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This web site describes a series of Lahars that occurred from the Nevado delRuiz volcano in the Andes mountains, the northernmost and highest volcano in Colombia. Beginning in November 1984, the volcano began showing clear signs of unrest. An explosive eruption from Ruiz's summit crater on November 13, 1985, at 9:08 p.m. generated an eruption column and sent a series of pyroclastic flows and surges across the volcano's summit. Within minutes, pumice and ash began to fall to the northeast along with heavy rain that had started earlier in the day. Within four hours, lahars had traveled 100 km and left behind a wake of destruction: more than 23,000 people killed, about 5,000 injured, and more than 5,000 homes destroyed along the Chinchina, Guali, and Lagunillas rivers and destroying the town of Armero, Columbia. This deadly eruption of Nevado delRuiz offers lessons on the generation of lahars for scientists, emergency-response professionals, and communities located downstream of such ice- and snow-covered volcanoes. The narrative is illustrated with 9 photographs.
Nevado DelRuiz volcano is most known for its tragic November 13, 1985 explosive event, when a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, again where a small explosive eruption was followed by a large lahar. Other minor explosive events occurred in 1805, 1828-9, and 1989. The Armero tragedy was a major factor in the establishment of a volcano monitoring program in Colombia. The network monitoring Nevado delRuiz volcano has dramatically improved since the 1985 eruption and now includes geodetic, geophysical, geochemical and visual monitoring. The activity of Nevado DelRuiz between 1985 and 1991 saw significant increases in seismicity and significant gas emissions with the main eruptive events of November 13, 1985 and September 1st, 1989. The volcano became seismically active again in 1995 and 2002, whit an increase in seismicity, without any gas emission or eruption. In October 2010 the volcano entered in a new phase of unrest with increased seismicity (HB events), deformation and gas emissions, likely associated with a new magma intrusion. In February, 2012 the volcano had a new and significant increase in seismicity (VT-LP), followed in May and June 2012 by small phreatic and phreato-magmatic eruption. This eruptive activity is still ongoing. Deformation measurements at Nevado DelRuiz volcano have been carried out since just after the tragic eruption of the 13th of November 1985. In 2007 seven new electronic tilt meters were set up to monitor the deformation. Significant uplift was measured from August 2007 to October 2010, for a total cumulative value of more than 500 microradians. From the end of 2011 to July 2012, moderate changes of uplift were detected for a total of 70 microradians. The analysis of these deformation data shows a pattern of surface displacement associated with an intrusion of new magma coming from a reservoir located approximately at a depth of approximately 8 km and accumulating in shallow reservoir less than 2 km beneath the main crater. We fit the data with both a spherical and a vertical spheroid source. The spherical source indicates the existence of an intrusion at a depth of 1823±1056 m with a volume change of (7±17)×106 m3 . The vertical spheroidal source suggests a source 1855 m deep with a volume change of 6×106 m3 . These results imply that while we have strong bounds on the depth of the intrusion, the actual volume of the source is less certain. Gas emission from Nevado delRuiz volcano in April 7, 2012.
Ordoñez, M.; Lopez, C.; Cortes, G. P.; Londoño, J.; Battaglia, M.
Hot springs and steam vents on the slopes of Nevado delRuiz volcano provide evidence regarding the nature of hydrothermal activity within the summit and flanks of the volcano. At elevations below 3000 m, alkali-chloride water is discharged from two groups of boiling springs and several isolated warm springs on the western slope of Nevado delRuiz. Chemical and isotopic
Neil C. Sturchio; Stanley N. Williams; Nestor P. Garcia; Adela C. Londono
Deformation studies began at Nevado delRuiz 23 days before the devastating 13 November 1985 eruption, at least 12 months after precursory seismicity and fumarolic activity began. The late start in geodetic monitoring, limited number of stations in the pre-eruption network, and inconsistent patterns in the observed deformation limit conclusions about intrusive activity in the months and weeks prior to the eruption. However, the data require that the magma source of the devastating eruption was either deeper than 7 km or, if shallow, recovered the same volume and position within one week of the eruption. Geodetic monitoring resumed 1 week after the eruption and, by April 1986, included 11 tilt-leveling stations, 38 EDM lines, and 7 short leveling lines - a network capable of detecting emplacement or movement of magma volumes as small as 3 MCM (3 ?? 106 m3) to a depth of 2-3 km (using a point-source model), 10 MCM to 7 km, 50 MCM to 10 km, and 200 MCM to 15 km beneath Ruiz. In addition, 4 telemetered tiltmeters provided the capability of detecting, in real time, the fairly rapid ascent of much smaller magma bodies. Stations established to detect instability of the summit ice cap after the eruption were discontinued in early 1986. The data collected from the geodetic networks have higher than normal variance but demonstrate that little or no cumulative deformation of Ruiz occurred from October 1985 through March 1988. Thus, little, if any, magma intruded above 5 km beneath the summit during or after the 13 November 1985 eruption. This lack of significant intrusive activity agrees with the surprisingly low seismic energy release under Ruiz and makes direct degassing of a large batholith an improbable explanation of the large sulfur flux to date at Ruiz. Part of the variance in the geodetic data results from real but noncumulative deformation that may in part be pressure-buffered by a fairly large geothermal water-gas mixture for which abundant physical evidence exists. Part of the noncumulative deformation, some of the fairly dispersed and low-level seismicity under Ruiz, and some phreatic events appear to correlate with seasonal precipitation patterns. Hence rain/snow-loading and groundwater interaction may cause deformation events and possibly help trigger some phreatic explosions and seismic events at Ruiz and, as search of the literature reveals, at other volcanoes in metastable states. ?? 1990.
Banks, N. G.; Carvajal, C.; Mora, H.; Tryggvason, E.
This spaceborne radar image shows the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic region in central Colombia, about 150 kilometers (93 miles) west of Bogata. The town of Manizales, Colombia, is the pinkish area in the upper right of the image. Ruiz Volcano, also known as Nevado delRuiz, is the dark red peak below and right of the image center. A small circular summit crater is visible at the top of Ruiz. Tolima Volcano is the sharp peak near the lower left corner of the image. The red color of the image is due to the snow cover and the lack of vegetation at high elevations in these volcanic mountains. Ruiz Volcano, at 5,389 meters (17,681 feet) elevation, is capped by glaciers. In 1985, an explosive eruption melted parts of these glaciers, triggering mudflows along narrow canyons on the sides of the volcano. The town of Armero, located just off the right side of the image, was buried by mud and 21,000 residents were killed. Scientists are using radar images of these remote yet dangerous volcanoes to understand the threats they pose to local populations. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. The image is centered at 4.8 degrees north latitude and 75.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 40 kilometers by 48 kilometers (24.8 miles by 29.8 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.
Volcanic eruptions in Latin America have claimed about 61,000 lives since 1600 A.D. and the region's volcanoes are responsible for about a quarter of the world's fatalities from this type of hazard. Nearly all loss of life from volcanism in Latin America is due to pyroclastic surges, pyroclastic flows and lahars or volcanic mudflows. Lahars generated during the 13th November, 1985 eruption of Nevado delRuiz in Colombia claimed 25,000 lives, underscoring the great hazard from lahars, which can be generated from the fifty-six, active, ice-capped Central and South American volcanoes during even very small eruptions. The probability of specific prediction of the timing of such events is currently low, whereas the probability of a general prediction of volcanic eruption is high, giving sufficient time to install telemetered lahar alarm systems, which could largely avoid the loss of life. PMID:20958632
About twenty-five to thirty percent of the ice on the ice cap of Nevado delRuiz was fractured and destabilized by earthquakes and explosive activity on November 13, 1985. Comparison of aerial and ground photographs taken before and after the eruption allows calculation of the volume of snow and ice removed from each glacial basin during the eruption: about 16% (4.2 km 2) of the surface area of the ice and snow was lost. The corresponding volume is estimated to be close to 0.06 km 3 or 9% of the total volume of ice and snow. At least four distinct processes, including explosions, ice avalanches, surficial erosion of snow, and slush avalanches were responsible for transporting snow, firn and ice downslope. Heat from pyroclastic flows and surges and their deposits was responsible for melting snow and ice, both at the surface of the ice cap in situ and during its downslope transport. Voluminous lahars were triggered in 3 of the 4 main drainages on the volcano by the approximately 43 million m 3 of liquid water (about 62 million m 3 of snow, firn and ice) produced by these combined processes. Thermal and mechanical effects of the pyroclastic flows and surges included scouring, direct melting and entraining snow, firn and ice, which left several erosional features on the ice cap and deposits both on the ice and on the edges of the ice cap. Subsurface and englacial drainage of water through crevasses was deduced from depositional and morphological features at the ice margins; some meltwater might have been trapped in reservoirs, but some water was also released shortly after the eruption. The estimated volume of released meltwater is about 43 million m 3, i.e. 2-4 times more than the approximate 11-12 million m 3 of water incorporated into the lahars. Thus, roughly 21 million m 3 of water were released but did not contribute to lahar generation. This non-contributing water was: (1) included in snow avalanches and sediment-laden slush avalanches outside the lahars' channels, or bound up in the wet pyroclastic surge deposits; (2) incorporated in the phreatic explosive products or saturated firn by meltwater which issued from the thermal effect of the tephra-fall; (3) sublimated into steam during the passage of the pyroclastic flows; or (4) stored within the ice. Meltwater may still be be trapped within the ice cap and may be a potential source of water for future lahars.
The Ruiz volcano glacier is located in the central region of Colombia at the equatorial zone but by its height it has perpetual snow. In 1985 this volcano had a catastrophic eruption that produced a lahar by glacier melting; this lahar buried the Armero town. From this event a seismological network was installed. Since the beginning of the seismological network of Ruiz volcano, the icequakes have been registering by the nearest station to glacier. It is clear the relationship between this kind of seismicity and the meteorological conditions; the most quantity of the icequakes is registered very early at the morning and during the dry seasons. The origin and the location of these icequakes were not possible to determine because of the geometric network and of its instrumentation (short period sensor of vertical component). Since 2007 the network has been using broad band sensors and 3-component short period seismometers. We characterized the source of the icequakes from the new database in order to understand the main origin of this seismicity. This study consisted in both spectral and polarization analysis. The results show a near relation between this seismicity and shallow process related to the cryogenic phenomena, the natural motion of the glacier and the volcanic heat release.
Garcia Cano, L. C.; Lopez, C. M.; Muñoz Maya, J. A.; Maturana Banquez, M.; Giraldo, G. A.; Giraldo Garcia, J.
This paper seeks to analyze in an objective way the circumstances and events that contributed to the 1985 Nevado delRuiz catastrophe, in order to provide useful guidelines for future emergencies. The paper is organized into two principal parts. In the first part, an Anatomy of the catastrophe is developed as a step-by-step chronicle of events and actions taken by individuals and organizations during the period November 1984 through November 1985. This chronicle provides the essential background for the crucial events of November 13. This year-long period is broken down further to emphasize essential chapters: the gradual awareness of the awakening of the volcano; a long period of institutional skepticism reflecting an absence of credibility; the closure of the credibility gap with the September 11 phreatic eruption, followed by an intensive effort to gird for the worst; and a detailed account of the day of reckoning. The second part of the paper, Retrospection, examines the numerous complicated factors that influenced the catastrophic outcome, and attempts to cull a few "lessons from Armero" in order to avoid similar occurrences in the future. In a nutshell, the government on the whole acted responsibly but was not willing to bear the economic or political costs of early evacuation or a false alarm. Science accurately foresaw the hazards but was insufficiently precise to render reliable warning of the crucial event at the last possible minute. Catastrophe was therefore a calculated risk, and this combination — the limitations of predication/detection, the refusal to bear a false alarm and the lack of will to act on the uncertain information available — provided its immediate and most obvious causes. But because the crucial event occurred just two days before the Armero emergency-management plan was to be critically examined and improved, the numerous circumstances which delayed progress of emergency management over the previous year also may be said to have contributed to the outcome. Thus the catastrophe was not caused by technological ineffectiveness or detectiveness, nor by an overwhelming eruption, or by an improbable run of bad luck, but rather by cumulative human error — by misjudgment, indecision and bureaucratic shortsightedness. Armero could have produces no victims, and therein dwells its immense tragedy.
This paper seeks to analyze in an objective way the circumstances and events that contributed to the 1985 Nevado delRuiz catastrophe, in order to provide useful guidelines for future emergencies. The paper is organized into two principal parts. In the first part, an Anatomy of the catastrophe is developed as a step-by-step chronicle of events and actions taken by individuals and organizations during the period November 1984 through November 1985. This chronicle provides the essential background for the crucial events of November 13. This year-long period is broken down further to emphasize important chapters: the gradual awareness of the awakening of the volcano; a long period of institutional skepticism reflecting an absence of credibility; the closure of the credibility gap with the September 11 phreatic eruption, followed by an intensive effort to gird for the worst; and a detailed account of the day of reckoning. The second part of the paper, Retrospection, examines the numerous complicated factors that influenced the catastrophic outcome, and attempts to cull a few "lessons from Armero" in order to avoid similar occurrences in the future. In a nutshell, the government on the whole acted responsibly but was not willing to bear the economic or political costs of early evacuation or a false alarm. Science accurately foresaw the hazards but was insufficiently precise to render reliable warning of the crucial event at the last possible minute. Catastrophe was therefore a calculated risk, and this combination - the limitations of prediction/detection, the refusal to bear a false alarm and the lack of will to act on the uncertain information available - provided its immediate and most obvious causes. But because the crucial event occurred just two days before the Armero emergency management plan was to be critically examined and improved, the numerous circumstances which delayed progress of emergency management over the previous year also may be said to have contributed to the outcome. Thus the catastrophe was not caused by technological ineffectiveness or defectiveness, nor by an overwhelming eruption, or by an improbable run of bad luck, but rather by cumulative human error - by misjudgment, indecision and bureaucratic shortsightedness. Armero could have produced no victims, and therein dwells its immense tragedy.
High-precision mass spectrometer and alpha scintillation measurements of [sup 238]U-series nuclides were obtained for whole-rock pumice and constituent mineral and glass separates to help interpret the timing and nature of magmatic processes that led up to the 1985 eruption of Nevado de Ruiz volcano. Internal isochron diagrams for [sup 226]Ra/Ba vs. [sup 230]Th/Ba and [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th vs. [sup 238]U/[sup 232]Th show that data define linear arrays, indicating an average crystallization age of 6.1 [+-] 0.5 ka (Ra-Th isochron) and 7 [+-] 6 ka (Th-U isochron). Stratigraphic, petrographic geochemical, repose time, and eruption volume data for the Holocene eruptive sequence of Nevado delRuiz indicate that significant changes occurred in the subvolcanic magma chamber between eruptions R9 ([approx]8.6 ka) and R8 ([approx]3.0 ka). This coincides with the average crystallization age derived from the U-series data and may represent the injection of a new batch (or batches) of mantle-derived magma into the subvolcanic magma chamber. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Schaefer, S.J.; Williams, S.N. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Sturchio, N.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Murrell, M.T. (Los Almos National Lab., NM (United States))
RESUMEN El presente estudio es una contribución a la explicación y comprensión de la problemática del desplazamiento forzado interno en Colombia, fenómeno considerado como violación masiva y múltiple de los derechos humanos, circunstancia de lesa humanidad además de ser infracción grave del Derecho Internacional Humanitario. Se identificaron los antecedentes históricos, la dinámica regional del fenómeno, la existencia de factores estructurales
The ice-clad and fumarolic Nevado del Tourna volcano (4 ° 39?N, 75 ° 20?W) south of Nevado delRuiz, is offset toward the southeast from the axis of the volcanic Ruiz-Tolima massif with respect to the major NE-trending strike-slip Palestina fault. It is composed of four units: (1) a pre-Tolima plateau-like basement of basaltic andesite lava flows of early Quaternary
J. C. Thouret; J. M. Cantagrel; C. Robin; A. Murcia; R. Salinas; H. Cepeda
El presente trabajo analiza la relación entre el tipo de cambio negro y el oficial, al igual que la eficiencia del mercado paralelo de divisas en Colombia. Con base en datos mensuales para el período 1970-1989, se encontró que la tasa de cambio oficial y paralela estaban cointegradas, lo cual implica que el dólar oficial y el negro mantuvieron una
En este artículo se presenta un análisis sobre las características del mercado de energía para usuarios no regulados en Colombia, el cual puede ser considerado como un sub-mercado dentro del mercado global de energía eléctrica en Colombia. En este análisis se incluye un indicador de concentración de mercado (Herfindahl-Hirschman), así como los porcentajes de participación en cubrimiento de demanda y
Acantholachesilla saltoensis gen. et sp. n. is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in the Lachesillidae, tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The genus is related to Dagualachesilla and Dagualachesilloides that occur in the same area, differing from them in the male clunial projection, phallosome, and female subgenital plate and gonapophyses. PMID:24989767
Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González
Los artículos presentados estudian la eficacia, vigencia y perspectivas del Código Nacional de Recursos Naturales, decreto 2811 de 1974, teniendo de presente el avanzado estado de la ciencia en Colombia establecido por la Constitución del 91, y la Ley 99 de 1993; de esta manera los doctrinantes retoman la historia y las funciones del Código, la biodiversidad, la diversidad de
El Departamento del Cauca está situado al Sur de Colombia. En los últimos años ha ocupado el penúltimo lugar en su aporte económico al país. Lós índices de pobreza son grandes, la oferta de trabajo es baja y la desatención y disminución del Estado se acentúa, haciendo cada vez más dificil la solución de las desigualdades sociales que vive la
En este documento se analiza la sostenibilidad fiscal del Gobierno Nacional Central en Colombia utilizando el enfoque de la Restricción Intertemporal de Presupuesto. Los resultados empíricos revelan que la estrategia fiscal actual es sostenible. No obstante, se vislumbran problemas de insolvencia en el largo plazo, lo que implica generar un mayor superávit primario en comparación con el actualmente programado. Lo
Los desastres ocurridos en centros urbanos, no sólo en Colombia (sismo de 1983 en Popayán, el sismo de 1999 en el eje cafetero), sino en otros países del mundo1, han generado interés acerca de las implicaciones de las amenazas en las ciudades. Ante ello el gobierno colombiano ha expresado su preocupación a través de una serie de reformas y leyes
El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es describir y analizar los cambios en la transmisión de conocimiento en los establecimientos educativos femeninos de Bogotá y la participación de la mujer dentro del mercado laboral bogotano. Con base en los resultados que arrojó la Encuesta de empleo de 1963-1970 para Bogotá y la Encuesta Integrada de hogares 2006, se elaboró
María del Pilar López-Uribe; Diana Quintero Castellanos; Loly Aylú Gaitán Guerrero
In the last few years, fire incidence in Colombian wild areas has increased, damaging pristine forests into savannas and sterile lands. Fire poses a significant threat to biodiversity, rural communities and established infrastructure. These events issue an urgent need to address this problem. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) can play a significant role in the monitoring fires and natural disasters. SERVIR, the Regional Visualization and Monitoring Network, constitutes a platform for the observation, forecasting and modeling of environmental processes in Central America. A project called "The GIS for fire management in Guatemala (SIGMA-I)" has been already conducted to address the same problem in another Latin American country, Guatemala. SIGMA-I was developed by the Inter-agency work among the National protected areas council (CONAP), National Forestry Institution (INAB), the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction / National Forest Fire Prevention and Control System (CONRED/SIPECIF), and the Ministry of the Environment and National Resources (MARN) in Guatemala under the guidance and assistance of SERVIR. With SIGMA-I as an example, we proposed to conduct a similar project for the country of Colombia. First, a pilot study in the area of the watershed of the Cali River, Colombia was conducted to ensure that the data was available and that the maps and models were accurate. The proposed study will investigate the technical resources required: 1.) A fire map with a compilation of ignition data (hot spots) utilizing Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products MOD14 and MYD14 2.) A map of fire scars derived from medium resolution satellite data (ASTER) during the period 2003-2011 for the entire country, and a map of fire scar recurrence and statistics derived from the datasets produced. 3.) A pattern analysis and ignition cause model derived from a matrix of variables statistically exploring the demographic and environmental factors of fire risk, such as land surface temperature, precipitation, and NDVI .4.) A dynamic fire risk evaluation able to generate a dynamic map of ignition risk based on statistical analysis factors. This study aims to research integrating MODIS, Landsat and ASTER data along with in-situ data on environmental parameters from the Corporation of the Cauca Valley River (CVC) along with other data on social, economical and cultural variables obtained by researchers of the Wild Fire Observatory (OCIF) from the "Universidad Autónoma de Occidente" in order to create an ignition cause model, dynamic fire risk evaluation system and compile any and all geospatial data generated for the region. In this way the research will help predict and forecast fire vulnerabilities in the region. The team undertook this project through SERVIR with the guidance of the scientist, Victor Hugo Ramos, who was the leader and principal investigator on the SIGMA-I.
Abstract Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura.
Aldrete, Alfonso N. Garcia; Nieto, Julian A. Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo Gonzalez
A comparative study between the host rock and the iron rich mineral samples from the Paz del Rio iron ore mineral mine in Colombia was performed using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Diffraction results of the iron rich mineral sample show that goethite, hematite, quartz, kaolinite and siderite are the main phases, and that a small amount of illite is
M. Fajardo; G. A. Pérez Alcázar; A. M. Moreira; N. L. Speziali
El tema central del presente Boletín es aparentemente un tema de coyuntura. En efecto, la afiliación del trabajador independiente al sistema de seguridad social integral está generando arduos debates, económicos y jurídicos, desde la implementación de la Planilla Integrada de Liquidación de Aportes –PILA- a mediados de este año. Sin embargo, el trabajo independiente en relación a la seguridad social
Stefano Farne; Jesus Perdomo; Carlos Andrés Vergara
Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases.
Garcia, Pamela K.; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick
A survey was made of the phlebotomine sandfly fauna of La Guaira, a village with coffee plantations near Cali, Colombia, from which cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis had been reported due to Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis and Le. (V.) braziliensis. Among six species of sandfly collected on human bait, Lutzomyia youngi was most important in terms of biting nuisance. Lu.columbiana, Lu.lichyi and Lu.scorzai as well as Lu.youngi adults occurred throughout the year. Sandfly man-biting activity occurred throughout the night and was highest within 2 h of sunset. Despite its abundance in nocturnal samples, Lu.youngi was rarely taken in diurnal resting site collections. In contrast, Lu.lichyi was collected on tree-trunks during the day in large numbers and was the only species biting in daylight. The implications of these and other findings for leishmaniasis control measures in La Guaira are considered. PMID:7548944
Alexander, B; Usma, M C; Cadena, H; Quesada, B L; Solarte, Y; Roa, W; Montoya, J; Jaramillo, C; Travi, B L
Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.
Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))
This research consists of a regional study in which is analyzed and defined in detail the response of a large alluvial aquifer to external imposed stresses of varying magnitude at multiple points within its area. On the other hand, this work evaluates and establishes the spatial correlation structure of the transmissivity and specific capacity values and provides a spatial stochastic prediction model. The later acceptably synthesizes the field properties of each of these parameters. The prediction model was developed from the cross correlation between 852 series values of specific capacity and 316 from transmissivity. This model lead us to demonstrate from the geological perspective that exits a relation among geomorphology and recharge areas so that, higher transmissivity values are presented in the lowlands of the valley through which rivers flow localized in recharge areas generated by geological folds. Since 1950, began an intensive development of this aquifer (Colombia). Despite the country has a positive water balance (IDEAM, 2003), this aquifer is the most productive one in Colombia, has an extension of 3,300 km2. Approximately 1,500 wells supply about 92,540 L/s used for agricultural and industrial purposes. This research uses about 1,000 pumping tests carried out since 1970 by the regional environmental agency (CVC). We interpreted those pumping tests using the diagnostic plot method (Rennard, 2008) to determine aquifer transmissivity and specific capacity. The model figures out a significant geological heterogeneity in the apparently homogeneous alluvial aquifer that leads us to use several interpretation methods for different boundary and well conditions. This brings into question the validity of the regional scale research using a single method of interpretation. Similarly, the results permit us to review the current conceptual model of a three layers aquifer (unconfined - aquitard - confined aquifers) with a defined thickness to a heterogeneous model in which a middle layer of variable thickness and low permeability lay between unconfined and semiconfined aquifer. Finally, we approached from a stochastic perspective the spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic parameters using a semivariogram and showing that the spatial correlation structure of the values is closely related to the geology and geomorphology of the different areas of the valley. For transmissivity, we evaluate the uncertainty in the predicted values of a stochastic model of simple spatial correlation based on relatively short series. Having verified the existence of a strong correlation between the values of transmissivity and specific capacity, develop a second stochastic model based on spatial cross correlation of a short series of transmissivity and a much more extensive one from specific capacity. The evaluation of the uncertainty of the later predictions demonstrates its significant advisability of the second model over the initial one.
A comparative study between the host rock and the iron rich mineral samples from the Paz del Rio iron ore mineral mine in\\u000a Colombia was performed using X-ray diffraction and Mssbauer spectroscopy. Diffraction results of the iron rich mineral sample\\u000a show that goethite, hematite, quartz, kaolinite and siderite are the main phases, and that a small amount of illite is
M. Fajardo; G. A. Pérez Alcázar; A. M. Moreira; N. L. Speziali
The effectiveness of bednets and curtains (nylon mesh 64 per cm2) impregnated with deltamethrin at 26 mg a.i./m2 in reducing the biting nuisance caused by three phlebotomine sandfly species: Lutzomyia columbiana, Lu.lichyi and the predominant Lu.youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae), was evaluated at La Guaira, a rural settlement in Valle de Cauca near Cali, Colombia. Pairs of volunteers collected sandflies under impregnated bednets, in rooms protected by impregnated curtains or in unprotected rooms in a randomized matched design. Collections were made in three houses per night on three consecutive nights, so that each house was sampled under each of the three treatments. This routine was repeated at 2-week intervals for 6 months. There was no significant difference between the overall numbers of sandflies collected in rooms with or without impregnated curtains. Only 0.14 sandflies/man-hour were caught on human bait under impregnated bednets, significantly fewer than the numbers collected on human bait outside the nets in the same room (1.91) or in unprotected rooms (3.29). In a second set of experiments carried out in La Guaira and the neighbouring community of Jiguales, the effect of deltamethrin impregnation was evaluated by comparing numbers of sandflies collected on human bait under treated and untreated nets. Significantly fewer were collected under the impregnated nets (0.25 v. 0.69/man-hour). Wild-caught female Lu.youngi exposed to treated netting for 2 min in the laboratory all died with 24 h. The impact of deltamethrin-impregnated bednets was considered to be useful against Lu.youngi and other potential vectors of leishmaniasis in such communities. PMID:7548945
Alexander, B; Usma, M C; Cadena, H; Quesada, B L; Solarte, Y; Roa, W; Travi, B L
Peace talks between Colombian President Andres Pastrana and guerrilla leader Manuel Marulanda entered their second day today, fueling hopes for some breakthrough in ending the country's 37-year conflict. On Thursday, Pastrana rather boldly placed himself in the hands of the enemy, flying into the town of San Vicente del Caguan with a minimal security detail. The town is held by the main rebel army in Colombia, the 17,000 strong Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, known by its Spanish initials, FARC. Two years ago, Pastrana ceded a 16,200 square mile area of the country to FARC as a goodwill gesture to jumpstart peace talks. So far, these talks have been disappointing, as kidnappings and violence by both the rebels and right-wing paramilitaries have continued unabated. Popular fatigue and anger at continued insecurity in Colombia has inspired Pastrana's latest efforts to secure peace. At the very least, he is expected to get FARC to return to the formal negotiations they left in November, claiming the government had made insufficient efforts to halt attacks by right-wing paramilitary groups. The outcome of this meeting will also most likely impact US policy in the region, as Colombia is now the second-largest recipient of US foreign aid, mostly in the form of combat helicopters and troop training. These have been provided ostensibly to battle the drug trade, which is protected and taxed by the FARC, but in reality, Colombia's civil war and drug war are now almost impossible to segregate.
Introducción. Las especies del género Malassezia se consideran levaduras oportunistas emergentes de gran importancia. Han sido asociadas a diferentes patologías dermatológicas y sistémicas de las cuales se aislan una o más especies de este género. El papel de estas levaduras en las enfermedades dermatológicas no se ha aclarado completamente, ya que la Malassezia spp. pertenece a la flora normal de
This paper discusses the applicability of effluent reuse in agriculture after treatment in a series of anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds. The WSP system is located in Ginebra municipality, a small town in southwest Colombia. The total HRT is 12 days. Several samples of the final effluent were taken over a 55 day period and were analysed for E. coli, Streptococcus spp. and helminth eggs. Some additional grab samples were taken to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. The results showed that the system was able to remove 4 log units of E. coli, 1 log unit of Streptococcus spp. and 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella spp. were detected in the effluent of the facultative pond whilst Shigella spp. were not detected in any sample. The main species of helminth eggs encountered were Taenia spp., Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and Enterobius vermicularis. Removal efficiencies were satisfactory despite the relatively short HRT. Nevertheless, WHO guidelines were slightly surpassed in the case of E. coli for unrestricted irrigation. The helminth egg value was always below the maximum WHO limit. Hence, this effluent can be safely used for restricted irrigation provided that field workers are protected from direct contact with wastewater given the presence of Salmonella spp. in the facultative pond effluent. PMID:11833728
Abstract A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.
This paper intends to assess the current situation of the application process of academic loans in higher education institutions and to visualize new decision-making scenarios to generate spaces, dynamics and methodologies needed for its appropriate implementation. The study was based on three national universities: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada in Bogotá, Corporación Universita- ria del Meta -Unimeta-, and Universidad de los
RODRIGO PALACIO GÓMEZ; CLAUDIA LILIANA; MANCERA GUZMÁN; LUIS EDGAR CRUZ; WILLIAM PARRA PIÑEROS
Sirs, We disagree with the interpretation of the results by Minguela and Ruiz-de-Gauna. Indeed, by protocol design the dose of sevelamer hydrochloride was increased by one tablet per meal every month to maintain serum phosphorus levels below 6.5 mg\\/dl as stated in the Methods . Although final serum phosphorus levels were higher than baseline, such values were not statistically significant.
The common potato, tetraploid Solanum tuberosum spp. tuberosum L. (tbr), has a narrow genetic base but a large number of related tuber-bearing species that harbor genetic diversity for agronomic characters. The taxonomic status of Solanum ruiz-lealii Brücher (rzl), a diploid species endemic to Mendoza province, Argentina, is controversial. It has been described as a new species of non-hybrid origin and
J. P. Raimondi; I. E. Peralta; R. W. Masuelli; S. Feingold; E. L. Camadro
Objective: To know the epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in the pediatric population at Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV), a tertiary University Hospital in Cali, Colombia. Methods: We obtained a series of cases through daily surveillance for a seven-month period (June 1 to December 31, 2009) in patients older than 30 days and under 18 years at HUV. We excluded patients with previous diagnosis of chronic renal failure. The new pRIFLE scale was used to define AKI. Results: 27 patients were detected, with mean age of 36 months. Incidence of AKI was 0.38% from pediatric admissions and 6.2% from the pediatric intensive care unit (pICU) admissions. The pRIFLE scale at study entrance was: Risk: 2 patients, Injury: 8, Failure: 17. Etiology of AKI was: pre-renal in 89%, primary renal disease in 3.7%, and post-renal in 7.4%. There was an association of AKI with sepsis in 66.7% and 48.2% progressed to septic shock. Six patients required renal replacement therapy, all required peritoneal dialysis. The AKI was multi-factorial in 59.3% and associated with systemic multi-organ failure in 59.3%. At study entry, 63% patients were in pICU. The average hospital stay was 21.3 ± 9.2 days. Six children died, 16 resolved AKI, and nine were left with renal sequelae. Conclusions: We recommended pRIFLE scale for early diagnosis of AKI in all pediatric services. Education in pRIFLE scale, prevention of AKI, and early management of sepsis and hypovolemia is recommended.
Mora, Julian A; Alexandre Cardona, Sergio; Marmolejo, Andres F; Paz, Juan F; de Castano, Iris
Resumen: La tradición indígena, la pertenencia a la cuenca Amazónica y la cercanía a un importante centro urbano como Leticia (Amazonas, Colombia) son factores que aportan elementos característicos al sistema de producción de Ciudad Jitoma y lo dife- rencian de otras formas de producción indígena y no-indígena, incluso dentro de la misma región ama- zónica. En el presente estudio se
Luz Amparo Triana-Moreno; Nohra Cecilia Rodríguez; Jesús García
A principios de la década del noventa Colombia introdujo una serie de reformas fiscales que al parecer estuvieron dirigidas a desconcentrar el gasto nacional y a mejorar la cobertura y eficiencia en la provisión de bienes públicos.1 En esencia, las reformas redefinieron las responsabilidades de gasto en todos los niveles de gobierno y modificaron el sistema de transferencias del nivel
Ana María Iregui; Jorge Ramos; Luz Amparo Saavedra
The decay of the El Chichon perturbation to the optical depth of stratospheric aerosols at 1.02 micron, 0.525 micron, and 0.453 micron is calculated from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) data set for the period December 1984 to December 1988. It is found that the perturbed optical depths at middle and higher latitudes of both hemispheres exhibited an exponential decay superimposed by a seasonal oscillation with a maximum and a minimum occurring in local winter and local summer, respectively. Microphysical processes and variation of the tropopause height alone cannot explain this seasonal change of optical depth. The magnitudes of the exponential component at higher latitudes were, in general, larger than those at lower latitudes. For optical depths in tropical regions, the seasonal oscillations were small and were disturbed by the eruption of Nevado delRuiz on November 13, 1985. The increase in the ratio of optical depth at 0.525 micron to that at 1.02 micron from about 2.0 at the beginning of 1985 to about 3.5 at the end of 1988 indicates the average size of aerosol particles in the stratosphere is diminishing since the eruption of El Chichon. The 1/e folding time for El Chichon decay derived from the SAGE II data set is in reasonably good agreement with those derived by other methods.
Background The wild potato Solanum ruiz-lealii Brüch. (2n = 2x = 24), a species of hybrid origin, is endemic to Mendoza province, Argentina. Recurrent flower malformations, which varied among inflorescences of the same plant, were observed in a natural population. These abnormalities could be the result of genomic instabilities, nucleus-cytoplasmic incompatibility or epigenetic changes. To shed some light on their origin, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of plants with normal and plants with both normal and malformed flowers (from here on designated as plants with normal and plants with abnormal flower phenotypes, respectively) were analyzed by AFLP and restriction analyses, respectively. Also, the wide genome methylation status and the level of methylation of a repetitive sequence were studied by MSAP and Southern blots analyses, respectively. Results AFLP markers and restriction patterns of mitochondrial DNA did not allow the differentiation of normal from abnormal flower phenotypes. However, methylation patterns of nuclear DNA discriminated normal and abnormal flower phenotypes into two different groups, indicating that abnormal phenotypes have a similar methylation status which, in turn, was different from the methylation patterns of normal phenotypes. The abnormal flower phenotype was obtained by treating a normal plant with 5-Azacytidine, a demethylating agent, giving support to the idea of the role of DNA methylation in the origin of flower abnormalities. In addition, the variability detected for DNA methylation was greater than the detected for nucleotide sequence. Conclusion The epigenetic nature of the observed flower abnormalities is consistent with the results and indicates that in the diploid hybrid studied, natural variation in methylation profiles of anonymous DNA sequences could be of biological significance.
Marfil, Carlos F; Camadro, Elsa L; Masuelli, Ricardo W
3-Ishwarone, (1), a sesquiterpene with a rare ishwarane skeleton, was isolated from Peperomia scandens Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae). Its structure was unambiguously determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR and infrared analyses, as well as by comparative theoretical studies which involved calculations of 13C-NMR chemical shifts, using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the mPW1PW91 hybrid functional and Pople's 6-31G(d) basis set, and of vibrational frequencies, using the B3LYP hybrid functional and triple ? Dunning's correlation consistent basis set (cc-pVTZ), of (1) and three of its possible diastereomers, compounds 2-4. PMID:24184821
Junior, Fernando M dos S; Velozo, Leosvaldo S M; de Carvalho, Erika M; Marques, André M; Borges, Ricardo M; Trindade, Ana Paula F; dos Santos, Maria Isabel S; de Albuquerque, Ana Carolina F; Costa, Fabio L P; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; de Amorim, Mauro B
El delito del secuestro en Colombia ha presentado una tendencia creciente en la última década. Este instrumento de guerra utilizado por distintos actores armados, tiene un alto impacto en diversas esferas de la sociedad; pues se han visto implicados sectores económicos, sociales y políticos. Por ello, con el objetivo de mostrar este impacto y realizar una caracterización del secuestro, basados
María Eugenia PINTO BORREGO; Ivette María ALTAMAR CONSUEGRA; Yilberto LAHUERTA PERCIPIANO; Luis fernando CEPEDA ZULETA
In 2000, the United States launched an ambitious aid program designed to help Colombia combat illicit drugs. The program, known as Plan Colombia or the Andean Counternarcotics Initiative, was also presented as a plan to help our neighbor regain the citize...
A. Isacson G. Sanchez-Garzoli J. Walsh L. Haugaard R. Guitteau
The mechanism for producing massive runaway stars proposed by A. Poveda, J. Ruiz and C. Allen, 1967, BOTT, 4, 28, 86, is briefly described. Its impact over the years and its gradual acceptance as a viable way to account for such stars are traced. Its current relevance for the understanding of runaway stars is assessed.
SUMMARY Introduction: Cryptosporidium spp. (C. spp.) cause morbi-mortality in children with AIDS. Objective: To identify the association between viral load, CD4 levels and C. spp., presence in feces of children with AIDS. Materials and methods: Observacional study in children of the Hospital Universitario del Valle of Cali. Data like age, gender, origin, consanguinity, treatment, stage, maternal survival and weight, were
MIREY S IUFFI; MARIO A NGULO; PÍO L ÓPEZ; VÍCTOR H UGO; CONSUELO R OJAS
Los Observatorios para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Municipio de Manizales en Colombia, hacen parte del Sistema de Monitoreo diseñado por el Municipio como apoyo a la gestión urbana local. A partir de los resultados de indicadores económicos, sociales y ambientales, los ciudadanos podrán evaluar de forma permanente el desempeño de programas y proyectos del Plan de Desarrollo Municipal y participar
This report is based on the findings of a mission to Colombia in September/October 1967, sponsored by the Tripartite Coffee Study. It provides a step-by-step summation and assessment of the coffee economy of Colombia, covering Colombia in world coffee tra...
La persistencia del conflicto interno en Colombia inhibe todos los elementos principales que contribuyen a la determinación de la competitividad de la economía nacional, que son los siguientes: (i) el monto de sus recursos productivos; (ii) la calidad y productividad de los mismos; (iii) la eficiencia con que operan sus mercados; (iv) el estado de su infraestructura; (v) la capacidad
The recent presence of broadband seismic stations in Colombian territory, as a part of the Colombian Seismological Network, operated by the Colombian Geological Survey, has provided new data for crustal thickness estimation beneath the Northern Andean region. We calculated P to S radial and transverse teleseismic receiver functions at 18 stations in Colombia, for earthquakes at epicentral distances between 29 and 91 degrees, occurred between 2008 and 2012. The deconvolution was calculated in the time domain, aiming for at least a 70% resemblance between the convolution of the receiver function and the vertical seismogram, and the radial/transverse seismogram. In Northern Colombia, at the Sinu Valley, receiver functions show a clear conversion, indicating a crustal thickness of around 29 km; at stations in the Upper and Middle Magdalena Valley, between the Central and Eastern Cordilleras, crustal thickness should be between 40 and 44 km, similar to what was obtained for the Central Cordillera beneath the Ruiz Volcano. Stations at other volcanic areas on the Central Cordillera do not show a consistent Moho conversion and require more work on interpretation. Receiver functions at a station at the craton in South East Colombia, near the foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, clearly indicate the presence of the Moho discontinuity at a depth near 36 km. Receiver functions from seismometers on the Eastern Cordillera near Bogota do not show a consistent signal of a P to S conversion that can be unequivocally interpreted as the effect of the Moho discontinuity, and there are conversions that suggest the existence of major crustal discontinuities; there seems to be strong effects of dipping interfaces, anisotropy and/or lateral heterogeneity that still remain to be evaluated. These features are possibly associated with the fold and thrust belt developed in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, which has generated a very complex crustal architecture.
Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500?g/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. PMID:21783920
This paper analyzes Colombia?s space policy: its successes, its failures and what it still needs to achieve. The paper examines the interaction among the different players, and how this policy contributes to economic and social development of the country. And postulates that, unless a real national plan of action, with specific milestones and budget as well as a managing agency are developed, this policy may be in danger of disappearing. The Colombian Space Commission (Comisión Colombiana del Espacio, or CCE) was created by Presidential Decree 2442 in 2006. It is a multi-sectorial entity, in charge of coordinating, planning, and leading in the implementation of national policies for the development and application of space technologies. The CCE was also charged with the drafting of plans and programs in this field. The CCE began with only a few members (15) and today is comprised of 47 members: 13 ministries, 4 administrative departments, another 21 governmental entities and 9 universities, the latter acting as consultants. The Vice-President of the Republic is the President of the CCE. These different actors gave great importance to the development of Colombia?s space sector, and 6 years later, they are continuing support and development the country?s space policy. This analysis takes into account three aspects: first, achieving the objectives of the CCE: the creation and development of a national space policy for Colombia; secondly, focussing on “target groups” and “end users”; and thirdly, the “outcomes” or achievements to date. Some conclusions are worth highlighting: first, the warm reception and support of the CCE by both the public and private sectors on high levels, but the poor knowledge of the national space policy by the Colombian people and the small and medium companies. Secondly, in the context of public policy , the strategic plan called “National Policy in regard to Space Activities”, is caught between two phases: the formulation and decision-making regarding the program, and its implementation. And finally, the members of the CCE do not necessarily act in accordance with a national strategy, but follow their own interests, resulting in undue influence (and perhaps interference) in the development of a coherent national space policy. In brief, the author hopes that this first analysis of Colombia?s experience with its Space Commission will serve as an example to other developing countries that also are seeking to develop their space sector, and implement a national space policy. Further, the author hopes that this analysis will allow the various politico-administrative actors “policy makers” in Colombia, as well as the general public, to realize that, while much has been accomplished, much still remains to be done. It is essential to keep alive the interest shown in space activities; otherwise, Colombia?s space policy may become an “endangered species”, in danger of failing and disappearing.
Five newly discovered endemic foci for paragonimiasis in Colombia are described for the first time. The disease was diagnosed in 24 people from the Embera Indian communities located at the Colombian Pacific Coast and investigated in 1993–1998. We also describe the clinical, epidemiological and treatment response aspects. In these foci an Aroapyrgus sp. snail different from A. colombiensis was found
Iván Darío B. Vélez; Jorge Ortega; Martha Inés M. Hurtado; Alba Lucía Salazar; Sara M. Robledo; Judy Natalia Jimenez; Luz Elena T. Velásquez
Armed combat in childhood and adolescence is a form of child abuse and a violation of International Humanitarian Law. This study explores the impact of guerrilla life in adolescent peasant girls coerced to join the Armed Revolutionary Forces of Colombia (FARC). It analyzes their stories within the social context of the ongoing conflict in the country. Seven adolescent peasant girls
This report describes Biblored, the library network in Bogota, Colombia, that received the 2002 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Access to Learning Award. Biblored is a network of 19 libraries that attract about 200,000 users per month and serve some of the poorest neighborhoods in Bogota. The network's success in making information and information…
Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…
Este artículo tiene como objetivo realizar una aproximación a la valoración económica de los beneficios de la reducción del ruido generado por infraestructuras de telecomunicaciones en cuatro zonas urbanas del área metropolitana de la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia). Así, mediante el método de transferencia de beneficios, en un horizonte a perpetuidad, se obtuvo un valor económico de $79,40 millones para
Francisco Javier Correa Restrepo; Juan David Osorio Múnera; Bernardo Andrés Patiño Valencia
This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady 15 year decline in average household size from 6.1 people in 1970 to 5 people in 1985 is likely to continue. Because of government support, the general standard of housing for the urban migrant populations is superior to that in other Latin American countries. No single racial/ethnic group has ever had more than a regional importance in Colombia. The national culture has been developed almost exclusively from traditional Spanish customs. The economically active population increased annually by 3.4% in the 1970s, but jobs expanded at about 6.2% each year. Since school attendance also increased during the decade, unemployment declined. Colombia's media are reasonably free of government controls. Radio and television are directly controlled through the National Institute of Radio and Television. PMID:12339912
The Cerrejon project in Colombia is described. Production will commence within 2 years and the operation is likely to become one of the largest bituminous coal mines in the world, scheduled to produce 15 million t/y by opencast working. The geology of the site is indicated. Of the 55 seams, 40 will be worked during the lifetime of the mine. All the coal is destined for export.
In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Columbians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some, but not enough, important answers. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. This it not merely an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein. PMID:9273199
Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families…
This paper adds to previous research on the causes of crime in Colombia by using a new dataset and better econometric estimations. The paper is a “meta” study on the past empirical research on crime. Based on microeconomic foundations, it tests several hypotheses on crime in Colombia. In concrete, the first finding is that drug crimes are highly correlated with
Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal organism of late blight, is economically the most important pathogen of potato and resistance against it has been one of the primary goals of potato breeding. Some potentially durable, broad-spectrum resistance genes against this disease have been described recently. However, to obtain durable resistance in potato cultivars more genes are needed to be identified to realize strategies such as gene pyramiding or use of genotype mixtures based on diverse genes. Results A major resistance gene, Rpi-rzc1, against P. infestans originating from Solanum ruiz-ceballosii was mapped to potato chromosome X using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and sequence-specific PCR markers. The gene provided high level of resistance in both detached leaflet and tuber slice tests. It was linked, at a distance of 3.4 cM, to violet flower colour most likely controlled by the previously described F locus. The marker-trait association with the closest marker, violet flower colour, explained 87.1% and 85.7% of variance, respectively, for mean detached leaflet and tuber slice resistance. A genetic linkage map that consisted of 1,603 DArT markers and 48 reference sequence-specific PCR markers of known chromosomal localization with a total map length of 1204.8 cM was constructed. Conclusions The Rpi-rzc1 gene described here can be used for breeding potatoes resistant to P. infestans and the breeding process can be expedited using the molecular markers and the phenotypic marker, violet flower colour, identified in this study. Knowledge of the chromosomal localization of Rpi-rzc1 can be useful for design of gene pyramids. The genetic linkage map constructed in this study contained 1,149 newly mapped DArT markers and will be a valuable resource for future mapping projects using this technology in the Solanum genus.
The development of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED's) by insurgents in Colombia is characterized by a quick response to counter IED measures. Many current IED's do not contain any metal parts and can have any shape or form. Due to the low metal content or the absence of any metal parts, sensors based on metal detection are not useful anymore. Due to the wide variety of sizes, shapes, and enclosure materials of current IED's, one and two-dimensional GPR sensors using a "library" of known shapes as well as acoustic sensors using material characteristic frequencies have become ineffective. Therefore, the Colombian experience strongly suggests that chemical sensors are the way for IED detection in soils since they do not depend on IED metal content, size, or shape but only on the presence of explosives, a necessary ingredient for any IED. Promising recently developed chemical sensors make use of semiconducting organic polymers (SOPs) such as FIDO and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Once an explosive has been detected, the IED needs to be identified and located. Therefore, there is a need for three-dimensional high resolution scans for identification of all subsoil features including rocks, roots, and IED's. The recently developed 3D-GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) can map all features of the subsoil with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm or less. The objectives of this contribution are to inform about the IED problem in Colombia and how novel technologies may contribute to humanitarian IED clearance under humid tropical conditions.
Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Molina, A.; Diaz, D.; Grasmueck, M.; Moreno, H. A.; Hernández, R. D.
1. RESUMEN El ají es un cultivo de importancia en Colombia con una gran perspectiva en el crecimiento de sus áreas para el mercado de agro exportación. La oleorresina es el extracto líquido del fruto maduro seco de pimientos Capsicum que contiene una mezcla compleja de aceites esenciales, ceras, materiales coloreados y capsaicinoides. Se obtiene en forma de aceite, con
Este trabajo analiza los efectos que sobre la salud de los niños menores de cinco años tienen las características sanitarias de sus viviendas en Colombia. Específicamente, se consideran los impactos de estos factores sobre la mortalidad y la prevalencia de enfermedades diarreicas agudas (EDA). Así mismo, se estima la influencia del origen racial sobre las condiciones de salud de los
Background Congenital malaria has been considered a rare event; however, recent reports have shown frequencies ranging from 3% to 54.2% among newborns of mothers who had suffered malaria during pregnancy. There are only a few references concerning the epidemiological impact of this entity in Latin-America and Colombia. Objective The aim of the study was to measure the prevalence of congenital malaria in an endemic Colombian region and to determine some of its characteristics. Methods A prospective, descriptive study was carried out in the mothers who suffered malaria during pregnancy and their newborns. Neonates were clinically evaluated at birth and screened for Plasmodium spp. infection by thick smear from the umbilical cord and peripheral blood, and followed-up weekly during the first 21 days of postnatal life through clinical examinations and thick smears. Results 116 newborns were included in the study and 80 umbilical cord samples were obtained. Five cases of congenital infection were identified (four caused by P. vivax and one by P. falciparum), two in umbilical cord blood and three in newborn peripheral blood. One case was diagnosed at birth and the others during follow-up. Prevalence of congenital infection was 4.3%. One of the infected newborns was severely ill, while the others were asymptomatic and apparently healthy. The mothers of the newborns with congenital malaria had been diagnosed with malaria in the last trimester of pregnancy or during delivery, and also presented placental infection. Conclusions Congenital malaria may be a frequent event in newborns of mothers who have suffered malaria during pregnancy in Colombia. An association was found between congenital malaria and the diagnosis of malaria in the mother during the last trimester of pregnancy or during delivery, and the presence of placental infection.
The article is derived from a report titled: The Electrical Generating Equipment Market in Colombia', dated Janaury 1993, prepared by Mario Cediel, American Embassy - Bogota. The article consists of 21 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview;...
Colombia's coal production target is 68-million tons by the year 2000, with hopes to export 10% of world thermal-coal demand. Colombia's economic commitment to coal marketing is not an option, but an imperative. There are indications that coal production in the US - bogged down by complex transportation, environmental, and other disputes - will be revitalized, partly because Colombia will be added to the list of international coal-market competitors. Some coal-industry analysts recognize that the Colombian factor could, through stimulating price competition, encourage world coal consumption. Despite monumental infrastructure requirements that will turn the area between El Cerrejon and the Caribbean Sea into one integrated complex, the government is throwing itself heart and soul back into the coal age. This issue has the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for May 1983 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.
Colombia's PROFAMILIA has successfully operated a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program since 1973. Beginning with 1 salesperson distributing primarily to Cajas de Subsideio, the CSM program is now distributed through 70-80% of the 6000 registered pharmacies in the country, as well as pharmacy counters of several supermakets in urban areas. During 1981, PROFAMILIA's 5 salespersons accountd for commerical sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) to 225,000 couples and sales of barrier methods to another 75,000. Program sales of contraceptives and other products generated approximately US $1.7 million in revenue for the same year. PROFAMILIA's marketing approach is unique in its product and promotinal characteristics. Supplies are obtained directly from local and foreign manufacturers and are resold without any repackaging. While it is generally believed that CSM programs expand the market for contraceptives, data analysis and analysis of PROFAMILIA's distribution system suggests that the PROFAMILIA CSM program has simply absorbed some of the previously existing commerical market. Total commerical market sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) have grown at an annual rate of 3-4% since 1975. During the same period, direct sales of Schering, Wyeth, and other competitors have declined. PROFAMILIA's community-based program operates mainly among urban and semi-rural lower income populations. It sells products through established retail outlets rather than through institutional or non-retail outlets. PROFAMILIA's community-based program in all respects but its use of a staff of 112 salaried "instructoras" is as much a marketing program as PROFAMILIA's sales through pharmacies. Taken together, the 2 program expanded the commerical makert by about 1/2 since 1975. The contraceptive social marketing or pharmacy sales program appears to excel at generation of revenue and delivery of products to higher income clients. The community-based program excels at delivery of information and sales to lower income clients. PROFAMILIA CSM and community-based program sales are in a period of relative stagnation. Sales projections show only modest increases between 1981-85, despite the fact that a significant number of potential consumers remain unserved. Ultimately, PROFAMILIA may be faced with the need to reduce their number markedly as sales revenue is eroded by inflation while costs rise. A shift in duties back to motivation rather than distribution, combined with increased media promotion seems the clearest short-term response to the problem of unserved consumers. PMID:12264180
Attempts at malaria eradication this century have been highly effective but early successes have not been sustained. This has been ascribed to the lack of community involvement in these campaigns. Colombia has put huge effort into malaria control on a number of fronts, from vaccine development to the evaluation of the integrated use of more traditional methods. William Rojas, Fernando Peñaranda and Mouricio Echavarria describe a pilot programme for integrated malaria control in Colombia whose success they attribute to committed community participation. PMID:15463599
(1) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany (email@example.com), (2) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia (3) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, Manizales, Colombia A gas monitoring system has been installed on the volcano Galeras in Colombia as part of a multi-parameter station. Gases
E. Faber; C. Morán; J. Poggenburg; G. Garzón; M. Teschner; F. H. Weinlich
The history of earthquake disasters in Colombia, South America is discussed in detail to promote scientific investigations, and to call attention to engineers, architects, contractors, insurance companies and building owners as to the conditions that must...
To compensate for disadvantages of traditional rural schools, Colombia's Escuela Nueva (New School) movement offers solutions such as self-instruction guides geared to aspects of daily life and flexible school schedules. Teacher training that encourages student and community involvement is a key element. Escuela Nueva successes have led to its…
Provides an overview of Colombia and its linguistic makeup, briefly tracing the presence of the English language from the eighteenth century to date. Characterizes the users and uses of English documenting how the personal, instrumental, and creative and innovative functions are manifested in this setting. Concludes by highlighting the need for…
Traced development of a bilingual curriculum in a monolingual private school in Cali, Colombia, with particular reference to the creation of a curricular proposal in accord with the philosophy and expectations of the school community and the process of particular empowerment generated throughout the research. (Author/VWL)
This presentation of the innovation-driven environment in Colombia derives from important national efforts to gather and store pertinent information. Two large surveys have tested the "innovative behaviour" of Colombian manufacturing firms--the more recent of these was in 2005. Another information source is the Scienti platform, an online effort…
This memorandum derives estimates of the private rate of return to schooling for men and women based on a 1965 labor force survey, past cross-sectional data, and the long-term educational public policy of Bogota, Colombia. Here resources may be viewed as an investment in the future productive capacity of people. Depending on the costs and benefits…
The natural remanent magnetization of andesitic pumice erupted from the Nevado delRuiz volcano (Colombia) in 1985 is reversed with respect to the present geomagnetic field because of self-reversal. Laboratory thermoremanent magnetization acquired in fields of < 1 mT fully re-establishes the self-reversal mechanism. Hysteresis experiments indicate that the mechanism is caused by antiparallel coupling as a result of exchange
This study deals with the levels of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon quantification in sediments and organisms in Cartagena Bay (Colombia), 1996–1997. Sediments (14 stations) and bivalves (2 stations) were monitored at different times of the year. Areas with high values were in the north with concentrations above 100 ?g\\/g with a maximum of 1415 ?g\\/g. Areas with low values were
C. H Parga-Lozano; A. J Marrugo-González; R Fernández-Maestre
Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.
Introduction: Chronic diseases represent the greatest burden of disease in Colombia for which smoking is the major risk factor. Objectives: To provide clinical practice recommendations based upon efficacy and safety of smoking cessation therapies for Colombian adults. Materials and methods: An adaptation of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) based on the ADAPT methodology was performed. We searched CPG on Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane databases. Six months? cessation rates were appraised for brief and intensive counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, varenicline, clonidine, nortriptyline, acupuncture, hypnosis, homeopathy, and combined treatments. CPG were evaluated with DELBI and selected when having a score above 60% for methodological rigor of development and applicability to the Colombian health system. Formal consensus was performed for questions without strong evidence. Results: 925 references were found, 17 CPG were pre-selected and 5 selected for adaptation. Brief and intensive counseling, NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline, and varenicline are effective for smoking cessation (cessation rates augment 5.1%-22.7%). Alternative therapies have not demonstrated cessation efficacy. Concomitant use of different NRT is the only combination with demonstrated efficacy (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.7). Conclusions: Several alternatives for giving up tobacco smoking have confirmed efficacy. The absolute difference in cessation rates is variable among therapies and duration of effect requires further research. Brief and intensive counseling necessitate standardized formats for their implementation in Colombia. Economic evaluations are required to assess costs and benefits and to select the most suitable interventions for Colombia. PMID:24652129
Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Becerra, Nelci; Páez, Nelson; Cañas, Alejandra; Mosquera, Catalina; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Camacho, Natalia; Gómez, Javier; García-Herreros, Plutarco; Bernal, Luis Gabriel
En este trabajo se analiza empíricamente la sostenibilidad fiscal en Colombia a través de las técnicas de cointegración. En particular, usando los ingresos tributarios y los gastos primarios del gobierno nacional central para el período 1990Q1 a 2008Q4 (datos reales y ajustados por el ciclo económico), en el documento se examina si las cuentas fiscales del gobierno han sido sostenibles
This paper studies the determinants of the probability of participating in a process of merging or acquisition for financial institutions in Colombia. We use survival analysis techniques and competing risks models to estimate the probability of participating in such processes as an acquiring or acquired firm. Using an especially rich database containing financial information of Colombian banks for the period
Andrés Felipe García-Suaza; José Eduardo Gómez-González
This paper quantifies the magnitude of transitions across occupational categories in Colombia, a country with high unemployment and informality but quickly increasing its social security coverage for health. The analysis makes use of a panel of households between 2008 and 2009, representative of the main metropolitan areas inthe country. Results confirm previous evidence found in Colombia and elsewhere in the
Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…
This article deals with the complex relationships that exist among drug traffickers, insurgent guerrilla groups, paramilitary forces, peasants, and the government's military and police agencies in Colombia and the use of violence and terrorism among them to achieve disparate ends. Colombia was chosen as a case study because of its importance as a key source country for coca leaf and
Many major cities in Colombia struggle with managing transportation issues arising from growing populations and vehicle use and the development of sustainable public transportation alternatives. Rapidly developing metropolises suffer from highly congested roadways, extreme air pollution, and high rates of road related accidents. In Colombia, these issues stem partly from the over-saturation of independent bus operators, underinvestment in infrastructure and
The hypothesis examined in this study is that education as an active force will perform two functions: (1) develop technical innovations and transform the productive structure, and (2) produce men who can undertake social and political innovations in Colombia. The plight of education in rural Colombia is revealed when contrasted with the urban…
Este trabajo va encaminado a resolver el problema de localización y cuantificación de la desnutrición en Colombia, para pequeñas áreas (municipios y localidades para Bogotá). Aquí se presentan los mapas de desnutrición para pequeñas áreas en Colombia, pues con el objetivo de reducir los niveles de desnutrición las entidades gubernamentales requieren herramientas para identificar los problemas a nivel regional y
In the late 1990s, Colombia appeared destined for utter collapse. Facing a possible narco-terrorist state releasing a torrent of illegal drugs, the United States supported Plan Colombia, a broad effort to bolster police and military Counter- Insurgency (C...
This study sought to reveal the patterns of medical care given to patients with neurologic diseases in Colombia. To that end, it tracked the daily activities of 30 neurologists chosen from a representative sample of 119 neurologists registered in Colombia in 1993. The information was requested by means of a previously standardized questionnaire and was complemented by demographic and epidemiologic data. The results showed that demand for specialized neurologic care depended more on cultural perceptions than on objective measures of prevalence. Moreover, it was found that education in neurology should place greater emphasis on ambulatory treatment as an alternative to hospital treatment. The survey also offered preliminary information on the prevalence and incidence of the primary neurologic diseases in the country. The prevalence of these diseases far exceeds the supply of specialized neurologic care. Finally, the results point out the advantages and deficiencies of this type of care, findings that might guide future efforts in this field in other countries and under different circumstances. PMID:9011172
Rosselli, D; Eslava-Cobos, J; Calderón, C; Menken, M
Background Approximately 5% of all breast cancers can be attributed to a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. The genetic component of breast cancer in Colombia has been, for the most part, studied on cases from the Bogota region. Five different founder mutations were in two studies of breast cancer patients in the Bogota region. It is important that the frequency of mutations be established among unselected cases of breast cancer of other regions of Colombia in order to estimate the genetic burden of this cancer in Colombia and to plan genetic services. The aim of this study was to establish the mutation frequencies of the BRCA genes in breast cancer patients unselected for family history or age, from Medellin, Colombia. Methods We enrolled 280 unselected women with breast cancer from a large public hospital in Medellin, Colombia. A detailed family history from each patient and a blood sample was obtained and processed for DNA analysis. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were sought using a combination of techniques including a panel of recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations which consists of fifty BRCA1 mutations and forty-six BRCA2 mutations, including the five recurrent Colombian BRCA mutations. All mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Genetic testing was successfully completed for 244 of the 280 cases (87%). Among the 244 cases, three deleterious mutations were identified (two in BRCA1 and one in BRCA2) representing 1.2% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 34 years. The two BRCA1 mutations were known founder mutations (3450del4 in exon 11 and A1708E in exon 18). The BRCA2 mutation was in exon 11 (5844del5) and has not been previously reported in individuals of Colombian descent. Among the three mutation-positive families was a breast cancer family and two families with no history of breast or ovarian cancer. Conclusion The frequency of BRCA mutations in unselected breast cancer cases from the Medellin region of Colombia is low and is approximately 1.2%.
This document provides statistical data on the distribution and education of teacher personnel working in Colombian elementary schools between 1940 and 1968. The statistics cover the number of men and women, public and private schools, urban and rural location, and the amount of education of teachers. (VM)
Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.
Colombia's women's organizations which help household workers are profiled. In Bogota the Asociacion de Mujeres Trabajadoras del Hogar (AMUTRAHOGAR) provides legal counseling, educational courses, and a friendly gathering place. The experiences of several women are highlighted, e.g., Emma Ojeda comes to the weekly meetings for legal and moral support. AMUTRAHOGAR is an alliance of unskilled and largely rural workers and professional and urban women who are concerned with the joint recognition of the importance of domestic service. The stigma is by gender, social rank, and sometimes race. This informal economy does not have very accurate figures on workers. The estimate is half a million of mostly rural migrants. Another important organization is the Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poplacion (ACEP) which is a nongovernmental organization in Bogota begun in 1981. The aim was to review existing labor laws and evaluate how well the code was meeting women's needs. Magdalena Leon has been a research sociologist studying women's issues for 20 years through ACEP. ACEP has worked with the Sindicato de Trabajadoras del Servicio Domesticao (SINTRASEDOM) which represents and lobbies for household workers. Violation of the law on live-ins, wages, and time off duty was discovered a common occurrence. In the application of the law, employers found loopholes, and, for instance, subtracted food, clothing, and shelter which left little pocket money. The ACEP program was expanded to other cities in 1983. Program expansion included informal courses on citizenship, sexuality, and the role of women in Colombian society. When the social security code was reformed in 1977, household workers became eligible for benefits, but many employers were unaware of it. The law also excluded those with wages under the minimum wage. A public campaign was begun in 1985 by ACEP and SINTRASEDOM to inform people about the law. Community action was disrupted by unrelated political violence and a volcanic eruption. In January 1988 after 5 years of hard work Law 11 was passed which assured household workers social security benefits. A by-product was consciousness raising of many women and the formation of autonomous women's groups. Radio broadcasts now use the term professional household workers. PMID:12286185
Colombia has experienced conflict for decades. In the 1990s it was a paradigm of the failing state, beset with all manner of troubles: terrorism, kidnapping, murder, drug trafficking, corruption, an economic downturn of major scope, general lawlessness, a...
Colombia is a constitutional, multiparty democracy with a population of approximately 45 million. On June 20, Unity Party presidential candidate Juan Manuel Santos was elected in elections that were considered generally free and fair. On August 7, Preside...
Colombia's history is replete with acts of political violence. Guerrilla violence has been of major historical significance in the country, where guerrilla groups have operated without interruption since the mid-1940s. This thesis investigates the causes ...
Las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales (car) y las Corporaciones de Desarrollo Sostenible (cds) son las instituciones encargadas de la protección del medio ambiente en Colombia. Este trabajo estudia el desempeño de las corporaciones que tienen jurisdicción sobre la Costa Caribe. En particular, examina sus principales fortalezas y limitaciones administrativas, y analiza si en sus presupuestos se reproducen las desigualdades regionales que
Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported.
Multichannel and selected single-channel seismic lines of the continental margin sediments of the Colombia basin display compelling evidence for large accumulations of natural gas hydrate. Seismic bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs), interpreted to mark the base of the hydrate stability zone, are pronounced and very widespread along the entire Panama-Colombia lower continental slope. BSRs have also been identified at two locations on the abyssal plain. Water depths for these suspected hydrate occurrences range from 900 to 4000 m. Although no gas hydrate samples have been recovered from this area, biogenic methane is abundant in Pliocene turbidites underlying the abyssal plain. More deeply buried rocks beneath the abyssal plain are thermally mature. Thermogenic gas from these rocks may migrate upward along structural pathways into the hydrate stability zone and form hydrate. Impermeable hydrate layers may form caps over large accumulations of free gas, accounting for the very well-defined BSRs in the area. The abyssal plain and the deformed continental margin hold the highest potential for major economic accumulations of gas hydrate in the basin. The extensive continuity of BSRs, relatively shallow water depths, and promixity to onshore production facilities render the marginal deformed belt sediments the most favorable target for future economic development of the gas hydrate resource within the Colombia basin. The widespread evidence of gas hydrates in the Colombia basin suggests a high potential for conventional hydrocarbon deposits offshore of Panama and Colombia.
En este trabajo se examina el tamaño relativo del Gobierno chileno a través de una comparación internacional con valores equivalentes de otros países. Adicionalmente hay un análisis similar para dos componentes importantes del gasto público: educación y salud. El gasto del Gobierno de Chile, valor en torno del 20% (PIB), está junto al tercio inferior de países que poseen un
The selection of any wastewater treatment technology should take into consideration both "software" and "hardware" aspects. There are contrasting opinions regarding the feasibility of waste stabilisation ponds (WSP): some emphasise their advantages while others are concerned with their high land area requirements. As with any technology, WSP are feasible under specific circumstances related to the context where they are to be implemented. In this study data were collected from three regions in Colombia (Nariño, Tolima and Valle del Cauca) in order to assess the feasibility of WSP under real conditions in a tropical country. A feasibility matrix was developed in order to organise and synthesise the information gathered. The results obtained showed that WSP are highly feasible in Tolima and Valle del Cauca due to the fact that these regions have geographical, socio-economic and technical characteristics that enhance the advantages of WSP technology. Nariño has a very mountainous topography along with other local limitations that hinder the application of WSP technology. The cost of land was not found to be a real limitation for the technology, whereas the availability of land is. Finally, the feasibility matrix may be a good planning tool at regional or national levels in order to help decision-making regarding cost-effective wastewater treatment alternatives on the basis of local conditions. PMID:11833722
Five Anopheles marajoara Galvão and Damasceno populations, representing diverse ecological conditions, were sampled throughout Colombia and analyzed using nine hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci. The overall genetic diversity (H = 0.58) was lower than that determined for some Brazilian populations using the same markers. The Caquetá population (Colombia) had the lowest gene diversity (H = 0.48), and it was the only population at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium in the remaining four populations was probably caused by the Wahlund effect. The assignment analyses showed two incompletely isolated gene pools separated by the Eastern Andean cordillera. However, other possible geographical barriers (rivers and other mountains) did not play any role in the moderate genetic heterogeneity found among these populations (FST = 0.069). These results are noteworthy, because this species is a putative malaria vector in Colombia.
Brochero, Helena; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard; Conn, Jan E.; Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel
Generally speaking, scientists in Colombia do not have a role in changing the social or economic situation of the nation. Although the proportion of women who study physics increases slowly year by year, the number of women who work in physics research has not considerably increased. Many problems in Colombia might be solved if women's status as researchers in Colombia changed. It is necessary to promote a national project for improving women's status in the sciences and to present this project to the Colombian government. Many Colombian women have grown up believing they are not able to take scientific jobs, and therefore choose to study other disciplines ``for women.'' If Colombian women found opportunities in physics and the sciences in general, they would likely pursue such disciplines, but we need government support to promote an efficient program that will give women more information about physics as a feasible career option.
...Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Colombia AGENCY: Department...This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement (FTA) that provides for...Colombia to the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country'' in...
Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV vaccines; and (ii) secondary prevention by increasing the accuracy of cervical cancer screening.
Contents: Introductory Note; Statistical Regions Used in This Report; Top State Exporters to Colombia; States with Greatest Dollar Growth in Exports to Colombia, 1987-91; State and Regional Exports to Colombia: 1987-91 (organized by region); State and Reg...
Colombia's rural "escuelas nuevas" feature multigrade classrooms, flexible promotion, rural-oriented curriculum, parent and community involvement, mastery learning, peer instruction, and library resources. A study of over 3,000 students found that, compared to traditional schools, Escuela Nueva schools had lower dropout probabilities, higher…
In decentralized education systems programs that promote central mandates may have to be devolved to local governments, communities, and providers. When participation by local governments and providers is voluntary rather than compulsory, the determinants of program placement are important in predicting potential benefits to individuals. This article analyzes incentives for municipalities and private schools to participate in Colombia's voucher program.
In the slums of Medellin, Colombia, a program seeks to improve children's physical health, intellectual development, and self-concept through such activities as carpentry, breadmaking, and sports and literature clubs. These activities help develop ethical and moral values, planning and organizing skills, and a future orientation. (SK)
This paper explores the dynamics of repression and resistance within the Colombian education system through exploring human rights violations against educators. Drawing on the findings of several fieldwork visits carried out since 2005 across Colombia, the paper focuses on the darker side of the education/conflict relationship, demonstrating…
Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems.
The principal aim of this article is to describe and document a comparison of public and private school effectiveness in the marginalized (often referred to as slum) district of Aguablanca, in the city of Cali, Colombia. The data suggest that teachers and parents are largely satisfied with the current status of education provision in Aguablanca.…
The use of Concrete Masonry (CM) for low-cost housing in Colombia is influenced by local physical, technical, economic and social conditions, some of which can exist in other places in different combinations. Even though it is difficult to talk about spec...
Reports on a study of the relationship of several measures of educational quality to labor market outcomes among 4,000 workers in Bogota, Colombia. Finds that the score on university entrance examinations and the university's prestige have a significant positive impact on the earnings and occupational status of adults. (CFR)
This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform…
Today the US is expanding its military role in Colombia to include Counter-Insurgency. What will be the role of the US Army Special Forces and how can they apply their unique capabilities to meet Colombian and US Strategic Objectives. This paper will anal...
The main purpose of this article is to describe and apply a methodology to estimate the discount rate on long-term projects, such as those related to environmental conservation and global climate change, for Colombia. The applied methodology is known as gamma discount. For the application of this method, a survey of 120 Colombian economists was conducted. This yielded a much
Land O'Lakes, Inc. signed a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) on March 6, 2003 for a three year program to implement the Dairy Alternative Development Colombia Program. The program has three basic ob...
The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…
El propósito principal de este documento es presentar una serie de recomendaciones de política que permitan consolidar a la descentralización como una estrategia de desarrollo regional. La evidencia muestra que la descentralización ha perpetuado las disparidades que en materia de cobertura en educación y salud existen en Colombia. Se encuentra, además, una gran desigualdad en los ingresos fiscales per cápita
Describes working conditions of female household servants in Colombia. Reviews history of support groups assisting household workers and subsequent expansion into successful movement for workers' legal rights and social security. "Women's work" has gained some respect as household workers strive to participate in ongoing social changes. (TES)
This article aims to assess the likely competitiveness of different forms of renewable energy in Colombia over the next 25 years. To this end, it compares the likely power production cost for a set of renewable energy sources, and compares them to the likely long-run cost of traditional energy. Costs from global and local externalities through the use of traditional energy
Colombia's sugarcane-based ethanol industry, after operating for only 3 years, is the second most developed in the Western Hemisphere. Most Colombian ethanol plants are energy self-suffi cient and even generate surplus power that is sold to the national e...
During 1971-72 an epidemic of dengue fever occurred in Colombia, S. America. The magnitude, geographic extent, and epidemiological progression of the epidemic is described. Over 400,000 persons in a population of 2.1 million were estimated to have suffere...
Educational authorities of most countries, including those of Colombia, typically associate the quality of education with the teacher's role. The teacher then is conceived as a fundamental actor in an educational process and as such assembles and directly transmits pertinent knowledge. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals…
Camargo, M.; Calvo, G.; Franco, M. C.; Londono, S.; Vergara, M.
Es posible que haya más de 200 tipos diferentes de cáncer y muchos subtipos más, cada uno de estos causado por errores en el ADN que desencadenan el crecimiento descontrolado de las células. La identificación de los cambios en el conjunto completo de ADN de cada tipo de cáncer, su genoma, y el entendimiento de cómo interactúan dichos cambios para impulsar el proceso de la enfermedad sentarán las bases de una era individualizada de tratamiento del cáncer.
After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held periodically between 1997 and 2012, the year of the sixth edition. As well, national and international research groups have been formed to work actively on global projects, such as the Geophysics Laboratory of Universidad de Los Andes in Venezuela. In the future, international groups will be formed to jointly treat issues including localization and size of destructive events along borders, common scales for the evaluation of intensities, integrated data bases, etc. Additionally the methods employed will be validated by paleoseismology, neotectonics and instrumental seismicity, among others.
Información sobre la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer en los niños, tendencias en el financiamiento del NCI para la investigación del cáncer infantil; así como ejemplos de actividades y adelantos en la investigación relevantes para esta población.
A dengue fever surveillance study was conducted at three medical facilities located in the low-income district of San Javier in Medellin, Colombia. During March 2008 to 2009, 781 patients with fever regardless of chief complaint were recruited for acute dengue virus infection testing. Of the 781 tested, 73 (9.3%) were positive for dengue infection. Serotypes DENV-2 (77%) and -3 (23%) were detected by PCR. One patient met the diagnostic criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Only 3 out of 73 (4.1%) febrile subjects testing positive for dengue infection were diagnosed with dengue fever by the treating physician. This study confirms dengue virus as an important cause of acute febrile illness in Medellin, Colombia, but it is difficult to diagnose without dengue diagnostic testing. PMID:24987421
Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Beatty, Mark E; Goez, Yenny; Ramirez, Ruth E; Letson, G William; Diaz, Francisco J; Piedrahita, Leidy Diana; Osorio, Jorge E
A dengue fever surveillance study was conducted at three medical facilities located in the low-income district of San Javier in Medellin, Colombia. During March 2008 to 2009, 781 patients with fever regardless of chief complaint were recruited for acute dengue virus infection testing. Of the 781 tested, 73 (9.3%) were positive for dengue infection. Serotypes DENV-2 (77%) and -3 (23%) were detected by PCR. One patient met the diagnostic criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Only 3 out of 73 (4.1%) febrile subjects testing positive for dengue infection were diagnosed with dengue fever by the treating physician. This study confirms dengue virus as an important cause of acute febrile illness in Medellin, Colombia, but it is difficult to diagnose without dengue diagnostic testing.
Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Beatty, Mark E.; Goez, Yenny; Ramirez, Ruth E.; Letson, G. William; Diaz, Francisco J.; Piedrahita, Leidy Diana; Osorio, Jorge E.
The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.
The implementation of national EHR infrastructures has to start by a detailed definition of the overall structure and behavior of the EHR system (system architecture). Architectures have to be open, scalable, flexible, user accepted and user friendly, trustworthy, based on standards including terminologies and ontologies. The GCM provides an architectural framework created with the purpose of analyzing any kind of system, including EHR system´s architectures. The objective of this paper is to propose a reference architecture for the implementation of an integrated EHR in Colombia, based on the current state of system´s architectural models, and EHR standards. The proposed EHR architecture defines a set of services (elements) and their interfaces, to support the exchange of clinical documents, offering an open, scalable, flexible and semantically interoperable infrastructure. The architecture was tested in a pilot tele-consultation project in Colombia, where dental EHR are exchanged. PMID:21893762
de la Cruz, Edgar; Lopez, Diego M; Uribe, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Carolina; Blobel, Bernd
Germplasm of the calabash tree (Crescentia cujete L.) was collected in five major regions of Colombia, i.e. the Andes, Caribbean, Amazon, Orinoco, and Pacific regions. Collecting\\u000a this multipurpose tree was guided by the indigenous knowledge of farmers and artisans in each region. Large variation in fruit\\u000a shapes and sizes was found, of which some forms were typical for certain regions.
Johanna Arango-Ulloa; Adriana Bohorquez; Myriam C. Duque; Brigitte L. Maass
Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8–4000 ?g\\/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 ?g) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the
R Otero; V Núñez; J Barona; R Fonnegra; S. L Jiménez; R. G Osorio; M Saldarriaga; A D??az
Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare.
The international literature on the presence of arsenic (As) in Latin America does not disclose the true magnitude of the presence of As in Colombia. In this paper, we summarize the literature on As occurrence in Colombia. The data reveal that As is present in matrices such as soil, sediments and water and in the food chain. Some of the As concentrations exceed the limits specified by national and international regulations. Arsenic higher concentrations are associated with mining regions (e.g., soils, up to 148 mg/kg; sediments, up to 1400 mg/kg) and agricultural areas (e.g., vegetables, up to 5.40 mg/kg; irrigation water, up to 255 ?g/L), and underscore the potential human and environmental risks associated with the presence of As in the country. This review highlights the importance of focusing research on understanding the occurrence, origin and distribution of As in Colombia to better understand its environmental and public health impact. PMID:24388765
Alonso, David L; Latorre, Sergio; Castillo, Elianna; Brandão, Pedro F B
Colombia cuenta con el Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales -SPNN- y está en el proceso de constituir un Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas -SINAP- que articule la variedad de áreas protegidas de iniciativa municipal, departamental, regional, colectiva y privada. La Unidad Administrativa Especial del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales -UAESPNN- es la entidad responsable de administrar el primero de estos
En el sitio web del NCI se proporcionan enlaces a otros sitios web con fines informativos y para conveniencia del público. Si el usuario selecciona un sitio web externo, saldrá del sitio web del NCI y estará sujeto a las políticas de privacidad y seguridad de dicho sitio.
Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in the Eastern PMID:24912362
González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A
The killing of an adult male spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth ) by a jaguar (Panthera onca) and a predation attempt by a puma (Felis concolor) on an adult female spider monkey have been observed at the CIEM (Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena), La Macarena, Colombia. These incidents occurred directly in front of an observer, even though it is said that predation under direct observation on any type of primate rarely occurs. On the basis of a review of the literature, and the observations reported here, we suggest that jaguars and pumas are likely to be the only significant potential predators on adult spider monkeys, probably because of their large body size. PMID:17342352
Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introducción Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cáncer, no existe suficiente información en la literatura científica sobre su forma de utilización ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta práctica terapéutica. Objetivos Conocer métodos de utilización y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cáncer. Materiales y métodos Diseño cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cáncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Análisis de texto basado en enfoque temático inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cáncer. La forma de utilización mas común es la ingesta de la sangre fresca y el mecanismo de acción asociado es la transferencia de defensas a quien lo consume. Conclusiones La utilización del Coragyps atratus como tratamiento para el cáncer es una terapia alternativa usada popularmente en Colombia. El uso de este animal debe estudiarse más a fondo para conocer los efectos clínicos en los pacientes con cáncer.
...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City, Panama, May 13-16, 2012; Correction...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City, Panama, May 13-16, 2013....
This paper analyzes the existence of intra-industry trade between Colombia and the United States, using the information of the CEPII BAC database for the period between 1995 and 2005. The relevance of establishing a measure of intra-industry trade flows between Colombia and the United States relies primarily on the relative importance of representing the United States as a trading partner
Seismic velocities and layer depths were computed from 26 air gun\\/sonobuoy profiles made along a southwesterly traverse of the Colombia basin. Penetration to the deeper crustal layers and the upper mantle was achieved with a large air gun sound source. The crustal structure of the Colombia basin is a complex arrangement of basement ridges and interposed basins that is masked
Seismic velocities and layer depths were computed from 26 air gun\\/sonobuoy profiles made along a southwesterly traverse of the Colombia basin. Penetration to the deeper crustal layers and the upper mantle was achieved with a large air gun sound source. The crustal structure of the Colombia basin is a complex arrangement of basement ridges and interposed basins that is masked
...International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change...Panama, September 20-24, 2010, to be led by a senior Commerce official. The mission...interested in participating in the Executive-led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama...
Stomach contents of 21 species of fishes catched in two sites of Yucao river on different periods of the year were analyzed. Digestive structures were classified according to the mouth position, stomach and teeth form, intestine length and gill rakers number. These characteristics were related with generalized four food habits: detritivorous, herbivorous, periphyton feeders and omnivorous. Teeth and stomach shapes
René M. Sánchez; Germán Galvis; Pedro F. Victoriano
Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed.
Ramirez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunuba, Zulma M.; Florez, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Resumen Este documento centra su análisis en la tensión diplomática que sostuvieron Colombia y Ecuador durante el periodo 2006-2009, a partir de las fumigaciones aéreas que Colombia realizó en la zona de frontera con el territorio ecuatoriano, así como el ataque realizado por el ejército colombiano al campamento de las Fuerzas armadas revolucionarias de colombia (Farc), en donde fue abatido
...business officials May 17-18, 2014 Travel to Bogota, Colombia May 19-21, 2014 Bogota, Colombia: Trade Winds Business Forum and SCO...the Trade Winds business forum to be held in Bogota, Colombia on May 19-21, 2014. An...
Experimental efforts with fog collection in Colombia began eight years ago, and in recent papers we have suggested the implementation of operational fog collection as an alternative to meet water requirements in rural areas of the Andes Mountain Range. Since then, an increasing number of individuals from academia and environmental organizations in the country have shown a remarkable interest on this appropriate technology, and some started its exploration in a larger scale. In this work we describe the implementation process of the first operational fog collection project in Colombia and discuss its role in rural water supply, in environmental education issues and in the process of "social reintegration" of people who have been victims of forced displacement. Both the fog collection evaluation stage and construction and administration of the operational system involved the participation of the community of a rural village. The study zone, located in the Andes Mountains of the Valle del Cauca Department and with altitudes ranging from 2600 to 2800 meters a.s.l., has serious limitations in water availability. Eight standard fog collectors (SFC) were implemented and used during the period May/2008 - Feb/2009 in order to assess the water yield from fog. The best average monthly collection rate in the period of study was around 2.0 l.m-2.day-1. The constructed large fog collector (LFC), with a vertical collection surface of 25 m2, and the associated hydraulic system are currently managed and administered by the village inhabitants. The fog collection system benefits a rural school, and the water is mainly used in small-scale irrigation activities for horticultural crops and livestock development. The project has also brought positive impacts in the community organization, mainly comprising people who have been forced out of their rural homes by the country's nearly half-century old armed conflict. The system also allows agriculture- and environment-related issues to be incorporated in children's current education. We highly recommend exploring this technology in the search for solutions of water and food security for victims of forced displacement in Colombia. Additional efforts to increase the number of LFCs in the study zone are underway.
Escobar, C. M.; Lopez, A.; Aristizabal, H. F.; Molina, J. M.
Turcot syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by the occurrence of primary tumors of the central nervous system and adenomatous colonic polyps during the first or second decades of life, with a spectrum of clinical features such as "café-au-lait" spots, axillary freckling, and hyperpigmented spots. Currently its prevalence globally and in Colombia remains unknown. We present the case of a 20-year-old male with a clinical presentation of both glioblastoma multiforme and multiple adenomatous colonic polyps. The molecular genetics study revealed a mutation in Kras(Asp12) gene and altered expression of HMSH2 and HMSH6 proteins encoded by the DNA mismatch repair genes in two of the colonic polyps. Even though this clinical presentation may suggest a shorter survival rate, this patient is still alive after seven months of treatment. A literature review complements this report. PMID:23320220
Fossil fishes from the Miocene La Venta fauna of the Magdalena River Valley, Colombia, are identified as Colossoma macropomum (Characidae), a living species from the Orinoco and Amazon basins. The fossils document a long and conservative history for a species that is highly specialized for feeding on streamside plants. The phylogenetically advanced position of Colossoma in the subfamily Serrasalminae implies that six related genera and other higher characid taxa originated well before 15 million years ago. This discovery also corroborates neontological evidence for a vicariance event that contributed species from Miocene Orinoco-Amazon faunas to the original Magdalena region fauna. The fossils suggest a formerly diverse Magdalena fauna that has suffered local extinction, perhaps associated with late Cenozoic tectonism. This new evidence may help explain the depauperate nature of the modern Magdalena River. PMID:17746480
Identifying DNA of Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as a new screening method for cervical cancer control. Conventionally, health education for screening programs is based on scientific information without considering any community cognitive processes. We examine HPV social representations of 124 men and women from diverse educational status living in Bogotá, Colombia. The social representation of HPV involves a series of figurative nuclei derived from meanings linked to scientific information. While women focused on symbols associated to contagion, men focused on its venereal character. Figurative nuclei also included long-term uncertainty, need or urgent treatment, and feelings of imminent death associated with cancer and chronic sexually transmitted infections. The social representation of HPV impeded many participants from clearly understanding written information about HPV transmission, clearance, and cancer risk; they are built into a framework of values, which must be deconstructed to allow women full participation in HPV screening programs. PMID:22288472
Wiesner, Carolina; Acosta, Jesús; Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; Tovar, Sandra
Violence is the main public health problem in Colombia. Many theoretical and methodological approaches to solving this problem have been attempted from different disciplines. My past work has focused on homicide violence from the perspective of social medicine. In this article I present the main conceptual and methodological aspects and the chief findings of my research over the past 15 years. Findings include a quantitative description of the current situation and the introduction of the category of explanatory contexts as a contribution to the study of Colombian violence. The complexity and severity of this problem demand greater theoretical discussion, more plans for action and a faster transition between the two. Social medicine may make a growing contribution to this field.
This week National Public Radio's (NPR) Morning Edition featured a five-part investigative series on the crisis in Columbia, source of most of the cocaine and roughly half the heroin sold in the US. The drug trade, a guerilla insurgency, and a spiraling economy have created a vacuum of sorts in Columbia that the US is trying to fill with vastly increased military aid. Averaging just under nine minutes each, the audio reports offer an overview of the situation and more detailed looks at the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the Columbian military, the paramilitaries, and potential US involvement in the civil war. At time of review only the first three reports were available at the site, but the remaining two are expected shortly.
Colombia's discharge fee system for water effluents is often held up as a model of a well-functioning, economic incentive pollution control program in a developing country. Yet few objective evaluations of the program have appeared. Based on a variety of primary and secondary data, this paper finds that in its first 5 years, the program was beset by a number of serious problems including limited implementation in many regions, widespread noncompliance by municipal sewerage authorities, and a confused relationship between discharge fees and emissions standards. Nevertheless, in some watersheds, pollution loads dropped significantly after the program was introduced. While proponents claim the incentives that discharge fees created for polluters to cut emissions in a cost-effective manner were responsible, this paper argues that the incentives they created for regulatory authorities to improve permitting, monitoring, and enforcement were at least as important. PMID:18086514
New regional seismological data acquired in Colombia during 1993 to 1996 and tectonic field data from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) permit a reexamination of the complex geodynamics of northwestern South America. The effect of the accretion of the Baudó-Panama oceanic arc, which began 12 Myr ago, is highlighted in connection with mountain building in the EC. The Istmina and Ibagué faults in the south and the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga fault to the northeast limit an E-SE moving continental wedge. Progressive indentation of the wedge is absorbed along reverse faults located in the foothills of the Cordilleras (northward of 5°N) and transpressive deformation in the Santander Massif. Crustal seismicity in Colombia is accurately correlated with active faults showing neotectonic morphological evidences. Intermediate seismicity allows to identify a N-NE trending subduction segment beneath the EC, which plunges toward the E-SE. This subduction is interpreted as a remnant of the paleo-Caribbean plateau (PCP) as suggested by geological and tomographic profiles. The PCP shows a low-angle subduction northward of 5.2°N and is limited southward by a major E-W transpressive shear zone. Normal oceanic subduction of the Nazca plate (NP) ends abruptly at the southern limit of the Baudó Range. Northward, the NP subducts beneath the Chocó block, overlapping the southern part of the PCP. Cenozoic shortening in the EC estimated from a balanced section is ˜120 km. Stress analysis of fault slip data in the EC (northward of 4°N), indicates an ˜E-SE orientation of ?1 in agreement with the PCP subduction direction. Northward, near Bucaramanga, two stress solutions were observed: (1) a late Andean N80°E compression and (2) an early Andean NW-SE compression.
Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Luis A.; Fuenzalida, AndréS.; Cisternas, Armando; Philip, Hervé; Bijwaard, Harmen; Olaya, José; Rivera, Clara
Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the search for new drugs based on local uses of medicinal plants. It also sheds light on the dependence of rural communities in Colombia on medicinal plants.
El Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer ha suspendido su publicación a partir del 16 de enero de 2013. El archivo del Boletín, que cuenta con todas las ediciones publicadas desde 2009 a 2013, permanecerá a disposición de los lectores en el sitio web del NCI.
We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis for the origin and evolution of Cebus capucinus based on an analysis of 710 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) mitochondrial gene in 121 C. capucinus specimens sampled in the wild. The animals came from the borders of Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, and eight different departments of Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Sucre, Bolivar, Córdoba, Magdalena, Cauca, and Valle del Cauca). Three different and significant haplotype lineages were found in Colombia living sympatrically in the same departments. They all presented high levels of gene diversity but the third Colombian gene pool was determined likely to be the most ancestral lineage. The second Colombian mitochondrial (mt) haplogroup is likely the source of origin of the unique Central America mt haplogroup that was detected. Our molecular population genetics data do not agree with the existence of two well-defined subspecies in Central America (limitaneus and imitator). This Central America mt haplogroup showed significantly less genetic diversity than the Colombian mt haplogroups. All the C. capucinus analyzed showed evidence of historical population expansions. The temporal splits among these four C. capucinus lineages were related to the completion of the Panamanian land bridge as well as to climatic changes during the Quaternary Period. PMID:21455949
Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Ledezma, Andrea; Leguizamon, Norberto; Sánchez, Ronald; Chinchilla, Misael; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A
These perspectives reflect the uncertainty, confusion, and frustration of the conference. Participants generally agreed that Colombia is a paradigm of the failing state that has enormous implications for the stability, democracy, prosperity, and peace of ...
...Dominican Republic-Central American FTA, Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and Peru FTA...Free Trade Agreement country'' the words ``Chile, Costa Rica'' and adding the words ``Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica'' in their...
...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. ...3009 Certification for goods exported to Colombia. (a) Submission of certification to CBP. Any person who completes...
...sites recognized as free of Medfly in the Bogota Savannah and the neighboring municipalities...within a low prevalence area in Colombia Bogota Savannah and the neighboring municipalities...capitata low prevalence area of the Bogota Savannah and the neighboring...
Lutzomyia yuilli n., sp. a common man-biting Phlebotomine sand fly belonging to the subgenus Nyssomyia Barretto is described and illustrated from specimens collected in Antioquia Dep., Colombia. (Author)
During examination of Phlebotomine sand flies from the Rio Anori Valley, antioquia Dep., Colombia, an undescribed, rather uncommon species related to Lutzomyia peruensis (shann.) was found usually in human biting collections. The male and female of L. cir...
The name of the organization for the project studied was the Instituto Matia Mulumba, a multipurpose agency which promotes the social, cultural and economic development of poor Black and Indian communities in the Pacific Coast region of Colombia. The proj...
An assessment is made of the market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 KW...
The monograph examines the impact of direct and indirect government intervention in Colombia's coffee, cotton, rice, and wheat markets between 1960 and 1983 and compares it with the situation that would have prevailed in the absence of intervention. The e...
...Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Section of the Department of State Foreign Operations...including under the International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement section of the Department of State Foreign...
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species in the HIV-infected patient population in Colombia was uncertain despite some pilot studies. We determined the frequency of isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and of non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species in diverse body fluids of HIV-infected patients in Bogota, Colombia. METHODS: Patients who attended the three major HIV\\/AIDS healthcare centres in
Martha I Murcia-Aranguren; Jorge E Gómez-Marin; Fernando S Alvarado; José G Bustillo; Ellen de Mendivelson; Bertha Gómez; Clara I León; William A Triana; Erwing A Vargas; Edgar Rodríguez
Troops ofSaimiri (squirrel monkeys) were observed in 31 locations in natural habitats in Panama, Colombia, Brazil, and Peru. Troop size varied from 10 to 35 animals in Panama and Colombia and from 120 to 300 or more in the unaltered rainforests of Amazonia. Troop size correlated with forest size in all areas.Saimiri associated withCebus (capuchin monkeys) in several areas.Saimiri troops
Giraldo-Cañas, D. 2001. Floristic and phytogeographical analysis of the Andean secondary wet forest, Central Cordillera (Antioquia, Colombia). Darwiniana 39(3-4): 187-199. A detailed floristic inventory as well as a preliminary phytogeographical analysis was conducted in an Andean secondary wet forest of NW of Colombia, in order to know the vascular species richness and the phytogeographical relationships. The floristic inventory revealed the
(1) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany (firstname.lastname@example.org), (2) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia (3) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, Manizales, Colombia A gas monitoring system has been installed on the volcano Galeras in Colombia as part of a multi-parameter station. Gases are extracted from the fumarolic vapour through a short pipe. After the water has been condensed the gas passes over sensors for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and radon. Other parameters measured are temperature of the fumarolic vapour, fumarolic pressure, temperature of the ambient air and the ambient atmospheric pressure. The signals of the sensors are digitised in the electronics. The digital data are transmitted every 6 seconds by a telemetry system to the observatory down in the city of Pasto via a repeater station at the rim of the Galeras. The system at the volcano is powered by batteries connected to solar panels. Data are stored in the observatory, they are plotted and compared with all the other information of the multi-parameter station. Although the various compounds of the gas system are well preserved for the very aggressive environment close to the fumarole some problems still remain: Sulphur often plugs the pipe to the sensors and requires maintenance more often than desired. As the volcano is most of the time in clouds the installed solar power system (about 400 Watts maximum power) does not enable to run the system at the fumarole (consumption about 15 Watts) continuously during all nights. Despite these still existing problems some results have been obtained encouraging us to continue the operation of the system, to further develop the technical quality and to increase the number of fumaroles included into a growing monitoring network. In March 2000 seismic activity in the crater increased accompanied by a small eruption. Several hours before the eruption occurred the usually high CO2-concentration of the fumarolic gas was no longer constant as before but started to oscillate. It continued to oscillate until the seismic events started. Then the CO2-concentration as well as the radon counts decreased and the pressure of the fumarolic vapour increased. Some hours later the seismic activity ceased and the CO2 and radon readings increased again. From other observations it is suggested that meteorological parameters like wind direction and wind speed at the volcano do influence the pressure and flow regime in the conduits of the fumarole. The observations made so far are important to improve the understanding of processes within the volcano. However, more “events” have to be waited for during the coming years before processes in the volcano can be modelled.
Faber, E.; Morán, C.; Poggenburg, J.; Garzón, G.; Teschner, M.; Weinlich, F. H.
Sixty-five percent of the ?19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating GPS sites in the region. Studies of tsunami deposits on the Dutch Antilles suggest that the provenance of paleotsunami responsible for moving 10-100 ton blocks of coral onshore in the past two millennia has been from the east (Sheffers, 2002), and not from the north or south as we might expect from a NW Venezuelan earthquake. The existence of precariously balanced rocks in the region provides an alternative constraint on the occurrence of large local accelerations. The survival of at least four precariously balanced megablocks on the island of Aruba suggests that horizontal accelerations here have not exceeded 1 g for the past several millennia, but refined numerical estimates of potential shaking intensity consistent with their survival have yet to be completed. Accelerations exceeded 2.5 g in the Tohuko 2011 earthquake but above the Mexican subduction zone, accelerations have typically not exceeded 0.5 g in recent Mw~7.5 earthquakes, and hence the existence of these blocks may not exclude the historical occurrence of damaging earthquakes. A broader search for surviving strong-motion indicators in Colombia and Venezuela is planned during the installation of the GPS array.
Four evaporite-bearing stratigraphic zones are known in Cretaceous strata of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia north and east of Bogota. The easternmost and oldest zone is probably of Berriasian to Valanginian age. The next oldest is probably late Barremian to early Aptian in age. The third appears to be Aptian. The westernmost and best known sequence in the Sabana de Bogota is Turonian to early Coniacian in age. This youngest sequence contains the thickest salt deposits known in Colombia and is probably the most widespread geographically. Most of the rock salt exposed in the three accessible mines (at Zipaquira, Nemocon, and Upin) has a characteristic lamination of alternating slightly argillaceous and highly argillaceous salt layers of varied but moderate thickness. Black, calcareous claystone, commonly very pyritic, is interbedded conformably with the laminated salt in many places throughout the deposits. Fragments of black claystone derived from the thinner interbeds are ubiquitous in all deposits, both as concordant breccia zones and as isolated clasts. Anhydrite is scarce at Zipaquira and apparently even rarer at Nemocon and Upin. Gypsum is produced at three small deposits in the oldest evaporite zone where it probably was concentrated by leaching of salt initially associated with it. The two intervening evaporite zones are not exposed, but their existence and distribution are indicated by brine springs and locally by "rute," a distinctive black, calcareous mud formed by the leaching of salt beds. Fossils show that the youngest salt-claystone zone, in the Sabana de Bogota, is contemporary with associated hematitic sandstone and siltstone, and with carbonaceous and locally coaly claystone. Although evidence is poor, this same facies relation probably exists within the other three evaporite zones. All salt deposits in this study probably are associated with anticlines, a relation best exemplified by the deposits on the Sabana de Bogota. Within these anticlines the salt deposits appear to be contained stratigraphically in fault-bound crestal, claystone cores that have not been mobilized over great vertical distances. The deposits of this study are not salt domes.
Il silenzio era tale che, ascoltando attentamente, si sarebbe potuto udire la voce dell'anima. Era proprio questo il motivo per cui Galileo si alzava ogni mattina di buon ora per dire le sue orazioni innanzi al maestoso altare del duomo. Guardava a lungo le volte intorno a lui cercando con lo sguardo la perfezione del creato e poi, con l'ambiguità
Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors.
Introduction In response to a requirement for advanced trauma care nurses to provide combat tactical medical support, the antinarcotics arm of the Colombian National Police (CNP) requested the Colombian National Prehospital Care Association to develop a Combat Tactical Medicine Course (MEDTAC course). Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of this course in imparting knowledge and skills to the students. Methods We trained 374 combat nurses using the novel MEDTAC course. We evaluated students using pre-and postcourse performance with a 45-question examination. Field simulations and live tissue exercises were evaluated by instructors using a Likert scale with possible choices of 1 to 4. Interval estimation of proportions was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Differences in didactic test scores were assessed using a t-test at 0.05 level of statistical significance. Results Between March 2006 and July 2007, 374 combat nursing students of the CNP were trained. The difference between examination scores before and after the didactic part of the course was statistically significant (p < 0.01). After the practical session of the course, all participants (100%) demonstrated competency on final evaluation. Conclusions The MEDTAC course is an effective option improving the knowledge and skills of combat nurses serving in the CNP. MEDTAC represents a customized approach for military trauma care training in Colombia. This course is an example of specialized training available for groups that operate in austere environments with limited resources.
Rubiano, Andres M.; Sanchez, Alvaro I.; Guyette, Francis; Puyana, Juan C.
We analyzed the evolution of height in Colombia of cohorts born in the period 1965-1990 by ethnic groups. We found that Afro-Colombian men and women were the tallest: 6cm taller than indigenous people and 2cm taller than the rest of the population. We also found that the height gap between Afro-Colombians and others decreased during the period under study by 0.7cm for both men and women. While improvements were noticeable among the Afro-Colombians and those who chose not to be classified by ethnicity, in the case of the indigenous population only female cohorts registered an average-height increase of 1.5cm. Moreover, we found that indigenous Colombians were more likely than other ethnic groups to experience an increase in biological well-being as a consequence of an improvement in their socio-economic status, thereby reducing the average-stature gap between them and the rest of the population by 2.1 and 3.6cm for men and women, respectively. PMID:23602686
This is the first report of an ongoing study of insect succession on carrion carried out in Medellín, Colombia, using pigs (Sus scrofa) as a model to determine the insect sequence over 207 days. During this period, 2314 insects belonging to the following orders and families were collected: Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Otitidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae, Formicidae, Halictidae, Mutilidae, Vespidae; Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Nitidulidae; Dermaptera: Forficulidae; Hemyptera: Gelastocoridae, Coreidae; Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae. Five decomposition stages were observed (fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay, and dry remains) and four insect ecological categories (necrophagous, predators, omnivorous, and incidental). During the fresh stage, the first insects that appeared were flies of the families Sarcophagidae and Muscidae and specimens of Formicidae (Hymenoptera). During the bloated period, species of Calliphoridae (Diptera) were predominant and the first to oviposit. During the third and fourth stages (active decay and advanced decay), the most abundant families were Calliphoridae and Muscidae, although Staphilinidae (Coleoptera) also stood out. During the last stage (dry remains), the dominant family was Formicidae (Hymenoptera) followed by Dermestidae (Coleoptera) with a large number of immature insects. PMID:11457610
Indices of the interannual and interdecadal variability at Tumaco Island (2° N; 79° W; Colombia), based on time series of sea surface temperature (SST), air temperature (AT) and precipitation (P) from a coastal station, are presented regarding the period 1960-2010. These indices are derived from the first two EOF (empirical orthogonal function) modes of the normalized time series, which grasp 84% of the explained variance. The first EOF represents the interannual variability closely correlated with the ENSO-related SST variability of region Niño 1+2 (r = 0.74; lag = 1), Niño 3 (r = 0.71; lag = 1), and the well-known period band 2-8 yr. Furthermore, the first EOF also accounts for the extreme warm events in the eastern equatorial Pacific due to them being well correlated with the E index (r = 0.70). The second EOF represents a much longer variability dominated by the ENSO-like mode or Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), represented by two interdecadal modes (8-16 yr and 20-30 yr), and may account also with moderate warm events and cool events, being more sensitive to cool events.
This Fulbright Summer Seminar focused on the environmental challenge posed by Colombia's biodiversity and addressed the relationship between the last decade of Colombian economic development and the country's sociocultural situation, taking into account its historical background and the role of natural resources in a context of sustainable…
Las organizaciones hoy por hoy buscan aplicar un sistema de indicadores que evalúe la gestión y el desempeño del sector transporte en materia económica, social, ambiental e integral, con el fin de garantizar a las partes interesadas una información confiable sobre los resultados de desempeño frente al desarrollo sostenible, que facilite el ingreso a mercados nacionales e internacionales a partir
The prevalence of mycobacterial infections was determined in a sample of 155 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were treated in the Social Security Institute (SSI) of Cali, Colombia. A tuberculin test (2 TU PPD RT23) was used, and the presence of mycobacteria was checked through direct microscopy and culturing blood, urine, feces, and gastric aspirate. When clinically indicated, samples of cerebrospinal fluid, bone marrow, and sputum were also examined and cultivated. The absence of reactivity to tuberculin was significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls (91.3%, compared to 57.4%; chi 2 = 33, P = 0). The prevalence of tuberculosis was 6.5%, in comparison with 0.04% among a group of HIV-negative ISS members (exact binomial 95% confidence interval: 0.0313% to 0.1154%). Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), present in 43 patients, were significantly more frequent than Mycobacterium tuberculosis (27.7%, versus 6.5%; chi 2 = 24.78, P = 0.000,001), but they caused illness only in some cases. The most common species were those of the M. avium-intracellulare complex. M. avium-intracellulare and M. fortuitum had a total prevalence of 7.1% and were the most-prevalent NTM that caused disease in these patients (4.5%); they were also responsible for three cases of disseminated infection. Clinical disease caused by M. tuberculosis or NTM and complete tuberculin anergy were associated with stage-IV HIV infection and with CD4 lymphocyte counts < or = 400/microL. However, the lack of immunocellular response, shown by limited tuberculin reactivity, was found beginning with the asymptomatic HIV carrier stage. The progressive deterioration of the immune system of HIV-positive patients is the determining factor in the high morbidity and mortality with mycobacteria infections and requires prompt chemoprophylaxis or treatment. PMID:10572475
Crespo, M P; Heli Corral, R; Alzate, A; Carrasquilla, G; Sánchez, N
Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region), El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region), applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO). Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP), amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response) was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up.
Blair, Silvia; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Pineros, Juan G; Rios, Alexandra; Alvarez, Tania; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Tobon, Alberto
Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests). A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20 x 50 m) in primary forests and sixteen (20 x 25 m) in secondary forests. All trees with diameter > or =1.0 cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests' age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years). In total, 1,143 and 1,766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4 m2 ha(-1)), above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1,011.5 t ha(-1)) and species richness (4 to 69) directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3,180 to 590). Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.). PMID:20411733
Yepes, Adriana P; del Valle, Jorge I; Jaramillo, Sandra L; Orrego, Sergio A
Objective Identify risk factors for intimate partner violence by analyzing data from the surveillance system to domestic violence (SIVIF) in Quindio, 2009. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross- sectional descriptive study, about 1,906 notifications SIVIF database in the department of Quindío, Colombia, in 2009, of which 583 (n=583) correspond to cases where the independent of marital relationship between the victim-offender was married, a number that was taken as sample size, analyzing 100 % of such cases as to the origin, receipt of notification, type of coexistence of the couple, circumstances through aggression also features assaulted/aggressor. Results The two main municipalities generated most cases. Women, the most abused. More common types of physical violence, multiple sexual aggression with the body of the offender, the influence of anger, alcohol and drugs, jealousy, and emotional and psychological problems, the people attacked and attackers ? 35 years; battered women housewives and informal psychological violence, verbal or gross negligence and women ?35 years so repeatedly assaulted, and who were not living in the same residence nor were married. Conclusions There are many studies on the subject, even unprecedented in the region and in the national literature. It is imperative for the department of Quindio, further studies have to extend the present. Dating violence in Quindio, is a purely social phenomenon with chronicity of the city, marked by physical, sexual or multiple, with victims young women, more common in people with higher education, although the elderly were more often victimized so psychological, verbal and gross negligence. PMID:24892668
El doctor Harold Varmus, acompañado de su esposa Constance Casey (centro), presta juramento como director del NCI ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos, Kathleen Sebelius, el lunes 12 de julio. (Foto cortesía de Chris Smith) El 12 de julio, el doctor Harold Varmus prestó juramento ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos, Kathleen Sebelios, como el decimocuarto director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.
The objective of this study was to describe the network structure and factors associated with collaboration in two networks that promote physical activity (PA) in Brazil and Colombia. Organizations that focus on studying and promoting PA in Brazil (35) and Colombia (53) were identified using a modified one-step reputational snowball sampling process. Participants completed an on-line survey between December 2008 and March 2009 for the Brazil network, and between April and June 2009 for the Colombia network. Network stochastic modeling was used to investigate the likelihood of reported inter-organizational collaboration. While structural features of networks were significant predictors of collaboration within each network, the coefficients and other network characteristics differed. Brazil's PA network was decentralized with a larger number of shared partnerships. Colombia's PA network was centralized and collaboration was influenced by perceived importance of peer organizations. On average, organizations in the PA network of Colombia reported facing more barriers (1.5 vs. 2.5 barriers) for collaboration. Future studies should focus on how these different network structures affect the implementation and uptake of evidence-based PA interventions. PMID:21940083
Parra, Diana C; Dauti, Marsela; Harris, Jenine K; Reyes, Lissette; Malta, Deborah C; Brownson, Ross C; Quintero, Mario A; Pratt, Michael
La colección de hojas informativas del NCI trata de una variedad de temas relacionados con el cáncer. Las hojas informativas se revisan y ponen al día de acuerdo a las investigaciones más recientes sobre el cáncer.
Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.
El Acuerdo de Complementación Económica, suscrito entre la Comunidad Andina (CAN) y el Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), marca un avance hacia una integración económica y política más profunda en América Latina. Por tal razón, el objetivo del presente artículo es identificar los sectores del Valle del Cauca que revelan desventajas competitivas relativas, por lo que se pueden ver potencialmente
Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las características del proceso instruccional en la tercera etapa del nivel de Educación Básica que contribuyen al desarrollo del pensamiento crítico del estudiante para satisfacer el imperativo legal vigente desde julio de 1980, particularmente para el área curricular Estudios Sociales. Durante cuatro años escolares en dos instituciones educativas que ofrecen el precitado nivel se
Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.
Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.
As of 30 June 2006, more than 3.5 million Colombians are internally displaced persons (IDPs), the second largest IDP population in the world after that of Sudan. While most IDP studies treat the plight of internally displaced women (IDW) as an isolated phenomenon, this paper demonstrates that their situation reflects Colombia's chronic cultural, political and socio-economic crisis. This paper uses a sexual and reproductive rights framework to establish a connection between IDW and Colombia's culture of violence, discrimination and inequality. The effects of this culture of violence, discrimination and inequality are highlighted during a discussion of the rights to health, reproduction, privacy, physical integrity, education, and freedom from violence and sexual exploitation. This paper argues that a holistic understanding of Colombia's humanitarian emergency is essential to improving the lives of IDPs. It ends with some concrete, short-term recommendations to meet some of the needs of IDPs and other vulnerable populations. PMID:18217922
The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest.
The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest. PMID:24130438
Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that street youths often continue high-risk behaviors even though they know the potential negative consequences; help them find substitutes for the income, pleasure, power, and communication stemming from sex; convince them of their personal risk through participatory activities; use a multifaceted approach to promote condoms; use an integrated approach; and integrated prevention activities with other services designed to meet their basic needs regarding health, education, and income. PMID:12287663
...Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...notice that the tariff-rate quota for sugar established by the United States-Colombia...establishes a tariff-rate quota for imports of sugar from Colombia. USTR is providing...
Characterization of the genetic diversity of the fish Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae) in central Colombia with RAPD markers. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of wild fish species is essential for conservation and appropriate management of individuals in repopulation programs. In Colombia, Brycon henni has been reported in the Magdalena and Cauca river basins, but the population and range have diminished
The Republic of Colombia is a nation that is caught between several rocks and hard choices. On one hand, Colombia's existence as a democratic nation is threatened by a number of well-established drug trafficking organizations, two leftist guerrilla armies...
A NASA/DOE sponsored photovoltaic market assessment team composed of representatives of NASA-Lewis Research Center, DHR, Inc., and Associates in Rural Development, Inc. recently conducted a month-long study in Colombia (June 28 - July 23). The team contacted government officials and private sector representatives in Bogota and Cali, and visited rural development and agricultural sites in the departments of Cundinamarca, Caldas, Valle, and chada to determine the potential market for American photovoltaic products in the Colombia agricultural and rural sectors.
During an investigation of Paleozoic sequences in the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia in 1988, one of the authors (JRG) collected some hundred samples for a palynological study. In the Grupo Quetame type section, between Bogotá and Villavicencio, palynomorphs were found for the first time in Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Colombian Cordilleras. We present these forms and, furthermore, provide the first evidence for the occurrence of Silurian (Ludlovian) in Colombia. With these data, we now can limit the age of the early Paleozoic metamorphic event to older than Late Silurian.
No se puede negar que vivimos en una comunidad global, en la que los eventos de una ciudad o país pueden tener graves consecuencias para los residentes de otra ciudad o país a miles de kilómetros de distancia. Ya sea la pandemia del virus H1N1, los recientes disturbios en Irán o la recesión económica mundial, es evidente que esta interconectividad trae consigo retos importantes. Pero también puede crear oportunidades sin precedentes, en particular aquellas que podrían mejorar sustancialmente la salud pública.
In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields. PMID:19886425
Hoja informativa que describe los exámenes selectivos de detección del cáncer de cérvix, los cuales incluyen la prueba de Papanicolaou y la prueba de los virus del papiloma humano. La hoja informativa incluye también información acerca de las pautas de exámenes de detección del cáncer de cérvix.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071
Guerra, Julio A; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G
This study examines the effects of family socio-economic disadvantage and differences in school resources on student achievement in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Using data from the ICFES and C-600 national databases, we conduct a multilevel analysis to determine the unique contribution of school-level factors above and beyond family…
This paper studies the determinants of the probability of participating in a process of merging or acquisition for financial institutions in Colombia. We use survival analysis techniques and competing risks models to estimate the probability of participating in such processes as an acquiring or acquired firm. Using an especially rich database containing financial information of Colombian banks for the period
Andrés Felipe García-Suaza; José Eduardo Goméz-Gonzáleza
The main objective of this study is to estimate the association between financial aid and college dropout rates of postsecondary students in Colombia. We use a unique dataset from the Colombian Ministry of Education that includes all enrolled college students in the country between 1998 and 2008. Logistic regression is used to identify the…
To determine clinical and epidemiological features of scorpion stings in two departments of Colombia, a descriptive study was performed in the hospitals of 10 towns from Antioquia (2 256 071 inhabitants) and five from Tolima (630 424 inhabitants). One hundred and twenty-nine cases were admitted during one year, 51 in Antioquia, 78 in Tolima and 41 were children less than
R. Otero; E. Nav??o; F. A. Céspedes; M. J. Núñez; L. Lozano; E. R. Moscoso; C. Matallana; N. B. Arsuza; J. Garc??a; D. Fernández; J. H. Rodas; O. J. Rodr??guez; J. E. Zuleta; J. P. Gómez; M. Saldarriaga; J. C. Quintana; V. Núñez; S. Cárdenas; J. Barona; R. Valderrama; N. Paz; A. D??az; O. L. Rodr??guez; M. D. Mart??nez; R. Maturana; L. E. Beltrán; M. B. Mesa; J. Paniagua; E. Flórez; W. R. Lourenço
Cretaceous marine rocks of the western Cordillera Oriental of Colombia are exposed in stratigraphic sections which reveal multiple source terrains and variable diagenetic histories that were imposed by later thrusting XRD and petrographic analyses indicate that earliest Cretaceous rocks were derived from a nearly plutonic source (Triassic-Jurassic Ibague Batholith of the Cordillera Central) which provided feldspathic lithic fragments and clay-sized
M. P. Segall; R. B. Allen; J. Rubiano; L. Sarmiento
Colombia has tolerated for almost fifty years the oldest guerrilla movements in the region, but at the same time the country has showed stable economic growth up until 1998. Now, in the face of an economic recession, the puzzle is to establish which of th...
A new program was developed for the delivery of mental health services in Cali, Colombia utilizing auxiliary nurses who were given special training and supervision. In order to evaluate this program, equivalent groups of 30 patients each, who came to the psychiatric emergency room, were treated over a three-month period by the auxiliary nurses or by the “traditional” service which
C. E. Climent; M. V. de Arango; R. Plutchik; C. A. León
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types.
Guerra, Julio A.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C.; Arzuza, Octavio; Gomez-Duarte, Oscar G.
This report covers a survey of forests and wild primates carried out by its authors in northern Colombia during May, July, and August 1974. The results of a 1973 field report on this report by Bernstein et al. (1) are also included.
Scott, Norman J., Jr.; Struhsaker, Thomas T.; Glander, Kenneth; Chiriví, Hernano
This article describes the current relationship between management education in Colombia and the efforts of the management program at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in Medellin to reduce local poverty. The article uses the metaphor of "the bubble" to illustrate how social class, family socialization, and the current UPB management…
IN this study the biodegradation and leaching of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) during the natural attenuation (NA) processes of the oily sludge used for the maintenance of unpaved roads were evaluated. The study was conducted on a road located in Arauca (Colombia) and simultaneously in a laboratory setting where rain conditions were simulated by using columns. In the in situ
Fabio Roldan; Carolina Maldonado; Claudia Guevara; Ana María Cubillos
In response to the difficult social, economic and political problems that Colombia faces, such as inequality, discrimination, weak civil society--fuelled by illegality and drug trafficking--the Colombian Ministry of Education has embarked on an ambitious citizenship education program, with the hope of strengthening the role of education by…
A great challenge facing Colombia is how to become an active member of the new global information and knowledge society. The changes required for this transition mean that the role of tertiary education must also shift to add to the traditional tasks of the transmission of knowledge and providing basic research the roles of training adaptable…
Colombia used lotteries to distribute vouchers which partially covered the cost of private secondary school for students who maintained satisfactory academic progress. Three years after the lotteries, winners were about 10 percentage points more likely to have finished 8th grade, primarily because they were less likely to repeat grades, and scored 0.2 standard deviations higher on achievement tests. There is
Joshua D. Angrist; Eric Bettinger; Erik Bloom; Elizabeth King; Michael Kremer
Colombia's PACES program provided over 125,000 poor children with vouchers that covered half the cost of private secondary school. The vouchers were renewable annually conditional on adequate academic progress. Since many vouchers were assigned by lottery, program effects can reliably be assessed by comparing lottery winners and losers. Estimates using administrative records suggest the PACES program increased secondary school completion
Colombia's PACES program provided over 125,000 poor children with vouchers that covered the cost of private secondary school. The vouchers were renewable annually conditional on adequate academic progress. Since many vouchers were assigned by lottery, program effects can reliably be assessed by comparing lottery winners and losers. Estimates using administrative records suggest the PACES program increases secondary school completion rates
The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cats from Bogota (Colombia) was determined from fecal specimens and scrapings of duodenal and ileal mucosa screened by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype(s) present. Of 46 cats, 6 (13%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, 5 (11%) were infected with C. felis and one (2%) with C. muris.
Mónica Santín; James M. Trout; Jesús A. Cortés Vecino; J. P. Dubey; Ronald Fayer
This study examines how public factors of production fit into the production process and also determines the degree of scarcity of these factors in a rural area of Colombia. Suggestions are offered by which public factors might be increased or improved by institutional reorganization and modern administration in cases where they are found to be…
This is the first report of an ongoing study of insect succession on carrion carried out in Medell??n, Colombia, using pigs (Sus scrofa) as a model to determine the insect sequence over 207 days. During this period, 2314 insects belonging to the following orders and families were collected: Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Otitidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae, Formicidae, Halictidae, Mutilidae,
Marta Wolff; Alejandro Uribe; Adriana Ortiz; Patricia Duque
This survey paper will deal with the form and possible explanations of Colombia's urban diversity; the conscious effort to encourage it which is taking place both in the national government and in the regions and cities themselves; with the international interest in the phenomenon and the supportive efforts which follow; and with the relatively…
Background Nowadays, there are two vaccination strategies in Colombia to prevent pneumococcal diseases in people over 50 years. Our aim is to estimate cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent (PPSV23) to prevent pneumococcal diseases and their related mortality in people over 50 years old in Colombia. Methods A Markov model was developed with national data, including pneumococcal serotypes distribution in Colombia between 2005 and 2010. Vaccination of a cohort was simulated and a five year time horizon was assumed. Analysis was done from a perspective of a third party payer. Direct costs were provided by a national insurance company; sensitive univariate and probabilistic analysis were done for epidemiological and clinical effectiveness parameters and costs. Results PCV13 avoids 3 560 deaths by pneumococcal infections versus PPSV23 and 4 255 deaths versus no vaccine. PCV13 prevents 79 633 cases by all-cause pneumonia versus PPSV23 and 81 468 cases versus no vaccine. Total costs (healthcare and vaccines costs) with PCV13 would be U.S. $ 97,587,113 cheaper than PPSV23 and it would save U.S. $ 145,196,578 versus no vaccine. Conclusion PCV13 would be a cost-saving strategy in the context of a mass vaccination program in Colombia to people over 50 years old because it would reduce burden of disease and specific mortality by pneumococcal diseases, besides, it saves money versus PPSV23.
Drawing on status attainment models, the authors examine the effects of family, peer, and school factors on expectations to graduate from a university for a sample of high school students in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia. The expansion of higher education in these countries has followed different strategies. In Bolivia, the policy has been…
Investigated health behaviors practiced by 10th graders in Bogota, Colombia. Data from a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that there was a high use of gateway substances (tobacco and alcohol) among respondents, but lower usage, when compared to U.S. students, of other mind-altering substances such as marijuana,…
In Colombia, a laboratory-based surveillance of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates as part of SIREVA II PAHO has been conducted since 1994. This study describes the serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relationships of pneumococcal isolates recovered in Colombia from 2005 to 2010. In this study, demographic data of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (n?=?629) and multilocus sequence typing (n?=?10) were used to determine genetic relationship of isolates with minimal inhibitory concentration to penicillin ?0.125 µg/mL. A total of 1775 isolates of S. pneumoniae were obtained. Fifteen serotypes accounted for 80.7% of isolates. Serotype 14 (23.1%) was the most frequent in the general population. Penicillin resistance was 30.7% in meningitis and 9.0% in non-meningitis. Clones Spain6BST90, Spain9VST156, Spain23FST81, and Colombia23FST338 were associated to isolates. Additionally, serotype 6A isolates were associated with ST460 and ST473, and 19A isolates with ST276, ST320, and ST1118. In conclusion, the surveillance program provided updated information of trends in serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance and the circulation of clones in invasive pneumococcal diseases. These results could be helpful to understand the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Colombia, and provide a baseline to measure the impact of vaccine introduction.
The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans was studied in bird excreta and in the air circulating in and around bird cages in the City Zoo of Cali, Colombia, between August 1994 and April 1995, using a sunflower seed agar culture medium for fungus isolation. A total of 380 samples was studied, 110 from droppings and 270 from Petri dishes placed inside(148)
Luz Dary Caicedo; María Inés Alvarez; Maritza Delgado; Alaín Cárdenas
Although the peri-urban region around Bogotá, Colombia contains a diversified horticulture sector, local vegetable production suffers from a critical lack of research and availability of un-biased, scientifically validated information on crop management. In this study, we identify current trends and deficiencies in fertilisation and pest management for local vegetable production. We relate pesticide type with target pests, evaluate temporal patterns
Carlos Ricardo Bojacá; Kris A. G. Wyckhuys; Rodrigo Gil; Jaime Jiménez; Eddie Schrevens
DoD has adopted as final, without change, an interim rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement that provides for mutually non-discriminatory treatment of eligible products and services from...
The Department of Antioquia, with its capital Medellin, is situated in the northwestern quadrant of Colombia, South America. In elevaton it runs from sea level to 3,900 meters and, in general, has abundant rainfall. Most of the material comes from the mon...
A study of public factors of production was conducted in thirty-one municipios in the eastern part of the state of Antioquia, the most progressive state in Colombia. These findings are noteworthy: (1) twenty percent of the total population, but only three...
This article examines the decolonization of schooling in an Arhuaco community in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of Colombia. Interweaving ethnographic description with accounts of key events that took place between 1915 and 2006, I trace the community's struggle to develop an Indigenous school capable of appropriating Western forms of…
Astrovirus infections were detected by enzyme immunoassay in 12 (5%) of 251 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis from Bogota, Colombia. In addition, astroviruses were detected by reverse transcription-PCR in 3 (10%) of 29 stool samples negative for other enteric pathogens collected in Caracas, Venezuela, from children with gastroenteritis. Astrovirus type 1 was the most frequently detected virus.
Medina, Sandra M.; Gutierrez, Maria F.; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.
One year after the formal end of the failed peace process which had been initiated by President Andres Pastrana in 1998, it is possible to 'take stock' of the situation of conflict in Colombia and the prospects for the future. The government of President ...
To date the Program has provided support for 81 projects, 9 for Citizen Coexistence Centers, 53 for civil society initiatives and 19 to support the Government of Colombia. The fact that 1 project for the Reintegration Division of the Ministry of the Inter...
Liquid hydrocarbons have been detected in the subsurface as well as in the surface in the Sinú-San Jacinto Basin (northwestern Colombia). The origin of the oils has not been conclusively established especially in the southern part of the basin. The most likely source rocks in the basin are the Ciénaga de Oro Fm. of the Oligocene-Early Miocene and the Cansona
In Latin America, where abortion is almost universally legally restricted, medical abortion, especially with misoprostol alone, is increasingly being used, often with the tablets obtained from a pharmacy. We carried out in-depth interviews with 49 women who had had a medical abortion under clinical supervision in rural and urban settings in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, who were recruited through
María Mercedes Lafaurie; Daniel Grossman; Erika Troncoso; Deborah L Billings; Susana Chávez
In Latin America, where abortion is almost universally legally restricted, medical abortion, especially with misoprostol alone, is increasingly being used, often with the tablets obtained from a pharmacy. We carried out in-depth interviews with 49 women who had had a medical abortion under clinical supervision in rural and urban settings in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, who were recruited through
Maria Mercedes Lafaurie; Daniel Grossman; Erika Troncoso; Deborah L Billings; Susana Chaveze
Resumen Actualmente Colombia alcanza el 5,4% en el nivel de penetración de internet, mientras que en economías desarrolladas se observan niveles superiores al 40%. Con el objetivo de establecer los retos que el país debe superar para reducir la amplia brecha que estas cifras evidencian, se revisó el fenómeno de internet en diferentes ámbitos, identificándose nueve factores clave que influyen
Juan Camilo Uribe Véleza; Claudia Nelcy Jiménez Hernándezb; María Elena García Vergarac
In Colombia, the beginning of a new century has brought with it a palpable feeling of optimism. Colombians and visitors sense that the country's considerable potential can be realised, and education is rightly seen as crucial to this process. As opportunities expand, Colombians will need new and better skills to respond to new challenges and…
In this article, a proposed Bayesian extension of the generalized beta spatial regression models is applied to the analysis of the quality of education in Colombia. We briefly revise the beta distribution and describe the joint modeling approach for the mean and dispersion parameters in the spatial regression models' setting. Finally, we…
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de esófago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de próstata; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de estómago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de tiroides; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de ovario; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de endometrio; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de vejiga; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de riñón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de pulmón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
The seismic phenomenon is one of the most important natural hazards for Colombia (e.g. Armenia, 1999, M=6.1; Calima, 2004, M=6.7). In spite of big efforts implemented by different institutions in order to reduce the seismic vulnerability in Colombia, the understanding of the nature of the seismic phenomena and its spatial and temporal distribution and evolution is insufficient. In order to estimate the seismic hazard it is necessary to know the geological conditions of those regions where the cities are developing, it is necessary to study their structure, dynamics and behavior, looking for information which allows understand the processes which generate the seismic events and to obtain an adequate model of ruptures of the system. In this paper we show the implementation of an instrumental seismological network for the Colombia's capital city: Bogota. This project: "The Center-East Broadband Seismic Network" consists on fifteen seismological three components, broadband stations, located near the coordinates: 4.5 N latitude and 73.5 W longitude joined to a similar distribution of geodetic stations (GEORED). This network is expected to be a complementary, high sensitive addition to the National Seismological Network of Colombia. This network has to bring the possibility of improving the understanding of the seismic hazard in the Bogota's region, considering the better understanding of the spatial and temporal microseismic activity in this region, where live more than 15 millions people (30% of Colombia's population), and more than 40% of the GIP is concentrated. Based on the obtained information it will be possible to incorporate structural elements to the adequate development of this region considering the seismic hazard and supply the guidelines to designs and constructions.
Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.; Caneva, A.; Montes v., L. A.
RESUMEN Los desarrollos teóricos recientes muestran que las decisiones al interior de los hogares surgen de la interacción entre las preferencias individuales de cada miembro respecto al consumo de bienes, pero también dependen del uso de su tiempo, de la restricción presupuestaria del hogar y del proceso de negociación que tiene lugar al interior de este. Como resultado de estas
Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight in crops of the Solanaceae family, is one of the most important plant pathogens in Colombia. Not only are Solanum lycopersicum, and S. tuberosum at risk, but also several other solanaceous hosts (Physalis peruviana, S. betaceum, S. phureja, and S. quitoense) that have recently gained importance as new crops in Colombia may be at risk. Because little is known about the population structure of Phytophthora infestans in Colombia, we report here the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 97 isolates collected from these six different solanaceous plants in Colombia. All the isolates were analyzed for mating type, mitochondrial haplotypes, genotype for several microsatellites, and sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. This characterization identified a single individual of A2 mating type (from Physalis peruviana) for the first time in Colombia. All isolates had an ITS sequence that was at least 97% identical to the consensus sequence. Of the 97 isolates, 96 were mitochondrial haplotype IIa, with the single A2 isolate being Ia. All isolates were invariant for the microsatellites. Additionally, isolates collected from S. tuberosum and P. peruviana (64 isolates) were tested for: aggressiveness on both hosts, genotype for the isozymes (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and peptidase), and restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint pattern as detected by RG57. Isolates from S. tuberosum were preferentially pathogenic on S. tuberosum, and isolates from P. peruviana were preferentially pathogenic on P. peruviana. The population from these two hosts was dominated by a single clonal lineage (59 of 64 individuals assayed), previously identified from Ecuador and Peru as EC-1. This lineage was mating type A1, IIa for mitochondrial DNA, invariant for two microsatellites, and invariant for both isozymes. The remaining four A1 isolates were in lineages very closely related to EC-1 (named EC-1.1, CO-1, and CO-2). The remaining lineage (the A2 mating type) had characteristics of the US-8 lineage (previously identified in Mexico, the United States, and Canada). These results have important epidemiological implications for the production of these two crops in Colombia. PMID:19055438
Vargas, Angela M; Quesada Ocampo, Lina M; Céspedes, Maria Catalina; Carreño, Natalia; González, Adriana; Rojas, Alejandro; Zuluaga, A Paola; Myers, Kevin; Fry, William E; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana J; Restrepo, Silvia
...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. DATES: Effective: November 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...
...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review...
This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the cou...
Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that supplements the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. All DEL proposals for project grants and fellowships will receive specialist (ad hoc) and panel review within the NSF review process. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at http://www.nsf.gov/...
A wind tunnel atomization study was conducted to measure the emission droplet size spectra for water and Glyphos (a glyphosate formulation sold in Colombia)?+?Cosmo-flux sprays for aerial application to control coca and poppy crops in Colombia. The droplet size spectra were measured in a wind tunnel for an Accu-Flo nozzle (with 16 size 0.085 [2.16 mm] orifices), under appropriate simulated
Andrew J. Hewitt; Keith R. Solomon; E. J. P. Marshall
The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cats from Bogota (Colombia) was determined from fecal specimens and scrapings of duodenal and ileal mucosa screened by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype(s) present. Of 46 cats, 6 (13%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, 5 (11%) were infected with C. felis and one (2%) with C. muris. Three (6.5%) cats were infected with Giardia duodenalis Assemblage F. Eight (17%) cats were infected with four genotypes of E. bieneusi: genotype D-like (9%), K (4%), Peru 10 (2%), and Peru 5 (2%). This is the first report on the presence of zoonotic species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in cats in Colombia. PMID:16860480
Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Vecino, Jesús A Cortés; Dubey, J P; Fayer, Ronald
Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880
Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P
Since 1985 the annual gold production in Colombia has been fluctuating between 30 and 35 tons (1-1.4 million ounces troy). Exploitation plants can be found in vein and placer gold deposits. During 1992 a preliminary study was undertaken, resulting in a diagnosis of problems in small scale mining in 6 gold areas (vein type) of Colombia. In order to evaluate the general impact caused to the environment due to mining activities, six gold districts located in Nariño, Antioquia, Bolivar, Valle and Caldas Departments were visited. Geochemical analysis (ES, AAS, HGAAS, GFAAS) of orebodies, tailings and waters were carried out, with results that showed high levels of heavy metals in the environmental compartments studied.
This is a succinct analysis of the circular relationship between health and development and the changes occurring over recent decades regarding health care services production and delivery that have resulted in a new paradigm. From the late 1970s through the 1980s, three major, worldwide shifts occurred that changed health care services in Colombia and in other Latin American countries: the privatization of government entities, the commodification of health care services, and the failure of the Soviet model. Health care system reform in Colombia, considered by some experts to be a model, is an example of health care commodification that, 15 years later, has not achieved the coverage, nor the equity, nor the efficiency, nor the quality, that it should have. More so than the market, the problem has been with the market entities that seek disproportionate profits. A solution for this situation is to appeal to nonprofit organizations for the purchase and sale of health care services. PMID:19115549
The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.
The application of ERTS-1 imagery for extrapolating existing soil maps into unmapped areas of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia, South America is discussed. Interpretations of ERTS-1 data were made according to conventional photointerpretation techniques. Most units delineated in the existing reconnaissance soil map at a scale of 1:250,000 could be recognized and delineated in the ERTS image. The methods of interpretation are described and the results obtained for specific areas are analyzed.
Self-reported travel histories were used in a case-control study to determine whether movement of local residents to neighboring endemic areas was a risk factor for malaria in the town of Quibdo, Colombia. Multivariate analyses showed that among residents of Quibdo, traveling to an endemic area 8-14 days before disease onset was the strongest risk factor for both Plasmodium falciparum (adjusted
Background: Undiagnosed children with neurodevelopment delay disorders (NDD) frequently experience school difficulties, leading to school desertion or academic failure with subsequent familial, social and work-related problems. Methods: In 2004–2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of developmental delay among preschoolers in Bogotá (Colombia); convenience samples in several socioeconomic areas of the city were screened to define the
Alberto Velez van Meerbeke; Claudia Talero-Gutierrez; Rodrigo Gonzalez-Reyes
Market-led agrarian reform (MLAR) has been conceptualized out of the pro-market critique of classic state-led agrarian reform. The pro-market model has been implemented in Brazil, Colombia and South Africa, where its proponents have claimed impressive success. But close examination of the empirical evidence puts into question the basic theoretical and policy assump- tions and current claims of MLAR proponents. The
This dissertation examines, analyses, implements, and evaluates an innovative software heat transfer model for predicting air-to-air heat (energy) recovered in pharmaceutical drying clean rooms in Colombia. The approach provides a synergy between Reverse Flow Heat Recovery technology and activities for the consumption of this energy, not solely within the process, but throughout the whole pharmaceutical complex (e.g. warehouse, office and
Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand\\u000a for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on\\u000a semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that\\u000a is required
The TransMilenio of Bogotá, Colombia, is the highest-capacity bus rapid transit (BRT) system in the world and one of the best examples of a high-level BRT system. It demonstrates what BRT can achieve if high-capacity design features and operating characteristics are provided. This paper highlights the different capabilities of BRT as demonstrated by the TransMilenio and assesses the extent to
Alasdair Cain; Georges Bianco Darido; Michael R. Baltes; Pilar Rodriguez; Johan C. Barrios
Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among women in Colombia (16\\/100,000). Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a major role in the eti- ology of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). Exposure to chemical agents may be a cofactor for tumor induction, and individual genetic differences in the metabolism of these chemical agents may affect
Carlos H. Sierra-Torres; Yexania Y. Arboleda-Moreno; Leonora Orejuela-Aristizabal
In Medellín, Colombia, homicide has been the first cause of morbidity and mortality for 20 years. Medellín has the highest homicide rates of all major cities in Latin America. This study describes the victims, motives, and circumstances in homicides in Medellín from 1990 to 2002. The period included 55,365 homicides, of which 1,394 were randomly studied. Of this sample, 93.6%
Marleny Cardona; Héctor Iván García; Carlos Alberto Giraldo; María Victoria López; Clara Mercedes Suárez; Diana Carolina Corcho; Carlos Hernán Posada; María Nubia Flórez
During the past thirty years, the illegal drug industry has marked Colombia's development. In no other country has the illegal drug industry had such dramatic social, political, and economic effects. This short article provides a synthesis of the development of the marijuana, coca-cocaine, and poppy-opium-heroin illegal industries. It studies the development of the drug cartels and marketing networks and the
Colombian public relations professionals face an environment shaped by a government-declared war against guerrillas, paramilitaries, and drug traffickers. Practitioners explained the implications of this conflict-laden environment for the practice of public relations during 10 in-depth, highly structured interviews. Findings include how regionalism has marked the evolution and practice in Colombia, the need for organizational representatives to keep a low profile
An evaluation of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and dengue serostatus in 168 subjects from San Andres Island, Colombia, revealed altered levels of IgE in 89% of the population. IgE levels were higher in patients with a history of dengue or with a current secondary or current primary infection than in subjects with no exposure (P 5 0.01). Dengue infection accounted
MARIA JOSEMIGUEZ-BURBANO; CARLOS A. JARAMILLO; CAROL J. PALMER; GAIL SHOR-POSNER; LUZ STELLA VELASQUEZ; HONG LAI; MARIANNA K. BAUM
The real burden of occupational diseases, specifically work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), and its impact on workers' productivity is not known. The situation is critical in developing countries where only cases that cause workers' disability are recorded. In this study, the incidence of MSDs in Colombia was estimated by using the age and gender specific double incidence rate of repetitive strain injuries diseases in Finland for 2002. The results showed that the estimated number of MSDs recorded in Colombia during 2005 was 23,477 cases at the rate of 11.6 cases per 10,000 workers. The estimated total cost of these MSD cases relative to workers' productivity was 171.7 million US Dollars, representing around 0.2% of Colombia's Gross Domestic Product for 2005. The systematic appraisal of the incidence of MSDs and their associated cost on workers' productivity are necessary in developing countries to reduce the costly impact on productivity and to increase workers' well-being. PMID:17156613
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis caused by any of at least 20 hantavirus genotypes distributed throughout the Americas. Although HPS has been documented in several bordering countries, it has not been reported in Colombia. Here we report seroconversion to a hantavirus in paired samples from a hospitalized patient with symptoms compatible with HPS from Montería, Córdoba Department, north-western Colombia. Tests for regionally endemic agents including Plasmodium, Leptospira, Salmonella, dengue virus, Brucella, Rickettsia, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses were negative. Because the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial for hemorrhagic fevers conducted by the University of Córdoba, serum samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Testing using Sin Nombre virus ELISA showed IgG and IgM seroconversion between samples. The eventual finding of this first clinical case of hantavirus infection in Colombia is consistent with the high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in humans in the region and the likely exposure of the patient to rodents. The clinical presentation was similar to that found in neighbouring Panama. PMID:24970702
Mattar, Salim; Garzon, Denisse; Tadeu, Luis; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Mills, James N
Genetic diversity of Plasmodium populations has been more extensively documented in Colombia for Plasmodium falciparum than for Plasmodium vivax. Recently, highly variable microsatellite markers have been described and used in population-level studies of genetic variation of P. vivax throughout the world. We applied this approach to understand the genetic structure of P. vivax populations and to identify recurrence-associated haplotypes. In this, three microsatellite markers of P. vivax were amplified and the combined size of the fragments was used to establish genotypes. Patients from an ongoing treatment efficacy trial who were kept either in endemic or non-endemic regions in the northwest of Colombia were included in the study. In total 58 paired clinical isolates, were amplified. A total of 54 haplotypes were observed among the two regions. Some haplotypes were exclusive to the endemic region where the highest degree of polymorphism was detected. In addition, we confirmed the different genotypes of recurrent-relapsing and primary infection isolates suggesting the activation of heterologous hypnozoite populations. We conclude that analysis of the three microsatellites is a valuable tool to establish the genetic characteristics of P. vivax populations in Colombia.
The growing role of Colombia as a major supplier of internationally traded steam coal has been widely discussed in the industry. Although Colombian coal has been produced and exported in small quantities for a number of years, the country's position as a major coal exporter began in earnest in 1985 with the first commercial exports from the Cerrejon North Block Project. The mine is located on the Guajira peninsula in northeast Colombia, about 145 km (90 miles) from the coast. In addition to the mine itself, the project involves construction of a dedicated railroad and port. This forms a modern, efficient, and integrated system. The project is embodied in a 50-50 association contract between Internationl Colombia Resources (Intercor), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Exxon, and Carbocol, the Colombian state coal company. Intercor and Carbocol share investment and operating expenses equally. Intercor has the additional responsibility of managing operations on behalf of the partners. Each partner is entitled to 50% of the coal produced, and each markets its share separately. The project is a multi-seam, truck, and shovel operation, based on large reserves (2 to 3 Gt or 2.2 to 3.3 billion st) of high quality bituminous coal.
A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.
Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.
This study reports a broadening of the altitudinal range and a new host for Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) lutzi in Colombia. The study was conducted in the city of Bogotá, located in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia at 2,560 m asl (meters above sea level) with an average annual temperature of 15 C. In total, 156 specimens of birds belonging to 25 species and 14 families were captured using mist nets. The blood samples were collected through venipuncture and analyzed by light microscopy. Plasmodium (H.) lutzi was only found in 2 individuals of Turdus fuscater (Great Thrush). This parasite has previously been reported in Aramides cajaneus (before: Aramides cajanea) (Grey-Necked Wood Rail), a bird found in the lowlands of Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia. This finding provides evidence for a broad host range for P. lutzi that include 2 different orders, Gruiformes and Passeriformes, and also altitudinal expansion of its distribution. The blood stages were compared with the parasite's original descriptions, and the sequence of the parasite's mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) confirms that P. lutzi is a sister taxa of Plasmodium relictum, as previously proposed. PMID:23517409
Mantilla, Juan S; Matta, Nubia E; Pacheco, M Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A; González, Angie D; Moncada, Ligia I
Key words: global change, water scarcity, river basin In Colombia, serious water conflicts began to emerge with the economic development in the 70ies and 80ies and the term "water scarcity" became a common word in this tropical country. Despite a mean annual runoff of 1840 mm, which classifies Colombia as a water rich country, shortfalls in fresh water availability have become a frequent event in the last two decades. One reason for the manifestation of water scarcity is the long-held perception of invulnerable water abundance, which has delayed technical and political developments to use water more efficiently. The Magdalena watershed is the most important and complex area in Colombia, because of its huge anthropogenic present, economic development and increasing environmental problems. This river basin has a total area of 273,459 km2, equivalent to 24% of the territory of the country. It is home to 79% of the country's population (32.5 million of inhabitants) and approximately 85% of Gross Domestic Product of Colombia is generated in this area. Since the economic development of the 1970s and 1980s, large changes in land cover and related environmental conditions have occurred in the Magdalena basin. These changes include deforestation, agricultural land expansion, soil degradation, lower groundwater and increased water pollution. To assess the consequences of geophysical alteration and economic development, we perform an integrated analysis of water demand, water supply, land use changes and possible water management strategies. The main objective of this study is to determine how global and local changes affect the balance between water supply and demand in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia, the consequences of different water pricing schemes, and the social benefits of public or private investments into various water management infrastructures. To achieve this goal, a constrained welfare maximization model has been developed. The General Algebraic Modeling System based mathematical program uses information from spatially detailed Geographic Information System including topography, land cover and water systems. Spatially resolved economic data are included to depict price and income sensitive consumption decisions of major water users. Water management adaptation options include wet ponds and dams. The model maximizes economic net benefits subject to physical and technological constraints. The results of this study are relevant to water management stakeholders, and to governmental agencies for the development of better water policies.
The Late Cenozoic strain field in northern Colombia is often described as resulting from both the continuous subduction of the Caribbean plate, ongoing since Late Cretaceous at least, and the tectonic escape of the North Andean Block, starting in early Pliocene. Pieces of evidence from geological field work, interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection profiles, section restoration, seismotectonic data and analysis of satellite images allowed us to precise the timing and mode of interaction for these two main tectonic processes in northern Colombia during the last 5 Ma. This work was part of the GIRCAR project (Groupement Industrie-Recherche CARaïbes), funded by TOTAL S.A.. The San Jacinto fold and thrust belt is usually known as the older part of an accretionary wedge related to the Caribbean subduction. We argue that this fold belt is actually a left-lateral transpressive belt, active since Pliocene time, that reuse older structures formed during an older accretionary episode. This left-lateral transpressive fold belt may be interpreted as the western boundary of the North Andean Block escaping northward. The Sinu wedge, known as the offshore Plio-Quaternary part of the accretionary wedge, accommodates less than 3 mm/yr of convergence. This shortening is at least partly compensated internally by a number of contemporaneous normal faults. The morphology of the Sinu wedge is more likely the one of a gravity collapse, affecting the whole sedimentary pile, towards the deep Colombian basin. Additionally, the Late Miocene to Holocene Magdalena fan, deposited along the northwestern margin of Colombia, above the subduction zone, remains undeformed even after being abandoned. Also, GPS data demonstrate that no shortening is to be expected at present across the subduction zone. Finally, no significant earthquakes was recorded between 0 and 30 km along the subduction zone. These observations can be well reconciled by postulating that the deformation, along the northwestern margin of Colombia, is not more controlled by the caribbean subduction. We propose that the Plio-Quaternary tectonic escape uplifted the margin through left-lateral transpression, reworking inherited structures. The thick Tertiary sedimentary cover subsequently collapsed down in the Colombian basin when the critical slope was reached. Since Pliocene time at least, the Caribbean-South American plate convergence might be accommodated diffusely across the whole North Andean Block, and most prominently along the Venezuelan Andes and the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, at the eastern boundary of the Block.
Maurin, T.; Stéphan, J. F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Dhont, D.
Background The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Colombia has made great advances since its inception in 1979; however, by 2010 vaccination coverage rates had been declining. In 2010, the EPI commissioned a nationwide study on practices on immunization, attitudes and knowledge, perceived service quality, and barriers to childhood immunization in order to tailor EPI communication strategies. Methods Colombia’s 32 geographical departments were divided into 10 regions. Interviewers from an independent polling company administered a survey to 4802 parents and guardians of children aged <5 years in these regions. To better assess barriers to vaccination, the study was designed to have 70% of participants who had children with incomplete vaccination schedules. Explanatory factorial, principal component, and cluster analyses were performed to place participants into a group (segment) representing the primary category of reasons respondents offered for not vaccinating their children. Types of barriers were then compared to other variables, such as service quality, communication preferences, and parental attitudes on vaccination. Results Although all respondents indicated that vaccines have health benefits, and 4738 (98.7%) possessed vaccination cards for their children, attitudes and knowledge were not always favorable to immunization. Six groups of immunization barriers were identified: 1) factors related to caregivers (24.4%), 2) vaccinators (19.7%), 3) health centers (18.0%), 4) the health system (13.4%), 5) concerns about adverse events (13.1%), and 6) cultural and religious beliefs (11.4%); groups 1, 5 and 6 together represented almost half (48.9%) of users, indicating problems related to the demand for vaccines as the primary barriers to immunization. Differences in demographics, communication preferences, and reported service quality were found among participants in the six groups and among participants in the 10 regions. Additionally, differences between how participants reported receiving information on vaccination and how they believed such information should be communicated were observed. Conclusions Better understanding immunization barriers and the users of the EPI can help tailor communication strategies to increase demand for immunization services. Results of the study have been used by Colombia’s EPI to inform the design of new communication strategies.
To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogotá IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations are located on the three major plates that interact within the Wide Plate Margin Deformation Zone including existing permanent installations on IGS Galapagos and Malpelo Islands on the Nazca Plate, and San Andres Island on the Caribbean plate. The velocity vectors confirm the oblique subduction of the Nazca Plate and Carnegie aseismic ridge collision processes at the Colombia-Ecuador trench which are assumed to be the mechanism for the transpressional deformation and the "escape" of the North Andes Block (NAB). The northernmost vectors in Colombia are indicative of the ongoing collision of the Panama Arc with northwestern Colombia. Planned for the year 2013 is the installation of 10 additional GNSS continuously operating stations, and construction of 20 GPS campaign sites.
Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.
Background Malaria is a serious health problem in Colombia. This paper intends to analyse the frequency and tendencies of the disease in Colombia over the last 22 years. The researchers used the Box-Jenkins (ARIMA) methodology for the analysis of time series. Methods This descriptive study was done retrospectively by using the morbidity records of the Ministry of Health and of the System for the Monitoring of Public Health (SIVIGILA). The information about the population was obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE). The incidence rate according to age and sex was calculated from 1990 to 2011. Also, the Annual Parasite Index (API) for Plasmodium falciparum and for Plasmodium vivax was calculated. The mortality rates per year, from 1990 to 2011, were determined. Finally, the Box-Jenkins (ARIMA) methodology was used for the analysis of time series, grouped weekly. Information for ARIMA modelling was used from the year 2001. Results The total number of reported cases from 1990 to 2011 was 2,964,818 cases with an annual average of 134,764. In the period from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2011 a significant decrease of annual cases was observed. In general, a predominance of P. vivax over P. falciparum was observed. With respect to the API, it must be noted that there were peaks in 1994 in the departments of Guainía and Guaviare, and in 1998 in Guaviare and Chocó. The department of Antioquia showed a tendency towards a decrease of the API through the years. In the time series model there were no statistically significant seasonal patterns for the total number of cases of malaria. However, for P. falciparum the number of cases was statistically significant. Lastly, between 1990 and 2009, there were 1,905 deaths caused by malaria in Colombia with a significant tendency towards a decrease in deaths over those years. Plasmodium falciparum was more lethal than P. vivax. Conclusions In Colombia, the transmission of malaria occurs in an endemic and epidemic context, which keeps an unstable endemic transmission pattern. Several factors specific to a country such as Colombia encourage the dissemination and permanence of the illness.
En un estudio clínico en fase inicial que probó una vacuna terapéutica en pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica (LMC) que tomaban el fármaco imatinib (Gleevec), no se pudieron detectar células cancerosas en 7 de los 19 participantes por un tiempo promedio de 22 meses. Los resultados del estudio fueron publicados en el número del 1º de enero de la revista Clinical Cancer Research.
Hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.
Este documento presenta la medición de los beneficios en el impuesto de renta otorgados a las empresas que operan en las zonas francas, los cuales están representados por una tarifa diferencial del 15% y, hasta el año 2010, por una deducción especial por inversión en activos fijos. Así mismo, el documento incluye el cálculo del aporte de estas empresas al
Las certificaciones en sistemas de gestión de la calidad NTC ISO 9001\\/2000 y sistemas de gestión ambiental NTC ISO 14001\\/96, se han convertido en una prioridad para muchas organizaciones por las exigencias del mercado. Se presentan los resultados de un análisis cuantitativo de las empresas públicas y privadas del país que han optado por la certificación en sistemas de gestión
This paper analyses how the Colombian medical elites made sense of typhoid fever before and during the inception of bacteriological ideas and practices in the second half of the nineteenth century. Assuming that the identity of typhoid fever has to be understood within the broader concerns of the medical community in question, I show how doctors first identified Bogotá's epidemics as typhoid fever during the 1850s, and how they also attached specificity to the fever amongst other continuous fevers, such as its European and North American counterparts. I also found that, in contrast with the discussions amongst their colleagues from other countries, debates about typhoid fever in 1860-70 among doctors in Colombia were framed within the medico-geographical scheme and strongly shaped by the fear of typhoid fever appearing alongside 'paludic' fevers in the highlands. By arguing in medico-geographical and clinical terms that typhoid fever had specificity in Colombia, and by denying the medico-geographical law of antagonism between typhoid and paludic fevers proposed by the Frenchman Charles Boudin, Colombian doctors managed to question European knowledge and claimed that typhoid fever had distinct features in Colombia. The focus on paludic and typhoid fevers in the highlands might explain why the bacteriological aetiology of typhoid fever was ignored and even contested during the 1880s. Anti-Pasteurian arguments were raised against its germ identity and some physicians even supported the idea of spontaneous origin of the disease. By the 1890s, Pasteurian knowledge had come to shape clinical and hygienic practices. PMID:24331213
New cases of leprosy are still being detected in Colombia after the country declared achievement of the WHO defined 'elimination' status. To study the ecology of leprosy in endemic regions, a combination of geographic and molecular tools were applied for a group of 201 multibacillary patients including six multi-case families from eleven departments. The location (latitude and longitude) of patient residences were mapped. Slit skin smears and/or skin biopsies were collected and DNA was extracted. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis following a multiplex PCR-was developed for rapid and inexpensive strain typing of Mycobacterium leprae based on copy numbers of two VNTR minisatellite loci 27-5 and 12-5. A SNP (C/T) in gyrA (SNP7614) was mapped by introducing a novel PCR-RFLP into an ongoing drug resistance surveillance effort. Multiple genotypes were detected combining the three molecular markers. The two frequent genotypes in Colombia were SNP7614(C)/27-5(5)/12-5(4) [C54] predominantly distributed in the Atlantic departments and SNP7614 (T)/27-5(4)/12-5(5) [T45] associated with the Andean departments. A novel genotype SNP7614 (C)/27-5(6)/12-5(4) [C64] was detected in cities along the Magdalena river which separates the Andean from Atlantic departments; a subset was further characterized showing association with a rare allele of minisatellite 23-3 and the SNP type 1 of M. leprae. The genotypes within intra-family cases were conserved. Overall, this is the first large scale study that utilized simple and rapid assay formats for identification of major strain types and their distribution in Colombia. It provides the framework for further strain type discrimination and geographic information systems as tools for tracing transmission of leprosy. PMID:23291420
Cardona-Castro, Nora; Beltrán-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Romero-Montoya, Irma Marcela; Li, Wei; Brennan, Patrick J; Vissa, Varalakshmi
We have investigated crustal thickness beneath the Northern Andes with the teleseismic receiver function technique. We used teleseismic data recorded by an array of 18 broadband stations deployed by the Colombian Seismological Network, and operated by the Colombian Geological Survey. We used the primary P-to-S conversion and crustal reverberations to estimate crustal thickness and average Vp/Vs ratio; using Wadati diagrams, we also calculated the mean crustal Vp/Vs ratio around stations to further constrain the crustal thickness estimation. In northern Colombia, near the Caribbean coast, the estimated crustal thickness ranges from 25 to 30 km; in the Middle Magdalena Valley, crustal thickness is around 40 km; beneath the northern Central Cordillera, the Moho depth is nearly 40 km; at the Ecuador-Colombia border, beneath the western flank of the Andes, the estimated thickness is about 46 km. Receiver functions at a station at the craton in South East Colombia, near the foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, clearly indicate the presence of the Moho discontinuity at a depth near 36 km. The greatest values of crustal thickness occur beneath a plateau (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) on the Eastern Cordillera, near the location of Bogota, with values around 58 km. Receiver functions in the volcanic areas of the south-western Colombian Andes do not show a systematic signal from the Moho, indicating abrupt changes in Moho geometry. Signals at stations on the Eastern Cordillera near Bogota reveal a highly complex crustal structure, with a combination of sedimentary layers up to 9 km thick, dipping interfaces, low velocity layers, anisotropy and/or lateral heterogeneity that still remain to be evaluated. This complexity obeys to the location of these stations at a region of a highly deformed fold and thrust belt.
Sand flies include a group of insects that are of medical importance and that vary in geographic distribution, ecology, and pathogen transmission. Approximately 163 species of sand flies have been reported in Colombia. Surveillance of the presence of sand fly species and the actualization of species distribution are important for predicting risks for and monitoring the expansion of diseases which sand flies can transmit. Currently, the identification of phlebotomine sand flies is based on morphological characters. However, morphological identification requires considerable skills and taxonomic expertise. In addition, significant morphological similarity between some species, especially among females, may cause difficulties during the identification process. DNA-based approaches have become increasingly useful and promising tools for estimating sand fly diversity and for ensuring the rapid and accurate identification of species. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (COI) is currently being used to differentiate species in different animal taxa, including insects, and it is referred as a barcoding sequence. The present study explored the utility of the DNA barcode approach for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies in Colombia. We sequenced 700 bp of the COI gene from 36 species collected from different geographic localities. The COI barcode sequence divergence within a single species was <2% in most cases, whereas this divergence ranged from 9% to 26.6% among different species. These results indicated that the barcoding gene correctly discriminated among the previously morphologically identified species with an efficacy of nearly 100%. Analyses of the generated sequences indicated that the observed species groupings were consistent with the morphological identifications. In conclusion, the barcoding gene was useful for species discrimination in sand flies from Colombia.
Contreras Gutierrez, Maria Angelica; Vivero, Rafael J.; Velez, Ivan D.; Porter, Charles H.; Uribe, Sandra
New cases of leprosy are still being detected in Colombia after the country declared achievement of the WHO defined ‘elimination’ status. To study the ecology of leprosy in endemic regions, a combination of geographic and molecular tools were applied for a group of 201 multibacillary patients including six multi-case families from eleven departments. The location (latitude and longitude) of patient residences were mapped. Slit skin smears and/or skin biopsies were collected and DNA was extracted. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis following a multiplex PCR-was developed for rapid and inexpensive strain typing of M. leprae based on copy numbers of two VNTR minisatellite loci 27-5 and 12-5. A SNP (C/T) in gyrA (SNP7614) was mapped by introducing a novel PCR-RFLP into an ongoing drug resistance surveillance effort. Multiple genotypes were detected combining the three molecular markers. The two frequent genotypes in Colombia were SNP7614(C)/27-5(5)/12-5(4) [C54] predominantly distributed in the Atlantic departments and SNP7614 (T)/27-5(4)/12-5(5) [T45] associated with the Andean departments. A novel genotype SNP7614 (C)/27-5(6)/12-5(4) [C64] was detected in cities along the Magdalena river which separates the Andean from Atlantic departments; a subset was further characterized showing association with a rare allele of minisatellite 23-3 and the SNP type 1 of M. leprae. The genotypes within intra-family cases were conserved. Overall, this is the first large scale study that utilized simple and rapid assay formats for identification of major strain types and their distribution in Colombia. It provides the framework for further strain type discrimination and geographic information systems as tools for tracing transmission of leprosy.
Cardona-Castro, Nora; Beltran-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Romero-Montoya, Irma Marcela; Li, Wei; Brennan, Patrick J; Vissa, Varalakshmi
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 is the third most common capsular type causing invasive diseases in children younger than 5 years in Latin America. Preliminary data on Colombian serotype 5 isolates indicated a common clonal origin associated with resistance to tetracycline (TET) and chloramphenicol (CHL). We studied 172 S. pneumoniae serotype 5 invasive isolates from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay and confirmed the presence of the Colombia5-19 clone throughout Latin America. Fifteen subtypes of a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and 4 electrophoretic types (ET) were obtained. Most of the isolates from different geographical regions belonged to pattern A (34.3%), subtype A5 (41.9%), and ET1 (91.1%). The A pattern (n = 59) was resistant to TET and had variable resistance to CHL; it was present in Brazil (10.2%), Colombia (78%), Guatemala (8.5%), and Mexico (3.4%). Subtype A5 with variable susceptibility to TET and sensitive to CHL was found in Argentina (29.2%), Mexico (8.3%), and Uruguay (62.5%). Subtypes A1-A4, A7-A8, and A9-A11 (closely related to A) also shared ET1, while subtype A6 was assigned to ET1, ET2, and ET3. Eleven subtypes (n = 21) were found to be specific for one country each. In summary, the S. pneumoniae serotype 5 isolates from Latin American are genetically closely related but show different patterns of antibiotic resistance, probably as a result of horizontal transfer.
Gamboa, Liliana; Camou, Teresa; Hortal, Maria; Castaneda, Elizabeth
We present evidence that the El Niño phenomenon intensifies the annual cycle of malaria cases for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas of Colombia as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the normal annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. We used simultaneous analyses of both variables at both timescales, as well as correlation and power spectral analyses of detailed spatial (municipal) and temporal (monthly) records. During "normal years," endemic malaria in rural Colombia exhibits a clear-cut "normal" annual cycle, which is tightly associated with prevalent climatic conditions, mainly mean temperature, precipitation, dew point, and river discharges. During historical El Niño events (interannual time scale), the timing of malaria outbreaks does not change from the annual cycle, but the number of cases intensifies. Such anomalies are associated with a consistent pattern of hydrological and climatic anomalies: increase in mean temperature, decrease in precipitation, increase in dew point, and decrease in river discharges, all of which favor malaria transmission. Such coupling explains why the effect appears stronger and more persistent during the second half of El Niño's year (0), and during the first half of the year (+1). We illustrate this finding with data for diverse localities in Buenaventura (on the Pacific coast) and Caucasia (along the Cauca river floodplain), but conclusions have been found valid for multiple localities throughout endemic regions of Colombia. The identified coupling between annual and interannual timescales in the climate-malaria system shed new light toward understanding the exact linkages between environmental, entomological, and epidemiological factors conductive to malaria outbreaks, and also imposes the coupling of those timescales in public health intervention programs. PMID:11401760
Poveda, G; Rojas, W; Quiñones, M L; Vélez, I D; Mantilla, R I; Ruiz, D; Zuluaga, J S; Rua, G L
Knowledge about the cnidarian class Hydrozoa in Colombia is very limited because there are few investigators researching this group. Studies on hydropolyps from the Colombian Caribbean include Wedler (1973, 1975), Bandel & Wedler (1987), Florez (1983) and Posada et al. (2010), whereas those focused on hydromedusae are Moncaleano-Niño (1976), who documented 20 genera and Dominguez (2002), who documented 6 families and 5 genera. On the Pacific coast, only Lopez and Baldrich (2010) have published on 12 families and 13 genera based on observations of hydromedusae. This paper reports for the first time in the Colombian Caribbean the hydrozoan genus Cladonema based on a colony of polyps and their medusae. PMID:24870196
The essential oil from fruits of Retrophyllum rospigliosii (Pilger) C.N. Page grown in Colombia was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Ninety-one compounds were identified, of which the most prominent were limonene (37.7%) and alpha-pinene (16.3%). The in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil was studied against seven bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method. The strongest activity of the oil was against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus cereus. PMID:20734957
Quijano-Celis, Clara E; Gaviria, Mauricio; Consuelo, Vanegas-López; Ontiveros, Ina; Echeverri, Leonardo; Morales, Gustavo; Pino, Jorge A
Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative/positive. The Foliar Emission Rate of banana plants also reflected negative/positive anomalies which are consistent with the increase/decrease observed in the Severity Index of BSD.
Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.
There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.
Larvae of 13 blowfly species from Colombia are described and an illustrated key for all them is presented. All larval instars of Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani), Lucilia eximia (Weidemann) are described, but the second and third instars of Compsomyiops verena (Walter), and only the third instar of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), Lucilia peruviana Robineau-Desvoidy, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou). PMID:19618061
A FRAX model for Colombia was released June 30, 2010. This article describes the data used to develop the Colombian FRAX model and illustrates its features compared to other countries. Hip fracture cases aged 50 years or more who were referred to all hospitals serving the city of Barranquilla were identified prospectively over a 3-year period (2004-2006). Age- and sex-stratified hip fracture incidence rates were computed using the 2005 census. Present and future numbers of hip fracture cases in Colombia were calculated from the age- and sex-specific incidence and the national population demography. Mortality rates for 1999 were extracted from nationwide databases and used to estimate hip fracture probabilities. For other major fractures (clinical vertebral, forearm, and humerus), incidence rates were imputed, using Swedish ratios for hip to other major osteoporotic fracture, and used to construct the FRAX model. Incidence of hip fracture increased with age, more markedly in women than in men. Over all ages, the female to male ratio was 1.7. By extrapolation, there were estimated to be 7,902 new hip fracture cases (2,673 men, 5,229 women) in Colombia in 2010, which was predicted to increase to 22,720 cases (7,568 men, 15,152 women) in 2035. The 10-year probability of hip or major fracture was increased in patients with a clinical risk factor, lower BMI, female gender, a higher age, and a decreased BMD T score. The remaining lifetime probability of hip fracture at the age of 50 years was 2.5 and 4.7 % in men and women, respectively, which were lower than rates in a Mexican population (3.8 and 8.5 %, respectively) and comparable with estimates for Venezuela (2.4 and 7.5 %, respectively). The FRAX tool is the first country-specific fracture-prediction model available in Colombia. It is based on the original FRAX methodology, which has been externally validated in several independent cohorts. Despite some limitations, the strengths make the Colombian FRAX tool a good candidate for implementation into clinical practice. PMID:23471427
We conducted interviews with 27 health care personnel in Bogotá, Colombia, to examine provider barriers and facilitators to screening for intimate partner violence (IPV). We used systematic qualitative analysis to identify the range and consistency of beliefs. We found that respondents did not routinely screen for IPV. Providers listed numerous barriers to screening. Ways to improve screening included increased clinician training, installing systematic IPV screening, providing patient education, and implementing health care setting interventions. Improving the care for IPV survivors will involve translating health care personnel preferred solutions into more systematic IPV screening interventions.
BAIG, ARSHIYA A.; RYAN, GERY W.; RODRIGUEZ, MICHAEL A.
A new scorpion species, Tityus (Tityus) grottoedensis sp. nov., is herein described based on male and female specimens collected in El Edén Cave and its vicinities (Tolima department, Colombia). The new species, which becomes the first scorpion described from a Colombian cave, is probably a eutroglophile or subtroglophile element; however, additional studies are needed to determine the degree of association of the species to the cave. Among other features, the new species is characterized by having a relatively thin body, a yellow-to-chestnut coloration, sternites IV to VI with visible lateral longitudinal carinae, and the basal piece of the middle lamella of the pectines dilated in male and female. PMID:24870667
Hyperlexia is a condition rarely reported in Spanish-speaking children, characterized by the ability to recognize written words without formal training. We present two unrelated autistic children with hyperlexia from Colombia (South America) who were followed for 8 years with formal neuropsychological evaluations of language, motor skills, visual perception, attention and behavior. Both children taught themselves to read before 5 years of age but showed minimal comprehension; both displayed obsessional reading and difficulties in social skills and attention. Brain CT scans were normal. Hyperlexia has been associated with hyperactivation of the left superior temporal cortex; we conclude that the orthographic route is a probable mechanism for the development of hyperlexia. PMID:16843492
Once again, the inestimable National Security Archive (NSA) has created a timely and useful electronic briefing book with declassified documents that shed light on recent events. In this case, the event is the accidental shoot down of a civilian aircraft carrying missionaries in Peru on April 20. The site offers the full text of thirteen declassified documents from 1994 which shed light on internal debate within the Clinton administration over the decision to share aerial tracking intelligence with Peru and Colombia. The documents are preceded by an excellent concise introduction, and for each, a one-paragraph summary is provided.
Results of a preliminary survey of particulate and dioxin emissions in combustion gases from hospital waste incinerators in Antioquia-Colombia are presented. Base line data of total suspended particulate (TSP) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) emissions in incinerators from health care institutions in Antioquia-Colombia will be used to improve the management of medical waste in the local context. All monitored incinerators are batch operated. TSP exceeds 80 mg Nm(-3) in 8 out of 12 incinerators. Dioxin emissions are in the range from about 7 to 700 I-TEQ (ng Nm(-3)). Such a significant amount of dioxin emissions did correlate with entrained particulate matter, mainly as a consequence of poor control of operation parameters. Several suggestions are made to improve medical waste management practices in Colombia. PMID:18499220
Hoyos, A; Cobo, M; Aristizábal, B; Córdoba, F; Montes de Correa, C
Consejos para supervivientes de cáncer con información sobre temas relacionados con la vida después del tratamiento, entre ellos, la atención médica de seguimiento, los cambios físicos y emocionales y los cambios en el estilo de vida.
E-book con consejos para supervivientes de cáncer e información sobre temas relacionados con la vida después del tratamiento, entre ellos, la atención médica de seguimiento, los cambios físicos y emocionales y los cambios en el estilo de vida.
Aproximadamente 41.000 participantes en un estudio en el Reino Unido se sometieron una sola vez a una examen de detección en la parte inferior del colon mediante el uso de un sigmoidoscopio, un instrumento delgado en forma de tubo que se inserta a través del recto para buscar lesiones precancerosas o cancerosas. Este dispositivo también tiene una herramienta para extraer pólipos potencialmente precancerosos.
En la 100va Reunión Anual de la Asociación Estadounidense de Investigación del Cáncer realizada en Denver, el director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, doctor John E. Niederhuber, dio a conocer detalles importantes, tales como financiamiento de más subvenciones, creación de una plataforma para atención personalizada del cáncer y un programa acelerado de genética del cáncer que hará avanzar la investigación oncológica en este nuevo ambiente económico.
Resumen: En el modelado fisiológico, el propósito es comprender las funciones del cuerpo humano. Con este propósito, se abordan problemas del embarazo y el parto para minimizar las cesáreas innecesarias en mujeres propensas a cursar con Sufrimiento Fetal Agudo (SFA). En el presente estudio se realizó: el Modelado Matemático del Sistema Cardiovascular Fetal (SCVF), la Simulación y Validación del SCVF.
...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. 10.3027 Section...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate, CBP...
Dengue type 3 genotype V viruses have been recently detected in Brazil and Colombia. In this study, we described another Brazilian isolate belonging to this genotype. Phylogenetic analysis including dengue type 3 viruses isolated worldwide showed that Brazilian and Colombian viruses were closely related to viruses isolated in Asia more than two decades ago. The characteristic evolutionary pattern of dengue type 3 virus cannot explain the close similarity of new circulating viruses with old viruses. Further studies are needed to confirm the origin of the new dengue type III genotype circulating in Brazil and Colombia.
Aquino, Victor Hugo; Amarilla, Alberto Anastacio; Alfonso, Helda Liz; Batista, Weber Cheli; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes
Hydrothermal vents have been traditionally exploited in Colombia as a source of tourism revenue such as pools and saunas. Leaving aside its high potential for geothermal power generation in applications like heating, drying, cooling, extensive use in crops, livestock, electricity generation and more. Currently the use given to this natural resource in the town of Barranca de Upia in Meta department, central Colombia, is like Wellness Centre. However, the geothermal gradient for the area where hydrothermal vents occur, indicates that the water emerges at temperatures above 70 ° C (Alfaro et al., 2003), which opens a window of opportunity to assess their geothermal potential, in order to know the actual energy potential of the region as an option of augmenting their development. this research is the analysis of information gathered from databases in gravimetry and magnetometry of the study area and the temperatures measured in wells derived from the oil industry. Based on that information, a numerical analysis of the data will be performed in order to establish a model to parameterize the energy potential of the study area and identify possible uses of the energy contained by the hydrothermal vents.
Chica, J.; Chicangana, G.; Eco Energy Research Group
Riedel, synthetic and antithetic type faults, principal displacement zones (PDZ), pull-apart basins (such as lazy-S shaped releasing bend, extensive and rhomboidal shaped and releasing sidestep basins) and minor folds located oblique to the main trace of the Algeciras Fault System (AFS) are interpreted from Landsat TM 5 images and geological mapping. These tectonic features are affecting Quaternary deposits and are related to major historical earthquakes and recent registered seismic events, indicating neotectonic activity of the structure. The AFS is classified as a right lateral wrench complex structure, with an important vertical component in which sedimentary cover and basement rocks are involved. In addition, the system represents a simple shear caused by the oblique convergence between the Nazca Plate and the northern Andes. The transpressive boundary in SW Colombia was previously located along the Eastern Frontal Fault System. However, this paper shows that the AFS constitutes the actual boundary of the current transpressive regime along the Northern Andes, which begins at the Gulf of Guayaquil in Ecuador and continues into Colombia and Venezuela.
Velandia, Francisco; Acosta, Jorge; Terraza, Roberto; Villegas, Henry
Objective: To analyze the self-reported perceived health related to socio-demographic characteristics, social health inequalities and social capital in Colombia. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional design; data was obtained from the National Health Survey of Colombia 2007. Independent variables: socio-demographic characteristics; component variables: social health inequality and social capital. Dependent variable: self-reported health. Analysis of the relationship used logistic regression through OR and its confidence interval. Results: The determinant factors for a negative health perceptions are related to being a female (OR: 0.49 [0.47 to 0.52]), and in both genders being older than 37 years of age (OR: 0.72 [0.61 to 0.85]), living without a partner, black ethnicity, indigenous women (0.80 [0.69 to 0.94] and low economic incomes. Discussion: The relationship between social determinants and social capital in the perception of health shows inequities and indirectly reflects the level of health. Given the policies and the model of health, requires a rational adjustment of the goals, programs, and national and regional strategies with the object of improving the demand and quality of services.
High resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to chloroquine poses malaria as a major public health problem in Colombia. In this context, the therapeutic response of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients to chloroquine (CQ), sulfadoxine/pirymethamine (SDXP) and combined therapy (SDXP/CQ) was evaluated according to the WHO/PAHO protocols of 1998. The comparisons were based on a sample of 160 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Turbo and Zaragoza (Antioquia, Colombia). Patients were randomly assigned each of the treatment categories. The results were statistically similar in each municipality. In Turbo percentage of treatment failure was 87.5%, 22.2% and 22.6% for CQ, SDXP and SDXP/CQ, respectively, whereas in Zaragoza, the corresponding treatment failure was 77.7%, 26.5% and 12.1%. During follow up, 50% of subjects with late treatment failure were asymptomatic in Turbo, while 33.3% were asymptomatic in Zaragoza. A high level of treatment failure occurred with CQ monotherapy, while SDXP and SDXP/CQ had acceptable levels of failure, i.e., below 25%. The high percentage of late treatment failure in asymptomatic patients may contribute to increased risk of persistent transmission. PMID:14582335
Blair, Silvia; López, Mary Luz; Piñeros, Juan Gabriel; Alvarez, Tania; Tobón, Alberto; Carmona, Jaime
This paper examined the association between individual and local level factors and the number of antenatal care visits completed by women in Colombia using data from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and multilevel logistic regression models. Our findings suggest that, in addition to maternal socioeconomic status, contextual factors influence whether pregnant women complete the minimum recommended number of antenatal care visits. These factors include: level of women's autonomy in the community, regional inequalities and access barriers caused by distance (OR = 0.057), costs of services (OR = 0.035), and/or a lack of confidence in doctors (OR = 0.036). Our results highlight the existence of inequalities in access to antenatal care and the importance of considering the local context in the design of effective maternal care policies in Colombia. Furthermore, our findings regarding individual factors corroborate the evidence from other countries and offer new insights into the association between local level factors and number of antenatal care visits. PMID:24936823
Osorio, Ana María; Tovar, Luis Miguel; Rathmann, Katharina
Conidiomata of a fungus resembling Chrysoporthe cubensis, a serious canker pathogen of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae, Myrtales) in tropical and subtropical parts of the world, was found on Eucalyptus grandis in Colombia. Fruiting structures of the fungus could be distinguished from those of C. cubensis by their distinctly orange conidiomatal necks. This fungus also was found on several plant species native to Colombia including Tibouchina urvilleana, T. lepidota and Miconia theaezans (Melastomataceae, Myrtales). Morphological comparisons, as well as those based on sequences of the ITS1/ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA repeat and the beta-tubulin gene, were used to characterize this fungus. Its pathogenicity was assessed on various plants from which it has been collected, either in field or greenhouse trials. Phylogenetic analyses showed that isolates reside in a clade distinct from the four clades accommodating Chrysoporthe, Cryphonectria, Endothia and Rostraureum. Members of this clade are distinguished by the presence of orange conidiomatal necks with black bases and a unique internal stromatal structure. No teleomorph has been found for this fungus, for which we have provided the name Aurapex penicillata gen. sp. nov. A. penicillata produced only small lesions after inoculation on young T. urvilleana, M. theaezans and E. grandis trees and appears not to be a serious pathogen. PMID:16800308
Gryzenhout, Marieka; Myburg, Henrietta; Rodas, Carlos A; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J
Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery.
The emergence of a modern state in Colombia and the centralization of political and administrative power in Bogotá began to take shape during the latter decades of the nineteenth century. The state had a central role within the overarching modernisation discourse that sought to create a common national identity. One of the tasks assigned to the state by the national project was that of implementing policy for regulating public health and strengthening social control institutions. Such objectives should be analyzed as part of larger political centralization processes and the desire to create "ideal" citizens. Public health and sanitary campaigns implemented by government officials during this period targeted vice, immorality, illness and ignorance under the umbrella of social reform programmes. Government officials, hygienists and medical doctors continually placed emphasis on eradicating or regulating alcoholism and tuberculosis from 1910 to 1925, with the hopes of avoiding a national crisis. This paper examines how alcoholism and tuberculosis became central themes in the fears expressed by Colombia's ruling class at the time regarding the broader social decay of the nation. As intellectuals and public officials sought solutions to these ills, their explanations alluded to the disintegration of morality and values and the degenerative effects of vice, addiction and unsanitary conditions. PMID:21311836
From April 1995 through November 1997 a dengue epidemic occurred in Ibagué (400,000 population), Colombia, where 3,419 cases were reported and DEN 2 virus was isolated from seven patients. A sero-survey conducted in 1996 found evidence of previous dengue infection in 9.6% of the population, indicating that many infections had not been reported. The dengue infections occurred in all age groups, but children under five years of age were most frequently infected. Forty-five percent of this Ibagué population were born after the re-appearance of dengue in Colombia in 1972, but have never been infected with dengue virus. Most of the cases reported as dengue hemorrhagic fever did not fulfill the current case definition. Aedes aegypti larvae were found in 19% of dwellings surveyed, most often in uncovered low tanks used for water storage. Many residents were not acquainted with the domestic nature of the mosquito vector. Health workers attributed the failure of the dengue control programs to lack of leadership and other administrative problems. PMID:15495597
Camacho, Tania; de la Hoz, Fernando; Cárdenas, Victor; Sánchez, Carmen; de Calderón, Laura; Pérez, Ligia; Bermúdez, Antonio
In Colombia, Plasmodium resistance to antimalarials such as chloroquine and antifolates is a serious problem. As a result, the national Colombian health authorities are monitoring the efficacy of alternative drugs and schemes. The study of genetic polymorphisms related with drug resistance is required in the region. In vitro responses to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, amodiaquine, desethylamodiaquine, artesunate and dihydroartesunate were carried out by HRP ELISA. SNP analysis in Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes was performed by PCR-RFLP in 77 samples from the North West region of Colombia. In vitro resistance to chloroquine was high (74%), followed by mefloquine (30%) and desethylamodiaquine (30%). A positive correlation between the IC(50) of paired drugs was also detected. The allele Pfmdr1 N86 (wild) was present in 100% of the samples and 1246Y (mutant) in 92%. However, their presence did not correlate with in vitro drug resistance. Presence of the mutations K76T and N75E in Pfcrt was confirmed in all samples. Analysis of 4 codons (72, 74, 75 and 76) in pfcrt confirmed the presence of the haplotypes CMET in 91% and SMET in 9% of the samples. PMID:18426617
Restrepo-Pineda, E; Arango, E; Maestre, A; Do Rosário, V E; Cravo, P
The determinants of maternal and child health have been the recurrent topics of study in developing countries. Using the Demographic and Health Survey (2010) of Colombia, this study aimed to identify the determinants for professional antenatal care and institutional delivery, taking into account the interdependence of these two decisions, which we consider using a bivariate probit model. This study found that when certain factors affecting both the decision to seek prenatal care and giving birth in a hospital are neglected, the results of the estimates are inefficient. Estimates show that the effects of education, parity, regional location and economic status on institutional delivery tend to be underestimated in a univariate probit model. The results indicate that economic status, level of education, parity and medical-insurance affiliation influenced the joint likelihood of accessing professional antenatal care and delivering in a health facility. An important finding is that mothers with a higher level of education are 9 percentage points more likely to access these two health services compared with mothers who are illiterate. Another observed finding is the regional disparities. The evidence indicates that mothers in the Pacific Region, the poorest region of Colombia, are 6 percentage points less likely to access such services. Thus, the results indicate that the Colombian health policy should emphasize increasing the level of schooling of mothers and establish health facilities in the poorest regions of the country to ensure that women in need are provided with social health insurance. PMID:23735737
Trujillo, Juan C; Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J
Hoja informativa acerca de los antioxidantes, sustancias que pueden proteger las células del daño causado por moléculas inestables conocidas como radicales libres. El daño de los radicales libres puede resultar en cáncer.
The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study....
Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements suggest that a large part of the northern Andes is “escaping” to the northeast relative to stable South America at a rate of 6 ± 2 mm/a. The displacement rates of seven sites in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador are statistically identical at the 95% confidence level. This study compares this GPS rate to 20 published field geologic estimates of displacement rates, such as displaced glacial moraines and offset pyroclastic flow. Dated displacements compiled in this study were obtained from the Gulf of Guayaquil, Pallatanga, Chingual-la Sofia, and Cayambe-Afiladores-Sibundoy fault systems in Ecuador and southern Colombia and the Bocono fault system in Venezuela. Right-lateral slip estimates on the individual fault segments range from 2.3 mm/a to 9.7 mm/a. The mean estimated geologic slip rate for the last 86,000 years is 7.6 mm/a with an R2 value of 0.97. This estimate is very similar to the GPS measurements of present day motion at the 2 sigma level. Four estimates indicate that slip rates of 4 to 10 mm/a continued back to 1.8 Ma. No geologic slip estimates have been reported for Ecuador prior to that time period. The “escape” of the North Andes is believed to be a result of increased coupling between the obliquely subducting Nazca plate and the overriding South American plate due to the subduction of the Carnegie ridge in the Ecuador-Colombia trench. If this is correct, the slip estimates for the North Andes suggest that the Carnegie Ridge arrived at the trench at least 1.8 Ma. In the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, the main deformation styles are basement involved and basement detached shortening produced by the Panama arc-South America collision, with approximately 160 km of shortening and up to 20 km of right-lateral range-parallel strike-slip displacement across the region. These estimates of overall shear strain and range normal shortening are generally consistent with our structural interpretation of a 3D seismic survey of the Foothills of the Eastern Cordillera. However, GPS measurements in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia suggest that the present day range normal shortening rate is only 4 ± 3 mm/a. Present day permanent strain associated with the Panama collision is apparently being accommodated in the Central and Western Cordillera. Hence, right-lateral shear may be a more important component of the present day strain field in the Eastern Cordillera than range-normal shortening. Strike-slip crustal earthquakes reflect slip partitioning on high angle faults located above crustal detachment ramps across a 200 km wide zone. Intermediate depth mantle earthquakes indicate that brittle shearing extends to the base of the lithosphere. The on-going northeastward slip of the northern Andes poses a continued seismic risk for Quito, Bogota, and Merida.
The Cuban Heritage Collection of the University of Miami Libraries was a recipient of 17 original illustrations by Alberto del Pozo in 1998 from the Campilli family. "The Oricha Collection" is their gift, and it contains illustrations in pen, crayon, and ink and the collection "pays homage to the primary gods and goddesses that comprise the Afro-Cuban religion of Santer'a." The "Introduction" near the top of the page, is a good place for visitors to start learning about Pozo, who was a Parson's School of Design-trained, Cuban artist who died at the age of 47. The "Biographical Sketch" is worth looking at as well. Examples of his colorful, heavily patterned and symbolism-intensive drawings of Santeria gods and goddesses can be found in the link "Gallery". The description of each drawing is given in English and Spanish. Finally, visitors interested in more information on the Santeria, can look at the "Further Readings" link for authoritative books on the subject.
Los artículos originales en inglés están disponibles en las páginas del NCI Cancer Bulletin. El Boletín es una publicación del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), una entidad gubernamental de los Estados Unidos creada en 1937.
Semantic refl ection on journalistic information is inherent in the terminology used when referring to topics that deal with child mortality, maternal health and HIV\\/AIDS, as contemplated in the Millennium Development Goals. This is apparent in the a? ention aff orded to these topics by the press, which not only lends them visibility, but also helps to build an agenda
The objective of this work was to establish, under experimental laboratory conditions, a colony of Lucilia sericata, Bogotá-Colombia strain, to build life tables and evaluate two artificial diets. This blowfly is frequently used in postmortem interval studies and in injury treatment. The parental adult insects collected in Bogotá were maintained in cages at 22°C±1 average temperature, 60%±5 relative humidity and 12 h photoperiodicity. The blowflies were fed on two artificial diets that were evaluated over seven continuous generations. Reproductive and population parameters were assessed. The life cycle of the species was expressed in the number of days of the different stages: egg = 0.8±0.1, larvae I = 1.1±0.02, larvae II = 1.94±0.16, larvae III = 3.5±0.54, pupae = 6.55±0.47, male adult = 28.7±0.83 and female adult = 33.5±1.0. Total survival from egg stage to adult stage was 91.2% for diet 1, while for diet 2 this parameter was 40.5%. The lifetime reproductive output was 184.51±11.2 eggs per female. The population parameters, as well as the reproductive output of the blowflies that were assessed, showed relatively high values, giving evidence of the continuous increase of the strain over the different generations and making possible its maintenance as a stable colony that has lasted for more than two years. PMID:21031265
Rueda, Luis C; Ortega, Luis G; Segura, Nidya A; Acero, Víctor M; Bello, Felio
The infection rate with Leishmania chagasi and the population dynamics of small mammals were studied in an undisturbed forest reserve (Colosó) and an area of highly degraded forest (San Andrés de Sotavento [SAS]) in northern Colombia, both endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Live trapping of mammals was done every month, and species, age, sex and reproductive status determined. L. chagasi was
B. L. Travi; Y. Osorio; M. T. Becerra; G. H. Adler
The volatile content of komatiite is a key to constrain the thermal and chemical evolution of the deep Earth. We report the volatile contents with major and trace element compositions of ~80 melt inclusions in chromian spinels (Cr-spinels) from beach sands on Gorgona Island, Colombia. Gorgona Island is a ~90Ma volcanic island, where picrites and the youngest komatiites known on
The volatile content of komatiite is a key to constrain the thermal and chemical evolution of the deep Earth. We report the volatile contents with major and trace element compositions of ~ 80 melt inclusions in chromian spinels (Cr-spinels) from beach sands on Gorgona Island, Colombia. Gorgona Island is a ~ 90 Ma volcanic island, where picrites and the youngest
Charassothrips macroseta sp.n. is described and illustrated from Colombia. A key is provided to the five species now recognised in the Neotropical genus Charassothrips, each of which has the head and pronotum, mesonotum and metanotum prominently sculptured and the abdominal tergites with a craspedum on the posterior margins.
Black land crab (Gecarcinus ruricola) populations and their dependent catchery in the San Andres Archipelago, Colombia, are under threat from overexploitation, habitat loss and degradation, and road-kill during annual spawning migrations to the sea. This article discusses the participatory approach used to define management of the species and describes the extensive involvement of local communities, particularly catchers and processors, in
Mark Baine; Marion Howard; Elizabeth Taylor; Jennifer James; Alejandro Velasco; Yolima Grandas; Richard Hartnoll
This article reports on a quantitative analysis of /s/ in words of different lexical frequencies in a cohesive speech community. Speakers from Barranquilla, Colombia between 20-26 years of age read approximately 100 sentences, containing words with s + consonant sequences. These productions were submitted to auditory acoustical analysis; visual…
Ratios of public debt as a share of GDP in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico were 10 percentage points higher on average during 1996-2002 than in the period 1990-1995. Costa Rica's debt ratio remained stable but at a high level near 50 percent. Is there reason to be concerned for the solvency of the public sector in these economies? We provide
Although projects were pre-selected and informally approved in the first semester of 2001, official approval and funds disbursement to IOM for the Small-Grants Program for Promoting Peace and Human Rights in Colombia (hereafter referred to as Peace and Hu...
Personal, idiosyncratic, geographical, and social-economic parameters are presented as a framework for understanding parental perceptions of mental retardation in Cali, Colombia. Three stages of special education development are described that define the history of the Colombian case: from a history of neglecting children with disabilities, to…
The present research started with two hypotheses: the development of an organic vegetable garden by children between 7 and 10 years old, living in agricultural areas in Colombia, develops their systems thinking, and there is a direct relationship between the development of system thinking and the level of general thinking of these children. The research has been based on the
Sjors Witjes; Pablo Muñoz Specht; Carolina Montoya Rodríguez
The colombian government has been implementing, during the last five years, a project for the rehabilitation of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a coastal estuarine lagoon in the Caribbean coast of Colombia where anthropogenic activities resulted in massive mortality of the mangrove forests, water quality degradation and concomitant diminution of biodiversity, fishing resources and life quality of human populations
The intracontinental seismicity of the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and southern Colombia is concentrated along the easternmost flank of the Cordillera beneath the western margin of the sub-Andes. The focal depths and fault plane solutions of the largest events were constrained by comparing the observed long-period P waves with synthetic waveforms. In general, the fault plane solutions show reverse faulting
The draft genome sequences of six Colombian Helicobacter pylori strains are presented. These strains were isolated from patients from regions of high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia and were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. The data provide insights into differences between H. pylori strains of different phylogeographic origins.
Sheh, Alexander; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Wilson, Keith T.; Correa, Pelayo
We describe a collective episode of psychogenic illness in an indigenous group (Embera) of Colombia, geographically isolated from its native homeland and surrounded by non-indigenous settlers. The condition, which affected three young adult men and six adolescent women, was attributed by them to a spell (maleficio). It was designated as ataques de locura (madness attacks) according to their traditional medical
Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
The history of an urban squatter settlement in Bogota, Colombia, and the author's experiences with its residents in the last ten years are summarized. Topics covered include the unfriendly relationship between the government and squatter settlements; the history of the relationship between the government and this particular barrio; the demography…
The Computable General Equilibrium model, based on the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, is used to evaluate the impact of separate bilateral free trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States of America (USA). As the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) is to expire shortly, a number of different scenarios have been analyzed:
José Elías Durán Lima; Carlos J. De Miguel; Andrés R. Schuschny
The present paper investigates pesticide application types adopted by smallholder potato producers in the Department of Boyacá, Colombia. In this region, environmental, health and adverse economic effects due to pesticide mis- or over-use respectively have been observed. Firstly, pesticide application types were identified based on input-effectiveness. Secondly, their determinants of adoption were investigated. Finally suggestions were given to develop intervention
One-year simple NPK trials were conducted in 22 locations in four regions of Colombia to determine the response of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to N, P and K and to relate this response to the available P and K contents of the soil, as well as to the N, P, and K concentrations in youngest fully expanded leaf (YFEL) blades
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is often cultivated in sandy soils that are very low in nutrients and organic matter. Under such conditions, yields often decline when the crop is grown successively without fertilizer application. An 8-year on-farm trial was conducted on sandy soils in northern Colombia to study effects of (1) surface mulching with residues of the grass Panicum maximum,
L. F Cadavid; M. A El-Sharkawy; A Acosta; T Sánchez
Resumen En el presente trabajo se tratan los principales aspectos contables a tener en cuenta en el manejo de los contratos de construcción en Colombia al adoptar estándares internacionales de información financiera, permitiendo visualizar el impacto que tendría en el país la adopción de la Norma Internacional de Contabilidad NIC 11 denominada Contratos de Construcción, en las empresas admitidas a
HELIO FABIO RAMÍREZ ECHEVERRY; LUIS EDUARDO SUÁREZ BALAGUERA
Plans for a nationwide system of education at a distance in Colombia, South America, are now under way to meet growing demands for higher education and to decentralize the current university system. Prior to this decision, a feasibility project was undertaken by the University of Antioquia. The project and results are reported. (Author/JMD)
This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of,
A community survey in 4,426 adults was undertaken as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative reporting the prevalence and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes in Colombia. Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes were assessed. Retrospective reports of…
Posada-Villa, Jose; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Cendales, Juan Gabriel; Fajardo, Roosevelt
We used differential and absolute travel time residuals of earthquakes occurred in the Northern Andes of Colombia recorded at stations at epicentral distances between 30 and 90 degrees, as well as records in Colombian seismic stations of earthquakes at the mentioned epicentral distances, in order to establish the presence of upper mantle anomalies beneath the North Andean region. Azimuthal analyses of differential travel time residuals reveal that rays traveling to the North East from the Northern Eastern Cordillera are faster than rays traveling in the same direction from the Northern Western Cordillera. To the south of a latitude around 6 degrees N, rays traveling to the North East from the Eastern Cordillera are slower than those from the Central and Western Cordilleras. Absolute travel time residuals at Colombian seismic stations suggest the presence of a positive seismic velocity anomaly beneath northernmost Colombia, to the north of a latitude around 6.5 degrees N in the Eastern Cordillera, and to the north of about 8 degrees N at the longitude of the Western Cordillera. This trend is also observed when considering differential time residuals at Colombian stations (for the same seismic event, travel time residuals at two stations are subtracted from each other), indicating that the bias in residual times is not a consequence of near-source structure. We interpret these anomalies as the shallowly subducting Caribbean Plate beneath Northern Colombia; we speculate that portions of the Caribbean slab should be as far south as the Middle Magdalena Valley, at a latitude of about 6.5 degrees N. We found no clear anomaly in the travel time residuals that could be related to a Nazca slab. We attribute this to the differences between Caribbean and Nazca slabs: whereas the Caribbean slab represents a heterogeneous and buoyant oceanic plateau of Upper Cretaceous age, the Nazca slab is composed by less buoyant Neogene oceanic crust. Furthermore, previous studies of thermal structure of the area of influence of the Nazca slab indicate a high heat flow anomaly in its northernmost portion (Hamza and Muñoz, 1996), which would prevent the generation of seismic velocity anomalies related with a cold subducting slab.
The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella counts using the most-probable-number method as recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service protocol. A total of 378 isolates (268 from our previous study) were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall Salmonella count (mean log most probable number per carcass ± 95% confidence interval) and prevalence were 2.1 (2.0 to 2.3) and 37%, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) by Salmonella levels (i.e., counts and prevalence) by storage temperature (i.e., frozen, chilled, or ambient), retail store type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent markets), and poultry company (chicken produced by integrated or nonintegrated company). Frozen chicken had the lowest Salmonella levels compared with chicken stored at other temperatures, chickens from wet markets had higher levels than those from other retail store types, and chicken produced by integrated companies had lower levels than nonintegrated companies. Thirty-one Salmonella serovars were identified among 378 isolates, with Salmonella Paratyphi B tartrate-positive (i.e., Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+) the most prevalent (44.7%), followed by Heidelberg (19%), Enteritidis (17.7%), Typhimurium (5.3%), and Anatum (2.1%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 35.2% were resistant to 1 to 5 antimicrobial agents, 24.6% to 6 to 10, and 33.9% to 11 to 15. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg were the most antimicrobial resistant. Salmonella prevalence was determined to be high, whereas cell numbers were relatively low. These data can be used in developing risk assessment models for preventing the transmission of Salmonella from chicken to humans in Colombia. PMID:24490916
Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Arevalo, Alejandra; Castellanos, Ricardo; Bernal, Johan; Tafur, Mc Allister; Ovalle, Maria Victoria; Alali, Walid Q; Hume, Michael; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan Jose; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P
Seasonal trends in inner shelf subtidal circulation off the coast of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, are examined through the analysis of current profiles, hydrographic, meteorological and satellite data collected from 1999 to 2002. During the dry season (December-April) the water column is well-mixed and along-shelf currents flow southwestward following the steady trade winds. In the rainy season (May-November) the water column experiences continuous events of stratification and the along-shelf currents flow northeastward, opposing the weak southwestward winds. In the dry season the along-shelf circulation is mostly driven by wind forcing, while in the rainy season, the circulation is set by an alongshore baroclinic pressure gradient. In the cross-shelf direction upwelling conditions are observed most of the year and geostrophic balance conditions are found.
A new species of Leydigia Kurz, 1875 (Cladocera: Chydoridae) is described based on the material from Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Magdalena Department, Colombia. L. lourdesae sp. nov. is a member of the subgenus Leydigia (Neoleydigia) Kotov, 2009, having all diagnostic characters of the latter. It could be the closest relative to L. iberica Kotov & Alonso, 2010, having five setae on exopodite III, a unique for the genus character. But new taxon differs from the latter in a series of characters of the head pores, armature of valve ventral margin, postabdomen, antenna I and II, and limbs I-III. We believe that the basal taxa of L. (Neoleydigia) (including L. lourdesae sp. nov.) are remains of an antique pan-continental group, probably of Mesozoic age, partly survived after the mass extinction and represented now by a series of locally distributed taxa in very distant localities of the planet. PMID:24943437
Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.
Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik
This article aims to analyze the malaria surveillance situation on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. This was a qualitative study using questionnaires in the border towns in 2011. The results were analyzed with the SWOT matrix methodology, pointing to significant differences between the malaria surveillance systems along the border. Weaknesses included lack of linkage between actors, lack of trained personnel, high turnover in teams, and lack of malaria specialists in the local hospitals. The study also showed lack of knowledge on malaria and its prevention in the local population. The strengths are the inclusion of new institutional actors, improvement of professional training, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and possibilities for complementary action between surveillance systems through cooperation between health teams on the border. Malaria control can only be successful if the region is dealt with as a whole. PMID:24356695
Peiter, Paulo César; Franco, Vivian da Cruz; Gracie, Renata; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is considered a rescue therapy and complex vital support with benefits in cardiorespiratory diseases during neonatal period that fulfil the characteristics of being reversible in neonates older than 34weeks. The criteria for patient selection and its prompt use are critical for the final result. Even though new alternatives for management of hypoxemic respiratory failure in full term and almost full term neonates have decreased its use, congenital diaphragmatic hernia continues being a complex disease where it can have some applicability. Even though our experience is beginning, constant training will make of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation an option for complex patients in whom maximum therapy fails. This is a report of the first neonatal cases of hypoxemic respiratory failure managed at Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. PMID:24794914
The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection.
In 1998 we determined in vivo and in vitro the frequency and the degree of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to the three antimalarials (chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine) most utilized in the municipality of Turbo (in the area of Urabá, Antioquia, Colombia), in a sample representative of the population with malaria. We carried out clinical and parasitological analyses over a 14-day period using the standard test recommended by the World Health Organization. In vivo, P. falciparum showed resistance to chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, with a frequency of 97%, 7%, and 13%, respectively. In vitro, the corresponding figures were 21%, 23%, and 9%, respectively. For chloroquine the level of agreement between the in vivo and in vitro results was 23%. PMID:11253274
Selecting suitable anti-malarial treatment represents one of the best tools for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by this disease. Sexual and asexual parasite dynamics were thus evaluated in patients involved in antimalarial drug efficacy studies by using combined treatment with and without artemisinin derivatives for treating uncomplicated acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Antioquia, Colombia. All treatment doses were supervised and administered according to patients' weight; sexual and asexual parasitemia were evaluated during 28- or 42-days follow-up in 468 patients. Artemisinin-based combination therapy showed greater parasiticidal ability, showing a mean asexual parasitemia survival rate of one day and mean gametocyte survival rate of 1–2 days. Sexual and asexual parasitemias were eliminated more quickly and effectively in the group receiving artemisinin-based combination therapy. Adding 45 mg of primaquine to treatment with artesunate and mefloquine reduced gametocyte and asexual parasite survival by one day.
Three cases of nosocomial malaria are reported from patients of the Internal Medicine Ward of a tertiary University teaching hospital in Medellin, Colombia. Epidemiological research, based on entomological captures, medical records review and interviews of nursery staff about patient care practices potentially involving contact with blood, were carried out. Molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum was based on the amplification of MSP1, MSP2 and GLURP genes. This method enabled confirmation of the same P. falciparum genotype in all three patients as well as in a fourth one (index case). The presence of nosocomial malaria was confirmed and it was concluded that the most likely source of transmission was through multi-dose preparations of heparin applied to heparin locks.
We studied the composition and seasonal variation of the diet of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in the flooded savannas of Caño Limón, Colombia. This was achieved by direct observation of the consumption patterns of these animals. The capybaras only consumed plants, and their diet included 89 species of 22 families. Sixty three percent of these plant species had not been reported before. The most commonly consumed plants (94% of the diet), belonged to the Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Leguminosae and Pontederiaceae. Only seven species represented 60% of the total diet: the grasses Hymenachne amplexicaulis (16.9%), Digitaria bicornis (4.5%) and Panicum maximum (4.4%) and the Cyperaceae Rynchospora corymbosa (4.4%). There was seasonal variation in the diet composition of capybaras. PMID:15162750
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to analyze 119 DNA samples of three Colombian Anopheles nuneztovari populations to study genetic variation and structure. Genetic diversity, estimated from heterozygosity, averaged 0.34. Genetic flow was greater between the two populations located in Western Colombia (F ST: 0.035; Nm: 6.8) but lower between these two and the northeastern population (F ST: 0.08; Nm: 2.8). According to molecular variance analysis, the genetic distance between populations was significant (phi ST 0.1131, P < 0.001). The variation among individuals within populations (phi ST 0.8869, P < 0.001)was also significant, suggesting a greater degree of population subdivision, not considered in this study. Both the parameters evaluated and the genetic flow suggest that Colombian An. nuneztovari populations are co-specific. PMID:12937756
Posso, Carmen Elisa; González, Ranulfo; Cárdenas, Heiber; Gallego, Gerardo; Duque, Myriam Cristina; Suarez, Marco Fidel
A tospovirus causing necrotic streaks on leaves was isolated from Alstroemeria sp. in Colombia. Infected samples reacted positively with tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) antiserum during preliminary serological tests. Further analysis revealed a close serological relationship to tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). A major part of the S-RNA segment, encompassing the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene, the 5' untranslated region and a part of the intergenic region 3' of the N gene, was cloned and sequenced. The deduced N protein sequence showed highest amino acid identity (82%) to that of TCSV, indicating that the virus represents a new tospovirus species, for which the name Alstroemeria necrotic streak virus (ANSV) is coined. Phylogenetic analysis based on the N protein sequence revealed that this Alstroemeria-infecting tospovirus clustered with tospoviruses from the American continent. Frankliniella occidentalis was identified as potential vector species for ANSV. PMID:20151164
The literature on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises commonly focuses on how inter-and non-governmental organisations can produce better knowledge and how this can be translated into improved programming. Yet, there is little recorded experience of, or concern about, how the beneficiaries of humanitarian relief can produce and use knowledge of their predicament. This paper is based on a case study of how the Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, an internally displaced women's organisation in northern Colombia, employs proactively research-generated data to advance its own agenda in its interactions with donor bodies and the government. The paper finds that beneficiaries of humanitarian aid can, and do, use participatory research to advance their own ends in the legal and political spaces created around humanitarian crisis. However, their agency is limited by poverty, violence, and local balances of power. The paper concludes that beneficiaries' priorities in the production of data about humanitarian crises warrant further study. PMID:23905766
A lack of congruency between the teaching and learning of science and the student’s personal worlds has long been recognised by the international science education community as an issue deserving space in the research agenda. The purpose of this study was to explore the diversity of student reactions when subcultures such as family, community peers, and personal worldviews are considered along side the subculture of school science. Two-hundred and fifty students from urban and provincial schools in the northeastern region of Colombia (South America) participated. From this group, 18 students were interviewed. It was observed that students adopt a compartmentalisation of knowledge that is evident as both an avoiding strategy in the classroom and as a mechanism to differentiate between the natural world of their everyday situations and the one portrayed by a Westernised science instruction in the classroom. The findings reflect how multiple worldviews correlate with student frameworks as implanted by school science.
A structural and magnetic characterization has been performed of a plate obtained from the "Gaspar" meteorite from the Otengá region of the Betéitiva municipality, Boyacá, Colombia. The sample was provided by Ingeominas (Colombian Geological Agency). After the studies the sample was classified as an octahedral iron meteorite, due the Fe and Ni concentrations and the Widmanstätten pattern which was observed on the surface of the sample. The plate shows a crack which divides the sample in two regions (side A and B, respectively). Both sides were studied using techniques like X-rays diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectrometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electronic microscopy (with EDAX). On both sides an iron Fe-Ni matrix (kamacite) was found; a large quantity of carbon in the form of graphite and in two types: nodular and laminar; and different preferential orientation in both sides of the sample. The studies permit to prove that Gaspar is a fragment of the registered Santa Rosa de Viterbo meteorite.
Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.
Background The prevalence of infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species in the HIV-infected patient population in Colombia was uncertain despite some pilot studies. We determined the frequency of isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and of non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species in diverse body fluids of HIV-infected patients in Bogota, Colombia. Methods Patients who attended the three major HIV/AIDS healthcare centres in Bogota were prospectively studied over a six month period. A total of 286 patients were enrolled, 20% of them were hospitalized at some point during the study. Sixty four percent (64%) were classified as stage C, 25% as stage B, and 11% as stage A (CDC staging system, 1993). A total of 1,622 clinical samples (mostly paired samples of blood, sputum, stool, and urine) were processed for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain and culture. Results Overall 43 of 1,622 cultures (2.6%) were positive for mycobacteria. Twenty-two sputum samples were positive. Four patients were diagnosed with M. tuberculosis (1.4%). All isolates of M. tuberculosis were sensitive to common anti-tuberculous drugs. M. avium was isolated in thirteen patients (4.5%), but only in three of them the cultures originated from blood. The other isolates were obtained from stool, urine or sputum samples. In three cases, direct AFB smears of blood were positive. Two patients presented simultaneously with M. tuberculosis and M. avium. Conclusions Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium infections are frequent in HIV infected patients in Bogota. The diagnostic sensitivity for infection with tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria can be increased when diverse body fluids are processed from each patient.
Murcia-Aranguren, Martha I; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E; Alvarado, Fernando S; Bustillo, Jose G; de Mendivelson, Ellen; Gomez, Bertha; Leon, Clara I; Triana, William A; Vargas, Erwing A; Rodriguez, Edgar
High resolution pollen/spores records from Paramo de Frontino (6, 29N, 76, 6W) and Paramo de Belmira (6,42'N, 75,40'W) in Colombia (Velásquez C. and H. Hooghiemstra, Paleobotany, 2012 in press; Velásquez C., et al., in preparation) spanning 17300 and 34000 cal yr BP; are studied for abrupt climatic change and compared with a La Cocha diatom record (Gonzalez, Z, et al., 2012), Frontino and Cariaco Basin (offshore Venezuela) titanium records and a Cariaco sea surface temperatures record (Gorin, G., et al, in preparation; Haug, et al., 2001; Lea D., et al., 2003; respectively); in reference to detected vegetation and climate variations. The most remarkable events occurred at 8200, 9300, 10400, 12000, 13500, 14.5-14.7, 16.2 and 21.4 cal yr BP. Low frequency cycles of 1500-2500 yr are present along the records suggesting that the North Atlantic Bond Cycles are also registered in northwestern South American terrestrial records. Some of these changes were dry while others wet, showing that both patterns "Cold poles, dry tropics" and "Cold poles, wet tropics" can be expressed. It was also found that the estimated temperatures from Paramo de Frontino (pollen based) and sea surface temperatures in Cariaco followed a similar trend during the the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. However, in the case of moisture, the Titanium record (indicative of rainfall) from the Cariaco Basin, the aquatic vegetation pollen and titanium records from Paramo de Frontino and diatoms record from La Cocha lake, showed a clear antiphase behavior during the same periods. Position and shape of Intertropical Convergence Zone are postulated as responsible for this variation. Keywords: palinology, Intertropical Convergence Zone, titanium, Colombia, climatic and vegetation changes.
Several recent studies have suggested that the Eastern Cordillera of the central Andes uplifted extremely rapidly during the late Miocene, rising as much as 3000 m from approximately 10-6 Ma. But, it remains unknown whether this uplift event was restricted to the central Andes, or whether it occurred throughout the Andean origin. In the northern Andes, pollen-based reconstructions of elevation from sediments in Colombia have suggested that a similar phase of rapid uplift occurred after 6 Ma. However, the exact timing and magnitude of this event are not well-constrained; the pollen data show a clear shift to from low- to high-elevation species assemblages, but the actual elevation corresponding to each species assemblage cannot be accurately constrained. We attempt to resolve this uncertainty by presenting new paleoelevation data and an updated paleomagnetic stratigraphy for Miocene-Pliocene fluvial and lacustrine sediments in the Sabana de Bogota, a hinterland (intermontane) basin contained within the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. Because the climate of the northern Andes is too wet to preserve most carbonates and authigenic minerals necessary for traditional isotope-based paleoaltimetry techniques, we employ two lipid-based paleoaltimeters. The first uses the dD and d13C value of abundant leaf waxes as a proxy for the isotopic depletion of precipitation with elevation, while the second uses tetraether lipids as a proxy for paleotemperature. We foresee that these methods could have applicability in other paleoelevation studies in climates not suited to the preservation of carbonates and other minerals necessary for traditional paleoaltimetry techniques.
Anderson, V. J.; Saylor, J.; Shanahan, T. M.; Horton, B. K.
The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are potential resources not exploitable now.
Hall, R. B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; Hector; Alvarez, A.
Background Control and prevention of dengue relies heavily on the application of insecticides to control dengue vector mosquitoes. In Colombia, application of the larvicide temephos to the aquatic breeding sites of Aedes aegypti is a key part of the dengue control strategy. Resistance to temephos was recently detected in the dengue-endemic city of Cucuta, leading to questions about its efficacy as a control tool. Here, we characterize the underlying mechanisms and estimate the operational impact of this resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings Larval bioassays of Ae. aegypti larvae from Cucuta determined the temephos LC50 to be 0.066 ppm (95% CI 0.06–0.074), approximately 15× higher than the value obtained from a susceptible laboratory colony. The efficacy of the field dose of temephos at killing this resistant Cucuta population was greatly reduced, with mortality rates <80% two weeks after application and <50% after 4 weeks. Neither biochemical assays nor partial sequencing of the ace-1 gene implicated target site resistance as the primary resistance mechanism. Synergism assays and microarray analysis suggested that metabolic mechanisms were most likely responsible for the temephos resistance. Interestingly, although the greatest synergism was observed with the carboxylesterase inhibitor, DEF, the primary candidate genes from the microarray analysis, and confirmed by quantitative PCR, were cytochrome P450 oxidases, notably CYP6N12, CYP6F3 and CYP6M11. Conclusions/Significance In Colombia, resistance to temephos in Ae. aegypti compromises the duration of its effect as a vector control tool. Several candidate genes potentially responsible for metabolic resistance to temephos were identified. Given the limited number of insecticides that are approved for vector control, future chemical-based control strategies should take into account the mechanisms underlying the resistance to discern which insecticides would likely lead to the greatest control efficacy while minimizing further selection of resistant phenotypes.
This document states the general philosophy behind curriculum planning and improvement in Colombia. Topics covered are recognized educational needs and objectives, the role of the school, curriculum structure and development, teacher and student roles, factors that need to be considered for educational improvement, and steps for carrying out that…
Al caminar por los pasillos del nuevo centro oncológico integral en la sede de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (UPR) en San Juan, uno debe mantener los ojos abiertos. La mujer que pasa caminando vigorosamente podría ser la doctora Marcia Roxana Cruz-Correa, y no debe uno perderse la oportunidad de conocerla.
Cada vez es más evidente que los esfuerzos mundiales de salud de mayor éxito dependen no solo del aporte de las mentes más brillantes, sino de la colaboración entre ellas para marcar la diferencia en el escenario global. Este enfoque es el motor impulsor detrás de una asociación excepcional con el NCI, financiada en parte por Susan G.
Este programa busca fomentar los esfuerzos locales y mundiales de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento del cáncer facilitando la creación de una infraestructura integral para la investigación del cáncer en América Latina.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de cuello uterino; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de seno (mama); así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.
(64.3%), relaciones interpersonales (60.7%), manejo del estrés (57.9%), nutrición (57.3%), responsabilidad en salud (54.9%) y la más baja fue actividad física (49%). El modelo de regresión múltiple, mostró 7 factores que predijeron 37.1% de la variabilidad en las CPS: percepción del estado de salud (R 2 =21%, p<0.0001); auto-eficacia (R 2 =20.5%, p<0.0001); educación formal (R 2 =8.3%, p<0.0001); autonomía
Geology and magnetic records between Arroyo La Tapera and Santa Clara del Mar, Mar del Plata. Paleomagnetic studies were carried out in Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentary sequences exposed between Arroyo La Tapera and Santa Clara del Mar in Mar del Plata. The sediments exposed in the lower part of the La Tapera and Camet sections, which apparently belong to the Ensenada Formation,
Juan Carlos BIDEGAIN; Margarita L. OSTERRIETH; Adrianus J. VAN VELZEN; Yamile RICO
RIASSUNTO - Variabilità interannuale del fi toplancton del Lago di Tovel (Trentino, Italia) - Lo studio del fi toplancton del Lago di Tovel nel periodo 2002-2004 ha avuto come principali obiettivi l'analisi della variabilità interannuale delle dinamiche stagionali nel Bacino Principale e nella Baia Rossa, il confronto tra le associazioni fi toplanctoniche attuali e passate (prima e dopo la scomparsa
Background Malaria remains a serious problem in Colombia. The number of malaria cases is governed by multiple climatic and non-climatic factors. Malaria control policies, and climate controls such as rainfall and temperature variations associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), have been associated with malaria case numbers. Using historical climate data and annual malaria case number data from 1960 to 2006, statistical models are developed to isolate the effects of climate in each of Colombia's five contrasting geographical regions. Methods Because year to year climate variability associated with ENSO causes interannual variability in malaria case numbers, while changes in population and institutional control policy result in more gradual trends, the chosen predictors in the models are annual indices of the ENSO state (sea surface temperature [SST] in the tropical Pacific Ocean) and time reference indices keyed to two major malaria trends during the study period. Two models were used: a Poisson and a Negative Binomial regression model. Two ENSO indices, two time reference indices, and one dummy variable are chosen as candidate predictors. The analysis was conducted using the five geographical regions to match the similar aggregation used by the National Institute of Health for its official reports. Results The Negative Binomial regression model is found better suited to the malaria cases in Colombia. Both the trend variables and the ENSO measures are significant predictors of malaria case numbers in Colombia as a whole, and in two of the five regions. A one degree Celsius change in SST (indicating a weak to moderate ENSO event) is seen to translate to an approximate 20% increase in malaria cases, holding other variables constant. Conclusion Regional differentiation in the role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden during 1960–2006 was found, constituting a new approach to use ENSO as a significant predictor of the malaria cases in Colombia. These results naturally point to additional needed work: (1) refining the regional and seasonal dependence of climate on the ENSO state, and of malaria on the climate variables; (2) incorporating ENSO-related climate variability into dynamic malaria models.
Mantilla, Gilma; Oliveros, Hugo; Barnston, Anthony G
Del Mar College offers a comprehensive geospatial program with certificates and Associates degrees in GIS. This site includes description of the program and courses, along with further contact information. By clicking on the link for "Geographic Information Systems" you may download a PDF with information about the program.
Bastan unos minutos para entender la inmensa complejidad que tiene la noción de procomún. Disponemos de muchas definiciones aceptables, aunque las más frecuentes bordean de una u otra manera el problema de la propiedad y la teoría del valor. Cuando decimos que pertenece al procomún todo cuanto es de todos y de nadie a mismo tiempo estamos pensando en un
Estimates the earnings impact of an extensive inservice training program in the developing world, Colombia's Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje (SENA), through a comparison of nongraduates' and graduates' earnings profiles. (JOW)
El concepto de disciplina de mercado es de gran importancia en el análisis del sistema financiero de un país. La disciplina de mercado se define como la reacción de los acreedores bancarios frente al riesgo financiero y la subsiguiente reacción de los bancos ante las acciones de sus acreedores. Este trabajo busca probar si la disciplina de mercado es típica
De tiempo atrás, los escritores sobre temas monetarios se han ocupado del problema de cómo definir el dinero. Se ha tratado, en breve, de primero establecer un criterio que sirva de fundamento para identificar los activos constitutivos de dinero, y luego, de aplicar el criterio adoptado al caso empírico concreto que se desea analizar. De todas formas, en el discurso
Los medios de comunicación reinventan la realidad, tejen nuevos estilos de vida e imponen nuevas miradas del mundo; por eso, si los colombianos conocemos las lógicas de los periodistas y de las fuentes, será más fácil entender el porqué de las informaciones para así poder realizar lecturas críticas de los medios. ¿Alguna vez se ha preguntado si es suficiente con
The Colombian military and the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) have committed systematic attacks against the\\u000a Colombian people that violate international law. One such heinous incident took place in May 2003 at the Betoyes Guahibo indigenous\\u000a reserve in Colombia. Unlike other acts of terror, the attack at the Reserve is well documented. Because of this, the attack\\u000a on the
Rhodnius pallescens is considered the main vector of Chagas disease in Panama and a relevant secondary vector in northern Colombia. Previous data reported that this species presents cytogenetically heterogeneous populations, which are probably biogeographically segregated. To provide new information on the diversity of R. pallescens, we compared several populations from Colombia and Panama based on the morphometric analyses of wings, mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequencing, and genomic DNA measurements. Although no differences in DNA amount were detected, significant differences in cyt b sequences as well as wing size and shape were identified among populations. The results obtained in this work indicate R. pallescens comprises two evolutionary lineages with genetic and morphological differences that could be explained by their geographic isolation in distinct ecological zones. These results provide new insight into R. pallescens population diversity and the underlying biological processes that shape its evolution. PMID:22634278
In Colombia, Leishmania mexicana has a scattered geographical distribution and no sand fly vectors have been associated with its transmission. During the present study, the anthropophilic sand fly Lutzomyia columbiana was found to be the only species collected using diverse methods, in a small focus of Le. mexicana in the municipality of Samaniego, SW Colombia. Ecological data indicate that this sand fly species is present in both peri and intradomestic habitats, where it readily bites man. Further evidence comes from experimental infections of wild-caught Lu. columbiana with Le. mexicana after feeding on infected hamsters. Based on these results, it is suggested that this sand fly is the most likely vector in the study area, suggesting the existence of a previously unknown sand fly-parasite association. PMID:10348975
Montoya-Lerma, J; Cadena, H; Segura, I; Travi, B L
Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Methods Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Results Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active engagement of survivors in available, quality services. Such efforts may facilitate achievement of the goals of new Colombian laws, which seek to prevent and respond to GBV, including in conflict settings. Ongoing conflict and generalized GBV in displacement, as well as among the wider population, suggests a need to create sustainable solutions that are accessible to both IDPs and general populations.
ObjectiveThis article characterises the burden of childhood injuries and provides examples of evidence–based injury prevention strategies developed using a citywide injury surveillance system in Pasto, Colombia.MethodsFatal (2003-2007) and non-fatal (2006-2007) childhood injury data were analysed by age, sex, cause, intent, place of occurrence, and disposition.ResultsBoys accounted for 71.5% of fatal and 64.9% of non-fatal injuries. The overall fatality rate for
Victoria Espitia-Hardeman; Nagesh N Borse; Ann M Dellinger; Carmen Elena Betancourt; Alba Nelly Villareal; Luz Diana Caicedo; Carlos Portillo
Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting\\u000a ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena\\u000a Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed\\u000a for T-Hg
Jesús Olivero-Verbel; Karina Caballero-Gallardo; José Negrete-Marrugo
The catalog of volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Galeras volcano, Colombia, was analyzed to determine the magnitude of completeness of the seismograph network and to explore the subsurface structure by mapping the b-value of the frequency-magnitude distribution. By using 8,435 well-located earthquakes between 1989-2002 we found the catalog to be complete above MD=0.26. The average b-value of 0.71 was found to be
JOHN J. SÁNCHEZ; D. M. GÓMEZ; R. A. TORRES; M. L. CALVACHE; A. ORTEGA; A. P. PONCE; A. P. ACEVEDO; F. GIL-CRUZ; J. M. LONDOÑO; S. P. RODRIGUEZ; J. DE; J. PATIÑO; O. P. BOHÓRQUEZ
. An environmental reconstruction of the last 10,000 14C years of a frequently flooded wetland ecosystem in the lower Magdalena valley in northern Colombia is presented, on the\\u000a basis of a multi-disciplinary study of the sediments of the upper 15 m of the core from Boquillas (74°33'E, 9°7'N; 20 m a.\\u000a s. l.). We used the following studies: pollen, lithology,
Juan Carlos Berrío; Arnoud Boom; Pedro José Botero; Luisa Fernanda Herrera; Henry Hooghiemstra; Freddy Romero; Gustavo Sarmiento
The worst-month concept of propagation phenomena is a tool for radio communication system design based on monthly objectives of service availability or performance. This letter presents an empirical analysis of worst-month complementary cumulative distribution functions obtained using one-minute integrated rain rate data from the Aburra Valley in the country of Colombia, and evaluates models to relate average year and worst-month
We describe the results of extensive monitoring of leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nesting in the Gulf of Uraba, Colombia and the Caribbean coast of southern Panama. On 100km of coastline, we identified three important coastal stretches totalling 18.9km that hold 98.5–98.7% of nesting activity. We estimated a total number of nesting activities at all sites of 6254 (2006) and 7509
Juan Patino-Martinez; Adolfo Marco; Liliana Quiñones; Brendan Godley
This comparative, contextualized research conducted between 2003 and 2004 summarizes and discusses the impact of the socioeconomic and political environments on the practice of public relations in Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. Sixty-one in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with top-level professionals in the capital and main commercial cities in these three countries where the profession thrives but is also challenged. The
A group of Callicebus torquatus lugens using a territory of 22.25 ha in eastern Colombia showed a varied diet throughout the annual period of lowest fruit availability. This is a time when the females are usually pregnant. During a 6-month period the study group's diet consisted of 59.4% fruits, 26.9% immature seeds, 6.4% leaves, 3.9% flowers, and 3.4% insects and
Erwin Palacios; Adriana Rodríguez; Thomas R. Defler
Venoms of the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus from Colombia and Costa Rica were analyzed by "venomics", a proteomic strategy to determine their composition. Proteins were separated by RP-HPLC, followed by SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion, identification by MALDI or ESI tandem mass spectrometry, and assignment to known protein families by similarity. These analyses were complemented with a characterization of venom activities in vitro and in vivo. Proteins belonging to seven families were found in Colombian M. mipartitus venom, including abundant three-finger toxins (3FTx; ~60% of total proteins) and phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2); ~30%), with the remaining ~10% distributed among l-amino acid oxidase, P-III metalloproteinase, Kunitz-type inhibitor, serine proteinase, and C-type lectin-like families. The venoms of two M. mipartitus specimens from Costa Rica, also referred to as M. multifasciatus in some taxonomic classifications, were also analyzed. Both samples were highly similar to each other, and partially resembled the chromatographic and identity profiles of M. mipartitus from Colombia, although presenting a markedly higher proportion of 3FTxs (~83.0%) in relation to PLA(2)s (~8.2%), and a small amount of acetylcholinesterase, not detected in the venom from Colombia. An equine antivenom against the Central American coral snake, M. nigrocinctus, did not recognize venom components of M. mipartitus from Colombia or Costa Rica by enzyme-immunoassay. Four major components of Colombian M. mipartitus venom were isolated and partially characterized. Venomics of Micrurus species may provide a valuable platform for the rational design of immunizing cocktails to obtain polyspecific antivenoms for this highly diverse group of American elapids. PMID:21963438
Rey-Suárez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno
Fishes at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, were surveyed as part of a larger scientific expedition to the area in September 2009. The average total biomass of nearshore fishes was 7.8 tonnes per ha, among the largest observed in the tropics, with apex predators such as sharks, jacks, and groupers accounting for nearly 40% of the total biomass. The abundance of reef and pelagic sharks, particularly large aggregations of threatened species such as the scalloped hammerhead shark (up to 42 hammerheads ha-1) and large schools of jacks and snappers show the capacity for high biomass in unfished ecosystems in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. However, the abundance of hammerhead and reef whitetip sharks appears to have been declining since the late 1990s, and likely causes may include increasing fishing pressure on sharks in the region and illegal fishing inside the Park. One Galapagos shark tagged on September 20, 2009 in the Isla del Coco National Park moved 255km southeast towards Malpelo Island in Colombia, when it stopped transmitting. These results contribute to the evidence that sharks conduct large-scale movements between marine protected areas (Isla del Coco, Malpelo, Galápagos) in the Eastern tropical Pacific and emphasize the need for regional-scale management. More than half of the species and 90% of the individuals observed were endemic to the tropical eastern Pacific. These high biomass and endemicity values highlight the uniqueness of the fish assemblage at Isla del Coco and its importance as a global biodiversity hotspot.
Friedlander, Alan M.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Ballesteros, Enric; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Bolaños, Allan; Sala, Enric
The main objective of this paper is to study and quantify the differences in energy consumption and environmental impacts of two dwellings during the full building life cycle: one in Spain, a developed country, and one in Colombia, a country under development. In both scenarios, we assessed the construction, use and end-of-life phases. Results show that the use phase in the Pamplona house (Colombia) represents a lower percentage for all impacts in the total than in the Barcelona house (Spain). The findings of this study showed that the difference in consumption in Colombia and Spanish dwellings analysed is not only due to the variation in results for bio-climatic differences but also because of the consumption habits in each country. The importance of consumption habits of citizens and the need to decouple socio-economic development from energy consumption are sought for achieving sustainability from a life cycle perspective. There is a crucial necessity to provide satisfaction to basic needs and comfort requirements of population with reasonable and sustainable energy consumption. Then, the type of standard dwelling varies substantially depending on the geographic location where it is built. Climate, technological, cultural, socio-economical differences clearly define the standard of a building in any context and in any region. However, the function is always the same, to provide protection and housing for its habitants. PMID:20211484
La orientación ideológica de los gobiernos, el momento de las elecciones y los intereses particulares de los dirigentes pueden afectar de manera importante la política económica en cualquiera de sus componentes. Se puede esperar que un gobierno establezca sus políticas en materia económica, ya sea siguiendo los preceptos ideológicos que el partido político al cual pertenece haya proclamado, o bien,
\\u000a Anche il paesaggio, come vedremo, si evolve. Ma parlare oggi di evoluzione è assai problematico e quindi non si può fare a\\u000a meno di un inquadramento più generale del fenomeno. Quando oggi si parla di evoluzione si presenta sovente un quadro che,\\u000a purtroppo, non ha sempre i caratteri della scienza e un dibattito che, di conseguenza, trascina polemiche anche fra
Fragmentation of natural habitats is a central concern of biodiversity conservation and is considered a significant factor contributing to species loss and populations decline. We studied this in Cotové Agricultural Center in the municipality of Santa Fe de Antioquia (Colombia),where the conversion of natural forests to different land use systems, has limited the amount of available habitat. With the aim to describe the effect of habitat loss on bird presence in five land uses (fruiting trees, silvopastoral systems, secondary forest, pasture low density of trees and grass cutting) in this area, we studied bird diversity using two methods: fixed point counts and mist nets to analyze the influence of land use in the composition, richness and abundance of birds present were studied. A total of 6633 individuals of 101 species were observed of which 11 species were migratory. The insectivorous and frugivorous foraging guilds were better represented. The Shannon index indicated the highest values of alpha diversity for the silvopastoral system, and the fruit with the lowest. The grazing and silvopastoral land systems shared more species with low tree density. The importance of the environmental heterogeneity found is highlighted as a positive factor for bird species richness, mostly of low and middle habitat specificity, and preferably from edge habitats and open areas. In order to preserve natural regeneration and connectivity between different land use types, and to promote stability of bird species populations, some management actions should be implemented in the area. PMID:24432522
Martínez-Bravo, Caty Milena; Mancera-Rodríguez, Néstor Javier; Buitrago-Franco, Germán
Patterns of malaria cases were compared between the department of Meta and the municipality of Puerto Gaitán, Colombia, to examine temporal change in malaria from 2005-2010. During this time frame in Meta the mean ratio was 2.53; in contrast, in Puerto Gaitán it was 1.41, meaning that a surprisingly high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum cases were reported from this municipality. A detailed analysis of data from Puerto Gaitán for 2009 and 2010 detected a significant difference (?2, p < 0.001) in the distribution of plasmodia, with Plasmodium vivax more prevalent in 2009 and P. falciparum in 2010. Males had the highest number of cases but there was no difference in the distribution of cases between sexes and years. In both years, for both sexes, people 16-40 accounted for the majority of cases (58.9% in 2009; 60.4% in 2010). There were significant differences in the distribution of both P. vivax (?2, p < 0.01) and P. falciparum cases (?2, p < 0.05) by geographic setting (urban vs. non-urban) between years. Urban cases of both P. vivax and P. falciparum are recorded in this study for the first time in Puerto Gaitán, possibly the result of area wide displacement and migration due to armed conflict.
Buitrago, Luz Stella; Brochero, Helena Luisa; McKeon, Sascha N; Lainhart, William; Conn, Jan E
The Cusiana Field (BP, Ecopetrol, Total and Triton) is located in the Llanos Foothills of Eastern Colombia. The Cusiana reservoirs range from late Cretaceous, passive margin deltaic to early Tertiary, early foreland basin estuarine-fluvial. The key reservoir is the late Eocene Mirador Formation which comprises over 50% of reserves. Currently the Mirador reservoir is providing nearly all of the 180,00 bopd of production from the Cusiana Field. The Mirador reservoir comprises a stack of incised valley deposits. The fills of the valleys are sandstone-dominated and comprise the majority of the reservoir quality in the reservoir. Critical to an effective understanding of reservoir behavior has been a detailed reservoir description and reservoir modeling of the incised valley stratigraphy in the Mirador. Models have been constructed using the deterministic information provided by extensive core (3000 feet) coupled with stochastic tools and techniques. Dynamic data, provided by extensive acquisition of production logs during early development drilling, have been integrated within the static-descriptions. Important reservoir characteristics such as degree of valley connectivity, intra-valley heterogeneities and textural controls on permeability have been captured in the modeling process. Upscaling of the high resolution static model has preserved the key sequence stratigraphic facets of the reservoir and also incorporated textural controls on relative permeability. Prediction of pressure transient behavior and fluid movement is working well in the full field simulator, VIP.
Pulham, A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)); MacDonald, D.; Colin, D.
The objective of this study was to quantify sample transportation times associated with mandated microbiological monitoring of drinking-water in Colombia. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality recommend that samples spend no more than 6h between collection and analysis in a laboratory. Census data were used to estimate the minimum number of operational and surveillance samples required from piped water supplies under national regulations. Drive-times were then computed from each supply system to the nearest accredited laboratory and translated into sample holding times based on likely daily monitoring patterns. Of 62,502 surveillance samples required annually, 5694 (9.1%) were found to be more than 6h from the nearest of 278 accredited laboratories. 612 samples (1.0%) were more than 24hours' drive from the nearest accredited laboratory, the maximum sample holding time recommended by the World Health Organization. An estimated 30% of required rural samples would have to be stored for more than 6h before reaching a laboratory. The analysis demonstrates the difficulty of undertaking microbiological monitoring in rural areas and small towns from a fixed laboratory network. Our GIS-based approach could be adapted to optimise monitoring strategies and support planning of testing and transportation infra-structure development. It could also be used to estimate sample transport and holding times in other countries. PMID:24747256
The purpose of this research project was to study the relationship between drug consumption and sexual practices in teenagers in the city of Medellin, Colombia. A transversal studied was designed in order to identify the variables related to having had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs or alcohol. The sample was made up of 955 teenagers between 14 and 17, who were in 9th, 10th and 11th grades in public and private schools in the city of Medellin. The results show that the prevalence of drug and alcohol influence in sexual intercourse is 43,67%. The most common drugs used for sexual practices are alcohol, marihuana, popper, cocaine and ecstasy. Consuming alcohol or drugs and having sexual practices shows an associated meaningful statistic (p= .001). The more common sexual practices under psychoactive substances are the exploratory ones (caresses and touching) (71%), vaginal penetration (63.67%), oral sex (45.30%) and masturbation (19.59%). Regarding the protection methods during sexual intercourse under drug or alcohol influence 55,9% always use a condom, 37,3% sometimes use it, and 6,8% never do it. This study proves what had been previously established by other research projects that show a high statistic association between drug consumption and sexual practices, but realizes that there is no statistically significant association between sexual practices under the influence of alcohol or drugs and the use or non-use of protective methods, which is the most important finding. PMID:23241721
The community structure of dung beetles in the middle and lower river basin of the Gaira river, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described. Four sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient of 50-940 m for sampling from June to October, 2004. Dung beetles were captured using modified pitfall traps and manual recollections. We captured 7,872 individuals belonging to 29 species, distributed in 15 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Canthon and Onthophagus were the most diverse genera, each represented by six species. The sampled sites shared the following species: Onthophagus acuminatus Harold, O. clypeatus Blanchard, O. marginicollis Harold. Bocatoma was the most diverse site with 23 species; whereas Port Mosquito presented the highest abundance, with 3,262 individuals. Seven species represented 89% of all captures: Canthidium sp., Dichotomius sp., Uroxys sp. 1, Uroxys sp. 2, O. marginicollis, O. clypeatus and O. acuminatus. Of the 29 captured species, 17 belonged to the functional group of diggers and 10 were ball-rollers. We did not observe significant among-site differences in community structure. Abiotic factors such as altitude, temperature and humidity cannot explain observed variation in community structure across sites, indicating other variables such as vegetation cover, density of the vegetation and soil type may play a role in the community structure of these insects. PMID:20098915
Martínez, Neis J; García, Héctor; Pulido, Luz A; Ospino, Deibi; Harváez, Juan C
Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a malaria antigen involved in sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, and thus considered to have good vaccine potential. We evaluated the polymorphism of the Plasmodium vivax CS gene in 24 parasite isolates collected from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia. We sequenced 27 alleles, most of which (25/27) corresponded to the VK247 genotype and the remainder to the VK210 type. All VK247 alleles presented a mutation (Gly ? Asn) at position 28 in the N-terminal region, whereas the C-terminal presented three insertions: the ANKKAGDAG, which is common in all VK247 isolates; 12 alleles presented the insertion GAGGQAAGGNAANKKAGDAG; and 5 alleles presented the insertion GGNAGGNA. Both repeat regions were polymorphic in gene sequence and size. Sequences coding for B-, T-CD4(+), and T-CD8(+) cell epitopes were found to be conserved. This study confirms the high polymorphism of the repeat domain and the highly conserved nature of the flanking regions. PMID:21292878
Hernández-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Escalante, Ananías A; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates
Strain monitoring for emergence of novel strains after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine is an integral component of routine rotavirus immunization programs. Using a laboratory based strain surveillance system between 2008 and 2012, a wide variation in strain pattern in Colombia was founded both before and after the introduction of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine in 2009. G2P, a strain fully heterotypic to the vaccine was predominant before vaccine introduction in 2008 (47%) and after vaccine introduction in 2010 (54%), 2011 (86%), and 2012 (32%). The presence of this strain before the introduction of vaccine and decreasing prevalence during the most recent surveillance year suggests secular variation rather than vaccine pressure as a cause for this fluctuation. While strain monitoring can be valuable after vaccine introduction, these surveillance data alone without information on disease incidence or strain specific vaccine effectiveness can be prone to misinterpretation with regard to the role of vaccine pressure on emergence of new or persistent strains. PMID:24616018
Peláez-Carvajal, Dioselina; Cotes-Cantillo, Karol; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; Gentsch, Jon; de la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Patel, Manish
Cretaceous marine rocks of the western Cordillera Oriental of Colombia are exposed in stratigraphic sections which reveal multiple source terrains and variable diagenetic histories that were imposed by later thrusting XRD and petrographic analyses indicate that earliest Cretaceous rocks were derived from a nearly plutonic source (Triassic-Jurassic Ibague Batholith of the Cordillera Central) which provided feldspathic lithic fragments and clay-sized illite. High smectite concentrations in the overlying Hauterivian-Barremian strata reflect contemporaneous volcanism, possibly in the Cordillera Central. This signal decreased upsection to the upper Aptian, where detrital clays (kaolinite, chlorite, feldspar, amphibole) indicate a shift to a cratonic source, probably the Guayana Shield. Cratonic detrital input continues into the Turonian-Coniacian and is accompanies by high concentrations of smectite representing another period of volcanic activity. Later tectonic activity divided the area into two regions, each with unique diagenetic signatures. Three primary clastic sources are inferred for the section east of the thrust belt, however, the mineral assemblage is masked by later diagenesis. Sediments within the thrust belt show greater variability in the relative abundance of mineral assemblages and more poorly crystallized illite than occurs to the east of the thrust section. The preservation of much of the original mineralogic components within the thrust section indicates that these sediments have experienced only limited diagenetic overprinting as a result of a relatively short burial history. These contrasting signatures have important implications for hydrocarbon maturation within Cretaceous source rocks in a structurally complex region.
Segall, M.P.; Allen, R.B. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Rubiano, J.; Sarmiento, L. (Instituto Colombiano de Petroleos, Bucaramanga (Colombia))
This study determined the total mercury (THg) concentrations in pectoral muscle, blood and carapace tissue in turtles collected from Magangué and Lorica, Colombia. THg concentrations in ?g/g (wet weight) were 0.39 ± 0.16 in muscle, 0.15 ± 0.08 in carapace and 0.07 ± 0.03 in blood for turtles from the Magdalena River and 0.25 ± 0.18 in muscle, 0.14 ± 0.09 in carapace and 0.06 ± 0.04 in blood for turtles from the Sinú River. Twenty-nine and ten percent of turtle muscle samples from Magangué and Lorica, respectively, exceeded the consumption advisory limit of 0.5 ?g Hg/g for fish. There was a significant correlation between carapace length and THg levels for this specie, depending on the sample site. In addition, a significant correlation was observed in THg concentrations in carapace and muscle. However, significant differences were observed in the THg levels between the two study locations, with turtles caught in the Magdalena River having higher levels of THg. PMID:24458244
To determine clinical and epidemiological features of scorpion stings in two departments of Colombia, a descriptive study was performed in the hospitals of 10 towns from Antioquia (2 256 071 inhabitants) and five from Tolima (630 424 inhabitants). One hundred and twenty-nine cases were admitted during one year, 51 in Antioquia, 78 in Tolima and 41 were children less than 15 years old. Most stings (70.5%) occurred inside the house; 27.9% were on the hands and 26.4% on the feet. The scorpion species involved were Tityus pachyurus (51), Centruroides gracilis (31), T. fuehrmanni (29), T. asthenes (7) and Chactas spp. (1). In 10 cases the scorpion involved was not identified. Systemic envenoming signs (e.g. vomiting, tachypnea) were significantly more frequent in children than in adults (P < 0.05). Four children had hypertension, but none developed pulmonary oedema. One 3-year-old girl, stung by T. asthenes, had acute oedematous pancreatitis. Ninety-eight patients had mild envenoming. Moderate (27 patients) and severe (four patients) envenoming was significantly more frequent in children than in adults (P = 0.003; relative risk = 2.97). A pepsin-digested anti-Centruroides spp. antivenom was administered to 19 of 31 patients presenting systemic envenoming signs. No adverse reactions to antivenom were observed. PMID:15485705
Otero, R; Navío, E; Céspedes, F A; Núñez, M J; Lozano, L; Moscoso, E R; Matallana, C; Arsuza, N B; García, J; Fernández, D; Rodas, J H; Rodríguez, O J; Zuleta, J E; Gómez, J P; Saldarriaga, M; Quintana, J C; Núñez, V; Cárdenas, S; Barona, J; Valderrama, R; Paz, N; Díaz, A; Rodríguez, O L; Martínez, M D; Maturana, R; Beltrán, L E; Mesa, M B; Paniagua, J; Flórez, E; Lourenço, W R
Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study.
Currently, the trend of micro-grids and small-scale renewable generation systems implementation in urban environments requires to have historical and detailed information about the energy potential resource in site. In Colombia, this information is limited and do not favor the design of these applications; for this reason, must be made detailed studies of the energy potential in their cities. In this paper is presented the wind and solar energy resource assessment for the city of Bucaramanga, based on the monitoring on four strategic points during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. According to the analysis, is evidenced a significant solar resource throughout the year ascending on average to 1 734 kWh/m2, equivalent to 4.8 kWh/m2/day. Also, from a wind statistical study based on the Weibull probability distribution and Wind Power Density (WPD) was established the wind potential as Class 1 according to the scale of the Department of Energy of the United States (DOE), since the average speed is near 1.4 m/s. Due this, it is technically unfeasible the using of micro-turbines in the city, even so their potential for natural ventilation of building was analyzed. Finally, is presented a methodology to analyze solar harvesting by sectors in the city, according to the solar motion and shadowing caused by existing structures.
The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system.
Gonzalez, Angie D.; Matta, Nubia E.; Ellis, Vincenzo A.; Miller, Eliot T.; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Gutierrez, H. Rafael
Introduction: Maintaining communities abreast of their local dengue situation could help to keep them motivated to participate in dengue control and to decrease Aedes entomological indexes. Objectives: To evaluate the coverage and reach of an intervention based on mass-media communication of dengue surveillance reports and its effect on the presence of intra-domiciliary breeding sites for Aedes in Guadalajara de Buga, Colombia. Materials and methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,426 households to identify the intra-domiciliary breeding sites and to characterize the intervention exposure. To evaluate the effect of the intervention, a case-control study was performed. All households with positive breeding sites were considered as cases. Four controls per case were randomly selected among the non-positive breeding site households located on the same block of the case. Results: The positive house index was 2.5%; coverage was 59.4% and reach was 22.3%. There was no association between the intervention and the presence of intra-domiciliary breeding sites. The presence of water plants and flower pots were associated to positive breeding sites (p=0.01) and the use of screens was associated to the absence of breeding sites (p=0.02). Conclusions: Although intervention coverage was adequate, the lack of association between the intervention and the absence of positive breeding sites requires assessing its fidelity, factors related to the design, and the implementation process. PMID:24652257
Carabalí, Mabel; Ocampo, Clara Beatriz; Toledo, María Eugenia; Osorio, Lyda
Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated changes were observed in 37%. The most common changes were villitis, intervillitis, deciduitis, increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots, mononuclear (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes), polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and trophozoites in fetal erythrocytes. No association was found between type of placental changes observed and histopathologic classification of placental malaria. The findings are consistent with those reported for placental malaria in other regions. Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite responsible for placental and gestational malaria, but its role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria was not conclusive.
A descriptive study was carried out in 104 patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria, from the region of Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia). Clinical features and levels of hemoglobin, glycemia, serum bilirubin, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), creatinine and complete blood cell profile were established. 65% of the studied individuals were men and their mean age was 23. Of all individuals 59% had lived in the region for > 1 year and 91% were resident in the rural area. 42% were farmers and 35% had a history of malaria. The mean parasitaemia was 5865 parasites/mm3. The evolution of the disease was short (average of 4.0 days). Fever, headache and chills were observed simultaneously in 91% of the cases while the most frequent signs were palmar pallor (46%), jaundice (15%), hepatomegaly (17%), and spleen enlargement (12%). Anemia was found in 39% of the women and in 51% of the men, 8% of individuals had thrombocytopaenia and 41% had hypoglycemia. PMID:12751319
Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte levels are influenced by level of regional endemicity, the antimalarial treatment, and the therapeutic response of patients. Few previous studies have related these factors in Colombia. Here, gametocytaemia was evaluated with respect to two treatment schemes (sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine plus chloroquine), the patient response (adequate or failure), and the locality (two areas of varying case frequency). One hundred forty-eight residents of Turbo and Zaragoza (Antioquia), all with uncomplicated malaria, were evaluated. The gametocytaemia and the rates of clinical malaria at the beginning of treatment were greater in Turbo than in Zaragoza. No statistically significant differences in the gametocytaemia by treatment schemes or therapeutic responses were noted, although the patients who received SP had more gametocytes than those treated with SP+CQ. Gametocytaemia was not correlated with asexual parasitemia or sex and age of patient. The difference in the level of gametocytaemia between Turbo and Zaragoza appears to be influenced by the time elapsed between the appearance of symptoms and the beginning of treatment. PMID:15239604
Objective Exploring the relationship between PM10 intra- and extra-domiciliary levels and the lung function of people living in La Sierra, Antioquia, Colombia. Materials and Methods A survey and field observations were used for determining the environmental conditions and the immediate household environment of 124 people who had taken a spirometric test. Meteorological conditions were monitored: temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed and PM10 (24 hours) within and outside the houses. Results Indoor PM10 (0.05 mg/m³) in 50 % of the houses was
Montoya-Rendon, María L; Zapata-Saldarriaga, Patricia M; Correa-Ochoa, Mauricio A
Our objective was to estimate the out-of-pocket expenditure related to medical and non-medical items on health care covered by individuals or household members, and to describe coping strategies they use to meet the financial burden. We undertook a cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of 540 adults with HIV living in urban areas of Bogotá, Colombia. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done. We found that although 95% of the patients with HIV in the sample had health insurance, individuals and families spent about 13% of their incomes on medical and non-medical items monthly. Those costs increased for patients taking the second or third antiretroviral drug (ARV) treatment scheme and for patients with AIDS-related physical disabilities. We found statistically significant differences in spending among different insurance plans and socioeconomic status (SES; p?0.05). As a result of the high out-of-pocket expenses, households had to alter their budgets, reducing consumption of basic needs and modifying financial and social family dynamics. Those coping strategies might increase both current and structural poverty. Lack of comprehensive health care increases the economic burden for patients, in terms of financial but also social impact. PMID:21749222
Lopera, Mónica M; Einarson, Thomas R; Iván Bula, Jorge
Abstract Rickettsia typhi and R. felis are the etiological agents of murine typhus and flea-borne spotted fever, respectively. Both are emerging acute febrile zoonotic diseases for which fleas are vectors; they also have similar clinical characteristics and global distribution. In 2005, we identified the circulation of murine typhus in 6 towns within the mountainous coffee-growing area north of Caldas, Colombia. We now report the specific seroprevalence against R. typhi and R. felis, and associated risk factors in 7 towns of this province. The combined seroprevalence against the 2 flea-borne rickettsioses is the highest yet reported in the literature: 71.7% (17.8% for R. felis, 25.2% for R. typhi, and 28.7% for both). We also report a prospective analysis of 26 patients with a febrile illness compatible with rickettsioses, including murine typhus; 9 of these patients had a rickettsiosis. This supports our sero-epidemiological results and highlights the diagnostic complexity of febrile syndromes in this region.
We report the results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a killed whole-cell Leishmania amazonensis candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Colombia. The trial subjects were 2597 healthy volunteers with negative leishmanin skin test (LST) selected from rural Colombian soldiers who were going to patrol endemic areas. They were randomized to receive either three doses of vaccine (n=1295) or placebo (n=1302) given at 20-day intervals. An active and passive case detection system was established to follow-up volunteers for 1 year after vaccination. Safety and efficacy of the vaccine were determined by comparing local and systemic adverse reactions after each dose and the incidence of parasitologically confirmed CL. In the vaccine and placebo groups 101 (7.7%) and 88 (6.8%) volunteers developed CL respectively. The vaccine was shown to be safe but offered no protection against CL caused by L. panamensis in the proposed vaccination schedule. PMID:15893351
Vélez, Iván D; Gilchrist, Katherine; Arbelaez, María P; Rojas, Carlos A; Puerta, Juan A; Antunes, Carlos M F; Zicker, Fabio; Modabber, Farrokh
A total of 200 samples of feedstuffs and mixed feeds used for poultry and pig nutrition in Colombia were analysed for zearalenone using a LC technique with a limit of detection of 20 ?g/kg. Samples of grain sorghum, maize, processed soybean, rice meal, cottonseed meal, and poultry and pig feeds, representative of the Colombian production for the 1995-1996 harvest, were taken at feed manufacturing plants located in different cities of the country. Zearalenone was detected in 25 of 45 samples of sorghum, 2 of 33 samples of maize, 7 of 22 samples of rice meal, 9 of 17 samples of cottonseed meal, 11 of 30 samples of poultry feed and 6 of 16 samples of pig feed. Zearalenone was not detected in soybean or other feedstuff s analysed (wheat by- products, cassava meal, palm). Overall levels of zearalenone ranged from 29 to 3956 ?g/kg, with a mean value of 436 ?g/kg. Only one of the 6 positive samples of pig feed had a zearalenone concentration above 500 ?g/kg, which is normally considered as the safe level for pigs. PMID:23604826
Land degradation is the result of soil mismanagement that reduces soil productivity and environmental services. An alternative to improve degraded soils through reactivation of biogeochemical nutrient cycles (via litter production and decomposition) is the establishment of active restoration models using new forestry plantations, agroforestry, and silvopastoral systems. On the other hand, passive models of restoration consist of promoting natural successional processes with native plants. The objective in this review is to discuss the role of litter production and decomposition as a key strategy to reactivate biogeochemical nutrient cycles and thus improve soil quality in degraded land of the tropics. For this purpose the results of different projects of land restoration in Colombia are presented based on the dynamics of litter production, nutrient content, and decomposition. The results indicate that in only 6-13 years it is possible to detect soil properties improvements due to litter fall and decomposition. Despite that, low soil nutrient availability, particularly of N and P, seems to be major constraint to reclamation of these fragile ecosystems. PMID:24696656
We examined changes in the phlebotomine fauna resulting from human intervention in a tropical dry forest of Northern Colombia where visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are endemic. A natural forest reserve (Colosó) and a highly degraded area (San Andrés de Sotavento [SAS]) were sampled monthly for 8 mo using Shannon traps, sticky traps, and resting-site collections. Overall abundances were higher in Colosó (15,988) than in SAS (2,324). and species richness of phlebotomines was greater in the forest reserve (11 species) than in the degraded habitat (seven species). Fisher alpha, a measure of diversity, reinforced this trend. Both sand fly communities were dominated by Lutzomyia evansi (Nuòez-Tovar), vector of Leishmania chagasi (Cunha & Chagas), representing 92 and 81% of all captures in Colosó and SAS, respectively. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), the common vector of visceral leishmaniasis, accounted for 4-7% of the sand fly community. Lutzornyia panamensis (Shannon) and Lutzomya gomezi (Nitzulescu), putative vectors of Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna), had low abundances at both study sites. The zoophilic species Lutzomyia cayennensis (Floch & Abonneuc) and Lutzomyia trinidadensis (Newstead) were present in variable numbers according to trapping methods and site. Habitat degradation negatively affected sand fly communities, but medically important species were able to exploit modified environments, thereby contributing to Lishmania endemicity. PMID:12061439
Travi, Bruno L; Adler, Gregory H; Lozano, Margarita; Cadena, Horacio; Montoya-Lerma, James
The role of Didelphis marsupialis as a reservoir of zoonotic hemoflagellates was examined in two ecologically distinct settings in Colombia. While 72% (12 of 18) of the opossums collected in the tropical rain forest harbored Trypanosoma cruzi, other mammals in the area had lower infection rates: 1.3% (Proechymis semispinosus [spiny rat]; 13% Tylomys mirae [climbing rat]; and 6% Rattus rattus). Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from D. marsupialis were similar to zymodeme 1 (Z1), and two of four phenotypes were shared with Tylomys mirae, which is also predominantly arboreal. Terrestrial (P. semispinosus) and peridomestic (R. rattus) animals were infected with Z3 or other Z1 phenotypes, respectively. Schizodeme analysis showed polymorphisms among isolates from mammals, reflecting diverse modes of transmission, and a complex epidemiologic situation. Despite the lower infection rate of the opossum (14%) found in our study in the tropical dry forest as compared with the tropical wet forest, Chagas' disease has been reported only in the former area. This suggests that the lack of alternative blood sources for triatomines of the tropical dry forest, where mammals are less abundant than in the wet forest, may increase the risk of human infection. Among several species of mammals captured in the tropical dry forest, Leishmania chagasi was isolated from 22.7% (5 of 22) D. marsupialis. This finding confirms the important role of opossums in Colombian foci of visceral leishmaniasis, including those where the phlebotomine species involved in transmission is Lutzomyia evansi, an alternative vector to the more common Lutzomyia longipalpis. PMID:8203703
Travi, B L; Jaramillo, C; Montoya, J; Segura, I; Zea, A; Goncalves, A; Velez, I D
A revised geochronological framework is presented for the sequence of unconsolidated sediments present in the Bogotá area (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia). This is based on 11 fission track dates on zircons that were obtained both from exposed ash layers and from a series of ashes from the Funza II borehole, which reached 586 m below the surface of the high plain. The 3 dates obtained from the exposed ash layers provide control for the older part of the sequence (6-2.5 Ma). The 8 dates from the Funza II core give control for the younger part of the sequence (3-0 Ma). Acceptance of these new fission track dates on volcanic zircons means that many of the tephra dates obtained from the Funza I core (that included fission track dates on glass shards and K?Ar dates using the mineral fractions in the ashes, published in 1984), are rejected. It also confirms earlier climate-stratigraphical dating. The Neogene-Quaternary sediments of the Bogotá area span a period of at least the last 6 Ma. The fluvial-lacustrine sediment record registers major tectonic uplift of the Eastern Cordillera for the period between 5 and 3 Ma, the development of the large sedimentary basin of Bogotá after 3.5 Ma, with an important phase of tectonic adjustment at about 1 Ma, and a long period of strong climatic fluctuations that started shortly after 2.7 Ma.
Andriessen, P. A. M.; Helmens, K. F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Riezebos, P. A.; Van der Hammen, T.
The production of coca and poppy as well as the processing and production of cocaine and heroin involve significant environmental impacts. Both coca and poppy are grown intensively in a process that involves the clearing of land in remote areas, the planting of the crop, and protection against pests such as weeds, insects, and pathogens. The aerial spray program to control coca and poppy production in Colombia with the herbicide glyphosate is conducted with modern state-of-the-art aircraft and spray equipment. As a result of the use of best available spray and navigation technology, the likelihood of accidental off-target spraying is small and is estimated to be less than 1% of the total area sprayed. Estimated exposures in humans resulting from direct overspray, contact with treated foliage after reentry to fields, inhalation, diet, and drinking water were small and infrequent. Analyses of surface waters in five watersheds showed that, on most occasions, glyphosate was not present at measurable concentrations; only two samples had residues just above the method detection limit of 25 microg/L. Concentrations of glyphosate in air were predicted to be very small because of negligible volatility. Glyphosate in soils that are directly sprayed will be tightly bound and biologically unavailable and have no residual activity. Concentrations of glyphosate plus Cosmo-Flux will be relatively large in shallow surface waters that are directly oversprayed (maximum instantaneous concentration of 1,229microgAE/L in water 30cm deep); however, no information was available on the number of fields in close proximity to surface waters, and thus it was not possible to estimate the likelihood of such contamination. The formulation used in Colombia, a mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux, has low toxicity to mammals by all routes of exposure, although some temporary eye irritation may occur. Published epidemiological studies have not suggested a strong or consistent linkage between glyphosate use and specific human health outcomes. An epidemiology study conducted in Colombia did not show any association between time to pregnancy in humans and the use of glyphosate in eradication spraying. The mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux was not toxic to honeybees. The mixture was, however, more toxic to the alga Selenastrum, the cladoceran Daphnia magna, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout than formulated glyphosate (Roundup) alone. Studies on the use of glyphosate in agriculture and forestry have shown that direct effects on nontarget organisms other than plants are unlikely. Indirect effects on terrestrial arthropods and other wildlife may be the result of habitat alteration and environmental change brought about by the removal of plants by glyphosate. Because of the lack of residual activity, recovery of glyphosate-treated areas in Colombia is expected to be rapid because of good plant growth conditions. However, return to the conditions of tropical old-growth forest that existed before clear-cutting and burning may take hundreds of years, not from the use of glyphosate but because of the clear-cutting and burning, which are the primary cause of effects in the environment. The risk assessment concluded that glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux did not present a significant risk to human health. In the entire cycle of coca and poppy production and eradication, human health risks associated with physical injury during clear-cutting and burning and the use of pesticides for protection of the illicit crops were judged to be considerably more important than those from exposure to glyphosate. For the environment, direct risks from the use of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux to terrestrial mammals and birds were judged to be negligible. Moderate risks could occur in aquatic organisms in shallow surface waters that are oversprayed during the eradication program. However, the frequency of occurrence and extent to which this happens are unknown as data on the proximity of surface waters to coca fields were not available. Considering the effects of the entire cycle of coca and p
Solomon, Keith R; Anadón, Arturo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Cerdeira, Antonio L; Marshall, Jon; Sanin, Luz-Helena
Food security is sufficient access to safe and nutritious foods to satisfy nutritional needs and personal preferences, and to lead a healthy and active life. The current study evaluated food security in 302 families with school-age children living in a rural municipality in Cauca, Colombia, and factors associated with food security. Families were participating in an evaluation of the nutrition impact of an intervention with nutritionally improved maize. A12-item food security scale was applied to the household head, as well as a sociodemographic survey. Families were classified as food secure, or mildly, moderately or severely food insecure. Among households, 44.37% were classified as food secure and 55.63% as food insecure (with 41.39% as mildly insecure, 12.25% as moderately insecure and 1,99% as severely insecure). Food-insecure families had fewer persons working relative to the total individuals in the home, 4 or fewer services or assets, and children with a reduced appetite, in comparison with food-secure households. In conclusion, more than half of the sample was food insecure; the factors associated with food insecurity relate to family income. PMID:24617024
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral disease of carnivores affecting both wild and domestic populations. The hemagglutinin gene, encoding for the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, shows high heterogeneity among strains, allowing for the distinction of ten different lineages distributed worldwide according to a geographic pattern. We obtained the sequences of the full-length H gene of 15 wild-type CDV strains circulating in domestic dog populations from the Aburrá Valley, Colombia. A phylogenetic analysis of H gene nucleotide sequences from Colombian CDV viruses along with field isolates from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Colombian wild-type viruses formed a distinct monophyletic cluster clearly separated from the previously identified wild-type and vaccine lineages, suggesting that a novel genetic variant, quite different from vaccines and other lineages, is circulating among dog populations in the Aburrá Valley. We propose naming this new lineage as "South America 3". This information indicates that there are at least three different CDV lineages circulating in domestic and wild carnivore populations in South America. The first one, renamed Europe/South America 1, circulates in Brazil and Uruguay; the second, South America 2, appears to be restricted to Argentina; and the third, South America 3, which comprises all the strains characterized in this study, may also be circulating in other northern countries of South America. PMID:24950886
Espinal, Maria A; Díaz, Francisco J; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian
Objective. This study evaluates the bacterial contamination rate of items in the hospital setting that are in frequent contact with patients and/or physicians. By determining the bacterial species and the associated antibiotic resistance that patients are exposed to. Methods. Hospital-based cross-sectional surveillance study of potential bacterial reservoirs. Cultures from 30 computer keyboards, 32 curtains, 40 cell phones, 35 white coats, and 22 ties were obtained. Setting. The study was conducted an urban academic 650-bed teaching hospital providing tertiary care to the city of Medellin, Colombia. Results. In total, 235 bacterial isolates were obtained from 159 surfaces sampled. 98.7% of the surfaces grew positive bacterial cultures with some interesting resistance profiles. Conclusion. There are significant opportunities to reduce patient exposure to frequently pathogenic bacteria in the hospital setting; patients are likely exposed to many bacteria through direct contact with white coats, curtains, and ties. They may be exposed to additional bacterial reservoirs indirectly through the hands of clinicians, using computer keyboards and cell phones. PMID:22536231
The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.
Perfluorinated compounds are widespread pollutants of toxicological importance that have been detected in environmental matrices. However, little is known on their distribution in South America. In this study, distribution of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was determined in the bile of mullet, Mugil incilis, and in tissues of pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) collected from North Colombia. Analysis was performed by HPLC mass spectrometry after ion-pair extraction. PFOS was found in all bile samples and PFOA and PFHxS were detected at lower frequency. Average concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in bile of fish from Cartagena Bay, an industrialized site, and Totumo marsh, a reference site, were 3673, 370, 489 and 713, 47.4, 1.27 ng/mL, respectively. PFOS concentrations in pelican organs decreased in the order of spleen>liver>lung>kidney>brain>heart>muscle. These results suggest, for the first time, that perfluorinated compounds are also found in wildlife from Latin American countries. PMID:16303219