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1

Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

Zollweg, J.E.

1990-01-01

2

The 2012 Reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nevado Del Ruiz volcano is most known for its tragic November 13, 1985 explosive event, when a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, again where a small explosive eruption was followed by a large lahar. Other minor explosive events occurred in 1805, 1828-9, and 1989. The Armero tragedy was a major factor in the establishment of a volcano monitoring program in Colombia. The network monitoring Nevado del Ruiz volcano has dramatically improved since the 1985 eruption and now includes geodetic, geophysical, geochemical and visual monitoring. The activity of Nevado Del Ruiz between 1985 and 1991 saw significant increases in seismicity and significant gas emissions with the main eruptive events of November 13, 1985 and September 1st, 1989. The volcano became seismically active again in 1995 and 2002, whit an increase in seismicity, without any gas emission or eruption. In October 2010 the volcano entered in a new phase of unrest with increased seismicity (HB events), deformation and gas emissions, likely associated with a new magma intrusion. In February, 2012 the volcano had a new and significant increase in seismicity (VT-LP), followed in May and June 2012 by small phreatic and phreato-magmatic eruption. This eruptive activity is still ongoing. Deformation measurements at Nevado Del Ruiz volcano have been carried out since just after the tragic eruption of the 13th of November 1985. In 2007 seven new electronic tilt meters were set up to monitor the deformation. Significant uplift was measured from August 2007 to October 2010, for a total cumulative value of more than 500 microradians. From the end of 2011 to July 2012, moderate changes of uplift were detected for a total of 70 microradians. The analysis of these deformation data shows a pattern of surface displacement associated with an intrusion of new magma coming from a reservoir located approximately at a depth of approximately 8 km and accumulating in shallow reservoir less than 2 km beneath the main crater. We fit the data with both a spherical and a vertical spheroid source. The spherical source indicates the existence of an intrusion at a depth of 1823±1056 m with a volume change of (7±17)×106 m3 . The vertical spheroidal source suggests a source 1855 m deep with a volume change of 6×106 m3 . These results imply that while we have strong bounds on the depth of the intrusion, the actual volume of the source is less certain. Gas emission from Nevado del Ruiz volcano in April 7, 2012.

Ordoñez, M.; Lopez, C.; Cortes, G. P.; Londoño, J.; Battaglia, M.

2012-12-01

3

Quaternary eruptive history of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nevado del Ruiz has a 1.8-m.y.-long eruptive record that includes alternate construction and destruction of three edifices during three main eruptive periods, termed "ancestral Ruiz", "older Ruiz" and "Ruiz". Nevado del Ruiz is located on a complex intersection of four groups of faults, the most significant being the N20° E Palestina strike-slip fault and the N50° W Villamaria-Termales normal fault. Ancestral Ruiz was a broad stratovolcano built by two eruptive stages of lava flows starting about 1.8 Ma ago and ending 1.0 Ma ago. A partial collapse and formation of a caldera are thought to have occurred between 1.0 and 0.8 Ma ago. Older Ruiz was a stratovolcano constructed by lava flows in three stages starting about 0.8 Ma ago and ending about 0.2 Ma ago. Extensive and voluminous welded and nonwelded pyroclastic-flow deposits that partly fill preexisting valleys record the formation of a young summit caldera between 0.2 and 0.15 Ma ago. Present Ruiz is formed by a cluster of composite lava domes that probably filled the summit caldera of older Ruiz. Present Ruiz eruptive activity is mostly explosive, but also includes dome growth, and parasitic dome activity of La Olleta and Alto La Piramide. Twelve eruptive stages occurred during the last 11,000 years, accompanied by rockslide-debris avalanches, pyroclastic flows or surges, and their subsequent interactions with the ice cap, as well as by glacial erosion and mass-wasting. Diverse processes within these twelve stages have led to a partial destruction of the summit domes. This long and complex Pleistocene and Holocene eruptive sequence helps to put the November 13, 1985, eruption into a broader perspective.

Thouret, J.-C.; Cantagrel, J. M.; Salinas, R.; Murcia, A.

1990-07-01

4

Eruption of the nevado del ruiz volcano, Colombia, on 13 november 1985: tephra fall and lahars.  

PubMed

A small Plinian eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia ejected 3.5 x 10(10) kilograms of mixed dacite and andesite tephra on 13 November 1985, with a maximum column height of 31 kilometers above sea level. Small pyroclastic flows and surges, generated during the initial stage of the eruption, caused surface melting of approximately 10% of the volcano's ice cap, leading to meltwater floods. The erosive floods incorporated soils and loose sediments from the volcano's flanks and developed into lahars, which claimed at least 25,000 lives. PMID:17732038

Naranjo, J L; Sigurdsson, H; Carey, S N; Fritz, W

1986-08-29

5

Temporal change in coda Q at Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of coda Q ( Qc), intrinsic Q ( Qi), scattering Q ( Qs) and total Q ( Qt), was made at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV) for local earthquakes recorded during 1992-1994. Coda Q has been calculated for the first time at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV) using the single-scattering model proposed by Aki and Chouet (1975). Estimations of Qc were made for five frequency bands centred at 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 24.0 Hz. The estimated Qc varies from around 60 at 1.5 Hz to around 980 at 24 Hz, depending on the frequency with Qc = 30 ± 1.2 F1.03±0.001. in general, Qc values at NRV are rather similar to those obtained in other volcanic areas in the world. A steady trend in Qc-1 was found from January 1992 to January 1994. This variation is coincident with the stability in the volcanic activity since the last phreato-magmatic eruption on 1 September 1989. In the middle of April 1994, a new activity started at NRV and a small volcanic crisis occurred. Continuous increasing was observed in Qc-1 around two months before the crisis. This suggests a possibility that the temporal variation of Qc can be useful for monitoring the volcanic activity at NRV. Qi and Qs were separated from Qt by using a multiple-scattering model called "Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis", MLTWA (Fehler et al., 1992). Estimations for Qi, Qs and Qt were made for four frequency bands, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 24.0 Hz. Qi; values were found to be near to those of Qc for frequencies higher than 6.0 Hz. For low frequencies Qs values were near to Qc values. This can suggest that the intrinsic absorption could be the predominant attenuation phenomenon in the NRV area at frequencies higher than 6 Hz and the scattering phenomenon is predominant for low frequencies; therefore the change in Qc at high frequencies is considered to reflect variations in the inner conditions of the volcano, such as changes in temperature, movement of fluids, and so on.

Londoño, John Makario

1996-09-01

6

Internal [sup 238]U-series systematics of pumice from the November 13, 1985, eruption of Nevado de Ruiz, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

High-precision mass spectrometer and alpha scintillation measurements of [sup 238]U-series nuclides were obtained for whole-rock pumice and constituent mineral and glass separates to help interpret the timing and nature of magmatic processes that led up to the 1985 eruption of Nevado de Ruiz volcano. Internal isochron diagrams for [sup 226]Ra/Ba vs. [sup 230]Th/Ba and [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th vs. [sup 238]U/[sup 232]Th show that data define linear arrays, indicating an average crystallization age of 6.1 [+-] 0.5 ka (Ra-Th isochron) and 7 [+-] 6 ka (Th-U isochron). Stratigraphic, petrographic geochemical, repose time, and eruption volume data for the Holocene eruptive sequence of Nevado del Ruiz indicate that significant changes occurred in the subvolcanic magma chamber between eruptions R9 ([approx]8.6 ka) and R8 ([approx]3.0 ka). This coincides with the average crystallization age derived from the U-series data and may represent the injection of a new batch (or batches) of mantle-derived magma into the subvolcanic magma chamber. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Schaefer, S.J.; Williams, S.N. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Sturchio, N.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Murrell, M.T. (Los Almos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-03-01

7

Andres Ruiz-Linares CURRICULUM VITAE ANDRES RUIZ-LINARES  

E-print Network

loci involved in predisposition to Bipolar mood disorder in the population of Antioquia, Colombia in Antioquia, Colombia. #12;Andres Ruiz-Linares 2 2. "Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Bipolar Disorder to the identification of gene regions involved in susceptibility to Bipolar Disorder in Antioquian patients. 3. "A

Linares, Andrés Ruiz

8

EL IMPACTO SOCIAL DEL SECTOR BANCARIO EN COLOMBIA, 1993 - 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento estudia el impacto del sector bancario sobre variables sociales en Colombia, y busca identificar cómo la diferencia en el desarrollo de las instituciones bancarias a nivel municipal influye sobre la prosperidad económica y social de hogares de bajos recursos y de las empresas en esas localidades. El estudio busca identificar empíricamente cómo la bancarización o el acceso a

Juan Carlos Echeverry Garzón; Ángela María Fonseca Galvis

2006-01-01

9

COLOMBIA: El IV Festival del Nuevo Teatro  

E-print Network

cabeza de Gu\\up, reúne y elabora todas sus experiencias anteriores, superando fracasos y desarrollando necesidades del público callejero. Es una creación colectiva basada en una imagen del Popól Vuh10 con texto de Juan Carlos Moyano, dirección de Jorge.... Gabriel García Márquez, Todos los cuentos de Gabriel García Márquez (La Habana: Casa de las Américas, 1968), pp. 268-277. Colección La Honda. 10. Popol Vuh, Antiguas historias de los indios quichés de Guatemala (Mexico: Editorial Porrúa, 1965). Cabe...

Gonzá lez, Patricia E.

1980-10-01

10

Eficiencia y determinantes del funcionamiento del mercado paralelo de divisas en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo analiza la relación entre el tipo de cambio negro y el oficial, al igual que la eficiencia del mercado paralelo de divisas en Colombia. Con base en datos mensuales para el período 1970-1989, se encontró que la tasa de cambio oficial y paralela estaban cointegradas, lo cual implica que el dólar oficial y el negro mantuvieron una

Santiago Herrera

1990-01-01

11

Aspectos Económicos del Gobierno de Carlos Lleras Restrepo. (Colombia, 1966-1970)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gobierno de Carlos Lleras Restrepo se destaca en la historia de Colombia por haber introducido una reforma institucional de amplias proporciones que fortaleció las bases del Estado intervencionista. Este hecho, sumado a una concepción estructuralista sobre el manejo monetario y cambiario, permitió un evidente despegue del sector exportador no tradicional y un crecimiento del PIB sin antecedentes en la

Pascual Amézquita Zárate

2010-01-01

12

Elaphopsocoides, a new genus of Psocidae (Psocodea: ´Psocoptera´) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.  

PubMed

Two new species of Elaphopsocoides n. gen. from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. The new genus is related to Elaphopsocus Roesler, but differs from it mostly in the hypandrial projections and in phallosome structure. The female subgenital plate has a distinct, median, posterior projection. The types are deposited in the Entomology Museum, Universidad del Valle (MUSENUV), Santiago de Cali, Colombia. PMID:25544209

Román-P, Cristian; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Obando, Ranulfo González

2014-01-01

13

Malaria vectors in San José del Guaviare, Orinoquia, Colombia.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200-0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human-vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

Jiménez, Irene P; Conn, Jan E; Brochero, Helena

2014-06-01

14

La educación en Colombia: Análisis del marco normativo y de los indicadores sectoriales  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento se presenta una visión amplia de los problemas y del funcionamiento del sector educativo en Colombia, con énfasis en la educación pública. Inicialmente, se realiza una breve descripción de la política educativa durante las últimas décadas. Posteriormente, se realiza una evaluación detallada de las normas sobre descentralización educativa, así como de aquellas que rigen la carrera docente

Ana María Iregui; Ligia Melo; Jorge Ramos

2006-01-01

15

DEL CAMPO A LA CIUDAD EN COLOMBIA. LA INFILTRACIÓN URBANA DE LOS SEÑORES DE LA GUERRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para sorpresa de la opinión en Colombia, la mafia en el sentido de la definición tradicional de ‘empresarios de la protección’, asociada a la imagen de los mafiosos sicilianos, rusos o los japoneses de la yakuza, es un fenómeno muy reciente en la historia de las ciudades del país. Más de una década posterior al apogeo de Pablo Escobar y

Gustavo Duncan

2005-01-01

16

Acantholachesilla gen. n. (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae: Graphocaeciliini) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.  

PubMed

Acantholachesilla saltoensis gen. et sp. n. is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in the Lachesillidae, tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The genus is related to Dagualachesilla and Dagualachesilloides that occur in the same area, differing from them in the male clunial projection, phallosome, and female subgenital plate and gonapophyses. PMID:24989767

Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González

2014-01-01

17

A geological and engineering reservoir characterization of the Caballos Formation (Cretaceous), Puerto Colon field Putumayo basin, Colombia  

E-print Network

A GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CABALLOS FORMATION (CRETACEOUS), PUERTO COLON FIELD, PUTUMAYO BASIN, COLOMBIA A Thesis by HECTOR RUIZ CASTELLANOS Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...: Petroleum Engineering ABSTRACT A Geological and Engineering Reservoir Characterization of the Caballos Formation (Cretaceous), Puerto Colon Field Putumayo Basin Colombia. (December 1994) Hector Ruiz Castellanos, B. S. , Universidad Industrial de...

Ruiz Castellanos, Hector

1994-01-01

18

Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.  

PubMed

The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV). PMID:24869552

Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

2014-01-01

19

Filogeografía y conservación genética del pecarí de collar, Pecari tajacu en cuatro departamentos de Colombia / Phylogeography and conservation genetics of collared peccari, Pecari tajacu in four Colombian departments.  

E-print Network

??Sabogal Rodríguez, Sandra Patricia (2011) Filogeografía y conservación genética del pecarí de collar, Pecari tajacu en cuatro departamentos de Colombia / Phylogeography and conservation genetics… (more)

Sabogal Rodríguez, Sandra Patricia

2011-01-01

20

Earthquake on June 6, 1994, Triggers Landslides and Catastrophic Lahar Near Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how quickly an earthquake-triggered lahar happened and the losses that occurred. Some losses may have occurred because people did not know they should flee to high ground after an earthquake. Within minutes of the 1994 magnitude 6.4 earthquake beneath the south-southwest flank of Nevado del Huila volcano in Colombia, dozens of landslides swept down from the steep valleys above Rio Paez. The landslides quickly turned into debris flows, which joined to produce a single enormous flow. That lahar destroyed most of or parts of several towns along the river and displaced about 20,000 people from their homes. There were several hundred casualties. Bridges and roads were destroyed. The location map of Nevado del Huila volcano shows the path of the 1994 lahar.

R. Schuster

21

La Lic. Irlanda Ruiz discutir lo El derecho a la educacin.  

E-print Network

La Lic. Irlanda Ruiz discutirá lo siguente:: · El derecho a la educación. · Derechos y obligaciones No incluye alimentos Nos reservamos el derecho de admisión. Costo: $45 pago recibido antes del 28 de febrero

Quirk, Gregory J.

22

Studies on the Neutrality of Antihydrogen Marcelo Baquero-Ruiz  

E-print Network

Studies on the Neutrality of Antihydrogen by Marcelo Baquero-Ruiz A dissertation submitted-Ruiz, titled Studies on the Neutrality of Antihydrogen, is approved: Chair Date Date Date University of California, Berkeley #12;Studies on the Neutrality of Antihydrogen Copyright 2013 by Marcelo Baquero-Ruiz #12

Fajans, Joel

23

Descriptions and records of Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and National Natural Park Gorgona, Colombia.  

PubMed

The results of a survey on the species diversity of the families Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Epipsocetae) in Valle del Cauca and in the National Natural Park (NNP) Gorgona, Colombia, are presented. The specimens studied were collected in the context of two scientific projects, in which 12 species in the two families were identified, five in Cladiopsocidae and seven in Dolabellopsocidae. In the first family, Cladiopsocus presented a new record in the country and four new species; in the latter, two genera were identified, Dolabellopsocus, with three new species and two new records, and Isthmopsocus, with two new species. This study presents the description of the nine new species from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, the new records for Colombia and identification keys to the neotropical species of both families. PMID:25544130

Calderón-Martínez, Nadia R; González-Obando, Ranulfo; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

2014-01-01

24

A pair of new sister species of Loneura (Psocodea, ‘Psocoptera’, Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, representing a new infrageneric group  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura. PMID:22423192

Aldrete, Alfonso N. García; Nieto, Julián A. Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo González

2012-01-01

25

A pair of new sister species of Loneura (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, representing a new infrageneric group.  

PubMed

Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura. PMID:22423192

Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Nieto, Julián A Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo González

2012-01-01

26

ESTADO ACTUAL DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN PSICOLOGIA ORGANIZACIONAL Y DEL TRABAJO EN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the organizational and work psychology (OWP) concept, a description of topics and problems of the fi eld at the global level and the role of research is done. Next, the current state of OWP research in Colombia is presented and its limits and future possibilities. Based on COLCIENCIAS information system, characteristics and communalities of the eight OWP reported groups

ÁLVARO ENRÍQUEZ MARTÍNEZ

2006-01-01

27

Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

2014-01-01

28

Boletín No 11: Caracterización del Trabajo Independiente y su Afiliación a la Seguridad Social en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El tema central del presente Boletín es aparentemente un tema de coyuntura. En efecto, la afiliación del trabajador independiente al sistema de seguridad social integral está generando arduos debates, económicos y jurídicos, desde la implementación de la Planilla Integrada de Liquidación de Aportes –PILA- a mediados de este año. Sin embargo, el trabajo independiente en relación a la seguridad social

Stefano Farne; Jesus Perdomo; Carlos Andrés Vergara

2008-01-01

29

CI2125 COMPUTACION I Seccin 2 Prof. MARIA RUIZ  

E-print Network

Sheet1 Page 1 CI2125 COMPUTACION I Sección 2 Prof. MARIA RUIZ 0133784 Diaz Araujo Juan E 1 0538115 Marilyn 13 0640016 Paez Silva Maria A 14 0640099 Pinto Moncada Guillermo J 15 0640293 Salgar Nuñez Guillermo A 16 0640383 Torres Larez Julia Alejandra 17 0640443 Veracierto Martin Maria F 18 0640502 Zerpa

Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.

30

Virtual Reality for Archeological Maya Cities Rocio RUIZ1  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality for Archeological Maya Cities Rocio RUIZ1 , Suzanne WEGHORST 2 , Jesus SAVAGE3, the participants will use Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and VRML interactive 3D objects. Keywords: Maya, archeology, heritage, Calakmul, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, VRML, Palenque 1

Washington at Seattle, University of

31

Peace Summit in Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peace talks between Colombian President Andres Pastrana and guerrilla leader Manuel Marulanda entered their second day today, fueling hopes for some breakthrough in ending the country's 37-year conflict. On Thursday, Pastrana rather boldly placed himself in the hands of the enemy, flying into the town of San Vicente del Caguan with a minimal security detail. The town is held by the main rebel army in Colombia, the 17,000 strong Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, known by its Spanish initials, FARC. Two years ago, Pastrana ceded a 16,200 square mile area of the country to FARC as a goodwill gesture to jumpstart peace talks. So far, these talks have been disappointing, as kidnappings and violence by both the rebels and right-wing paramilitaries have continued unabated. Popular fatigue and anger at continued insecurity in Colombia has inspired Pastrana's latest efforts to secure peace. At the very least, he is expected to get FARC to return to the formal negotiations they left in November, claiming the government had made insufficient efforts to halt attacks by right-wing paramilitary groups. The outcome of this meeting will also most likely impact US policy in the region, as Colombia is now the second-largest recipient of US foreign aid, mostly in the form of combat helicopters and troop training. These have been provided ostensibly to battle the drug trade, which is protected and taxed by the FARC, but in reality, Colombia's civil war and drug war are now almost impossible to segregate.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

2001-01-01

32

Modified team-based learning strategy to improve human anatomy learning: A pilot study at the Universidad del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia.  

PubMed

As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the course, student's grades on mid-term examinations and students' perceptions of their experiences. Students reported a positive attitude toward the use of the TBL sessions, and the results showed a significant improvement in their learning between the first and second sessions. Significantly positive correlations (P?

Martínez, Emilio G; Tuesca, Rafael

2014-01-01

33

Dinámica del sistema agroforestal de chagras como eje de la producción indígena en el Trapecio Amazónico (Colombia) Chagras' agroforestal system dynamics as the basis for indigenous production in the Amazonian Trapezium (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La tradición indígena, la pertenencia a la cuenca Amazónica y la cercanía a un importante centro urbano como Leticia (Amazonas, Colombia) son factores que aportan elementos característicos al sistema de producción de Ciudad Jitoma y lo dife- rencian de otras formas de producción indígena y no-indígena, incluso dentro de la misma región ama- zónica. En el presente estudio se

Luz Amparo Triana-Moreno; Nohra Cecilia Rodríguez; Jesús García

34

Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of the Cambumbia STOCK in Andean Central Cordillera, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cambumbia Stock is located on the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the northern Andes. The goals of this study were to petrographic and geochemically characterize the Cambumbia igneous body and to establish its petrogenetic history. 41 samples were collected, 28 for petrographic analysis and 14 for elementary chemical determination by ICP-MS. Petrographically the samples were classified as hornblende and pyroxene-gabbros varying to diorites, gabbronorites and tonalites, the rock texture varies from medium to coarse granular grain, with local microporfiritic texture. It was concluded from the major elements analysis that the samples correspond to the sub-alkaline series with low K content, mainly in the calc-alkaline series, within the gabbros and diorites fields. By using the SiO2 vs TiO2 (Jaramillo, 1980), Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb (Pearce, 1984) (Fig. 1) and Zr/117-Th-Nb/16 (Wood, 1979) diagrams it was determined that these rocks were generated in two geotectonic environments: one type MOR (extension) and other island arc (subduction, compression). Petrographic and geochemical comparisons between the rocks of Cambumbia Stock and Diorite and Gabbro El Pueblito (Giraldo, 2009) (located about 25 km to the north-west) may postulate a possible genetic link between them. Recently, a U/Pb age was obtained by the Universidad de Caldas in zircon in 2009 (not published data), yielded an age of 233.41 ± 3.4 Ma (Middle Triassic). This age is consistent with the global event of the extension and fragmentation of Pangea supercontinent. In addition, the mantle nature of the source and the petrogenetic evolution of the magmatic system were established. References GIRALDO, M.I., (2009): Esquema geodinámica de la parte noroccidental de la cordillera Central de Colombia. (Thesis). p.56-68. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín. JARAMILLO, J.M. (1980): Petrology and geochemistry of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano northern Andes, Colombia (Thesis). 167 p. University of Houston, Faculty of the Department of Geology, Houston. PEARCE, J.A., HARRIS, N.B.W., and TINDLE, A.G., (1984), Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation: Journal of Petrology, v. 25, p. 956-983. WOOD, D., JORON, J.L., & TREUIL, M. (1979): A re-appaisal of the use of trace elements to classify and discriminate between magma series erupted in different tectonic settings. Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 326-336. Th/Yb Vs Ta/Yb diagram

Rojas Lequerica, S.; Jaramillo Mejía, J.; Concha Perdomo, A.

2012-12-01

35

65Climatologa ALFREDO RUIZ BARRADAS ADALBERTO TEJEDA MARTNEZ  

E-print Network

temas de variabilidad en el Atlántico tropical (2000) y variabilidad de la lluvia y su modelaje con Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua. Ha colaborado en la modelación numérica del océano en la Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua. Actualmente colabora en el Centro Estatal de Estudios del Clima

Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo

36

Determinantes de la calidad de la educación en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo estudia los determinantes de la calidad de la educación secundaria en Colombia con base en las pruebas del ICFES. El trabajo tiene tres capítulos que abordan tres aspectos cruciales del tema; a saber, el efecto de las características familiares sobre el rendimiento, el efecto de las características del plantel sobre la calidad, y el efecto del gasto publico

Alejandro GAVIRIA

2001-01-01

37

Only Aggressive Elephants are Fast Elephants Jens Dittrich, Jorge-Arnulfo Quiane-Ruiz, Stefan Richter,  

E-print Network

Only Aggressive Elephants are Fast Elephants Jens Dittrich, Jorge-Arnulfo Quian´e-Ruiz, Stefan://infosys.cs.uni-saarland.de ABSTRACT Yellow elephants are slow. A major reason is that they consume their inputs entirely before responding to an elephant rider's orders. Some clever riders have trained their yellow elephants to only con

Tsotras, Vassilis J.

38

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Jose A. Torres-Ruiz, Ph.D.  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Torres-Ruiz is Director of the National Institutes of Health-Minority Biomedical Research Support (NIH-MBRS) Program, Chairman of the Biochemistry Department, Director of the Office for Sponsored Research Projects and Programs, and the Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies.

39

Cepstral Analysis of Photonic Nanojet-Illuminated Biological Cells Csar Mndez Ruiz and Jamesina J. Simpson  

E-print Network

Cepstral Analysis of Photonic Nanojet-Illuminated Biological Cells César Méndez Ruiz and Jamesina J- scale internal refractive index fluctuations within biological cells change significantly during for the case of nanojet-illuminated cells compared to flat surfaces. Index Terms Biological media, cancer

Simpson, Jamesina J.

40

Educational Management Challenges for the 21st Ferran Ruiz Tarrag1  

E-print Network

considers unsettling examples of wide gaps between intended educational goals and the resulting starkEducational Management Challenges for the 21st Century Ferran Ruiz Tarragó1 , Ann Elizabeth Wilson2 , 1 Council for the Evaluation of the Educational System. Government of Catalonia, Department

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

The equal tangents property J. Jeronimo-Castro, G. Ruiz-Hernandez and S. Tabachnikov  

E-print Network

The equal tangents property J. Jer´onimo-Castro, G. Ruiz-Hern´andez and S. Tabachnikov April 29 of points x in the exterior of M such that all the tangent segments from x to M have equal lengths tangent segments to K from every point x K have equal lengths then K is an Euclidean disc (see

Tabachnikov, Sergei

42

Hernndez-Leo, D, Villasclaras-Fernndez, E. D., Asensio-Prez, J. I, Dimitriadis, Y., Jorrn-Abelln, I. M., Ruiz-Requies, I., & Rubia-Avi, B. (2006). COLLAGE: A collaborative Learning Design editor based on patterns. Educational Technology &  

E-print Network

Engineering Camino del Cementerio s/n, 47011 Valladolid, Spain Tel: +34 983 423666 Fax: +34 983423667 davher@tel.uva.es evilfer@ulises.tel.uva.es juaase@tel.uva.es yannis@tel.uva.es Iván M. Jorrín-Abellán, Inés Ruiz, Spain Tel: +34 983 423886 Fax: +34 983423464 ivanjo@pdg.uva.es inesrure@pdg.uva.es brubia@pdg.uva

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

Formalizaci on del razonamiento ecuacional en una l ogica computacional  

E-print Network

Formalizaci#19;on del razonamiento ecuacional en una l#19;ogica computacional J.L. Ruiz, J formalizaci#19;on en una l#19;ogica computacional (la l#19;ogica de ACL2), de diversas propiedades de la l#19 propiedades de sistemas de computaci#19;on, la denominamos l#19;ogica computacional. La principal ventaja que

Reina, José Luis Ruiz

44

Reply to the letter from J. I. Minguela and R. Ruiz-de-Gauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sirs, We disagree with the interpretation of the results by Minguela and Ruiz-de-Gauna. Indeed, by protocol design the dose of sevelamer hydrochloride was increased by one tablet per meal every month to maintain serum phosphorus levels below 6.5 mg\\/dl as stated in the Methods [1]. Although final serum phosphorus levels were higher than baseline, such values were not statistically significant.

Isidro B. Salusky; Robert Elashoff

2004-01-01

45

EVALUACIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE EFICIENCIA DE LA EDUCACIÓN EN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento se presenta una visión amplia de los problemas y del funcionamiento del sector educativo en Colombia, con énfasis en la educación pública. Con este fin, en primer lugar, se realiza una evaluación detallada de las normas sobre descentralización educativa, así como de aquellas que rigen la carrera docente en el país; también se evalúa el comportamiento reciente

Ana María Iregui; Ligia Melo B; Jorge Ramos F

2006-01-01

46

Stratospheric aerosol optical depth observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II - Decay of the El Chichon and Ruiz volcanic perturbations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decay of the El Chichon perturbation to the optical depth of stratospheric aerosols at 1.02 micron, 0.525 micron, and 0.453 micron is calculated from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) data set for the period December 1984 to December 1988. It is found that the perturbed optical depths at middle and higher latitudes of both hemispheres exhibited an exponential decay superimposed by a seasonal oscillation with a maximum and a minimum occurring in local winter and local summer, respectively. Microphysical processes and variation of the tropopause height alone cannot explain this seasonal change of optical depth. The magnitudes of the exponential component at higher latitudes were, in general, larger than those at lower latitudes. For optical depths in tropical regions, the seasonal oscillations were small and were disturbed by the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz on November 13, 1985. The increase in the ratio of optical depth at 0.525 micron to that at 1.02 micron from about 2.0 at the beginning of 1985 to about 3.5 at the end of 1988 indicates the average size of aerosol particles in the stratosphere is diminishing since the eruption of El Chichon. The 1/e folding time for El Chichon decay derived from the SAGE II data set is in reasonably good agreement with those derived by other methods.

Yue, G. K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chiou, E. W.

1991-01-01

47

Lecciones Inaugurales Curso 81-82. Facultad de Ciencias. Francisco Ruiz Bevi. Crisis energtica y materias primas en la  

E-print Network

Lecciones Inaugurales Curso 81-82. Facultad de Ciencias. Francisco Ruiz Beviá. Crisis energética y. Curso 83-84. Facultad de Medicina. Carlos Belmonte Martínez. Curso 84-85. Facultad Ciencias Económicas y Historia de la Ciencia" Curso 85-86. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Asunción Alba Pelayo. "Unamuno y

Escolano, Francisco

48

Movilidad intergeneracional en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se analiza la movilidad educativa entre gene-raciones en Colombia desde 1915 hasta 2003. A través de un nuevo índice se mide la movilidad intergeneracional ascendente, entendida como la probabilidad neta de que los hijos superen la educación de sus padres. Para examinar la incidencia de los retornos de la educación sobre las decisiones educativas y, particularmente, sobre

Katherine Cartagena

2006-01-01

49

Situation Report--Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in Colombia are presented in this situation report. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups, language, religion, economy, communication/education, medical/social welfare, and…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

50

Colombia's cocaine syndicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia's main drug trafficking coalitions — the Medellín and Cali syndicates — constitute powerful illegitimate interest groups. Traffickers (especially the Medellín coalition) exert political influence partly through violence and intimidation; yet the drug lords' political arsenal also includes non-coercive means-bribery, contributions to political campaigns and even open lobbying in the media. Conventional law enforcement strategies have been ineffective against the

Rensselaer W. Lee

1991-01-01

51

Gasto público en protección social en Colombia: análisis y propuestas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. Tradicionalmente, los gastos en salud y educación han jugado un papel principal tanto en las discusiones teóricas como en la asignación del gasto social en Colombia. Esto refleja un punto de vista compartido por muchos en el sentido que la política social debe orientarse a erradicar las causas de la pobreza en vez de sus manifestaciones. En este trabajo

Roberto Perotti

2000-01-01

52

Ornithological surveys in Serrania de 10s Churumbelos, southern Colombia  

E-print Network

Ornithological surveys in Serrania de 10s Churumbelos, southern Colombia Paul G. W. Salaman, Thomas protecci6n del macizo. During 14July-17 August 1998and 3-22 July 1999, ornithological suweyswere undertaken). For each of the seven Study Sites (SS) in the Serrania de 10s #12;' Cotinga I2 Ornithological surveys

Cuervo, Andrés

53

3-Ishwarone, a rare ishwarane sesquiterpene from Peperomia scandens Ruiz & Pavon: structural elucidation through a joint experimental and theoretical study.  

PubMed

3-Ishwarone, (1), a sesquiterpene with a rare ishwarane skeleton, was isolated from Peperomia scandens Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae). Its structure was unambiguously determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR and infrared analyses, as well as by comparative theoretical studies which involved calculations of 13C-NMR chemical shifts, using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the mPW1PW91 hybrid functional and Pople's 6-31G(d) basis set, and of vibrational frequencies, using the B3LYP hybrid functional and triple ? Dunning's correlation consistent basis set (cc-pVTZ), of (1) and three of its possible diastereomers, compounds 2-4. PMID:24184821

Junior, Fernando M dos S; Velozo, Leosvaldo S M; de Carvalho, Erika M; Marques, André M; Borges, Ricardo M; Trindade, Ana Paula F; dos Santos, Maria Isabel S; de Albuquerque, Ana Carolina F; Costa, Fabio L P; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; de Amorim, Mauro B

2013-01-01

54

The Vanishing Mexicana/o: (Dis)Locating the Native in Ruiz de Burton's "Who Would Have thought It?" and "The Squatter and the Don"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article complements the existing body of Ruiz de Burton scholarship by providing the first sustained examination of her literary representations of American Indians in both "Who Would Have Thought It?" (1872) and "The Squatter and the Don" (1885), and by exploring how these representations serve her broader aims of social and political…

Szeghi, Tereza M.

2011-01-01

55

Predicting Neuropsychological Development from Skull Imaging H. J. Lin, S. Ruiz-Correa, L. G. Shapiro, M. L. Speltz, M.L. Cunningham and R. W. Sze  

E-print Network

Predicting Neuropsychological Development from Skull Imaging H. J. Lin, S. Ruiz-Correa, L. G pedi- atric disease caused by the premature fusion of sutures of the skull. Although studies have shown for this association is still unclear. It is hypothesized that an abnormally shaped skull produces a secondary defor

Washington at Seattle, University of

56

Formalizing Rewriting in the ACL2 Theorem Jos e-Luis Ruiz-Reina, Jos e-Antonio Alonso, Mar a-Jos e Hidalgo and  

E-print Network

Formalizing Rewriting in the ACL2 Theorem Prover ? Jos#19;e-Luis Ruiz-Reina, Jos#19;e present an application of the ACL2 theorem prover to formalize and reason about rewrite systems theory. This can be seen as a #12;rst approach to apply formal methods, using ACL2, to the de- sign of symbolic

Reina, José Luis Ruiz

57

Overview and current relevance of "Run-away stars as the result of the gravitational collapse of proto-stellar clusters" by Poveda, Ruiz, & Allen (1967)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism for producing massive runaway stars proposed by A. Poveda, J. Ruiz and C. Allen, 1967, BOTT, 4, 28, 86, is briefly described. Its impact over the years and its gradual acceptance as a viable way to account for such stars are traced. Its current relevance for the understanding of runaway stars is assessed.

Allen, C.

2011-04-01

58

Probabilistic Model of Error in Fixed-Point Arithmetic Gaussian Pyramid Antoine Meler John A. Ruiz-Hernandez James L. Crowley  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Model of Error in Fixed-Point Arithmetic Gaussian Pyramid Antoine M´eler John A. Ruiz pyramid is an important tool in computer vision and image processing. The existence of a fast algorithm with linear computational complexity makes it feasible to implement the half-octave Gaussian pyramid

Crowley, James L.

59

Personal Acadmico Aceves Ruiz Jorge. Investigador Titular e Investigador Emrito. Departamento de Fisiologa, Biofsica y  

E-print Network

. Aranda Bricaire Eduardo. Investigador Titular y Jefe (a partir del 1o. de noviembre de 2000). Sección de Mecatrónica. Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica. Aranda Espinoza Helim. Investigador Adjunto (realizando Titular. Departamento de Recursos del Mar. Unidad Mérida. Arias González Jesús Ernesto. Investigador

60

Personal Acadmico Aceves Ruiz Jorge. Investigador Emrito. Departamento de Fisiologa, Biofsica y Neurociencias.  

E-print Network

. Aldana Aranda Dalila. Investigadora Titular. Departamento de Recursos del Mar. Unidad Mérida. Almanza. Aranda Bricaire Eduardo. Investigador Titular. Sección de Mecatrónica. Departamento de Ingeniería Mérida. Arias González Jesús Ernesto. Investigador Titular. Departamento de Recursos del Mar. Unidad

61

La descentralización en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. La asignación de responsabilidades entre las autoridades del gobierno central y el local, así como la relación fiscal entre estas dos instancias, constituye uno de los temas más complejos e importantes de las finanzas públicas. En la última década se ha presentado una tendencia mundial hacia la mayor descentralización, esto es, la delegación de un mayor número de prerrogativas

Alberto Alesina; Alberto Carrasquilla; Juan José Echavarría Soto

2000-01-01

62

The Colombia Seismological Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage of the RSNC network is presented along with the improvement in earthquake location and the quality of the data. New tools to calculate moment magnitude and focal mechanism are implemented as a result of the network expansion. The principal seismic sources in Colombia and the challenges for the future of the network are discussed.

Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

2013-05-01

63

Impacto de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC) en el desarrollo y la competitividad del país  

Microsoft Academic Search

La primera parte de este estudio caracteriza al sector de telecomunicaciones en Colombia, comparando a Colombia con otros países y regiones del mundo, mostrando la evolución de algunos de los principales indicadores de telecomunicaciones. En la segunda parte se hacen estimaciones cuantitativas del impacto socioeconómico del sector en la economía colombiana, a través de dos herramientas: la metodología insumo-producto y

Juan Benavides; Felipe Castro; Lina Devis; Mauricio Olivera

2011-01-01

64

EFECTOS DE LA LIBERALIZACIÓN COMERCIAL: UN ANÁLISIS DE EQUILIBRIO PARCIAL PARA EL SECTOR DE ARROZ EN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediante el análisis de cointegración y el modelo de vector de corrección de errores (VEC) se estimó el sistema de ecuaciones de oferta, demanda y precio del arroz blanco para Colombia, en el periodo comprendido entre 1970 – 2004. La demanda estimada muestra los signos esperados y es inelástica con respecto al precio del arroz, al ingreso disponible, al precio

Victor Dulio Chique Acero; Ramón Rosales Álvarez; Henry Samacá Prieto

2006-01-01

65

Personal Acadmico (2002) Aceves Ruiz Jorge. Investigador Emrito. Departamento de Fisiologa, Biofsica y Neurociencias.  

E-print Network

. Albores Medina Arnulfo. Investigador Titular. Sección Externa de Toxicología. Aldana Aranda Dalila. Aranda Bricaire Eduardo. Investigador Titular. Sección de Mecatrónica. Departamento de Ingeniería Mérida. Arias González Jesús Ernesto. Investigador Titular. Departamento de Recursos del Mar. Unidad

66

Julie Devineau. Problmes d'Amrique Latine, N79, hiver 2010-2011 Elena Azaola Garrido, Miquel ngel Ruiz Torres, Investigadores de papel, Poder y  

E-print Network

le journalisme d'investigation traite frontalement la question de la corruption de la police, et si'Elena Azaola et Miquel �ngel Ruiz Torres se sont posés, en étudiant la police judiciaire de la ville de Mexico'une même génération). Les discussions des agents, orientées sur des thèmes tels que l'image de la police

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Formal proofs about rewriting using ACL2 Jos e-Luis Ruiz-Reina, Jos e-Antonio Alonso, Mar a-Jos e Hidalgo and  

E-print Network

Formal proofs about rewriting using ACL2 #3; Jos#19;e-Luis Ruiz-Reina, Jos#19;e-Antonio Alonso, Mar,jalonso,mjoseh,fmarting@cs.us.es) Abstract. We present an application of the ACL2 theorem prover to reason about rewrite systems theory. We-free logic of ACL2 and we sketch some of the main points of the proof e#11;ort. First, we present

Reina, José Luis Ruiz

68

The Marriage Squeeze in Colombia, 19732005  

E-print Network

140 HSBI The Marriage Squeeze in Colombia, 1973­2005: The Role of Excess Male Death Marriage to experience consequences in terms of (1) marriage markets, (2) the dynamics of family formation of differential male mortality on marriage markets in Colombia. Overall, Colombia is characterized by a female

Jones, James Holland

69

Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

70

La inversión pública nacional en la regiones de Colombia, 1995-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como parte de un trabajo más extenso sobre el gasto público nacional en la región Caribe y el ordenamiento territorial en el período 1995-20071, en este documento se analizan las asignaciones del presupuesto general de la nación para la inversión regionalizable, entre los años 1995-2007 en Colombia. Se presentan algunas explicaciones sobre la relación entre el producto interno bruto (PIB)

M. A. José Moreno; José L. Ramos R; Alexandra García I

2010-01-01

71

DAMAGE BY TIBRACA LIMBATIVENTRIS (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) TO RICE IN SOUTHWESTERN COLOMBIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Action thresholds for Tibraca limbativentris Stall (TL) on rice were calculated to be 8.8 and 25.8 TL/10 sweep nets for 30 and 40 day old plants respectively. Population dynamics of TL in two localities of Valle del Cauca Colombia, indicates a density of 1.2 TL/ sweep (12 TL/10 sweeps). Densities e...

72

Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. and Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae) essential oils from Eastern Ecuador.  

PubMed

Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500?g/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. PMID:21783920

Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Andreotti, Elisa; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Maldonado, Maria E; Bruni, Renato

2009-01-01

73

Endemic goiter in western Colombia.  

PubMed

Goiter continues to occur in some areas of western Colombia despite iodine supplementation for 30 years. In 1973-1977, an average goiter prevalence of 15% (range 1-42%) still persisted among schoolchildren of 41 localities. Significant relationships were found between goiter prevalence and both the geological composition of watersheds and bacterial contamination of water supplies. Together, these associations account for 80% of the observed variation in goiter prevalence. The presence of sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter (coals, shales, etc.) was the best indicator of disease. The second best indicator, presence of K. pneumoniae in the water source, was associated with lower goiter prevalence but, as in other investigations, contamination of the pipeline system (households and schools) with gram-negative bacteria was associated with higher disease rates. Thus, epidemiological evidence indicates a cause-effect relationship between sources of drinking water and the persistence and development of goiter in this part of the world. Furthermore, identification of resorcinol, phthalate esters, and sulfur-bearing organic compounds, possibly aliphatic disulfides, in the water supplying the endemic goiter district of Candelaria town in western Colombia adds experimental support to this hypothesis. Resorcinol is derived from coal and humic substances, high molecular weight complex polymeric organic compounds present in sedimentary rocks, soils and water. Resorcinol is goitrogenic in man and experimental animals. Phthalate esters, also related to humic materials, undergo biodegradation by gram-negative bacteria with production of intermediate metabolites possessing antithyroid activity. Like phthalates and resorcinol, organic disulfides have also been identified as water contaminants in other parts of the world, and are known to be potent antithyroid compounds. The goitrogenic effect of organic and bacterial pollutants in water supplies is more pronounced in segments of the population with dietary iodine deficiency--as seen prior to the iodine prophylaxis program--and/or poor socio-economic conditions. Studies are underway to provide both insight into the biogeochemical cycle of water-borne goitrogens and knowledge essential to the development of rapid, inexpensive, and precise methods for detecting and quantifying the offending agents, as well as devising effective sanitation techniques for their inactivation and/or elimination. The impact of such measures will be determined on goiter prevalence and other parameters of health and nutrition of the communities under study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6398216

Gaitan, E

1983-01-01

74

In: Biology, Evolution and Conservation of River Dolphins... ISBN 978-60876-633-8 Editors: Manuel Ruiz-Garcia and Joseph Shostell 2010 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.  

E-print Network

as in the Amazon River basin (Figure 1). Marine Sotalia are found from Honduras to the state of Santa Catarina and Colombia) and "lam" (Nicaragua). The distribution of riverine Sotalia comprises most of the Amazon River

Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

75

Colombia: why coal won't wait  

SciTech Connect

Colombia's coal production target is 68-million tons by the year 2000, with hopes to export 10% of world thermal-coal demand. Colombia's economic commitment to coal marketing is not an option, but an imperative. There are indications that coal production in the US - bogged down by complex transportation, environmental, and other disputes - will be revitalized, partly because Colombia will be added to the list of international coal-market competitors. Some coal-industry analysts recognize that the Colombian factor could, through stimulating price competition, encourage world coal consumption. Despite monumental infrastructure requirements that will turn the area between El Cerrejon and the Caribbean Sea into one integrated complex, the government is throwing itself heart and soul back into the coal age. This issue has the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for May 1983 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Not Available

1983-05-11

76

NEW CONCEPTS FOR STATIC CONCENTRATION OF DIRECT AND DIFFUSE RADIATION A. Luque, J. Eguren, J.M. Ruiz, A. Cuevas, J. del Alamo, J.M. Gomez, M.  

E-print Network

some kind of tracking to keep the cells illuminated while the sun position varies. Fur thermore.T.S.I.T.) Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Madrid 3, Spain Phone ~341) 2441060 SUMl1ARY The rules for casting maximum en,ergy on a cell placed in a static concentrator of minimum entry aperture are derived

del Alamo, Jesús A.

77

Forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.  

PubMed

Victimization by sexual assault has become not only a public health and safety issue but a way of life for many in Colombia. Poverty, gender inequality, and a lack of family and community support contribute to the cycle of sexual violence. Ineffective medico-legal systems have added to a rate of 93% for sex crimes that go without arrest or prosecution in Bogotá, the capital. Collaborative efforts are underway between the United States and Colombian governments to change the criminal justice system and strengthen forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia. PMID:18027530

Cabelus, Nancy B; Sheridan, Gary T

2007-01-01

78

Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from medellín, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 5% of all breast cancers can be attributed to a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. The genetic component of breast cancer in Colombia has been, for the most part, studied on cases from the Bogota region. Five different founder mutations were in two studies of breast cancer patients in the Bogota region. It is important that the frequency of mutations be established among unselected cases of breast cancer of other regions of Colombia in order to estimate the genetic burden of this cancer in Colombia and to plan genetic services. The aim of this study was to establish the mutation frequencies of the BRCA genes in breast cancer patients unselected for family history or age, from Medellin, Colombia. Methods We enrolled 280 unselected women with breast cancer from a large public hospital in Medellin, Colombia. A detailed family history from each patient and a blood sample was obtained and processed for DNA analysis. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were sought using a combination of techniques including a panel of recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations which consists of fifty BRCA1 mutations and forty-six BRCA2 mutations, including the five recurrent Colombian BRCA mutations. All mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Genetic testing was successfully completed for 244 of the 280 cases (87%). Among the 244 cases, three deleterious mutations were identified (two in BRCA1 and one in BRCA2) representing 1.2% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 34 years. The two BRCA1 mutations were known founder mutations (3450del4 in exon 11 and A1708E in exon 18). The BRCA2 mutation was in exon 11 (5844del5) and has not been previously reported in individuals of Colombian descent. Among the three mutation-positive families was a breast cancer family and two families with no history of breast or ovarian cancer. Conclusion The frequency of BRCA mutations in unselected breast cancer cases from the Medellin region of Colombia is low and is approximately 1.2%. PMID:24742220

2014-01-01

79

POLITICA MONETARIA EN COLOMBIA, 1999 - 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En el análisis económico se deben contemplar variables que generan un fuerte impacto en la coyuntura nacional y los mercados financieros. Dentro de las variables que generan este efecto se deben tener en cuenta las reguladas por el Banco Central de un país. En Colombia, el Banco de la República tiene un peso importante en los aspectos macroeconómicos; dentro

Fernando Chavarro Miranda

2010-01-01

80

Violence and Drug Prohibition in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the role of inequality, poverty and drug prohibition, in explaining homicide rates(HR) in Colombia using panel data at the municipality level between 1990 and 1998. We use maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate several specifications of spatial models. When we pool the data we find a significant relation between the HR and poverty which is reinforced when the inequality

Carlos Medina; Hermes Martínez

2003-01-01

81

Sirenomelia: two cases in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed

We report two cases of sirenomelia, a rare congenital defect with a prevalence rate of 1:100?000 births; both cases were observed in Cali, Colombia. Both pregnant women were referred from Buenaventura, Colombia. The expecting mothers shared multiple adverse sociodemographic factors. Their homes were located in a city where the entire population is of low socioeconomic status living under conditions of extreme poverty. They were uneducated, with nutritional deficiencies and no access to drinking water most of the time. Both were exposed to water and fish from a nearby river contaminated with leachate from a poorly managed landfill. A similar relation was previously reported in Cali in 2005 between environmental factors and sirenomelia. We suggest that there is a common aetiological factor of environmental origin between these two sirenomelia cases and propose that exposure to derivatives from landfills should be included among the factors for this rare defect of multifactorial aetiological origin. PMID:25636631

Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Salcedo-Arellano, Maria Jimena; Ramirez-Cheyne, Julian

2015-01-01

82

Premio Ollantay 1989 - Acta del jurado  

E-print Network

, personas e instituciones cuyas trayectorias, dedicadas al desarrollo del teatro a nivel continental, ameriten ser destacadas como ejemplo. El Jurado designado por el CELCIT para otorgar los Premios Ollantay correspondientes al año 1989, integrado por... Colombia 2. Grupo de Teatro al Teatro Imagen, de Chile 3. Institución de Apoyo al Teatro al Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, CONCYTEC, de Perú 4. Teatro Infantil al Grupo de Teatro de Muñecos "Quijotillo," de Cumaná, Venezuela 5. Publicación...

Editors

1990-04-01

83

PLAN DE COMUNICACIÓN SOBRE CIENCIA E INNOVACIÓN TECNOLÓGICA EN LA CARRERA DE COMUNICACIÓN SOCIAL DEL CENTRO UNIVERSITARIO MUNICIPAL “CÁNDIDO GONZÁLEZ HORTA” PARA EL CURSO 2010 – 2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

La presente investigación tiene su inicio en un estudio de Comunicación establecido en la Sede Universitaria Municipal “Cándido González Horta” del municipio Colombia durante el año 2010, con el propósito de integrar la carrera de Comunicación Social a la promoción y divulgación del Sistema de Ciencia e Innovación Tecnológica (SCIT) del CITMA en el territorio. Este estudio comprende la realización

Jorge Tamayo Aroche; Lian Martínez Rodríguez; Antonio Inocente González Nápoles

2010-01-01

84

Nevado del Huila, Columbia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2007-01-01

85

Regional patterns of agricultural land use and deforestation in Colombia  

E-print Network

Regional patterns of agricultural land use and deforestation in Colombia Andre´s Etter a of agricultural lands has slowed since 1960, rapid deforestation still occurs in many tropical countries, including Colombia. However, the location and extent of deforestation and associated ecological impacts

Queensland, University of

86

Forecasting of Average Monthly River Flows in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have witnessed a marked increase in our knowledge of the causes of interannual hydroclimatic variability and our ability to make predictions. Colombia, located near the seat of the ENSO phenomenon, has been shown to experience negative (positive) anomalies in precipitation in concert with El Niño (La Niña). In general besides the Pacific Ocean, Colombia has climatic

O. J. Mesa; G. Poveda

2006-01-01

87

The Great Tumaco, Colombia Earthquake of 12 December 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the

Darrell G. Herd; T. Leslie Youd; Hansjurgen Meyer; Jorge Luis Arango C; Waverly J. Person; Carlos Mendoza

1981-01-01

88

Burden of disease in Nariño, Colombia, 2010  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study sought to measure burden of disease and identifies health priorities from the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) indicator. Methods: This is the first study on burden of disease for a department in Colombia by using a standardized methodology. By using the DALYs indicator, burden of disease was identified in the department of Nariño according to the guidelines established by the World Health Organization. Results: The DALYs in the Department of Nariño highlight the emergence of communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional diseases during the first years of life; of accidents and lesions among youth, and non-communicable diseases in older individuals. Also, accidents and lesions are highlighted in men and non-communicable diseases in women. Conclusions: This study is part of the knowledge management process in the Departmental Health Plan for Nariño - Colombia 2012-2015 and contributes to the system of indicators of the 2012 ten-year public health plan. This research evidences that communicable diseases generate the biggest part of the burden of disease in the Department of Nariño, that DALYs due to non-communicable diseases are on the rise, and that accidents and lesions, especially due to violence are an important cause of DALYs in this region, which is higher than that of the country. PMID:25386034

Trujillo-Montalvo, Elizabeth; Hidalgo-Patiño, Carlos; Hidalgo-Eraso, Angela

2014-01-01

89

P E R S O N A L A C A D M I C O Aceves Ruiz Jorge. Investigador Emrito. Departamento de Fisio-  

E-print Network

Aranda Dalila. Investigadora Cinvestav 3C. Departamento de Recursos del Mar. Unidad Mérida. Almanza. Arámbula Villa Gerónimo. Investigador Cinvestav 3A. Unidad Querétaro. Aranda Bricaire Eduardo. Investigador. Investigador Cinvestav 3A. Departamento de Recursos del Mar. Unidad Mérida. Arias González Jesús Ernesto

90

Self-reversal of natural remanent magnetization in andesitic pumice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural remanent magnetization of andesitic pumice erupted from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Colombia) in 1985 is reversed with respect to the present geomagnetic field because of self-reversal. Laboratory thermoremanent magnetization acquired in fields of < 1 mT fully re-establishes the self-reversal mechanism. Hysteresis experiments indicate that the mechanism is caused by antiparallel coupling as a result of exchange

M. Haag; F. Heller; R. Allenspach; K. Roche

1990-01-01

91

Experimento teatral en Colombia: El teatro identificador.  

E-print Network

, Fernando González Cajiao, a los sociólogos Raúl y Gregoria Clavijo, al investigador Roger Serpa y al cineasta Alvaro González. El 2 de enero de 1975 todos ellos se tras ladaron a Lorica, y dieron comienzo al trabajo que entonces parecía un desafío, una... Lorica el 19 de marzo de 1975 y en Montería, la capital del Departamento, el 22 del mismo mes. Ambas repre sentaciones se hicieron en sendos estadios de béisbol, reduciendo el área por medio de silletería e instalando altoparlantes para amplificar la...

Gonzá lez Cajiao, Fernando

1975-10-01

92

77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Bahrain, Oman, Peru, or Korea, no bond or other security will be required...Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Bahrain, Oman, Peru, the Republic of Korea, or Colombia and entered...

2012-09-26

93

Policy learning : new challenges for smart value capture in Colombia  

E-print Network

Contribucion por Valorizacion is a form of value capture similar to Special Assessment, used in Colombia to complement Local revenues for major public infrastructure programs. SA's continued use countrywide and its resulting ...

Acosta, Patricia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

94

Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported. PMID:15200848

Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.

2004-01-01

95

Colombia's space policy: An analysis of six years of progress and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes Colombia's space policy: its successes, its failures and what it still needs to achieve. The paper examines the interaction among the different players, and how this policy contributes to economic and social development of the country. And postulates that, unless a real national plan of action, with specific milestones and budget as well as a managing agency are developed, this policy may be in danger of disappearing. The Colombian Space Commission (Comisión Colombiana del Espacio, or CCE) was created by Presidential Decree 2442 in 2006. It is a multi-sectorial entity, in charge of coordinating, planning, and leading in the implementation of national policies for the development and application of space technologies. The CCE was also charged with the drafting of plans and programs in this field. The CCE began with only a few members (15) and today is comprised of 47 members: 13 ministries, 4 administrative departments, another 21 governmental entities and 9 universities, the latter acting as consultants. The Vice-President of the Republic is the President of the CCE. These different actors gave great importance to the development of Colombia's space sector, and 6 years later, they are continuing support and development the country's space policy. This analysis takes into account three aspects: first, achieving the objectives of the CCE: the creation and development of a national space policy for Colombia; secondly, focussing on “target groups” and “end users”; and thirdly, the “outcomes” or achievements to date. Some conclusions are worth highlighting: first, the warm reception and support of the CCE by both the public and private sectors on high levels, but the poor knowledge of the national space policy by the Colombian people and the small and medium companies. Secondly, in the context of public policy [9], the strategic plan called “National Policy in regard to Space Activities”, is caught between two phases: the formulation and decision-making regarding the program, and its implementation. And finally, the members of the CCE do not necessarily act in accordance with a national strategy, but follow their own interests, resulting in undue influence (and perhaps interference) in the development of a coherent national space policy. In brief, the author hopes that this first analysis of Colombia's experience with its Space Commission will serve as an example to other developing countries that also are seeking to develop their space sector, and implement a national space policy. Further, the author hopes that this analysis will allow the various politico-administrative actors “policy makers” in Colombia, as well as the general public, to realize that, while much has been accomplished, much still remains to be done. It is essential to keep alive the interest shown in space activities; otherwise, Colombia's space policy may become an “endangered species”, in danger of failing and disappearing.

Becerra, Jairo

2014-07-01

96

Una evaluación del Plan de Consolidación Integral de la Macarena (PCIM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo presenta una descripción de la nueva estrategia de la lucha contra las drogas implementada en Colombia desde el año 2007. El Salto Estratégico, como ha llamado el gobierno colombiano a este programa, o la Iniciativa de Desarrollo Estratégico, como lo llama USAID (la agencia del gobierno de Estados Unidos para la ayuda a los países en desarrollo) es

Daniel Mejía; María José Uribe; Ana María Ibáñez

2011-01-01

97

A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1–)4–6(–7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

2013-01-01

98

The Great Tumaco, Colombia Earthquake of 12 December 1979  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

Herd, Darrell G.; Youd, T. Leslie; Meyer, Hansjurgen; Arango C., Jorge Luis; Person, Waverly J.; Mendoza, Carlos

1981-01-01

99

The great tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 december 1979.  

PubMed

Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shal-low-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits. PMID:17816596

Herd, D G; Youd, T L; Meyer, H; C, J L; Person, W J; Mendoza, C

1981-01-30

100

The Great Tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 December 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

Herd, D.G.; Youd, T.L.; Meyer, H.; Arango, C.J.L.; Person, W.J.; Mendoza, C.

1981-01-01

101

New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

2014-01-01

102

Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

La edición electrónica del Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer se publicó mensualmente desde septiembre de 2009 hasta enero de 2013, con el objetivo de difundir información sobre la investigación del cáncer, tanto de estudios financiados por el NCI y otras dependencias federales, así como de investigaciones realizadas por instituciones en Estados Unidos y alrededor del mundo.

103

Borehole stability analysis at the Coporo-1 well, Colombia  

E-print Network

BOREHOLE STABILITY ANALYSIS AT THE COPORO-I WELL, COLOMBIA A Thesis by HENRY ARIAS Submitted to the Ofttce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillme u of:he requirements for thc degree of lvlASTER OF SCIENCE August... 2000 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering BOREHOLE STABILITY ANALYSIS AT THE COPORO-I WELL, COLOMBIA A Thesis bv HENRY ARIAS Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIFNCE...

Arias, Henry

2012-06-07

104

Better lead than bread? A critical analysis of the US's plan Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia's continuing 35?year civil war has claimed over 300,000 lives. Plan Colombia is a $1.3 billion dollar US military aid package to the Colombian military. It is the largest international intervention into Colombia's civil war and will make Colombia the third largest US military aid recipient in the world today. The US government claims the aid will be used to

Doug Stokes

2001-01-01

105

Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. Methods The ''decision space'' approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. Findings Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some

Thomas J. Bossert; Osvaldo Larranaga; Ursula Giedion; JoseJesus Arbelaez; Diana M. Bowser

2003-01-01

106

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia’s Health Insurance Program for the Poor  

PubMed Central

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia’s Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a “fuzzy” regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services – with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana

2013-01-01

107

Análisis descriptivo del tamaño relativo del gasto del gobierno chileno  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se examina el tamaño relativo del Gobierno chileno a través de una comparación internacional con valores equivalentes de otros países. Adicionalmente hay un análisis similar para dos componentes importantes del gasto público: educación y salud. El gasto del Gobierno de Chile, valor en torno del 20% (PIB), está junto al tercio inferior de países que poseen un

Eduardo Engel; Patricio Meller; Claudio Bravo

1998-01-01

108

Critical Literacy as Policy and Advocacy: Lessons from Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, the first column for this issue's Policy and Advocacy department, features a discussion about a recent experience in a graduate program in Medellín, Colombia introducing students to critical literacy. Graduate students used ideas from critical literacy to engage in an in-depth analysis of textbooks they had used in their…

Mora, Raúl Alberto

2014-01-01

109

Geology of supergiant Cano Limon field and Llanos basin, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 40 years of sporadic exploration that yielded negative or marginal results, the Llanos basin of eastern Colombia was thrust to the forefront of world attention by the discovery of the supergiant Cano Limon field in July 1983. This discovery culminated an intensive 3-year exploration effort by Occidental involving 4000 km of dynamite seismic, 20 stratigraphic tests from 1300 to

C. N. McCollough; E. P. Padfield

1986-01-01

110

Discovery of Cano Limon field, Llanos basin, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 40 years of sporadic exploration that yielded negative or marginal results, the Llanos basin of eastern Colombia was thrust to the forefront of world attention by the discovery of the supergiant Cano Limon field in July 1983. This discovery culminated an intensive 3-year exploration effort by Occidental involving 4000 km of dynamite seismic, 20 stratigraphic tests from 1300 to

McCollough

1988-01-01

111

A Comparative Study of School Effectiveness in Aguablanca, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal aim of this article is to describe and document a comparison of public and private school effectiveness in the marginalized (often referred to as slum) district of Aguablanca, in the city of Cali, Colombia. The data suggest that teachers and parents are largely satisfied with the current status of education provision in Aguablanca.…

Burgess, Michael; Dixon, Pauline

2012-01-01

112

A warning bell? Tornillo events at Galeras Volcano, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, five of the six ash eruptions at Galeras Volcano, Colombia were preceded by distinctive seismic events, called tornillos. These unusual tremor wavelets have quasi-sinusoidal waveforms with screw-like envelope profiles and can last up to several minutes. Since December 1990, more than 60 of these events have been recorded at Galeras Volcano. As a class, they appear to be

M. Hellweg; D. Seidl

2003-01-01

113

Obsidian provenance studies in Colombia and Ecuador: obsidian sources revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field occurrences, elemental compositions and formation ages of Colombian and Ecuadorian obsidians are revisited. It is shown that the regional sources of this raw material are linked to two major volcanic structures: the Chacana and the Paletara calderas, localised on the eastern cordillera of Ecuador and on the central Andean cordillera of south Colombia respectively. Seventy-two samples were analysed

Ludovic Bellot-Gurlet; Olivier Dorighel; Gérard Poupeau

2008-01-01

114

Residents, Decision Makers, and Scientists Discuss Volcanic Hazard in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia; Pasto, Colombia, 6-11 July 2009; Galeras volcano, located in southwestern Colombia, imposes several hazards on the surrounding population: pyroclastic flows, lahars, ashfall, and shock waves. The current hazard map shows three zones: high, medium, and low (see A. D. Hurtado Artunduaga and G. P. Cortés Jiménez, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 77, 89-100, 1997). The pyroclastic flow hazard on this map defines the Zone of High Volcanic Hazard (ZAVA) for civil authorities. Current activity of Galeras has provoked two contentious issues related to hazard management: (1) Decision makers announce an evacuation order of ZAVA whenever the volcanic alert reaches a high level, and (2) the Colombian government initiated a relocation program for the inhabitants within ZAVA (Colombian Decrees-Laws 4106 and 3905). However, communities within ZAVA refuse to obey both the evacuation orders and the relocation process. To help resolve this situation, the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. A daily average of 92 people attended, including residents of ZAVA, decision makers, Colombian technical and scientific personnel, international scientists and researchers, students, and academics from the University of Nariño.

Sheridan, Michael F.; Cordoba, Gustavo

2010-02-01

115

A policy is not enough: Women's health policy in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, thanks to the involvement of women's groups and a favourable political context the Ministry of Public Health in Colombia put forward a national women's health policy that calls for interventions in five areas: self-care, abuse and violence, mental health, occupational health, and reproductive health and sexuality. Three years and several international conferences later, there have been few sustained

María Isabel Plata; Ana Cristina González; Adriana de la Espriella

1995-01-01

116

Primary Mental Health Care in Disasters: Armero, Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the mental health consequences of the disaster in Armero, Colombia which resulted from a volcanic eruption and mudslide, and highlights the role of the primary care worker in delivering mental health care to disaster victims. Eight characteristics of disasters that are closely related to their psychopathogenetic potential…

Lima, Bruno R.

117

Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

118

Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held periodically between 1997 and 2012, the year of the sixth edition. As well, national and international research groups have been formed to work actively on global projects, such as the Geophysics Laboratory of Universidad de Los Andes in Venezuela. In the future, international groups will be formed to jointly treat issues including localization and size of destructive events along borders, common scales for the evaluation of intensities, integrated data bases, etc. Additionally the methods employed will be validated by paleoseismology, neotectonics and instrumental seismicity, among others.

Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

2013-05-01

119

A reference architecture for integrated EHR in Colombia.  

PubMed

The implementation of national EHR infrastructures has to start by a detailed definition of the overall structure and behavior of the EHR system (system architecture). Architectures have to be open, scalable, flexible, user accepted and user friendly, trustworthy, based on standards including terminologies and ontologies. The GCM provides an architectural framework created with the purpose of analyzing any kind of system, including EHR system´s architectures. The objective of this paper is to propose a reference architecture for the implementation of an integrated EHR in Colombia, based on the current state of system´s architectural models, and EHR standards. The proposed EHR architecture defines a set of services (elements) and their interfaces, to support the exchange of clinical documents, offering an open, scalable, flexible and semantically interoperable infrastructure. The architecture was tested in a pilot tele-consultation project in Colombia, where dental EHR are exchanged. PMID:21893762

de la Cruz, Edgar; Lopez, Diego M; Uribe, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Carolina; Blobel, Bernd

2011-01-01

120

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Chytridiomycosis in Anuran Amphibians of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the possible presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Chytridiomycota: Chytridiales) in frogs (Amphibia: Anura) of Colombia, we made a retrospective examination of formalin-fixed\\u000a specimens preserved in natural history collections. Using the staining technique of hematoxylin and eosin to identify B. dendrobatidis in histological slices, we found evidence of the fungus in 3 of the 53

Angélica Ruiz; José Vicente Rueda-Almonacid

2008-01-01

121

Y-chromosome STRs in an Antioquian (Colombia) population sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haplotype data were obtained from a sample of 777 unrelated male individuals from Antioquia Department (Colombia), for eight Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393). A total of 442 different haplotypes were identified of which 334 were represented only once in the database and the most frequent haplotype was found in 32 individuals. A

Juan José Builes; M. Luisa Bravo; Claudia Gómez; Claudia Espinal; Diana Aguirre; Alfredo Gómez; Jorge Rodríguez; Patricia Castañeda; Alba Montoya; Manuel Moreno; António Amorim; Leonor Gusmão

2006-01-01

122

Street-weary in Bogota. Voices of girls 3: Colombia.  

PubMed

In Colombia, people displaced by rural violence have crowded Bogota's slums, where inhabitants are plagued by alcoholism, drug dependency, and violence. Violence against children is epidemic in Colombia, and education, which is supposed to be free, is in reality so expensive that over a third of children fail to complete primary school. Street culture beckons children, and one agency has identified 7454 girl prostitutes in Bogota and believes there are another 1000 who have not yet been contacted. Most of these girls are from low-income families residing in inner-city slums, and many were sexually abused at an early age by a male relative. Almost all start using drugs, and more than 80% are infected with sexually transmitted diseases, including 15% who have HIV/AIDS. Even efforts to help these children can go astray, as some learn deviant behavior from fellow residents of children's homes. The biggest danger faced by girls and boys alike on the street is rape, and some children report being raped by policemen. The Renacer Foundation is working to rehabilitate children in its residential units and has achieved success in some cases. In other cases, success is slow to achieve and hard to maintain because it is difficult, if not impossible, for the children to recover from early abuse. Colombia lacks a nationwide needs assessment or primary intervention program to prevent early abuse and to help vulnerable girls. The only programs available to help the children already in trouble use outdated methods and are severely overcrowded. PMID:12321767

Ross, T

1998-01-01

123

Instantánea del cáncer infantil  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer en los niños, tendencias en el financiamiento del NCI para la investigación del cáncer infantil; así como ejemplos de actividades y adelantos en la investigación relevantes para esta población.

124

A mediated modelling approach to promote collaborative learning in Andean rural micro-catchments in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rural catchments of developing countries water-related diseases, due to land use patterns (agriculture and livestock), microbial pollution, inadequate sanitation systems, access to water of poor quality, and lack of institutional support are common problems which disproportionally affect poor and vulnerable people. This research aims at developing a system dynamic model to improve the understanding of the macro and micro factors that influence human health and environmental health in rural micro-catchments in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In this catchment livelihoods for most people depend on agriculture, particularly coffee. The research uses a mediated modeling approach, in which different stakeholders in modeling sessions, develop a STELLA model that allows them to identify relations between the economic, social and environmental factors and driving forces over the performance of their system. Stakeholders jointly develop the model structure in sessions facilitated by the researcher and the data required is gathered using secondary information from the different relevant institutions and primary information from field surveys that cover socioeconomic and environmental aspects that has not been previously collected by any institution or organization (i.e. household survey, stream water survey, and drinking water survey). Representation and understanding of their system will allow the stakeholders to test the effect of different management strategies in the micro-catchment and their associated socioeconomic, environmental and human health outcomes.

Gowing, John; Dominguez, Isabel

2013-04-01

125

Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes  

Cancer.gov

El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

126

78 FR 16470 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2013-03-15

127

CURRICULAR CHOICES FOR ELITE BILINGUAL SCHOOLS ON COLOMBIA'S CARIBBEAN COAST: AMERICAN ACCREDITATION OR THE INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE  

E-print Network

Discusses the movement towards international recognition among "elite" bilingual schools on Colombia's Caribbean coast, with a special focus on U.S. accrediting agencies and the International Baccalaureate.

Nalley, Joel Josiah

2010-06-14

128

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909

2014-01-01

129

Políticas del sitio web  

Cancer.gov

En el sitio web del NCI se proporcionan enlaces a otros sitios web con fines informativos y para conveniencia del público. Si el usuario selecciona un sitio web externo, saldrá del sitio web del NCI y estará sujeto a las políticas de privacidad y seguridad de dicho sitio.

130

Bayesian-inversion adjusted methane fluxes in Colombia and Panama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is the second most important long lived greenhouse gas (GHG) in the Earth's atmosphere accounting for ~20% of the positive radiative forcing. The first step towards developing GHG mitigation strategies is to obtain sufficiently accurate and detailed source and sinks estimations. While ~2/3 of the global methane emissions are anthropogenic, the wetlands are the single largest source. Therefore, in many cases, wetland emissions must be included in inverse modeling calculations aimed at validating anthropogenic emission inventories from ambient air concentration measurements. High accuracy and precision methane measurements carried out in 2007 during NASA's TC4 mission revealed elevated enhancements over Colombia and Panama (up to ~500 ppbv CH4 over Uraba, Colombia). Aiming at identifying the origin of these enhancements and at validating the anthropogenic emission inventory, we used STILT to estimate methane mixing ratios based on surface fluxes at regional level over four regions of both Colombia and Panama. STILT was applied along with assimilated (GDAS and ECMWF) meteorological fields and a priori methane inventories for anthropogenic (EDGAR) and wetland emissions (Kaplan's and Matthews and Fung's). The modeled mixing ratios were compared to the TC4 mission measurements. A Bayesian inversion analysis allowed us to scale prior fluxes taking into account the uncertainty on modeled mixing ratios due to transport errors, which were calculated by comparison with meteorological observations. We obtained flux scaling factors for the whole domain of study and for each one of the four regions. Overall, the Bayesian inversion indicates that the prior anthropogenic inventory is reasonably accurate and the a priori wetland methane fluxes are overestimated almost by a factor 2. Although the posterior enhancements show a better agreement with measurements, the discrepancies cannot be reduced for 4 regions simultaneously, which points to the calculated meteorological fields as the main source of uncertainty. This is not surprising bearing in mind the complexity of horizontal and vertical transport in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, particularly over the strong moist convection period experienced during the TC4 mission. Our calculations show a significant anthropogenic influence in the Savanna and Uraba regions. This is unexpected for Uraba. Our posterior wetland flux estimate for Colombia is ~4 Tg/year. This is relatively large when compared for instance with the Hudson Bay Lowlands (~ 2 Tg/year).

Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez, R.; Lin, J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Kort, E. A.; Kaplan, J. O.

2011-12-01

131

The Quindio, Colombia, Earthquake of January 25, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) recently released a Special Earthquake Report on the Quindio, Colombia Earthquake of January 25, 1999. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, this report is part of the EERI's Learning from Earthquakes project. Sections contained in the report include an Introduction, Geosciences and Geotechnical Aspects, Structural and Nonstructural Damage, Observations on Lifelines, Health Impacts, Emergency Response, Emergency Shelter and Temporary Housing, Recovery and Reconstruction, and Lessons Learned. Figures and images supplement the report and help make more complicated material easier to understand. This report provides an excellent example of a case study.

132

Mössbauer analysis of coal coke samples from Samacá, Boyacá, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three samples of coke produced from coal from a mine in the municipality of Samacá, department of Boyacá, Colombia, were studied essentially with Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were treated with NaOH 5 mol L - 1 in order to increase the proportion of iron oxides, by selectively dissolving silicate minerals and any remaining gibbsite, before the physical analysis. Room temperature Mössbauer data revealed that all samples do contain major proportions (>50 % of the relative subspectral area) of hematite along with (super) paramagnetic species as iron-bearing chemical compounds. The superparamagnetic contribution may be due to very fine grains of iron oxides, including nanometric hematite.

Pacheco Serrano, W. A.; Quintão Lima, D.; Fabris, J. D.

2014-01-01

133

DESALINEACIN ELECTORAL Y NUEVOS ESCENARIOS POLTICOS. UN ESTUDIO COMPARADO SOBRE LOS CASOS DE COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA Y URUGUAY  

E-print Network

COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA Y URUGUAY Enrico GIACOMETTI SARTHOU Universidad de Salamanca giacometti estudiar estos procesos de cambio, los casos escogidos serán Costa Rica, Colombia y Uruguay. Palabras Clave

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

Race and Ethnic Inequality in Health and Health Care in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore race and ethnic health inequalities in Colombia. We first characterize the situation of Afro-Colombians and indigenous populations in Colombia. Second, we document racial\\/ethnic disparities in health outcomes and access to health care using data from the Living Standards Survey and the evaluation of the Familias en Acción program. Third, we set up a statistical model

Raquel Bernal; Mauricio Cárdenas Santa María

2005-01-01

135

Cronica fundacional en Colombia: La raza, la clase y el genero en el discurso nacional  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the racial, class and gender representations of Colombia as a new nation through the analysis of chronicles written in the nineteenth century. After the Spanish-American independence, creoles, people born in America from Spanish parents, from all the new nation-states envisioned homogeneous societies as the models for their new republics. In Colombia, the idealized representation in writing of

Ana Patricia Velez-Rendon

2008-01-01

136

After Years of (Economic) Solitude: Neoliberal Reforms and Pay Inequality in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the evolution of pay inequality in Colombia's manufacturing sector from 1992-2004. Colombia's implementation of economic reforms, including the opening of the economy and the financial liberalization that began in the early 1990s, were the main drivers of change in the structure of the manufacturing sector, provoking fluctuations in pay inequality. Changes in pay inequality

Laura Spagnolo; Daniel Munevar

137

The War on Illegal Drug Production and Trafficking: An Economic Evaluation of Plan Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a thorough economic evaluation of the anti-drug policies implemented in Colombia between 2000 and 2006 under the so-called Plan Colombia. The paper develops a game theory model of the war against illegal drugs in producer countries. We explicitly model illegal drug markets, which allows us to account for the feedback effects between policies and market outcomes that

Daniel Mejía; Pascual Restrepo

2008-01-01

138

Structure of Colombia basin, Caribbean Sea, from profiler-sonobuoy measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic velocities and layer depths were computed from 26 air gun\\/sonobuoy profiles made along a southwesterly traverse of the Colombia basin. Penetration to the deeper crustal layers and the upper mantle was achieved with a large air gun sound source. The crustal structure of the Colombia basin is a complex arrangement of basement ridges and interposed basins that is masked

Robert E. Houtz; William J. Ludwig

1977-01-01

139

Structure of Colombia Basin, Caribbean Sea, From Profiler-Sonobuoy Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic velocities and layer depths were computed from 26 air gun\\/sonobuoy profiles made along a southwesterly traverse of the Colombia basin. Penetration to the deeper crustal layers and the upper mantle was achieved with a large air gun sound source. The crustal structure of the Colombia basin is a complex arrangement of basement ridges and interposed basins that is masked

Robert E. Houtz; William J. Ludwig

1977-01-01

140

Protected areas in Northern Colombia on track to sustainable development? Carla Marchant & Axel Borsdorf  

E-print Network

Protected areas in Northern Colombia ­ on track to sustainable development? Carla Marchant & Axel Borsdorf Keywords: sustainable development, livelihood, tourism, subsistence, coffee, Sierra Nevada de of sustainable development. On the basis of case studies in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Northern Colombia

Borsdorf, Axel

141

Wanted: Criminal Justice Colombia's Adoption of a Prosecutorial System of Criminal Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article explores the fundamental historical change in Colombia's criminal procedure. Part I of this Article will present a brief history of the inquisitorial system of criminal procedure, laying the foundation for an understanding the unique Columbian development of criminal procedure. A description of Colombia's inquisitorial system follows, focusing especially on structural barriers in the previous inquisitorial system that hampered

Michael R. Pahl

1992-01-01

142

Inside the 'Crystal Triangle': The US 'War on Narcoterrorism' in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

For half a century, the United States and its client state in Colombia have been unsuccessful in eliminating Latin America's oldest and most powerful Marxist insurgency the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), via the Cold War, the 'War on Drugs,' and the 'War on Terror' after 9\\/11. This is an astonishing feat for a so-called 'terrorist' organisation in the

Oliver Villar

2009-01-01

143

CTX-M-12 ?-Lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate in Colombia  

PubMed Central

We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 ?-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia. PMID:14742223

Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, José María; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P.

2004-01-01

144

Anthropophilic Anopheles species composition and malaria in Tierradentro, Córdoba, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Malaria is still a primary health problem in Colombia. The locality of Tierradentro is situated in the municipality of Montelíbano, Córdoba, in the northwest of Colombia, and has one of the highest annual parasite index of malaria nationwide. However, the vectors involved in malaria transmission in this locality have not yet been identified. In this study, the local anthropophilic Anopheles composition and natural infectivity with Plasmodium were investigated. In August 2009, 927 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in eight localities using the human landing catch method and identified based on their morphology. Cryptic species were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer (ITS)2 molecular analysis. Eight species [Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. (92.8%), Anopheles darlingi (5.1%), Anopheles triannulatus s.l. (1.8%), Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. (0.2%), Anopheles punctimacula s.l. (0.2%), Anopheles apicimacula (0.1%), Anopheles albimanus (0.1%) and Anopheles rangeli (0.1%)] were identified and species identity was confirmed by ITS2 sequencing. This is the first report of An. albimanus, An. rangeli and An. apicimacula in Tierradentro. Natural infectivity with Plasmodium was determined by ELISA. None of the mosquitoes was infectious for Plasmodium. An. nuneztovari s.l. was the predominant species and is considered the primary malaria vector; An. darlingi and An. triannulatus s.l. could serve as secondary vectors.

Schiemann, David Joachim; Pinzón, Martha Lucía Quiñones; Hankeln, Thomas

2014-01-01

145

[Acute diarrheal disease caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Colombia].  

PubMed

Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years in Latin America, Africa and Asia and a leading cause of death in children living in poorest communities in Africa and South East Asia. Studies on the role of E. coli pathogens in childhood diarrhea in Colombia and other countries in Latin America are limited due to the lack of detection assays in clinical laboratories at the main urban medical centers. Recent studies report that enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common E. coli pathogens associated with diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Other E. coli pathotypes have been detected in children with diarrhea including enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, shiga-toxin producing and diffusely adherent E. coli. It was also found that meat and vegetables at retail stores are contaminated with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, suggesting that food products are involved in transmission and infection of the susceptible host. More studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of transmission, the impact on the epidemiology of diarrheal disease, and management strategies and prevention of these pathogens affecting the pediatric population in Colombia. PMID:25491457

Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

2014-10-01

146

A thermodynamic-like characterization of Colombia’s presidential elections in 2010, and a comparison with other Latin American countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermodynamic-like characterization of Colombia’s presidential election is presented. We assume that the electoral system consists of citizens embedded in a political environment, and that this environment can be considered as an information bath characterized by the entropic parameter q (q?[0,?]). First, for q=1, the electoral outcomes of 2010 are translated into a set of probabilities (relative frequencies of the

Diógenes Campos

2011-01-01

147

Forecasting of Average Monthly River Flows in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have witnessed a marked increase in our knowledge of the causes of interannual hydroclimatic variability and our ability to make predictions. Colombia, located near the seat of the ENSO phenomenon, has been shown to experience negative (positive) anomalies in precipitation in concert with El Niño (La Niña). In general besides the Pacific Ocean, Colombia has climatic influences from the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea through the tropical forest of the Amazon basin and the savannas of the Orinoco River, in top of the orographic and hydro-climatic effects introduced by the Andes. As in various other countries of the region, hydro-electric power contributes a large proportion (75 %) of the total electricity generation in Colombia. Also, most agriculture is rain-fed dependant, and domestic water supply relies mainly on surface waters from creeks and rivers. Besides, various vector borne tropical diseases intensify in response to rain and temperature changes. Therefore, there is a direct connection between climatic fluctuations and national and regional economies. This talk specifically presents different forecasts of average monthly stream flows for the inflow into the largest reservoir used for hydropower generation in Colombia, and illustrates the potential economic savings of such forecasts. Because of planning of the reservoir operation, the most appropriated time scale for this application is the annual to interannual. Fortunately, this corresponds to the scale at which hydroclimate variability understanding has improved significantly. Among the different possibilities we have explored: traditional statistical ARIMA models, multiple linear regression, natural and constructed analogue models, the linear inverse model, neural network models, the non-parametric regression splines (MARS) model, regime dependant Markovian models and one we termed PREBEO, which is based on spectral bands decomposition using wavelets. Most of the methods make use of the climatic observations and the general prediction models of ENSO which are routinely reported in various sources (http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/). We will compare the forecasting skills of the models, depending on lead time and initial month of forecasting. Besides ENSO indices, tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures and the North Atlantic Oscillation index are relevant for these predictions in Colombia. Clear-cut benefits of these predictions are evident for the operation of the system. Ever since the 1991-1992 ENSO event the government, power companies and big consumers realized on its importance and routinely incorporated it into their operational planning. On the contrary, this new knowledge has not been useful for the expansion of the system to accommodate the increasing demand. Some kind of resonance between the scale of fluctuation of climate and the memory of decision makers produces a hydro-illogical cycle of urgency during El Niño dry times and of unawareness during La Niña abundance.

Mesa, O. J.; Poveda, G.

2006-05-01

148

Assessing the impact of El Niño Modoki on seasonal precipitation in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the tropical Pacific SST on precipitation in Colombia is examined using a 341 station dataset covering the period 1979-2009. Through a singular value decomposition the two main coupled variability modes show SST patterns clearly associated with canonical El Niño and El Niño Modoki, respectively, presenting great coupling strength with the corresponding seasonal precipitation modes in Colombia. The results reveal that, mainly in winter and summer, canonical El Niño and El Niño Modoki events are associated with a significant rainfall decrease over the northern, central, and western Colombia. The opposite effect occurs in some localities during spring, summer, and autumn. The southwestern region of Colombia exhibits an opposite behavior connected to canonical El Niño and El Niño Modoki events during years when both events do not coexist, showing different seasonal precipitation response to these different patterns. The results found establish the foundations for precipitation modeling in Colombia from the Pacific SST.

Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia Raquel; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesús

2015-01-01

149

78 FR 15346 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Brazil, Colombia and Panama; May 12-18...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Brazil, Colombia and Panama; May 12-18...atilde]o Paulo and Bras[iacute]lia, Brazil, Bogot[aacute], Colombia and Panama...mission will promote U.S. exports to Brazil, Colombia and Panama by helping...

2013-03-11

150

Thermal segmentation along the N. EcuadorS. Colombia margin (14N): Prominent influence of sedimentation rate in the trench  

E-print Network

Thermal segmentation along the N. Ecuador­S. Colombia margin (1­4°N): Prominent influence Ecuador Colombia Along the deformation front of the North Ecuador­South Colombia (NESC) margin, both that the updip limit of the seismogenic zone for the great megathrust earthquake of 1979 is associated with low

Vallée, Martin

151

Operational fog collection and its role in environmental education and social reintegration: A case study in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental efforts with fog collection in Colombia began eight years ago, and in recent papers we have suggested the implementation of operational fog collection as an alternative to meet water requirements in rural areas of the Andes Mountain Range. Since then, an increasing number of individuals from academia and environmental organizations in the country have shown a remarkable interest on this appropriate technology, and some started its exploration in a larger scale. In this work we describe the implementation process of the first operational fog collection project in Colombia and discuss its role in rural water supply, in environmental education issues and in the process of "social reintegration" of people who have been victims of forced displacement. Both the fog collection evaluation stage and construction and administration of the operational system involved the participation of the community of a rural village. The study zone, located in the Andes Mountains of the Valle del Cauca Department and with altitudes ranging from 2600 to 2800 meters a.s.l., has serious limitations in water availability. Eight standard fog collectors (SFC) were implemented and used during the period May/2008 - Feb/2009 in order to assess the water yield from fog. The best average monthly collection rate in the period of study was around 2.0 l.m-2.day-1. The constructed large fog collector (LFC), with a vertical collection surface of 25 m2, and the associated hydraulic system are currently managed and administered by the village inhabitants. The fog collection system benefits a rural school, and the water is mainly used in small-scale irrigation activities for horticultural crops and livestock development. The project has also brought positive impacts in the community organization, mainly comprising people who have been forced out of their rural homes by the country's nearly half-century old armed conflict. The system also allows agriculture- and environment-related issues to be incorporated in children's current education. We highly recommend exploring this technology in the search for solutions of water and food security for victims of forced displacement in Colombia. Additional efforts to increase the number of LFCs in the study zone are underway.

Escobar, C. M.; Lopez, A.; Aristizabal, H. F.; Molina, J. M.

2010-07-01

152

Characterization of a malaria outbreak in Colombia in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Although malaria has presented a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality worldwide during the last decade, it remains a serious global public health problem. In Colombia, during this period, many factors have contributed to sustained disease transmission, with significant fluctuations in an overall downward trend in the number of reported malaria cases. Despite its epidemiological importance, few studies have used surveillance data to describe the malaria situation in Colombia. This study aims to describe the characteristics of malaria cases reported during 2010 to the Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA) of the National Institute of Health (INS) of Colombia. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using malaria information from SIVIGILA 2010. Cases, frequencies, proportions, ratio and measures of central tendency and data dispersion were calculated. In addition, the annual parasite index (API) and the differences between the variables reported in 2009 and 2010 were estimated. Results A total of 117,108 cases were recorded by SIVIGILA in 2010 for a national API of 10.5/1,000 habitants, with a greater number of cases occurring during the first half of the year. More than 90% of cases were reported in seven departments (=states): Antioquia: 46,476 (39.7%); Chocó: 22,493 (19.2%); Cordoba: 20,182 (17.2%); Valle: 6,360 (5.4%); Guaviare: 5,876 (5.0%); Nariño: 4,085 (3.5%); and Bolivar: 3,590 (3.1%). Plasmodium vivax represented ~71% of the cases; Plasmodium falciparum ~28%; and few infrequent cases caused by Plasmodium malariae. Conclusions Overall, a greater incidence was found in men (65%) than in women (35%). Although about a third of cases occurred in children <15 years, most of these cases occurred in children >5 years of age. The ethnic distribution indicated that about 68% of the cases occurred in mestizos and whites, followed by 23% in Afro-descendants, and the remainder (9%) in indigenous communities. In over half of the cases, consultation occurred early, with 623 complicated and 23 fatal cases. However, the overall incidence increased, corresponding to an epidemic burst and indicating the need to strengthen prevention and control activities as well as surveillance to reduce the risk of outbreaks and the consequent economic and social impact. PMID:24044437

2013-01-01

153

Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

154

A Social-Medical Approach to Violence in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Violence is the main public health problem in Colombia. Many theoretical and methodological approaches to solving this problem have been attempted from different disciplines. My past work has focused on homicide violence from the perspective of social medicine. In this article I present the main conceptual and methodological aspects and the chief findings of my research over the past 15 years. Findings include a quantitative description of the current situation and the introduction of the category of explanatory contexts as a contribution to the study of Colombian violence. The complexity and severity of this problem demand greater theoretical discussion, more plans for action and a faster transition between the two. Social medicine may make a growing contribution to this field. PMID:14652328

Franco, Saul

2003-01-01

155

[Endophytic fungi in rose (Rosa hybrida) in Bogota, Colombia].  

PubMed

We have investigated the presence of endophytic fungi associated with rose plants (Rosa hybrida) in Colombia. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of ten ornamental roses plants from gardens cultured in malt extract, peptone, yeast extract agar plates (MPY). We sampled 560 leaves fragments, 56 per sample. Endophytic fungi comprised 92 isolates (16.4%); of these isolates, 41 were classified as sterile mycelium (without reproductive structures that allowed their identification), 31 isolates were identified to genus or to species, and 20 isolates could not be identified at all. The identified endophytic fungi were as follow: Nigrospora oryzae, Aureobasidium spp, Acremonium spp. The fungi Nodulisporium sp, Gliocladium virens, Cladosporium sp, Alternaria sp, Phoma sp and Chaetomium globosum were represented by one isolate each. Since the endophytic fungi are known for their capacity to produce metabolites with biological activity, it is possible that the microorganisms found in this study have potential as antagonist of rose pathogens. PMID:16107167

Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Cepero de Garcia, María Caridad

2005-06-01

156

Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Colombia  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. Design Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 108 Colombian families. Results Fathers reported higher uncontrollable success attributions and higher authoritarian attitudes than did mothers, whereas mothers reported higher modernity of attitudes than did fathers; only the gender differences related to parental attitudes remained significant after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Medium effect sizes were found for concordance between parents in the same family for attributions regarding uncontrollable success and progressive attitudes after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Conclusions This work elucidates ways that parent gender relates to attributions regarding parents’ success and failure in caregiving and to progressive versus authoritarian parenting attitudes in Colombia. PMID:21927585

Di Giunta, Laura; Tirado, Liliana M. Uribe; Márquez, Luz A. Araque

2011-01-01

157

Morning Edition's Series on the Crisis in Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week National Public Radio's (NPR) Morning Edition featured a five-part investigative series on the crisis in Columbia, source of most of the cocaine and roughly half the heroin sold in the US. The drug trade, a guerilla insurgency, and a spiraling economy have created a vacuum of sorts in Columbia that the US is trying to fill with vastly increased military aid. Averaging just under nine minutes each, the audio reports offer an overview of the situation and more detailed looks at the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the Columbian military, the paramilitaries, and potential US involvement in the civil war. At time of review only the first three reports were available at the site, but the remaining two are expected shortly.

158

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

2013-01-01

159

Las Sociedades Portuarias Regionales en el comercio exterior colombiano: Una reseña sobre la importancia del Puerto de Buenaventura. 1990 - 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento analizó la evolución de la movilización de carga de los principales terminales Marítimos2 del país entre los años 1990-2004, con el objetivo de conocer el puerto que moviliza mayor cantidad de carga en el comercio exterior colombiano. Los resultados revelaron que la mayor parte de la carga exportada e importada en Colombia se realizó por vía marítima (95.9%),

Jaime Andrés Collazos; Santiago Borrero

2006-01-01

160

A new species of Grotea Cresson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Labeninae) from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Grotea has 18 described species. A new species, Grotea villosissima sp. n., is described here and its host information included. This is the first record of Grotea for Colombia. PMID:24715772

Herrera-Flórez, Andrés Fabián

2014-01-01

161

Revision of the bee genus Chlerogella (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), Part IV: A new species from southwestern Colombia  

E-print Network

A new species of the diverse augochlorine bee genus Chlerogella Michener (Halictinae: Augochlorini) is described and figured from southwestern Colombia. Chlerogella anchicaya Engel, Gonzalez, & Hinojosa-Díaz, new species, is similar to C. agaylei...

Engel, Michael S.; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Hinojosa-Dí az, Ismael A.

2014-05-29

162

A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

163

77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dominican Republic-Central American FTA, Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and Peru FTA...Free Trade Agreement country'' the words ``Chile, Costa Rica'' and adding the words ``Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica'' in their...

2012-05-10

164

The centipedes (Arthropoda, Myriapoda, Chilopoda) from Colombia: Part I. Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha.  

PubMed

This study presents an updated list of centipedes of the orders Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha from Colombia based on data from the literature, the World Catalogue of Centipedes (CHILOBASE), and specimens examined in museum collections. Four families, nine genera, 37 species and four subspecies are listed. One species belongs to Scutigeromorpha, and 36 species and four subspecies to Scolopendromorpha. Eleven species and four subspecies of scolopendromorphs are recorded for the first time from Colombia. Newportia Gervais, 1847 is the most diverse genus with 12 species and three subspecies. Six species of Scolopendromorpha are endemic. Three species-Otostigmus inermis Porat, 1876, O. scabricauda (Humbert & Saussure, 1870) and Cryptops iheringi Brölemann, 1902-are deleted from the fauna of Colombia. The Andean Región in Colombia has the most records of Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha. Maps showing the geographical distribution are given for the orders, genera, and some species. PMID:24871718

Chagas, Amazonas; Chaparro, Elisa; Jiménez, Sebastián Galvis; Triana, Hernán Darío Triana; Flórez D, Eduardo; Seoane, José Carlos Sícoli

2014-01-01

165

Beyond Assilimation vs Cultural Resistance: Wayuu Market Appropriation in Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia  

E-print Network

On the semi-desert Guajira Peninsula of northern Colombia, the Wayuu Indians and the arijuna (non-Wayuu) have shared a long history that includes conflict, acceptance, and exchange. Under constant assimilation forces in the city of Riohacha, Wayuu...

Robles, David Alexander

2008-09-02

166

Planktonic Foraminifera Record of the Mid Albian Sea Level Rise, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia  

E-print Network

Planktonic Foraminifera Record of the Mid Albian Sea Level Rise, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia. This appraisal presents for the first time the recognition and calibration with other fossil groups of two

Sukop, Mike

167

75 FR 55626 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Section of the Department of State Foreign Operations...including under the International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement section of the Department of State Foreign...

2010-09-13

168

Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-five percent of the ?19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating GPS sites in the region. Studies of tsunami deposits on the Dutch Antilles suggest that the provenance of paleotsunami responsible for moving 10-100 ton blocks of coral onshore in the past two millennia has been from the east (Sheffers, 2002), and not from the north or south as we might expect from a NW Venezuelan earthquake. The existence of precariously balanced rocks in the region provides an alternative constraint on the occurrence of large local accelerations. The survival of at least four precariously balanced megablocks on the island of Aruba suggests that horizontal accelerations here have not exceeded 1 g for the past several millennia, but refined numerical estimates of potential shaking intensity consistent with their survival have yet to be completed. Accelerations exceeded 2.5 g in the Tohuko 2011 earthquake but above the Mexican subduction zone, accelerations have typically not exceeded 0.5 g in recent Mw~7.5 earthquakes, and hence the existence of these blocks may not exclude the historical occurrence of damaging earthquakes. A broader search for surviving strong-motion indicators in Colombia and Venezuela is planned during the installation of the GPS array.

Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

2013-05-01

169

Polyps in a low-risk colonic cancer population in Colombia, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonic polyps were systematically searched for in 508 specimens collected from unselected autopsies in individuals more than\\u000a 10 years of age from Medillin, Colombia, a low-indicidence geographic region for colorectal cancer. Adenomatous polyps have\\u000a a low prevalence rate in both sexes, comparable to that found in Cali, Colombia, and other populations with low risk for cancer.\\u000a They were found more

Carlos Restrepo; Pelayo Correa; Edgar Duque; Carlos Cuello

1981-01-01

170

Two decades of economic and social development in urban Colombia: amixed outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines urban Colombia’s socio-economic development from 1978 to 1999, including analysis of income inequality and welfare, and the evolution of poverty and its determinants. The evidence shows mixed results. First, social progress appears contradictory. Although most of the indicators pertaining to education, health, and infrastructure show substantial long-term improvements during the last two decades, the simultaneous escalation of

Carlos Eduardo VELEZ; Mauricio SANTA MARIA; Natalia MILLAN; Bénédicte DE LA BRIERE

2002-01-01

171

Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

2010-01-01

172

Cuando llovió dinero en Macondo: Literatura y narcotráfico en Colombia y México  

E-print Network

Cuando lovi? dinero en Macondo: Literatura y narcotr?fico en Colombia y M?xico By Alberto Fonseca Submited to the Department of Spanish and Portuguese and the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Kansas in partial fulfilment...? The Disertation Commite for Alberto Fonseca certifies that this is the approved version of the following disertation: Cuando lovi? dinero en Macondo: Literatura y narcotr?fico en Colombia y M?xico Commite: Dr. Danny J. Anderson, Chairperson Dr...

Fonseca, Alberto

2009-05-13

173

3D tomographic structure of the north andean subduction zone at the Colombia-Ecuador border  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the latitude of Ecuador - southern Colombia, the Nazca plate converges toward the South American plate along an ~E-W direction at a rate of about 6 cm\\/yr. Several large subduction earthquakes affected this area during the last century. Near the Ecuador-Colombia border the 500 km long rupture zone of the 1906 event (M = 8.8) was partially reactivated, from

L. C. Garcia Cano; A. Galve; G. de La Torre; P. Charvis; B. Pontoise; Y. Hello; A. Anglade; B. A. Yates

2007-01-01

174

Removing Drug Lords and Street Pushers: The Extradition of Nationals in Colombia and the Dominican Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment explores the interplay between drug trafficking and extradition policy in the U.S.-Latin American-Caribbean region by focusing upon the recent legal shift in Colombia and the Dominican Republic. Part I describes the status of current international extradition law, focusing on modern extradition policy. In particular, this part details the respective extradition treaties of Colombia and the Dominican Republic with

Joshua H. Warmund

1998-01-01

175

Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the South American continent includes three of the largest river basins of the world, the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Paraná, with some of the highest discharges and sediment loads, a number of comparatively smaller systems in Colombia carry a significant share of sediment and dissolved loads from the continent. Fifteen rivers west of the Cordilleras in South America discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. The San Juan River has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16 x 106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. The best estimate of total sediment load into the Pacific Ocean from both gauged and ungauged rivers is 96 x 106 t yr-1. These results in a sediment yield estimate of 1,260 t km-2 yr-1. Analysis of 22 rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea indicate that the combined water discharge and sediment load are 338 km3 yr-1 and 168 x 106 t yr-1, respectively, corresponding to a sediment yield for the Colombia Caribbean drainage basins of 541 t km-2 yr-1, or approximately half of the yield for the Pacific basins of Colombia. The Magdalena River, the largest river system in Colombia, has an annual discharge of 7,232 m3 s-1. Load measurements during the 21 year period yielded an annual sediment load of 144 x 106 t yr-1. The Magdalena has the highest sediment yield (559 t km-2 yr-1) of any medium-sized or large river along the entire east coast of South America and contributes 9% of the total sediment load discharged into the Atlantic Ocean from eastern South America. The concentrations of major dissolved constituents and mass transport rates for major Colombian rivers were based on averages calculated from monthly samples from 1990-1993. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant ions, indicating that the water corresponds to the rock-dominated type. Dissolved inorganic carbon, present mostly as bicarbonate ions, constitutes almost 50% of the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the Colombian rivers. Values of solute concentrations show that the Sinú and Magdalena have the highest dissolved solute content followed by the El Dique canal and Patía River. The estimates of dissolved materials exported to the Caribbean and Pacific basins are mainly controlled by water discharge. Thus, the Magdalena transports 30 x 106 t yr-1 of dissolved materials into the Caribbean. It is of the same magnitude as the Orinoco (30.5 x 106 t yr-1), ten times lower than that of the Amazon (259 x 106 t yr-1), and similar to the Parana River (38.3 x 106 t yr-1). The specific transport rate is highest in the Sinú basin, 167 t km-2 yr-1, followed by that of the Magdalena with 117 t km-2 yr-1. The more diluted rivers on the Pacific basins, Mira and Patía, have values ranging between 31 and 90 t km-2 yr-1. In Colombia, pristine fluvial systems like those draining the Pacific basins have much less PO4-3 and NO3- loads when compared to the Caribbean rivers. The Magdalena and Atrato rivers are by far the Colombian systems which contribute the highest P and N fluxes to the sea, with total phosphate and nitrate fluxes up to 186 x 103 t yr-1 and 47 x 103 t yr-1, respectively. Many causes are responsible for these high nutrient loads, including massive sewage collection in cities and towns for NH4+ and PO4-3, mainly in the Magdalena basin, and also due to fertilization of banana plantations in the lower course of the Atrato River. Many Colombian rivers, including the larger Magdalena, are affected by deforestation and rapid changes in land use, thus accelerating the transfer of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter, from the river basins to the sea. Due to the magnitude of fluvial fluxes to the oceans from the Colombian rivers, the fluctuations of dissolved and suspended loads need to be monitored for a period of at least 10 years, in order to be able to quantify the influences of man’s activities and assess global climate

Restrepo, J. D.

2003-04-01

176

Trauma Care Training for National Police Nurses in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction In response to a requirement for advanced trauma care nurses to provide combat tactical medical support, the antinarcotics arm of the Colombian National Police (CNP) requested the Colombian National Prehospital Care Association to develop a Combat Tactical Medicine Course (MEDTAC course). Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of this course in imparting knowledge and skills to the students. Methods We trained 374 combat nurses using the novel MEDTAC course. We evaluated students using pre-and postcourse performance with a 45-question examination. Field simulations and live tissue exercises were evaluated by instructors using a Likert scale with possible choices of 1 to 4. Interval estimation of proportions was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Differences in didactic test scores were assessed using a t-test at 0.05 level of statistical significance. Results Between March 2006 and July 2007, 374 combat nursing students of the CNP were trained. The difference between examination scores before and after the didactic part of the course was statistically significant (p < 0.01). After the practical session of the course, all participants (100%) demonstrated competency on final evaluation. Conclusions The MEDTAC course is an effective option improving the knowledge and skills of combat nurses serving in the CNP. MEDTAC represents a customized approach for military trauma care training in Colombia. This course is an example of specialized training available for groups that operate in austere environments with limited resources. PMID:19947877

Rubiano, Andrés M.; Sánchez, Álvaro I.; Guyette, Francis; Puyana, Juan C.

2010-01-01

177

A warning bell? Tornillo events at Galeras Volcano, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1993, five of the six ash eruptions at Galeras Volcano, Colombia were preceded by distinctive seismic events, called tornillos. These unusual tremor wavelets have quasi-sinusoidal waveforms with screw-like envelope profiles and can last up to several minutes. Since December 1990, more than 60 of these events have been recorded at Galeras Volcano. As a class, they appear to be more complex than those previously recorded with the broadband instruments or with the shortperiod network of the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico in Pasto. They are multichromatic with a varying number of spectral peaks between 1 and up to 50 Hz. The peaks for frequencies which extend into the coda are extremely narrow, while those present only during the initial excitation are relatively broad. We parameterize the tornillo signals in the time and frequency domains, examining differences in the two classes of spectral peaks, and derive distribution and correlation functions for signal parameters such as frequency, Q, energy, and polarization. We investigate variations in these parameters with regard to ash eruptions during the past 3 years. In addition, we use the parameters along with the signal signature to derive qualitative conclusions about possible underlying processes and excitation mechanisms and to provide constraints for modelling variations of the source process, as, for example, a cavity resonator. For example, the distribution of frequencies for the suite of tornillos appears to be discrete below 6 Hz and a continuum above, as would be expected for a cavity.

Hellweg, M.; Seidl, D.

2003-12-01

178

Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

2009-01-01

179

Tropical spastic paraparesis: a neuroepidemiological study in Colombia.  

PubMed

A geographic isolate of tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) in Tumaco, Colombia, is described. Fifty confirmed cases were identified (29 men, 21 women) with an estimated prevalence ratio of 98 cases per 100,000 population. Patients with identified cases ranged in age from 24 to 75 years (mean, 46.5). TSP begins with burning feet, leg stiffness, spastic bladder, and, in men, impotence. Patients exhibited leg weakness, spasticity, hyperreflexia, and scissoring gait. Babinski, Chaddock, and Hoffmann signs could be elicited. Ankle reflexes and vibratory sensation of the feet were decreased. Intellectual function, coordination, and cranial nerves remained normal. TSP is a slowly progressive disorder but so far there have been no deaths from it. Forty cases in this report began between 1971 and 1980; the earliest documented case began in 1952. Living conditions and occupations of the patients were typical for the region. Yaws had occurred in 74% of confirmed cases. No likely etiological neurotoxic or nutritional factors were identified. TSP also has been described in India, Africa, the Seychelles, and Jamaica. PMID:4004158

Román, G C; Román, L N; Spencer, P S; Schoenberg, B S

1985-04-01

180

A multivariate climate index for the western coast of Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indices of the interannual and interdecadal variability at Tumaco Island (2° N; 79° W; Colombia), based on time series of sea surface temperature (SST), air temperature (AT) and precipitation (P) from a coastal station, are presented regarding the period 1960-2010. These indices are derived from the first two EOF (empirical orthogonal function) modes of the normalized time series, which grasp 84% of the explained variance. The first EOF represents the interannual variability closely correlated with the ENSO-related SST variability of region Niño 1+2 (r = 0.74; lag = 1), Niño 3 (r = 0.71; lag = 1), and the well-known period band 2-8 yr. Furthermore, the first EOF also accounts for the extreme warm events in the eastern equatorial Pacific due to them being well correlated with the E index (r = 0.70). The second EOF represents a much longer variability dominated by the ENSO-like mode or Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), represented by two interdecadal modes (8-16 yr and 20-30 yr), and may account also with moderate warm events and cool events, being more sensitive to cool events.

Rodríguez-Rubio, E.

2013-04-01

181

Fatigue and crashes: the case of freight transport in Colombia.  

PubMed

Truck drivers have been involved in a significant number of road fatalities in Colombia. To identify variables that could be associated with crashes in which truck drivers are involved, a logistic regression model was constructed. The model had as the response variable a dichotomous variable that included the presence or absence of a crash during a specific trip. As independent variables the model included information regarding a driver's work shift, with variables that could be associated with driver's fatigue. The model also included potential confounders related with road conditions. With the model, it was possible to determine the odds ratio of a crash in relation to several variables, adjusting for confounding. To collect the information about the trips included in the model, a survey among truck drivers was conducted. The results suggest strong associations between crashes (i.e., some of them statistically significant) with the number of stops made during the trip, and the average time of each stop. Survey analysis allowed us to identify the practices that contribute to generating fatigue and unhealthy conditions on the road among professional drivers. A review of national regulations confirmed the lack of legislation on this topic. PMID:25150524

Torregroza-Vargas, Nathaly M; Bocarejo, Juan Pablo; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P

2014-11-01

182

Festival del Sur '98  

E-print Network

andaluz dedicándole una noche temática con dos espectáculos, el de los cubanos Galiano 108 Federico-La Habana-Lorca y el del chileno Franklin Caicedo Lorca y sus amigos poetas; asimismo, se proyectaron varios vídeos sobre su vida y montajes emblemáticos... a veces hacían difícil la comprensión del texto. Todo ello redundó en crear una atmósfera asfixiante y la repulsión del público ante esta lucha entre los sexos y las clases sociales. Desde Bolivia vino Amalilef Teatro con Jamás diré adiós, un...

Má rquez Montes, Carmen

1999-04-01

183

Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver ?340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr-1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers. The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998-2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8-12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

Restrepo, Juan Camilo; Ortíz, Juan Carlos; Pierini, Jorge; Schrottke, Kerstin; Maza, Mauro; Otero, Luís; Aguirre, Julián

2014-02-01

184

Colombia, Many Countries in One: Economic Growth, Environmental Sustainability, Sociocultural Divergence and Biodiversity. Profile and Paradox. Volumes I and II. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1997 (Colombia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Fulbright Summer Seminar focused on the environmental challenge posed by Colombia's biodiversity and addressed the relationship between the last decade of Colombian economic development and the country's sociocultural situation, taking into account its historical background and the role of natural resources in a context of sustainable…

1997

185

Depositional environment of the Caballos Formation, San Francisco field, Neiva sub-basin, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia  

E-print Network

DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CABALLOS FORMATION, SAN FRANCISCO FIELD, NEIVA SUB-BASIN, UPPER MAGDALENA VALLEY, COLOMBIA A thesis by JOHN SCOTT SNEIDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Magdalena Valley, Colombia John Scott Sneider, B. S. Texas A & M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert R. Berg The Early Cretaceous Caballos sandstones in the San Francisco field, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, contain approximately 500...

Sneider, John Scott

2012-06-07

186

Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region), El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region), applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO). Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP), amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response) was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up. PMID:16504002

Blair, Silvia; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Piñeros, Juan G; Ríos, Alexandra; Álvarez, Tania; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto

2006-01-01

187

The diversity of flower flies (Diptera: syrphidae) in Colombia and their neotropical distribution.  

PubMed

In Colombia, like most Neotropical countries, faunistic studies on flower flies have been occasional and most of them have been primarily focused on taxonomy. Colombia is the second-most species-rich country in flower fly diversity in the Neotropics after Brazil, and has one of the highest numbers of species per unit area (2.49 per 10,000 km²), based on a review of literature and national collections. Including new data presented here, a total of 47 genera and 300 species are recorded in Colombia. The genera Scaeva Fabricius and Lycastrirhyncha Bigot, as well as 101 species are recorded here for the first time. The altitudinal range and the distribution of the flower fly genera in Colombia are presented. A preliminary comparison of the fauna of Colombia with that of other Neotropical countries is given. A historical perspective is also provided in order to illustrate how Colombian Syrphidae knowledge has progressed over the last 168 years. Information presented here will be useful for ongoing and future biodiversity research as well as conservation projects on Syrphidae in the Neotropical region. PMID:23950009

Montoya, A L; Pérez, S P; Wolff, M

2012-02-01

188

Transformaciones del Estado y del Derecho  

Microsoft Academic Search

El concepto de derecho asentado en la mentalidad jurídica actual responde a un modelo profundamente “estatista”, racional y formal. Sus premisas se construyen de acuerdo con las estructuras y los discursos políticos que se desarrollan durante las postrimerías de la Edad Moderna en Europa y triunfa definitivamente con las revoluciones burguesas. Las formas jurídicas desarrolladas como fundamento y sostén del

Manuel Calvo García

189

TEORÍAS DEL DESARROLLO A PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XXI  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 La evolución de las ideas no sigue el curso de los siglos. Es más, en el transcurso del siglo XX hemos presenciado cambios radicales en lo que a teoría del desarrollo se refiere. Ni siquiera es indispensable definir los siglos de acuerdo con la clasificación del calendario, de cero a noventa y nueve. En su célebre discurso del 8

AMARTYA SEN

190

The sexual and reproductive rights of internally displaced women: the embodiment of Colombia's crisis.  

PubMed

As of 30 June 2006, more than 3.5 million Colombians are internally displaced persons (IDPs), the second largest IDP population in the world after that of Sudan. While most IDP studies treat the plight of internally displaced women (IDW) as an isolated phenomenon, this paper demonstrates that their situation reflects Colombia's chronic cultural, political and socio-economic crisis. This paper uses a sexual and reproductive rights framework to establish a connection between IDW and Colombia's culture of violence, discrimination and inequality. The effects of this culture of violence, discrimination and inequality are highlighted during a discussion of the rights to health, reproduction, privacy, physical integrity, education, and freedom from violence and sexual exploitation. This paper argues that a holistic understanding of Colombia's humanitarian emergency is essential to improving the lives of IDPs. It ends with some concrete, short-term recommendations to meet some of the needs of IDPs and other vulnerable populations. PMID:18217922

Alzate, Mónica M

2008-03-01

191

Environmental impact assessment in Colombia: Critical analysis and proposals for improvement  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is a highly recommended strategy for enhancing their effectiveness and quality. This paper describes an evaluation of EIA in Colombia, using the model and the control mechanisms proposed and applied in other countries by Christopher Wood and Ortolano. The evaluation criteria used are based on Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment Best Practice, such as effectiveness and control features, and they were contrasted with the opinions of a panel of Colombian EIA experts as a means of validating the results of the study. The results found that EIA regulations in Colombia were ineffective because of limited scope, inadequate administrative support and the inexistence of effective control mechanisms and public participation. This analysis resulted in a series of recommendations regarding the further development of the EIA system in Colombia with a view to improving its quality and effectiveness.

Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.c [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.e [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.e [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Campus de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

2010-07-15

192

A newly recognized species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Puerto Carreno, Colombia.  

PubMed

We report a previously unrecognized mosquito species from eastern Colombia belonging to the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex. We provisionally name this taxon An. albitarsis species "F." Until now, the only members of the Albitarsis Complex recorded from north of the Amazon River have been An. marajoara and a putative phylogenetic species, An. albitarsis "E." As with the other largely monomorphic species in the complex, we were able to detect its presence using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2) and partial white gene sequences. Unlike An. marajoara, but in common with other species in the complex, An. albitarsis F lacks the white gene fourth intron. This species is sympatric with An. marajoara in a malaria-endemic area in Puerto Carreño, Vichada Department, Colombia. It could be an important current and/or historical vector of human malaria parasites at this locality and, depending on its actual distribution, elsewhere in Colombia and Venezuela. PMID:17556620

Brochero, Helena H L; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard C

2007-06-01

193

From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: modeling the evolution of Colombia's counter-insurgency.  

PubMed

Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia's insurgency poses the challenge of assessing population behavior in a non-traditional revolutionary climate. Factors prevalent in traditional insurgency are not applicable in Colombia, specifically between the years 1993 and 2001 with the democratization of the drug cartels. The catastrophic events of September 11th reverberated in Colombia resulting in a new policy and strategy to the waging the counter-insurgency there. This research introduces a structured methodology to modeling the Colombian counter-insurgency incorporating qualitative assessment, mathematical representation, and a System Dynamics approach to represent the effects of the policy change. PMID:19569297

Banks, Catherine M; Sokolowski, John A

2009-03-01

194

The origin of internal security in Colombia: Part I — A CIA special team surveys La Violencia, 1959–60  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1959 the Eisenhower administration dispatched a CIA Special Team to survey the violence problem in Colombia. This article, part one of a two?part series, examines this first significant attempt by a US administration to influence that nation's internal security situation. It investigates the Special Team's actions and analyses its recommendations for transforming Colombia's conventionally?orientated security forces. The Team's

Dennis M. Rempe

1999-01-01

195

A preliminary survey of the epidemiology of bluetongue in Costa Rica and northern Colombia.  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence of bluetongue (BT) virus infection of livestock in scattered localities in the neotropics prompted a serologic survey of cattle in Colombia and Costa Rica. In Costa Rica 48.1% of 1435 bovine animals had BT virus antibody in the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). In Colombia 51.8% of 635 cattle were AGPT-positive for BT virus. Antibody prevalence ranged from over 50% in the lowlands to 0% in Costa Rica and 19% in Colombian cattle above 2000 m altitude. Neutralization tests indicated that Costa Rican cattle had been exposed to BT virus types 6, 12, 14 and 17. PMID:2989360

Homan, E. J.; Lorbacher de Ruiz, H.; Donato, A. P.; Taylor, W. P.; Yuill, T. M.

1985-01-01

196

A thermodynamic-like characterization of Colombia’s presidential elections in 2010, and a comparison with other Latin American countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic-like characterization of Colombia’s presidential election is presented. We assume that the electoral system consists of citizens embedded in a political environment, and that this environment can be considered as an information bath characterized by the entropic parameter q ( q?[0,?]). First, for q=1, the electoral outcomes of 2010 are translated into a set of probabilities (relative frequencies of the events) P={P1,P2,…,PN}, with N possible independent results. Then, for 0?q

Campos, Diógenes

2011-05-01

197

Hojas informativas del NCI  

Cancer.gov

La colección de hojas informativas del NCI trata de una variedad de temas relacionados con el cáncer. Las hojas informativas se revisan y ponen al día de acuerdo a las investigaciones más recientes sobre el cáncer.

198

en Fisioterapia del Deporte  

E-print Network

Experto en Fisioterapia del Deporte III Edición RESERVA DE PLAZAY MATRÍCULA Título: Experto en Fisioterapia del Deporte Precio de título: 1.800 Plazo de preinscripción: hasta 15 de Octubre 2014 Nº de: TRATAMIENTO DE LA LESI�N DEPORTIVA EN AGUA BLOQUEV: TERAPIAS MANUALES APLICADAS AL DEPORTE BLOQUEVI: PUNCI�N

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

199

Integracion espacial del mercado de la carne en las tres principales ciudades de Colombia: Evidencia de las series de precios  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento se presenta un estudio sobre la integración espacial de los mercados de carne de res y cerdo, con y sin hueso, pollo despresado y pollo entero, de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, a partir de datos mensuales entre enero de 1999 y mayo de 2007. Se emplean la prueba de cointegración de Johansen y la prueba no paramétrica

Julio Cesar Alonso; Ana Isabel Gallego

2011-01-01

200

Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)  

Cancer.gov

En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science Translational Medicine sobre “La integración del control del cáncer en la salud mundial" (Integrating Cancer Control into Global Health).

201

Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed

In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields. PMID:19886425

Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

2009-09-01

202

El desarrollo de la infraestructura en Colombia en la década de los noventa. Parte II  

Microsoft Academic Search

El desarrollo de la infraestructura económica y de servicios públicos en Colombia en las últimas tres décadas ha pasado por dos fases distintas, separadas entre si por la aprobación de una nueva Constitución Política en 1991, evento que significó un cambio radical en las reglas de juego y en los patrones de inversión en estas actividades. En la primera etapa,

Israel Fainboim Yaker; Carlos Jorge Rodríguez Restrepo

2000-01-01

203

El desarrollo de la infraestructura en Colombia en la década de los noventa. Parte I  

Microsoft Academic Search

El desarrollo de la infraestructura económica y de servicios públicos en Colombia en las últimas tres décadas ha pasado por dos fases distintas, separadas entre si por la aprobación de una nueva Constitución Política en 1991, evento que significó un cambio radical en las reglas de juego y en los patrones de inversión en estas actividades. En la primera etapa,

Israel Fainboim Yaker; Carlos Jorge Rodríguez Restrepo

2000-01-01

204

Beyond the Mincer Equation: The Internal Rate of Return to Higher Education in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to present an estimation of the internal rate of return (IRR) to higher education in Colombia, we take advantage of recent updates on the methodological approach towards earnings equations. In order to overcome the criticism that surrounds interpretations of the education coefficient of Mincer equations as being the rate of return to…

García-Suaza, Andrés Felipe; Guataquí, Juan Carlos; Guerra, José Alberto; Maldonado, Darío

2014-01-01

205

Serotype and Genotype Distribution among Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Colombia, 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

In Colombia, a laboratory-based surveillance of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates as part of SIREVA II PAHO has been conducted since 1994. This study describes the serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relationships of pneumococcal isolates recovered in Colombia from 2005 to 2010. In this study, demographic data of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (n?=?629) and multilocus sequence typing (n?=?10) were used to determine genetic relationship of isolates with minimal inhibitory concentration to penicillin ?0.125 µg/mL. A total of 1775 isolates of S. pneumoniae were obtained. Fifteen serotypes accounted for 80.7% of isolates. Serotype 14 (23.1%) was the most frequent in the general population. Penicillin resistance was 30.7% in meningitis and 9.0% in non-meningitis. Clones Spain6BST90, Spain9VST156, Spain23FST81, and Colombia23FST338 were associated to isolates. Additionally, serotype 6A isolates were associated with ST460 and ST473, and 19A isolates with ST276, ST320, and ST1118. In conclusion, the surveillance program provided updated information of trends in serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance and the circulation of clones in invasive pneumococcal diseases. These results could be helpful to understand the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Colombia, and provide a baseline to measure the impact of vaccine introduction. PMID:24416330

Parra, Eliana L.; Ramos, Viviana; Sanabria, Olga; Moreno, Jaime

2014-01-01

206

Reverse smokers's and changes in oral mucosa. Department of Sucre, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This work is intended to establish the prevalence of reverse smokers at the villages of Hato Nuevo, San Francisco and Cayo de Palma, Department of Sucre, Colombia, characterizing their socio-culture conditions, clinical and histological changes in the oral mucosa. Design of study: A descriptive study was done through a home to home inquiry to select the people with inclusion

Gloria J. Alvarez Gómez; Efraín Alvarez Martínez; Raúl Jiménez Gómez; Yolanda Mosquera Silva; Angela María; Gaviria Núñez; Adriana Garcés Agudelo; Alexander Alonso Duque; Alexander Zabala Castaño; Elizabeth Echeverri González; Melissa Isaac Millán; Diana Ramírez Ossa

207

INSTRUMENTOS DE ATENCIÓN DE LA POBLACIÓN DESPLAZADA EN COLOMBIA: UNA DISTRIBUCIÓN DESIGUAL DE LAS RESPONSABILIDADES MUNICIPALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

La población desplazada en Colombia asciende a cerca de 1.8 millones de personas y equivale al 4.3 por ciento de la población. La legislación colombiana para la población desplazada ha generado responsabilidades diferenciadas entre los gobiernos nacionales y locales. La responsabilidad administrativa, y no necesariamente financiera, de provisión de atención a la población desplazada recae sobre los municipios quienes enfrentan

Ana María Ibáñez; Carlos Eduardo Vélez

2003-01-01

208

Giardiasis in children living in post-earthquake camps from Armenia (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An earthquake in the coffee growing region of Colombia on January 25, 1999 destroyed 70% of the houses in Armenia city. Transitory housing camps still remained until two years after the disaster. Parasitological studies found that, in this population, giardiasis was the most frequent parasitic infection. This study was carried out in order to determine the epidemiological risk factors

Fabiana Lora-Suarez; Carolina Marin-Vasquez; Nelsy Loango; Martha Gallego; Elizabeth Torres; Mercedes Maria Gonzalez; Jhon Carlos Castaño-Osorio; Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marín

2002-01-01

209

Payment Systems in Latin America: A Tale of Two Countries --- Colombia and El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

October 1995Colombia and El Salvador should consider (among other things) developing an automated clearinghouse --- to make direct deposit and direct credit systems more efficient and to serve as a platform for electronic interbank payments.Payment systems include all the paper (including cash) and electronic systems a country uses to exchange financial value to discharge obligations. Financial markets rely on promptness

Fernando Montes-Negret; Robert Listfield

1999-01-01

210

The hydrocarbon habitat of northern South America: Colombia-Venezuela-Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

A prolific hydrocarbon province extends across the northern margin of South America from Colombia to east of Trinidad. Two key components are a world-class source rock, formed on a regional Late Cretaceous passive margin, and a complex tectonic setting in which a variety of structural and stratigraphic traps, reservoirs, seals and hydrocarbon kitchens have evolved through time. Convergence between the Farallon and Caribbean plates with South America culminated in the late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene with emplacement of Colombia`s Central Cordillera in the west and a nappe-foreland basin system in the north. Regional hydrocarbon generation probably occurred below associated basins. Subsequent oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South America, partitioned into strike-slip and compressional strain, generated an eastward migrating and ongoing uplift-foredeep (kitchen) system from central Venezuela to Trinidad. Similarly, oblique interaction of western Colombia with the Nazca Plate caused segmentation of the earlier orogen, northward extrusion of elements such as the Maracaibo Block, and eastward migration of uplift progressively dividing earlier kitchens into localized foredeeps.

James, K.H. [Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-08-01

211

Piercing the Bubble: How Management Students Can Confront Poverty in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the current relationship between management education in Colombia and the efforts of the management program at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in Medellin to reduce local poverty. The article uses the metaphor of "the bubble" to illustrate how social class, family socialization, and the current UPB management…

Rosenbloom, Al; Cortes, Juan Alejandro

2008-01-01

212

A preliminary study of forensic entomology in Medell??n, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of an ongoing study of insect succession on carrion carried out in Medell??n, Colombia, using pigs (Sus scrofa) as a model to determine the insect sequence over 207 days. During this period, 2314 insects belonging to the following orders and families were collected: Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Otitidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae, Formicidae, Halictidae, Mutilidae,

Marta Wolff; Alejandro Uribe; Adriana Ortiz; Patricia Duque

2001-01-01

213

78 FR 49972 - Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States if the commodity is treated with a cold treatment for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata or Medfly). The national...Recognition of cape gooseberry production sites that are free of Mediterranean fruit fly within a low prevalence area in Colombia...

2013-08-16

214

Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.  

PubMed

This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change. PMID:22676567

Thoumi, Francisco E

2012-01-01

215

CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM CATS FROM COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii was determined in serum, feces, and tissues 170 unwanted cats from Colombia, South America. Ant...

216

The Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence And Unintended Pregnancy: Analysis of a National Sample From Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS: Data from the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey for Colombia were used in multivariate logistic re- gressions to explore the relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy, which was in- cluded as a measure of fertility control. Regional differences in the relationship were also explored, and population- attributable risk estimates were calculated. The sample consisted of 3,431 ever-married

2004-01-01

217

Knowledge of Pap screening and human papillomavirus among women attending clinics in Medellin, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hanisch R, Gustat J, Hagensee ME, Baena A, Salazar JE, Castro MV, Gaviria AM, Sanchez GI. Knowledge of Pap screening and human papillomavirus among women attending clinics in Medellin, Colombia. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2008;18:1020-1026. This study evaluated Pap screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge in a population of Co- lombian women as a possible contributing factor of low cervical

Infeccion y Cancer

218

Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

2015-01-01

219

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA  

E-print Network

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA for Southern Tropical America (STA), covering coral reef areas of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Atlantic. The coral reefs have been limited in their growth because of the strong influence of the major continental

Bermingham, Eldredge

220

Integrated diatom-pollen based Holocene environmental reconstruction of lake Las Margaritas, eastern savannas of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiproxy analysis that includes diatoms, pollen, element geochemistry, carbon content analysis, and radiocarbon dates was carried out on a core from Las Margaritas (3023‘N, 73026’W) in order to reconstruct environmental and climatic change. This lake is hydrologically closed and is located in the transitional area between the Amazonian rainforest and the savannas of the eastern part of Colombia. It

M. I. Velez; M. Wille; H. Hooghiemstral; S. Metcalfe

2005-01-01

221

Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey of fungal endophytes in coffee plants was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Coffee plant sections were sterilized and fungal endophytes were isolated using standard techniques, followed by DNA extraction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of...

222

Citizenship Education as a Response to Colombia's Social and Political Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the difficult social, economic and political problems that Colombia faces, such as inequality, discrimination, weak civil society--fuelled by illegality and drug trafficking--the Colombian Ministry of Education has embarked on an ambitious citizenship education program, with the hope of strengthening the role of education by…

Jaramillo, Rosario; Mesa, Jose A.

2009-01-01

223

The Association between Financial Aid Availability and the College Dropout Rates in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study is to estimate the association between financial aid and college dropout rates of postsecondary students in Colombia. We use a unique dataset from the Colombian Ministry of Education that includes all enrolled college students in the country between 1998 and 2008. Logistic regression is used to identify the…

Melguizo, Tatiana; Torres, Fabio Sanchez; Jaime, Haider

2011-01-01

224

First Identification of OXA-72 Carbapenemase from Acinetobacter pittii in Colombia  

PubMed Central

OXA-72 has been reported in few countries around the world. We report the first case in Colombia in an Acinetobacter pittii clinical isolate. The arrival of a new OXA, into a country with high endemic resistance, poses a significant threat, especially because the potential for widespread dissemination is considerable. PMID:22508295

Montealegre, Maria Camila; Maya, Juan José; Correa, Adriana; Espinal, Paula; Mojica, Maria F.; Ruiz, Sory J.; Rosso, Fernando; Vila, Jordi; Quinn, John P.

2012-01-01

225

Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.  

PubMed

While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

2014-10-01

226

Quemaduras oculares en un centro de referencia oftalmológica de Santiago de Cali, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: Quemadura ocular; Trauma; Agudeza visual. Ocular burns in an ophthalmology referral center in Santiago de Cali, Colombia SUMMARY Introduction: Ocular burns are a public health problem due to the little conscience about ocular protection, the morbility and the severity of the sequelae that present. The objective is to characterize intentional and no intentional ocular burns of patients that

HUGO HERNÁN OCAMPO; JUAN C AMILO CONTRERAS; ALEXANDER M ARTÍNEZ; CÉSAR AUGUSTO AMAYA; F RANCISCO J AVIER

227

Wing geometric morphometrics and molecular assessment of members in the Albitarsis Complex from Colombia.  

PubMed

Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The Albitarsis Complex harbours at least eight species not readily differentiable by morphology. This complicates the determination of those species involved in malaria transmission and the implementation of targeted and effective vector control strategies. In Colombia, there is little information about the identity and distribution of the Albitarsis Complex members. In this work, COI DNA barcoding was used to assign specimens Anopheles albitarsis s.l. to any of the previously designated species of the Albitarsis Complex. Two molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), differentially distributed in Colombia, were detected, A. albitarsis I in the NW and NE, and A. albitarsis F, E and NE Colombia. In contrast, nuclear white gene and ITS2 sequence analyses did not allow differentiating between the MOTUs. Wing landmark-based geometric morphometrics applied to explore intertaxa phenotypic heterogeneity showed a subtle but significant difference in size, while shape did not allow the separation of the MOTUs. In general, the multiple marker analysis was not supportive of the existence in Colombia of more than one species of the Albitarsis Complex. PMID:23702155

Gómez, G; Jaramillo, L; Correa, M M

2013-11-01

228

Helminths of two anuran species, Atelopus spurrelli (Bufonidae) and Dendrobates histrionicus (Dendrobatidae), from Colombia, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species

Stephen R. Goldberg; Charles R. Bursey

2003-01-01

229

Primates and their habitats in northern Colombia with recommendations for future management and research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report covers a survey of forests and wild primates carried out by its authors in northern Colombia during May, July, and August 1974. The results of a 1973 field report on this report by Bernstein et al. (1) are also included.

Scott, Norman J., Jr.; Struhsaker, Thomas T.; Glander, Kenneth; Chiriví, Hernano

1976-01-01

230

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Northern Colombia, South America  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

Guerra, Julio A.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C.; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

2014-01-01

231

Recent crustal deformation and the earthquake cycle along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements show deformation along the coast of Ecuador and Colombia that can be linked to the rupture zone of the earthquake in 1979. A 3D elastic boundary element model is used to simulate crustal deformation observed by GPS campaigns in 1991, 1994, 1996, and 1998. Deformation in Ecuador can be explained best by

Scott M. White; Robert Trenkamp; James N. Kellogg

2003-01-01

232

Assessment of Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Earthquake Victims in Colombia Using the MMPI-A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earthquake that hit Armenia, Colombia, on January 25, 1999, dramatically impacted the lives of thousands of people, including children and adolescents. This study used the Hispanic MMPI-A to clinically assess for ongoing psychopathology in a group of 59 adolescent earthquake victims. Their scores on the basic, content, and supplementary scales of the instrument were compared to those of a

Ronald L. Scott; Russell L. Knoth; Monica Beltran-Quiones; Nelson Gomez

2003-01-01

233

Recent crustal deformation and the earthquake cycle along the Ecuador–Colombia subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements show deformation along the coast of Ecuador and Colombia that can be linked to the rupture zone of the earthquake in 1979. A 3D elastic boundary element model is used to simulate crustal deformation observed by GPS campaigns in 1991, 1994, 1996, and 1998. Deformation in Ecuador can be explained best by

Scott M White; Robert Trenkamp; James N Kellogg

2003-01-01

234

Heat Flow Assessment From Bottom Simulating Reflectors at the Southern Colombia-Northern Ecuador Convergent Margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) identified on seismic reflection profiles across sedimentary margins generally coincide with the base of the gas hydrate stability field. BSRs are controlled by temperature and pressure conditions. Therefore BSRs can be used to assess heat flow and hence the thermal regime of the margin. Multichannel seismic reflection data acquired during the SISTEUR cruise along the Ecuador-Colombia

B. Marcaillou; G. Spence; J. Collot

2001-01-01

235

The Beauty of State Construction: Juan Valdez, Miss Colombia and Crisis Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colombian state was in acute crisis in the 1990s. Widely considered a failed state, Colombia suffered from uncontrollable violence and an acute economic crisis that left over half of the population impoverished. Yet shortly after the turn of the century, it was being touted as one of the great successes in crime reduction, economic growth, and democratic stability. In

Stacey Hunt

236

Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment. NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of Colombia's Programa de Ampliacion de Cobertura de la Educacion Secundaria (PACES), which provided over 125,000 poor students with private secondary school vouchers, many of which were awarded by lottery. Researchers surveyed lottery winners and losers to compare educational and other outcomes. Results showed no…

Angrist, Joshua D.; Bettinger, Eric; Bloom, Erik; King, Elizabeth; Kremer, Michael

237

Cournot's model applied to cellphone service in Colombia, 1995-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically test the conditions that describe adjustment velocities to reach equilibrium under Cournot's duopoly model. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses a vector error correction (VEC) framework as the basis for determining and testing adjustment velocities using data about cellphone service in Colombia in the time period from 1995 to

Mora R. Jhon James

2006-01-01

238

Nutritional anthropometry: Diet and health?related correlates among preschool children in Bogotá, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional anthropometry measurements were applied in the assessment of nutritional status of preschool children attending a health center in a poor area of Bogotá, Colombia. Results showed that weight for age was the most adversely affected nutritional indicator among the group of children, followed by weight for height, height for age and head circumference. Intercorrelations between the four anthropometric measurements

Eunice Romero de Gwynn; Diva Sanjur

1974-01-01

239

Estudio del CH interestelar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

240

Instantánea del cáncer de esófago  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de esófago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

241

Instantánea del cáncer de próstata  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de próstata; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

242

Instantánea del cáncer de vejiga  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de vejiga; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

243

Instantánea del sarcoma de Kaposi  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

244

Instantánea del cáncer de pulmón  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de pulmón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

245

Instantánea del cáncer de endometrio  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de endometrio; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

246

Instantánea del cáncer de páncreas  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

247

Fisiología del crecimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoEl crecimiento humano es un proceso dinámico y complejo que comienza con la fertilización del óvulo y se completa con la fusión de las epífisis y las metáfisis de los huesos largos, que caracteriza la terminación de la adolescencia. El crecimiento ocurre en fases, con características distintivas en términos de influencias dominantes derivadas de factores y patrones genéticos, ambientales\\/nutricionales y

Arlan L. Rosenbloom

2007-01-01

248

La crisis del neoliberalismo  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se analiza la actual crisis en relación al modelo de gestión neoliberal de las economías capitalistas durante los treinta últimos años. En primer lugar se caracterizan los rasgos básicos de la regulación neoliberal. En segundo lugar se analiza la crisis actual en relación a estos rasgos, en concreto se considera el papel del sector financiero, el funcionamiento

Albert Recio Andreu

2009-01-01

249

Draft Genome Sequences of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Regions of Low and High Gastric Cancer Risk in Colombia  

E-print Network

The draft genome sequences of six Colombian Helicobacter pylori strains are presented. These strains were isolated from patients from regions of high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia and were characterized by ...

Sheh, Alexander

250

78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review...

2013-07-08

251

Microgeographic Genetic Variation of the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba and Antioquia, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia. PMID:20595475

Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Gómez, Giovan F.; González, John J.; Castro, Martha I.; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

2010-01-01

252

-DERECHO PBLICO DEL ESTADO AUTONMICO La implantacin del Mster universitario en Derecho Pblico del Estado Autonmico  

E-print Network

- DERECHO P�BLICO DEL ESTADO AUTON�MICO La implantación del Máster universitario en Derecho Público del Estado Autonómico extinguirá el Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Por esta razón se materias del Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Los estudiantes que comenzaron el Máster Oficial

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

253

The Del Rio ataxite, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic data are presented on the Del Rio, Nordheim, and Monahans ataxites found in Texas. Results are reported for bulk-chemistry analysis, metallographic observations, and electron-microprobe analysis of the Del Rio meteorite. It is shown that Del Rio is distinctly different from the other two ataxites in terms of nickel, phosphorous, and carbon content, and is composed of at least three coarse grains in different crystallographic orientations. All the kamacite in Del Rio is found to have transformation structures that are probable shock products, and minor inclusions of daubreelite, schreibersite, and troilite are observed. It is concluded that Del Rio was apparently mildly shocked prior to its fall.

Henderson, E. P.; King, E. A.

1977-01-01

254

An investigation of the relationship of meso and macroscale systems of rainfall in the Caribbean littoral of Colombia  

E-print Network

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE REI, ATIONSHIP OF MESO AND MACROSCALE SYSTEMS OF RAINFALL IN THE CARIBBEAN LITTORAL OF COLOMBIA A Thesis By PANCHAPAKESA SRINIVASAN Squadron i, eader Indian Air Force Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1967 Major Subject: METEOROLOGY AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF MESO AND MACROSCALE SYSTEMS OF RAINFALL IN THE CARIBBEAN LITTORAL OF COLOMBIA A...

Srinivasan, Panchapakesa

1967-01-01

255

Simultaneous circulation of genotypes I and III of dengue virus 3 in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. In Colombia, dengue viruses (DENV) cause about 50,000 cases annually, 10% of which involve Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome. The picture is similar in other surrounding countries in the Americas, with recent outbreaks of severe disease, mostly associated with DENV serotype 3, strains of the Indian genotype, introduced into the Americas in 1994. Results The analysis of the 3'end (224 bp) of the envelope gene from 32 DENV-3 strains recently recovered in Colombia confirms the circulation of the Indian genotype, and surprisingly the co-circulation of an Asian-Pacific genotype only recently described in the Americas. Conclusion These results have important implications for epidemiology and surveillance of DENV infection in Central and South America. Molecular surveillance of the DENV genotypes infecting humans could be a very valuable tool for controlling/mitigating the impact of the DENV infection. PMID:18764951

Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Mendez, Jairo A; Tenorio, Antonio; Rey, Gloria J; Domingo, Cristina; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C

2008-01-01

256

Seismic anisotropy and slab dynamics from SKS splitting recorded in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nazca, Caribbean, and South America plates meet in northwestern South America where the northern end of the Andean volcanic arc and Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity indicate ongoing subduction. However, the termination of Quaternary volcanism at ~5.5°N and eastward offset in seismicity underneath Colombia suggest the presence of complex slab geometry. To help link geometry to dynamics, we analyze SKS splitting for 38 broadband stations of the Colombian national network. Measurements of fast polarization axes in western Colombia close to the trench show dominantly trench-perpendicular orientations. Orientations measured at stations in the back arc, farther to the east, however, abruptly change to roughly trench parallel anisotropy. This may indicate along-arc mantle flow, possibly related to the suggested "Caldas" slab tear, or a lithospheric signature, but smaller-scale variations in anisotropy remain to be explained. Our observations are atypical globally and challenge our understanding of the complexities of subduction zone seismic anisotropy.

Porritt, Robert W.; Becker, Thorsten W.; Monsalve, Gaspar

2014-12-01

257

Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence in multi-transfused patients in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a public health problem worldwide, with particular relevance in multi-transfusedpatients given that HCV is principally transmitted by exposure to infected blood.Study design: Between February and September 2003 a cross-sectional study was carried out in four hospital centres in Bogotá and Medellin, Colombia, to determine the risk factors for HCV infection in 500 multi-transfused

Mauricio Beltrân; Maria-Cristina Navas; Fernando De la Hoz; Maria Mercedes Muñoz; Sergio Jaramillo; Cecilia Estrada; Lucia del Pilar Cortés; Maria Patricia Arbelâez; Jorge Donado; Gloria Barco; Martha Luna; Gustavo Adolfo Uribe; Amalia de Maldonado; Juan Carlos Restrepo; Gonzalo Correa; Paula Borda; Gloria Rey; Marlen de Neira; Angela Estrada; Sandra Yepes; Oscar Beltrân; Javier Pacheco; Iván Villegas; Jorge Boshell

2005-01-01

258

EVALUATION OF THREE RAPID TESTS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF P. FALCIPARUM AND P. VIVAX MALARIA IN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic capacity of three malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), NOW-Malaria-ICT, OptiMAL-IT, and Paracheck-Pf, was evaluated against expert microscopy in Colombia. We tested 896 patients, of whom microscopy confirmed 139 P. falciparum, 279 P. vivax, and 13 mixed P.f\\/P.v infections and 465 negatives. Paracheck-Pf and NOW- malaria-ICT were more accurate in detecting P. falciparum (sensitivities 90.8% and 90.1%, respectively) in

INGRID VAN DEN BROEK; OLIVIA HILL; FABIOLA GORDILLO; BIBIANA ANGARITA; PRUDENCE HAMADE; HELEN COUNIHAN; JEAN-PAUL GUTHMANN

2006-01-01

259

Educational inequality in Colombia: family background, school quality and student achievement in Cartagena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of family socio?economic disadvantage and differences in school resources on student achievement in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Using data from the ICFES and C?600 national databases, we conduct a multilevel analysis to determine the unique contribution of school?level factors above and beyond family background. The results from the hierarchical linear models show that while

Claudia Rangel; Christy Lleras

2010-01-01

260

Prevalence of Delayed Neurodevelopment in Children from Bogotá, Colombia, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Undiagnosed children with neurodevelopment delay disorders (NDD) frequently experience school difficulties, leading to school desertion or academic failure with subsequent familial, social and work-related problems. Methods: In 2004–2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of developmental delay among preschoolers in Bogotá (Colombia); convenience samples in several socioeconomic areas of the city were screened to define the

Alberto Velez van Meerbeke; Claudia Talero-Gutierrez; Rodrigo Gonzalez-Reyes

2007-01-01

261

TRAVEL HISTORIES AS RISK FACTORS IN THE ANALYSIS OF URBAN MALARIA IN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported travel histories were used in a case-control study to determine whether movement of local residents to neighboring endemic areas was a risk factor for malaria in the town of Quibdo, Colombia. Multivariate analyses showed that among residents of Quibdo, traveling to an endemic area 8-14 days before disease onset was the strongest risk factor for both Plasmodium falciparum (adjusted

LYDA OSORIO; JIM TODD; DAVID J. BRADLEY

262

Molecular Perspectives on the Origins of Chibchan Populations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia  

E-print Network

Committee Members James H. Mielke Deborah R. Smith by Phillip Edward Melton B. A., University of Montana, 1996 The University of Kansas has long historical connections with Central America and the many Central Americans who have earned graduate degrees... perspectives on the origins of Chibchan populations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta* Colombia by Phillip Edward Melton B.A., University of Montana 1996 Submitted to the Department of Anthropology and the Faculty of the Graduate School...

Melton, Phillip Edward

2004-11-01

263

Revision of the status of various bird species occurring or reported in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following species are added to Colombia's bird checklist: Parkinson's Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni; Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorrhoa; Grey-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus; Tapaculo Scytalopus sp. (Alto de Pisones bird); and Black-and-white Tanager Conothraupis speculigera. The following species are removed: Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Scaly-naped Pigeon Patagioenas squamosa; Amazonian Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium hardyi; Long-tailed Hermit Phaethornis superciliosis; Spot-tailed Antwren Herpsilochmus sticturus; Caribbean Martin

Thomas Donegan; Paul Salaman; David Caro

2009-01-01

264

Questioning Market-Led Agrarian Reform: Experiences from Brazil, Colombia and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market-led agrarian reform (MLAR) has been conceptualized out of the pro-market critique of classic state-led agrarian reform. The pro-market model has been implemented in Brazil, Colombia and South Africa, where its proponents have claimed impressive success. But close examination of the empirical evidence puts into question the basic theoretical and policy assump- tions and current claims of MLAR proponents. The

SATURNINO M. BORRAS JR

2003-01-01

265

Helminths of two anuran species, Atelopus spurrelli (Bufonidae) and Dendrobates histrionicus (Dendrobatidae), from Colombia, South America.  

PubMed

Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species of Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchus sp., Onicola sp. and Polymorphus sp. A. spurrelli and D. histrionicus represent new host records for these helminths. PMID:14550481

Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R

2003-09-01

266

3D extension of remarkable characteristics at the front of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last century, four great earthquakes shook the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone. The 500 km long rupture zone of the first of this seismic events, the 1906 earthquake (Mw= 8.8), was partially reactivated, from south to north, by a sequence of 3 thrust events in 1942 (Mw = 7.8), 1958 (Mw = 7.7) and 1979 (Mw = 8.2). The rupture

L. Garcia Cano; A. Galve; P. Charvis

2009-01-01

267

The Rupture Process of the Great 1979 Colombia Earthquake: Evidence for the Asperity Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the asperity distribution in the segment of the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone that was ruptured by the 1979 (Mw=8.2) and 1958 (M w =7.7) earthquakes. For the 1979 earthquake, we are able to document directivity in the P-wave source time functions and consequently, have spatially located the moment release. By combining results from both P-wave and surface wave

Susan L. Beck; Larry J. Ruff

1984-01-01

268

GPS Application : Theoretical Analysis of Coseismic Crustal Deformation of the Subduction Zone Colombia - Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colombia - Ecuador trench is located on the northwestern subduction zone along the Nazca and South America plate boundary. The zone is considered tectonically complex and it is continuously under large crustal deformation. The rapid convergence rate (58mm\\/a) in the zone caused a series of four large earthquakes (Mw>7.5) in the 20th century: 1906(Mw=8.8), 1942 (Mw=7.6), 1958 (Mw=7.7) and

A. L. Ramos Barreto; S. I. Franco; A. Iglesias

2010-01-01

269

CASA GPS Results: Lithospheric Deformation and the Earthquake Cycle in the Ecuador-Colombia Subduction Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone is a potentially important laboratory for observing the effects of variations in lithospheric buoyancy on seismic coupling. Subduction of the aseismic Carnegie Ridge is associated with pronounced margin-parallel variations in crustal thickness and buoyancy of the downgoing lithosphere. The subduction zone has been ruptured repeatedly in 1906 (Mw = 8.8), 1942 (Mw = 7.9), 1958 (Mw

J. Kellogg

2003-01-01

270

Y chromosome STR haplotypes in the Caribbean city of Cartagena (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haplotype data were obtained from a sample of 173 unrelated male individuals from Cartagena (Colombia), for 16 Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS460, DYS461, DYS635, GATA H4 and GATA A10). No shared haplotypes were observed, demonstrating the usefulness and informative power of these Y-STRs in male lineage identification in Cartagena.

Juan José Builes; Beatriz Martínez; Alfredo Gómez; Luis Caraballo; Claudia Espinal; Diana Aguirre; Alba Montoya; Manuel Moreno; António Amorim; Leonor Gusmão; M Luisa Bravo

2007-01-01

271

A survey of Colombia's new outer space policy: Reforms in Colombian law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the changes the Colombian government needs to make in its legislation (including the Constitution), to provide a solid basis for its new outer space policy in consonance with international law. In Article 101 paragraph 3 the Colombian Constitution states: The segment of Geostationary Orbit over Colombia is part of your national territory. This article is at odds with international law, which prohibits any claim of sovereignty over outer space. Until now, the issue has not caused any difficulty; however, Colombia has recently embarked on an outer space policy and the existence of this article may deter other nations from entering any agreement or joint project due to the fear of implicitly accepting this claim of sovereignty. What is more, in Colombia such agreements or projects may be declared illegal, since they do not comply with the Constitution. However, the major problem is not this article, but the complex procedure required to change it. A Constitutional reform is necessary. Furthermore, outer space policy is not a priority issue on the public agenda. This barrier may hinder the efforts to set up a space program in Colombia. We introduce an alternative solution that does not reform the Colombian Constitution but allows the development of the country's space policy. This solution involves identifying the space sectors that would not be affected by Article 101, paragraph 3 and including them in the space policy; checking that the non-definition of the limits of outer space means that the agreements with other nations are not affected; and finally, considering the possibility of making specific declarations of non-recognition of sovereignty over outer space in the agreements signed with other nations (Similar to the American flag over the moon declaration. EEUU Law 83 Stat. 202, sect 8). All these measures can help the development of Colombian space policy as we wait for the country to reach a definitive solution in accordance with international law.

Ortiz, Jairo A. Becerra

272

Reasons for reforestation success and failure with three mangrove species in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of human-induced changes in the hydrology of the lagoon system of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Caribbean coast of Colombia, 60% of the originally 51000ha of mangrove forest have died. The main reasons for this mass mortality were hypersalinization, increased sedimentation rates, and lowering of the water level. During the 1989–1998 period, efforts were made to

Carola Elster

2000-01-01

273

Novel VIM Metallo-?-Lactamase Variant, VIM-24, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from Colombia?  

PubMed Central

We report the emergence of a novel VIM variant (VIM-24) in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in Colombia. The isolate displays MICs for carbapenems below the resistance breakpoints, posing a real challenge for its detection. The blaVIM-24 gene was located within a class 1 integron carried on a large plasmid. Further studies are needed to clarify its epidemiological and clinical impact. PMID:21282438

Montealegre, Maria Camila; Correa, Adriana; Briceño, David F.; Rosas, Natalia C.; De La Cadena, Elsa; Ruiz, Sory J.; Mojica, Maria F.; Camargo, Ruben Dario; Zuluaga, Ivan; Marin, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Villegas, Maria Virginia

2011-01-01

274

SIMAC: development and implementation of a coral reef monitoring network in Colombia.  

PubMed

Significant coral reef decline has been observed in Colombia during the last three decades. However, due to the lack of monitoring activities, most of the information about health and changes was fragmentary or inadequate. To develop an expanded nation-wide reef-monitoring program, in 1998 INVEMAR (Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras: "Colombian Institute of Marine and Coastal Research") designed and implemented SIMAC (Sistema Nacional de Monitorco de Arrecifes Coralinos en Colombia: "National Monitoring System of Coral Reefs in Colombia") with the participation of other institutions. By the end of 2003 the SIMAC network reached more than twice its initial size, covering ten reef areas (seven in the Caribbean and three in the Pacific), 63 reef sites and 263 permanent transects. SIMAC monitoring continued without interruption until 2008 and should persist in the long-term. The SIMAC has a large database and consists basically of water quality measurements (temperature, salinity, turbidity) and a yearly estimation of benthic reef cover, coral disease prevalence, gorgonian density, abundance of important mobile invertebrates, fish diversity and abundance of important fish species. A methods manual is available in the Internet. Data and results of SIMAC have been widely circulated through a summary report published annually since 2000 for the Colombian environmental agencies and the general public, as well as numerous national and international scientific papers and presentations at meetings. SIMAC information has contributed to support regional and global reef monitoring networks and databases (i.e. CARICOMP, GCRMN, ReefBase). PMID:20873041

Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto

2010-05-01

275

Identification of Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) lutzi (Lucena, 1939) from Turdus fuscater (Great Thrush) in Colombia.  

PubMed

This study reports a broadening of the altitudinal range and a new host for Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) lutzi in Colombia. The study was conducted in the city of Bogotá, located in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia at 2,560 m asl (meters above sea level) with an average annual temperature of 15 C. In total, 156 specimens of birds belonging to 25 species and 14 families were captured using mist nets. The blood samples were collected through venipuncture and analyzed by light microscopy. Plasmodium (H.) lutzi was only found in 2 individuals of Turdus fuscater (Great Thrush). This parasite has previously been reported in Aramides cajaneus (before: Aramides cajanea) (Grey-Necked Wood Rail), a bird found in the lowlands of Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia. This finding provides evidence for a broad host range for P. lutzi that include 2 different orders, Gruiformes and Passeriformes, and also altitudinal expansion of its distribution. The blood stages were compared with the parasite's original descriptions, and the sequence of the parasite's mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) confirms that P. lutzi is a sister taxa of Plasmodium relictum, as previously proposed. PMID:23517409

Mantilla, Juan S; Matta, Nubia E; Pacheco, M Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A; González, Angie D; Moncada, Ligia I

2013-08-01

276

Serological diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a febrile patient in Colombia.  

PubMed

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis caused by any of at least 20 hantavirus genotypes distributed throughout the Americas. Although HPS has been documented in several bordering countries, it has not been reported in Colombia. Here we report seroconversion to a hantavirus in paired samples from a hospitalized patient with symptoms compatible with HPS from Montería, Córdoba Department, north-western Colombia. Tests for regionally endemic agents including Plasmodium, Leptospira, Salmonella, dengue virus, Brucella, Rickettsia, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses were negative. Because the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial for hemorrhagic fevers conducted by the University of Córdoba, serum samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Testing using Sin Nombre virus ELISA showed IgG and IgM seroconversion between samples. The eventual finding of this first clinical case of hantavirus infection in Colombia is consistent with the high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in humans in the region and the likely exposure of the patient to rodents. The clinical presentation was similar to that found in neighbouring Panama. PMID:24970702

Mattar, Salim; Garzon, Denisse; Tadeu, Luis; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Mills, James N

2014-08-01

277

[Detection and molecular characterization of Potato virus S (PVS, Carlavirus) from Colombia].  

PubMed

In Colombia, potato crops are affected by a wide variety of viruses such as PVY, PLRV, PVX, PMTV and PVS. Unfortunately, there are very few studies on the biology, distribution and pathogenicity of these viruses; this situation is even worse for the latent virus PVS. In this work, we evaluated the presence ofPVS in four Colombian provinces (Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Nariño) by the use of ELISA. We also studied the degree of molecular variation by sequence comparison of a segment of the gene encoding for the viral coat protein. In average, PVS was detected in 40% of 320 analyzed samples of potato leaves; the highest levels were observed in the East ofAntioquia (49%) and Pasto (Nariño) (47%), while in the other regions ranged between 35% and 42%. Analysis of sequence revealed the presence of two PVS strains in Colombia: three isolates were associated to PVSo (Ordinary) and twelve belonged to PVSA (Andean). A high diversity was observed among PVSA strains with percent identities in the range of 88-99%. These findings highlight the importance of strengthening seed certification programs and quarantine measures in Colombia for viruses like PVS, which can cause losses of up to 20% in potato crops and even higher in mixed virus infection. PMID:23885575

Fernando, Gil José; Cotes, José Miguel; Marín, Mauricio

2013-06-01

278

Contribution to the taxonomy of the family Membracidae Rafinesque (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) in Colombia.  

PubMed

The Membracidae are a relatively diverse group with nearly 400 genera and 3200 species. For Colombia 93 genera and 394 species were previously known. Study of the literature and 3744 specimens deposited in ten colections in Colombia, as well as non-systematic collections and field observations done in Colombia between 2011 and 2014, led us to record 116 genera and 474 species grouped in 9 subfamilies and 23 tribes, distributed in 24 departments. Thirteen genera were new country records. In addition, 1449 records of host plants and 262 records of associated Hymenoptera were obtained from literature, the examined collections and new, non-systematic field trips. For each genus a differential diagnosis is presented, as well as notes on biology, distribution and some taxonomic comments. Illustrated keys for the genera of Colombian Membracidae and known distributional maps are given. After examination of several Anobilia species, we propose the new combinations Stilbophora flava (Tode, 1966) n. comb., Stilbophora luteimaculata (Funkhouser, 1914) n. comb., Stilbophora sagitatta (Tode, 1966) n. comb., Stilbophora silvana (Tode, 1966) n. comb., Stilbophora tripartita (Fairmaire, 1846) n. comb., and Stilbophora variabilis (Tode, 1966) n. comb.  The male of Sakakibarella sinuosa Creão-Duarte is described.  PMID:25661431

Flórez-V, Camilo; Wolff, Marta I; Cardona-Duque, Juliana

2015-01-01

279

Genetic Diversity of Anopheles triannulatus s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) from Northwestern and Southeastern Colombia  

PubMed Central

Anopheles triannulatus s.l. is a species complex, however in Colombia its taxonomic status is unclear. This study was conducted to understand the level of genetic differentiation or population structure of specimens of An. triannulatus s.l. from northwestern and southeastern Colombia. Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence analyses suggested high genetic differentiation between the NW and SE populations. A TCS network and Bayesian inference analysis based on 814 bp of COI showed two main groups: group I included samples from the NW and group II samples from the SE. Two main ITS2-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) patterns were found. Pattern I is present in both the NW and SE, and pattern II is found in the SE specimens. To further elucidate the taxonomic status of An. triannulatus s.l. in Colombia and how these COI lineages are related to the Triannulatus Complex species, the evaluation of immature stages, male genitalia, and additional mitochondrial and nuclear markers will be needed. PMID:22949519

Rosero, Doris A.; Jaramillo, Luz M.; Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

2012-01-01

280

Crecimiento del PIB vs. Consumo de Energa (variacin % respecto del ao base 1990)  

E-print Network

% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela % Oil Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Energy Hydro electric 16 #12;17 Venezuela Santiago Existing pipeline Planned pipeline ARGENTINA COLOMBIA ECUADOR PERU BRAZIL PARAGUAY URUGUAY VENEZUELA BOLIVIA Cuiabá Belo Horizonte Porto Alegre

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

281

Managing water scarcity in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia.An economic assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key words: global change, water scarcity, river basin In Colombia, serious water conflicts began to emerge with the economic development in the 70ies and 80ies and the term "water scarcity" became a common word in this tropical country. Despite a mean annual runoff of 1840 mm, which classifies Colombia as a water rich country, shortfalls in fresh water availability have become a frequent event in the last two decades. One reason for the manifestation of water scarcity is the long-held perception of invulnerable water abundance, which has delayed technical and political developments to use water more efficiently. The Magdalena watershed is the most important and complex area in Colombia, because of its huge anthropogenic present, economic development and increasing environmental problems. This river basin has a total area of 273,459 km2, equivalent to 24% of the territory of the country. It is home to 79% of the country's population (32.5 million of inhabitants) and approximately 85% of Gross Domestic Product of Colombia is generated in this area. Since the economic development of the 1970s and 1980s, large changes in land cover and related environmental conditions have occurred in the Magdalena basin. These changes include deforestation, agricultural land expansion, soil degradation, lower groundwater and increased water pollution. To assess the consequences of geophysical alteration and economic development, we perform an integrated analysis of water demand, water supply, land use changes and possible water management strategies. The main objective of this study is to determine how global and local changes affect the balance between water supply and demand in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia, the consequences of different water pricing schemes, and the social benefits of public or private investments into various water management infrastructures. To achieve this goal, a constrained welfare maximization model has been developed. The General Algebraic Modeling System based mathematical program uses information from spatially detailed Geographic Information System including topography, land cover and water systems. Spatially resolved economic data are included to depict price and income sensitive consumption decisions of major water users. Water management adaptation options include wet ponds and dams. The model maximizes economic net benefits subject to physical and technological constraints. The results of this study are relevant to water management stakeholders, and to governmental agencies for the development of better water policies.

Bolivar Lobato, Martha Isabel; Schneider, Uwe A.

2014-05-01

282

Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogotá IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations are located on the three major plates that interact within the Wide Plate Margin Deformation Zone including existing permanent installations on IGS Galapagos and Malpelo Islands on the Nazca Plate, and San Andres Island on the Caribbean plate. The velocity vectors confirm the oblique subduction of the Nazca Plate and Carnegie aseismic ridge collision processes at the Colombia-Ecuador trench which are assumed to be the mechanism for the transpressional deformation and the "escape" of the North Andes Block (NAB). The northernmost vectors in Colombia are indicative of the ongoing collision of the Panama Arc with northwestern Colombia. Planned for the year 2013 is the installation of 10 additional GNSS continuously operating stations, and construction of 20 GPS campaign sites.

Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.

2013-05-01

283

New views on the Late Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Cenozoic strain field in northern Colombia is often described as resulting from both the continuous subduction of the Caribbean plate, ongoing since Late Cretaceous at least, and the tectonic escape of the North Andean Block, starting in early Pliocene. Pieces of evidence from geological field work, interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection profiles, section restoration, seismotectonic data and analysis of satellite images allowed us to precise the timing and mode of interaction for these two main tectonic processes in northern Colombia during the last 5 Ma. This work was part of the GIRCAR project (Groupement Industrie-Recherche CARaïbes), funded by TOTAL S.A.. The San Jacinto fold and thrust belt is usually known as the older part of an accretionary wedge related to the Caribbean subduction. We argue that this fold belt is actually a left-lateral transpressive belt, active since Pliocene time, that reuse older structures formed during an older accretionary episode. This left-lateral transpressive fold belt may be interpreted as the western boundary of the North Andean Block escaping northward. The Sinu wedge, known as the offshore Plio-Quaternary part of the accretionary wedge, accommodates less than 3 mm/yr of convergence. This shortening is at least partly compensated internally by a number of contemporaneous normal faults. The morphology of the Sinu wedge is more likely the one of a gravity collapse, affecting the whole sedimentary pile, towards the deep Colombian basin. Additionally, the Late Miocene to Holocene Magdalena fan, deposited along the northwestern margin of Colombia, above the subduction zone, remains undeformed even after being abandoned. Also, GPS data demonstrate that no shortening is to be expected at present across the subduction zone. Finally, no significant earthquakes was recorded between 0 and 30 km along the subduction zone. These observations can be well reconciled by postulating that the deformation, along the northwestern margin of Colombia, is not more controlled by the caribbean subduction. We propose that the Plio-Quaternary tectonic escape uplifted the margin through left-lateral transpression, reworking inherited structures. The thick Tertiary sedimentary cover subsequently collapsed down in the Colombian basin when the critical slope was reached. Since Pliocene time at least, the Caribbean-South American plate convergence might be accommodated diffusely across the whole North Andean Block, and most prominently along the Venezuelan Andes and the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, at the eastern boundary of the Block.

Maurin, T.; Stéphan, J. F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Dhont, D.

2012-04-01

284

Diseño y optimización del procesamiento térmico de alimentos envasados.  

E-print Network

??Contiene: Introducción; Objetivos; Diseño del procesamiento térmico: antecedentes; Diseño del procesamiento térmico: materiales y métodos; Diseño del procesamiento térmico: resultados y discusión; Optimización del procesamiento… (more)

Ansorena, María Roberta

2009-01-01

285

Towards understanding the puzzling lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet (China): Insight from a comparison with Yellowstone (USA) and some active volcanic hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1-2 km) exhibit very acidic waters containing HCl and H2SO4. In contrast, the Tibetan hydrothermal systems, represented by Yangbajain, usually have fairly deep-seated magma chambers so that the released acid fluids are much more likely to be fully neutralized during transport to the surface. The absence of steam-heated acid waters in Tibet, however, may be primarily due to the lack of a confining layer (like young impermeable lavas at Yellowstone) to separate geothermal steam from underlying neutral chloride waters and the possible scenario that the deep geothermal fluids below Tibet carry less H2S than those below Yellowstone.

Guo, Qinghai; Kirk Nordstrom, D.; Blaine McCleskey, R.

2014-11-01

286

Modeling the dispersion of atelines (primates, atelinae) through scenarios of climate change and habitat fragmentation in Colombia. Conservation implications for the persistence of species into the future.  

E-print Network

??Burbano- Girón, Jaime (2013) Modeling the dispersion of atelines (primates, atelinae) through scenarios of climate change and habitat fragmentation in Colombia. Conservation implications for the… (more)

Burbano- Girón, Jaime

2013-01-01

287

Acumulación de capital humano y gasto público en educación: un modelo de generaciones traslapadas para Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente documento se estudia el impacto del gasto público en educación sobre el crecimiento económico y el bienestar, para lo cual se construye un modelo de generaciones traslapadas y crecimiento endógeno. Los agentes se educan con el fin de acumular capital humano, mientras el gobierno subsidia una fracción del gasto en educación. Los parámetros son calibrados para replicar

Oliver Pardo

2006-01-01

288

Acumulación de capital humano y gasto público en educación: Un Modelo OLG para Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente documento estudia el impacto del gasto público en educación sobre el crecimiento económico y el bienestar. Se construye un modelo de generaciones traslapadas y crecimiento endógeno donde los agentes se educan con el fin de acumular capital humano, mientras el gobierno subsidia una fracción del gasto en educación. Los parámetros son calibrados con el objetivo de replicar algunos

Oliver Enrique PARDO REINOSO

2006-01-01

289

Acerca del Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI  

Cancer.gov

El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) coordina y fija las prioridades en las actividades que lleva a cabo el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer a nivel mundial. Su objetivo es avanzar la investigación mundial del cáncer y reducir las muertes causadas por esta enfermedad.

290

A shore-based preliminary survey of marine ribbon worms (Nemertea) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A checklist of benthic ribbon worm species from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is presented, including synonyms, distributions, a photographic record, and the main morphologic characters of each species for a rapid identification. This is the first research focused broadly on nemerteans in Colombia. 54 specimens of nemerteans were hand-collected from the rocky littoral of two different localities, and identified according to personal experience and specialist literature. 13 species were found; of which 11 represent new records for the country. These species belong to eight different traditionally used families: Tubulanidae, Valenciniidae, Lineidae, Amphiporidae, Cratenemertidae, Emplectonematidae, Drepanophoridae and Ototyphlonemertidae. The most common and abundant species was Dushia atra. The biodiversity of nemerteans in Colombia seems to overlap with the nemertean fauna from Florida and Brazil, explained by the convergence of the North Brazil Current, Guiana Current, Caribbean Currents and the Panama-Colombia Contracurrent in the sampled region. The results of this work suggest that the Caribbean coast of Colombia is a region with a high diversity of nemerteans, and provide important taxonomic data for environmental assessments and future biological research. PMID:25317057

Gonzalez-Cueto, Jaime; Quiroga, Sigmer; Norenburg, Jon

2014-01-01

291

Population Structure among Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogeographic composition of M. tuberculosis populations reveals associations between lineages and human populations that might have implications for the development of strategies to control the disease. In Latin America, lineage 4 or the Euro-American, is predominant with considerable variations among and within countries. In Colombia, although few studies from specific localities have revealed differences in M. tuberculosis populations, there are still areas of the country where this information is lacking, as is a comparison of Colombian isolates with those from the rest of the world. Principal Findings A total of 414 M. tuberculosis isolates from adult pulmonary tuberculosis cases from three Colombian states were studied. Isolates were genotyped using IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spoligotyping, and 24-locus Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). SIT42 (LAM9) and SIT62 (H1) represented 53.3% of isolates, followed by 8.21% SIT50 (H3), 5.07% SIT53 (T1), and 3.14% SIT727 (H1). Composite spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU- VNTR minimum spanning tree analysis suggest a recent expansion of SIT42 and SIT62 evolved originally from SIT53 (T1). The proportion of Haarlem sublineage (44.3%) was significantly higher than that in neighboring countries. Associations were found between M. tuberculosis MDR and SIT45 (H1), as well as HIV-positive serology with SIT727 (H1) and SIT53 (T1). Conclusions This study showed the population structure of M. tuberculosis in several regions from Colombia with a dominance of the LAM and Haarlem sublineages, particularly in two major urban settings (Medellín and Cali). Dominant spoligotypes were LAM9 (SIT 42) and Haarlem (SIT62). The proportion of the Haarlem sublineage was higher in Colombia compared to that in neighboring countries, suggesting particular conditions of co-evolution with the corresponding human population that favor the success of this sublineage. PMID:24747767

Realpe, Teresa; Correa, Nidia; Rozo, Juan Carlos; Ferro, Beatriz Elena; Gomez, Verónica; Zapata, Elsa; Ribon, Wellman; Puerto, Gloria; Castro, Claudia; Nieto, Luisa María; Diaz, Maria Lilia; Rivera, Oriana; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Robledo, Jaime

2014-01-01

292

Typhoid Fever in nineteenth-century Colombia: between medical geography and bacteriology.  

PubMed

This paper analyses how the Colombian medical elites made sense of typhoid fever before and during the inception of bacteriological ideas and practices in the second half of the nineteenth century. Assuming that the identity of typhoid fever has to be understood within the broader concerns of the medical community in question, I show how doctors first identified Bogotá's epidemics as typhoid fever during the 1850s, and how they also attached specificity to the fever amongst other continuous fevers, such as its European and North American counterparts. I also found that, in contrast with the discussions amongst their colleagues from other countries, debates about typhoid fever in 1860-70 among doctors in Colombia were framed within the medico-geographical scheme and strongly shaped by the fear of typhoid fever appearing alongside 'paludic' fevers in the highlands. By arguing in medico-geographical and clinical terms that typhoid fever had specificity in Colombia, and by denying the medico-geographical law of antagonism between typhoid and paludic fevers proposed by the Frenchman Charles Boudin, Colombian doctors managed to question European knowledge and claimed that typhoid fever had distinct features in Colombia. The focus on paludic and typhoid fevers in the highlands might explain why the bacteriological aetiology of typhoid fever was ignored and even contested during the 1880s. Anti-Pasteurian arguments were raised against its germ identity and some physicians even supported the idea of spontaneous origin of the disease. By the 1890s, Pasteurian knowledge had come to shape clinical and hygienic practices. PMID:24331213

García, Mónica

2014-01-01

293

[Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].  

PubMed

Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design conservation actions, to follow and evaluate the need for particular protected areas along their geographical gradients. PMID:22017133

Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

2011-09-01

294

Health education for community-based malaria control: an intervention study in Ecuador, Colombia and Nicaragua.  

PubMed

A malaria study was undertaken in 98 rural communities of the Pacific coast of Ecuador (n = 14), Colombia (n = 22) and Nicaragua (n = 62). In-depth interviews on people's knowledge and practice regarding malaria aetiology, symptoms and treatment were conducted and complemented by formal household interviews. On the basis of this information, an educational programme was set up which included the training of village health promoters and community workshops organized by the health workers and used a set of methods of interactive learning. After the baseline survey the communities were paired and randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups. Malaria education took place only in the intervention communities. At the start of the project people's knowledge about malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and malaria symptoms was correct and widespread in those areas where the community exposure to formal health services was pronounced. However, knowledge of the recommended dose of chloroquine was poor everywhere, and self-treatment of malaria episodes deficient. The educational intervention achieved a high level of participant satisfaction which was expressed in a high and continuous attendance rate at the monthly workshops. The knowledge of malaria aetiology and symptoms was 33-61% better in the intervention group than in the control group. Knowledge of the recommended doses of chloroquine increased significantly (34% in Ecuador, 93% in Colombia but not in Nicaragua) and correct use of chloroquine in the treatment of malaria episodes also improved (26% in Ecuador, 85% in Colombia). In Nicaragua the results were less satisfactory due to the short period of promotional activities and the health services' policy of delivering only supervised treatment to the population. It is concluded that health education should play a major role in malaria control. PMID:8980598

Kroeger, A; Meyer, R; Mancheno, M; González, M

1996-12-01

295

DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Sand Fly Species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Sand flies include a group of insects that are of medical importance and that vary in geographic distribution, ecology, and pathogen transmission. Approximately 163 species of sand flies have been reported in Colombia. Surveillance of the presence of sand fly species and the actualization of species distribution are important for predicting risks for and monitoring the expansion of diseases which sand flies can transmit. Currently, the identification of phlebotomine sand flies is based on morphological characters. However, morphological identification requires considerable skills and taxonomic expertise. In addition, significant morphological similarity between some species, especially among females, may cause difficulties during the identification process. DNA-based approaches have become increasingly useful and promising tools for estimating sand fly diversity and for ensuring the rapid and accurate identification of species. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (COI) is currently being used to differentiate species in different animal taxa, including insects, and it is referred as a barcoding sequence. The present study explored the utility of the DNA barcode approach for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies in Colombia. We sequenced 700 bp of the COI gene from 36 species collected from different geographic localities. The COI barcode sequence divergence within a single species was <2% in most cases, whereas this divergence ranged from 9% to 26.6% among different species. These results indicated that the barcoding gene correctly discriminated among the previously morphologically identified species with an efficacy of nearly 100%. Analyses of the generated sequences indicated that the observed species groupings were consistent with the morphological identifications. In conclusion, the barcoding gene was useful for species discrimination in sand flies from Colombia. PMID:24454877

Contreras Gutiérrez, María Angélica; Vivero, Rafael J.; Vélez, Iván D.; Porter, Charles H.; Uribe, Sandra

2014-01-01

296

Opon Gas Field, Colombia: Part I - geoscience description, well design and well test performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the geoscience and engineering aspects of the Opon Gas Field located in the Middle Magdalena Basin, Colombia. The remoteness and extreme downhole conditions make the drilling, completion, testing and geoscience interpretation of the two most recent Opon wells technically very challenging. Multiple faults, steep dips, rugged topography, a sensitive jungle environment and variable surface velocities complicate field definition. A full assessment of the commercial potential of the reservoir requires additional development drilling. Now in the early development stages, the Opon Gas Field has first production scheduled for late 1996.

Stone, D.M.; Huffmyer, W.A.; Greener, J.M.; Mamerow, B.S.

1996-12-31

297

Population data on 15 autosomal STRs in a sample from Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present population genetic data of 15 STRs (CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, PENTA D, PENTA E, TH01, TPOX and VWA) obtained from a sample of 617 unrelated individuals from Colombia. Deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were assessed and allele frequencies and parameters of forensic interest for each STR were calculated. The combined power of exclusion

Paula Sánchez-Diz; María Amparo Acosta; Dora Fonseca; Marcela Fernández; Yenny Gómez; Manuela Jay; Joseph Alape; María Victoria Lareu; Angel Carracedo; Carlos Martín Restrepo

2009-01-01

298

Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative/positive. The Foliar Emission Rate of banana plants also reflected negative/positive anomalies which are consistent with the increase/decrease observed in the Severity Index of BSD.

Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

2012-12-01

299

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor.  

PubMed

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia's Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services - with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

2013-10-01

300

Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

Not Available

1992-05-01

301

Shoot Down in Peru: The Secret US Debate Over Intelligence Sharing in Peru and Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once again, the inestimable National Security Archive (NSA) has created a timely and useful electronic briefing book with declassified documents that shed light on recent events. In this case, the event is the accidental shoot down of a civilian aircraft carrying missionaries in Peru on April 20. The site offers the full text of thirteen declassified documents from 1994 which shed light on internal debate within the Clinton administration over the decision to share aerial tracking intelligence with Peru and Colombia. The documents are preceded by an excellent concise introduction, and for each, a one-paragraph summary is provided.

2001-01-01

302

Wide Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Producing ?-Lactamase blaKPC-2 Gene in Colombia?  

PubMed Central

Ten blaKPC-2-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded blaAmpC and blaOXA-50 genes and the acquired blaKPC-2 gene. In most cases, the blaKPC-2 genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing blaKPC-2 are disseminating in Colombia. PMID:21844315

Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P.; Nordmann, Patrice

2011-01-01

303

EL ORIGEN BIOLÓGICO DEL DERECHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen evolutivo del derecho como una consecuencia del desarrollo social de nuestra especie. Otras especies con sistemas sociales similares presentan varias reglas para la convivencia en grupo. Algunas de estas reglas son comunes en todas las especies con comportamiento social. El desarrollo de la sociobiología en las últimas décadas es una herramienta importante

Axel P. Retana-Salazar

304

Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer Show Same Phylogeographic Origin in the Andean Region in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background A recent report has shown that the phylogenetic origin of Helicobacter pylori based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was significantly associated with the severity of gastritis in Colombia. However, the potential relationship between phylogenetic origin and clinical outcomes was not examined in that study. If the phylogenetic origin rather than virulence factors were truly associated with clinical outcomes, identifying a population at high risk for gastric cancer in Colombia would be relatively straightforward. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic origins of strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients living in Bogota, Colombia. Methods We included 35 gastric cancer patients and 31 duodenal ulcer patients, which are considered the variant outcomes. The genotypes of cagA and vacA were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The genealogy of these Colombian strains was analyzed by MLST. Bacterial population structure was analyzed using STRUCTURE software. Results H. pylori strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients were scattered in the phylogenetic tree; thus, we did not detect any difference in phylogenetic distribution between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer strains in the hpEurope group in Colombia. Sixty-six strains, with one exception, were classified as hpEurope irrespective of the cagA and vacA genotypes, and type of disease. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that Colombian hpEurope strains have a phylogenetic connection to Spanish strains. Conclusions Our study showed that a phylogeographic origin determined by MLST was insufficient for distinguishing between gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer risk among hpEurope strains in the Andean region in Colombia. Our analysis also suggests that hpEurope strains in Colombia were primarily introduced by Spanish immigrants. PMID:25121764

Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuo, Yuichi; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Tran, Trang Thu Huyen; Binh, Tran Thanh; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2014-01-01

305

C.A. Jaramillo et al.: Palynology of the Cerrejn Formation (Upper Paleocene) of northern Colombia 153 Palynology, 31 (2007): 153189  

E-print Network

C.A. Jaramillo et al.: Palynology of the Cerrejón Formation (Upper Paleocene) of northern Colombia 153 Palynology, 31 (2007): 153­189 © 2007 by AASP Foundation ISSN 0191-6122 THE PALYNOLOGY Petroleum Institute AA 4185 Bucaramanga, Colombia Abstract A palynological study of the Cerrejon Formation

Bermingham, Eldredge

306

A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

Woodman, N.

2002-01-01

307

Genetic and other diseases in the pottery of Tumaco-La Tolita culture in Colombia-Ecuador.  

PubMed

The people of Tumaco-La Tolita culture inhabited the borders of present-day Colombia and Ecuador. Already extinct by the time of the Spaniards arrival, they left a huge collection of pottery artifacts depicting everyday life; among these, disease representations were frequently crafted. In this article, we present the results of the personal examination of the largest collections of Tumaco-La Tolita pottery in Colombia and Ecuador; cases of Down syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis I H, mucopolysaccharidosis IV, a tumor of the face and a benign tumor in an old woman were found. We believe these to be among the earliest artistic representations of disease. PMID:16922718

Bernal, J E; Briceno, I

2006-09-01

308

Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

2013-01-01

309

[Subtypes of dengue virus serotypes 2, 3 and 4 isolated in Santander District, Colombia].  

PubMed

Virus serotypes 2, 3 and 4 that had circulated in Santander District, Colombia in the period 1998-2004 were analyzed. Identifying the subtype of a dengue virus serotype is a useful tool for surveillance of severe risk factors because the strain potential to cause hemorrhagic dengue makes the difference among them. Simultaneous sequence amplification technique known as restriction site specific-polymerase chain reaction (RSS-PCR) was used to determine the subtype by comparing the electrophoretic pattern of the local isolate to the reference virus. Virus serotype 2 corresponded to subtype A similar to the one isolated in Thailand (1996) and to the other isolated in Porto Rico (1986); virus serotypes 3 were of subtype C like the virus found in Sri Lanka (1990), Honduras (1995) and Porto Rico (2000); virus serotypes 4 were a variant of subtype B similar to a virus from Porto Rico (1987) and to another virus from Tahiti (1985). The study confirmed the presence in Colombia of dengue virus subtypes circulating now in the Americas. PMID:23427455

Cortés, Fabián M; Gómez, Sergio Y; Ocazionez, Raquel E

2007-01-01

310

Analyses of the size distribution of earthquakes and their relocation for central-western Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract The Red Sismológica Nacional de Colombia-RSNC catalog for the period 1993-2012 was used to relocate shallow earthquakes (0.4 < ML < 6.7) in central-western Colombia and determine spatial variations in b-value, the slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution-DFM. From an initial set of 18,327 earthquakes a subset of 11,553 earthquakes was selected using the ML > MC criterion (where MC = 2.7 is the magnitude of completeness). Precise relocations were obtained with the double difference method and DFM analyses were performed using the maximum likelihood method. Relocations resulted in: reduction of formal errors in hypocenter parameters form initial averages of 15.42 km horizontally and 39.34 km vertically to final average errors nearing 4 m and 6 m in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively; concentration of earthquakes along fault zones reported in recent geological campaigns and a better delineation of geological structures such as the Murindó, Algeciras-Altamira, and Ibagué faults. Earthquake size distribution analyses indicate b-values in the range 0.6 - 1.5 with volcanic areas that are not detected as b-anomalies. Map of the study area a) with the earthquake RSNC catalog, b) relocated earthquakes.

Alvarado, H.; Sanchez, J. J.

2013-12-01

311

A geochemical study of the Rio Pantanos area, Department of Antioquia, Colombia preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling in the Western Cordillera has delineated an 18 km 2 area anomalous in copper, molybdenum, and silver. Highly anomalous metal contents are found in stream sediment, soil, and outcrop samples collected within this area. The area is underlain by intrusive granodiorite to quartz diorite that has porphyritic and granitoid phases. Most of the outcrop samples contain disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite. A geochemical reconnaissance sampling program in the Western Cordillera, formulated by Andros Jimeno V., Director, Instituto National de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (INGEOMINAS), and Earl M. Irving, U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Chief of Party in Colombia, was carried out from 1969 to 1971 by geologists of the INGEOMINAS office in Medellin. This work was part of a cooperative program of INGEOMINAS and the USGS sponsored by the Government of Colombia and the Agency for International Development, U. S. Department of State. Seventeen generally east-trending traverses were completed across the Western Cordillera. These traverses, generally paralleling major drainages, cross the range at intervals of 10 to 30 km.

Alminas, Henry V.; Mosier, Elwin L.

1972-01-01

312

Aurapex penicillata gen. sp. nov. from native Miconia theaezans and Tibouchina spp. in Colombia.  

PubMed

Conidiomata of a fungus resembling Chrysoporthe cubensis, a serious canker pathogen of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae, Myrtales) in tropical and subtropical parts of the world, was found on Eucalyptus grandis in Colombia. Fruiting structures of the fungus could be distinguished from those of C. cubensis by their distinctly orange conidiomatal necks. This fungus also was found on several plant species native to Colombia including Tibouchina urvilleana, T. lepidota and Miconia theaezans (Melastomataceae, Myrtales). Morphological comparisons, as well as those based on sequences of the ITS1/ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA repeat and the beta-tubulin gene, were used to characterize this fungus. Its pathogenicity was assessed on various plants from which it has been collected, either in field or greenhouse trials. Phylogenetic analyses showed that isolates reside in a clade distinct from the four clades accommodating Chrysoporthe, Cryphonectria, Endothia and Rostraureum. Members of this clade are distinguished by the presence of orange conidiomatal necks with black bases and a unique internal stromatal structure. No teleomorph has been found for this fungus, for which we have provided the name Aurapex penicillata gen. sp. nov. A. penicillata produced only small lesions after inoculation on young T. urvilleana, M. theaezans and E. grandis trees and appears not to be a serious pathogen. PMID:16800308

Gryzenhout, Marieka; Myburg, Henrietta; Rodas, Carlos A; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

2006-01-01

313

Health care privatization in latin america: comparing divergent privatization approaches in chile, Colombia, and Mexico.  

PubMed

The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization. PMID:24842976

Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Méndez, Claudio A

2014-08-01

314

House-Level Risk Factors for Triatoma dimidiata Infestation in Colombia.  

PubMed

In Colombia, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, are Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. T. dimidiata is present in the east region of Colombia as domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic populations, resulting in difficulties for its control. A cost-effective way to prioritize houses for treatment is to stratify houses based on risk factors. In this study, risk factors were evaluated for potential associations with domicile infestation of T. dimidiata. There was an increased likelihood of domestic infestation associated with the presence of mixed roofs (odds ratio [OR] = 36.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 12.21-106.97), cats (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 1.36-11.38), rock piles (OR = 5.28, 95% CI = 1.64-16.98), and bushes with height above 10 m (OR = 11.21, 95% CI = 2.08-60.45). These factors could be used to target surveillance and control of T. dimidiata to houses with an increased risk of being infested. PMID:25349372

Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Cardona, Ángela Segura; Quirós-Gómez, Oscar; Angulo, Víctor; Alexander, Neal

2015-01-01

315

Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.  

PubMed

Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

2013-04-01

316

Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Different Flea Species from Caldas, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. Historically, the northern region of the province of Caldas in Colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both R. felis and R. typhi. In the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify gltA, ompB, and 17kD genes. Positive samples were sequenced to identify the species of Rickettsia. Of 1,341 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (76.7%). Positive PCR results in the three genes were evidenced in C. felis (minimum infection rates; 5.3%), C. canis (9.2%), and Pulex irritans (10.0%). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analyses of sequences showed high identity values (> 98%) with R. felis, and all were highly related by phylogenetic analyses. This work shows the first detection of R. felis in fleas collected from animals in Colombia. PMID:23878183

Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Pérez, Jorge E.; Mercado, Marcela; de la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Correa, Maria I.; Duque, Laura; Ariza, Juan S.; Henao, Cesar; Valbuena, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Marylin

2013-01-01

317

Large Variation in Detection of Histidine-Rich Protein 2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Most rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available use histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) as a target. However, it has been reported that sequence variations of this protein affects its sensitivity. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for HRP2 variability in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Colombia and its relationship with RDT performance. To determine possible geographic differences and their effects on the performance of RDTs, 22 blood samples from patients with P. falciparum malaria from Tumaco and Buenaventura, Colombia were assessed by measurement of HRP2 concentration by an HRP2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RDTs, and thick blood smear. Statistical analysis showed an association between RDT performance and HRP2 concentrations. No significant difference was found between locations. A large variation of antigen concentration in samples was found at same parasitemia. In contrast to previously reports, there was no correlation between initial parasitemia and HRP2 concentration. Our results indicate that antigen quantity should be studied more carefully because the sensitivity of the RDT is affected more by antigen concentration than by parasitemia. PMID:20889875

Pava, Zuleima; Echeverry, Diego F.; Díaz, Gustavo; Murillo, Claribel

2010-01-01

318

Large variation in detection of histidine-rich protein 2 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Colombia.  

PubMed

Most rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available use histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) as a target. However, it has been reported that sequence variations of this protein affects its sensitivity. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for HRP2 variability in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Colombia and its relationship with RDT performance. To determine possible geographic differences and their effects on the performance of RDTs, 22 blood samples from patients with P. falciparum malaria from Tumaco and Buenaventura, Colombia were assessed by measurement of HRP2 concentration by an HRP2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RDTs, and thick blood smear. Statistical analysis showed an association between RDT performance and HRP2 concentrations. No significant difference was found between locations. A large variation of antigen concentration in samples was found at same parasitemia. In contrast to previously reports, there was no correlation between initial parasitemia and HRP2 concentration. Our results indicate that antigen quantity should be studied more carefully because the sensitivity of the RDT is affected more by antigen concentration than by parasitemia. PMID:20889875

Pava, Zuleima; Echeverry, Diego F; Díaz, Gustavo; Murillo, Claribel

2010-10-01

319

Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, Caviidae) in Colombia  

PubMed Central

The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p < 0.05), genetic differentiation between population pairs was found to be low. Genetic distance, as well as clustering of guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations. PMID:22215979

Burgos-Paz, William; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario; Solarte-Portilla, Carlos

2011-01-01

320

[Colombia: out of the eye of the hurricane, but still close].  

PubMed

Colombia is not the same country of the 80s and 90s of last century. The big drug cartels disappeared, but their heirs diversified their activities, created alliances with guerrillas and paramilitaries, and increased the number of minors associated with criminal behaviours. The country has not been systematic in its drug abuse data collection, and there is a remarkable imbalance in the investments made on drug supply and drug demand: 98% and 2%, respectively. However, the official reports assert that there are at least 300,000 people in need of treatment. Regarding drug abuse, Colombia is in the "middle range" in Latin America, together with Peru and Mexico; Chile, Argentina and Uruguay are above them, and Ecuador and Bolivia below. Drug consumption was decriminalized in 1994, and the implication was that those involved in drug abuse problems had to find their way out by themselves; this implication contributed to the poor development of the state treatment system. In spite of a new law imposing the obligation of free treatment to everyone asking for it, the health system is on the border of collapse and won't be able to face those requirements. PMID:23748938

Pérez Gómez, Augusto

2013-01-01

321

North Andean “Escape” and Transpressive Strain in the Eastern Cordillera Foothills, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements suggest that a large part of the northern Andes is “escaping” to the northeast relative to stable South America at a rate of 6 ± 2 mm/a. The displacement rates of seven sites in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador are statistically identical at the 95% confidence level. This study compares this GPS rate to 20 published field geologic estimates of displacement rates, such as displaced glacial moraines and offset pyroclastic flow. Dated displacements compiled in this study were obtained from the Gulf of Guayaquil, Pallatanga, Chingual-la Sofia, and Cayambe-Afiladores-Sibundoy fault systems in Ecuador and southern Colombia and the Bocono fault system in Venezuela. Right-lateral slip estimates on the individual fault segments range from 2.3 mm/a to 9.7 mm/a. The mean estimated geologic slip rate for the last 86,000 years is 7.6 mm/a with an R2 value of 0.97. This estimate is very similar to the GPS measurements of present day motion at the 2 sigma level. Four estimates indicate that slip rates of 4 to 10 mm/a continued back to 1.8 Ma. No geologic slip estimates have been reported for Ecuador prior to that time period. The “escape” of the North Andes is believed to be a result of increased coupling between the obliquely subducting Nazca plate and the overriding South American plate due to the subduction of the Carnegie ridge in the Ecuador-Colombia trench. If this is correct, the slip estimates for the North Andes suggest that the Carnegie Ridge arrived at the trench at least 1.8 Ma. In the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, the main deformation styles are basement involved and basement detached shortening produced by the Panama arc-South America collision, with approximately 160 km of shortening and up to 20 km of right-lateral range-parallel strike-slip displacement across the region. These estimates of overall shear strain and range normal shortening are generally consistent with our structural interpretation of a 3D seismic survey of the Foothills of the Eastern Cordillera. However, GPS measurements in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia suggest that the present day range normal shortening rate is only 4 ± 3 mm/a. Present day permanent strain associated with the Panama collision is apparently being accommodated in the Central and Western Cordillera. Hence, right-lateral shear may be a more important component of the present day strain field in the Eastern Cordillera than range-normal shortening. Strike-slip crustal earthquakes reflect slip partitioning on high angle faults located above crustal detachment ramps across a 200 km wide zone. Intermediate depth mantle earthquakes indicate that brittle shearing extends to the base of the lithosphere. The on-going northeastward slip of the northern Andes poses a continued seismic risk for Quito, Bogota, and Merida.

Egbue, O. K.; Kellogg, J.

2009-12-01

322

Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.  

PubMed

Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in vitro. PMID:15781217

Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

2005-04-01

323

AVENTURAS Y DESVENTURAS EN MACONDO: REHABILITACIÓN DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA ADVENTURES AND MISFORTUNES IN MACONDO: REHABILITATION OF THE CIENAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA LAGOON COMPLEX, COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe trajectories of selected ecological indicators used as performance measures to evaluate the success of a mangrove rehabilitation project in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) Delta-Lagoon complex, Colombia, as result of freshwater diversions initiated in 1995. There is a significant reduction in soil and water column salinity in all sampling stations following the hydraulic reconnection of the

Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Robert R. Twilley; Ernesto Mancera; Ariel Alcantara-Eguren; Edward Castañeda-Moya; Oscar Casas Monroy; Paola Reyes; Jorge Restrepo

2006-01-01

324

Se da a conocer el plan del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para acelerar la investigación del cáncer  

Cancer.gov

En la 100va Reunión Anual de la Asociación Estadounidense de Investigación del Cáncer realizada en Denver, el director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, doctor John E. Niederhuber, dio a conocer detalles importantes, tales como financiamiento de más subvenciones, creación de una plataforma para atención personalizada del cáncer y un programa acelerado de genética del cáncer que hará avanzar la investigación oncológica en este nuevo ambiente económico.

325

Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prestó juramento hoy como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).  "Es muy estimulante que estés de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos Kathleen Sebelius en la ceremonia de toma de juramento. “Hoy se abre un nuevo capítulo para el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer”.

326

Impactos del Huracn Isaac en la calidad del agua en Luisiana con MODIS 250m  

E-print Network

lluvias. Por tal razón se quiere estudiar la calidad del agua en el delta del río Mississippi antes1 Impactos del Huracán Isaac en la calidad del agua en Luisiana con MODIS 250m Thais J. Alicea imágenes en ENVI. Palabras clave: Calidad del agua, ENVI, Isaac, Luisiana, MODIS

Gilbes, Fernando

327

VERBALE DEL CONSIGLIO DEL CORSO DI STUDIO INFORMATICA E TECNOLOGIE PER LA PRODUZIONE DEL del 14 Maggio 2008  

E-print Network

relative agli anni precedenti 4. Manifesti degli Studi 5. Elezione Presidenti Corsi di Studio: adempimenti ingiustificati. PROFESSORI ORDINARI, STRAORDINARI ED ASSOCIATI 1. V. ALBINO SOFTWARE del 21 Febbraio 2008 3. P. BUONO....................... .................. 4. V. CAPRIATI

Malerba, Donato

328

Counts, serovars, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Salmonella on raw chicken meat at retail in Colombia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella counts using the most-probable-number method as recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service protocol. A total of 378 isolates (268 from our previous study) were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall Salmonella count (mean log most probable number per carcass ± 95% confidence interval) and prevalence were 2.1 (2.0 to 2.3) and 37%, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) by Salmonella levels (i.e., counts and prevalence) by storage temperature (i.e., frozen, chilled, or ambient), retail store type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent markets), and poultry company (chicken produced by integrated or nonintegrated company). Frozen chicken had the lowest Salmonella levels compared with chicken stored at other temperatures, chickens from wet markets had higher levels than those from other retail store types, and chicken produced by integrated companies had lower levels than nonintegrated companies. Thirty-one Salmonella serovars were identified among 378 isolates, with Salmonella Paratyphi B tartrate-positive (i.e., Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+) the most prevalent (44.7%), followed by Heidelberg (19%), Enteritidis (17.7%), Typhimurium (5.3%), and Anatum (2.1%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 35.2% were resistant to 1 to 5 antimicrobial agents, 24.6% to 6 to 10, and 33.9% to 11 to 15. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg were the most antimicrobial resistant. Salmonella prevalence was determined to be high, whereas cell numbers were relatively low. These data can be used in developing risk assessment models for preventing the transmission of Salmonella from chicken to humans in Colombia. PMID:24490916

Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Arevalo, Alejandra; Castellanos, Ricardo; Bernal, Johan; Tafur, Mc Allister; Ovalle, Maria Victoria; Alali, Walid Q; Hume, Michael; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan Jose; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

2014-02-01

329

Artemisinin-based combination therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is being widely promoted as a strategy to counteract the increase in Plasmodium falciparum antimalarial drug resistance. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of the efficacy, effect on gametocytes and safety of the addition of artesunate/placebo (4 mg/kg/day × 3 d) to amodiaquine (10 mg/kg/day × 3 d) was conducted in Choco department, a low intensity transmission area in northwest Colombia. Results From 2,137 screened subjects, 85 entered the study: 43 in the amodiaquine plus placebo and 42 in the amodiaquine plus artesunate groups. Potentially eligible cases failed to qualify mostly because they were not available for follow-up visits (73%). Based on a per protocol analysis, the therapeutic response to both treatments was high: amodiaquine/placebo 35/36, 97.2% (95% CI 85.5–99.9), and amodiaquine/artesunate 32/32, 100% (89.1–100) after PCR genotyping. The Kaplan-Meier survival estimates based on all eligible patients enrolled (amodiaquine/placebo: n = 42; amodiaquine/artesunate: n = 41) were similar in the two study groups (P = 0.3). The addition of artesunate significantly decreased gametocyte carriage on Day 4 (OR = 0.1 95% CI 0.02–0.6), Day 7 (OR = 0.2 95%CI 0.04–0.9), Day 14 (OR = 0.09 95% CI 0–0.8), and Day 21 (OR95%CI 0–0.9). Most subjects in both groups (81% in amodiaquine/placebo and 75.6% in amodiaquine/artesunate) reported at least one drug related adverse event. Symptoms were generally mild and self-limiting and there was no serious adverse event. Two patients on amodiaquine/artesunate voluntarily withdrew from study because they could not tolerate the medication. Conclusion Both drug regimens were effective in this area of Colombia. The addition of artesunate reduced gametocyte carriage and did not adversely affect tolerability. In this set of patients, the rate of adverse events was higher than in other studies. Patients' follow-up is problematic in areas with dispersed population and affects the conduct of clinical studies and monitoring of treatment effects. The results are discussed in the light of concurrent increase resistance to amodiaquine in other endemic areas in Colombia and the factors that may influence a change in the national antimalarial drug policy. PMID:17328806

Osorio, Lyda; Gonzalez, Iveth; Olliaro, Piero; Taylor, Walter RJ

2007-01-01

330

Human and crab exposure to mercury in the Caribbean coastal shoreline of Colombia: impact from an abandoned chlor-alkali plant.  

PubMed

Human hair samples from male and female people aged 6-85 years, as well as muscle of crabs (Callinectes sapidus and Callinectes bocourti) were collected from different fishing places along the Caribbean coastal shoreline of Colombia and analyzed for total mercury (T-Hg) in order to establish the impact of mercury-polluted sediments in Cartagena bay on the ecosystem. Hair T-Hg in inhabitants varied between 0.1 and 21.8 microg/g, with average and median of 1.52 microg/g and 1.1 microg/g, respectively. Differences between sampling locations were significant (P<0.01) and median values decreased in the order: Caño del Oro (1.5 microg/g)

Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Baldiris-Avila, Rosa; Güette-Fernández, Jorge; Magallanes-Carreazo, Elizabeth; Vanegas-Ramírez, Lenis; Kunihiko, Nakamura

2008-05-01

331

Presence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in commercial laying hens diagnosed with Fowl Typhoid Disease in Colombia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: A severe outbreak of salmonellosis in commercial brown table egg layers first occurred in Colombia in 2006. From 2008 to 2012, 35 samples collected from commercial layers farms in the states of Cundinamarca, Santander, Bolivar and San Andres, were positive to Salmonella enterica. Salmonella (S) wa...

332

A new giant species of Deltochilum subgenus Deltohyboma (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae) from Colombia, with notes on D. spinipes Paulian, 1938.  

PubMed

Deltochilum (Deltohyboma) gigante sp. nov., from Parque Nacional Las Cuevas de los Guácharos, Huila, Colombia is described based on differences in external and genital morphology. Its diagnostic characters are provided and illustrated. Lectotype and paralectotypes for D. spinipes, a close relative to the new species, are designated. PMID:24871007

Silva, Fernando A B; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

2014-01-01

333

An Educational Revolution to Support Change in the Classroom: Colombia and the Educational Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries strive to strengthen their educational institutions to meet the challenges of the economic and social demands of globalization, tension often arises between providing more access to traditional public education and reforming the quality of the education provided. With its Revolucion Educativa, Colombia offers an interesting…

Light, Daniel; Manso, Micaela; Noguera, Teresa

2009-01-01

334

Oportunidades, desafíos y barreras de la movilidad laboral en Colombia: reflexiones para la población en pobreza extrema y moderada  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este documento se estudian los flujos y determinantes de la movilidad laboral en Colombia, haciendo énfasis en la población en pobreza extrema y moderada. Con base en la información de las Encuestas de Hogares para los años 1995, 2000 y 2006 se calculan matrices de transición entre diferentes ocupaciones (asalariado formal, asalariado informal, cuenta propia y empleador). Los resultados

Mauricio Santa María S; Carlos Felipe Prada L; Ana Virginia Mujica P

2009-01-01

335

7 Small Carnivore Conservation, Vol. 44: 713, June 2011 Research priorities for the small carnivores of Colombia  

E-print Network

7 Small Carnivore Conservation, Vol. 44: 7­13, June 2011 Research priorities for the small carnivores of Colombia José F. GONZÁLEZ-MAYA1,2 , Amancay A. CEPEDA1,3 , Jerrold L. BELANT4 , Diego A. ZÁRRATE- CHARRY1 , Sergio A. BALAGUERA-REINA1 and AbelardoRODRÍGUEZ-BOLA�OS5 Abstract Small carnivores

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

336

SEISMICITY, FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS, DEPTH OF FAULTING, AND ACTIVE TECTONICS OF THE ANDES OF PERU, ECUADOR, AND SOUTHERN COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracontinental seismicity of the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and southern Colombia is concentrated along the easternmost flank of the Cordillera beneath the western margin of the sub-Andes. The focal depths and fault plane solutions of the largest events were constrained by comparing the observed long-period P waves with synthetic waveforms. In general, the fault plane solutions show reverse faulting

Gerardo Suárez; Peter Molnar; B. Clark Burchfiel

1983-01-01

337

Are segment boundaries of subduction earthquakes structurally controlled? Evidences from the Ecuador-Colombia 20th century earthquake sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great subduction earthquakes nucleate along the seismogenic zone, a shallow portion of the plate-boundary interface. The mechanical factors that control the lateral limits of the rupture zones are yet poorly understood. In Northern Ecuador-SW Colombia, the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South America plate has produced one of the best examples of variable rupture behavior. In 1906, the

J.-Y. Collot; B. Marcaillou; F. Sage; M.-A. Gutscher; P. Charvis; F. Michaud

2003-01-01

338

Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

339

New pelomedusoid turtles from the late Palaeocene Cerrejón Formation of Colombia and their implications for phylogeny and body size evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelomedusoides comprises five moderate-sized extant genera with an entirely Southern Hemisphere distribution, but the fossil record of these turtles reveals a great diversity of extinct taxa, documents several instances of gigantism, and indicates a complex palaeobiogeographical history for the clade. Here, we report new pelomedusoid turtle fossils from the late Palaeocene Cerrejón Formation of Colombia. The most complete of these

Edwin A. Cadena; Daniel T. Ksepka; Carlos A. Jaramillo; Jonathan I. Bloch

2012-01-01

340

Historia del IAC PRIMERAS EXPEDICIONES  

E-print Network

Astrofísica de Canarias - el Observatorio del Teide, en Tenerife,y el Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos a esta conclusión después de observar a diversos niveles en Tenerife, desde el mar hasta la montaña de Tenerife que propuso la creación de un observatorio internacional en la Montaña de Guajara. #12;ECLIPSE DE

341

HIV testing among MSM in Bogotá, Colombia: the role of structural and individual characteristics.  

PubMed

This study used mixed methods to examine characteristics related to HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá, Colombia. A sample of 890 MSM responded to a computerized quantitative survey. Follow-up qualitative data included 20 in-depth interviews with MSM and 12 key informant interviews. Hierarchical logistic set regression indicated that sequential sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, risk appraisal, and social context each added to the explanation of HIV testing. Follow-up logistic regression showed that individuals who were older, had higher income, paid for their own insurance, had had a sexually transmitted infection, knew more people living with HIV, and had greater social support were more likely to have been tested for HIV at least once. Qualitative findings provided details of personal and structural barriers to testing, as well as inter-relationships among these factors. Recommendations to increase HIV testing among Colombian MSM are offered. PMID:25068180

Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J; del Río González, Ana Maria; Romero, Rodrigo A Aguayo; Pérez, Carolin

2014-08-01

342

Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice. PMID:22802436

Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

2012-01-01

343

Avian tuberculosis of zoonotic importance at a zoo on the Bogotá Andean plateau (Sabana), Colombia.  

PubMed

Given that exposure to captive wild animals at circuses or zoos can be a source of zoonotic infection, a case and control study was carried out with a collection of exotic fowl at a zoo in Bogotá, Colombia. The presence of Mycobacterium avium-II was directly related to the death of birds kept in the original enclosure, and of 50% of a group of sentinel birds. Failure to detect the organism in a control group of birds outside the enclosure indicated that the infection was limited to the original enclosed area. We demonstrated that M. gordonae-IV was disseminated in all organs from 1 bird with macroscopic granulomatous lesion, a finding which has not been reported previously. We emphasize the importance of establishing handling norms to reduce the risk of zoonotic transmission. PMID:19881922

Silva, Angela del Pilar; Leon, Clara Inés; Guerrero, Martha Inírida; Neira, Rafael; Arias, Leonardo; Rodriguez, German

2009-08-01

344

[Malaria in the triple border region between Brazil, Colombia and Peru].  

PubMed

This article aims to analyze the malaria surveillance situation on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. This was a qualitative study using questionnaires in the border towns in 2011. The results were analyzed with the SWOT matrix methodology, pointing to significant differences between the malaria surveillance systems along the border. Weaknesses included lack of linkage between actors, lack of trained personnel, high turnover in teams, and lack of malaria specialists in the local hospitals. The study also showed lack of knowledge on malaria and its prevention in the local population. The strengths are the inclusion of new institutional actors, improvement of professional training, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and possibilities for complementary action between surveillance systems through cooperation between health teams on the border. Malaria control can only be successful if the region is dealt with as a whole. PMID:24356695

Peiter, Paulo César; Franco, Vivian da Cruz; Gracie, Renata; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia

2013-12-01

345

HIV testing among MSM in Bogotá, Colombia: The role of structural and individual characteristics  

PubMed Central

This study used mixed methods to examine characteristics related to HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá, Colombia. A sample of 890 MSM responded to a computerized quantitative survey. Follow-up qualitative data included 20 in-depth interviews with MSM and 12 key informant interviews. Hierarchical logistic set regression indicated that sequential sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, risk appraisal, and social context each added to the explanation of HIV testing. Follow-up logistic regression showed that individuals who were older, had higher income, paid for their own insurance, had had a sexually transmitted infection, knew more people living with HIV, and had greater social support were more likely to have been tested for HIV at least once. Qualitative findings provided details of personal and structural barriers to testing, as well as interrelationships among these factors. Recommendations to increase HIV testing among Colombian MSM are offered. PMID:25068180

Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.; del Río González, Ana Maria; Romero, Rodrigo A. Aguayo; Pérez, Carolin

2014-01-01

346

Comparison of methods to obtain ash from coal of the Southwest of Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method for concentration of mineral matter at low temperature (about 250 °C), called Low Temperature Ash (LTA) was applied to a sample of coal from the mine "Las Mercedes" located in Colombia southwestern. This method provides better information about the content of mineral matter in natural coal (NC), removing the organic matter more efficiently without significant transformations of mineral phases present in that coal. These results were observed through Mössbauer spectra and X-ray patterns taken from samples of NC, (LTA) and the conventional method of High Temperature Ash (HTA). The results show that the LTA process provides more representative data of the mineral phases for natural coal than that using the conventional HTA process.

Medina, G.; Tabares, J. A.; Alcazar, G. A. Pérez; Barraza, J. M.

2014-01-01

347

Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.  

PubMed Central

The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection. PMID:8348926

Cadavid, D.; Restrepo, A.

1993-01-01

348

Abrupt climate changes in northwestern Colombia during the Lateglacial and Holocene transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution pollen/spores records from Paramo de Frontino (6, 29N, 76, 6W) and Paramo de Belmira (6,42'N, 75,40'W) in Colombia (Velásquez C. and H. Hooghiemstra, Paleobotany, 2012 in press; Velásquez C., et al., in preparation) spanning 17300 and 34000 cal yr BP; are studied for abrupt climatic change and compared with a La Cocha diatom record (Gonzalez, Z, et al., 2012), Frontino and Cariaco Basin (offshore Venezuela) titanium records and a Cariaco sea surface temperatures record (Gorin, G., et al, in preparation; Haug, et al., 2001; Lea D., et al., 2003; respectively); in reference to detected vegetation and climate variations. The most remarkable events occurred at 8200, 9300, 10400, 12000, 13500, 14.5-14.7, 16.2 and 21.4 cal yr BP. Low frequency cycles of 1500-2500 yr are present along the records suggesting that the North Atlantic Bond Cycles are also registered in northwestern South American terrestrial records. Some of these changes were dry while others wet, showing that both patterns "Cold poles, dry tropics" and "Cold poles, wet tropics" can be expressed. It was also found that the estimated temperatures from Paramo de Frontino (pollen based) and sea surface temperatures in Cariaco followed a similar trend during the the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. However, in the case of moisture, the Titanium record (indicative of rainfall) from the Cariaco Basin, the aquatic vegetation pollen and titanium records from Paramo de Frontino and diatoms record from La Cocha lake, showed a clear antiphase behavior during the same periods. Position and shape of Intertropical Convergence Zone are postulated as responsible for this variation. Keywords: palinology, Intertropical Convergence Zone, titanium, Colombia, climatic and vegetation changes.

Velasquez Ruiz, C.

2013-05-01

349

Phylogenetic history demonstrates two different lineages of dengue type 1 virus in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue Fever is one of the most important viral re-emergent diseases affecting about 50 million people around the world especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In Colombia, the virus was first detected in the earliest 70's when the disease became a major public health concern. Since then, all four serotypes of the virus have been reported. Although most of the huge outbreaks reported in this country have involved dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1), there are not studies about its origin, genetic diversity and distribution. Results We used 224 bp corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of envelope (E) gene from 74 Colombian isolates in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate time divergences. Analyzed DENV-1 Colombian isolates belonged to the formerly defined genotype V. Only one virus isolate was clasified in the genotype I, likely representing a sole introduction that did not spread. The oldest strains were closely related to those detected for the first time in America in 1977 from the Caribbean and were detected for two years until their disappearance about six years later. Around 1987, a split up generated 2 lineages that have been evolving separately, although not major aminoacid changes in the analyzed region were found. Conclusion DENV-1 has been circulating since 1978 in Colombia. Yet, the phylogenetic relationships between strains isolated along the covered period of time suggests that viral strains detected in some years, although belonging to the same genotype V, have different recent origins corresponding to multiple re-introduction events of viral strains that were circulating in neighbor countries. Viral strains used in the present study did not form a monophyletic group, which is evidence of a polyphyletic origin. We report the rapid spread patterns and high evolution rate of the different DENV-1 lineages. PMID:20836894

2010-01-01

350

[Vertical stratification of epiphytic bryophytes found on Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae) from boyacá, Colombia].  

PubMed

Oak forest represents an ecologically important plant formation in Colombia, partly due to the large amount of epiphyte flora that harbors, especially non-vascular plants which have been poorly studied in Colombia. One of the biggest oak forests in the country is the one found in the Parque Natural Municipal "Robledales de Tipacoque" (PNMRT), in Boyacá, municipality of Tipacoque. The epiphyte bryoflora was evaluated in Q. humboldtii, using canopy climbing techniques and dividing the trees (25 individuals sampled) each into five layers (base, trunk, inner canopy, middle and outer canopy). A total of 365 samples were collected: 29% liveworts and 71% mosses. Hepatics represented 10 families, 16 genera and 26 species; mosses 11 families, 26 genera and 49 species. Considering the tree layers, the most diverse one was the base with 51 species, followed by the trunk with 43; in the canopy, the inner canopy was found the most diverse with 28 species, and was followed by the middle canopy with 18, and the outer canopy with 15. A species similarity index shows that the trunk and the middle canopy were the most closely related (0.42) in terms of species composition. The results showed that non-vascular plants were mostly found in lower layers (base and trunk), where the diversity was greater, richer (species number), and this might be caused by the microclimatic conditions in these places, such as higher humidity, lower light intensity and shade. Thus, some species are considered shade epiphytes (ombrophiles) because they are unique to these areas, like Bazzania gracilis and Taxilejeunea pterigonia, among others. Likewise, Jungermannia sp. is considered a sun epiphyte (heliophilous) because it is found only in the outer canopy. We concluded that Q. humboldtii could be considered as a potential host for the conservation of non-vascular epiphytes in Colombian forests. PMID:25102653

Gil Novoa, Jorge Enrique; Morales Puentes, María Eugenia

2014-06-01

351

Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinomas cases from Colombia.  

PubMed

Background and aim. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer diagnosed worldwide. Deregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has been associated with the development of HCC in a substantial number of cases in Europe and far less in Asia. Nothing is known about this pathway in HCC cases from South America. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of mutations in beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) and the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in HCC cases from Colombia. Material and methods. We determine by direct sequencing the frequency of mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 gene and by immunohistochemistry the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in 54 samples of HCC obtained from three pathology units in Bogota and Medellin cities. Results. Only three HCC cases (5.6%) were found mutated at residues (G34E, S45P, P44S, T41I) important for phosphorylation and ubiquitination of beta-catenin protein. Strikingly, nuclear or cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin, hallmark of Wnt pathway activation, was found in 42.6% HCC cases (23/54). Interestingly, beta-catenin accumulation was significantly more frequent in young patients and hepatitis B virus-related HCC. Conclusions. Although, CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations are not frequent in HCC from Colombian patients, our findings indicate that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in 42.6% of HCC samples. Furthermore, Wnt signaling was demonstrated in HCC cases associated of HBV infection, one of the most important HCC risk factors in Colombia. PMID:25536643

Suarez M, Iris; Uribe, Diego; Jaramillo, Carlos M; Osorio, German; Perez, Juan C; Lopez, Rocio; Hoyos, Sergio; Hainaut, Pierre; Pineau, Pascal; Navas, Maria-C

2015-01-01

352

[Colorectal cancer incidence, mortality and survival in Cali, Colombia, 1962-2012].  

PubMed

Objective. To study the colorectal cancer (CRC) behavior in Cali, Colombia, during the 1963-2012 period using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Materials and methods. An ecological time series analysis to study the CRC incidence (1962-2007) and mortality (1984-2012) rate trends; and a survival analysis of CRC cases registered in Cali between 1995 and 2004 were conducted. The age-standardized temporal trend of incidence (I-ASR) and mortality (M-ASR) rates were studied using an annual percent change (APC). The 5-year relative survival was estimated and a multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results. During the 1962-2007 period, CRC TTIR increased in men and women living in Cali [APC= 2.6 (95% CI 2.2-3.0) and APC= 2.2% (95% CI 1.8-2.7), respectively]. In the 1984-2012 period, the TTMR remained stable in women but increased in men in all age groups [APC= 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-2.8)]. The 5-year relative survival was independent of sex and increased from 29.7% in 1995-1999 to 39.8% in 2000-2004. The risk of dying from CRC was higher in people of lower socio-economic status (SES) vs higher SES [HR= 2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.6)], among people older than 70 years of age vs younger than 50 years [HR= 2.4 (95% CI: 1.9-2.9)], and for the 1995-1999 period vs 2000-2004 period [HR= 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.7)]. Conclusion. CRC is beginning to take a prominent place among the most important cancers in Cali, Colombia. PMID:25604292

Armando, Cortés; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Clín, Pat; García, Luz Stella; Collazos, Paola

2014-10-01

353

Influenza-like illness sentinel surveillance in one hospital in Medellin, Colombia. 2007–2012  

PubMed Central

Background The city of Medellin in Colombia has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). As part of an ongoing collaboration, we conducted an epidemiologic surveillance for influenza and other respiratory viruses. It described the influenza strains that were circulating in the region along with their distribution over time, and performing molecular characterization to some of those strains. This will contribute to the knowledge of local and national epidemiology. Objectives To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one General hospital in Medelllin, Colombia. Results From January 2007 to December 2012, a total of 2039 participants were enrolled. Among them, 1120 (54·9%) were male and 1364 (69%) were under the age of five. Only 124 (6%) were older than the age of 15. From all 2039 participants, 1040 samples were diagnosed by either isolation or RT-PCR. One or more respiratory viruses were found in 737 (36%) participants. Of those, 426 (57·8%) got influenza A or B. Adenoviral and parainfluenza infections represented 19·1% and 14·9% of viral infections, respectively. Influenza A was detected almost throughout the whole year except for the first quarter of 2010, right after the 2009 influenza A pandemic. Influenza B was detected in 2008, 2010, and 2012 with no pattern detected. During 2008 and 2010, both types circulated in about the same proportion. Unusually, in many months of 2012, the proportion of influenza B infections was higher than influenza A (ranging between 30% and 42%). The higher proportion of adenovirus was mainly detected in the last quarter of years 2007 and 2010. Adenoviral cases are more frequent in participants under the age of four. Conclusions The phylogenetic analysis of influenza viruses shows that only in the case of influenza A/H1N1, the circulating strains totally coincide with the vaccine strains each year. PMID:25100179

Arango, Ana Eugenia; Jaramillo, Sergio; Perez, Juan; Ampuero, Julia S; Espinal, David; Donado, Jorge; Felices, Vidal; Garcia, Josefina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto

2015-01-01

354

Temephos Resistance in Aedes aegypti in Colombia Compromises Dengue Vector Control  

PubMed Central

Background Control and prevention of dengue relies heavily on the application of insecticides to control dengue vector mosquitoes. In Colombia, application of the larvicide temephos to the aquatic breeding sites of Aedes aegypti is a key part of the dengue control strategy. Resistance to temephos was recently detected in the dengue-endemic city of Cucuta, leading to questions about its efficacy as a control tool. Here, we characterize the underlying mechanisms and estimate the operational impact of this resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings Larval bioassays of Ae. aegypti larvae from Cucuta determined the temephos LC50 to be 0.066 ppm (95% CI 0.06–0.074), approximately 15× higher than the value obtained from a susceptible laboratory colony. The efficacy of the field dose of temephos at killing this resistant Cucuta population was greatly reduced, with mortality rates <80% two weeks after application and <50% after 4 weeks. Neither biochemical assays nor partial sequencing of the ace-1 gene implicated target site resistance as the primary resistance mechanism. Synergism assays and microarray analysis suggested that metabolic mechanisms were most likely responsible for the temephos resistance. Interestingly, although the greatest synergism was observed with the carboxylesterase inhibitor, DEF, the primary candidate genes from the microarray analysis, and confirmed by quantitative PCR, were cytochrome P450 oxidases, notably CYP6N12, CYP6F3 and CYP6M11. Conclusions/Significance In Colombia, resistance to temephos in Ae. aegypti compromises the duration of its effect as a vector control tool. Several candidate genes potentially responsible for metabolic resistance to temephos were identified. Given the limited number of insecticides that are approved for vector control, future chemical-based control strategies should take into account the mechanisms underlying the resistance to discern which insecticides would likely lead to the greatest control efficacy while minimizing further selection of resistant phenotypes. PMID:24069492

Grisales, Nelson; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Gomez, Santiago; Fonseca-Gonzalez, Idalyd; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey

2013-01-01

355

Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are potential resources not exploitable now.

Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; Hector; Alvarez, A.

1970-01-01

356

Frequency of tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in HIV infected patients from Bogota, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species in the HIV-infected patient population in Colombia was uncertain despite some pilot studies. We determined the frequency of isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and of non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species in diverse body fluids of HIV-infected patients in Bogota, Colombia. Methods Patients who attended the three major HIV/AIDS healthcare centres in Bogota were prospectively studied over a six month period. A total of 286 patients were enrolled, 20% of them were hospitalized at some point during the study. Sixty four percent (64%) were classified as stage C, 25% as stage B, and 11% as stage A (CDC staging system, 1993). A total of 1,622 clinical samples (mostly paired samples of blood, sputum, stool, and urine) were processed for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain and culture. Results Overall 43 of 1,622 cultures (2.6%) were positive for mycobacteria. Twenty-two sputum samples were positive. Four patients were diagnosed with M. tuberculosis (1.4%). All isolates of M. tuberculosis were sensitive to common anti-tuberculous drugs. M. avium was isolated in thirteen patients (4.5%), but only in three of them the cultures originated from blood. The other isolates were obtained from stool, urine or sputum samples. In three cases, direct AFB smears of blood were positive. Two patients presented simultaneously with M. tuberculosis and M. avium. Conclusions Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium infections are frequent in HIV infected patients in Bogota. The diagnostic sensitivity for infection with tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria can be increased when diverse body fluids are processed from each patient. PMID:11722797

Murcia-Aranguren, Martha I; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Alvarado, Fernando S; Bustillo, José G; de Mendivelson, Ellen; Gómez, Bertha; León, Clara I; Triana, William A; Vargas, Erwing A; Rodríguez, Edgar

2001-01-01

357

Land Cover Change in Colombia: Surprising Forest Recovery Trends between 2001 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m) products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird) in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km2) while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km2), which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. Conclusions The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo) and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions) should be considered for new protected areas. PMID:22952816

Sánchez-Cuervo, Ana María; Aide, T. Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L.; Etter, Andrés

2012-01-01

358

UB at TREC-13: Genomics Track Miguel E. Ruiz1  

E-print Network

participated in the Genomics track. Our Adhoc retrieval work used the statistical language model system TAPIR a number of IR tasks and supports different IR models including language models. TAPIR was developed in house by M Srikanth. TAPIR has been used previously in TREC-12 on the HARD track [3] and we thought

Ruiz, Miguel E.

359

Radiografía Socio-Económica del Caribe Colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente apéndice busca mostrar una radiografía de la realidad socioeconómica de la Región Caribe, a través de la utilización de gráficos y cuadros estadísticos, acompañados en ocasiones de textos explicativos. El documento se organizó en nueve partes: La primera está referida a la demografía de la Costa Caribe y de las otras regiones de Colombia. La segunda parte está

Joaquin Villoria de la Hoz; María Modesta Aguilera

1998-01-01

360

Mejoramiento del Curriculo (Improving the Curriculum).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document states the general philosophy behind curriculum planning and improvement in Colombia. Topics covered are recognized educational needs and objectives, the role of the school, curriculum structure and development, teacher and student roles, factors that need to be considered for educational improvement, and steps for carrying out that…

Castro C., Maria Margarita

361

Gestin del agua en producciones  

E-print Network

160 cm 220cm PER 240cm Gestión del agua en producciones de secano #12;#12;Sitio Prof. cm pH CE mmoh 31 oct s/napa soja Maíz Girasol Uso del agua - PER ­ sección control- relación con precipitaciones: Escenario lluvia alta -180,0 -160,0 -140,0 -120,0 -100,0 -80,0 -60,0 -40,0 -20,0 0,0 20/07/2012 19

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

362

Discriminación étnica e ingresos en la Isla de San Andrés, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: A partir de un análisis de características observables, este documento busca determinar la posible existencia de una brecha en los ingresos entre la población raizal y no raizal en San Andrés Isla. Para ello, se utilizan los datos obtenidos de la encuesta SISBEN II del año 2004, elaborada por el Departamento Nacional de Planeación (DNP). La estrategia metodológica consiste

Javier Yabrudy

2011-01-01

363

The final phase of tropical lowland conditions in the axial zone of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia: Evidence from three palynological records  

E-print Network

of Colombia: Evidence from three palynological records D. Ochoa a,b,*, C. Hoorn c , C. Jaramillo a , G. Bayona and Magdalena Valley. Based on palynological data, we conclude that the upper Usme Formation was deposited

Bermingham, Eldredge

364

The Earnings Impact of Training Duration in a Developing Country. An Ordered Probit Selection Model of Colombia's "Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje" (SENA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates the earnings impact of an extensive inservice training program in the developing world, Colombia's Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje (SENA), through a comparison of nongraduates' and graduates' earnings profiles. (JOW)

Jimenez, Emmanuel; Kugler, Bernardo

1987-01-01

365

A Sub-category Disaggregated Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory for the Bogota Region, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several international organizations, such as UNDP and UNEP, have recently recognized the importance of empowering sub-national decision levels on climatic governance according to the subsidiarity principle. Regional and municipal authorities are directly responsible for land use management and for regulating economic sectors that emit greenhouse gases (GHG) and are vulnerable to climate change. Sub-national authorities are also closer to the population, which make them better suited for educating the public and for achieving commitment among stakeholders. This investigation was developed within the frame of the Regional Integrated Program on Climate Change for the Cundinamarca-Bogota Region (PRICC), an initiative aimed at incorporating the climate dimension into the regional and local decision making. The region composed by Bogota and its nearest, semi-rural area of influence (Province of Cundinamarca) is the most important population and economic center of Colombia. Our investigation serves two purposes: a) to establish methodologies for estimating regional GHG emissions appropriate to the Colombian context, and b) to disaggregate GHG emissions by economic sector as a mitigation decision-making tool. GHG emissions were calculated using IPCC 1996 - Tier 1 methodologies, as there are no regional- or country-specific emission factors available for Colombia. Top-Down (TD) methodologies, based on national and regional energy use intensity, per capita consumption and fertilizer use, were developed and applied to estimate activities for following categories: fuel use in industrial, commercial and residential sectors (excepting NG and LPG), use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) and substitutes, and fertilizer use (for total emissions of agricultural soils). The emissions from the remaining 22 categories were calculated using Bottom-Up (BU) methodologies given the availability of regional information. The total GHG emissions in the Cundinamarca-Bogota Region on 2008 are estimated at 22.96±1.25 (1-sigma) Tg of CO2 equivalent (10.46±0.93 Tg CO2-e from Cundinamarca and 12.51±0.83 Tg CO2-eq from Bogota). 63% of Cundinamarca's GHG emissions are due to road transportation, agricultural soil management, enteric fermentation and fuel use in the cement industry. The road transportation and waste disposal sectors share 62% of emissions in Bogota. These activity sectors are considered to be the main GHG mitigation assessment targets. The calculated per capita emissions, 1.7 ton CO2-eq/hab-year for Bogota and 4.4 ton CO2-eq/hab-year for Cundinamarca (excluding emissions due to land-use change), do not reflect the fact that Cundinamarca provides goods and services to the city of Bogota. A deeper analysis is thus required to quantitatively account for Bogota's urban metabolism, including GHG emissions associated with consumption patterns. It is expected that the developed and applied methodologies, and the systematic compilation of the gathered information, will facilitate the development of GHG inventories for other regions of Colombia.

Pulido-Guio, A. D.; Rojas, A. M.; Ossma, L. J.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.

2012-12-01

366

SUPUESTOS IMPLÍCITOS EN LA UTILIZACIÓN DEL CAPITAL ASSETS PRICING MODEL – CAPM PARA EL CÁLCULO DEL COSTO DEL CAPITAL PROPIO – EQUITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo evidencia los supuestos y problemas que implica la utilización del Capital Assets Pricing Model– CAPM en el cálculo del costo del capital propio de las empresas – Equity, haciendo énfasis en la diferencia que existe entre la forma como toman sus decisiones de inversión quienes lo hacen en el mercado de valores y quienes lo hacen en una

Carlos Arturo Gómez Restrepo; Mario García Molina

2011-01-01

367

Instantánea del cáncer de seno (mama)  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de seno (mama); así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

368

Instantánea del cáncer de cuello uterino  

Cancer.gov

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de cuello uterino; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

369

A new colorful species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central in Colombia .  

PubMed

We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid forests on the eastern flank of the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia (6º 23' 19.3554" N, 75º 1' 24.0594" W; ca. 1150 m.a.s.l.). Pristimantis jaguensis sp. nov. is characterized by an extraordinary variation in color and is readily distinguished from congeneric species by lacking nuptial pads, discoidal fold and conical calcar tubercles; flanks and belly white to cream without blotches as well as iris yellow ocher to copper with thick brown reticulation and cream sclera. Molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered the new species in a clade with species mostly distributed in Ecuador. Our finding suggests that new taxa can still be discovered in the Middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia despite the extensive sampling this region has received during the last decades.  PMID:25543734

Rivera-Prieto, Diego A; Rivera-Correa, Mauricio; Daza, Juan M

2014-01-01

370

Malaria control reinvented: health sector reform and strategy development in Colombia.  

PubMed

The consequences of health sector reforms on control of malaria were analysed using Colombia as an example. One of the most complex health sector reform programmes in Latin America took place in the 1990s; it included transferring the vertical vector-borne disease control (VBDC) programme into health systems at state and district levels. A series of studies was undertaken in 1998-2000 at the national level (Ministry of Health Study), at the state level (Departamento Study) and at the health district level (District Study) using formal and informal interviews among control staff and document analysis as data collection tools. A government-financed national training programme for VBDC staff - which included direct observation of control operations - was also used to analyse health workers' performance in the postreform period (longitudinal study). The results showed that some shortcomings of the old vertical system, such as the negative aspects of trade union activity, have not been overcome while some positive aspects of the old system, such as capacity building, operational planning and supervision have been lost. This has contributed to a decrease in control activity which, in turn, has been associated with more malaria cases. Malaria control had to be reinvented at a much larger scale than anticipated by the reformers caused by a whole series of problems: complex financing of public health interventions in the new system, massive staff reductions, the difficulty of gaining access to district and state budgets, redefining entire organizations and - in addition to the reforms - introducing alternative strategies based on insecticide-treated materials and the growth of areas of general insecurity in many parts of Colombia itself. However, positive signs in the transformed system include: the strengthening of central control staff (albeit insufficient in numbers) when transferred from the Ministry of Health to the National Institute of Health, the opportunities offered by the Basic Health Plan (PAB) for new planning initiatives and intersectoral co-operation and the integration of malaria diagnosis and treatment into the general health services (associated with a decrease of malaria mortality). The potentials of the new system have not yet been fully exploited: capacity building, communication and management skills need to be improved and it require guidance from the national level. PMID:12000655

Kroeger, Axel; Ordoñez-Gonzalez, José; Aviña, Ana Isabel

2002-05-01

371

[Sporogenesis and spores of Equisetum bogotense (Equisetaceae) from mountain areas of Colombia].  

PubMed

Studies on some reproductive traits in Equisetum species are scarce and valuable to understand species distribution. Therefore, a detailed study of the sporogenesis process and spore development in E. bogotense is presented, with an analysis of the main events during meiosis, maturation of spores, spore wall ultrastructure, orbicules and elaters. Specimens were collected from 500 to 4500 m in Cauca, Colombia. Strobili at different maturation stages were fixed, dehydrated, embedded in resin, and ultra-microtome obtained sections were stained with Toluidine blue. Observations were made with optical microscopy with differential interference contrast illumination technique (DIC), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). Ultrathin sections (70-80 microm) for TEM observations were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate; while samples for SEM observations, were fixed, dehydrated in 2.2-dimethoxypropane and dried at critical point as in standard methods. Strobili have numerous mature sporangiophores, each one with a peltate structure, the scutellum, bearing five-six sessile sporangia attached to the axis of strobilus by the manubrium. Immature sporocytes (spore mother cells) are tightly packed within the young sporangia. The sporocytes quickly undergo meiosis, by passing the stage of archesporium and give origin to tetrads of spores. The tapetum loses histological integrity during early stages of sporogenesis, intrudes as a plasmodial mass into the cavity of the sporangium, partially surrounding premeiotic sporocytes, and then, tetrads and adult spores. The tapetum disintegrates towards the end of the sporogenesis, leaving spores free within the sporangial cavity. Spores present several cytological changes that allow them to achieve greater size and increase the number of plastids, before reaching the adult stage. Sporoderm includes three layers external to the cytoplasmic membrane of the spore cell, and they are pseudoendospore, exospore and perispore. Viewed with SEM, the exospore is smooth to rugulate, with micro perforations, while the perispore is muriform, rugate, with narrow, delicate, discontinuous, randomly distributed folds delimiting incomplete, irregular areolae, externally covered by of different size, densely distributed orbicules. These orbicules are also found all over the external face and margins of the elaters, while the internal face is smooth and lack orbicules. Viewed with TEM, the exospore is a thick layer of fine granular material, while perispore is a thinner layer of dense, separate orbicules. The elaters are composed by two layers of fibrillar material: an inner layer with longitudinally oriented fibrils and an outer, thicker and less dense layer with fibrils transversely fibrils and abundant, external orbicules. It is suggested that the processes of ontogeny and characters of the sporoderm are relatively constant in Equisetum; however, sporogenesis in E. bogotense is synchronous and this condition has been observed so far only in E. giganteum, a tropical genus also found in Colombia. PMID:24027908

Rincón-Baron, Edgar Javier; Torres, Gerardo Andrés; Rolleri, Cristina Hilda

2013-09-01

372

The 19 January 1995 Tauramena (Colombia) earthquake: geometry and stress regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tauramena (Colombia) earthquake, Mw=6.5, occurred on January 19, 1995, in the Andean Eastern Cordillera foothill region, the so-called Piedemonte Llanero. The Harvard CMT focal mechanism indicates an almost pure reverse fault rupture. There was no surface faulting associated with this earthquake. This event was located at the northern tip of a zone, about 90 km in length, with relatively low microseismic activity along the central segment of the Piedemonte Llanero in Colombia. A field expedition to the epicentral area was organized and a temporary portable network was installed for 1 month to register aftershock activity. More than 800 events were recorded during this period. A subset of the best located aftershocks (319 events) shows epicenters extended over an area of 800 km 2, and suggests two antithetic planes on which most of the activity was concentrated. The main event and a subset of 41 aftershocks occurred before the installation of the portable network but were recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network and were relocated. They show an epicentral distribution similar to that of the subsequent events. Based on geologic information, aftershock locations, and focal mechanisms, we built a model for the Tauramena earthquake. Our results indicate that the Tauramena earthquake was produced by reverse faulting along a steep-dipping plane (dip ˜50°NW) associated with the Guaicaramo System. The fault plane cuts through basement rocks and folded Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Distribution of aftershocks in depth, suggesting the presence of splay reverse faults and a backthrust, is consistent with the hypothesis that the Guaicaramo Fault System was an old Mesozoic normal fault, reactivated during the Andean compression as a reverse fault. Stress tensor inversion of P-wave first motion polarities was performed, and focal mechanisms for the best recorded aftershocks were calculated. We found a well-defined sub-horizontal principal compression axis oriented in the NW-SE direction. The predominant reverse faulting for the Tauramena earthquake and the stability of ?1 suggest that the tectonics in the central segment of the Eastern Cordillera Frontal Fault System is dominated by a compressive regime orthogonal to the cordillera, the controlling processes being probably the Caribbean subduction and the Chocó Block collision.

Dimate, Cristina; Rivera, Luis; Taboada, Alfredo; Delouis, Bertrand; Osorio, Alonso; Jimenez, Eduardo; Fuenzalida, Andres; Cisternas, Armando; Gomez, Isabel

2003-03-01

373

Assessing socioeconomic vulnerability to dengue fever in Cali, Colombia: statistical vs expert-based modeling  

PubMed Central

Background As a result of changes in climatic conditions and greater resistance to insecticides, many regions across the globe, including Colombia, have been facing a resurgence of vector-borne diseases, and dengue fever in particular. Timely information on both (1) the spatial distribution of the disease, and (2) prevailing vulnerabilities of the population are needed to adequately plan targeted preventive intervention. We propose a methodology for the spatial assessment of current socioeconomic vulnerabilities to dengue fever in Cali, a tropical urban environment of Colombia. Methods Based on a set of socioeconomic and demographic indicators derived from census data and ancillary geospatial datasets, we develop a spatial approach for both expert-based and purely statistical-based modeling of current vulnerability levels across 340 neighborhoods of the city using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results of both approaches are comparatively evaluated by means of spatial statistics. A web-based approach is proposed to facilitate the visualization and the dissemination of the output vulnerability index to the community. Results The statistical and the expert-based modeling approach exhibit a high concordance, globally, and spatially. The expert-based approach indicates a slightly higher vulnerability mean (0.53) and vulnerability median (0.56) across all neighborhoods, compared to the purely statistical approach (mean?=?0.48; median?=?0.49). Both approaches reveal that high values of vulnerability tend to cluster in the eastern, north-eastern, and western part of the city. These are poor neighborhoods with high percentages of young (i.e., < 15 years) and illiterate residents, as well as a high proportion of individuals being either unemployed or doing housework. Conclusions Both modeling approaches reveal similar outputs, indicating that in the absence of local expertise, statistical approaches could be used, with caution. By decomposing identified vulnerability “hotspots” into their underlying factors, our approach provides valuable information on both (1) the location of neighborhoods, and (2) vulnerability factors that should be given priority in the context of targeted intervention strategies. The results support decision makers to allocate resources in a manner that may reduce existing susceptibilities and strengthen resilience, and thus help to reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases. PMID:23945265

2013-01-01

374

Sexual and Reproductive Health for Young Adults in Colombia: Teleconsultation Using Mobile Devices  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual risk behaviors associated with poor information on sexuality have contributed to major public health problems in the area of sexual and reproductive health in teenagers and young adults in Colombia. Objective To report our experience with the use of DoctorChat Mobile to provide sexual education and information among university students in Bogota, Colombia, and knowledge about the sexual risk factors detected among them. Methods A mobile app that allows patients to ask about sexual and reproductive health issues was developed. Sexual and reproductive risk behaviors in a sample of young adults were measured before and after the use of the app through the validated survey Family Health International (FHI) Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS) for Use With Adults Between 15 and 49 Years. A nonprobabilistic convenience recruitment was undertaken through the study´s webpage. After completing the first survey, participants were allowed to download and use the app for a 6-month period (intervention), followed by completion of the same survey once again. For the inferential analysis, data was divided into 3 groups (dichotomous data, discrete quantitative data, and ordinal data) to compare the results of the questions between the first and the second survey. The study was carried out with a sample of university students between 18 and 29 years with access to mobile phones. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous. Results A total of 257 subjects met the selection criteria. The preintervention survey was answered by 232 subjects, and 127 of them fully answered the postintervention survey. In total, 54.3% (69/127) of the subjects completed the survey but did not use the app, leaving an effective population of 58 subjects for analysis. Of these subjects, 53% (31/58) were women and 47% (27/58) were men. The mean age was 21 years, ranging between 18 and 29 years. The differences between the answers from both surveys were not statistically significant. The main sexual risk behaviors identified in the population were homosexual intercourse, nonuse of condoms, sexual intercourse with nonregular and commercial partners, the use of psychoactive substances, and lack of knowledge on symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV transmission. Conclusions Although there were no differences between the pre- and postintervention results, the study revealed different risk behaviors among the participating subjects. These findings highlight the importance of promoting high-impact educational strategies on this matter and the importance of providing teenagers and young adults with easily accessible tools with reliable health information, regardless of their socioeconomic status. PMID:25263432

Ramirez, Daniel Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Saenz, Juan Pablo; Trujillo, Stephanie; Correal, Dario Ernesto; Fajardo, Roosevelt; Dominguez, Cristina

2014-01-01

375

Rafael Molina Bases del filtro de Kalman 1 Bases del filtro de Kalman  

E-print Network

Rafael Molina Bases del filtro de Kalman 1 Bases del filtro de Kalman Rafael Molina Soriano Depto Ciencias de la Computación e IA Universidad de Granada #12;Rafael Molina Bases del filtro de Kalman 2 Contenidos ! Introducción. ! El filtro de Kalman " Modelo del sistema " Modelo de medida " Formulación de la

Granada, Universidad de

376

Reglament d'organitzaci i funcionament del departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions  

E-print Network

Reglament d'organització i funcionament del departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions Acord departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions · Document proposta informat favorablement per la Comissió de/07/2014 Secretaria general 21 de juliol de 2014 #12;REGLAMENT D'ORGANITZACI� I FUNCIONAMENT DEL DEPARTAMENT DE TEORIA

Yannuzzi Sanchez, Marcelo

377

La evolución de la geografía y del trabajo del geógrafo en Rusia  

Microsoft Academic Search

La geografía rusa se fomentó, desde finales del siglo XIX, como una ciencia práctica en relación directa con el desarrollo económico del país. El trabajo del geógrafo, que evolucionó bajo la influencia de los avatares políticos, económicos y sociales, se centra sobre los estudios naturalistas y utilitaristas del espacio geográfico en el caso de la geografía física –área dominante en

Marina Frolova

2007-01-01

378

Residues of organochlorines in mallards and blue-winged teal collected in Colombia and Wisconsin, 1984–1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the seasonal concentrations of 12 organochlorine (OC) compounds in samples of breast muscle, associated skin, and subcutaneous fat of blue-winged teal (Anas discors) collected in Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia (1987–1988), and of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and blue-winged teal collected in Wisconsin (1984–1989). Although these species have similar feeding habits and overlapping breeding distributions, their winter ranges

J. E. Botero; M. W. Meyer; S. S. Hurley; D. H. Rusch

1996-01-01

379

Zircon UPb age of the Paramo Rico tonalite-granodiorite, Santander Massif (Cordillera Oriental, Colombia) and its geotectonic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first U-Pb data, which document the existence of early Mesozoic magmatism in the Santander Massif, within the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Zircon fractions separated from a tonalite and a granodiorite of the Paramo Rico intrusion yield crystallization ages of 205–210 Ma. Biotite K-Ar ages of other intrusions in this region range from 177 to 210 Ma, overlapping

W. Dorr; J. R Grösser; G. I Rodriguez; U Kramm

1995-01-01

380

Globally significant nesting of the leatherback turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea) on the Caribbean coast of Colombia and Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the results of extensive monitoring of leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nesting in the Gulf of Uraba, Colombia and the Caribbean coast of southern Panama. On 100km of coastline, we identified three important coastal stretches totalling 18.9km that hold 98.5–98.7% of nesting activity. We estimated a total number of nesting activities at all sites of 6254 (2006) and 7509

Juan Patino-Martinez; Adolfo Marco; Liliana Quiñones; Brendan Godley

2008-01-01

381

Long-term erosion and exhumation of the “Altiplano Antioqueño”, Northern Andes (Colombia) from apatite (U–Th)\\/He thermochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antioqueño Plateau (AP) in the northern Cordillera Central, Colombia, is the largest high elevation erosional surface in the Northern Andes. Apatite (U–Th)\\/He thermochronometry (AHe) of samples collected from two elevation profiles spanning ?2 km of exhumed crustal sections reveal the long-term erosional exhumation of the AP. Sample profiles exhibit AHe ages that increase with elevation from ca. 22 Ma (?760 m) at

Sergio A. Restrepo-Moreno; David A. Foster; Daniel F. Stockli; Luis N. Parra-Sánchez

2009-01-01

382

Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals hidden genetic diversity in captive populations of the threatened American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Identification of units within species worthy of separate management consideration is an important area within conservation. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) surveys can potentially contribute to this by identifying phylogenetic and population structure below the species level. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is broadly distributed throughout the Neotropics. Its numbers have been reduced severely with the species threatened throughout much of its distribution. In Colombia, the release of individuals from commercial captive populations has emerged as a possible conservation strategy that could contribute to species recovery. However, no studies have addressed levels of genetic differentiation or diversity within C. acutus in Colombia, thus complicating conservation and management decisions. Here, sequence variation was studied in mtDNA cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in three Colombian captive populations of C. acutus. Two distinct lineages were identified: C. acutus-I, corresponding to haplotypes from Colombia and closely related Central American haplotypes; and C. acutus-II, corresponding to all remaining haplotypes from Colombia. Comparison with findings from other studies indicates the presence of a single “northern” lineage (corresponding to C. acutus-I) distributed from North America (southern Florida), through Central America and into northern South America. The absence of C. acutus-II haplotypes from North and Central America indicates that the C. acutus-II lineage probably represents a separate South American lineage. There appears to be sufficient divergence between lineages to suggest that they could represent two distinct evolutionary units. We suggest that this differentiation needs to be recognized for conservation purposes because it clearly contributes to the overall genetic diversity of the species. All Colombian captive populations included in this study contained a mixture of representatives of both lineages. As such, we recommend against the use of captive-bred individuals for conservation strategies until further genetic information is available.

Bloor, Paul; Ibáñez, Carolina; Viloria-Lagares, Thomas A

2015-01-01

383

Paleostress evolution of the northern Andes (Eastern Cordillera of Colombia): Implications on plate kinematics of the South Caribbean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

New tectonic field data and paleostress determinations in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia enable us to identify stress regimes that prevailed in the northern Andes since Late Cretaceous times until present day. These regimes were characterized by an E-W to WSW-ENE active contraction from Late Cretaceous to late Paleocene. This direction subsequently changed to NW-SE and finally became WNW-ESE during

Martín Cortés; Jacques Angelier; Bernard Colletta

2005-01-01

384

Depositional environment of the Monserrate Formation: Palogrande, Cebu, and Dina-K fields, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, South America  

E-print Network

DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE MONSERRATE FORMATION: PALOGRANDE, CEBU, AND DINA-K FIELDS, UPPER MAGDALENA VALLEY, COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA A Thesis by CURTIS FRED GODDARD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University... and consists of interbedded sandstone and shale. Sediments were derived from quartz arenites of the Guayana shield and from the emerging Central Cordillera. The middle member, B, consists of sandstones, siltstones, and shales deposited in a transitional...

Goddard, Curtis Fred

2012-06-07

385

The quest for equity in Latin America: a comparative analysis of the health care reforms in Brazil and Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brazil and Colombia have pursued extensive reforms of their health care systems in the last couple of decades. The purported goals of such reforms were to improve access, increase efficiency and reduce health inequities. Notwithstanding their common goals, each country sought a very different pathway to achieve them. While Brazil attempted to reestablish a greater level of State control through a public national health system, Colombia embraced market competition under an employer-based social insurance scheme. This work thus aims to shed some light onto why they pursued divergent strategies and what that has meant in terms of health outcomes. Methods A critical review of the literature concerning equity frameworks, as well as the health care reforms in Brazil and Colombia was conducted. Then, the shortfall inequality values of crude mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and life expectancy for the period 1960-2005 were calculated for both countries. Subsequently, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed and controlled for possibly confounding factors. Results When controlling for the underlying historical time trend, both countries appear to have experienced a deceleration of the pace of improvements in the years following the reforms, for all the variables analyzed. In the case of Colombia, some of the previous gains in under-five mortality rate and crude mortality rate were, in fact, reversed. Conclusions Neither reform seems to have had a decisive positive impact on the health outcomes analyzed for the defined time period of this research. This, in turn, may be a consequence of both internal characteristics of the respective reforms and external factors beyond the direct control of health reformers. Among the internal characteristics: underfunding, unbridled decentralization and inequitable access to care seem to have been the main constraints. Conversely, international economic adversities, high levels of rural and urban violence, along with entrenched income inequalities seem to have accounted for the highest burden among external factors. PMID:22296659

2012-01-01

386

Multi-disciplinary evidence of the Holocene history of a cultivated floodplain area in the wetlands of northern Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   An environmental reconstruction of the last 10,000 14C years of a frequently flooded wetland ecosystem in the lower Magdalena valley in northern Colombia is presented, on the\\u000a basis of a multi-disciplinary study of the sediments of the upper 15 m of the core from Boquillas (74°33'E, 9°7'N; 20 m a.\\u000a s. l.). We used the following studies: pollen, lithology,

Juan Carlos Berrío; Arnoud Boom; Pedro José Botero; Luisa Fernanda Herrera; Henry Hooghiemstra; Freddy Romero; Gustavo Sarmiento

2001-01-01

387

Ethical and economic considerations of rare diseases in ethnic minorities: the case of mucopolysaccharidosis VI in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder associated with severe disability and premature death. The presence of a mucopolysaccharidosis-like disease in indigenous ethnic groups in Colombia can be inferred from archaeological findings. There are several indigenous patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VI currently receiving enzyme replacement therapy. We discuss the ethical and economic considerations, regarding both direct and indirect costs, of a high-cost orphan disease in a marginalised minority population in a developing country. PMID:22550061

Rueda, Juan-David; Solano, Martha

2013-01-01

388

The Mw 8.8, 1906 Colombia-Ecuador Subduction Earthquake: Seismic Structure and Thermal Regime of the Plate Boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Ecuador-SW Colombia active margin underwent four great subduction earthquakes in 1906 (Mw8.8), 1942(Mw7.8), 1958 (Mw7.7) and 1979(Mw8.2). The resulting seismotectonic segmentation of the margin may be a consequence of variable mass transfer, remarkable down-going plate basement relief, and margin transverse and along strike crustal faults. The margin basement consists of accreted oceanic terranes, and is underthrust by the

J. Collot; B. Marcaillou; W. Agudelo; A. Ribodetti; E. D'Acremont

2007-01-01

389

Do Latin American Central Bankers Behave NonLinearly? The Experience of Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This papers estimates unrestricted monetary reaction functions for four Latin American countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico) and tests for the presence of non-linear eects in central bank behaviour. The analysis covers the post-1999 ination-targetin g period. We deal with the presence of unit roots in the data by es- timating the policy rules in a cointegration setting. We test

Luiz de Mello; Diego Moccero; Matteo Mogliani

390

SERVICIO DE DEPORTES NORMATIVA DE USO DEL  

E-print Network

SERVICIO DE DEPORTES NORMATIVA DE USO DEL SERVICIO DE FISIOTERAPIA #12;ÍNDICE EXPOSICI�N DE MOTIVOS..................................................................................... 4 #12;NORMATIVA DE USO DEL SERVICIO DE FISIOTERAPIA VICERRECTORADO DE CULTURA, DEPORTES Y POLÍTICA datos del Servicio de Deportes y que formen parte de los siguientes programas: a) Jugadores/as de los

Escolano, Francisco

391

REFLEXIONES ÉTICAS A PARTIR DEL PROYECTO UNASUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo pretende identificar los principios éticos del proyecto UNASUR tomando como punto de partida el discurso pronunciado por Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva en mayo del 2008 en Brasilia y entrevistas realizadas por representantes de Prensa Latina. Se analiza este documento por ser Lula uno de los fundadores del proyecto de La Unión de Naciones Suramericanas (UNASUR), demostrando la

Cintia Beatriz Pérez Lanza; Ana Maria Infante Aguilar

2011-01-01

392

EVOLUZIONE-WEB -1 -Evoluzione del Web  

E-print Network

EVOLUZIONE-WEB - 1 - Evoluzione del Web (fonte prof. Polillo) #12;- 2 - L'evoluzione del web EVOLUZIONE-WEB · Dal primo sito Web (1991) il Web è in continua crescita, e in continua evoluzione tecnologia, il mercato, i comportamenti delle persone · Le fasi della storia del Web: Web 1.0, Web 2.0, il

De Antonellis, Valeria

393

Tratamiento actual del estreñimiento infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEl estreñimiento infantil es un problema mundial. Es una de las molestias más comunes que tienen que afrontar tanto los pediatras generales como los gastroenterólogos pediátricos. El tratamiento del estreñimiento crónico es problemático, a menudo exige un seguimiento a largo plazo y el uso de medicamentos. A pesar de su elevada frecuencia, se han realizado pocos ensayos aleatorizados para investigar

Olivia Liem; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Jan A. J. M Taminiau; Hayat M. Mousa; Marc A. Benninga

2007-01-01

394

Influence of tropical Pacific SST on seasonal precipitation in Colombia: prediction using El Niño and El Niño Modoki  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the forecast skill provided by the tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) associated with El Niño and El Niño Modoki over seasonal precipitation in Colombia has been evaluated through a lagged singular value decomposition analysis. The seasonal rainfall in many parts of the country can be predicted with suitable skill using the SST with a lead of one to four seasons. The response of precipitation to different phases of El Niño or El Niño Modoki is consistent with the state of the atmospheric fields of vertical velocity and velocity potential. Winter presents the best results for the prediction model, explaining the greatest percentage of square covariance fraction between the SST and lagged precipitation anomalies. The predictive capacity of these variability modes of SST for rainfall in Colombia is comparable or even higher in some seasons, particularly in winter, than the SST ability to explain the behavior of the precipitation during coetaneous seasons. The forecast of seasonal precipitation in Colombia validated in this work could be useful for planning and managing natural water resources in some regions of the country, particularly for the driest season of the year.

Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia Raquel; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesús

2014-07-01

395

Envelope sequence variation and phylogenetic relations of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 from endemic areas of Colombia.  

PubMed

The HTLV-1 envelope gene of 12 TSP/HAM patients from two endemic areas of southwest Colombia (Tumaco and Buenaventura) was amplified by nested PCR, sequenced, and compared with previously reported HTLV-1 envelope sequences from isolates worldwide. In general, the sequence divergences among all Colombian samples ranged from 0.1 to 1.6%. Some amino acid substitutions, referring to the ATK-1 prototype strain in the surface domain gp46 and in p21, were highly prevalent in southwest Colombia, suggesting a geographical clustering of mutations in the envelope gene. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Colombian isolates belong to the HTLV-1a lineage with minor subgroups. The genetic distance between Colombian and Japanese isolates ranged from 0.1 to 1.8%; in comparison, the genetic distance between Colombian and Caribbean isolates ranged from 0.4 to 2.2%. Our results strongly suggest that the actual quasispecies populations in southwest Colombia have been generated by separate, differently timed introductions of virus. PMID:12201912

Dominguez, Martha C; Castillo, Andres; Cabrera, Jesus; Eizuru, Yoshito; Garcia-Vallejo, Felipe

2002-08-10

396

La Universidad de Alicante organiza una observacin del eclipse de Luna del mircoles  

E-print Network

La Universidad de Alicante organiza una observación del eclipse de Luna del miércoles La Universidad de Alicante ha preparado una observación del eclipse total de Luna que se producirá la noche del astronómica así como su instrumental con el fin de explicar el desarrollo del eclipse. Previo a la observación

Escolano, Francisco

397

Anopheles species composition explains differences in Plasmodium transmission in La Guajira, northern Colombia  

PubMed Central

Malaria in La Guajira, the most northern state of Colombia, shows two different epidemiological patterns. Malaria is endemic in the municipality of Dibulla whereas in Riohacha it is characterised by sporadic outbreaks. This study aimed to establish whether differences in transmission patterns could be attributed to different vector species. The most abundant adult female species were Anopheles aquasalis, exclusive to Riohacha, and Anopheles darlingi, restricted to Dibulla. Anopheles mosquitoes were identified using morphology and the molecular markers internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase I. All specimens (n = 1,393) were tested by ELISA to determine natural infection rates with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. An. darlingi was positive for P. vivax 210, with an infection rate of 0.355% and an entomological inoculation rate of 15.87 infective bites/person/year. Anopheles albimanus larvae were the most common species in Riohacha, found in temporary swamps; in contrast, in Dibulla An. darlingi were detected mainly in permanent streams. Distinctive species composition and larval habitats in each municipality may explain the differences in Plasmodium transmission and suggest different local strategies should be used for vector control.

Herrera-Varela, Manuela; Orjuela, Lorena I; Peñalver, Cilia; Conn, Jan E; Quiñones, Martha L

2014-01-01

398

Phylogenetic evidence of a new canine distemper virus lineage among domestic dogs in Colombia, South America.  

PubMed

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral disease of carnivores affecting both wild and domestic populations. The hemagglutinin gene, encoding for the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, shows high heterogeneity among strains, allowing for the distinction of ten different lineages distributed worldwide according to a geographic pattern. We obtained the sequences of the full-length H gene of 15 wild-type CDV strains circulating in domestic dog populations from the Aburrá Valley, Colombia. A phylogenetic analysis of H gene nucleotide sequences from Colombian CDV viruses along with field isolates from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Colombian wild-type viruses formed a distinct monophyletic cluster clearly separated from the previously identified wild-type and vaccine lineages, suggesting that a novel genetic variant, quite different from vaccines and other lineages, is circulating among dog populations in the Aburrá Valley. We propose naming this new lineage as "South America 3". This information indicates that there are at least three different CDV lineages circulating in domestic and wild carnivore populations in South America. The first one, renamed Europe/South America 1, circulates in Brazil and Uruguay; the second, South America 2, appears to be restricted to Argentina; and the third, South America 3, which comprises all the strains characterized in this study, may also be circulating in other northern countries of South America. PMID:24950886

Espinal, Maria A; Díaz, Francisco J; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

2014-08-01

399

Host biomarkers distinguish dengue from leptospirosis in Colombia: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever and leptospirosis have partially overlapping geographic distributions, similar clinical presentations and potentially life-threatening complications but require different treatments. Distinguishing between these cosmopolitan emerging pathogens represents a diagnostic dilemma of global importance. We hypothesized that perturbations in host biomarkers can differentiate between individuals with dengue fever and leptospirosis during the acute phase of illness. Methods We randomly selected subjects from a prospective cohort study of acute febrile illness in Bucaramanga, Colombia and tested 19 serum biomarkers by ELISA in dengue fever (DF, n?=?113) compared to subjects with leptospirosis (n?=?47). Biomarkers were selected for further analysis if they had good discriminatory ability (area under the ROC curve (AUC) >0.80) and were beyond a reference range (assessed using local healthy controls). Results Nine biomarkers differed significantly between dengue fever and leptospirosis, with higher levels of Angptl3, IL-18BP, IP-10/CXCL10, Platelet Factor 4, sICAM-1, Factor D, sEng and sKDR in dengue and higher levels of sTie-2 in leptospirosis (p?0.90). When incorporated into multivariable models, sEng and IL18BP improved the diagnostic accuracy of clinical information alone. Conclusions These results suggest that host biomarkers may have utility in differentiating between dengue and leptospirosis, clinically similar conditions of different etiology. PMID:24444080

2014-01-01

400

Evaluation of three rapid tests for diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria in Colombia.  

PubMed

The diagnostic capacity of three malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), NOW-Malaria-ICT, OptiMAL-IT, and Paracheck-Pf, was evaluated against expert microscopy in Colombia. We tested 896 patients, of whom microscopy confirmed 139 P. falciparum, 279 P. vivax, and 13 mixed P.f/P.v infections and 465 negatives. Paracheck-Pf and NOW-malaria-ICT were more accurate in detecting P. falciparum (sensitivities 90.8% and 90.1%, respectively) in comparison with Optimal-IT (83.6%). NOW showed an acceptable Pf detection rate at low densities (< 500/microL), but resulted in a higher proportion of false positives. For P. vivax diagnosis, Optimal-IT had a higher sensitivity than NOW (91.0% and 81.4%, respectively). The choice between the two Pf/Pv detecting RDTs balances P. falciparum and P. vivax detection rates. Considering some degree of P. falciparum overtreatment and failure to detect all P. vivax cases as more acceptable than missing some cases of P. falciparum, we recommend careful implementation of NOW-malaria-ICT in areas where microscopy is lacking. The price is however still a constraint. PMID:17172395

van den Broek, Ingrid; Hill, Olivia; Gordillo, Fabiola; Angarita, Bibiana; Hamade, Prudence; Counihan, Helen; Guthmann, Jean-Paul

2006-12-01

401

Prevalence and determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women from Bogota, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix and uterus has been hypothesised to be a co-factor for cervical cancer. We performed a cross sectional study in Bogota, Colombia, where cervical cancer rates are high, to determine the prevalence and determinants of C trachomatis infection, and in particular its association with human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods: 1829 low income sexually active women were interviewed and tested for C trachomatis, using an endogenous plasmid PCR-EIA, and for 37 HPV types, using a general primer GP5+/6+ mediated PCR-EIA. Results: The overall prevalence of C trachomatis was 5.0%, and it did not differ substantially between women with normal (5.0%) and those with abnormal (5.2%) cervical cytology. Women infected with any HPV type (15.1%) had a slightly increased risk of being simultaneously infected with C trachomatis (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI: 0.8 to 2.4). This association was stronger when multiple HPV infections (adjusted OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.9) were present. No other lifestyle or reproductive characteristics were clearly associated with risk of C trachomatis infection. Conclusions: HPV infected women, particularly women with multiple HPV infections, are at increased risk of being infected with C trachomatis. PMID:14663124

Molano, M; Weiderpass, E; Posso, H; Morre, S; Ronderos, M; Franceschi, S; Arslan, A; Meijer, C; Munoz, N; van den Brule, A J C

2003-01-01

402

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori from Bogotá D.C., Colombia.  

PubMed

Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to clarithromycin is the most common cause of treatment failure in patients with H. pylori infections. This study describes the MICs and the presence of 23S rRNA mutations of H. pylori isolates from Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. H. pylori were isolated from gastric biopsies from patients with functional dyspepsia. Clarithromycin susceptibility was investigated by agar dilution and strains were considered resistant if the MIC was ? 1 ?g/ml. DNA sequences of the 23S rRNA gene of strains resistant and sensitive to clarithromycin were determined to identify specific point mutations. Clarithromycin resistance was present in 13.6% of patients by agar dilution. The A2143G, A2142G and A2142C mutations were found in 90.5, 7.1, and 2.4% of H. pylori strains with resistance genotype.The resistant phenotype was associated with 23S rRNA resistance genotype in 85.7% of isolates. The point mutations in 23S rRNA were well correlated with MICs values for clarithromycin. PMID:23990295

Trespalacios, Alba A; Otero, William; Caminos, Jorge E; Mercado, Marcela M; Avila, Jenny; Rosero, Liliana E; Arévalo, Azucena; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Graham, David Y

2013-08-01

403

Source terrains and diagenetic imprints of Cretaceous marine rocks of the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Cretaceous marine rocks of the western Cordillera Oriental of Colombia are exposed in stratigraphic sections which reveal multiple source terrains and variable diagenetic histories that were imposed by later thrusting XRD and petrographic analyses indicate that earliest Cretaceous rocks were derived from a nearly plutonic source (Triassic-Jurassic Ibague Batholith of the Cordillera Central) which provided feldspathic lithic fragments and clay-sized illite. High smectite concentrations in the overlying Hauterivian-Barremian strata reflect contemporaneous volcanism, possibly in the Cordillera Central. This signal decreased upsection to the upper Aptian, where detrital clays (kaolinite, chlorite, feldspar, amphibole) indicate a shift to a cratonic source, probably the Guayana Shield. Cratonic detrital input continues into the Turonian-Coniacian and is accompanies by high concentrations of smectite representing another period of volcanic activity. Later tectonic activity divided the area into two regions, each with unique diagenetic signatures. Three primary clastic sources are inferred for the section east of the thrust belt, however, the mineral assemblage is masked by later diagenesis. Sediments within the thrust belt show greater variability in the relative abundance of mineral assemblages and more poorly crystallized illite than occurs to the east of the thrust section. The preservation of much of the original mineralogic components within the thrust section indicates that these sediments have experienced only limited diagenetic overprinting as a result of a relatively short burial history. These contrasting signatures have important implications for hydrocarbon maturation within Cretaceous source rocks in a structurally complex region.

Segall, M.P.; Allen, R.B. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Rubiano, J.; Sarmiento, L. (Instituto Colombiano de Petroleos, Bucaramanga (Colombia))

1993-02-01

404

Genetic structure of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci populations in Colombia following a recent invasion.  

PubMed

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most important pests causing economic losses in a variety of cropping systems around the world. This species was recently found in a coastal region of Colombia and has now spread inland. To investigate this invasive process, the genetic structure of B. tabaci was examined in 8 sampling locations from 2 infested regions (coastal, inland) using 9 microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial COI gene. The mitochondrial analysis indicated that only the invasive species of the B. tabaci complex Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM 1 known previously as biotype B) was present. The microsatellite data pointed to genetic differences among the regions and no isolation by distance within regions. The coastal region in the Caribbean appears to have been the initial point of invasion, while the inland region in the Southwest showed genetic variation among populations most likely reflecting founder events and ongoing changes associated with climatic and topographical heterogeneity. These findings have implications for tracking and managing B. tabaci. PMID:24753322

Díaz, Fernando; Endersby, Nancy M; Hoffmann, Ary A

2014-04-17

405

[Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].  

PubMed

Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing. PMID:21516640

Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

2011-03-01

406

Ecological distribution of Fusarium solani and its opportunistic action related to mycotic keratitis in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed

Corneal ulcera in patients treated at the University Hospital Cali, Colombia have been attributed to the fungus Fusarium solani, which was isolated from patients' eyes by deep scraping. The fungus, which was characterized by culture and morphology, was found to grow well at 37 degrees C in Sabouraud and potato dextrose agars and in liquid asparagine medium, in which it produced very few spores; at 40 degrees C, it survived for 3 weeks. Different levels of pathogenicity were shown by the fungus when 3-week-old bean, corn, and tomato plants were inoculated. Controlled experiments in which an inoculum of F. solani was instilled in rabbit eyes were also carried out; it evoked a clinical reaction producing irritation and erythema. The F. solani isolated from eyes was the same species as that isolated by an agar plate method with Fusarium-selective medium from sugar cane, bean, tomato, or corn fields throughout December 1976 to November 1977. Nonfarming areas and urban sites were also air sampled, but only a few (less than 1%) colonies of F. solani were isolated at one of four sites. A preliminary attempt to identify the physiologically active substance of the fungus was carried out through chemical extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and ultraviolet and infrared spectra analysis. PMID:7217337

Cuero, R G

1980-09-01

407

Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia.  

PubMed

The pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis (formerly Cryphonectria cubensis) is best known for the important canker disease that it causes on Eucalyptus species. This fungus is also a pathogen of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), which is native to Indonesia, and like Eucalyptus, is a member of Myrtaceae. Furthermore, C. cubensis has been found on Miconia spp. native to South America and residing in Melastomataceae. Recent surveys have yielded C. cubensis isolates from new hosts, characterized in this study based on DNA sequences for the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions. These hosts include native Clidemia sericea and Rhynchanthera mexicana (Melastomataceae) in Mexico, and non-native Lagerstroemia indica (Pride of India, Lythraceae) in Cuba. Isolates from these hosts and areas group in the sub-clade of C. cubensis accommodating the South American collections of the fungus. This sub-clade also includes isolates recently collected from Eucalyptus in Cuba, which are used to epitypify C. cubensis. New host records from Southeast Asia include exotic Tibouchina urvilleana from Singapore and Thailand and native Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Consistent with their areas of occurrence isolates from the latter collections group in the Asian sub-clade of C. cubensis. DNA sequence comparisons of isolates from Tibouchina lepidota in Colombia revealed that they represent a new sub-clade within the greater Chrysoporthe clade. Isolates in this clade are described as Chrysoporthe inopina sp. nov., based on distinctive morphological differences. PMID:16876702

Gryzenhout, Marieka; Rodas, Carlos A; Portales, Julio Mena; Clegg, Paul; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

2006-07-01

408

Genetic Structure and Population Dynamics of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in Colombia from 1995 to 1999  

PubMed Central

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used to study the population genetics and temporal dynamics of the cassava bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The population dynamics were addressed by comparing samples collected from 1995 to 1999 from six locations, spanning four different edaphoclimatic zones (ECZs). Forty-five different X. axonopodis pv. manihotis RFLP types or haplotypes were identified between 1995 and 1999. High genetic diversity of the X. axonopodis pv. manihotis strains was evident within most of the fields sampled. In all but one site, diversity decreased over time within fields. Haplotype frequencies significantly differed over the years in all but one location. Studies of the rate of change of X. axonopodis pv. manihotis populations during the cropping cycle in two sites showed significant changes in the haplotype frequencies but not composition. However, variations in pathotype composition were observed from one year to the next at a single site in ECZs 1 and 2 and new pathotypes were described after 1997 in these ECZs, thus revealing the dramatic change in the pathogen population structure of X. axonopodis pv. manihotis. Disease incidence was used to show the progress of cassava bacterial blight in Colombia during the 5-year period in different ecosystems. Low disease incidence values were correlated with low rainfall in 1997 in ECZ 1. PMID:14711649

Restrepo, Silvia; Velez, Claudia M.; Duque, Myriam C.; Verdier, Valérie

2004-01-01

409

Analysis, characterization and identification of the Meta fault (Colombia) from the distribution of resistivities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were performed between the Vichada and Casanare states in eastern Colombia, with Schlumberger arrays using maximum aperture AB = 600 m and 1 m < MN < 150 m in a region whose average elevation was 75m. Each of the eleven profiles was composed of three VES (on average), the separation between VES and the average distance between points were 417m and 6.25 km respectively; and acquisitions were carried out in late 2011 and early 2012. Resistivity values were estimated in the range of 100 ?m to 10.000 ?m. The apparent resistivity data were processed using the software IPI2Win, and profiles modeled possible layers with a maximum depth of research of 200 m. To the north of the study area the presence of high resistivity values (5000?m - 10000?m) is calculated, compared to those found south of the area (<3000 ? m), these changes in resistivity are associated to changes in lithology between the north and south sections of the study area, which could be associated with the presence of a fault (the Meta fault), which has acted as a tectonic boundary. Map and Volume resistivity in the area of interest (Vichada-Casanare states), the abrupt change in resistivity is observed in the Meta fault (white line).

Alvarado, H.; Martinez L, A.

2013-12-01

410

A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia.  

PubMed

Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

2014-01-01

411

A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

2014-01-01

412

Diagnosis and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Dairy Cows in Colombia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was the serological, bacteriological and molecular diagnosis, as well as the molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in adult cows of five Colombian dairy herds. Serum samples were tested by an indirect absorbed enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-C). All fecal samples were tested by pooled culture. After that, fecal samples of Map positive pools were tested individually by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In one herd, slurry and tissue samples from one animal were also taken and tested by PCR and culture. Map isolates were analyzed by the Multilocus Short Sequence Repeat (MLSSR) and the Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) methods. ELISA produced positive results in 1.8% (6/329) of the animals and 40% (2/5) of the herds. Four fecal, two tissue, and two slurry samples from a herd were Map positive by culture and PCR. MLSSR and MIRU-VNTR revealed two different strain profiles among eight Map isolates recovered. This study reports the first molecular characterization of Map in one dairy herd in Colombia, the limitations for individual diagnosis of subclinical Map infections in cattle, and the usefulness of pooled fecal samples and environmental sampling for Map diagnosis. PMID:21785685

Fernández-Silva, J. A.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Bülte, M.

2011-01-01

413

Reducing Violence by Transforming Neighborhoods: A Natural Experiment in Medellín, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Neighborhood-level interventions provide an opportunity to better understand the impact that neighborhoods have on health. In 2004, municipal authorities in Medellín, Colombia, built a public transit system to connect isolated low-income neighborhoods to the city’s urban center. Transit-oriented development was accompanied by municipal investment in neighborhood infrastructure. In this study, the authors examined the effects of this exogenous change in the built environment on violence. Neighborhood conditions and violence were assessed in intervention neighborhoods (n = 25) and comparable control neighborhoods (n = 23) before (2003) and after (2008) completion of the transit project, using a longitudinal sample of 466 residents and homicide records from the Office of the Public Prosecutor. Baseline differences between these groups were of the same magnitude as random assignment of neighborhoods would have generated, and differences that remained after propensity score matching closely resembled imbalances produced by paired randomization. Permutation tests were used to estimate differential change in the outcomes of interest in intervention neighborhoods versus control neighborhoods. The decline in the homicide rate was 66% greater in intervention neighborhoods than in control neighborhoods (rate ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.61), and resident reports of violence decreased 75% more in intervention neighborhoods (odds ratio = 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.11, 0.67). These results show that interventions in neighborhood physical infrastructure can reduce violence. PMID:22472117

Cerdá, Magdalena; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Hansen, Ben B.; Tessari Hicks, Kimberly J.; Duque, Luis F.; Restrepo, Alexandra; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

2012-01-01

414

Placental Malaria in Colombia: Histopathologic Findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum Infections  

PubMed Central

Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated changes were observed in 37%. The most common changes were villitis, intervillitis, deciduitis, increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots, mononuclear (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes), polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and trophozoites in fetal erythrocytes. No association was found between type of placental changes observed and histopathologic classification of placental malaria. The findings are consistent with those reported for placental malaria in other regions. Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite responsible for placental and gestational malaria, but its role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria was not conclusive. PMID:23546807

Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda

2013-01-01

415

Placental malaria in Colombia: histopathologic findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum infections.  

PubMed

Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated changes were observed in 37%. The most common changes were villitis, intervillitis, deciduitis, increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots, mononuclear (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes), polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and trophozoites in fetal erythrocytes. No association was found between type of placental changes observed and histopathologic classification of placental malaria. The findings are consistent with those reported for placental malaria in other regions. Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite responsible for placental and gestational malaria, but its role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria was not conclusive. PMID:23546807

Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda

2013-06-01

416

Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

1981-01-01

417

Antigenic Diversity of the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein in Parasite Isolates of Western Colombia  

PubMed Central

Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a malaria antigen involved in sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, and thus considered to have good vaccine potential. We evaluated the polymorphism of the Plasmodium vivax CS gene in 24 parasite isolates collected from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia. We sequenced 27 alleles, most of which (25/27) corresponded to the VK247 genotype and the remainder to the VK210 type. All VK247 alleles presented a mutation (Gly ? Asn) at position 28 in the N-terminal region, whereas the C-terminal presented three insertions: the ANKKAGDAG, which is common in all VK247 isolates; 12 alleles presented the insertion GAGGQAAGGNAANKKAGDAG; and 5 alleles presented the insertion GGNAGGNA. Both repeat regions were polymorphic in gene sequence and size. Sequences coding for B-, T-CD4+, and T-CD8+ cell epitopes were found to be conserved. This study confirms the high polymorphism of the repeat domain and the highly conserved nature of the flanking regions. PMID:21292878

Hernández-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Escalante, Ananías A.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

2011-01-01

418

Seroprevalence and cofactors of HTLV-I infection in Tumaco, Colombia.  

PubMed

This study presents an analysis of the factors associated with HTLV-I seroprevalence in the endemic area of Tumaco, Colombia. During June to August 1988, 1,077 individuals were selected at random from a population of 45,594. The overall prevalence rate of HTLV-I antibodies was 2.8%. Among females prevalence was significantly higher (p less than 0.02) than among males. Rates increased substantially with age. HTLV-I prevalence among individuals with history of use of intravenous medications was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than in those without such history. Logistic regression analysis included age in years, indicators for male gender, and for i.v. injections, and their interactions. Age was very strongly associated to HTLV-I infection among females. At early ages prevalence was not different between sexes, but females presented a significantly higher rate than males after age 42. History of i.v. administered medications was very strongly associated in the univariate analysis and, although significance was borderline in the multivariate analysis, it had the effect of doubling the odds of HTLV-I infection. PMID:1515216

Trujillo, J M; Concha, M; Muñoz, A; Bergonzoli, G; Mora, C; Borrero, I; Gibbs, C J; Arango, C

1992-05-01

419

Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 from Tumaco, Colombia.  

PubMed

Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes leukemia and the neurological disorder HTLV-1 associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Infection with this virus - although it is distributed worldwide - is limited to certain endemic areas of the world. Despite its specific distribution and slow mutation rate, molecular epidemiology on this virus has been useful to follow the movements of human populations and routes of virus spread to different continents. In the present study, we analyzed the genetic variability of a region of the env gene of isolates obtained from individuals of African origin that live on the Pacific coast of Colombia. Sequencing and comparison of the fragment with the same fragment from different HTLV-1 isolates showed a variability ranging from 0.8% to 1.2%. Phylogenetic studies permit us to include these isolates in the transcontinental subgroup A in which samples isolated from Brazil and Chile are also found. Further analyses will be necessary to determine if these isolates were recently introduced into the American continent or if they rather correspond to isolates introduced during the Paleolithic period. PMID:12973531

Balcázar, Norman; Sánchez, Gloria I; Garcia-Vallejo, Felipe

2003-07-01

420

An ecosystem approach to human health and the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tumaco, Colombia.  

PubMed

A study was conducted during 1996-1997 in 20 villages of Tumaco, Colombia, to evaluate the effectiveness of personal protective measures against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The intervention was effective, but the high costs of the preventive measures and the lack of a more holistic approach hampered the intervention's sustainability. This paper analyzes the results using an ecosystem approach to human health. Using this approach, we found that CL has been present in the study area for a long time and affects farmers and those living closest to the forest. The forest constitutes the habitat for insect vectors (sandflies) and parasite reservoirs (wild mammals). Four spatial scales were identified in this ecosystem: residential, village, regional, and global. From the ecosystem perspective, three interventions are proposed to prevent CL in the 20 villages: improve housing construction, organize village housing in clusters, and make diagnosis and treatment of CL more accessible. The design and implementation of these interventions require active involvement by people with the disease (village inhabitants) and decision-makers (local authorities). PMID:11426281

Rojas, C A

2001-01-01

421

Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in the North of Caldas Province, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Rickettsia typhi and R. felis are the etiological agents of murine typhus and flea-borne spotted fever, respectively. Both are emerging acute febrile zoonotic diseases for which fleas are vectors; they also have similar clinical characteristics and global distribution. In 2005, we identified the circulation of murine typhus in 6 towns within the mountainous coffee-growing area north of Caldas, Colombia. We now report the specific seroprevalence against R. typhi and R. felis, and associated risk factors in 7 towns of this province. The combined seroprevalence against the 2 flea-borne rickettsioses is the highest yet reported in the literature: 71.7% (17.8% for R. felis, 25.2% for R. typhi, and 28.7% for both). We also report a prospective analysis of 26 patients with a febrile illness compatible with rickettsioses, including murine typhus; 9 of these patients had a rickettsiosis. This supports our sero-epidemiological results and highlights the diagnostic complexity of febrile syndromes in this region. PMID:23473218

Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Mercado, Marcela; De la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Pérez, Jorge E.; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Valbuena, Gustavo

2013-01-01

422

Geometry of the Subducting Nazca Plate Beneath Colombia From Relocation of Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subduction zones, earthquakes help distinguish the location of the downgoing slab to hundreds of kilometers depth. However, beneath northwestern South America, the distribution of large intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Global CMT catalog has gaps along the subduction zone, so the position of the subducting Nazca plate is uncertain. In addition, the earthquake focal mechanisms, which range from along-strike compression to down-dip extension, vary over short distances, suggesting that the subducting slab may have a complicated morphology. To clarify the geometry of the subducting Nazca plate beneath Colombia, we relocate regional seismicity recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network (RSNC). Our data set contains 1231 earthquakes with catalog locations from 0°N-6°N and 72°W-81°W at depths of 0-200 km and magnitudes from M2.5-6.5 that occurred between 1/2010-2/2013. Catalog hypocenters show an ~20 km thick slab subducting to the east, as well as vertical columns extending up from the slab. The shape, thickness, and position of the slab and other features can be refined by using differential travel times to relocate the earthquakes relative to each other. We verify and adjust the network P and S wave picks and pick arrivals at additional or temporary stations, and these arrival times are used to relocate the earthquakes. The hypocenters of the relocated earthquakes are used to generate 3D contours of the subducting plate and visualize bends and folds in the slab.

Chang, Y.; Warren, L. M.; Prieto, G. A.; Grigsby, I.

2013-12-01

423

Flood-promoted vessel formation in Prioria copaifera trees in the Darien Gap, Colombia.  

PubMed

Trees growing in floodplains develop mechanisms by which to overcome anoxic conditions. Prioria copaifera Griseb. grows on the floodplains of the Atrato River, Colombia, and monodominant communities of this species remain flooded for at least 6?months a year. The aims of this study were as follows: (i) to compare variations in tree-ring structure with varying river water levels; and (ii) to reconstruct variations in water levels from the chronology of variations in the porosity of the tree rings. Discs were taken from 12 trees, and the number of vessels along 3-mm-wide radial transects was counted. Standard dendrochronological techniques were used to determine the mean number of vessels over 130?years, between 1877 and 2006; the signal-to-noise ratio was 13.3 and the expressed population signal 0.93. Furthermore, this series of vessel numbers was calibrated against variations in the water levels between 1977 and 2000; positive correlations were found with the mean for both the annual river water level and the level from June to August. The transfer function between the principal components of the mean annual water level and those of chronology allowed us to reconstruct the river levels over 130?years. Our conclusions are as follows: (i) the number of vessels per ring is an appropriate proxy for determining variations in water levels; and (ii) P. copaifera grows thicker and produces more vessels when water levels rise. The probable ecophysiological causes of this interesting behaviour are discussed. PMID:25361996

López, Janeth; Del Valle, Jorge I; Giraldo, Jorge A

2014-10-01

424

Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

Ferro, Cristina; Marín, Dairo; Góngora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, María C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marín, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Pérez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

2011-01-01

425

The shallow-water fish assemblage of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica: structure and patterns in an isolated, predator-dominated ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fishes at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, were surveyed as part of a larger scientific expedition to the area in September 2009. The average total biomass of nearshore fishes was 7.8 tonnes per ha, among the largest observed in the tropics, with apex predators such as sharks, jacks, and groupers accounting for nearly 40% of the total biomass. The abundance of reef and pelagic sharks, particularly large aggregations of threatened species such as the scalloped hammerhead shark (up to 42 hammerheads ha-1) and large schools of jacks and snappers show the capacity for high biomass in unfished ecosystems in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. However, the abundance of hammerhead and reef whitetip sharks appears to have been declining since the late 1990s, and likely causes may include increasing fishing pressure on sharks in the region and illegal fishing inside the Park. One Galapagos shark tagged on September 20, 2009 in the Isla del Coco National Park moved 255km southeast towards Malpelo Island in Colombia, when it stopped transmitting. These results contribute to the evidence that sharks conduct large-scale movements between marine protected areas (Isla del Coco, Malpelo, Galápagos) in the Eastern tropical Pacific and emphasize the need for regional-scale management. More than half of the species and 90% of the individuals observed were endemic to the tropical eastern Pacific. These high biomass and endemicity values highlight the uniqueness of the fish assemblage at Isla del Coco and its importance as a global biodiversity hotspot.

Friedlander, Alan M.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Ballesteros, Enric; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Bolaños, Allan; Sala, Enric

2012-01-01

426

3D multicomponent seismic characterization of a clastic reservoir in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this research is to characterize the combined structural-stratigraphic trap of the Tenerife Field in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin (MMVB), Colombia. For the first time in Colombia the structural and quantitative interpretation of modern three-dimensional multicomponent (3D-3C) seismic imaging enables a geometric description, a kinematic interpretation of the structural styles, and the facies distribution of the reservoir. A seismic petrophysics work-flow to better achieve the seismic well-tie. Edited and check-shot calibrated P-wave sonic logs were obtained and coefficients of the Gardner and Castagna equations were calibrated to match the density and shear-wave velocity depth trends for the basin. Seismic modeling was performed to evaluate the PP and PS seismic response of the reservoir interval (Mugrosa Formation). The structural interpretation methodology involves a 3D fault-correlation and horizon picking for both PP- and PS-PSTM data volumes. Geometric attributes such as coherence and curvature were used to enhance the structural discontinuities. The main unconformity of the Middle Eocene (MEU) was interpreted, and an attribute-assisted interpretation of the reservoir was conducted in detail. While P-wave data provided most of the structural interpretation, converted-wave data provide a better understanding of the faults. Traditionally, compressive thrust-propagation folds and tectonic inversion have been considered as the main mechanisms controlling the deformation in the MMVB. However, the new interpretation shown in this work provides a different structural concept that involves two major structural styles: 1. Under the MEU the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene deformation, dominated by east-verging thrust and partially inverted Mesozoic normal faults, is preserved. Associated folds exhibit a north-south strike, and their structural development is controlled by a long-lived structural element that dominates the area (the Infantas Paleo-high). 2. Northeast striking younger normal faults indicate younger local extension, that affects the entire Cenozoic sequence. Normal faults are, in fact, the structural heterogeneities that most affect the geometry of the reservoir compartments in Tenerife Field. This normal faulting oriented oblique to the maximum horizontal stress, together with the associated folding, can arise from a left-lateral shear deformation that creates a local trans-tensional regime. Hence, the structure of Tenerife Field at the top of the Oligocene sandstones, can be described as a two-way closure anticline within a negative flower structure. In addition, Upper Eocene - Early Oligocene syn-tectonic deposits are also documented in this work, dating the last episode of deformation associated with the Infantas Paleohigh uplift. The value of multicomponent data goes beyond the structural interpretation since it provides an independent seismic measure of shear-wave velocities for obtaining VP/VS ratios from interpretation and for performing elastic inversion. From the interpretation of both PP and PS data, the interval VP/VS ratio was computed for the entire Mugrosa Formation. Forward modeling of PS wave response showed that computing VP/VS ratio from picking thin intervals may lead to erroneous values since it is not possible to interpret the same seismic events in both PP and PS data. Nonetheless, analysis of the full-waveform (dipole) sonic log together with Gamma Ray measured in the reservoir interval, showed that there is a close correlation between lithology and VP/VS ratio. VP/VS ? 1:85 is an effective upper bound to characterize sandstones from fine grained rocks. Further, a model-based elastic inversion of acoustic impedance and VP/VS ratio performed using the PP volume and the sonic logs available, allowed to find stratigraphic features in the Mugrosa and Esmeraldas formatio

Velasquez-Espejo, Antonio Jose

427

Present-Day Kinematics of the Tectonic Blocks around Colombia, South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northwestern part of the South American continent contains one of the most complex active tectonic settings in the world. It is the contact between stable South America and other major tectonic units (Nazca, Cocos, Caribbean plates) which also created some more smaller tectonic units (e.g., North Andes, Panama, Altiplano blocks), and orogens areas (e.g., Peru, Puna-Sierras Pampeanas). The interaction between all these blocks has produced many destructive earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in historical and recent past. We present a revised estimation of the present-day angular velocity of the major tectonic blocks derived from CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Stations) GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) observations. For this, we use all available stations installed by several institutions, namely stations part of the GEORED Project (CGS), IGS (International GNSS Service), and national mapping networks. These networks provide us with a sufficient large number of stations (~100) to determine a very robust estimation of the velocity field for these tectonic units. The estimated angular velocities are computed with respect to the latest global reference frame, ITRF2008. We compare our estimated model with other estimations based also on geodetic and geophysical/geological data to show the consistency of the predicted motions. We use the estimated angular velocity solutions to constrain the motions of the Colombian Geored network in order to understand the tectonic complexity of the north-western corner of South America. Finally, we present and interpret the strain rate field computed using QOCA. The estimated map is correlated with the known geological and geophysical setting to identify the areas in Colombia suffering large rates of deformation.

Mora-Paez, Hector; Fernandes, Rui; Acero-Patiño, Natalia; Bos, Machiel

2013-04-01

428

Evolution of the stress and strain fields in the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work integrates stress data from Global Positioning System measurements and earthquake focal mechanism solutions, with new borehole breakout and natural fracture system data to better understand the complex interactions between the major tectonic plates in northwestern South America and to examine how the stress regime in the Eastern Cordillera and the Llanos foothills in Colombia has evolved through time. The dataset was used to generate an integrated stress map of the northern Andes and to propose a model for stress evolution in the Eastern Cordillera. In the Cordillera, the primary present-day maximum principal stress direction is WNW-ESE to NW-SE, and is in the direction of maximum shortening in the mountain range. There is also a secondary maximum principal stress direction that is E-W to ENE-WSW, which is associated with the northeastward “escape” of the North Andean block, relative to stable South America. In the Cupiagua hydrocarbon field, located in the Llanos foothills, the dominant NNE-SSW fractures are produced by the Panama arc-North Andes collision and range-normal compression. However, less well developed asymmetrical fractures oriented E-W to WSW-ENE and NNW-SSE are also present, and may be related to pre-folding stresses in the foreland basin of the Central Cordillera or to present-day shear associated with the northeastward “escape” of the north Andean block. Our study results suggest that an important driver for orogenic deformation and changes in the stress field at obliquely convergent subduction zone boundaries is the arrival of thickened crust, such as island arcs and aseismic ridges, at the trench.

Egbue, Obi; Kellogg, James; Aguirre, Hector; Torres, Carolina

2014-01-01

429

Snake venomics of Bothrops punctatus, a semiarboreal pitviper species from Antioquia, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Bothrops punctatus is an endangered, semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose venom is poorly characterized. In the present work, the protein composition of this venom was profiled using the ‘snake venomics’ analytical strategy. Decomplexation of the crude venom by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, followed by tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic digests, showed that it consists of proteins assigned to at least nine snake toxin families. Metalloproteinases are predominant in this secretion (41.5% of the total proteins), followed by C-type lectin/lectin-like proteins (16.7%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (10.7%), phospholipases A2 (93%), serine proteinases (5.4%), disintegrins (38%), L-amino acid oxidases (3.1%), vascular endothelial growth factors (17%), and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (1.2%). Altogether, 6.6% of the proteins were not identified. In vitro, the venom exhibited proteolytic, phospholipase A2, and L-amino acid oxidase activities, as well as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity, in agreement with the obtained proteomic profile. Cytotoxic activity on murine C2C12 myoblasts was negative, suggesting that the majority of venom phospholipases A2 likely belong to the acidic type, which often lack major toxic effects. The protein composition of B. punctatus venom shows a good correlation with toxic activities here and previously reported, and adds further data in support of the wide diversity of strategies that have evolved in snake venoms to subdue prey, as increasingly being revealed by proteomic analyses. PMID:24498576

Fernández Culma, Maritza; Andrés Pereañez, Jaime; Núñez Rangel, Vitelbina

2014-01-01

430

Geographic variation in risk factors for SFG rickettsial and leptospiral exposure in Colombia.  

PubMed

In order to characterize the patterns of human exposure to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsial and leptospiral infection, IgG surveys were conducted on 642 residents of ten different areas of the rural district of Necoclí, Colombia. Areas were selected based on forest cover and human settlement pattern, and individual risk factors were elucidated through multivariate logistic models, controlling for variance clustering within communities. Overall, prevalence of high antibody titers indicating previous exposure to SFG rickettsia and leptospira was 29.2% and 35.6%, respectively, and both were most prevalent in the same peri-urban neighborhood. Forest cover .10% demonstrated the strongest independent association with leptospiral exposure, followed by homes with outdoor storage sheds. Isolated rural housing was the only variable independently associated with SFG rickettsia exposure. Community-level variables significantly modified the effects of individual risk factors. For both pathogens the eldest quartile was less exposed in periurban areas although there was no age effect overall for either. Females living in population settlements were more exposed to SFG rickettsiae but there was no sex association in isolated rural houses. Similarly, in sites with forest cover .10%, individuals working at home had higher leptospira seroprevalence, but place of work was not a risk factor in areas of forest cover ,10%. These data suggest that the patterns of maintenance and/or exposure to leptospira and rickettsia vary across different human created landscapes and settlement patterns. While contrasting risk factors may reflect the unique transmission cycles of each pathogen, the observed patterns of geographic variation suggest that both diseases may respond similarly larger scale human-ecological dynamics. PMID:18973451

Padmanabha, Harish; Hidalgo, Marylin; Valbuena, Gustavo; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Galeano, Armando; Puerta, Henry; Cantillo, Cesar; Mantilla, Gilma

2009-10-01

431

Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejon Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest.  

PubMed

Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an approximately 58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia (paleolatitude approximately 5 degrees N) that is the earliest megafossil record of Neotropical rainforest. The flora has abundant, diverse palms and legumes and similar family composition to extant Neotropical rainforest. Three-quarters of the leaf types are large and entire-margined, indicating rainfall >2,500 mm/year and mean annual temperature >25 degrees C. Despite modern family composition and tropical paleoclimate, the diversity of fossil pollen and leaf samples is 60-80% that of comparable samples from extant and Quaternary Neotropical rainforest from similar climates. Insect feeding damage on Cerrejón fossil leaves, representing primary consumers, is abundant, but also of low diversity, and overwhelmingly made by generalist feeders rather than specialized herbivores. Cerrejón megafossils provide strong evidence that the same Neotropical rainforest families have characterized the biome since the Paleocene, maintaining their importance through climatic phases warmer and cooler than present. The low diversity of both plants and herbivorous insects in this Paleocene Neotropical rainforest may reflect an early stage in the diversification of the lineages that inhabit this biome, and/or a long recovery period from the terminal Cretaceous extinction. PMID:19833876

Wing, Scott L; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C

2009-11-01

432

Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006). An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002 - 2006) its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR=0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82).The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22% (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88), as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25% (OR=0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90) associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112); however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042). Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations. PMID:24970956

Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Herrera-Escobar, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Díaz, Aníbal

2014-01-01

433

Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) malaria vectors in the municipality of Puerto Carreno, Vichada, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The study of the biological aspects of Anopheles spp., strengthens the entomological surveillance. Objective To determine biological aspects and behavior of adult Anopheles mosquitoes in the urban area of Puerto Carreño municipality, Vichada, Colombia. Materials and methods Wild anophelines were collected landing on humans both indoors and outdoors between 18:00h and 06:00h for 50 min/h during two consecutive nights/month for eight months in the urban area of Puerto Carreño. The biting rate activity, the natural infection by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax VK247 and VK210 using ELISA, and the annual entomological inoculation rate were determined for each species. The members of the Albitarsis complex were determined by amplificacion of the white gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results In order of abundance the species found were An. darlingi (n=1,166), An. marajoara sensu stricto (n=152), An. braziliensis (n=59), An. albitarsis F (n=25), An. albitarsis sensu lato (n=16), An. argyritarsis (n=3) and An. oswaldoi sensu lato (n=2). An. darlingi showed two activity peaks between 21:00 to 22:00 and 05:00 to 06:00 hours outdoors and between 21:00 to 22:00 and 04:00 to 05:00 indoors. Natural infection of this species was found with P. vivax VK210 and its annual entomological inoculation rate was 2. Natural infection of An marajoara sensu stricto with P. falciparum was found, with an annual entomological inoculation rate of 5 and a peak biting activity between 18:00 to 19:00 hrs both indoors and outdoors. Conclusion Transmission of malaria in the urban area of Puerto Carreño, Vichada, can occur by An. darlingi and An. marajoara s. s. PMID:23235809

Jiménez, Pilar; Conn, Jan E.; Wirtz, Robert; Brochero, Helena

2013-01-01

434

Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of several Heliconia species in Colombia.  

PubMed

Researchers have classified the Heliconia genus as a group of highly variable and diverse plants. Species and cultivars are visually differentiated primarily on the basis of the color and size of inflorescence bracts. At taxonomic level, flower type (parabolic, sigmoid, or erect) and size are taken into account. The vast morphological diversity of heliconias at intra-specific, intra-population, and varietal levels in central-west Colombia prompted the present study. We characterized the genetic variability of 67 genotypes of cultivated heliconias belonging to Heliconia caribaea Lamarck, H. bihai (L.) L., H. orthotricha L. Andersson, H. stricta Huber, H. wagneriana Petersen, and H. psittacorum L. f., as well as that of several interspecific hybrids such as H. psittacorum L. f. x H. spathocircinata Aristeguieta and H. caribaea Lamarck x H. bihai (L.) L. We also created an approximation to their phylogenetic analysis. Molecular analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed a total of 170 bands. Two large, well-defined groups resulted: the first grouped cultivars of the very closely related H. caribaea and H. bihai species with those of H. orthotricha and H. psittacorum, and the second grouped H. stricta and H. wagneriana cultivars. The lowest percentage of polymorphism was found in H. psittacorum (17.65%) and the highest was in H. stricta (55.88%). Using AFLP, phylogenetic analysis of the species studied revealed the monophyletic origin of the Heliconiaceae family, and identified the Heliconia subgenus as monophyletic while providing evidence of the polyphyletic origin of several representatives of the Stenochlamys subgenus. PMID:23212400

Isaza, L; Marulanda, M L; López, A M

2012-01-01

435

Snake venomics of Bothrops punctatus, a semiarboreal pitviper species from Antioquia, Colombia.  

PubMed

Bothrops punctatus is an endangered, semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose venom is poorly characterized. In the present work, the protein composition of this venom was profiled using the 'snake venomics' analytical strategy. Decomplexation of the crude venom by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, followed by tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic digests, showed that it consists of proteins assigned to at least nine snake toxin families. Metalloproteinases are predominant in this secretion (41.5% of the total proteins), followed by C-type lectin/lectin-like proteins (16.7%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (10.7%), phospholipases A2 (93%), serine proteinases (5.4%), disintegrins (38%), L-amino acid oxidases (3.1%), vascular endothelial growth factors (17%), and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (1.2%). Altogether, 6.6% of the proteins were not identified. In vitro, the venom exhibited proteolytic, phospholipase A2, and L-amino acid oxidase activities, as well as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity, in agreement with the obtained proteomic profile. Cytotoxic activity on murine C2C12 myoblasts was negative, suggesting that the majority of venom phospholipases A2 likely belong to the acidic type, which often lack major toxic effects. The protein composition of B. punctatus venom shows a good correlation with toxic activities here and previously reported, and adds further data in support of the wide diversity of strategies that have evolved in snake venoms to subdue prey, as increasingly being revealed by proteomic analyses. PMID:24498576

Fernández Culma, Maritza; Andrés Pereañez, Jaime; Núñez Rangel, Vitelbina; Lomonte, Bruno

2014-01-01

436

Primary health care contribution to improve health outcomes in Bogota-Colombia: a longitudinal ecological analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Colombia has a highly segmented and fragmented national health system that contributes to inequitable health outcomes. In 2004 the district government of Bogota initiated a Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy to improve health care access and population health status. This study aims to analyse the contribution of the PHC strategy to the improvement of health outcomes controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods A longitudinal ecological analysis using data from secondary sources was carried out. The analysis used data from 2003 and 2007 (one year before and 3?years after the PHC implementation). A Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) of coverage intensity was constructed. According to the PHCI, localities were classified into two groups: high and low coverage. A multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model for each year separately and a Panel Poisson regression model to assess changes between the groups over the years was developed. Dependent variables were infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, infant mortality rate due to acute diarrheal disease and pneumonia, prevalence of acute malnutrition, vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The independent variable was the PHCI. Control variables were sewerage coverage, health system insurance coverage and quality of life index. Results The high PHCI localities as compared with the low PHCI localities showed significant risk reductions of under-5 mortality (13.8%) and infant mortality due to pneumonia (37.5%) between 2003 and 2007. The probability of being vaccinated for DPT also showed a significant increase of 4.9%. The risk of infant mortality and of acute malnutrition in children under-5?years was lesser in the high coverage group than in the low one; however relative changes were not statistically significant. Conclusions Despite the adverse contextual conditions and the limitations imposed by the Colombian health system itself, Bogota’s initiative of a PHC strategy has successfully contributed to the improvement of some health outcomes. PMID:22898368

2012-01-01

437

Diagnosis of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia: a comparison of seven methods.  

PubMed

Seven methods of diagnosing leishmaniasis were compared in 177 patients presenting with lesions of the skin (165) or mucosa (12) in Tumaco and Cali, Colombia. The three methods of visualizing amastigotes in tissue samples (histological staining of tissue sections, impression smears of punch biopsies, and smears of dermal scraping from slits in the lesion margins) were less sensitive than the four Leishmania isolation methods (aspiration of lesion border cultured in biphasic media, aspirate inoculated into hamster nasal tissue, culture of punch biopsy macerate, and hamster inoculation of macerate). The aspirate-culture and biopsy-hamster methods employed in this study proved most sensitive of the four methods for the recovery of parasites. The combined overall sensitivity of the 7 methods was 67% for all enrolled patients and 75% for Montenegro skin test-positive patients. The individual sensitivities for the methods for all patients and Montenegro-positive positive, patients, respectively, were: histopathology 14% and 16%, impression smear 19% and 21%, dermal scraping 22% and 26%, aspirate-culture 58% and 64%, aspirate-hamster 38% and 41%, biopsy-culture 50% and 55%, and biopsy-hamster 52% and 57%. All methods were less sensitive in lesions of greater than 6 months duration than in lesions of more recent onset. Mucosal lesions were best diagnosed by the culture or hamster inoculation of a macerated mucosal biopsy. The diagnosis by inoculation of hamsters was achieved within 2 to 12 weeks, a mean of 34.5 days. Promastigotes were seen on Senekjie's medium within 3-8 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2437815

Weigle, K A; de Dávalos, M; Heredia, P; Molineros, R; Saravia, N G; D'Alessandro, A

1987-05-01

438

Plasma Selenium Measurements in Subjects from Areas with Contrasting Gastric Cancer Risks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background An inverse association between selenium status and incidence of different neoplasias including gastric cancer has been reported. This pilot study aimed to determine and compare selenium status in two Colombian populations with different gastric cancer risks: a high-risk area in the volcanic region of the Andes Mountains and a low-risk area on the Pacific coast. Methods Eighty nine adult males were recruited in the outpatient clinics of two public hospitals (44 and 45 from high- and low-risk areas, respectively) and provided a blood sample. Seventy one (79.8%) participants underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Plasma selenium was assayed using a fluorometric method, selenoprotein-P by ELISA, and glutathione peroxidase activity by a spectrophometric method. Histological diagnosis and Helicobacter pylori infection were evaluated in gastric biopsy samples. Unpaired samples t-test and linear regression analyses were used for statistical analyses. Results Although none of the subjects in either of the two geographic areas was selenium deficient, the level of plasma selenium was significantly lower in men from the high-risk area compared with those from the low-risk area. Levels of selenoprotein-P and glutathione peroxidase activity were similar between groups after adjustment for confounders. Selenium measurements were not associated with histopathological diagnosis. Conclusions The high incidence of gastric cancer in the Andean region of Colombia is unlikely to be explained by selenium deficiency. We cannot exclude, however, that suboptimal selenium levels may exist in the gastric mucosa of subjects in the high-risk area. Therefore, the benefit of selenium supplementation in gastric cancer prevention cannot be dismissed. PMID:18375257

Camargo, Maria Constanza; Burk, Raymond F.; Bravo, Luis E.; Piazuelo, Maria B.; Hill, Kristina E.; Fontham, Elizabeth T.; Motley, Amy K.; Yepez, Maria C.; Mora, Yolanda; Schneider, Barbara G.; Correa, Pelayo

2008-01-01

439

Necrotizing ulcerative periodontal diseases in children and young adults in Medellín, Colombia, 1965--2000.  

PubMed

Previous findings that necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a precursor to noma or cancrum oris were confirmed by the follow-up of these clinical conditions in a study of 45 Colombian patients: necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG, n = 29), necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP, n = 7) and noma (n = 9). Patients were diagnosed at the outpatient clinic of the School of Dentistry at the University of Antioquia, at the University Hospital Saint Vincent of Paul, at the Luz Castro de Gutierrez University Hospital, at the Red Cross Hospital and at the private office of one of the authors (Jiménez L., M) in Medellín, Colombia, from 1965 until 2000. Almost all the patients came from low socioeconomic groups and presented with predisposing and/or contributing factors, such as acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, measles, and leukemia (including acute lymphoblastic and chronic lymphoid leukemia). Malnutrition and poor oral hygiene were associated with the necrotizing process and favored progression from the gingiva to deeper periodontal tissues and other structures within the oral cavity or the facial tissues. No patients had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDS, which makes these findings different from other reports. Noma can be prevented by vaccinating children against infectious diseases, by controlling malnutrition and by improving their oral hygiene. It is arrested by mechanical lesion debridement, improving oral hygiene and antibiotic therapy. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis may progress in some cases to ulcerative necrotizing stomatitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis, and, finally, to noma. Microbial studies among new Colombian NUG, NUP and noma patients are necessary, using bacterial culturing and identification methods and molecular techniques such as PCR for viruses and bacteria, in order to establish the exact nature of these lesions. PMID:15912925

Jiménez, L Mario; Duque, Francisco L; Baer, Paul N; Jiménez, Sol Beatriz

2005-04-01

440

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Bivalent and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccines from a Societal Perspective in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. Methods A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). Results At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be ‘cost-effective’ vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. Conclusions HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program. PMID:24260441

Aponte-González, Johanna; Fajardo-Bernal, Luisa; Diaz, Jorge; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Gamboa, Oscar; Hay, Joel W.

2013-01-01

441

Juridical and sociocultural problems on the definition of a law concerning property, usage and access to genetic resources in Colombia.  

PubMed

The property, usage, and access to genetic resources, is today one of the primary topics in international business, as a result of the strategic importance of the resources for the biotechnology industry. Internationally, the sovereignty that each country has over its natural patrimony is recognized. However, the new laws of international marketing have obligated countries in the process of development, such as Colombia, to adopt and copy a concept of intellectual property on living resources that does not have anything to do with the country's sociocultural identity, and sometimes even does not take into account its material enjoyment. The new juridical movement that treats genetic resources as private property produces a cultural conflict between indigenous populations, Afro-Americans and peasants, because for them the genetic resources are an element of community life. In these communities, knowledge is freely transmitted; it is an understanding that they have to conserve their agricultural customs and the relationship that they have with the environment. They do not recognize the term "property' according to patenting laws. These elements have to be considered, respected, and guaranteed in the laws that recognize the genetic resources in the country. On the other hand, not even countries that are pioneers in biotechnological development can adopt a concept about patents that is in agreement with the particularities that the living materials possess. This is obviously the reason for the numerous discussions on the legal interpretation, as well as complicated debates in court. Confronting that situation, there are countries rich in biodiversity, such as Colombia, but which do not have a proper concept and are not economically strong in the international context. These countries have to copy inadequate protection policies that do not take into account all their rights. This paper describes some of the technical, juridical, and sociocultural difficulties which Colombia has to confront, in order to set a guideline on patenting living organisms, and on the access and usage of the genetic resources. PMID:9213609

Calle, R

1996-04-01

442

Molecular Evidence of Demographic Expansion of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Triatoma dimidiata is one of the most significant vectors of Chagas disease in Central America and Colombia, and, as in most species, its pattern of genetic variation within and among populations is strongly affected by its phylogeographic history. A putative origin from Central America has been proposed for Colombian populations, and high genetic differentiation among three biographically different population groups has recently been evidenced. Analyses based on putatively neutral markers provide data from which past events, such as population expansions and colonization, can be inferred. We analyzed the genealogies of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1-mitochondrial genes, as well as partial nuclear ITS-2 DNA sequences obtained across most of the eco-geographical range in Colombia, to assess the population structure and demographic factors that may explain the geographical distribution of T. dimidiata in this country. Results The population structure results support a significant association between genetic divergence and the eco-geographical location of population groups, suggesting that clear signals of demographic expansion can explain the geographical distribution of haplotypes of population groups. Additionally, empirical date estimation of the event suggests that the population's expansion can be placed after the emergence of the Panama Isthmus, and that it was possibly followed by a population fragmentation process, perhaps resulting from local adaptation accomplished by orographic factors such as geographical isolation. Conclusion Inferences about the historical population processes in Colombian T. dimidiata populations are generally in accordance with population expansions that may have been accomplished by two important biotic and orographic events such as the Great American Interchange and the uplift of the eastern range of the Andes mountains in central Colombia. PMID:24625572

Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Triana, Omar

2014-01-01

443

Ayuda para usar el sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Página de guía que le permite al lector entender la forma en que está organizado el sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), las categorías de información disponibles y las políticas que rigen este sitio web.

444

Cost comparison of selected coal mines from Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Special pub  

SciTech Connect

The report presents production and delivered costs for coal exports from the five major Western coal-exporting countries: Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Cost data were compiled from visits to 43 mines by U.S. Bureau of Mines engineers between 1985 and 1990. All report costs are in January 1989 U.S. dollars per short ton. In the report, the Bureau updates and combines information from four earlier reports. These studies provide basic insights into the competitiveness of the U.S. coal industry with those of major coal-exporting countries.

Not Available

1993-08-01

445

Cyclicality, Mortality, and the Value of Time: The Case of Coffee Price Fluctuations and Child Survival in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Recent studies demonstrate procyclical mortality in wealthy countries, but there are reasons to expect a countercyclical relationship in developing nations. We investigate how child survival in Colombia responds to fluctuations in world Arabica coffee prices – and document starkly procyclical child deaths. In studying this result’s behavioral underpinnings, we highlight that: (1) The leading determinants of child health are inexpensive but require considerable time, and (2) As the value of time declines with falling coffee prices, so does the relative price of health. We find a variety of direct evidence consistent with the primacy of time in child health production. PMID:22090662

Miller, Grant; Urdinola, B. Piedad

2011-01-01

446

El astrologo y el Emperador del Ganges1 Nota preliminar  

E-print Network

El astr´ologo y el Emperador del Ganges1 Nota preliminar El explorador y aventurero Sir Richard~nos las Actas de las audiencias del Emperador del Ganges, pero apenas logr´o recopilar algunos de los comunicante: Las audiencias del Emperador del Ganges eran re- gistradas en Actas, con todo lujo de detalles

Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

447

El Corral del Veleta: enclave geográfico singular del Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La unidad del Veleta, por sus valores científicos y culturales, es enclave singular del Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada. En particular, su Corral, que fue reducto glaciar durante la Pequeña Edad del Hielo y que aún alberga hielo fósil y permafrost alpino. Al tratarse de reducto recién deglaciado se desarrollan procesos morfogénicos fríos de especial relevancia. También señalar de

Antonio Gómez Ortiz

448

Estudio bibliométrico de los modelos de medición del concepto de calidad percibida del servicio en Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

P a l a b r a s c l a v e : marketing de servicios, calidad del servicio al cliente, calidad del servicio en Internet, modelos de evaluación de la calidad del servicio. a b s t r a c t A b i b l i o m e t r i c a n a l

Edison Jair; Duque Oliva; Amparo Cervera Taulet; Carlos Rodríguez Romero

449

Seroprevalence of rubella in Colombia: a birth-year cohort analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of rubella and associated factors. METHODS Population-based seroprevalence study in a random sample of 2,124 individuals, aged six to 64 years, representative by age, sex and area in Medellín, Colombia, 2009. Biological and socioeconomic variables were analyzed for their association with serum protection against rubella, according to birth-year cohort; those born before (1954-1990) and after (1991-2003) the introduction of universal immunization. Titer of IgG antibodies against the rubella virus was detected using a high sensitivity (AxSYM®Rubella IgG – Abbott Laboratories) and a high specificity test (VIDAS RUB IgG II®– BioMerieux Laboratories). Proportions and weighted averages derived from a complex sample, including a correction factor for differences in gender participation, were estimated. Association with protection for groups of biological and social variables according to birth cohort was analyzed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS Titers of IgG antibodies were higher in those born before (mean 110 UI/ml, 95%CI 100.5;120.2) compared to those born after (mean 64 UI/ml; 95%CI 54.4;72.8; p = 0.000) the introduction of mass immunization. The proportion of protection increased from 88.9% in those born 1990-1994, to 89.2% in those born 1995-1999 and to 92.1% in those born between 2000 and 2003, possibly due to boosters being administered from 1998 onwards. In those born before the introduction of the immunization, seroprotection was associated with previous contact with cases (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.1;5.9), self- perceived health status (OR 2.5; 95%CI 1.05;6.0), educational level (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0.08;0.8) and years of residence in the neighborhood (RD 0,96; 95%CI 0.98;1.0) after adjusting for all variables. In those born after, serum protection was associated with effective sleep time (OR 1,4; 95%CI 1.09;1.8) and self-perceived health status (OR 5.5; 95%CI 1.2;23.8). CONCLUSIONS The seroprevalence profile changed with the mass immunization plan, with higher titers of IgG antibodies in those born before the start of the immunization. It is recommended that the level of long-term protection be monitored and concerted action taken to improve potentially associated socioeconomic conditions. PMID:24626546

Hincapie-Palacio, Doracelly; Lenis Ballesteros, Viviana; Ospina, Martha Ospina; Toro, Olga Lucía Pérez; Díaz, Francisco J

2013-01-01

450

[Food and reproductive biology of Farlowella vittata (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in Güejar River Basin, Orinoco, Colombia].  

PubMed

Neotropical fish live in streams with considerable spatial and temporal variability of their food items. Food availability depends on different factors such as discharge, channel morphology, physicochemical conditions and interactions with other species, as well as their food habits. On the other side, good food availability results in reproductive success. Because the study of those changes contributes to a better understanding of trophic interactions in fish populations, the present work describes and evaluates aspects of diet and reproduction of Farlowella vittata in Pringamosal Creek, Güejar River drainage, Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Five collecting expeditions were done during both high and low rain seasons of 2008 and 2009. Physical and chemical water parameters were measured, and fish were captured from several points along the total length of the 7km stream, to characterize their biometry and stomach contents. Our results showed that Pringamosal creek is a first order stream, about 3.5m wide and with an average depth of 1m in our study area. Dissolved oxygen values were 6.2mg/L during low water and 2.7mg/L during high water phase. The creek is classified as oligotrophic but with a tendency to eutrophication. A total of 130 fish samples were analyzed. Fishes were assigned to seven size range categories between 86.0 and 175.5mm standard length (SL). Stomach contents revealed that the diet of this species consisted mainly of algae (Bacillariophyceae) (84.6% Abundance Relative), but we observed a variation in the diet according to season; during low rainfall it feeds on phytoplankton (86.47% A.R.) and during high rainfall on zooplankton as well as plant material and organic material (0.685% A.R. and 18.83% A.R., respectively). A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in food items between sexes. The condition factor (K) indicated that the species was well fed. Size at sexual maturity was 154mm SL for males and 124mm SL for females. The gonadosomatic index (RGS) showed that this fish reproduced during high water (April-May) season, and females showed a fecundity of 1 819 ovocites, with an average diameter of 1.4mm. Although parental care was not observed during this study, it is well known that males protect their eggs and juveniles, making them easy to capture during the breeding periods identified in this study, and at the same time, vulnerable to overexploitation. We recommend an urgent management plan for the conservation of this species, since at this time, no fishing controls are enforced even though it is harvested as an ornamental species. PMID:23342535

García-Alzate, Carlos A; Román-Valencia, César; Barrero, Ana M

2012-12-01

451

Seismic Source Study of the 19 January, 1995 Tauramena (Colombia) Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tauramena (Colombia) earthquake, Mw = 6.5, occurred the 19 January, 1995 in the Andean Eastern Cordillera Foothill region, the so-called Piedemonte Llanero. The Harvard's CMT focal mechanism indicates an almost pure inverse fault rupture. There was no surface rupture associated to this earthquake. A field expedition to the epicentral area was organized and a temporary portable network was installed during one month to register aftershock activity. The detailed picture of the aftershock distribution shows epicenters extended over an area of 900 km2 and suggests two antithetic planes on which most of the activity was concentrated. The main event and aftershocks previous to the installation of the portable network were relocated, showing a distribution consistent with that of the subsequent events. A stress tensor inversion for P-wave first motion polarities was performed and focal mechanisms for the best recorded aftershocks were calculated. A well defined principal axis oriented in NW-SE direction was found, coherent with the direction of convergence between the Caribbean Plate and the Andean block. The mechanism and the source time function of the main shock were reconstructed from waveform inversion of P and SH teleseismic records. The main event was modeled by a linear source of 5 sec duration, propagating toward the SW, and with an almost pure reverse mechanism. The fault plane is oriented in 217° azimuth and dips 56° . Based on an appraisal of the tectonics of the Andean Eastern Cordillera Foothill region relying on field work in structural geology in the area, published geological maps and geophysical information, jointly with aftershock locations and focal mechanism, stress tensor orientation and teleseismic body waveform inversion, we propose a model for the Tauramena earthquake. We assert that the Tauramena earthquake was produced by the overthrusting of folded and deformed Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments enclosed between the Guaicaramo and Lengupa faults. The main shock is associated to a steep plane (dip ~55° ) corresponding to a detached basement fault of the Guaicaramo System. Our results suggesting the presence of shortcuts and a backthrust favor the hypothesis of the Guaicaramo Fault System being an ancient normal fault system reactivated as thrust.

Dimate, C.; Dimate, C.; Dimate, C.; Delouis, B.; Rivera, L.; Taboada, A.; Osorio, A.; Jimenez, E.; Cisternas, A.; Fuenzalida, A.; Gomez, I.

2001-12-01

452

14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volca??n Galeras, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volca??n Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new 14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and modest Vulcanian eruptions. Photographs, written accounts, and our study document historic north and east flank pyroclastic flows as far as 10 km from the summit; however, none have left recognizable deposits in Pasto for more than 40 ka.

Banks, N.G.; Calvache, V.M.L.; Williams, S.N.

1997-01-01

453

[Palms conservation, patterns of use and diversity (Arecaceae) in rain forests from the Chocó, Colombia].  

PubMed

Arecaceae is a family rich in species and provides resources for the subsistence of human groups in the tropical regions. The aim of this work was to assess the richness, diversity, composition, and use patterns of the family Arecaceae in three communities of the Medio Atrato, Chocó, Colombia, in order to obtain useful information to support the sustainable use and conservation of this plant groups in the biogeographical area of the Colombian Chocó. The fieldwork was carried out between 2009 and 2010 in the localities of Beté, Tangui and El Buey in the municipality of Medio Atrato. In each of the communities, a total of ten plots of 80 x 5 m (400 m2; 0.4 ha per zone) were established and all individuals of palm species were counted and recorded. On the other hand, information on use types and useful organs was also recorded in each community through informal interviews. A total of 29 species and 18 genera were recorded. Bactris (24.13%) and Wettinia (10.34%) were the genera with most species richness. El Buey showed more species and genera richness (23 species, 17 genera) than Beté (15, 10) and Tangui (14, 11). The floristic similarity among the three communities was less than 45%. The species with higher use and ecological value were: Euterpe oleracea, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea allennii, Manicaria saccifera, Bactris gassipaes and Wettinia quinaria. The categories of use with higher number of species and cultural importance were construction, food and handicraft. The most used structures of the palms were the stems and fruits. In conclusion, the results indicate that the Medio Atrato has high richness and diversity of palm species in a regional and national context. However, the relationship between number of use and ecological importance of the species depends on the locality and show that the socio-cultural significance of the palm species may vary among groups of people who share a same culture or biogeographic region. Future studies should be conducted to determine the role of the type of organ used as raw material on the demographic and ecological dynamic of the palm populations in the Chocó and other Neotropical regions. PMID:24432540

Valois-Cuesta, Hamleth; Martínez-Ruiz, Carolina; Rentería Cuesta, Yucith Yudelmis; Sol María, Panesso Hinestroza

2013-12-01

454

Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Libro sobre el control del dolor en pacientes con cáncer. Cubre los métodos y medicinas, así como los efectos físicos y emocionales del dolor. Es una adaptación cultural para el público de habla hispana del libro en inglés Pain Control.

455

Le rane delle risaie Osservazioni sugli Iperolidi del  

E-print Network

boettgeri finora è stato segnalato sol- tanto nell'estremo Sudest del Mada- gascar. Si rimanda alle cartine boettgeri) si somigliano molto. Le rane del genere Heterixalus, a seconda della specie e del luogo di

456

CLASSIFICAZIONE MORFOLOGICA QUANTITATIVA DEL TERRITORIO ITALIANO TRAMITE WAVELET  

E-print Network

CLASSIFICAZIONE MORFOLOGICA QUANTITATIVA DEL TERRITORIO ITALIANO TRAMITE WAVELET M. De Agostino una rappresentazione quantitativa della morfologia dell'intero territorio italiano, al fine di del terreno. Il risultato finale della procedura è costituito dalla divisione del territorio italiano

Poggi, Davide

457

Movement and counter-movement: a history of abortion law reform and the backlash in Colombia 2006-2014.  

PubMed

In 2006, the Constitutional Court of Colombia issued Decision C-355/2006, which liberalized the country's abortion law. The reform was groundbreaking in its argumentation, being one of the first judicial decisions in the world to uphold abortion rights on equality grounds, and the first by a constitutional court to rule on the constitutionality of abortion within a human rights framework. It was also the first of a series of reforms that would liberalize the abortion regulation in four other Latin American countries. The Colombian case is also notable for the process of strategic litigation carried out by feminist organizations after the Court's decision, in order to ensure its implementation and counter the opposition from conservative actors working in State institutions, as well as for the active role played by the Court in that process. Based on fieldwork carried out in Colombia in 2013, this article analyzes the process of progressive implementation and reactionary backlash after Decision C-355/2006, with an emphasis on strategic litigation by the feminist movement and subsequent decisions by the Constitutional Court, which consolidated its jurisprudence in the field of abortion rights. It highlights the role of both feminists and of conservative activists within State institutions as opposing social movements, and the dynamics of political and legal mobilization and counter-mobilization in that process. PMID:25555762

Ruibal, Alba

2014-11-01

458

A new species of Halicyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae) from a lagoon system of the Caribbean coast of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plankton samples obtained from the lagoon system Laguna Navío Quebrado, in northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an undescribed cyclopoid copepod of the genus Halicyclops. The new species belongs to the highly diverse and widely distributed thermophilus-complex. It closely resembles Halicyclops clarkei Herbst, 1982 from Louisiana and Halicyclops bowmani Rocha & Iliffe, 1993 from Bermuda. These species share the same armature of P1-P4EXP3, with a 3443 spine formula and the terminal antennary segment with 5 setae. However, Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n. can be separated from both Halicyclops clarkei and Halicyclops bowmani by the morphology of the anal pseudoperculum, the proportions of the fourth antennulary segment, the length of the inner basipodal spine of P1, the P1EXP/inner basipodal spine inner length ratio and the length/width ratio of the caudal rami. This is the third species of Halicyclops recorded from Colombia and the first one described from this country. With the addition of Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n., the number of species of Halicyclops known from the Neotropics increases to 19. The regional diversity of the genus is probably underestimated. PMID:25561852

Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.

2014-01-01

459

First Record of Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini) in the Municipality of Riohacha, La Guajira – Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Knowledge of vector insect species, their habitat, and geographical distribution is crucial for determining the risk of transmission of the etiological agents that cause disease in humans, which allows defining strategies for prevention, surveillance, and control in line with the characteristics of each area. Objective: To determine the presence and public health importance of vectors of Chagas disease in the indigenous settlements of Marbacella and El Horno of the Wayúu ethnic group in the municipality of Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia. Materials and Methods: From active search, installation and inspection of biosensors, and occasional catches, Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini were collected intra and in the peridomicile housing of the indigenous settlements of El Horno and Marbacella of the Wayúu ethnic group. Indices of intra and peridomestic infestation, colonization, density, dispersion, and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 were calculated. Results: 79.6% (n?=?90) of the specimens were collected in the peridomicile and 20.3% (n?=?23) in the intradomicile, all corresponding to Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848). The natural infection indices with T. cruzi accounted for 43.5% for Marbacella and 36% for El Horno. Conclusion: This is the first reported capture of individuals of T. maculata, considered a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia, naturally infected with T. cruzi in the municipality of Riohacha expanding the geographical distribution of the species in the department of La Guajira. PMID:25426481

Gómez-Melendro, Edith Natalia; Hernández, Carolina; González-Uribe, Catalina; Brochero, Helena

2014-01-01

460

[Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi : a new epidemiological scenario for Chagas´ disease in Colombia and other South American countries].  

PubMed

Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas´ disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite´s genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies. PMID:25504253

Rueda, Karina; Trujillo, Jorge Eduardo; Carranza, Julio César; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

2014-12-01

461

A new mtDNA COI gene lineage near An. janconnae of the Albitarsis Complex from Caribbean Colombia  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the taxonomic status and vector distribution of anophelines is crucial to malaria control efforts. Previous phylogenetic analyses have supported the description of six species of the Neotropical malaria vector Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae): Anopheles albitarsis, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. oryzalimnetes, An. janconnae and An. albitarsis F. To evaluate the taxonomic status of An. albitarsis s.l. mosquitoes collected in various localities of the Colombian Caribbean region, specimens were analyzed using the complete mtDNA Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene, the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and partial nuclear DNA White gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of the COI sequences detected a new lineage near An. janconnae in the Caribbean region of Colombia and determined its position relative to the other members of the complex. However, the ITS2 and White gene sequences lacked resolution to support a new lineage near An. janconnae or the An. janconnae clade. Nothing is known about the possible involvement in malaria transmission in Colombia of this new lineage, but its phylogenetic closeness to Anopheles janconnae, which has been incriminated in local malaria transmission in Brazil, is provocative. PMID:21225199

Gutiérrez, Lina A; Orrego, Lina M; Gómez, Giovan F; López, Andrés; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

2011-01-01

462

Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia). Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89%) and Lutzomyia walkeri (5%) were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi) were present in very low abundance (< 2%). Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February), directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance. PMID:23828011

Trujillo, Adolfo Vásquez; Reina, Angélica E González; Orjuela, Agustín Góngora; Suárez, Edgar Prieto; Palomares, Jairo Enrique; Alvarez, Luz Stella Buitrago

2013-01-01

463

SERVICIO DE DEPORTES NORMATIVA DE ACTUACIN DEL  

E-print Network

SERVICIO DE DEPORTES NORMATIVA DE ACTUACI�N DEL PERSONAL AUXILIAR DE INSTALACIONES DEPORTIVAS CULTURA, DEPORTES Y POLÍTICA LING�ÍSTICA 3 NORMATIVA DE ACTUACI�N DEL PERSONAL AUXILIAR DE INSTALACIONES VICERRECTORADO DE CULTURA, DEPORTES Y POLÍTICA LING�ÍSTICA 4 · Entrega de las llaves de los vestuarios al

Escolano, Francisco

464

Mercato del carbonio e settore forestale: buone  

E-print Network

'ambito del PK D. Le scelte del Governo italiano Definizioni · 1 credito = 1 t CO2 equivalente (eq) · Eq = il in equivalenti di CO2 · 1 t C eq = 3,66 t CO2 eq #12;11-10-2012 2 Regole e buone prassi · MARC Quando si opera

Pettenella, Davide

465

Aspectos macroeconómicos del plan de desarrollo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poco después de la apertura, la economía inició un ciclo de crecimiento rápido y acumulación de déficits, seguido por otra etapa de correctivos monetarios que frenan el crecimiento, pero que no eliminan las causas del desiquilibrio. El Plan de Desarrollo reduce el déficit fiscal y es probable que la próxima fase de expansión dure 3 años, en lugar del año

Luis Lorente

1999-01-01

466

Teoría del discurso y derechos humanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

En esta obra Alexy desarrolla su fundamentación de las decisiones judiciales o teoría de la argumentación jurídica. Su concepción es eminentemente racional y parte de la teoría del discurso de Habermas, en el intento de lograr un modelo de argumentación jurídica que corresponda al Estado constitucional democrático. La singularidad del punto de vista que aquí expone radica en que considera

Robert Alexy

467

CAPÍTULO 4. ANÁLISIS DEL DISCURSO: DISCURSO DEL EMPERADOR HIROHITO CON MOTIVO DE LA RENDICIÓN DE JAPÓN DE LA GUERRA DEL PACÍFICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

El ACD se encuadra en el marco teórico del Análisis del Discurso, teoría que otorga al discurso la dimensión de práctica social. En el ACD se explota esta vertiente social del uso del lenguaje, profundizando en las relaciones sociales e ideológicas que se establecen entre el texto y el contexto. El discurso se concibe como un concepto tridimensional: discurso como

Raquel Rubio Martín

468

Afebrile pneumonia (whooping cough) syndrome in infants at Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, 2001-2007  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Afebrile pneumonia syndrome in infants, also called infant pneumonitis, pneumonia caused by atypical pathogens or whooping cough syndrome is a major cause of severe lower respiratory infection in young infants, both in developing countries and in developed countries. Objective: To describe children with afebrile pneumonia syndrome. Methods: Through a cross-sectional study, we reviewed the medical records of children diagnosed with afebrile pneumonia treated at Hospital Universitario del Valle, a reference center in southwestern Colombia, between June 2001 and December 2007. We obtained data on maternal age and origin, prenatal care, the childs birth, breastfeeding, vaccination status, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and complications. Results: We evaluated 101 children with this entity, noting a stationary presentation: June-August and November- December. A total of 73% of the children were under 4 months of age; the most common symptoms were: cyanotic and spasmodic cough (100%), respiratory distress (70%), and unquantified fever (68%). The most common findings: rales (crackles) (50%), wheezing and expiratory stridor (37%); 66% were classified as mild and of the remaining 33%, half of them required attention in the intensive care unit. In all, there was clinical diagnosis of afebrile pneumonia syndrome in infants, but no etiologic diagnosis was made and despite this, 94% of the children received macrolides. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that most of these patients acquired the disease by airway, possibly caused by viral infection and did not require the indiscriminate use of macrolides. PMID:24893051

Villegas, Dolly; Echandía-Villegas, Connie Alejandra

2012-01-01

</