but respondents were ambivalent with respect to the utility of educational reform. Responses varied significantly by country with regard to whether physician migration results in physician shortages, but there was widespread agreement that it exacerbates shortages in rural and public settings. With respect to policy options, increasing physician income, improving working conditions, requiring physicians to work in their home countries for a period following graduation from medical school, and creating increased collaboration between health ministries in developed and developing countries found the most favor with respondents. PMID:15953667

Astor, Avraham; Akhtar, Tasleem; Matallana, María Alexandra; Muthuswamy, Vasantha; Olowu, Folarin A; Tallo, Veronica; Lie, Reidar K

2005-06-13

448

Cusiana trend exploration, Llanos foothills, Colombia - The opening of a new hydrocarbon province  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of the Cusiana field in 1992 followed 30 years of exploration in the Llanos fold and thrust belt of Colombia. Early exploration activity focused on large surface anticlines that were all fresh water flushed - a consequence of along strike exposure of the reservoir rocks. The potential for deeper, subthrust, trapping geometries was recognized in the early 1970s however, exploration at the time was hindered by very poor quality seismic data and significant drilling difficulties. The 1980s exploration effort was characterized by continued poor quality seismic data and drilling difficulties combined with a geological perception that there was no effective reservoir and the majority of the structures post dated the major period of hydrocarbon generation and migration. The Cusiana discovery with a gross hydrocarbon column in excess of 1500{prime} reservoired within the Mirador (Eocene), Barco (Palaeocene) and Guadalupe (Upper Cretaceous) Formations in a large thrust anticline demonstrated the presence of a working hydrocarbon system. Subsequent exploration of the trend to the north has resulted in the discovery of four further giant oil and gas fields, Cupiagua (500 MMBBLs, 1-2 tcf) and the Florena/Pauto/Volcanera complex with estimated reserves of 1 billion barrels and 10 tcf. Key to this success has been the seismic imaging of the trapping geometries resulting from a significant improvement in the quality of the seismic data - a consequence of improvements in both acquisition and processing technology, combined with a recognition that pure quartz arenites retain reservoir quality at significant depths of burial-and that despite original depths of burial of greater than 18,000 ft, reservoir quality was not a major risk for further exploration success.

Hayward, A.B.; Addison, F.T.; O`Leary, J.; Espinosa, C.

1996-08-01

449

Present-Day Kinematics of the Tectonic Blocks around Colombia, South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northwestern part of the South American continent contains one of the most complex active tectonic settings in the world. It is the contact between stable South America and other major tectonic units (Nazca, Cocos, Caribbean plates) which also created some more smaller tectonic units (e.g., North Andes, Panama, Altiplano blocks), and orogens areas (e.g., Peru, Puna-Sierras Pampeanas). The interaction between all these blocks has produced many destructive earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in historical and recent past. We present a revised estimation of the present-day angular velocity of the major tectonic blocks derived from CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Stations) GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) observations. For this, we use all available stations installed by several institutions, namely stations part of the GEORED Project (CGS), IGS (International GNSS Service), and national mapping networks. These networks provide us with a sufficient large number of stations (~100) to determine a very robust estimation of the velocity field for these tectonic units. The estimated angular velocities are computed with respect to the latest global reference frame, ITRF2008. We compare our estimated model with other estimations based also on geodetic and geophysical/geological data to show the consistency of the predicted motions. We use the estimated angular velocity solutions to constrain the motions of the Colombian Geored network in order to understand the tectonic complexity of the north-western corner of South America. Finally, we present and interpret the strain rate field computed using QOCA. The estimated map is correlated with the known geological and geophysical setting to identify the areas in Colombia suffering large rates of deformation.

Mora-Paez, Hector; Fernandes, Rui; Acero-Patiño, Natalia; Bos, Machiel

2013-04-01

450

Deaths and injuries in the eruption of Galeras Volcano, Colombia, 14 January 1993  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six volcanologists and three tourists were killed in the crater of Galeras Volcano, Colombia, when it erupted without warning. The scientists were attending the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Workshop which had been convened to improve monitoring, research and disaster mitigation at Galeras, at the time the most active and one of the most hazardous volcanoes in South America. Information on the events surrounding the eruption was obtained by sending a questionnaire to twelve scientists who had been inside the caldera at the time of the eruption or who had assisted in the search and rescue operation. The autopsy reports on the five corpses, and the few pieces of equipment and clothing retrieved from the crater area, were also studied. The main causes of death and injury were the forces at the eruptive vent and the bombardment by hot rocks ejected in the first 15 min of the eruption, ranging from blocks over 1 m in size to pea-sized lapilli which fell last. Some conclusions can be drawn for the future safety of volcanologists working in craters at high altitude. Hard hats would protect against concussion from blows to the head during escape from the danger area, and a lightweight, heat-resistant and water-repellent coverall would limit the skin burns and the risk of clothing being ignited from contact with incandescent, falling ejecta. The coverall could also be life saving by protecting immobilised casualties from hypothermia due to the rain and wind whilst waiting to be rescued, especially as the volcanic activity, cloud cover or nightfall could curtail rescue efforts. Work in hazardous craters should be strictly limited to essential tasks and periods of good visibility, and a climbing team should leave the area at least four hours before nightfall in case rescue is needed. Tourists must be warned against visiting active crater areas.

Baxter, Peter J.; Gresham, Austin

1997-05-01

451

Social capital and self-rated health in Colombia: the good, the bad and the ugly.  

PubMed

Although there is increasing evidence supporting the associations between social capital and health, less is known of potential effects in Latin American countries. Our objective was to examine associations of different components of social capital with self-rated health in Colombia. The study had a cross-sectional design, using data of a survey applied to a nationally representative sample of 3025 respondents, conducted in 2004-2005. Stratified random sampling was performed, based on town size, urban/rural origin, age, and sex. Examined indicators of social capital were interpersonal trust, reciprocity, associational membership, non-electoral political participation, civic activities and volunteering. Principal components analysis including different indicators of social capital distinguished three components: structural-formal (associational membership and non-electoral political participation), structural-informal (civic activities and volunteering) and cognitive (interpersonal trust and reciprocity). Multilevel analyses showed no significant variations of self-rated health at the regional level. After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, interpersonal trust was statistically significantly associated with lower odds of poor/fair health, as well as the cognitive social capital component. Members of farmers/agricultural or gender-related groups had higher odds of poor/fair health, respectively. Excluding these groups, however, associational membership was associated with lower odds of poor/fair health. Likewise, in Colombians with educational attainment higher than high school, reciprocity was associated with lower odds of fair/poor health. Nevertheless, among rural respondents non-electoral political participation was associated with worse health. In conclusion, cognitive social capital and associational membership were related to better health, and could represent important notions for health promotion. Human rights violations related to political violence and gender based discrimination may explain adverse associations with health. PMID:21185633

Hurtado, David; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sudarsky, John

2010-12-09

452

Food and macronutrient intake of economically disadvantaged pregnant women in Colombia.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to assess changes in diet composition, defined in terms of macronutrient intake and types of foods consumed, in pregnancy in poor urban women in Colombia. The subjects were 20 pregnant and 20 matched nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) women 19 to 35 years of age. The pregnant women were studied in three measurement rounds at 14.0 +/- 3.6, 27 +/- 2.2, and 35 +/- 1.7 weeks gestation, and the NPNL women in three measurement rounds approximately 3 months apart. Dietary intake was obtained from estimated food records and macronutrient composition from published sources. Types of foods consumed were aggregated into 16 groups: alcohol; breads; candy; coffee, chocolate; juices; fruit; legumes; meat, fish, offal; dairy; vegetable dishes; other; rice, pasta; tubers, plantains; salads; soft drinks; and soups. Macronutrient intakes showed nonsignificant increases in pregnancy. There were no significant differences between pregnant and NPNL women, except for carbohydrate intake in late pregnancy (P = 0.03). Carbohydrate, fat, and protein provided 74%, 17%, and 12% of dietary energy, respectively, in pregnant women at baseline, and did not change significantly. Except for a decrease in fruits, the types of foods consumed did not change significantly in pregnancy. There were no between-group differences in types of foods consumed except for the greater number of fruits consumed by pregnant women at baseline (P = 0.004). We conclude that in this population there were no changes in diet composition in pregnancy, except for an increase in fruit consumption in Round 1. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:753-762, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11533991

Dufour, Darna L.; Reina, Julio C.; Spurr, G.B.

1999-11-01

453

Plasma Selenium Measurements in Subjects from Areas with Contrasting Gastric Cancer Risks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background An inverse association between selenium status and incidence of different neoplasias including gastric cancer has been reported. This pilot study aimed to determine and compare selenium status in two Colombian populations with different gastric cancer risks: a high-risk area in the volcanic region of the Andes Mountains and a low-risk area on the Pacific coast. Methods Eighty nine adult males were recruited in the outpatient clinics of two public hospitals (44 and 45 from high- and low-risk areas, respectively) and provided a blood sample. Seventy one (79.8%) participants underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Plasma selenium was assayed using a fluorometric method, selenoprotein-P by ELISA, and glutathione peroxidase activity by a spectrophometric method. Histological diagnosis and Helicobacter pylori infection were evaluated in gastric biopsy samples. Unpaired samples t-test and linear regression analyses were used for statistical analyses. Results Although none of the subjects in either of the two geographic areas was selenium deficient, the level of plasma selenium was significantly lower in men from the high-risk area compared with those from the low-risk area. Levels of selenoprotein-P and glutathione peroxidase activity were similar between groups after adjustment for confounders. Selenium measurements were not associated with histopathological diagnosis. Conclusions The high incidence of gastric cancer in the Andean region of Colombia is unlikely to be explained by selenium deficiency. We cannot exclude, however, that suboptimal selenium levels may exist in the gastric mucosa of subjects in the high-risk area. Therefore, the benefit of selenium supplementation in gastric cancer prevention cannot be dismissed.

Camargo, Maria Constanza; Burk, Raymond F.; Bravo, Luis E.; Piazuelo, Maria B.; Hill, Kristina E.; Fontham, Elizabeth T.; Motley, Amy K.; Yepez, Maria C.; Mora, Yolanda; Schneider, Barbara G.; Correa, Pelayo

2008-01-01

454

[Risk factors for infection among the patrons of an HIV Control Program, Antioquia, Colombia].  

PubMed

A review is presented of the characteristics of 432 users of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Control Program sponsored by the Public Health Departmental Laboratory of Antioquia, Colombia, who were seen between July 1988 and June 1989. The prevalence of seropositivity to HIV was 29.4%, while that of AIDS was 6.7%. Eight of the seropositive subjects were women. The average age on entrance into the Program was 28.7 +/- 7.9, and it was significantly higher among the seropositive subjects. The study sample was divided into four subgroups: women, bisexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual men. In all the subgroups the prevalence of high-risk sexual practices was high and the percentage of condom utilization was low. Frequency of exposure to different risk factors, such as injections, transfusions of blood or other fluids, surgical interventions, tattoos, consumption of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, acupuncture, and sexual preference and practices, was determined. HIV seropositivity for the group as a whole was associated with sexual relations with infected persons (OR = 3.96), active anal coitus (OR = 3.81), sexual relations with men (OR = 3.69), passive anal coitus (OR = 3.35), and sexual relations abroad (OR = 2.24). In men, HIV seropositivity was associated with anal coitus (OR = 4.0), homosexual relations (OR = 3.96), sexual relations with infected persons (OR = 3.75), and sexual relations abroad (OR = 1.88); in women there was an association with intravenous drug use (chi 2 = 10.72) and with sexual relations abroad (OR = 12.67). PMID:2143070

Gómez, R D; Arango, M V; Velázquez, G; Orozco, B

1990-03-01

455

Barriers of access to care in a managed competition model: lessons from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The health sector reform in Colombia, initiated by Law 100 (1993) that introduced a managed competition model, is generally presented as a successful experience of improving access to care through a health insurance regulated market. The study's objective is to improve our understanding of the factors influencing access to the continuum of care in the Colombian managed competition model, from the social actors' point of view. Methods An exploratory, descriptive-interpretative qualitative study was carried out, based on case studies of four healthcare networks in rural and urban areas. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted to a three stage theoretical sample: I) cases, II) providers and III) informants: insured and uninsured users (35), health professionals (51), administrative personnel (20), and providers' (18) and insurers' (10) managers. Narrative content analysis was conducted; segmented by cases, informant's groups and themes. Results Access, particularly to secondary care, is perceived as complex due to four groups of obstacles with synergetic effects: segmented insurance design with insufficient services covered; insurers' managed care and purchasing mechanisms; providers' networks structural and organizational limitations; and, poor living conditions. Insurers' and providers' values based on economic profit permeate all factors. Variations became apparent between the two geographical areas and insurance schemes. In the urban areas barriers related to market functioning predominate, whereas in the rural areas structural deficiencies in health services are linked to insufficient public funding. While financial obstacles are dominant in the subsidized regime, in the contributory scheme supply shortage prevails, related to insufficient private investment. Conclusions The results show how in the Colombian healthcare system structural and organizational barriers to care access, that are common in developing countries, are widened by both the insurers' use of mechanisms that limit the utilization and the public healthcare providers' change of behavior in a competition environment. They provide evidence to question the promotion of the managed competition model in low and middle-income countries.

2010-01-01

456

Primary health care contribution to improve health outcomes in Bogota-Colombia: a longitudinal ecological analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Colombia has a highly segmented and fragmented national health system that contributes to inequitable health outcomes. In 2004 the district government of Bogota initiated a Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy to improve health care access and population health status. This study aims to analyse the contribution of the PHC strategy to the improvement of health outcomes controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods A longitudinal ecological analysis using data from secondary sources was carried out. The analysis used data from 2003 and 2007 (one year before and 3?years after the PHC implementation). A Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) of coverage intensity was constructed. According to the PHCI, localities were classified into two groups: high and low coverage. A multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model for each year separately and a Panel Poisson regression model to assess changes between the groups over the years was developed. Dependent variables were infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, infant mortality rate due to acute diarrheal disease and pneumonia, prevalence of acute malnutrition, vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The independent variable was the PHCI. Control variables were sewerage coverage, health system insurance coverage and quality of life index. Results The high PHCI localities as compared with the low PHCI localities showed significant risk reductions of under-5 mortality (13.8%) and infant mortality due to pneumonia (37.5%) between 2003 and 2007. The probability of being vaccinated for DPT also showed a significant increase of 4.9%. The risk of infant mortality and of acute malnutrition in children under-5?years was lesser in the high coverage group than in the low one; however relative changes were not statistically significant. Conclusions Despite the adverse contextual conditions and the limitations imposed by the Colombian health system itself, Bogota’s initiative of a PHC strategy has successfully contributed to the improvement of some health outcomes.

2012-01-01

457

Y-chromosome and surname analysis of the native islanders of San Andrés and Providencia (Colombia).  

PubMed

The Archipelago of San Andrés and Providencia is a Colombian Department in the western waters of the Caribbean Sea. Most of its inhabitants belong to the African-Colombian group known as raizal. This group has unique cultural traits that are derived from centuries of admixture of the primarily African slaves and European colonists. Currently, not much is known about the genetic profile of this population. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the Y-chromosome STR genetic structure and relationship to previously published reference populations. A total of 54 natives from the islands were selected based on the genealogical criterion of having three generations of ancestors born in the Archipelago. Seventeen Y-STRs were analyzed, supplemented by information on the first surname inherited. The genetic substructure hypothesis in the studied islands was tested, and no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Y-chromosome haplogroups were predicted, and E1b1a and R1b were the most commonly found haplogroups. They account for more than 80% of the sample. The E1b1a and R1ba haplogroups are common in the African and European populations, respectively. For comparative genetic analysis, genetic distances were calculated with respect to populations from the Caribbean, Colombia, Europe and Africa. We found greater similarity between the African and Caribbean populations. The surname analysis demonstrated that most of the time, the "raizales" with the same surname also shared the same Y-STR haplotype. This suggests that some kinship relationship exists between participants with the same surname, which was confirmed by the haplotype diversity levels found in the studied islands. PMID:23290785

Alonso, Luz Angela; Usaquén, William

2013-01-03

458

[Overestimation of the ocurrence of induced abortions in Colombia and other Latinoamerican countries].  

PubMed

Recently, the Guttmacher Institute estimated a number of 400,400 clandestine abortions for Colombia. Because of the strong implications that such brief could have in different areas of interest, a full revision of the methodology of estimation was performed. The methodology used by the Guttmacher Institute was as follows: first, the authors estimated the losses from spontaneous and induced abortions from the opinion of 289 subjects who work in an equal number of Colombian health institutions through the opinion survey entitled "Health Facilities Survey". Subsequently, an expansive multiplier (x3, x4, x5, etc.) was applied to the numbers obtained by this survey that also emerges from a subjective opinion of another 102 respondents of the "Health Professional Survey" selected by convenience. There is no objective data based on real vital events, the whole estimate is based on imagining/numbers underlying mere opinions. Even as public opinion survey, the sampling technique introduced serious selection bias in the gathering of information. Valid epidemiological methods using standardized rates, choosing the paradigmatic cases of Chile and Spain as standard populations, it was observed that Guttmacher Institute methodology overestimates more than 9 times the complications due to induced abortion in hospital discharges and more than 18 times the total number of induced abortions. In other Latin American countries where the same methodology was applied including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, and Dominican Republic, the number of induced abortions was also largely overestimated. These results call for caution with this type of reports that alarm public opinion. PMID:23301429

Koch, Elard; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Stecher, Juan F; Aracena, Paula; Valenzuela, Sergio; Ahlers, Ivonne

2012-05-01

459

Pure neuritic leprosy in patients from a high endemic region of Colombia.  

PubMed

Agua de Dios was a leprosarium for leprosy patients' obligatory isolation (1872-1961). Its leprosy incidence is the highest in Colombia (1.5-7/10000). Relapses are common. Government grant of US$ 200 per month subsidy is available to patients with disabilities. Spontaneous consultation with neural symptoms is frequent and simulation to get the subsidy has to be considered. We studied 36 subjects (2007-2009), with ages from 29-78, 19 of them men, with neural symptoms of 6 months to 20 years evolution. All had clinical examination, bacteriological examination, skin and nerve biopsies, electromyography (EMG), PCR for M. leprae, IgM anti-PGL1, and lepromin A. All but two are household contacts of leprosy patients. Symptoms were hypoesthesia of the hands and feet, and difficulty using hands with loss of muscular strength. None had skin lesions. Three had thickening of ulnar nerve. Lepromin was positive in all; bacteriology and biopsies were negative in all. The speed and amplitude of neural conduction were altered in 34 patients; two women had normal EMG and were considered to be feigning the disease; 21 were diagnosed as PNL by clinical, epidemiological and EMG findings; five of them had a positive PCR and one, high titers for IgM anti PGL1. Nine other subjects had diabetes and six carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Slow progression of disease, the lack of neural enlargement and the neural biopsies without inflammation suggest that most of these patients could have spontaneously cured PNL, as happens with other cases of paucibacillary leprosy. Diabetes and CTS are important differential diagnoses of PNL. Patients were treated with MDT and received the state subsidy. PMID:23741881

Rodriguez, Gerzain; Pinto, Rafael; Gomez, Yenny; Rengifo, Maria Leonor; Estrada, Olga Lucia; Sarmiento, Marta; Lopez, Fernando; Beltran-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Cardona-Castro, Nora

2013-03-01

460

Seasonal inundation patterns in two large savanna floodplains of South America: the Llanos de Moxos(Bolivia) and the Llanos del Orinoco(Venezuela and Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inundation patterns in two of the largest savanna floodplains of South America were studied by analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (Nimbus-7 satellite). Flooded area was estimated at monthly intervals for January 1979 through to August 1987 using mixing models that account for the major landscape units with distinctive microwave emission characteristics. Results

Stephen K. Hamilton; Suzanne J. Sippel; John M. Melack

2004-01-01

461

HIDROFOBICIDAD EN ANDISOLES BAJO ROBLEDAL (Quercus humboldtii) Y PLANTACIONES FORESTALES (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica) EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

HYDROPHOBICITY OF ANDISOLS OF OAK GROVES (Quercus humboldtii) AND TREE PLANTATIONS (Pinus patula and Cupressus lusitanica) IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA) The persistence of water repellency in the A horizon of Andisols was evaluated in the Piedras Blancas watershed under three vegetative covers: Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica, and Quercus humboldtii,

Juan Raúl; Duque Zapata; Sandra Patricia; Arbeláez Mesa; Juan Diego León Peláez

462

Mining machinery/equipment/parts/services. Oil and Gas field equipment/machinery/parts/supplies (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Trinidad and Tobago)  

SciTech Connect

This 7-part set includes separate reports on market possibilities for field production equipment, drilling equipment, refinery equipment, and auxiliary equipment in the following countries: Argentina, Brazil (2 reports), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1992-01-01

463

Descriptions of two new species of Hemileucinae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) from the region of Muzo in Colombia—evidence from morphology and DNA barcodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species of Hemileucinae are described from the region of Muzo (Boyaca department) in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. Leucanella bonillensis, new species, is a small greyish species whose closest relatives are L. newmani (Lemaire) and L. acutissima (Walker). It can be distinguished from those two species by several subtle differences in wing pattern and coloration as well as

THIBAUD DECAËNS; RODOLPHE ROUGERIE

2008-01-01

464

Preventing School Failure: The Relationship between Preschool and Primary Education. Proceedings of a Workshop on Preschool Research (Bogota, Colombia, May 26-29, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume consists mainly of presentations made at a seminar held in 1981 in Bogota, Colombia, on the relation between preschool education and early childhood education. The seminar brought together educational researchers from many regions of the world as well as specialists in several different disciplines. Encompassing nine investigations…

International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Ontario).

465

Population structure analyses and demographic history of the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anopheles albimanus is an important malaria vector in some areas throughout its distribution in the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia, covering three biogeographic zones of the neotropical region, Maracaibo, Magdalena and Chocó. METHODS: This study was conducted to estimate intra-population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of An. albimanus populations because knowledge of vector population structure

Lina A Gutiérrez; Nelson J Naranjo; Astrid V Cienfuegos; Carlos E Muskus; Shirley Luckhart; Jan E Conn; Margarita M Correa

2009-01-01

466

Requirements Study on a Proposed Computerized Health Information System for the Government of the Republic of Colombia. Final Report, February 5-October 5, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examined the requirements for the development of a computerized information system for the Health System at the local level in Colombia. The two basic objectives were the determination of the information needs of the Health System at the local l...

1992-01-01

467

Presidential effectiveness and the mass media in Colombia: A study conducted during the administration of Ernesto Samper Pizano, 1994-1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the relationship between the Presidency and the mass media in Colombia conducted during the administration of Ernesto Samper Pizano revealed that not only is this relationship indirect, but the mass media negatively effected the ability of the President to initiate and pass public policy. Due to the press' coverage of the Proceso 8000, a drug corruption scandal

Phillip David Kauf

1998-01-01

468

Why the Emperor's New Clothes Are Not Made in Colombia: A Case Study in Latin American and East Asian Manufactured Exports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study attempts to answer four central questions: Why did Colombia's clothing exports, which had never exceeded $1 million until 1970, climb suddenly to over $50 million in 1974; Why, after 1974, did the country's exports of clothing to the United Stat...

D. Morawetz

1981-01-01

469

Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

Macia, Laura

2012-01-01

470

Are Boys and Girls Affected Differently When the Household Head Leaves for Good? Evidence from School and Work Choices in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how the permanent departure of the head from the household, mainly due to death or divorce, affects children?s school enrolment and work participation in rural Colombia. In our empirical specification we use household-level fixed effects to deal with the fact that households that experience the departure of the head are likely to differ in unobserved ways from

Emla Fitzsimons; Alice Mesnard

2008-01-01

471

Improving the Effectiveness of Peace Corps Efforts to Change Teacher Behavior. The Peace Corps Educational Television (ETV) Project in Colombia: Two Years of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For a report on a two-year Peace Corps project designed to implement educational television (ETV) in Colombia, the persuasive and defense arousal effects of several kinds of appeals that might be used to persuade Colombian teachers to adopt new teaching practices were investigated. Subjects, who were 100 Colombian public primary school teachers…

Comstock, George; Maccoby, Nathan

472

ARTIGO ARTICLE The effects of the armed conflict on the life and health in Colombia Os efeitos do conflito armado sobre a vida e a saúde na Colômbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an approach to the con- sequences of the internal armed conflict that Colombia has lived during the last four decades. It starts with the identification of the conflict's context and its current characteristics. It then fo- cuses on the different manifestations and conse- quences of the conflict and on their deep impact on the life, quality of

Saúl Franco; Clara Mercedes Suarez; Claudia Beatriz Naranjo; Liliana Carolina Báez; Patricia Rozo

473

Corals and coral reefs of the Pacific coast of Colombia with special reference to spatial and temporal patterns of environmental disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral and coral reef development on the Pacific coast of Colombia were examined in relation to local environmental conditions. Surveys revealed that coral communities exhibited high levels of mono-specificity. Structural differences between the offshore (Gorgona Island) and the onshore fringing coral reefs (Ensenada de Utria and Tebada) were also observed. These differences were based on the following criteria: size and

Bernardo Vargas-Angel

2001-01-01

474

Relationship between the 1997\\/98 El Niño and 1999\\/2001 La Niña events and oil palm tree production in Tumaco, Southwestern Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the relationship between ENSO events and oceanographic and meteorological conditions of Southwestern Colombia is well-known, very little work has been done to assess the related socio-economic impacts. This is the first effort made to determine the effect of such events on local climate and the impact of this variability on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) production in the Tumaco

M. C. Cadena; A. Devis-Morales; J. D. Pabón; I. Málikov; J. A. Reyna-Moreno; J. R. Ortiz

2006-01-01