These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

Zollweg, J.E.



Deadly Lahars from Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia: November 13, 1985  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site describes a series of Lahars that occurred from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in the Andes mountains, the northernmost and highest volcano in Colombia. Beginning in November 1984, the volcano began showing clear signs of unrest. An explosive eruption from Ruiz's summit crater on November 13, 1985, at 9:08 p.m. generated an eruption column and sent a series of pyroclastic flows and surges across the volcano's summit. Within minutes, pumice and ash began to fall to the northeast along with heavy rain that had started earlier in the day. Within four hours, lahars had traveled 100 km and left behind a wake of destruction: more than 23,000 people killed, about 5,000 injured, and more than 5,000 homes destroyed along the Chinchina, Guali, and Lagunillas rivers and destroying the town of Armero, Columbia. This deadly eruption of Nevado del Ruiz offers lessons on the generation of lahars for scientists, emergency-response professionals, and communities located downstream of such ice- and snow-covered volcanoes. The narrative is illustrated with 9 photographs.

Banks, N.; Marso, J.; Pierson, T.; Janda, R.


Deformation monitoring at Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia - October 1985 - March 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deformation studies began at Nevado del Ruiz 23 days before the devastating 13 November 1985 eruption, at least 12 months after precursory seismicity and fumarolic activity began. The late start in geodetic monitoring, limited number of stations in the pre-eruption network, and inconsistent patterns in the observed deformation limit conclusions about intrusive activity in the months and weeks prior to the eruption. However, the data require that the magma source of the devastating eruption was either deeper than 7 km or, if shallow, recovered the same volume and position within one week of the eruption. Geodetic monitoring resumed 1 week after the eruption and, by April 1986, included 11 tilt-leveling stations, 38 EDM lines, and 7 short leveling lines - a network capable of detecting emplacement or movement of magma volumes as small as 3 MCM (3 ?? 106 m3) to a depth of 2-3 km (using a point-source model), 10 MCM to 7 km, 50 MCM to 10 km, and 200 MCM to 15 km beneath Ruiz. In addition, 4 telemetered tiltmeters provided the capability of detecting, in real time, the fairly rapid ascent of much smaller magma bodies. Stations established to detect instability of the summit ice cap after the eruption were discontinued in early 1986. The data collected from the geodetic networks have higher than normal variance but demonstrate that little or no cumulative deformation of Ruiz occurred from October 1985 through March 1988. Thus, little, if any, magma intruded above 5 km beneath the summit during or after the 13 November 1985 eruption. This lack of significant intrusive activity agrees with the surprisingly low seismic energy release under Ruiz and makes direct degassing of a large batholith an improbable explanation of the large sulfur flux to date at Ruiz. Part of the variance in the geodetic data results from real but noncumulative deformation that may in part be pressure-buffered by a fairly large geothermal water-gas mixture for which abundant physical evidence exists. Part of the noncumulative deformation, some of the fairly dispersed and low-level seismicity under Ruiz, and some phreatic events appear to correlate with seasonal precipitation patterns. Hence rain/snow-loading and groundwater interaction may cause deformation events and possibly help trigger some phreatic explosions and seismic events at Ruiz and, as search of the literature reveals, at other volcanoes in metastable states. ?? 1990.

Banks, N.G.; Carvajal, C.; Mora, H.; Tryggvason, E.



Volcanic disasters in Latin America and the 13th November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia.  


Volcanic eruptions in Latin America have claimed about 61,000 lives since 1600 A.D. and the region's volcanoes are responsible for about a quarter of the world's fatalities from this type of hazard. Nearly all loss of life from volcanism in Latin America is due to pyroclastic surges, pyroclastic flows and lahars or volcanic mudflows. Lahars generated during the 13th November, 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia claimed 25,000 lives, underscoring the great hazard from lahars, which can be generated from the fifty-six, active, ice-capped Central and South American volcanoes during even very small eruptions. The probability of specific prediction of the timing of such events is currently low, whereas the probability of a general prediction of volcanic eruption is high, giving sufficient time to install telemetered lahar alarm systems, which could largely avoid the loss of life. PMID:20958632

Sigurdsson, H; Carey, S



Impacts of acid emissions from Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, on selected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of acidic gases and thermal waters from Nevado del Ruiz volcano have recently increased in concert with the November 13, 1985 eruption. This study examines the downwind and downstream effects of these emissions on alpine ecosystems high on the slopes of the volcano (4100 m) and on coffee plantations at lower elevations (< 2000 m) and greater distances from the active vent (> 30 km). Samples of bulk deposition, rain, soils, soil solutions, and streams were collected over a six-month period (January-July, 1987) to examine the impacts of this volcanogenic acidity. Bulk deposition falling on the higher slopes of the volcano is usually acidified; however, deposition reaching the distal coffee plantations seldom is acidic. The sources of the acids are hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide in the plume of the volcano. Although sulfur dioxide is by far the more abundant gas, hydrogen chloride is most responsible for acidification of rain falling on the slopes of the volcano. With distance from the vent, the chloride/sulfate ratio drops exponentially. The only major influence on regional precipitation chemistry in addition to the volcano appears to be land-use-related activities around the coffee plantations. Deposition on these areas is enriched by an order of magnitude in nitrate and base cations, compared to all other stations. Throughfall chemistry in the coffee plantations shows a dramatic response to occasional acid-rain events. A base-leaching process on coffee plant leaves is triggered by acid rain. For each equivalent of hydrogen ion in rain on the leaf surface, over 23 equivalents of potassium ion are leached from the leaf. In spite of this dramatic response by the vegetation, the plantation soils appear relatively unaffected by acidic deposition. In contrast, the alpine soils on the volcano exhibit low pHs, high sulfate and chloride concentrations in soil solutions, and high extractable sulfate concentrations. All of these factors indicate that these soils have undergone significant acid loading. While the deposition of the region is acidified by hydrogen chloride, the streams flowing off the volcano are apparently acidified by sulfuric acid in thermal waters discharging into the streams. The acidity of these streams decreases downstream, while the silica concentrations increase downstream. The composition of stream water is most influenced by thermal-water discharges as well as equilibrium dissolution of amorphous silica glass and non-equilibrium leaching of unweathered ash. The impacts of acid gases and thermal water released from the volcano appear to be restricted to ecosystems on the slope of the volcano. The only impact of Nevado del Ruiz on surrounding coffee plantations appears to be potassium leaching of coffee leaves from occasional acid-deposition events.

Parnell, Roderic A.; Burke, Kelly J.



Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobilization, flow and deposition of lahars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A complex sequence of pyroclastic flows and surges erupted by Nevado del Ruiz volcano on 13 November 1985 interacted with snow and ice on the summit ice cap to trigger catastrophic lahars (volcanic debris flows), which killed more than 23,000 people living at or beyond the base of the volcano. The rapid transfer of heat from the hot eruptive products to about 10 km2 of the snowpack, combined with seismic shaking, produced large volumes of meltwater that flowed downslope, liquefied some of the new volcanic deposits, and generated avalanches of saturated snow, ice and rock debris within minutes of the 21:08 (local time) eruption. About 2 ?? 107 m3 of water was discharged into the upper reaches of the Molinos, Nereidas, Guali, Azufrado and Lagunillas valleys, where rapid entrainment of valley-fill sediment transformed the dilute flows and avalanches to debris flows. Computed mean velocities of the lahars at peak flow ranged up to 17 m s-1. Flows were rapid in the steep, narrow upper canyons and slowed with distance away from the volcano as flow depth and channel slope diminished. Computed peak discharges ranged up to 48,000 m3 s-1 and were greatest in reaches 10 to 20 km downstream from the summit. A total of about 9 ?? 107 m3 of lahar slurry was transported to depositional areas up to 104 km from the source area. Initial volumes of individual lahars increased up to 4 times with distance away from the summit. The sedimentology and stratigraphy of the lahar deposits provide compelling evidence that: (1) multiple initial meltwater pulses tended to coalesce into single flood waves; (2) lahars remained fully developed debris flows until they reached confluences with major rivers; and (3) debris-flow slurry composition and rheology varied to produce gradationally density-stratified flows. Key lessons and reminders from the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcanic eruption are: (1) catastrophic lahars can be generated on ice- and snow-capped volcanoes by relatively small eruptions; (2) the surface area of snow on an ice cap can be more critical than total ice volume when considering lahar potential; (3) placement of hot rock debris on snow is insufficient to generate lahars; the two materials must be mechanically mixed together for sufficiently rapid head transfer; (4) lahars can increase their volumes significantly by entrainment of water and eroded sediment; and (5) valley-confined lahars can maintain relatively high velocities and can have catastrophic impacts as far as 100 km downstream. ?? 1990.

Pierson, T.C.; Janda, R.J.; Thouret, J.-C.; Borrero, C.A.



Spectral Characterization of Volcanic Earthquakes at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano Using  

E-print Network

Spectral Characterization of Volcanic Earthquakes at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano Using Spectral Band methods in a two-class classification problem of volcanic earthquakes recorded at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, seismic-volcanic events, spectral analysis. 1 Introduction Nevado del Ruiz is an ice-capped volcano placed

Duin, Robert P.W.



E-print Network

1 DISSIMILARITY-BASED CLASSIFICATION OF SEISMIC SIGNALS AT NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO Orozco words: Classification, dissimilarity, Ruiz, seismic, signals, volcano. RESUMEN La clasificación volcano is capped by a large volume of snow and ice, forming a glacier which has a volume of about 1200

Duin, Robert P.W.



E-print Network

.M. Ruiz, A. Cuevas, J. del Alamo, J.M. Gomez, M. Acuna and G. Sala Instituto de Energia Solar (E light are upper bounds when using practical ~! erials. Practical bifacial solar cells required with g =-1 c Tnree rules can be immedia .. f· solar cell: aJ to use bifac ,

del Alamo, Jesús A.


Entornos generosos para el crimen: Analisis del narcotrafico en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de este trabajo es explicar el xito de la industria de las drogas ilegales en Colombia mediante el concepto de generosidad del entorno. La industria de las drogas ilegales en Colombia se puede considerar exitosa porque los narcotraficantes colombianos han: (i) movilizado altas cantidades de cocana alrededor del mundo, (ii) generado altos niveles de recursos financieros y (iii)

Isaac Beltrn y Eduardo Salcedo-Albarn; Isaac Beltrn; Eduardo Salcedo-Albarn



Economa del narcotrfico, Plan Colombia y conflicto interno en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artculo presenta una semblanza del entorno poltico reciente que compromete una dimensin de las estrategias de la lucha contra las drogas; un mapa del mercado de narcticos, especialmente centrado en el de cocaina; los fundamentos de la estrategia de lucha contra el narcotrfico y los elementos de su crsis; la dimensin del Negocio de la cocana, considerando una cuantificacin

Olmedo Vargaz Hernndez



Lecciones del programa de prevencin temprana de la violencia, Medelln, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se describen las caractersticas y evolucin del Programa de Prevencin Temprana de la Agresin del Municipio de Medellin, Colombia, que, al parecer, es la ms amplia experiencia de su gnero en Latinoamrica. Se realiza la primera evaluacin del impacto atribuible a este programa, focalizada en su etapa inicial. El anlisis antes \\/ despus reporta varios efectos positivos del Programa. Conclusin

Luis Fernando Duque; Jos Fernando Orduz; Juan de Jess Sandoval; Beatriz Elena Caicedo; Joanne Klevens



Guatemala, Mxico y Colombia Los retos de la expansin del narcotrfico en el nuevo milenio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presenta evidencia del aprendizaje criminal de las organizaciones narcotraficantes en tres pases de Amrica Latina: Guatemala, Mxico y Colombia. Las organizaciones narcotraficantes han aprendido a controlar el Estado, lo cual explica el xito de esta actividad criminal. El aprendizaje criminal comparado de organizaciones narcotraficantes de Guatemala, Mxico y Colombia permite pensar que dichas organizaciones estn aprendiendo a usar mecanismos

Luis Jorge Garay-Salamanca; Isaac de Len-Beltrn; Eduardo Salcedo-Albarn





This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers. PMID:12177933



Posibles implicaciones de la legalizacin del consumo, Produccin y comercializacin de las drogas en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como reaccin ante el aparente fracaso de la estrategia represiva de lucha contra las drogas ilcitas y debido al incremento considerable del conflicto en Colombia, el debate sobre las bondades y males de la legalizacin ha cobrado especial inters en el pas. Propuestas provenientes de distintos sectores sociales, polticos y acadmicos coinciden en que para desincentivar el negocio del narcotrfico,





Microsoft Academic Search

Para sorpresa de la opinin en Colombia, la mafia en el sentido de la definicin tradicional de empresarios de la proteccin, asociada a la imagen de los mafiosos sicilianos, rusos o los japoneses de la yakuza, es un fenmeno muy reciente en la historia de las ciudades del pas. Ms de una dcada posterior al apogeo de Pablo Escobar y

Gustavo Duncan



La Lic. Irlanda Ruiz discutir lo El derecho a la educacin.  

E-print Network

La Lic. Irlanda Ruiz discutirá lo siguente:: · El derecho a la educación. · Derechos y obligaciones No incluye alimentos Nos reservamos el derecho de admisión. Costo: $45 pago recibido antes del 28 de febrero

Quirk, Gregory J.



E-print Network

for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (USA) 2002. 2002-2005. Editorial board member. Annals of Human in Antioquia, Colombia". (2002-2004) Agency: The National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression-Linares. Cure Autism Now Foundation (USA). This project initiates a research program focused on the use

Linares, Andrés Ruiz


Un gobierno alternativo en una regin olvidada de Colombia: entrevista al taita Floro Alberto Tunubali Paja, gobernador del departamento del Cauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Departamento del Cauca est situado al Sur de Colombia. En los ltimos aos ha ocupado el penltimo lugar en su aporte econmico al pas. Ls ndices de pobreza son grandes, la oferta de trabajo es baja y la desatencin y disminucin del Estado se acenta, haciendo cada vez ms dificil la solucin de las desigualdades sociales que vive la

Diego Jaramillo Salgado



Earthquake on June 6, 1994, Triggers Landslides and Catastrophic Lahar Near Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how quickly an earthquake-triggered lahar happened and the losses that occurred. Some losses may have occurred because people did not know they should flee to high ground after an earthquake. Within minutes of the 1994 magnitude 6.4 earthquake beneath the south-southwest flank of Nevado del Huila volcano in Colombia, dozens of landslides swept down from the steep valleys above Rio Paez. The landslides quickly turned into debris flows, which joined to produce a single enormous flow. That lahar destroyed most of or parts of several towns along the river and displaced about 20,000 people from their homes. There were several hundred casualties. Bridges and roads were destroyed. The location map of Nevado del Huila volcano shows the path of the 1994 lahar.

Schuster, R.; Scott, K.; Casadevall, T.


Evaluacin de la influencia de la revaluacin del tipo de cambio sobre la demanda de turismo en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El turismo representa una actividad fundamental dentro de una economa, por los diferentes impactos que tiene sobre otros sectores. En el mundo se est viviendo cierto auge en la actividad turstica, reflejando Colombia similares tendencias en esta materia. Recientemente se est presentando un fenmeno revaluativo del tipo de cambio peso-dlar, aspecto este que motiva al estudio de tal situacin, e

Ral Quejada Prez; Felipe Del Ro Carrasquilla



Captura y Reconfiguracin Cooptada del Estado en Guatemala, Mxico y Colombia Anlisis conceptual de las memorias de la Primera Discusin Internacional Sobre Captura y Reconfiguracin Cooptada del Estado  

Microsoft Academic Search

La evidencia muestra que el narcotrfico es importante en el fortalecimiento de la corrupcin de Guatemala, Mxico y Colombia; por lo tanto, es problemtico analizar de modo separado ambos fenmenos. Los hechos muestran tambin que las organizaciones narcotraficantes de los tres pases han aprendido a regular la coercin del Estado. Este aprendizaje ha representado un salto que va desde la

Luis Jorge Garay-Salamanca; Isaac de Len-Beltrn; Eduardo Salcedo-Albarn



Utilizing NASA EOS Data for Fire Management in el Departmento del Valle del Cauco, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, fire incidence in Colombian wild areas has increased, damaging pristine forests into savannas and sterile lands. Fire poses a significant threat to biodiversity, rural communities and established infrastructure. These events issue an urgent need to address this problem. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) can play a significant role in the monitoring fires and natural disasters. SERVIR, the Regional Visualization and Monitoring Network, constitutes a platform for the observation, forecasting and modeling of environmental processes in Central America. A project called "The GIS for fire management in Guatemala (SIGMA-I)" has been already conducted to address the same problem in another Latin American country, Guatemala. SIGMA-I was developed by the Inter-agency work among the National protected areas council (CONAP), National Forestry Institution (INAB), the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction / National Forest Fire Prevention and Control System (CONRED/SIPECIF), and the Ministry of the Environment and National Resources (MARN) in Guatemala under the guidance and assistance of SERVIR. With SIGMA-I as an example, we proposed to conduct a similar project for the country of Colombia. First, a pilot study in the area of the watershed of the Cali River, Colombia was conducted to ensure that the data was available and that the maps and models were accurate. The proposed study will investigate the technical resources required: 1.) A fire map with a compilation of ignition data (hot spots) utilizing Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products MOD14 and MYD14 2.) A map of fire scars derived from medium resolution satellite data (ASTER) during the period 2003-2011 for the entire country, and a map of fire scar recurrence and statistics derived from the datasets produced. 3.) A pattern analysis and ignition cause model derived from a matrix of variables statistically exploring the demographic and environmental factors of fire risk, such as land surface temperature, precipitation, and NDVI .4.) A dynamic fire risk evaluation able to generate a dynamic map of ignition risk based on statistical analysis factors. This study aims to research integrating MODIS, Landsat and ASTER data along with in-situ data on environmental parameters from the Corporation of the Cauca Valley River (CVC) along with other data on social, economical and cultural variables obtained by researchers of the Wild Fire Observatory (OCIF) from the "Universidad Autnoma de Occidente" in order to create an ignition cause model, dynamic fire risk evaluation system and compile any and all geospatial data generated for the region. In this way the research will help predict and forecast fire vulnerabilities in the region. The team undertook this project through SERVIR with the guidance of the scientist, Victor Hugo Ramos, who was the leader and principal investigator on the SIGMA-I.

Brenton, J. C.; Bledsoe, N.; Alabdouli, K.



Challenges of modeling current very large lahars at Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nevado del Huila, a glacier-covered volcano in the South of Colombia's Cordillera Central, had not experienced any historical eruptions before 2007. In 2007 and 2008, the volcano erupted with phreatic and phreatomagmatic events which produced lahars with flow volumes of up to about 300 million m3 causing severe damage to infrastructure and loss of lives. The magnitude of these lahars and the prevailing potential for similar or even larger events, poses significant hazards to local people and makes appropriate modeling a real challenge. In this study, we analyze the recent lahars to better understand the main processes and then model possible scenarios for future events. We used lahar inundation depths, travel duration, and flow deposits to constrain the dimensions of the 2007 event and applied LAHARZ and FLO-2D for lahar modeling. Measured hydrographs, geophone seismic sensor data and calculated peak discharges served as input data for the reconstruction of flow hydrographs and for calibration of the models. For model validation, results were compared with field data collected along the Pez and Simbola Rivers. Based on the results of the 2007 lahar simulation, we modeled lahar scenarios with volumes between 300 million and 1 billion m3. The approach presented here represents a feasible solution for modeling high-magnitude flows like lahars and allows an assessment of potential future events and related consequences for population centers downstream of Nevado del Huila.

Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, M.; Pulgarn, B.



Incidencia de infecciones del torrente sanguneo por Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes crticamente enfermos en unidades de cuidado intensivo en Colombia 2004-2008 / Incidence bloodstream infection by Staphylococcus aureus in critically ill patients intensive care unit in Colombia 2004-2008.  

E-print Network

??Contreras Villamizar, Kateir Mariel (2010) Incidencia de infecciones del torrente sanguneo por Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes crticamente enfermos en unidades de cuidado intensivo en Colombia (more)

Contreras Villamizar, Kateir Mariel



La evaluacin del desempeo de las empresas privatizadas en Colombia: Coincide con la experiencia internacional?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio pretende evaluar si las empresas que fueron privatizadas en Colombia durante los aos 1990 mejoraron sustancialmente su productividad y rentabilidad, como consecuencia de los cambios gerenciales que se debieron dar, o si por el contrario, continuaron en niveles similares, contrariando la hiptesis de que los nuevos dueos propiciaran cambios sustanciales en su estrategia, como lo demuestra la experiencia

Hctor Ochoa Daz; Jaime Andrs Collazos Rodrguez



Narcotrfico y parapoltica en Colombia,1980-2007: Evolucin del Capital Social Perverso  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se usa el concepto de Capital social perverso para explicar cmo el narcotrfico en Colombia ha aprendido a gestionar su relacin con el Estado, especficamente, cmo han aprendido a gestionar los huecos estructurales propios de su relacin con el Estado. Se muestran los sucesivos intentos de los narcotraficantes por cambiar la severidad de las normas. Este proceso

Isaac de Len-Beltrn; Eduardo Salcedo-Albarn



Evaluacin ecolgica rpida de los quirpteros del parque ecolgico de Montelbano, Crdoba, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid survey for assessing the composition and structure of a bat community present in a semi-urban ecological park, Northwestern Colombia, was carried out from March to May 2005. Five biotopes: wetland, secondary rain forest, wetland, acacia plantation and pasture were assessed, totaling 368 hours\\/net. We collected 17 bat species belonging to five families and four subfamilies, in our survey.

Elkin Y. Surez-Villota; Javier Racero-Casarrubia; Giovany Guevara; Jess Ballesteros




E-print Network

RAPID COMMUNICATION J.M. Ruiz ? E. Blumwald Salinity-induced glutathione synthesis in Brassica) plants over- expressing a vacuolar Na+ /H+ antiporter. A 3-fold increase in cysteine and glutathione content was observed in wild-type plants exposed to salt stress, but not in the transgenic plants

Blumwald, Eduardo


BES++: HPC Profile Open Source C Implementation Arkaitz Ruiz Alvarez  

E-print Network

BES++: HPC Profile Open Source C Implementation Arkaitz Ruiz Alvarez arkaitz mangement systems. Recognizing this, the HPC Profile Working Group in the Open Grid Forum (OGF) has recently++, our open source implementation of the OGF HPC Profile. BES++ supports LSF, PBS and SGE resource

Humphrey, Marty


Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the

Martnez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael



Predictive Value of Molecular Drug Resistance Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Valle del Cauca, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases. PMID:23658272

Garcia, Pamela K.; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick



Cuarenta aos en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuarenta aos en Colombia del profesor Pierre Gilhodes son una verdadera primicia editorial para el pas. Estas memorias revelan el testimonio de un francs, investigador y profesor, que durante cuarenta aos fue construyendo, como se ver en este libro, la historia de su largo y protagnico recorrido por Colombia. Buena parte de este camino ha tenido que ver con la

Pierre Gilhodes


A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))



Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils from the Genus Baccharis. Part I: B. racemosa (Ruiz et Pav.) DC and B. linearis (Ruiz et Pav.) Pers. Species from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile compounds from Baccharis racemosa (Ruiz et Pav.) DC and two samples of B. linearis (Ruiz et Pav.) Pers. leaves collected in the Argentinean Patagonia were isolated by steam distillation. Yields on the oils were 2.50% for B. racemosa; 0.92% for B. linearis (sample A) and 1.91% for B. linearis (sample B). The leaf oils were analyzed by GC and

Rubn A. Malizia; Daniel A. Cardell; Jos S. Molli; Silvia Gonzlez; Pedro E. Guerra; Ricardo J. Grau



Volcanic gas surveillance in Colombia using NOVAC ScanDOAS instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcano surveillance in Colombia was formally initiated just after reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, when over 23,000 people were killed and approximately 5,000 were injured by four thick lahars that raced down river valleys on the volcans flanks. The Armero tragedy was the second-deadliest volcanic disaster in the 20th century, being surpassed only by the 1902 eruption of Mount Pele, and is the fourth-deadliest volcanic eruption in recorded history. Gas monitoring on Colombian volcanic fumaroles started as in situ sampling with chemical lab analyses, later a gas telemetry system was developed and finally, from year 2007 and onwards, we are using optical remote sensing instruments for volcanic gas monitoring developed in the European projects DORSIVA and NOVAC. NOVAC (Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change) today encompasses 64 scanDOAS (plus mobileDOAS) systems at 24 active volcanoes in four continents. SO2 data from NOVAC technology at active Colombian volcanoes, will be presented together with all cases of explosive eruptions from 2007 until 2012. Special attention will be given on periods of volcanic eruptions, when magma body is transported from the deep to the surface and a clear increase of sulphur dioxide is detected at NOVAC stations located at 4 - 8 km distance from the volcanic fumaroles.

Garzn, Gustavo; Makario Londoo, John; Silva, Betty; Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago



Wireless Strain Sensor Development for Civil Infrastructure T. Nagayama, M. Ruiz-Sandoval*, B. F. Spencer Jr., K. A. Mechitov**, G. Agha**  

E-print Network

Wireless Strain Sensor Development for Civil Infrastructure T. Nagayama, M. Ruiz-Sandoval*, B. F infrastructure application. For instance, Ruiz-Sandoval et al [7] pointed out that the typical Mote accelerometer

Spencer Jr., B.F.


Kurata, Spencer and Ruiz-Sandoval 1 ABSTRACT: A risk monitoring of buildings for natural and man-made hazards mitigation is discussed in  

E-print Network

Kurata, Spencer and Ruiz-Sandoval 1 ABSTRACT: A risk monitoring of buildings for natural and man-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA M. Ruiz-Sandoval Department of Civil and Geological Sciences, University of Notre, smarter and cheaper 2011-2015 Ubiquitous Computing/ Network Society #12;Kurata, Spencer and Ruiz-Sandoval

Spencer Jr., B.F.


Morphology of Floral Papillae in Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The labellar papillae and trichomes of Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. show great diversity. Although papillae also occur upon other parts of the flower (e.g. column and anther cap), these have not yet been studied. Labellar trichomes of Maxillaria are useful in taxonomy, but hitherto the taxonomic value of floral papillae has not been assessed. The aim of this paper is to describe the range of floral papillae found in Maxillaria and to determine whether papillae are useful as taxonomic characters. Methods Light microscopy, histochemistry, low?vacuum scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results A total of 75 taxa were studied. Conical papillae with rounded or pointed tips were the most common. The column and anther cap usually bear conical, obpyriform or villiform papillae, whereas those around the stigmatic surface and at the base of the anther are often larger and swollen. Labellar papillae show greater diversity, and may be conical, obpyriform, villiform, fusiform or clavate. Papillae may also occur on multiseriate trichomes that perhaps function as pseudostamens. Labellar papillae contain protein but most lack lipid. The occurrence of starch, however, is more variable. Many papillae contain pigment or act as osmophores, thereby attracting insects. Rewards such as nectar or a protein?rich, wax?like, lipoidal substance may be secreted by papillae onto the labellar surface. Some papillae may have a protective role in preventing desiccation. Species of diverse vegetative morphology may have identical floral papillae, whereas others of similar vegetative morphology may not. Conclusions Generally, floral papillae in Maxillaria have little taxonomic value. Nevertheless, the absence of papillae from members of the M. cucullata alliance, the occurrence of clavate papillae with distended apices in the M. rufescens alliance and the presence of papillose trichomes in some species may yet prove to be useful. PMID:14630691




Only Aggressive Elephants are Fast Elephants Jens Dittrich, Jorge-Arnulfo Quiane-Ruiz, Stefan Richter,  

E-print Network

Only Aggressive Elephants are Fast Elephants Jens Dittrich, Jorge-Arnulfo Quian´e-Ruiz, Stefan elephants aggressive; only this will make them very fast. We propose HAIL (Hadoop Aggressive Indexing on massive datasets such as web analytics, relational data analytics, machine learning, data mining, and real

Tsotras, Vassilis J.


CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Jose A. Torres-Ruiz, Ph.D.

Dr. Torres-Ruiz is Director of the National Institutes of Health-Minority Biomedical Research Support (NIH-MBRS) Program, Chairman of the Biochemistry Department, Director of the Office for Sponsored Research Projects and Programs, and the Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies.


PATENTES INTERNACIONAIS RECENTES ORDONEZ, Juan Carlos ; Ruiz, C. O. ; SOUZA, Jeferson vila ; Vargas, Jos  

E-print Network

PATENTES INTERNACIONAIS RECENTES ORDONEZ, Juan Carlos ; Ruiz, C. O. ; SOUZA, Jeferson Ávila Unidos. Patente: Privilégio de Inovação. Número do registro: 65795, data de depósito: 03/12/2012, título: "Dendritic cooling layer generator and method of fabrication" , Instituição de registro:United States Patent

Paraná, Universidade Federal do


GLOBAL PROBLEMS ON NASH FUNCTIONS Michel Coste, Jesus M. Ruiz, Masahiro Shiota  

E-print Network

for the first time at the early fifties, in a seminal paper by John Nash. Soon other mathematicians wereGLOBAL PROBLEMS ON NASH FUNCTIONS Michel Coste, Jes�us M. Ruiz, Masahiro Shiota October 8, 2002 Abstract This is a survey on the history of and the solutions to the basic global problems on Nash

Coste, Michel


Biographical Sketches from Interviews Conducted by Lourdes Ruiz, Teacher, Dulce Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight biographical sketches of some Jicarilla Apache and Spanish American people who live and work in Dulce, New Mexico are given. These sketches contain brief descriptions of the lives of Jose Gabriel Abeyta, Cevero Caramillo, Chon LaBrier, Espeedie Garcia Ruiz, Raleigh Tafoya, Norman Tecube, Hubert Velarde, and Henry "Buster" L. Vicenti. At the

Pono, Filomena P., Comp.


Building Ontologies Collaboratively Using ContentCVS E. Jimenez-Ruiz1  

E-print Network

Building Ontologies Collaboratively Using ContentCVS E. Jim´enez-Ruiz1 , B. Cuenca Grau2 , I collaboratively. The developers of an ontology can be geographically distributed and may contribute in different ways and to different extents. Maintaining such large on- tologies in a collaborative way is a highly

Grau, Bernardo Cuenca


Modified team-based learning strategy to improve human anatomy learning: A pilot study at the Universidad del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia.  


As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the course, student's grades on mid-term examinations and students' perceptions of their experiences. Students reported a positive attitude toward the use of the TBL sessions, and the results showed a significant improvement in their learning between the first and second sessions. Significantly positive correlations (P?

Martnez, Emilio G; Tuesca, Rafael



Constraining Holocene Uplift Rates For The Serrania Del Baudo, Northwestern Colombia, Using Luminescence Dating On A Raised Beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A beach deposit on the southern tip of the Serrania del Baudo, perched 4.5 m above spring high tide, was dated at ~3,000 years using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The average uplift rate necessary to raise this deposit is ~1.5 mm/yr. This rate combines the long-term regional deformation associated with the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate and the collision of the Choco Block microplate against the South American continent, as well as uplift from local faults. We propose that rapid emergence probably as several pulses, each involving decimeter scale coseismic uplift, is likely to have occurred to elevate the beach above the intertidal zone and offset destructive wave erosion in this sand-limited coast.

Gonzalez, J.; Shen, Z.; Mauz, B.



Trojan Data Layouts: Right Shoes for a Running Elephant Alekh Jindal Jorge-Arnulfo Quian-Ruiz Jens Dittrich  

E-print Network

Trojan Data Layouts: Right Shoes for a Running Elephant Alekh Jindal Jorge-Arnulfo Quiané-Ruiz Jens for many enterprises such as Google, Facebook, and Yahoo!. With this trend, MapReduce [13] is quickly


Estudio Espacial de la Violencia en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo del presente trabajo es introducir una descripcin espacial en el estudio del anlisis de la violencia e n Colombia a nivel municipal, para hallar cual es el proceso de difusin del los homicidios entre los municipios, adems encontrar como las variables de distribucin de propiedad rural y urbana, presencia de grupos al margen de la ley, narcotrfico y

Hermes Martnez


Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of the Cambumbia STOCK in Andean Central Cordillera, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cambumbia Stock is located on the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the northern Andes. The goals of this study were to petrographic and geochemically characterize the Cambumbia igneous body and to establish its petrogenetic history. 41 samples were collected, 28 for petrographic analysis and 14 for elementary chemical determination by ICP-MS. Petrographically the samples were classified as hornblende and pyroxene-gabbros varying to diorites, gabbronorites and tonalites, the rock texture varies from medium to coarse granular grain, with local microporfiritic texture. It was concluded from the major elements analysis that the samples correspond to the sub-alkaline series with low K content, mainly in the calc-alkaline series, within the gabbros and diorites fields. By using the SiO2 vs TiO2 (Jaramillo, 1980), Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb (Pearce, 1984) (Fig. 1) and Zr/117-Th-Nb/16 (Wood, 1979) diagrams it was determined that these rocks were generated in two geotectonic environments: one type MOR (extension) and other island arc (subduction, compression). Petrographic and geochemical comparisons between the rocks of Cambumbia Stock and Diorite and Gabbro El Pueblito (Giraldo, 2009) (located about 25 km to the north-west) may postulate a possible genetic link between them. Recently, a U/Pb age was obtained by the Universidad de Caldas in zircon in 2009 (not published data), yielded an age of 233.41 3.4 Ma (Middle Triassic). This age is consistent with the global event of the extension and fragmentation of Pangea supercontinent. In addition, the mantle nature of the source and the petrogenetic evolution of the magmatic system were established. References GIRALDO, M.I., (2009): Esquema geodinmica de la parte noroccidental de la cordillera Central de Colombia. (Thesis). p.56-68. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medelln. JARAMILLO, J.M. (1980): Petrology and geochemistry of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano northern Andes, Colombia (Thesis). 167 p. University of Houston, Faculty of the Department of Geology, Houston. PEARCE, J.A., HARRIS, N.B.W., and TINDLE, A.G., (1984), Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation: Journal of Petrology, v. 25, p. 956-983. WOOD, D., JORON, J.L., & TREUIL, M. (1979): A re-appaisal of the use of trace elements to classify and discriminate between magma series erupted in different tectonic settings. Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 326-336. Th/Yb Vs Ta/Yb diagram

Rojas Lequerica, S.; Jaramillo Meja, J.; Concha Perdomo, A.



El Poder de Cambiar: La Experiencia del Proyecto Costa Atlantica de Colombia (The Power To Change: The Experience of the Atlantic Coast Project in Columbia, 1977-1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1977, the Bernard van Leer Foundation began supporting a project in Colombia that had the objective of improving the quality of early childhood care and education in a small village. The Costa Atlantica project offered an approach to development that was based on community organization, social management, participation, cooperation, popular

Chetley, Andrew


Prospects for Reduced Impact Logging in Central African logging concessions Driss Ezzine de Blas *, Manuel Ruiz Perez 1  

E-print Network

*, Manuel Ruiz Pe´rez 1 Dpt. Ecologia, Edificio Biologi´a, Calle Darwin, 2, Universidad Auto´noma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain 1. Introduction West and Central Africa represents the second largest area stress have submitted the forests of the Congo basin to new challenges (CBFP, 2006). Industrial mining


Black Hole Attack Injection in Ad hoc Networks Juan-Carlos Ruiz, Jess Friginal, David de-Andrs, Pedro Gil  

E-print Network

Black Hole Attack Injection in Ad hoc Networks Juan-Carlos Ruiz, Jesús Friginal, David de). Black holes are simple but effective denial of service attacks in today's ad hoc networks. This paper} Abstract Ad hoc networks exploit the processing, storage and wireless communication capabilities of mobile

Koopman, Philip


Julie Devineau. Problmes d'Amrique Latine, N79, hiver 2010-2011 Elena Azaola Garrido, Miquel ngel Ruiz Torres, Investigadores de papel, Poder y  

E-print Network

?ngel Ruiz Torres, Investigadores de papel, Poder y derechos humanos en la Ciudad de México. Mexico dénonçant les liens de connivence entre le crime organisé et les membres des forces de l'ordre. Pourtant, si'Elena Azaola et Miquel ?ngel Ruiz Torres se sont posés, en étudiant la police judiciaire de la ville de Mexico

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Stratospheric aerosol optical depth observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II - Decay of the El Chichon and Ruiz volcanic perturbations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decay of the El Chichon perturbation to the optical depth of stratospheric aerosols at 1.02 micron, 0.525 micron, and 0.453 micron is calculated from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) data set for the period December 1984 to December 1988. It is found that the perturbed optical depths at middle and higher latitudes of both hemispheres exhibited an exponential decay superimposed by a seasonal oscillation with a maximum and a minimum occurring in local winter and local summer, respectively. Microphysical processes and variation of the tropopause height alone cannot explain this seasonal change of optical depth. The magnitudes of the exponential component at higher latitudes were, in general, larger than those at lower latitudes. For optical depths in tropical regions, the seasonal oscillations were small and were disturbed by the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz on November 13, 1985. The increase in the ratio of optical depth at 0.525 micron to that at 1.02 micron from about 2.0 at the beginning of 1985 to about 3.5 at the end of 1988 indicates the average size of aerosol particles in the stratosphere is diminishing since the eruption of El Chichon. The 1/e folding time for El Chichon decay derived from the SAGE II data set is in reasonably good agreement with those derived by other methods.

Yue, G. K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chiou, E. W.



Publi dans: NATES, Beatriz (comp.), Territorio y cultura: del campo a la ciudad. ltimas tendencias en teora y mtodo. Memorias del Primer Seminario Internacional sobre Territorio y Cultura. Quito: Abya Yala/ Manizales (Colombia): Alianza  

E-print Network

Publié dans: NATES, Beatriz (comp.), Territorio y cultura: del campo a la ciudad. ?ltimas tendencias en teoría y método. Memorias del Primer Seminario Internacional sobre Territorio y Cultura. Quito communication présentée en espagnol lors du Primer Seminario Internacional "Territorio y cultura: del campo a la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



Microsoft Academic Search

La distribucin inequitativa de la tierra y las implicaciones negativas tanto sociales como econmicas resultado de la polarizacin en Colombia ha sido una preocupacin constante para los formuladores de poltica debido a que la distribucin inequitativa de la tierra es uno de los principales impedimentos clave al desarrollo econmico y social del pas. Se han adoptado una serie de medidas

Banco Mundial




Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia tiene una tasa de criminalidad excepcionalmente alta. Esta informacin se sostiene al menos para los ltimos 20 aos y se puede comprobar con las cifras sobre asesinatos en Colombia y en otros pases. Mientras que en Colombia la tasa de homicidios fue de 77.5 por cada 100.000 habitantes en el perodo 1987-1992, en pases como Brasil fue 24.6, Bahamas

Carlos Esteban Posada; Armando Montenegro



Influence de la flore digestive totale et du rgime sur les concentrations en histamine de la paroi gastro-intestinale du poulet, par R. PEREZ-RUIZ, J. M. WAL et Odette SZYLIT (*).R. PEREZ-RUIZ, J. M. WAL Odette SZYLIT  

E-print Network

gastro-intestinale du poulet, par R. PEREZ-RUIZ, J. M. WAL et Odette SZYLIT (*).R. PEREZ-RUIZ, J. M. WAL, Wal et al. (1985) ont observé, comparativement au rat axénique, une augmentation des teneurs en aliments sont dosés comme décrit par Wal et al. (1985). Les teneurs en histamine des aliments sont

Boyer, Edmond


Institutional Reforms in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Colombia faces a critical juncture in its recent history. One road leads to violence, chaos and economic collapse. The other leads to peace, reforms and economic progress. Hoping that the second road will be chosen, this document offers ideas about institutional reforms and governance. The need for nstitutional reforms in Colombia is quite self-evident. Violence, crime and terrorism are

Alberto Alesina



Desplazamiento, movilidad y retorno en Colombia. Dinmicas migratorias recientes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sin lugar a dudas, como han sostenido algunos historiadores, el problema del desplazamiento forzado que ha enfrentado Colombia durante las ltimas dos dcadas hunde sus races en los conflictos acaecidos y no resueltos durante el siglo XXI. El problema presenta particularidades polticas y econmicas que lo diferencian, pues alcanzan importancia en la escena poltica y de violencia del pas, durante

Autores varios


Dental education in Colombia.  


This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

Jaramillo, Jorge A; Pulido, Jairo H Ternera; Castro Nez, Jaime A; Bird, William F; Komabayashi, Takashi



Labor Rights Report: Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report first describes Colombia's national legal framework. It describes the administration of labor law, labor institutions, and the system of labor justice. With regard to each of the covered labor rights, the report describes the relevant legal fra...



Polticas para la insercin laboral de mujeres y jvenes en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pesar de que en aos recientes Colombia ha experimentado crecimientos del PIB del orden del 7% anual, los jvenes y las mujeres siguen encontrando fuertes obstculos para insertarse productivamente en el mercado de trabajo. En 2007, los jvenes colombianos entre 12 y 24 aos representaban un 40% de la poblacin desempleada del pas; entre ellos, el 15.5% no haba

Stefano Farn



The Vanishing Mexicana/o: (Dis)Locating the Native in Ruiz de Burton's "Who Would Have thought It?" and "The Squatter and the Don"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article complements the existing body of Ruiz de Burton scholarship by providing the first sustained examination of her literary representations of American Indians in both "Who Would Have Thought It?" (1872) and "The Squatter and the Don" (1885), and by exploring how these representations serve her broader aims of social and political

Szeghi, Tereza M.



Recruiting Teachers in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about a system of special schools in Colombia which introduces students to teaching careers as early as the 8th grade. The Colombian system is based on a simple idea: Every student is a potential teacher. Principals talk about molding "ciudadano-pedagogos"--citizen-educators who view teaching as a way of

Blair, Robert



[Fertility in Colombia].  


Demography, which should be the basis for planning of any program or project, has traditionally been ignored by Colombian governments. No population statistics are available for the pre-Conquest period in Colombia. Statistics during the Colonial era were based on population counts for division of lands, taxation, and similar considerations. The first census was undertaken around 1770. Colombia's most recent census was in 1993, and another is being prepared for 2000. The censuses have been useful for development purposes despite their significant limitations of completeness and accuracy. Colombia's population in 1997 was estimated at 40,300,000, making it the third most populous country of Latin America after Brazil and Mexico. Fertility has declined considerably since 1965. Colombia's crude birth rate is believed to have exceeded 50/1000 in the 18th and 19th centuries and was estimated at 45/1000 by the Latin American Demographic Center for the first half of the 20th century. The crude birth rate was 41.3/1000 in 1968, 33.1/1000 in 1973, 30/1000 in 1980, and around 26/1000 in 1990 and 1995. The total fertility rate was estimated at 7.0 in 1960-65, 6.7 in 1969, 4.5 in 1973, 3.2 in 1985, and 2.9 in 1995. Fertility declined most appreciably before 1975, but rates continue to drop in rural as well as urban areas and in all geographic zones. For Colombia as a whole the total fertility rate is 4.8 for women with less than 5 years of schooling and 2.4 for those with 8 or more years. It is 2.7 in urban and 4.4 in rural areas. PMID:12348802

Ojeda, G



Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia  

E-print Network

Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade #12;Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade Agreement SerieBrief # 66 | Abril 2011 Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia

Tufts University


Conflicto, violencia y actividad criminal en Colombia: Un anlisis espacial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigacin busca analizar la relacin existente entre el conflicto armado y las distintas manifestaciones de violencia y actividad criminal. Para este fin, se realiza un recuento histrico de los conflictos internos y guerras civiles en Colombia desde el siglo XIX, haciendo nfasis en el perodo de La Violencia (1946-1962). Luego, se desarrolla un anlisis del origen y evolucin de




La Corrupcin Administrativa En Colombia: Reflexiones Sobre Su Evidene Complejidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

El propsito principal del presente trabajo es realizar una reflexin sobre el fenmeno de la corrupcin administrativa en Colombia. En ste se aportan algunos elementos claves relacionados con los factores condicionantes de este flagelo en la administracin pblica colombiana, se resumen las actitudes observadas en la sociedad colombiana, se examinan las cifras relacionadas con el valor monetario de los grandes

Oscar Pardo Ramos



Condenados al silencio jvenes excombatientes en Colombia1 Anne Rethmann  

E-print Network

grave en países como la República Democrática del Congo y Colombia (Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers 2008). Sin embargo en muchas sociedades la participación de jóvenes en la guerra no es un fenómeno

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Child health in Colombia.  


Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children. PMID:19586926

Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I



Colombia: Periplo Teatro  

E-print Network

mundo oriental y occidental a travs de la contraposicin de la fastuoso y extica corte del Kublai Khan y una Venecia decadente y carnestolndica. Ms que nada esta especie de musical result un espectculo visual que, desafortunadamente, se...

King, Robert E.




Microsoft Academic Search

La economa subterrnea (ES), definida ampliamente como aquella asociada con actividades al margen del cdigo legal de un pas, es de particular relevancia en Colombia debido al alcance que tiene la economa del narcotrfico y la economa informal evasora de la legislacin fiscal y laboral. Esto es particularmente relevante no solo para el Banco Central, pues la ES tiene una

Carlos Arango A; Martha Misas A; Enrique Lpez



The Colombia Seismological Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogot, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage of the RSNC network is presented along with the improvement in earthquake location and the quality of the data. New tools to calculate moment magnitude and focal mechanism are implemented as a result of the network expansion. The principal seismic sources in Colombia and the challenges for the future of the network are discussed.

Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.



Landslide Terrane Near Medellin, Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three groups of landslides and mudflows totalling 22 square kilometers are recognized near Medellin, Colombia. The deposits are described and alternative hypotheses are proposed to account for their origin. It is suggested that pre-historic earthquake sho...

R. J. Shlemon



Renal disease in Colombia.  


Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogot," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease. PMID:17162422

Gmez, Rafael Alberto



Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. and Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae) essential oils from Eastern Ecuador.  


Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500?g/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. PMID:21783920

Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Andreotti, Elisa; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Maldonado, Maria E; Bruni, Renato



Assessing Inflationary Pressures in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of inflationary pressures in Colombia has faced two important challenges in the present decade. The first one occurred in 2006 and consisted of detecting an overheating economy in the midst of fast growing investment and increasing measured productivity. The second challenge took place in 2007-2008, when the economy was hit by a number of \\

Hernando Vargas; Andrs Gonzlez; Eliana Gonzlez; Jose Vicente Romero; Luis Eduardo Rojas



Canad, Colombia y las Amricas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El acercamiento de Canad a las zonas latinoamericanas cada es ms notorio. Su llegada a la OEA y su historia poltica de una democracia sin reparos la perfilan como lder. Es as que Colombia tiene en este pas un apoyo slido para ampliar su comercio y resolver sus problemas de narcotrfico.

Mara Teresa Aya


Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia  

PubMed Central

We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David




Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigacin busca analizar la relacin existente entre el conflicto armado y las distintas manifestaciones de violencia y actividad criminal. Para este fin, se realiza un recuento histrico de los conflictos internos y guerras civiles en Colombia desde el siglo IX, haciendo nfasis en el perodo de La Violencia (1946-1962). Luego, se desarrolla un anlisis del origen y evolucin de




Economa subterrnea en Colombia 1976-2003: una medicin a partir de la demanda de efectivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

La economa subterrnea (ES), definida de manerasuscinta como aquella asociada con actividades por fue-ra de las instituciones legales de un pas, es de particularrelevancia en Colombia debido al alcance que tiene laeconoma del narcotrfico y la economa informal evasorade la legislacin fiscal y laboral; esto es particularmenteimportante no slo para el banco central, pues la ES tieneuna ingerencia directa en

Carlos A. Arango; Martha Misas; Enrique Lpez



Insercin de la Migracin Interna y el Desplazamiento Forzado en el Mercado Laboral Urbano de Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los resultados de la insercin econmica de migrantes recientes y de desplazados forzados en el mercado laboral de las 10 principales ciudades de Colombia se analizan utilizando datos de la Encuesta Continua de Hogares. Adaptamos el marco terico de seleccin del migrante internacional de Borjas (1982, 1985, 1987, 1990) al caso de la migracin interna voluntaria e involuntaria y mediante

Carolina Silva; Juan Carlos Guataqui



Colombias organ trade: Evidence from Bogot and Medelln  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThis quantitative study seeks to determine why the underground organ commerce exists and thrives in Colombia, and how it responds\\u000a to global donor shortages, public opposition and government initiatives to curtail it. Policy lessons and insights from the\\u000a Colombian experience in organ donation and transplantation are identified in this study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and MethodsStatistical random samples of 169 living and paid

Roger Lee Mendoza



Plan Colombia: Is US Foreign Policy increasing Human Rights Violations in Colombia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plan Colombia is the United States aid package to Colombia designed to counteract drug production and trafficking, while developing the country economically and decreasing human rights abuses. In actuality, Plan Columbia has a negative impact on all three areas it is designed to improve. This is a result of the civil war in Colombia combined with the fact the underlying

Karen A. Laflash



Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigacin tiene como objetivo conocer los factores que influyen en la toma de decisiones de financiamiento a largo plazo en la industria metalmecnica del Valle del Cauca (Colombia), hasta ahora no explorados. Se realiza un estudio para el periodo 2000-2006, utilizando como mtodo, el anlisis de la estructura financiera y la aplicacin de un modelo economtrico de Datos de




Prevention of School Desertion in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families

Walker, Sarah



In: Biology, Evolution and Conservation of River Dolphins... ISBN 978-60876-633-8 Editors: Manuel Ruiz-Garcia and Joseph Shostell 2010 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.  

E-print Network

as in the Amazon River basin (Figure 1). Marine Sotalia are found from Honduras to the state of Santa Catarina and Colombia) and "lam" (Nicaragua). The distribution of riverine Sotalia comprises most of the Amazon River

Solé-Cava, Antonio M.


An Energy Overview of Colombia  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site--each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Colombia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.





Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Se presentan registros adicionales de Atelopus nahumae y Atelopus laetissimus en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Magdalena), Colombia, y una caracterizacin actual de su ecosistema. Las especies son endmicas del macizo montaoso y estn clasificadas en Peligro Crtico de extincin por su vulnerabilidad ecolgica y por la ausencia de registros verificables desde 1992. Mediante registro visual diurno y

Juan M. Carvajalino-Fernndez; Borish Cuadrado-Pea; Martha P. Ramrez-Pinilla


78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-16] RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U...customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective...November 22, 2006, the United States and Colombia signed the United States-Colombia...



Towards climate change adaptation, sustainable development and conflict resolution the Cinturn Andino Biosphere Reserve in Southern Colombia  

E-print Network

:// 43 Profile Protected Area Cinturón Andino Biosphere Reserve Mountain range Andes Country Columbia in Figure 2. In 2011 the Institute of Mountain Research (IGF), the Foundation Eco- Figure 1 ­ Nevado del interaction on a work plan that addresses strategies for the man- agement of BRs in Colombia. Cinturón Andino

Borsdorf, Axel


Wastewater use in agriculture: Irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Caaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Valle del Cauca, south?west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Caaveralejo primary wastewater

C. A. Madera; J. Silva; D. D. Mara; P. Torres



Identificacin y caracterizacin preliminar del agente causal de la mancha necrtica de las hojas de la mora (Rubus glaucus) en el muncipio de  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and characterization of the leaf necrotic spot of blackberry (Rubus glaucus) in the municipality of Trujillo (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) The blackberry crop in the Chuscales and Monteloro regions of the municipality of Trujillo (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) generates 100% of the familiar income. To improve productivity and income of these communities, a diagnostic and development of disease control

Mara Jos Botero; Germn Franco



CSM: Profamilia's approach in Colombia.  


Colombia's PROFAMILIA has successfully operated a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program since 1973. Beginning with 1 salesperson distributing primarily to Cajas de Subsideio, the CSM program is now distributed through 70-80% of the 6000 registered pharmacies in the country, as well as pharmacy counters of several supermakets in urban areas. During 1981, PROFAMILIA's 5 salespersons accountd for commerical sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) to 225,000 couples and sales of barrier methods to another 75,000. Program sales of contraceptives and other products generated approximately US $1.7 million in revenue for the same year. PROFAMILIA's marketing approach is unique in its product and promotinal characteristics. Supplies are obtained directly from local and foreign manufacturers and are resold without any repackaging. While it is generally believed that CSM programs expand the market for contraceptives, data analysis and analysis of PROFAMILIA's distribution system suggests that the PROFAMILIA CSM program has simply absorbed some of the previously existing commerical market. Total commerical market sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) have grown at an annual rate of 3-4% since 1975. During the same period, direct sales of Schering, Wyeth, and other competitors have declined. PROFAMILIA's community-based program operates mainly among urban and semi-rural lower income populations. It sells products through established retail outlets rather than through institutional or non-retail outlets. PROFAMILIA's community-based program in all respects but its use of a staff of 112 salaried "instructoras" is as much a marketing program as PROFAMILIA's sales through pharmacies. Taken together, the 2 program expanded the commerical makert by about 1/2 since 1975. The contraceptive social marketing or pharmacy sales program appears to excel at generation of revenue and delivery of products to higher income clients. The community-based program excels at delivery of information and sales to lower income clients. PROFAMILIA CSM and community-based program sales are in a period of relative stagnation. Sales projections show only modest increases between 1981-85, despite the fact that a significant number of potential consumers remain unserved. Ultimately, PROFAMILIA may be faced with the need to reduce their number markedly as sales revenue is eroded by inflation while costs rise. A shift in duties back to motivation rather than distribution, combined with increased media promotion seems the clearest short-term response to the problem of unserved consumers. PMID:12264180

Samuel, S



Forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.  


Victimization by sexual assault has become not only a public health and safety issue but a way of life for many in Colombia. Poverty, gender inequality, and a lack of family and community support contribute to the cycle of sexual violence. Ineffective medico-legal systems have added to a rate of 93% for sex crimes that go without arrest or prosecution in Bogot, the capital. Collaborative efforts are underway between the United States and Colombian governments to change the criminal justice system and strengthen forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia. PMID:18027530

Cabelus, Nancy B; Sheridan, Gary T





Twelve species of introduced land molluscs, including seven slug species, have been found in the cold zone above 2000 m altitude in the Departamentos Cundinamarca and Boyac, and the Distrito Especial in Colombia. The introduced land molluscs remain generally restricted to disturbed environments, from which native species are often absent. Most recorded species originated from Europe. Deroceras laeve has been present in Colombia for more than a century, whereas the other species are probably more recent introductions. The records of Boettgerilla pallens, which is indigenous to the Caucasus and has spread over Europe only during the last decades, demonstrates that the process of introduction of alien molluscs is continuing. PMID:12011238

Hausdorf, BERNHARD



76 FR 53165 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice: 7565] Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of State...The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements...



The bank debit tax in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Colombia has had a bank debit tax (BDT) since 1998. It was originally enacted as a temporary measure to finance the bailout of bankrupt financial institutions. The BDT is one variant of the broader class of taxes on financial transactions. The Colombian BDT, known formally as the Gravamen a los Movimientos Financieros (GMF), is a tax on withdrawals from

Mara Anglica Arbelez Restrepo; Leonard E. Burman; Sandra Consuelo Zuluaga




Microsoft Academic Search

Explicit inflation targets have existed in Colombia since the early nineties1 . The Colombian authorities announced a quantitative ination target for the first time in 1991. The announcement was made by the Minister of Finance, at a time when there was no clear distinction between the tasks of the central bank and those of the government with respect to macroeconomic

Javier Gmez; Jos Daro Uribe; Hernando Vargas



Does Independence Matter? Case Studies from Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study consists of two parts: I. ) Does Independence Matter? The Case of the Colombian Central Bank, andII. ) Does Independence Improve Performance? The Colombian Superintendency of Banks. Why has Colombia been a case of low output variability and moderate-to-high inflation? This paper argues that regardless of the institutional arrangement, monetary authorities have stabilized the business cycle, and inflation

Mauricio Cardenas; Zeinab Partow



Inflation, Uncertainty, and Growth in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that higher levels of inflation lead to greater uncertainty about future inflation and to greater dispersion of relative prices. In either case, inflation could reduce the efficiency of market prices in coordinating economic activities. This paper shows that the rise of inflation in Colombia, from low levels in the 1950s to average rates of 18-22 percent

Henry Ma



Privatization and Vouchers in Colombia and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using

Arenas, Alberto



Fuelling a National Innovation System in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation of the innovation-driven environment in Colombia derives from important national efforts to gather and store pertinent information. Two large surveys have tested the "innovative behaviour" of Colombian manufacturing firms--the more recent of these was in 2005. Another information source is the Scienti platform, an online effort

Lucio-Arias, Diana



English in Colombia: A Sociolinguistic Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of Colombia and its linguistic makeup, briefly tracing the presence of the English language from the eighteenth century to date. Characterizes the users and uses of English documenting how the personal, instrumental, and creative and innovative functions are manifested in this setting. Concludes by highlighting the need for

Velez-Rendon, Gloria



Bilingual Curriculum Construction and Empowerment in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traced development of a bilingual curriculum in a monolingual private school in Cali, Colombia, with particular reference to the creation of a curricular proposal in accord with the philosophy and expectations of the school community and the process of particular empowerment generated throughout the research. (Author/VWL)

de Mejia, Anne-Marie; Tejada, Harvey



Sixteen bird species new for Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document 16 bird species (Anas platyrhynchos, Anas strepera, Phalacrocorax auritus, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Stercorarius pomarinus, Stercorarius longicaudus, Larus fuscus, Columbina cruziana, Chalcostigma stanleyi, Empidonax minimus, Vireo griseus, Anthus rubescens Passerculus sandwichensis, Vermivora ruficapilla, Limnothlypis swainsonii and Dives warszewiczi) and one bird subspecies (Oxyura j. jamaicensis) new to Colombia. These comprise three species whose presence in the country or wider region

Paul Salaman; Nick Bayly; Robert Burridge; Mark Gurney; Alonso Quevedo; Luis Eduardo Uruea; Thomas Donegan



History of Earthquakes in Colombia Historia de Los Terremotos en Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of earthquake disasters in Colombia, South America is discussed in detail to promote scientific investigations, and to call attention to engineers, architects, contractors, insurance companies and building owners as to the conditions that must...

J. E. Ramirez



V Festival Nacional del Nuevo Teatro: Las fuentes inagotables del arte  

E-print Network

intento por recrear teatralmente las peripecias del narco-trfico en Colombia con Golpe de suerte, es indudable que el conjunto dramtico La Candelaria ha aprendido de sus fracasos para sorprendernos con el montaje de una obra que, en consenso de los...

Má rceles Daconte, Eduardo



The Drink Driving Situation in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe and analyze the situation of drink driving in Colombia.Methods: The assessment was based on semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders and analysis of secondary data.Results: Road traffic crashes caused 5,704 deaths and injured 39,318 people in 2010. The three main sources of crash data, forensic authorities, traffic authorities and motor vehicle insurance agencies, give different information about crashes,




Mineral resources of Colombia (other than petroleum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The following report summarizes data acquired during 1942-45, in Colombia, by geologists and engineers of the Foreign Economic Administration, with whom the United States Geological Survey cooperated. Twenty-nine mineral commodities are considered, but the data for five of them are scant because they were of no interest to FEA personnel. Petroleum is not considered. Preliminary to a review of individual mineral commodities, resumes are given of the general geography and geology of Colombia and of the country's mining laws. The principal mineral commodities, besides petroleum, produced in Colombia are (1) emeralds, gold, platinum, and silver, mainly for export, and (2) barite, cement, clay, coal, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, silica, and stone, mainly for the domestic market. A large number of other mineral commodities are known in "raw" prospects, some of which may eventually become productive. Their distribution and apparent potentialities, as of 1945, are given. Factors unfavorable to mining are the ruggedness of the terrain, the scarcity of outcrops, and the very high transportation costs.

Singewald, Quentin Dreyer




Microsoft Academic Search

El comportamiento de la economa colombiana en los ltimos aos ha sido decepcionante. Existen diversas hiptesis sobre las posibles causas de dicho desempeo. En particular, el comportamiento poco satisfactorio del crecimiento econmico ha coincidido con un recrudecimiento de diversas manifestaciones de violencia y con el fortalecimiento de los grupos armados con la financiacin del narcotrfico. As, adems de las explicaciones

Pablo Querubn Borrero



Reinventando Kelowna: jubilaciones, tecnologa, vino y turismo en una ciudad del hinterland de Canad  

Microsoft Academic Search

En esta trabajo analizamos la transformacin de Kelowna, una ciudad de 150 mil habitantes en el valle del Okanagan en el interior de la provincia de la Colombia Britnica en Canad, bajo el impacto del constante cambio que impone el neoliberalismo a ciudades y regiones. Estudiamos los esfuerzos histricos de los grupos dominantes locales en hacer la ciudad competitiva

Patricia Tomic; Ricardo Trumper; Luis Aguiar



Citizenship education as a response to Colombias social and political context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the difficult social, economic and political problems that Colombia faces, such as inequality, discrimination, weak civil societyfuelled by illegality and drug traffickingthe Colombian Ministry of Education has embarked on an ambitious citizenship education program, with the hope of strengthening the role of education by establishing alternative solutions. This innovative program attempts to counteract Colombians recourse to violence

Rosario Jaramillo; Jos A. Mesa



La economa del carbn en el Caribe colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

La crisis energtica que se inici en 1973, despert en la economa mundial el inters por energticos sustitutos del petrleo. Colombia no fue la excepcin y en la bsqueda de tales sustitutos se asoci en 1976 con una empresa filial de la corporacin norteamericana Exxon, para explorar, explotar y exportar los carbones de El Cerrejn Zona Norte, ubicados en el

Joaqun Viloria De La Hoz



Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress.  


Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded. PMID:12282910

Kendall, S



3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State...I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of...



78 FR 6810 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY: International...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama published at 77 FR 71778...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama published at 77 FR...



78 FR 49972 - Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States AGENCY: Animal...importation of cape gooseberry from Colombia into the United States. As a condition of entry, cape gooseberry from Colombia would be subject to a systems...



77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Colombia AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD...FAR) to implement the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade...of eligible products and services from Colombia. DATES: Effective Date: May 15,...



77 FR 50557 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Federal Register...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State...I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of...



78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Colombia AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD...FAR) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade...of eligible products and services from Colombia. DATES: Effective Date: January...



78 FR 18877 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS Case 2012-D032) AGENCY: Defense...DFARS) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade...of eligible products and services from Colombia. DATES: Effective date: March...



78 FR 47046 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental Cooperation Agreement AGENCY...regarding the first United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Work Program...for implementing the United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation...



Regional patterns of agricultural land use and deforestation in Colombia  

E-print Network

Regional patterns of agricultural land use and deforestation in Colombia Andre´s Etter a of agricultural lands has slowed since 1960, rapid deforestation still occurs in many tropical countries, including Colombia. However, the location and extent of deforestation and associated ecological impacts

Queensland, University of


Exchange Rate Policy and Inflation Targeting in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Colombia`s experience with an inflation-targeting monetary policy following the abandonment of exchange rate bands in 1999, and two episodes in 2003 and 2004 that deviated from this general behavior. In these episodes, the Central Bank intervened in the forex market on a relatively large scale in order to affect the trend of the exchange rate (managed floating).

Hernando Vargas H



Transmission Mechanisms and Inflation Targeting: The Case of Colombia Disinflation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia has been on a steady disinflation path since the early 1990s. The paper presents a model of the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy in Colombia, in order to examine this disinflation. The model is used to describe the evolution of inflation in response to shocks to the terms of trade, the risk premium, across different monetary policy rules; and

Javier Gmez; Juan Manuel Julio


The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,

McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis



Labor market transitions and social security in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the magnitude of transitions across occupational categories in Colombia, a country with high unemployment and informality but quickly increasing its social security coverage for health. The analysis makes use of a panel of households between 2008 and 2009, representative of the main metropolitan areas inthe country. Results confirm previous evidence found in Colombia and elsewhere in the

Jose Cuesta; Camilo Bohorquez



Cryphonectria canker on Tibouchina in Colombia By M. J. WINGFIELD  

E-print Network

.Wing®; 2 Smur®t Carton de Colombia, Cali, Colombia and Wright Forest Management Consultants Inc., Cary NC on Tibouchina urvilleana (DC). Logn. (Melastomataceae), which is native to Brazil. In a subsequent survey


Simulating Prehistoric Sea Contacts between Costa Rica and Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulations of prehistoric voyaging are used to examine direct cultural contacts and possible movements of people between the Caribbean Coast of Colombia and Costa Rica. Contact is recognized archaeologically in the first millennium BC. Between about AD 200 and AD 800\\/900, and in the succeeding Tairona period of Colombia (ninth century to Spanish conquest), the closest cultural similarities are

Richard T. Callaghan; Warwick Bray



Desnutricin a Nivel Municipal en Colombia, Censo 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo va encaminado a resolver el problema de localizacin y cuantificacin de la desnutricin en Colombia, para pequeas reas (municipios y localidades para Bogot). Aqu se presentan los mapas de desnutricin para pequeas reas en Colombia, pues con el objetivo de reducir los niveles de desnutricin las entidades gubernamentales requieren herramientas para identificar los problemas a nivel regional y

Hermes Fernando Martnez



Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies in Colombia: Progress and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on monetary and exchange rate policies in Colombia, with particular emphasis on the period 1999-2002, when flotation of the peso and inflation targeting were adopted. We argue, first, in favor of adopting \\

Sergio Clavijo



Policy learning : new challenges for smart value capture in Colombia  

E-print Network

Contribucion por Valorizacion is a form of value capture similar to Special Assessment, used in Colombia to complement Local revenues for major public infrastructure programs. SA's continued use countrywide and its resulting ...

Acosta, Patricia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



The Impact of Minimum Wages in Mexico and Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divergent trends in the real value of the minimum wage in Mexico and Colombia in the 1980s provide an opportunity for evaluating the impact of minimum wages on developing economies. Using panel data for each country, substantial disemployment effects of minimum wages are found in Colombia, where the impact is estimated at roughly 2-12 percent over the 1981-87 period. In

Linda A. Bell



The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy.MethodsData were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for

Marianela Castillo-Riquelme; Felipe Guhl; Brenda Turriago; Nestor Pinto; Fernando Rosas; Mnica Flrez Martnez; Julia Fox-Rushby; Clive Davies; Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum



In A. Abraham, J. Ruiz-del-Solar, and M. Kppen (eds), Soft Computing Systems: Design, Man-agement and Applications, pp. 153-162, IOS Press, Netherlands, 2002.  

E-print Network

but also #12;2 to the kind of genetic operators available to create genetic modification. The initial, however, due to the variety of genetic operators that continually introduce genetic modification the un- constrained operation of important genetic operators such as mutation, transposition

Fernandez, Thomas


Crustal structure and local seismicity in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using P-wave travel time data from local seismicity, the crustal structure ofthe central and southern part of Colombia was determined. A very stableand narrow range of possible velocity models for the region was obtainedusing travel time inversion. This range of models was tested with earthquakelocations to select the best velocity model. The 1D velocity modelproposed has five layers over a halfspace, with interfaces at depths of 4,25, 32, 40 and 100 km and P-wave velocities of 4.8, 6.6, 7.0, 8.0, 8.1and 8.2 km/sec, respectively. According to this model the Moho lies at32 km depth on average. For P-waves, the station corrections range from-0.62 to 0.44 sec and for S-wave they range from -1.17 to 0.62 sec.These low variations in station residuals indicate small lateral velocitychanges and therefore the velocity model found should be well suited forearthquake locations and future starting model for 3D tomography studies.Using this new velocity model, the local earthquakes were relocated. Theshallow seismicity, 80 km, shows two subduction zones in the country: theCauca subduction zone with a strike of N120E, dip of 35and thickness of 35 km, and the Bucaramanga subduction zone which has,for the northern part, a strike of N103E, dip of 27 andthickness undetermined and, for the southern part, a strike ofN115E, dip of 40 and thickness of 20 km. Based ondifferences of thickness of brittle crust in the subducted slab and spatialdistribution of the seismicity, the Cauca and Bucaramanga subduction zonesseem to represent independent processes. The Cauca subduction seems tobe connected to the process of the Nazca plate being subducted under theNorth Andes Block. In the Bucaramanga subduction zone, the transitionbetween southern and northern parts and changes in geometry of the slabseem to be gradual and there is no evidence of a tear in the slab, howeverthe local seismicity does not allow us to determine which plate or plates arebeing subducted. The Bucaramanga nest appears to be included into thesubducted slab.

Ojeda, Anibal; Havskov, Jens


New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arl); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernandez, Fernando



The Great Tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 December 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

Herd, D.G.; Youd, T.L.; Meyer, H.; Arango, C.J.L.; Person, W.J.; Mendoza, C.



A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small pramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Daz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1)46(7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sanchez, Luis Roberto



Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden  

PubMed Central

In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 912. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva



78 FR 15343 - Multi-State, Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Colombia; September 9-12, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...They will learn about the many business opportunities in Colombia, and...exposure. Participants already doing business in Colombia will have opportunities...basis. U.S. companies already doing business with Colombia, as well as...



77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...sugar established by the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered...States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...



75 FR 55626 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice 7162] Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement...The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements...



78 FR 16470 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY: International Trade Administration...of the Notice of the U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama published at 77 FR 77032, December 31,...



3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents ...U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...



Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. PMID:24893193



El mercado de acciones en Colombia: 1930-1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the behavior of the stock market in Colombia with the information given by the Bolsa de Bogot Index (Indice de la Bolsa de Bogot, IBB). The index is analyzed from January, 1930 to December, 1998. The inflation rate covers the same period; the inflation rate as measured by the Consumer Price Index. This exploratory paper does not

Ignacio Velez-Pareja



Determinants of the Exchange Rate in Colombia under Inflation Targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research studies the forecasting performance of conventional and more recent exchange rate models in Colombia. The purpose is to explain which have been the main exchange rate determinants under an Inflation Targeting regime and a completely floating exchange rate scheme. Compared to similar studies, this paper includes conventional specifications and Taylor rule approaches that assume exogenous and endogenous monetary

Fredy Alejandro Gamboa Estrada




Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia has been on a steady disinflation path since the early 1990s. In this paper, we model the transmission mechanism of monetary policy during this disinflation. We describe how inflation evolves in response to important shocks that occurred during disinflation such as the terms of trade and to the risk premium, comparing the responses across different assumptions about inflation persistence.

Javier Gmez; Juan Manuel Julio



Seigniorage and the Welfare Cost of Inflation in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compute both seigniorage rate and welfare cost if inflation rate in Colombia using a Sidrausky -type model in which preferences are separable functions of the service flows of non-durable goods and money holdings. The set of the estimated parameters imply sizeable welfare cost of inflation and seigniorage rates. However, eventhough for low inflation rates seigniorage rate markedly increases with

Martha Lpez



Central Bank Independence, Inflation and Uncertainty: The Case of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia undertook reform of its central bank in 1991, pushing it in the direction of greater independence. We find that this reform led to a significant decrease in the level of inflation, as well as inflation uncertainty, suggesting an increase in credibility. However, there has also been an increase in inflation persistence since reform. The lower mean but greater persistence

William Miles



Transmission Mechanism and Inflation Targeting: The Case of Colombia's Desinflation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia has been on a steady disinflation path since the early 1990s. In this paper, we model the transmission mechanism of monetary policy during this disinflation. We describe how inflation evolves in response to important shocks that occurred during disinflation such as the terms of trade and to the risk premium, comparing the responses across different assumptions about inflation persistence.

Javier Gmez; Juan Manuel Julio



Inflation and money in Colombia: another P-Star model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents the estimation of a recent version of the P-Star model by Gerlach and Svensson (2003) and its predictions for Colombia (January 1980 to April 2005). The model is designed to explain the inflation gap (observed rate minus the target) based on the monetary gap and the output gap. According to the results, the output gap lacks significant

Andrs Gonzlez; Luis F. Melo; Carlos E. Posada



Working with Urban Youth: Experiences from Medellin, Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the slums of Medellin, Colombia, a program seeks to improve children's physical health, intellectual development, and self-concept through such activities as carpentry, breadmaking, and sports and literature clubs. These activities help develop ethical and moral values, planning and organizing skills, and a future orientation. (SK)

Hearn, Lydia



Diseo y experiencia de la regulacin en salud en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

En Colombia se tiene un sistema de salud basado en la competencia regulada. En el interactan los mercados de seguros y servicios de salud, influenciados por variables reguladas como la unidad de pago per cpita (precio) y el plan obligatorio de salud (cantidad y calidad), al igual que normas especficas para los agentes que participan en ellos. La investigacin evala

Jairo Humberto Restrepo Zea; Sandra Rodrguez Acosta



International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic

Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.



Critical Literacy as Policy and Advocacy: Lessons from Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, the first column for this issue's Policy and Advocacy department, features a discussion about a recent experience in a graduate program in Medelln, Colombia introducing students to critical literacy. Graduate students used ideas from critical literacy to engage in an in-depth analysis of textbooks they had used in their

Mora, Ral Alberto



Education, Conflict and Social (In)Justice: Insights from Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the dynamics of repression and resistance within the Colombian education system through exploring human rights violations against educators. Drawing on the findings of several fieldwork visits carried out since 2005 across Colombia, the paper focuses on the darker side of the education/conflict relationship, demonstrating

Novelli, Mario



Conceptualizations of Nature from Science Students in Northeastern Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore rural and provincial students' conceptualizations of nature in Colombia alongside the science education offered in their school communities. Students' perceptions of nature were produced from interviews that revolved around a focusing event and two eliciting devices to document their views about home,

Medina-Jerez, William



EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of

Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal



Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and

Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo



Teacher Training in Colombia: A Need for Continuous Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational authorities of most countries, including those of Colombia, typically associate the quality of education with the teacher's role. The teacher then is conceived as a fundamental actor in an educational process and as such assembles and directly transmits pertinent knowledge. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals

Camargo, M.; Calvo, G.; Franco, M. C.; Londono, S.; Vergara, M.



A Comparative Study of School Effectiveness in Aguablanca, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal aim of this article is to describe and document a comparison of public and private school effectiveness in the marginalized (often referred to as slum) district of Aguablanca, in the city of Cali, Colombia. The data suggest that teachers and parents are largely satisfied with the current status of education provision in Aguablanca.

Burgess, Michael; Dixon, Pauline



Secondary Syphilis in Cali, Colombia: New Concepts in Disease Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 1868 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with

Adriana R. Cruz; Allan Pillay; Ana V. Zuluaga; Lady G. Ramirez; Jorge E. Duque; Gloria E. Aristizabal; Mary D. Fiel-Gan; Roberto Jaramillo; Rodolfo Trujillo; Carlos Valencia; Linda Jagodzinski; David L. Cox; Justin D. Radolf; Juan C. Salazar



Regional patterns of agricultural land use and deforestation in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expanding human population and associated demands for goods and services continues to exert an increasing pressure on ecological systems. Although the rate of expansion of agricultural lands has slowed since 1960, rapid deforestation still occurs in many tropical countries, including Colombia. However, the location and extent of deforestation and associated ecological impacts within tropical countries is often not well

Andrs Etter; Clive McAlpine; Kerrie Wilson; Stuart Phinn; Hugh Possingham



Social Representations of Human Papillomavirus in Bogot, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying DNA of Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as a new screening method for cervical cancer control. Conventionally, health education for screening programs is based on scientific information without considering any community cognitive processes. We examine HPV social representations of 124 men and women from diverse educational status living in Bogot, Colombia. The social representation of HPV involves a

Carolina Wiesner; Jess Acosta; Adriana Daz del Castillo; Sandra Tovar



Residents, Decision Makers, and Scientists Discuss Volcanic Hazard in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia; Pasto, Colombia, 6-11 July 2009; Galeras volcano, located in southwestern Colombia, imposes several hazards on the surrounding population: pyroclastic flows, lahars, ashfall, and shock waves. The current hazard map shows three zones: high, medium, and low (see A. D. Hurtado Artunduaga and G. P. Corts Jimnez, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 77, 89-100, 1997). The pyroclastic flow hazard on this map defines the Zone of High Volcanic Hazard (ZAVA) for civil authorities. Current activity of Galeras has provoked two contentious issues related to hazard management: (1) Decision makers announce an evacuation order of ZAVA whenever the volcanic alert reaches a high level, and (2) the Colombian government initiated a relocation program for the inhabitants within ZAVA (Colombian Decrees-Laws 4106 and 3905). However, communities within ZAVA refuse to obey both the evacuation orders and the relocation process. To help resolve this situation, the University of Nario (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. A daily average of 92 people attended, including residents of ZAVA, decision makers, Colombian technical and scientific personnel, international scientists and researchers, students, and academics from the University of Nario.

Sheridan, Michael F.; Cordoba, Gustavo



Teaching Writing in the Republic of Colombia, 1800-1850  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform

Clark, Meri L.



Managing the implementation of the government online strategy in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the way in which the Government Online Strategy has been approached in Colombia, under the provisions of Decree 1151 of 2008. It is based upon the existence of new managerial concepts of running the State, in which the use of Information and Communications Technologies are fundamental. Subsequently, the methodological scheme that has been developed aimed at driving

Francisco Camargo



Finding Eldorado: Slavery and Long-run Development in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slavery has been a major institution of labor coercion throughout history. Colonial societies used slavery intensively across the Americas, and slavery remained prevalent in most countries after independence from the European powers. We investigate the impact of slavery on long-run development in Colombia. Our identification strategy compares municipalities that had gold mines during the 17th and 18th centuries to neighboring

Daron Acemoglu; Camilo Garca-Jimeno; James A. Robinson



Is There a Culture of Violence in Colombia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies evidence of a culture of violence in Colombia and discusses the structural conditions that allow or cause such a culture to arise. The thesis is that economic factors alone cannot explain violence; rather, cultural factors must be taken into account.

Peter Waldmann



The San Juan Delta, Colombia: tides, circulations, and salt dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Juan River delta (Colombia) with an area of 800 km2 is the largest delta environment on the Pacific coast of South America. It consists of active distributaries maintained by an average discharge of 2500 m3 s? 1, is tide dominated, and has relatively narrow estuarine mixing zones o17 km wide and typically B7 km wide. Water level and

Juan D. Restrepoa


Understanding Crime in Colombia and What Can Be Done About It  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt to spell out the causes and costs of Colombias crime situation. Homicide rates are the highest in the world, three times higher than those of Brazil & Mexico and ten times higher than those of other Latin American countries. Paradoxically, Colombia is not exceptional with relation to property crime. In recent years, homicide rates have dropped in some

Levitt Steven; Mauricio Rubio



Monetary policy and macroeconomic stability in Latin America: The cases of Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, new monetary policy regimes were adopted in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, combining inflation targeting with floating exchange rates. These regime changes have been accompanied by lower volatility in the monetary stance in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, despite higher inflation volatility in Brazil and Colombia. This paper estimates a conventional New Keynesian model for these four countries and

Luiz de Mello; Diego Moccero



Monetary Policy and Macroeconomic Stability in Latin America: The Cases of Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, new monetary policy regimes were adopted in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, combining inflation targeting with floating exchange rates. These regime changes have been accompanied by lower volatility in the monetary stance in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, despite higher inflation volatility in Brazil and Colombia. This paper estimates a conventional New Keynesian model for these four countries and

Luiz de Mello; Diego Moccero



78 FR 72972 - Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8541] Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental...providing notice that the United States and Colombia intend to hold the first meeting of the...Environment) of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA)...



Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: As well, the "Historia Ssmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geolgico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimat, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismologa Histrica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held periodically between 1997 and 2012, the year of the sixth edition. As well, national and international research groups have been formed to work actively on global projects, such as the Geophysics Laboratory of Universidad de Los Andes in Venezuela. In the future, international groups will be formed to jointly treat issues including localization and size of destructive events along borders, common scales for the evaluation of intensities, integrated data bases, etc. Additionally the methods employed will be validated by paleoseismology, neotectonics and instrumental seismicity, among others.

Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.



Jose R. Ruiz Ayala Kwangjin Lee  

E-print Network

instabil- ity in railway brakes, attempted to allow for this effect by aver- aging the heat input over) and is of critical importance in the design of high perfor- mance brakes (Thoms, 1988; Anderson and Knapp, 1989; Ken estimate of the critical speed for practical systems such as brakes, but the more com- plex finite geometry

Barber, James R.


[Public health policies as regards the elderly in Colombia].  


A literature review was performed on the laws passed, and adopted in accordance with international regulations, in Colombia and which currently benefit or affect the quality of life of the elderly. Public policies in Colombia are inclined towards the well-being of the elderly, but this documental analysis concludes that the elderly Colombian is unprotected and defenseless against the obstacles and difficult situations due to the biological, political, social, economic and environmental conditions. This makes them vulnerable as it is a scheme that only benefits in cases of poverty and by being a member of the General Social Security in Health system, with transfer of obligations to the family, society and likewise the elderly. PMID:21388713

Cardona Arango, Doris; Segura Cardona, Angela Mara



Heat flow from eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heat flows were determined at 12 sites in four distinct areas between longitude 77?? and 80??W in eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia. Evidently, most of the region is underlain by mafic oceanic crust so that the crustal radiogenic component of heat flow is very small (??? 0.1 ??cal cm-2 sec-1). Low heat-flow values (??? 0.7 ??cal cm-2 sec-1) in northwestern Colombia may reflect thermal transients associated with shallow subduction. The normal values (??? 1) at about 78??W are consistent with the mean heat flow from the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. At 80??W, a fairly high value of 1.8 may define the easterly limit of thermal transients due to Cenozoic volcanic activity in Central America. ?? 1974.

Sass, J.H.; Munroe, R.J.; Moses, T.H., Jr.



The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare. PMID:19015725

Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martinez, Monica Florez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid



Lack of Credibility, Inflation Persistence and Disinflation in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper measures inflation persistence in Colombia for the period 1990-2010 and estimates the implied speed at which agents learn about the central banks inflation target. We estimate Erceg and Levins (2003) imperfect credibility model using Bayesian techniques and compare the posterior odds of this model against a conventional Neokeynesian model with ad-hoc price indexation. The odds are strongly in

Andrs Gonzalez; Franz Hamann



Dissemination of Streptococcus pneumoniae Clone Colombia -19 in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Uruguay and confirmed the presence of the Colombia 5 -19 clone throughout Latin America. Fifteen sub- types of a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and 4 electrophoretic types (ET) were obtained. Most of the isolates from different geographical regions belonged to pattern A (34.3%), subtype A5 (41.9%), and ET1 (91.1%). The A pattern (n 59) was resistant to TET and

Liliana Gamboa; Teresa Camou; Mar A Hortal; Elizabeth Castan Eda



Atlas del Genoma del Cncer

Es posible que haya ms de 200 tipos diferentes de cncer y muchos subtipos ms, cada uno de estos causado por errores en el ADN que desencadenan el crecimiento descontrolado de las clulas. La identificacin de los cambios en el conjunto completo de ADN de cada tipo de cncer, su genoma, y el entendimiento de cmo interactan dichos cambios para impulsar el proceso de la enfermedad sentarn las bases de una era individualizada de tratamiento del cncer.


Environmental occurrence of arsenic in Colombia: a review.  


The international literature on the presence of arsenic (As) in Latin America does not disclose the true magnitude of the presence of As in Colombia. In this paper, we summarize the literature on As occurrence in Colombia. The data reveal that As is present in matrices such as soil, sediments and water and in the food chain. Some of the As concentrations exceed the limits specified by national and international regulations. Arsenic higher concentrations are associated with mining regions (e.g., soils, up to 148 mg/kg; sediments, up to 1400 mg/kg) and agricultural areas (e.g., vegetables, up to 5.40 mg/kg; irrigation water, up to 255 ?g/L), and underscore the potential human and environmental risks associated with the presence of As in the country. This review highlights the importance of focusing research on understanding the occurrence, origin and distribution of As in Colombia to better understand its environmental and public health impact. PMID:24388765

Alonso, David L; Latorre, Sergio; Castillo, Elianna; Brando, Pedro F B



A mediated modelling approach to promote collaborative learning in Andean rural micro-catchments in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rural catchments of developing countries water-related diseases, due to land use patterns (agriculture and livestock), microbial pollution, inadequate sanitation systems, access to water of poor quality, and lack of institutional support are common problems which disproportionally affect poor and vulnerable people. This research aims at developing a system dynamic model to improve the understanding of the macro and micro factors that influence human health and environmental health in rural micro-catchments in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In this catchment livelihoods for most people depend on agriculture, particularly coffee. The research uses a mediated modeling approach, in which different stakeholders in modeling sessions, develop a STELLA model that allows them to identify relations between the economic, social and environmental factors and driving forces over the performance of their system. Stakeholders jointly develop the model structure in sessions facilitated by the researcher and the data required is gathered using secondary information from the different relevant institutions and primary information from field surveys that cover socioeconomic and environmental aspects that has not been previously collected by any institution or organization (i.e. household survey, stream water survey, and drinking water survey). Representation and understanding of their system will allow the stakeholders to test the effect of different management strategies in the micro-catchment and their associated socioeconomic, environmental and human health outcomes.

Gowing, John; Dominguez, Isabel




E-print Network

ESTUDIANTE(S) BENEFICIARIOS DEL PROGRAMA DE BECA ASISTENTE DOCENTE (Acuerdo 028/10 del Consejo Superior ente público o privado 3. Perfil: · Colaboración en el desarrollo de la asignatura "Metodología de la

Prieto, Germán A.



E-print Network

3. Perfil: · Se requieren sean apoyadas por un Becario Asistente Docente las asignaturas ESTUDIANTE(S) BENEFICIARIOS DEL PROGRAMA DE BECA ASISTENTE DOCENTE (Acuerdo 028/10 del Consejo Superior cumplimiento. 4. Actividades a desarrollar: Cumplir con las labores docentes que le sean asignadas por la

Prieto, Germán A.


In Vitro Susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax to Antimalarials in Colombia.  


The in vitro susceptibilities of 30 isolates of Plasmodium vivax to a number of antimalarials (chloroquine [CQ], mefloquine, amodiaquine, quinine, and artesunate [AS]) were evaluated. The isolates came from the region of Urab in Colombia, in which malaria is endemic, and were evaluated by the schizont maturation test. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.6 nM (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 1.0 nM) for artesunate, 8.5 nM (95% CI, 5.6 to 13.0 nM) for amodiaquine, 23.3 nM (95% CI, 12.4 to 44.1 nM) for chloroquine, 55.6 nM (95% CI, 36.8 to 84.1 nM) for mefloquine, and 115.3 nM (95% CI, 57.7 to 230.5 nM) for quinine. The isolates were classified according to whether the initial parasites were mature or immature trophozoites (Tfz). It was found that the IC50s for chloroquine and artesunate were significantly different in the two aforementioned groups (P < 0.001). The IC50s of CQ and AS were higher in the isolates from mature Tfz (CQ, 39.3 nM versus 17 nM; AS, 1.4 nM versus 0.3 nM), and 10% of the isolates showed lower susceptibilities to one of the antimalarial drugs, 13.3% to two antimalarial drugs, and 3.3% to more than three antimalarial drugs. It should be highlighted that despite the extensive use of chloroquine in Colombia, P. vivax continues to be susceptible to antimalarials. This is the first report, to our knowledge, showing in vitro susceptibilities of P. vivax isolates to antimalarials in Colombia. PMID:25114141

Fernndez, Diana; Segura, Csar; Arboleda, Margarita; Garavito, Giovanny; Blair, Silvia; Pabn, Adriana



Retrospective molecular integrated epidemiology of Chagas disease in Colombia.  


American trypanosomiasis is a very complex zoonosis that is present throughout South America, Central America, and Mexico and continues to represent a serious threat to the health of countries in the region. The parasite infects 150 species from 24 families of domestic and wild mammals and shows remarkable genetic variability evinced in at least seven discrete typing units (DTU's) named TcI-TcVI with the presence of a novel genotype associated with bats named TcBat. These DTUs show a wide range of geographical and host distributions. Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi and the diverse clinical manifestations of infected patients and unravel the molecular eco-epidemiology in the epizootic and enzootic scenarios in Colombia. We undertook intensive sampling in 17 departments of Colombia among 11 triatomine species, 9 mammalian reservoir species and humans and obtained 637 biological clones that were subsequently analyzed using nuclear and mitochondrial molecular markers. TcI was the most prevalent (80.7%) followed by TcII (7.2%), TcIII (3.9%), TcIV (5%), TcV (0.8%), TcVI (1.6%) and TcBat (0.8%). Within domestic foci, TcI (70%) was the most prevalent, followed by TcII (20%), TcIII (1.6%), TcIV (3.6%), TcV (2.2%) and TcVI (2,6%); within sylvatic foci, TcI (85%) was the most prevalent, followed by TcII (0.3%), TcIII (5.5%), TcIV (7%), TcVI (1.1%) and TcBat (1.1%). The results suggest the occurrence of the seven DTUs and strict associations of independent DTUs with the host and environment in Colombia. The implications are discussed herein. PMID:24012949

Guhl, Felipe; Ramrez, Juan David



Colombia an approach to create a national space agency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre- Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phas e of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

Arenales, O.


Petroleum system of the Cano Limon field, Llanos Basin, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

The Chipaque-Lower Carbonera({circ}) Petroleum System of the northernmost Llanos Basin of Colombia, covers 11,100 km{sup 2} and includes two major oil fields: Caho Limon in Colombia, and Guafita in Venezuela, jointly with three more relatively small fields in Colombia: Redondo, Cano Rondon, and Jiba. Ultimate recoverable reserves are in the order of 1.4 BBO. The sedimentary section penetrated in the Northern Llanos has been informally subdivided into four Cretaceous formations: K3, K2B, K2A, and Lower K1 deposited during the Albian-Senonian, and into four Tertiary formations: Lower Carbonera, Upper Carbonera, Leon, and Guayabo deposited during the Late Eocene to Pliocene time. The main reservoir is the Lower Carbonera Formation, which contains 81% of the total reserves. The Cretaceous K2A and Lower K1 reservoirs contain 6% and 8%, respectively of the reserves. Minor reserves are accumulated in the discontinuous sandstones of the Oligocene Upper Carbonera Formation Geochemical analyses of the Cano Limon/Guafita oils indicate that these are aromatic intermediate to paraffinic-naphthenic, non degradated, genetically related to a common marine-derived type of kerogen. These oils were generated by a mature, marine clastic source rock with a small contribution of continental organic matter. The geochemistry of the hydrocarbon suggest a genetic relationship with the shales of the Chipaque formation, basin-ward equivalent of the K2 Formation, which presents kerogen type II organic matter and has been recognized as a good source rock. The petroleum system is hypothetical because a definite oil-source rock correlation is lacking. The development of the petroleum system is directly related to the history of movement of the Santa Maria, La Yuca, Caho Limon, and Matanegra wrench faults. It has been determined that these faults of pre-Cretaceous rifting origin, created the Santa Maria Graben of which the Espino Graben is the continuation in Venezuela.

Molina, J. [Occidental de Colombia, Inc., Bogota (Colombia)




E-print Network

Discusses the movement towards international recognition among "elite" bilingual schools on Colombia's Caribbean coast, with a special focus on U.S. accrediting agencies and the International Baccalaureate....

Nalley, Joel Josiah



Mssbauer analysis of coal coke samples from Samac, Boyac, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three samples of coke produced from coal from a mine in the municipality of Samac, department of Boyac, Colombia, were studied essentially with Mssbauer spectroscopy. The samples were treated with NaOH 5 mol L - 1 in order to increase the proportion of iron oxides, by selectively dissolving silicate minerals and any remaining gibbsite, before the physical analysis. Room temperature Mssbauer data revealed that all samples do contain major proportions (>50 % of the relative subspectral area) of hematite along with (super) paramagnetic species as iron-bearing chemical compounds. The superparamagnetic contribution may be due to very fine grains of iron oxides, including nanometric hematite.

Pacheco Serrano, W. A.; Quinto Lima, D.; Fabris, J. D.



The Quindio, Colombia, Earthquake of January 25, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) recently released a Special Earthquake Report on the Quindio, Colombia Earthquake of January 25, 1999. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, this report is part of the EERI's Learning from Earthquakes project. Sections contained in the report include an Introduction, Geosciences and Geotechnical Aspects, Structural and Nonstructural Damage, Observations on Lifelines, Health Impacts, Emergency Response, Emergency Shelter and Temporary Housing, Recovery and Reconstruction, and Lessons Learned. Figures and images supplement the report and help make more complicated material easier to understand. This report provides an excellent example of a case study.


Bayesian-inversion adjusted methane fluxes in Colombia and Panama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is the second most important long lived greenhouse gas (GHG) in the Earth's atmosphere accounting for ~20% of the positive radiative forcing. The first step towards developing GHG mitigation strategies is to obtain sufficiently accurate and detailed source and sinks estimations. While ~2/3 of the global methane emissions are anthropogenic, the wetlands are the single largest source. Therefore, in many cases, wetland emissions must be included in inverse modeling calculations aimed at validating anthropogenic emission inventories from ambient air concentration measurements. High accuracy and precision methane measurements carried out in 2007 during NASA's TC4 mission revealed elevated enhancements over Colombia and Panama (up to ~500 ppbv CH4 over Uraba, Colombia). Aiming at identifying the origin of these enhancements and at validating the anthropogenic emission inventory, we used STILT to estimate methane mixing ratios based on surface fluxes at regional level over four regions of both Colombia and Panama. STILT was applied along with assimilated (GDAS and ECMWF) meteorological fields and a priori methane inventories for anthropogenic (EDGAR) and wetland emissions (Kaplan's and Matthews and Fung's). The modeled mixing ratios were compared to the TC4 mission measurements. A Bayesian inversion analysis allowed us to scale prior fluxes taking into account the uncertainty on modeled mixing ratios due to transport errors, which were calculated by comparison with meteorological observations. We obtained flux scaling factors for the whole domain of study and for each one of the four regions. Overall, the Bayesian inversion indicates that the prior anthropogenic inventory is reasonably accurate and the a priori wetland methane fluxes are overestimated almost by a factor 2. Although the posterior enhancements show a better agreement with measurements, the discrepancies cannot be reduced for 4 regions simultaneously, which points to the calculated meteorological fields as the main source of uncertainty. This is not surprising bearing in mind the complexity of horizontal and vertical transport in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, particularly over the strong moist convection period experienced during the TC4 mission. Our calculations show a significant anthropogenic influence in the Savanna and Uraba regions. This is unexpected for Uraba. Our posterior wetland flux estimate for Colombia is ~4 Tg/year. This is relatively large when compared for instance with the Hudson Bay Lowlands (~ 2 Tg/year).

Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez, R.; Lin, J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Kort, E. A.; Kaplan, J. O.



Phylogenetic reconstruction of dengue virus type 2 in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever is perhaps the most important viral re-emergent disease especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries, affecting about 50 million people around the world yearly. In Colombia, dengue virus was first detected in 1971 and still remains as a major public health issue. Although four viral serotypes have been recurrently identified, dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) has been involved in the most important outbreaks during the last 20 years, including 2010 when the fatality rate highly increased. As there are no major studies reviewing virus origin and genotype distribution in this country, the present study attempts to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of DENV-2 using a sequence analysis from a 224 bp PCR-amplified product corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of the envelope (E) gene from 48 Colombian isolates. Results As expected, the oldest isolates belonged to the American genotype (subtype V), but the strains collected since 1990 represent the American/Asian genotype (subtype IIIb) as previously reported in different American countries. Interestingly, the introduction of this genotype coincides with the first report of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Colombia at the end of 1989 and the increase of cases during the next years. Conclusion After replacement of the American genotype, several lineages of American/Asian subtype have rapidly spread all over the country evolving in new clades. Nevertheless, the direct association of these new variants in the raise of lethality rate observed during the last outbreak has to be demonstrated. PMID:22405440



[Focusing on the subsidized health regime in Colombia].  


Based on the results of the project "Evaluation of the Processes of the Subsidized health regime" in Colombia, a reflection is presented about the beneficiary selection system--Sisben as a tool to affiliate people to the subsidized health regime. The multiple interpretations which have been given to the Sisben as an instrument to focalize the health services in the poorest populations, are documented and analyzed. This has been interpreted, amongst others, as a measure of the magnitude of poverty, as an approximate indicator of resources or income, or as an evaluation of fulfillment of needs. It was found that amongst the 19 million of poor people living in Colombia in 1997, less than half of them, 8.9 million, have been included in levels 1 and 2 of Sisben, which represents an exclusion error of 53.1%. Of the 10.6 million persons classified in these levels, 1.6% are not poor, giving an inclusion error of 14.9%. The exclusion errors are much more serious than the inclusion ones, because they mean a denial of equal rights and services for all those who are in similar conditions, according to the criteria for assignation of subsidies. PMID:14968905

Fresneda Bautista, Oscar



Burden of disease in Nari?o, Colombia, 2010  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study sought to measure burden of disease and identifies health priorities from the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) indicator. Methods: This is the first study on burden of disease for a department in Colombia by using a standardized methodology. By using the DALYs indicator, burden of disease was identified in the department of Nario according to the guidelines established by the World Health Organization. Results: The DALYs in the Department of Nario highlight the emergence of communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional diseases during the first years of life; of accidents and lesions among youth, and non-communicable diseases in older individuals. Also, accidents and lesions are highlighted in men and non-communicable diseases in women. Conclusions: This study is part of the knowledge management process in the Departmental Health Plan for Nario - Colombia 2012-2015 and contributes to the system of indicators of the 2012 ten-year public health plan. This research evidences that communicable diseases generate the biggest part of the burden of disease in the Department of Nario, that DALYs due to non-communicable diseases are on the rise, and that accidents and lesions, especially due to violence are an important cause of DALYs in this region, which is higher than that of the country. PMID:25386034

Trujillo-Montalvo, Elizabeth; Hidalgo-Patino, Carlos; Hidalgo-Eraso, Angela



Inflation, monetary balances and the aggregate production function : the case of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of monetary balances in economic growth has long been a topic of macroeconomic research. This paper examines the role of real money balances in an aggregate production function of a developing economy, Colombia. Colombia is an interesting case to analyze for several reasons. First, although it has experienced high and variable rates of inflation, it has also introduced

Robert Buckley; Anupam Dokeniya



Commodity Export Prices and the Real Exchange Rate in Developing Countries: Coffee in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a model that analyzes the interaction between changes in commodity export prices, money creation, inflation, and the real exchange rate in a developing country is developed. The model is then tested using data for Colombia. A number of experts have argued that the fluctuations of Colombia's real exchange rate have been mainly determined by world coffee price

Sebastian Edwards



Monetary policy and inflation under the crawling peg: Some evidence from VARs for Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of monetary policy under the crawling peg in Colombia utilizing Granger Causality tests, variance decompositions, and impulse response functions from VARs. Several alternative lag selection criteria are used to specify the lag structures of the VARs. Variations in domestic credit appear to affect the balance of payments but not the exchange rate in Colombia, suggesting

Linda Kamas



The War on Illegal Drug Production and Trafficking: An Economic Evaluation of Plan Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a thorough economic evaluation of the anti-drug policies implemented in Colombia between 2000 and 2006 under the so-called Plan Colombia. The paper develops a game theory model of the war against illegal drugs in producer countries. We explicitly model illegal drug markets, which allows us to account for the feedback effects between policies and market outcomes that

Daniel Meja; Pascual Restrepo



76 FR 53299 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary...U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...



Developing the Intercultural Perspective in Foreign Language Teaching in Colombia: A Review of Six Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The steadfast spread of English as the dominant world language has heightened the need to integrate culture in the foreign language teaching (FLT) curriculum, but how does this process crystallize in countries such as Colombia? The results of this review provide insight on the status of the intercultural perspective in FLT in Colombia by looking

lvarez Valencia, Jos Aldemar



Re-Imagining Teacher Professional Development and Citizenship Education: Lessons for Import from Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the role of teachers in the implementation of citizenship education in Colombia. Consistent with its highly-decentralized school system, Colombia's National Program of Citizenship Competencies was developed with the participation of many local, national, and international partners. Among the most involved and most critical

Noonan, James M.



75 FR 67011 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary...U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...



Results of Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in Public Schools in Bogota, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Bogota, Colombia, in 2001 and 2007 to examine changes in tobacco use among youth 13-15 years of age. The current tobacco control effort in Bogota will be accessed relative to Colombia ratifying the World Health Organization Framework

Pardo, Constanza; Pineros, Marion; Jones, Nathan R.; Warren, Charles W.



Inside the 'Crystal Triangle': The US 'War on Narcoterrorism' in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

For half a century, the United States and its client state in Colombia have been unsuccessful in eliminating Latin America's oldest and most powerful Marxist insurgency the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), via the Cold War, the 'War on Drugs,' and the 'War on Terror' after 9\\/11. This is an astonishing feat for a so-called 'terrorist' organisation in the

Oliver Villar



Protected areas in Northern Colombia on track to sustainable development? Carla Marchant & Axel Borsdorf  

E-print Network

Protected areas in Northern Colombia ­ on track to sustainable development? Carla Marchant & Axel Borsdorf Keywords: sustainable development, livelihood, tourism, subsistence, coffee, Sierra Nevada de of sustainable development. On the basis of case studies in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Northern Colombia

Borsdorf, Axel


A Question of Escalation - From Counternarcotics to Counterterrorism: Analysing US Strategy in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis addresses whether US strategy has escalated the ongoing conflict in Colombia. The study examines the ways in which US policy towards Colombia has been affected both by global circumstances after 9\\/11, and local events on the ground such as the involvement of private military firms which operate alongside multinational corporations in the country. The evidence suggests that US

Jason Vauters; MichaeL L. R. Smith



Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introduccin Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cncer, no existe suficiente informacin en la literatura cientfica sobre su forma de utilizacin ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta prctica teraputica. Objetivos Conocer mtodos de utilizacin y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cncer. Materiales y mtodos Diseo cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Anlisis de texto basado en enfoque temtico inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cncer. La forma de utilizacin mas comn es la ingesta de la sangre fresca y el mecanismo de accin asociado es la transferencia de defensas a quien lo consume. Conclusiones La utilizacin del Coragyps atratus como tratamiento para el cncer es una terapia alternativa usada popularmente en Colombia. El uso de este animal debe estudiarse ms a fondo para conocer los efectos clnicos en los pacientes con cncer. PMID:22651097




E-print Network

COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA Y URUGUAY Enrico GIACOMETTI SARTHOU Universidad de Salamanca giacometti estudiar estos procesos de cambio, los casos escogidos serán Costa Rica, Colombia y Uruguay. Palabras Clave

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Characterization of a malaria outbreak in Colombia in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Although malaria has presented a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality worldwide during the last decade, it remains a serious global public health problem. In Colombia, during this period, many factors have contributed to sustained disease transmission, with significant fluctuations in an overall downward trend in the number of reported malaria cases. Despite its epidemiological importance, few studies have used surveillance data to describe the malaria situation in Colombia. This study aims to describe the characteristics of malaria cases reported during 2010 to the Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA) of the National Institute of Health (INS) of Colombia. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using malaria information from SIVIGILA 2010. Cases, frequencies, proportions, ratio and measures of central tendency and data dispersion were calculated. In addition, the annual parasite index (API) and the differences between the variables reported in 2009 and 2010 were estimated. Results A total of 117,108 cases were recorded by SIVIGILA in 2010 for a national API of 10.5/1,000 habitants, with a greater number of cases occurring during the first half of the year. More than 90% of cases were reported in seven departments (=states): Antioquia: 46,476 (39.7%); Choc: 22,493 (19.2%); Cordoba: 20,182 (17.2%); Valle: 6,360 (5.4%); Guaviare: 5,876 (5.0%); Nario: 4,085 (3.5%); and Bolivar: 3,590 (3.1%). Plasmodium vivax represented ~71% of the cases; Plasmodium falciparum ~28%; and few infrequent cases caused by Plasmodium malariae. Conclusions Overall, a greater incidence was found in men (65%) than in women (35%). Although about a third of cases occurred in children <15years, most of these cases occurred in children >5years of age. The ethnic distribution indicated that about 68% of the cases occurred in mestizos and whites, followed by 23% in Afro-descendants, and the remainder (9%) in indigenous communities. In over half of the cases, consultation occurred early, with 623 complicated and 23 fatal cases. However, the overall incidence increased, corresponding to an epidemic burst and indicating the need to strengthen prevention and control activities as well as surveillance to reduce the risk of outbreaks and the consequent economic and social impact. PMID:24044437



[Historical, social and epidemiological roots of tuberculosis in Bogot, Colombia].  


Understanding the current epidemiologic dynamic of tuberculosis (TB) in any society requires a holistic approach. In the current paper, the history and behavior of the TB is summarized for Bogot, Colombia. In prehispanic periods the occurrence of TB was low. During the Conquest and the Colony periods, a moderate increase of pulmonary and abdominal TB was observed. In the 1870s, a great increase in cases of pulmonary TB was associated with the accelerated urbanization process. Since the 1920s, the occurrence of pulmonary TB shifted to the status of an endemic disease. After 1920, its occurrence was relatively steady until the 1970s, when its occurence greatly decreased. More recently, however, an increase in case numbers has been observed. The occurrence of TB in each period is associated with clearly defined social and environmental phenomena. PMID:15678799

Idrovo, Alvaro Javier



Morning Edition's Series on the Crisis in Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week National Public Radio's (NPR) Morning Edition featured a five-part investigative series on the crisis in Columbia, source of most of the cocaine and roughly half the heroin sold in the US. The drug trade, a guerilla insurgency, and a spiraling economy have created a vacuum of sorts in Columbia that the US is trying to fill with vastly increased military aid. Averaging just under nine minutes each, the audio reports offer an overview of the situation and more detailed looks at the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the Columbian military, the paramilitaries, and potential US involvement in the civil war. At time of review only the first three reports were available at the site, but the remaining two are expected shortly.


First Case Report of Turcot Syndrome Type 1 in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Turcot syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by the occurrence of primary tumors of the central nervous system and adenomatous colonic polyps during the first or second decades of life, with a spectrum of clinical features such as caf-au-lait spots, axillary freckling, and hyperpigmented spots. Currently its prevalence globally and in Colombia remains unknown. We present the case of a 20-year-old male with a clinical presentation of both glioblastoma multiforme and multiple adenomatous colonic polyps. The molecular genetics study revealed a mutation in KrasAsp12 gene and altered expression of HMSH2 and HMSH6 proteins encoded by the DNA mismatch repair genes in two of the colonic polyps. Even though this clinical presentation may suggest a shorter survival rate, this patient is still alive after seven months of treatment. A literature review complements this report. PMID:23320220

Dora, Vallejo; Diego, Garnica; Rmulo, Bonilla; Natalia, Olaya



Social representations of human papillomavirus in Bogot, Colombia.  


Identifying DNA of Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as a new screening method for cervical cancer control. Conventionally, health education for screening programs is based on scientific information without considering any community cognitive processes. We examine HPV social representations of 124 men and women from diverse educational status living in Bogot, Colombia. The social representation of HPV involves a series of figurative nuclei derived from meanings linked to scientific information. While women focused on symbols associated to contagion, men focused on its venereal character. Figurative nuclei also included long-term uncertainty, need or urgent treatment, and feelings of imminent death associated with cancer and chronic sexually transmitted infections. The social representation of HPV impeded many participants from clearly understanding written information about HPV transmission, clearance, and cancer risk; they are built into a framework of values, which must be deconstructed to allow women full participation in HPV screening programs. PMID:22288472

Wiesner, Carolina; Acosta, Jess; Daz Del Castillo, Adriana; Tovar, Sandra



Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

Ramrez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunub, Zulma M.; Florz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe



Geodynamics of the northern Andes: Subductions and intracontinental deformation (Colombia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New regional seismological data acquired in Colombia during 1993 to 1996 and tectonic field data from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) permit a reexamination of the complex geodynamics of northwestern South America. The effect of the accretion of the Baud-Panama oceanic arc, which began 12 Myr ago, is highlighted in connection with mountain building in the EC. The Istmina and Ibagu faults in the south and the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga fault to the northeast limit an E-SE moving continental wedge. Progressive indentation of the wedge is absorbed along reverse faults located in the foothills of the Cordilleras (northward of 5N) and transpressive deformation in the Santander Massif. Crustal seismicity in Colombia is accurately correlated with active faults showing neotectonic morphological evidences. Intermediate seismicity allows to identify a N-NE trending subduction segment beneath the EC, which plunges toward the E-SE. This subduction is interpreted as a remnant of the paleo-Caribbean plateau (PCP) as suggested by geological and tomographic profiles. The PCP shows a low-angle subduction northward of 5.2N and is limited southward by a major E-W transpressive shear zone. Normal oceanic subduction of the Nazca plate (NP) ends abruptly at the southern limit of the Baud Range. Northward, the NP subducts beneath the Choc block, overlapping the southern part of the PCP. Cenozoic shortening in the EC estimated from a balanced section is 120 km. Stress analysis of fault slip data in the EC (northward of 4N), indicates an E-SE orientation of ?1 in agreement with the PCP subduction direction. Northward, near Bucaramanga, two stress solutions were observed: (1) a late Andean N80E compression and (2) an early Andean NW-SE compression.

Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Luis A.; Fuenzalida, AndrS.; Cisternas, Armando; Philip, Herv; Bijwaard, Harmen; Olaya, Jos; Rivera, Clara



77 FR 77035 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama May 13-16, 2013. The subject...Carlos Suarez, U.S. Commercial Service Colombia, Tel: 57-1-2752519, Email:...



78 FR 15346 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Brazil, Colombia and Panama; May 12-18...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Business Development Mission to Brazil, Colombia and Panama; May 12-18, 2013 AGENCY...iacute]lia, Brazil, Bogot[aacute], Colombia and Panama City, Panama from May 12-18...will promote U.S. exports to Brazil, Colombia and Panama by helping U.S....



78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY...with the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia into the continental United States...via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. We are making the pest risk...



78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY...continental United States of Swiss chard from Colombia. Based on the findings of a pest risk...via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. DATES: Effective: November 20,...



77 FR 29519 - To Implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012 To Implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other...States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the ``Agreement...June 28, 2007, the United States and Colombia amended the Agreement. The...



78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador...Administration is organizing a trade mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and Ecuador forum in Bogot[aacute], Colombia, May 19-21, 2014. U.S....



78 FR 29779 - Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of...Pursuant to Article 17.5 of the U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA), the...the Labor Chapter) of the U.S.-Colombia TPA, including activities of the...



Operational fog collection and its role in environmental education and social reintegration: A case study in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental efforts with fog collection in Colombia began eight years ago, and in recent papers we have suggested the implementation of operational fog collection as an alternative to meet water requirements in rural areas of the Andes Mountain Range. Since then, an increasing number of individuals from academia and environmental organizations in the country have shown a remarkable interest on this appropriate technology, and some started its exploration in a larger scale. In this work we describe the implementation process of the first operational fog collection project in Colombia and discuss its role in rural water supply, in environmental education issues and in the process of "social reintegration" of people who have been victims of forced displacement. Both the fog collection evaluation stage and construction and administration of the operational system involved the participation of the community of a rural village. The study zone, located in the Andes Mountains of the Valle del Cauca Department and with altitudes ranging from 2600 to 2800 meters a.s.l., has serious limitations in water availability. Eight standard fog collectors (SFC) were implemented and used during the period May/2008 - Feb/2009 in order to assess the water yield from fog. The best average monthly collection rate in the period of study was around 2.0 The constructed large fog collector (LFC), with a vertical collection surface of 25 m2, and the associated hydraulic system are currently managed and administered by the village inhabitants. The fog collection system benefits a rural school, and the water is mainly used in small-scale irrigation activities for horticultural crops and livestock development. The project has also brought positive impacts in the community organization, mainly comprising people who have been forced out of their rural homes by the country's nearly half-century old armed conflict. The system also allows agriculture- and environment-related issues to be incorporated in children's current education. We highly recommend exploring this technology in the search for solutions of water and food security for victims of forced displacement in Colombia. Additional efforts to increase the number of LFCs in the study zone are underway.

Escobar, C. M.; Lopez, A.; Aristizabal, H. F.; Molina, J. M.



Instantnea del cncer colorrectal

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer colorrectal; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Diagnostico de las Fuentes No convenionales de Energa en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El dicumento considera ejes transversales y ejes verticales. Los primeros estn relacionados con aspectos que conciernen a todas las FNCE como son el marco legal y regulatorio, y los aspectos ambientales de las FNCE. A continuacin se desarrollan ejes verticales, uno por cada fuente. El captulo 2 hace una revisin y anlisis del marco institucional, de poltica y regulatorio. Plantea

Ernesto Torres; Jos Maria Rincn; Edinson Lozano



Using Market-Based Instruments in the Developing World: The Case of Pollution Charges in Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A New Ideas in Pollution Regulation (NIPR) publication (reviewed in the January 24, 1997 Scout Report), Using Market-Based Instruments in the Developing World: The Case of Pollution Charges in Colombia is a slide presentation that summarizes efforts by Colombia's environmental authorities to reduce pollution at a low cost. The presentation covers Colombia's economic and environmental status as well as viewpoints from major industry and community stakeholders, and users may listen to narration and view images in free streaming video format with RealPlayer.



Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-five percent of the ?19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 121 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.61 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized dcollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating GPS sites in the region. Studies of tsunami deposits on the Dutch Antilles suggest that the provenance of paleotsunami responsible for moving 10-100 ton blocks of coral onshore in the past two millennia has been from the east (Sheffers, 2002), and not from the north or south as we might expect from a NW Venezuelan earthquake. The existence of precariously balanced rocks in the region provides an alternative constraint on the occurrence of large local accelerations. The survival of at least four precariously balanced megablocks on the island of Aruba suggests that horizontal accelerations here have not exceeded 1 g for the past several millennia, but refined numerical estimates of potential shaking intensity consistent with their survival have yet to be completed. Accelerations exceeded 2.5 g in the Tohuko 2011 earthquake but above the Mexican subduction zone, accelerations have typically not exceeded 0.5 g in recent Mw~7.5 earthquakes, and hence the existence of these blocks may not exclude the historical occurrence of damaging earthquakes. A broader search for surviving strong-motion indicators in Colombia and Venezuela is planned during the installation of the GPS array.

Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.



Evaporite deposits of Bogota area, Cordillera Oriental, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four evaporite-bearing stratigraphic zones are known in Cretaceous strata of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia north and east of Bogota. The easternmost and oldest zone is probably of Berriasian to Valanginian age. The next oldest is probably late Barremian to early Aptian in age. The third appears to be Aptian. The westernmost and best known sequence in the Sabana de Bogota is Turonian to early Coniacian in age. This youngest sequence contains the thickest salt deposits known in Colombia and is probably the most widespread geographically. Most of the rock salt exposed in the three accessible mines (at Zipaquira, Nemocon, and Upin) has a characteristic lamination of alternating slightly argillaceous and highly argillaceous salt layers of varied but moderate thickness. Black, calcareous claystone, commonly very pyritic, is interbedded conformably with the laminated salt in many places throughout the deposits. Fragments of black claystone derived from the thinner interbeds are ubiquitous in all deposits, both as concordant breccia zones and as isolated clasts. Anhydrite is scarce at Zipaquira and apparently even rarer at Nemocon and Upin. Gypsum is produced at three small deposits in the oldest evaporite zone where it probably was concentrated by leaching of salt initially associated with it. The two intervening evaporite zones are not exposed, but their existence and distribution are indicated by brine springs and locally by "rute," a distinctive black, calcareous mud formed by the leaching of salt beds. Fossils show that the youngest salt-claystone zone, in the Sabana de Bogota, is contemporary with associated hematitic sandstone and siltstone, and with carbonaceous and locally coaly claystone. Although evidence is poor, this same facies relation probably exists within the other three evaporite zones. All salt deposits in this study probably are associated with anticlines, a relation best exemplified by the deposits on the Sabana de Bogota. Within these anticlines the salt deposits appear to be contained stratigraphically in fault-bound crestal, claystone cores that have not been mobilized over great vertical distances. The deposits of this study are not salt domes.

McLaughlin, Donald H.



in Arboleda, Luis Carlos & Paty, Michel (eds.), Formacin de Cultura Cientfica en Colombia. Ensayos sobre Matemticas y Fsica, Instituto de Educacin y  

E-print Network

115 in Arboleda, Luis Carlos & Paty, Michel (eds.), Formación de Cultura Científica en Colombia (Colombia), 2004, p. 111-151. FORMACI?N Y DESARROLLO DE LA CULTURA CIENTÍFICA EN COLOMBIA: LA FÍSICA DE 18802007 Author manuscript, published in "Formación de Cultura Científica en Colombia. Ensayos sobre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Targeting "Plan Colombia": A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Political Visual Narratives by the Beehive Collective and the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the Beehive Collective's "Plan Colombia" to a museum exhibition representing the official U.S. position on Plan Colombia. Through a dialectical (Kellner & Share, 2007; Greene, 1988) reading of "Plan Colombia" and "Target America," I examine how each uses visual narrative to promote a particular reading of Plan Colombia.

Erler, Carolyn



Technical Note: Does Core Inflation Help Forecast Total Inflation? Evidence from Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Colombia core and total inflation are both (1) series, and core inflation is cointegrated with total inflation. Granger causality tests using error correction methodology indicate that divergence of total inflation from core inflation is quickly revers

John Thornton



Experimental and simulation studies of water-alternating-enriched gas injection for San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a complete investigation involving experimental and compositional reservoir simulation studies into enriched gas injection as a method to enhance oil recovery from the San Francisco field in Colombia. In enriched gas floods...

Soto Tavera, Claudia Patricia



Plan Colombia - A Strategy for Continued Failure in America's Fight Against Drugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan entitled 'Plan Colombia,' the $1.3 billion centerpiece of the United States' strategy for reducing America's illegal drug habits through source country supply reduction, is fundamentally flawed. It will not only fail to meet its primary objective...

R. L. Hurst



Methodology for thunderstorm tracking using lightning location systems data in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for tracking thunderstorm cells using Colombian Lightning Location Systems. It is evaluated two regions in Colombia with different orographic conditions and is observed the possible dependency which may have the orography.

Jesus Lopez; Ernesto Perez; Javier Herrera; Leonardo Porras



Determining factors of catastrophic health spending in Bogota, Colombia.  


This study tests whether the low-income population in Bogota not insured under the General Social Security Health System is able to economically handle unexpected health problems or not. It used data from the Health Services Use and Expenditure Study conducted in Colombia in 2001, for which each household recorded its monthly out-of-pocket health expenditure during the year and the household income was measured as the sum of each member's contribution to the household. Payment capacity or available income and catastrophic health spending were based on the latest methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005. A probit model was adjusted to determine the factors that significantly influence the likelihood of a household having catastrophic health spending. The percentage of households with catastrophic health spending in Bogota was 4.9%; incidence was higher in low-income households where none of the members were affiliated to social security, where there had been an in-patient event, and where the heads of household were over 60years of age. There is no statistical evidence for rejecting the hypothesis under study, which states that low-income households that have no health insurance are more likely to have catastrophic health spending than higher-income households with health insurance. PMID:21359837

Amaya Lara, Jeannette Liliana; Ruiz Gmez, Fernando



[Oral health: social representations among pregnant mothers. Medellin, Colombia].  


Based on the theory of social representations, a qualitative investigation was conducted in order to assess social representations in oral heath in pregnant mothers living in an urban environment. Twenty-eight pregnant adult women attending a prenatal program at a health institution in the city of Medelln, Colombia, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded and transcribed; analysis was performed through open, axial and selective coding, in line with grounded theory. Findings revealed that although pregnant mothers are not greatly concerned about oral health after birth and in early childhood, it increases in importance during growth and development of the child when, besides chewing and feeding aspects, it acquires a socially important role. Analysis revealed how social representations anchored in tradition, with new elements from health professional discourses as well as mass media influences coexist in mothers in an urban environment. These include the close relationship between oral health and teeth, health linked to healthy practices as well as recourse to health services and oral health as a social advantage, related to esthetic aspects. PMID:22124835

Escobar-Paucar, Gloria; Sosa-Palacio, Catalina; Snchez-Meja, Angela



Fatigue and crashes: The case of freight transport in Colombia.  


Truck drivers have been involved in a significant number of road fatalities in Colombia. To identify variables that could be associated with crashes in which truck drivers are involved, a logistic regression model was constructed. The model had as the response variable a dichotomous variable that included the presence or absence of a crash during a specific trip. As independent variables the model included information regarding a driver's work shift, with variables that could be associated with driver's fatigue. The model also included potential confounders related with road conditions. With the model, it was possible to determine the odds ratio of a crash in relation to several variables, adjusting for confounding. To collect the information about the trips included in the model, a survey among truck drivers was conducted. The results suggest strong associations between crashes (i.e., some of them statistically significant) with the number of stops made during the trip, and the average time of each stop. Survey analysis allowed us to identify the practices that contribute to generating fatigue and unhealthy conditions on the road among professional drivers. A review of national regulations confirmed the lack of legislation on this topic. PMID:25150524

Torregroza-Vargas, Nathaly M; Bocarejo, Juan Pablo; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P



Agrochemical fate models applied in agricultural areas from Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The misuse application of pesticides in mainly agricultural catchments can lead to severe problems for humans and environment. Especially in developing countries where there is often found overuse of agrochemicals and incipient or lack of water quality monitoring at local and regional levels, models are needed for decision making and hot spots identification. However, the complexity of the water cycle contrasts strongly with the scarce data availability, limiting the number of analysis, techniques, and models available to researchers. Therefore there is a strong need for model simplification able to appropriate model complexity and still represent the processes. We have developed a new model so-called Westpa-Pest to improve water quality management of an agricultural catchment located in the highlands of Colombia. Westpa-Pest is based on the fully distributed hydrologic model Wetspa and a fate pesticide module. We have applied a multi-criteria analysis for model selection under the conditions and data availability found in the region and compared with the new developed Westpa-Pest model. Furthermore, both models were empirically calibrated and validated. The following questions were addressed i) what are the strengths and weaknesses of the models?, ii) which are the most sensitive parameters of each model?, iii) what happens with uncertainties in soil parameters?, and iv) how sensitive are the transfer coefficients?

Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Yang, Jing; Andreoli, Romano; Binder, Claudia



HIV prevention in Latin America: reaching youth in Colombia.  


The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate a school-based peer education programme on HIV primary prevention implemented in urban marginal districts of three cities of Colombia from 1997 to 1999. Its main objective was to promote risk awareness and safe sexual behaviours among urban youth populations. Methodology included the collection of baseline information through qualitative methods (focus groups and in-depth interviews), a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey, a health education intervention, and post-intervention data collection. Direct beneficiaries were adolescents 10 to 19 years of age, and secondary school teachers of 6th to 9th grades. Main strategies used were peer education and classroom sessions conducted by trained teachers. Short-term results suggest that the programme had a positive effect on knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS (as the mean knowledge summary indicator among adolescents and secondary school teachers increased 24% and 21%, respectively). The main outcome has been the development of a sex education programme, emphasizing the role of schools in the promotion of sexual and reproductive health. Mass education by a combination of interventions and events at school level, backed up by effective interpersonal communication such as peer education, classroom teaching and community actions are effective primary prevention strategies for HIV sexual transmission and should be more extensively considered. PMID:12655836

Perez, F; Dabis, F



Remote sensing for geologic mapping in Eastern Cordillero, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Geologic mapping in frontier areas can be done accurately and efficiently by integrating various remote sensing and photometric methods with field mapping. Interpretations of Landsat, airborne radar, and aerial photographs were integrated with field mapping to geologically map part of a northwest-directed fold-thrust belt in the Eastern Cordillera, southwest of Santafe de Bogota, Colombia. Each sensor provided particular advantages: (1) Landsat provided an accurate cartographic basemap, and the best source of regional cultural, physiographic, and regional formation mapping information (2) Airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provided the only cloudfree imagery and was optimal for regional mapping of structural geology because the radar beam's low illumination angle enhanced topographic relief. Qualitative structural information was obtained by stereographic viewing of overlapping flight strips. Map scale features recognized only on the SAR include: (a) the surface trace of a thrust fault, (b) an overturned anticline, and (c) a thrust structure produced by wedging or nappe emplacement (3) Aerial photographs were used to estimate bedding attitudes quantitatively, to resolve questionable geology, and to construct a 1:50,000 topographic map using standard photogrammetry. Transfer of dip and strike data from aerial photographs to cartographic base was accomplished by digitizing corresponding control points on each airphoto and the base, and then removing distortion using a transformation algorithm derived empirically for each airphoto. These digital data, along with digitized field data, were projected into profile planes for cross section construction.

Ellis, J.M.; Narr, W. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States))



Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia<\\/span>is a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands located on sloping areas, where food crops and cash products such as corn, potato and specially vegetables are cultivated.

N. Urrutia Cobo



Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas



Removing Drug Lords and Street Pushers: The Extradition of Nationals in Colombia and the Dominican Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment explores the interplay between drug trafficking and extradition policy in the U.S.-Latin American-Caribbean region by focusing upon the recent legal shift in Colombia and the Dominican Republic. Part I describes the status of current international extradition law, focusing on modern extradition policy. In particular, this part details the respective extradition treaties of Colombia and the Dominican Republic with

Joshua H. Warmund



Revision of the status of bird species occurring in Colombia 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following species are added to Colombia's bird checklist: Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus (observations), Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (observations), Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri (photographic record), Grey-backed Hawk Leucopternis occidentalis (observations), Rio Orinoco Spinetail Synallaxis beverlyae (newly described) and Yellow-cheeked Becard Pachyramphus xanthogenys (new record). First confirmed records for Colombia of White Tern Gygis alba (photograph), Point-tailed Palmcreeper Berlepschia rikeri (sonogram

Thomas Donegan; Paul Salaman; David Caro; Miles McMullan



Two decades of economic and social development in urban Colombia: amixed outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines urban Colombias socio-economic development from 1978 to 1999, including analysis of income inequality and welfare, and the evolution of poverty and its determinants. The evidence shows mixed results. First, social progress appears contradictory. Although most of the indicators pertaining to education, health, and infrastructure show substantial long-term improvements during the last two decades, the simultaneous escalation of

Carlos Eduardo VELEZ; Mauricio SANTA MARIA; Natalia MILLAN; Bndicte DE LA BRIERE



History of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad el Bosque, Bogot, Colombia.  


The formal training of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia started in 1958 at Hospital Sanjos6, thanks to the titanic work of Waldemar Wilhelm, a German-born surgeon who settled in BogotA in 1950. Today there are seven institutions in Colombia that offer residency programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad El Bosque in Bogota. PMID:22916408

Castro-Nez, Jaime



Squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri ) in natural habitats in Panama, Colombia, Brazil, and Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Troops ofSaimiri (squirrel monkeys) were observed in 31 locations in natural habitats in Panama, Colombia, Brazil, and Peru. Troop size varied from 10 to 35 animals in Panama and Colombia and from 120 to 300 or more in the unaltered rainforests of Amazonia. Troop size correlated with forest size in all areas.Saimiri associated withCebus (capuchin monkeys) in several areas.Saimiri troops

John D. Baldwin; Janice I. Baldwin



Los aos ochenta en Colombia: El derecho a ser distintos  

E-print Network

estructurales muy probables, hoy se percibe cierto escepticismo o una expectativa ms serena respecto a las cuestiones puramente polticas.1 La vida social colombiana, de la que no escapa la vida teatral, bulle ahora, sin embargo, en una desconcertante... vincule con decisin al desarrollo del teatro colombiano. Forma parte ya de la Academia Superior de Artes, pomposo nombre que ojal corresponda a una realidad. La Escuela Nacional de Arte Dramtico, ENAD, es quizs la institucin educativa con mayor...

Gonzá lez Cajiao, Fernando



Secondary syphilis in cali, Colombia: new concepts in disease pathogenesis.  


Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18-68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with SS, a reactive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR-titer > or = 1 : 4), and a confirmatory treponemal test (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption test- FTA-ABS). Most subjects enrolled were women (64.9%), predominantly Afro-Colombian (38.6%) or mestizo (56.1%), and all were of low socio-economic status. Three (5.3%) subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV infection at study entry. The duration of signs and symptoms in most patients (53.6%) was less than 30 days; however, some patients reported being symptomatic for several months (range 5-240 days). The typical palmar and plantar exanthem of SS was the most common dermal manifestation (63%), followed by diffuse hypo- or hyperpigmented macules and papules on the trunk, abdomen and extremities. Three patients had patchy alopecia. Whole blood (WB) samples and punch biopsy material from a subset of SS patients were assayed for the presence of Tp DNA polymerase I gene (polA) target by real-time qualitative and quantitative PCR methods. Twelve (46%) of the 26 WB samples studied had quantifiable Tp DNA (ranging between 194.9 and 1954.2 Tp polA copies/ml blood) and seven (64%) were positive when WB DNA was extracted within 24 hours of collection. Tp DNA was also present in 8/12 (66%) skin biopsies available for testing. Strain typing analysis was attempted in all skin and WB samples with detectable Tp DNA. Using arp repeat size analysis and tpr RFLP patterns four different strain types were identified (14d, 16d, 13d and 22a). None of the WB samples had sufficient DNA for typing. The clinical and microbiologic observations presented herein, together with recent Cali syphilis seroprevalence data, provide additional evidence that venereal syphilis is highly endemic in this region of Colombia, thus underscoring the need for health care providers in the region to be acutely aware of the clinical manifestations of SS. This study also provides, for the first time, quantitative evidence that a significant proportion of untreated SS patients have substantial numbers of circulating spirochetes. How Tp is able to persist in the blood and skin of SS patients, despite the known presence of circulating treponemal opsonizing antibodies and the robust pro-inflammatory cellular immune responses characteristic of this stage of the disease, is not fully understood and requires further study. PMID:20502522

Cruz, Adriana R; Pillay, Allan; Zuluaga, Ana V; Ramirez, Lady G; Duque, Jorge E; Aristizabal, Gloria E; Fiel-Gan, Mary D; Jaramillo, Roberto; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Valencia, Carlos; Jagodzinski, Linda; Cox, David L; Radolf, Justin D; Salazar, Juan C



Mental health and social capital in Cali, Colombia.  


Mental ill health forms an increasingly significant part of the burden of disease in developing countries. The growing interest in social risk factors for mental health coincides with the development of social capital research which may further inform the social model of mental health. The objective of the study reported here was to discover if there is an independent association between social capital and mental health when taking into account an array of demographic and violence variables. A total of 1168 youth (15-25 years) in a low income community in Cali, Colombia were surveyed. Mental health was measured by a 20 item self-report questionnaire. The instrument used to measure social capital covered structural and cognitive social capital. Twenty-four per cent of the sample were probable cases of mental ill health. Females had a prevalence rate three times higher than males. Using a model which considered demographic and social capital measures as potential risk factors for mental ill health, the significant risk factors emerged as being female, having limited schooling, working in the informal sector, being a migrant, and having low trust in people. The 'classic' poverty type variables (poor education and employment) were more important than social capital, as was the commonly dominant risk factor for mental ill health-being a woman. When violence factors were added to the model, the 'trust' factor fell out and the most important risk factors became (in descending order of importance): being female; no schooling/incomplete primary; and being a victim of violence. The dominance of poverty related factors, as opposed to social capital, prompts renewed attention to the explanatory mechanisms that link income inequality and poor mental health. PMID:15047083

Harpham, Trudy; Grant, Emma; Rodriguez, Carlos



Early sexual experience and traditional values in Colombia.  


Results on adolescent's knowledge, attitude, and practice in sexuality and reproductive health are presented from 2 surveys of 1199 middle-class youths aged 13-18 years in main cities of Colombia. Survey populations were selected from high schools and users of Family Compensation Fund. While traditional values and customs prevail among these youths, they nonetheless tend to begin sex between ages 15-18, and have little concern over the consequences of their sexual behavior. They are, moreover, quite ignorant about reproductive health. Sexuality is not thought of as part of marriage, women are expected to be virgins at marriage, and a resounding 87% of the study population rejected abortion legislation. 90% of the young men had their 1st sexual encounter with either a prostitute or domestic servant, while 90% of the young women had their 1st encounters with friends from within their social groups. Sexual relations from adolescence on were supported by 35% of the girls and 60% of the boys, 72% of the girls and 38% of the boys supported virginity, yet less than 10% were in favor of the notion of open relationships. 20% of the girls and 25% of the boys had active sex lives, with homosexuality representing 1.6% and 3.1% of the two sex groupings, respectively. Sex education is practically non-existent. Most young women know little of contraception, and fail to use it out of misconceptions regarding method safety, and fear of one's parents finding out. The young men, on the other hand, cite forgetfulness and inability to obtain contraception as reasons for use failure. Accordingly, 5% of the girls fell pregnant between ages 15-17, with 66% ending in abortion, and 18.6% of the girls and 12.3% of the boys admitted to having had a sexually transmitted disease. 55% indicated that they would not use contraceptives. PMID:12284531

Ramirez, S



Colombia, Many Countries in One: Economic Growth, Environmental Sustainability, Sociocultural Divergence and Biodiversity. Profile and Paradox. Volumes I and II. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1997 (Colombia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Fulbright Summer Seminar focused on the environmental challenge posed by Colombia's biodiversity and addressed the relationship between the last decade of Colombian economic development and the country's sociocultural situation, taking into account its historical background and the role of natural resources in a context of sustainable



Temas y rumbos del teatro rural hispanoamericano del siglo XX.  

E-print Network

de peculiaridades fonticas. Son pocos, en realidad, los autores de dramas campesinos que no se han servido del pintoresco lenguaje del campo.1 Algunos autores utilizan fbulas del acervo folklrico para montar piezas de teatro con el fin de...

Neglia, Erminio G.



Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.  


Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that street youths often continue high-risk behaviors even though they know the potential negative consequences; help them find substitutes for the income, pleasure, power, and communication stemming from sex; convince them of their personal risk through participatory activities; use a multifaceted approach to promote condoms; use an integrated approach; and integrated prevention activities with other services designed to meet their basic needs regarding health, education, and income. PMID:12287663

Ruiz, J



Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3) in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

Tilling, R. I.



Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia.  


The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest. PMID:24130438

Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Emilio J



Environmental impact assessment in Colombia: Critical analysis and proposals for improvement  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is a highly recommended strategy for enhancing their effectiveness and quality. This paper describes an evaluation of EIA in Colombia, using the model and the control mechanisms proposed and applied in other countries by Christopher Wood and Ortolano. The evaluation criteria used are based on Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment Best Practice, such as effectiveness and control features, and they were contrasted with the opinions of a panel of Colombian EIA experts as a means of validating the results of the study. The results found that EIA regulations in Colombia were ineffective because of limited scope, inadequate administrative support and the inexistence of effective control mechanisms and public participation. This analysis resulted in a series of recommendations regarding the further development of the EIA system in Colombia with a view to improving its quality and effectiveness.

Toro, Javier, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.e [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.e [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Campus de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)



Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor  

PubMed Central

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombias Rgimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services with measurable health gains.

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana



Highlights of NASA/DOE photovoltaics market assessment visit to Colombia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA/DOE sponsored photovoltaic market assessment team composed of representatives of NASA-Lewis Research Center, DHR, Inc., and Associates in Rural Development, Inc. recently conducted a month-long study in Colombia (June 28 - July 23). The team contacted government officials and private sector representatives in Bogota and Cali, and visited rural development and agricultural sites in the departments of Cundinamarca, Caldas, Valle, and chada to determine the potential market for American photovoltaic products in the Colombia agricultural and rural sectors.



Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 07-20-2010

El doctor Harold Varmus, acompaado de su esposa Constance Casey (centro), presta juramento como director del NCI ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos, Kathleen Sebelius, el lunes 12 de julio. (Foto cortesa de Chris Smith) El 12 de julio, el doctor Harold Varmus prest juramento ante la Secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos, Kathleen Sebelios, como el decimocuarto director del Instituto Nacional del Cncer.


Comparing the Effectiveness of Regulation and Pro-Social Emotions to Enhance Cooperation: Experimental Evidence from Fishing Communities in Colombia  

E-print Network

: Experimental Evidence from Fishing Communities in Colombia Maria Claudia Lopez James J. Murphy John M. Spraggon of Regulation and Pro-Social Emotions to Enhance Cooperation: Experimental Evidence from Fishing Communities in fishing communities off the Caribbean coast of Colombia. The goal is to investigate the relative

Murphy, James J.


A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guene) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  


A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guene) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam., in Colombia. Aspects of its biology are briefly discussed. PMID:25112737

Carrejo, Nancy; Diaz, Ana E; Woodley, Norman E



Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medelln, Colombia WE1-1 August 3-5, 2011  

E-print Network

9th Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medellín, Colombia WE1-1 August 3-5, 2011 Ninth LACCEI Latin American and Caribbean Conference (LACCEI'2011), Engineering American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology, Medellin : Colombia (2011)" #12;9th Latin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


The origin of internal security in Colombia: Part I A CIA special team surveys La Violencia, 195960  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1959 the Eisenhower administration dispatched a CIA Special Team to survey the violence problem in Colombia. This article, part one of a two?part series, examines this first significant attempt by a US administration to influence that nation's internal security situation. It investigates the Special Team's actions and analyses its recommendations for transforming Colombia's conventionally?orientated security forces. The Team's

Dennis M. Rempe



El pronstico del cncer

Hoja informativa sobre la prediccin de resultados y recuperacin de una enfermedad, y sobre cmo las estadsticas ayudan a los mdicos a hacer una estimacin del pronstico de un paciente con cncer.


Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se reportan observaciones espectroscpicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrgrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utiliz ptica azul, con una red de difraccin de 600 lineas/min, obtenindose una dispersin de 74.2 A/mm y una resolucin de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsin IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposicin fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones ms prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detect mayor intensidad del contnuo, en la direccin anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.



Control del cncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cncer (NCI)

En combinacin con una reunin de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en pases en vas de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science Translational Medicine sobre La integracin del control del cncer en la salud mundial" (Integrating Cancer Control into Global Health).


Morphological Analysis of Three Populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Nuneztovari Gabaldon (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the results of comparative analyses of 1,039 specimens of several progenies of Anopheles nuneztovari from three localities in Colombia, eight costal wing spot patterns were observed. Patterns I and III were the most frequent: 77.96% and 11.36%, r...

D. Lopez, M. F. Ramos, M. F. Suarez, R. Wilkerson, R. G. Obando




E-print Network

the Early Cretaceous (Valanginian, ca. 135 Ma) Rosablanca Formation, Zapatoca town, Colombia are described. These specimens represent the earliest record of podocnemidoid turtles. Evolutionary and paleogeographical and the extant and fossil members of Podocnemididae plus Brasilemys josai Lapparent de Broin, (2000), and Hamada

Bermingham, Eldredge


Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Psychoactive Drug Use among High School Students in Bogota, Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated health behaviors practiced by 10th graders in Bogota, Colombia. Data from a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that there was a high use of gateway substances (tobacco and alcohol) among respondents, but lower usage, when compared to U.S. students, of other mind-altering substances such as marijuana,

Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda



Central Bank Independence and inflation: the case of Colombia. 1924 - 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the link between central bank independence and inflation for the case of Colombia. It develops a theoretical framework concerning central bank independence and inflation. It concludes that central bank independence is an important feature for reducing inflation and partially solvind the problem of time inconsistency, assuming the existence of a monetary dominant regime Central Bank Independence has

Jos Manuel Restrepo



On the determinants of the inflation rate in Colombia: a disequilibrium market approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the inflation rate in Colombia in terms of excess money, excess demand, deviations from PPP, and wage inflation. In contrast to previous results for a group of industrial economias, we find that domestic factors are a far more powerful influence on inflation than are external factors. We also find evidence of non-linear price behavior in response to excess

Jesus Otero; Manuel Ramirez



Hiptesis de Fisher y cambio de rgimen en Colombia: 1990 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen La mayor parte de la evidencia emprica sobre el Efecto de Fisher Hiptesis de Fisher, sostiene que la relacin entre la tasa de inflacin y la tasa de inters nominal debe ser igual a uno. Este documento analiza la relacin entre la tasa de inters nominal y la tasa de inflacin, para la economa de Colombia, durante el

Madeleine Gil ngel; Jacobo Campo Robledo



Una evaluacin de los pronsticos de inflacin en Colombia bajo el esquema de inflacin objetivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the understanding of inflation forecasts as an intermediate policy objective, this paper evaluates forecasts of different inflation models in Colombia during the inflation targeting (IT) period. The evaluation is done using three different statistical methodologies. The results suggest that the best models, in terms of precision, are the Foods Relative Price and the traditional P* models. Additionally, a

Hctor Mauricio Nuez Amortegui



Evaluacin asimtrica de una red neuronal: aplicacin al caso de la inflacin en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work is to explore the non-linear relationship between money and inflation in Colombia through an artificial neural network using monthly information for the variation of the consumer price index and the monetary aggregate M3 since January 1982 through February 2005. Artificial neural networks turn up as an excellent alternative for monetary authorities to count on

Mara Clara Aristizbal Restrepo



Is Central Bank Intervention Effective Under Inflation Targeting Regimes? The Case of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers in many emerging markets are attempting to resist currency appreciation while simultaneously meeting targets for inflation. Using the recent experience of Colombia between 2004 and 2007, this paper examines the effectiveness of the Central Bank's intervention in stemming domestic currency appreciation under an inflation targeting regime. The results indicate that exchange rate intervention was effective during 2004-2006, when foreign

Herman kamil



Consolidating Security and Development in Colombia: Lessons for Peru and Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia's increasingly effective efforts to mitigate the power of the FARC and other illegitimately armed groups in the country can offer important lessons for the Peruvian government as it strives to prevent a resurgence of Sendero Luminoso and other illegal non-state actors. Both countries share certain particular challenges: deep economic, social, and in the case of Peru ethnic divisions, the

Ambassador Peter DeShazo



Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.  


This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change. PMID:22676567

Thoumi, Francisco E



Local Government and Rural Service Barriers to Economic Development in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how public factors of production fit into the production process and also determines the degree of scarcity of these factors in a rural area of Colombia. Suggestions are offered by which public factors might be increased or improved by institutional reorganization and modern administration in cases where they are found to be

Felstehausen, Herman


Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment. NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of Colombia's Programa de Ampliacion de Cobertura de la Educacion Secundaria (PACES), which provided over 125,000 poor students with private secondary school vouchers, many of which were awarded by lottery. Researchers surveyed lottery winners and losers to compare educational and other outcomes. Results showed no

Angrist, Joshua D.; Bettinger, Eric; Bloom, Erik; King, Elizabeth; Kremer, Michael


The Power To Change: The Experience of the Costa Atlantica Project in Colombia (1977-1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1977, the Bernard van Leer Foundation began supporting a project in Colombia that had the objective of improving the quality of early childhood care and education in a small village. The Costa Atlantica project offered an approach to development that was based on community organization, social management, participation, cooperation, popular

Chetley, Andrew


Amatoxin and phallotoxin composition in species of the genus Amanita in Colombia: A taxonomic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some species in the genus Amanita have a great variety of toxic secondary metabolites. They are characterized macroscopically by having a white spore print and free gills, and microscopically by the presence of a divergent hymenophoral trama. Some species of Amanita present in Colombia were chemically characterized by analyzing their toxin composition using HPLC. Samples were collected in oak (Quercus

N. Vargas; A. Bernal; V. Sarria; A. Franco-Molano; S. Restrepo


The Association between Financial Aid Availability and the College Dropout Rates in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study is to estimate the association between financial aid and college dropout rates of postsecondary students in Colombia. We use a unique dataset from the Colombian Ministry of Education that includes all enrolled college students in the country between 1998 and 2008. Logistic regression is used to identify the

Melguizo, Tatiana; Torres, Fabio Sanchez; Jaime, Haider



Fallow management for soil fertility recovery in tropical Andean agroecosystems in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andean hillsides dominate the landscape of a considerable proportion of Cauca Department in Colombia. The typical cropping cycle in the region includes monocrops or intercrops of maize (Zea mays L.), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and\\/or cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava is usually the last crop before local farmers leave plots to natural fallow until soil fertility is recovered and a

Edmundo Barrios; Juan G. Cobo; Idupulapati M. Rao; Richard J. Thomas; Edgar Amzquita; Juan J. Jimnez; Marco A. Rondn



Liderazgo y autonoma. Colombia en el Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas 1989-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

El autor da a conocer y analiza un episodio casi desconocido de cmo fue la participacin de Colombia en el Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas durante 1989 y 1990. Estos dos aos fueron enriquecedores para el pas y rescataron parte importante de su perfil internacional, ya que tuvo que ver con decisiones trascendentales sobre asuntos tales como la

Juan Camilo Rodrguez Gmez


La microeconoma de la produccin y trfico de cocana en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este captulo presenta una radiografa detallada de la microeconoma de la produccin y trfico de cocana en Colombia. El captulo presenta una breve descripcin de la evolucin en el tiempo de las cifras agregadas sobre produccin de cocana y luego se concentra en describir en detalle cada eslabn de la cadena de produccin. En particular, se describen los principales costos

Daniel Mejia; Daniel M. Rico



Internationalisation in Higher Education in Latin America: Policies and Practice in Colombia and Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is now an extensive literature about internationalisation in higher education. However, much of the research relates to North America and Europe. This paper is concerned with internationalisation in Latin America and seeks to consider perceptions and experiences in Colombia and Mexico, and to compare practice in the public and private

Berry, Caroline; Taylor, John



"This Great Emptiness We Are Feeling": Toward a Decolonization of Schooling in Simunurwa, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the decolonization of schooling in an Arhuaco community in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of Colombia. Interweaving ethnographic description with accounts of key events that took place between 1915 and 2006, I trace the community's struggle to develop an Indigenous school capable of appropriating Western forms of

Murillo, Luz A.



Beyond the Mincer Equation: The Internal Rate of Return to Higher Education in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to present an estimation of the internal rate of return (IRR) to higher education in Colombia, we take advantage of recent updates on the methodological approach towards earnings equations. In order to overcome the criticism that surrounds interpretations of the education coefficient of Mincer equations as being the rate of return to

Garca-Suaza, Andrs Felipe; Guataqu, Juan Carlos; Guerra, Jos Alberto; Maldonado, Daro



The Persistence of Educational Semantics: Patterns of Variation in Monitorial Schooling in Colombia (1821-1844)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This contribution deals with the adoption and interpretation of the monitorial system of education in Colombia between 1821 and 1844, a period during which this pedagogical method was almost mandatory for all the country's elementary schools. The analysis focuses on the differences between "local necessities" and "local semantic resources" in the

Caruso, Marcelo



Spatial Double Generalized Beta Regression Models: Extensions and Application to Study Quality of Education in Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a proposed Bayesian extension of the generalized beta spatial regression models is applied to the analysis of the quality of education in Colombia. We briefly revise the beta distribution and describe the joint modeling approach for the mean and dispersion parameters in the spatial regression models' setting. Finally, we

Cepeda-Cuervo, Edilberto; Nez-Antn, Vicente



Tertiary Education in Colombia: Paving the Way for Reform. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great challenge facing Colombia is how to become an active member of the new global information and knowledge society. The changes required for this transition mean that the role of tertiary education must also shift to add to the traditional tasks of the transmission of knowledge and providing basic research the roles of training adaptable

World Bank, Washington, DC.


Citizenship Education as a Response to Colombia's Social and Political Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the difficult social, economic and political problems that Colombia faces, such as inequality, discrimination, weak civil society--fuelled by illegality and drug trafficking--the Colombian Ministry of Education has embarked on an ambitious citizenship education program, with the hope of strengthening the role of education by

Jaramillo, Rosario; Mesa, Jose A.



Adolescents' Expectations for Higher Education in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on status attainment models, the authors examine the effects of family, peer, and school factors on expectations to graduate from a university for a sample of high school students in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia. The expansion of higher education in these countries has followed different strategies. In Bolivia, the policy has been

Forste, Renata; Heaton, Tim B.; Haas, David W.



Educational Inequality in Colombia: Family Background, School Quality and Student Achievement in Cartagena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of family socio-economic disadvantage and differences in school resources on student achievement in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Using data from the ICFES and C-600 national databases, we conduct a multilevel analysis to determine the unique contribution of school-level factors above and beyond family

Rangel, Claudia; Lleras, Christy



The Beauty of State Construction: Juan Valdez, Miss Colombia and Crisis Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colombian state was in acute crisis in the 1990s. Widely considered a failed state, Colombia suffered from uncontrollable violence and an acute economic crisis that left over half of the population impoverished. Yet shortly after the turn of the century, it was being touted as one of the great successes in crime reduction, economic growth, and democratic stability. In

Stacey Hunt


Segregacin educativa y la brecha salarial por gnero entre los recin graduados universitarios en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show the importance of subject of degree in explaining the gender wage gap in Colombia. In order to minimize the influence of gender differences in experience, promotions, and job changes on the wage gap, we focus on college graduates who have a formal job and who have been in the labor market at most one year.

Laura Cepeda Emiliani; Juan D. Barn



Challenging the silences and omissions of dominant media: Youth-led media collectives in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to introduce scholars and practitioners of youth and community media to exemplary youth-led media projects in Colombia. It highlights case studies of two media collectives led by Afro-Colombian and Indigenous youth, who are producing media under difficult conditions fueled by war, violence and poverty. I had the opportunity to get to know these and

Diana Coryat


Cut-flower production in Colombia -- a major development success story for women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting in the 1970s, the production of cut flowers for export has spread in Colombia's central high land, the Sabana de Bogot. Creating some 75 000 jobs by the mid-1990s, the Colombian flower industry has been described by the World Bank as one of the major development success stories of the last two decades. In the first part of the

V Meier



Pequeos cientficos program: STEM K5-K12 education in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Colombian national ST EM program, promoted by a networ k of 10 Colombian universities, coordinated by University of the Andes in Bogot, Colombia and their engineering and education schools, oriented towards the professional development of science and technology teachers from primary and secondary schools. This initiative, the Pequeos Cientficos Program (little scientist) has achieved high national

Mauricio Duque; Jose Tiberio Hernandez; Margarita Gomez; Claudia Vasquez



A phylogenetic reconstruction of the epidemiological history of canine rabies virus variants in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, canine rabies in Colombia has been caused by two geographically distinct canine variants of rabies virus (RV) which between 1992 and 2002 accounted for ?95% of Colombian rabies cases. Genetic variant 1 (GV1) has been isolated up until 1997 in the Central Region and the Department of Arauca, and is now considered extinct through a successful vaccination program. Genetic

Gareth J Hughes; Andrs Pez; Jorge Bshell; Charles E Rupprecht



A preliminary study of forensic entomology in Medell??n, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of an ongoing study of insect succession on carrion carried out in Medell??n, Colombia, using pigs (Sus scrofa) as a model to determine the insect sequence over 207 days. During this period, 2314 insects belonging to the following orders and families were collected: Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Otitidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae, Formicidae, Halictidae, Mutilidae,

Marta Wolff; Alejandro Uribe; Adriana Ortiz; Patricia Duque



Reviews of National Policies for Education: Tertiary Education in Colombia 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Colombia, the beginning of a new century has brought with it a palpable feeling of optimism. Colombians and visitors sense that the country's considerable potential can be realised, and education is rightly seen as crucial to this process. As opportunities expand, Colombians will need new and better skills to respond to new challenges and

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013




E-print Network

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA for Southern Tropical America (STA), covering coral reef areas of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Atlantic. The coral reefs have been limited in their growth because of the strong influence of the major continental

Bermingham, Eldredge


Seismic reprocessing, interpretation and petroleum prospectivity of the East Cano Rondon Area, Llanos Basin, Colombia  

E-print Network

The Llanos Basin, in Eastern Colombia, is the major oil-producing province in the country. In recent years, exploration in this basin has been focused towards plays in the Llanos foothills, where proven thrust traps present the possibility of large...

Molina, German D




Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes the main results of the Impact Evaluation Study of Hogares Comunitarios de Bienestar in Colombia. During 2007, Universidad de los Andes and PROFAMILIA collected information for about twenty eight thousand children including participants and potential participants of the program and evaluated the effects of the intervention on nutritional status, health, cognitive and non-cognitive development of children. The

Raquel Bernal; Camila Fernndez; Carmen Elisa Flrez; Alejandro Gaviria; Paul Ren Ocampo; Beln Samper; Fabio Snchez


Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia  

E-print Network

1 of 2 Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia Principal a detailed and realistic ~ 4 MW solar and ~ 16 MW wind energy feasibility assessment for a renewable energy the realistic ROI for a potential 20 MW solar/wind farm. The information generated will be sufficiently detailed

Johnson, Eric E.


Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.  


While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muoz Garca, Natalia; Gmez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval



Recover of productivity in acid sulfate soils non-coast in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within Boyac (Colombia) irrigation zone, the acid sulfate soils (ASS) restricted for high extreme acidity, have been identified. These ASS are originated by both oxide- reduction chemical and biological reactions of iron sulfurs, some of them are results of drainage, tillage, and other agricultural and engineering practices. Besides, these soils contain excessive quantities of S, high levels of organic matter



A new species of Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (Hymenoptera, Apidae).  


A new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. Geotrigona joearroyoisp. n. belongs to the fulvohirta species group and is distinguished on the basis of color and type of pubescence on the metasomal terga. New geographical records and an updated key to the species of Geotrigona are provided. PMID:22448115

Gonzalez, Victor H; Engel, Michael S



Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent in older adults in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays, there are two vaccination strategies in Colombia to prevent pneumococcal diseases in people over 50 years. Our aim is to estimate cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent (PPSV23) to prevent pneumococcal diseases and their related mortality in people over 50 years old in Colombia. Methods A Markov model was developed with national data, including pneumococcal serotypes distribution in Colombia between 2005 and 2010. Vaccination of a cohort was simulated and a five year time horizon was assumed. Analysis was done from a perspective of a third party payer. Direct costs were provided by a national insurance company; sensitive univariate and probabilistic analysis were done for epidemiological and clinical effectiveness parameters and costs. Results PCV13 avoids 3 560 deaths by pneumococcal infections versus PPSV23 and 4 255 deaths versus no vaccine. PCV13 prevents 79 633 cases by all-cause pneumonia versus PPSV23 and 81 468 cases versus no vaccine. Total costs (healthcare and vaccines costs) with PCV13 would be U.S. $ 97,587,113 cheaper than PPSV23 and it would save U.S. $ 145,196,578 versus no vaccine. Conclusion PCV13 would be a cost-saving strategy in the context of a mass vaccination program in Colombia to people over 50years old because it would reduce burden of disease and specific mortality by pneumococcal diseases, besides, it saves money versus PPSV23. PMID:24679135



New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia  

E-print Network

New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia M. Van Wyk a serious canker- stain disease on coffee as well as other fruit trees. Large collections of these isolates. The aim of this study was to compare representatives of these two groups of isolates from coffee, citrus


Who switches to hybrids? A study of a fuel conversion program in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution from mobile sources is an important environmental problem in larger cities. In 2001, a program was implemented to encourage the use of natural gas in vehicles in the Aburr Valley in Colombia, with incentives to convert small cars from gasoline and diesel to hybrid engines with natural gas, most notably a cash subsidy. Using a survey administered to

C. Adrin Saldarriaga-Isaza; Carlos Vergara



Drugs, alcohol and community tolerance: an urban ethnography from Colombia and Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug and alcohol abuse is identified increasingly in Latin America as a significant source of insecurity. Yet, there has been little research on consump- tion and on the social norms surrounding it. This paper explores the nature of drugs and alcohol consumption among urban poor communities in Colombia and Guatemala, where use is widespread. It also looks at levels of

Cathy McIlwaine; Caroline O. N. Moser



Comparison of Offenders with Early and Late-Starting Antisocial Behavior in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 223 detained offenders in five cities in Colombia, South America, were divided according to childhood or adolescent onset of antisocial behavior and compared on type of offense, characteristics of family of origin, and personal history. No significant differences were found as to type of offense committed between these two groups, but individuals with childhood onset of antisocial

Joanne Klevens; Ofelia Restrepo; Juanita Roca; Adriana Martinez



Mercury in environmental samples from a waterbody contaminated by gold mining in Colombia, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental samples from a marsh, which receives mercury discharges from a gold mine in Colombia (South America), were evaluated for total mercury content. Mercury concentrations were analyzed in sediments, macrophytes and fish species from different trophic levels. The Mean mercury levels in sediments oscillated between 140 and 355 ?g\\/kg whereas in the macrophyte Eichornia crassipes levels were between 219 and

Jesus Olivero; Beatris Solano



Hacia una mejor educacin rural: impacto de un programa de intervencin a las escuelas en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizando informacin censal de las sedes educativas rurales de Colombia el presente trabajo evala el impacto que tuvo el Programa de Educacin Rural PER - en las tasas de eficiencia (cobertura, reprobacin, aprobacin y desercin) y calidad de la educacin en las sedes en donde se aplic. A travs de la implementacin de modelos educativos flexibles adaptados a las

Catherine Rodrguez; Fabio J. Snchez T; Armando Armenta



The paths of coffee: A brief economic history of coffee in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a brief history of coffee in Colombia identifying the processes of change in the geography and populations. From the eighteenth to the twentieth century, coffee cultivation represented the basis of household income. Changes in rural and urban culture of the nineteenth century were influenced by the coffee trade, likewise the fundamental transformations of the Colombian economy during

Fernando Estrada



Supporting Information Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejn Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of  

E-print Network

of coal marks the lower 50 m of the Cerrejón Formation. Sedimentary structures in this interval includeSupporting Information Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejón Formation, Colombia of the Cerrejón Formation and stratigraphic positions of the megafloral collections (Fig. S1); 2) source

Lyons, S. Kathleen


Wing geometric morphometrics and molecular assessment of members in the Albitarsis Complex from Colombia.  


Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The Albitarsis Complex harbours at least eight species not readily differentiable by morphology. This complicates the determination of those species involved in malaria transmission and the implementation of targeted and effective vector control strategies. In Colombia, there is little information about the identity and distribution of the Albitarsis Complex members. In this work, COI DNA barcoding was used to assign specimens Anopheles albitarsis s.l. to any of the previously designated species of the Albitarsis Complex. Two molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), differentially distributed in Colombia, were detected, A.albitarsis I in the NW and NE, and A.albitarsis F, E and NE Colombia. In contrast, nuclear white gene and ITS2 sequence analyses did not allow differentiating between the MOTUs. Wing landmark-based geometric morphometrics applied to explore intertaxa phenotypic heterogeneity showed a subtle but significant difference in size, while shape did not allow the separation of the MOTUs. In general, the multiple marker analysis was not supportive of the existence in Colombia of more than one species of the Albitarsis Complex. PMID:23702155

Gmez, G; Jaramillo, L; Correa, M M



Traditional uses of wild felids in Colombia REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE CONSERVACIN  

E-print Network

Traditional uses of wild felids in Colombia 64 REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE CONSERVACI?N LATIN AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CONSERVATION ISSN 2027-3851 SHORT NOTE Traditional uses of wild felids in the Caribbean January 2009 to January 2010 to record the direct use of felids for traditional purposes. The most common

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad


Double-Difference Relocation of an Earthquake Nest at Bucaramanga, Colombia: Interaction Between Two Slabs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an earthquake nest at Bucaramanga, Colombia, that has dimensions comparable to the uncertainty of global earthquake bulletins (> 10 km), teleseismic relocation with high precision is achieved by applying a double- difference (DD) algorithm to the pick arrival times from the EHB bulletin of Engdahl et al. (1998) and waveform cross-correlation (WCC) measurements of correlated earthquakes. DD relocations using

J. Zhang; F. Waldhauser; P. G. Richards; D. P. Schaff



Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer

No se puede negar que vivimos en una comunidad global, en la que los eventos de una ciudad o pas pueden tener graves consecuencias para los residentes de otra ciudad o pas a miles de kilmetros de distancia. Ya sea la pandemia del virus H1N1, los recientes disturbios en Irn o la recesin econmica mundial, es evidente que esta interconectividad trae consigo retos importantes. Pero tambin puede crear oportunidades sin precedentes, en particular aquellas que podran mejorar sustancialmente la salud pblica.


Sndrome de carga del cuidador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Physical and psychological discomfort experimented by caregivers of patients with some degree of brain damage is closely related to their role. Studies from countries other than Colombia show a highly vulnerable population, with poor coping strategies. Objective: To stress the fact that the concept of caregiver burden syndrome (CBS) has not been discussed as to its validity and usefulness.

Renato Zambrano Cruz; Patricia Ceballos Cardona



Museo Universitario del Chopo Datos del plan de estudio  

E-print Network

and roll 4. Mambo 5. Merengue 6. Disco 7. Cumbia 8. Cha cha cha 9. Salsa en Línea 10. Hip Hop 11. CancionesMuseo Universitario del Chopo Datos del plan de estudio Nombre del Taller: Dancing en México

Islas, León


Pruebas de Papanicolaou y del virus del papiloma humano (VPH)

Hoja informativa que describe los exmenes selectivos de deteccin del cncer de crvix, los cuales incluyen la prueba de Papanicolaou y la prueba de los virus del papiloma humano. La hoja informativa incluye tambin informacin acerca de las pautas de exmenes de deteccin del cncer de crvix.


Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 08-17-2010

En la reunin del 20 de julio, los miembros del comit revisaron los resultados finales de esos estudios, en los cuales no se pudo confirmar la informacin que llev a la aprobacin acelerada. Las mujeres del estudio inicial, llamado E2100, recibieron paclitaxel (Taxol) solo o paclitaxel ms bevacizumab para tratar el cncer de mama localizado recidivante.


Instantnea del cncer de endometrio

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer de endometrio; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Instantnea del cncer de esfago

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer de esfago; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Instantnea del cncer de rin

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer de rin; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Instantnea del cncer de tiroides

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer de tiroides; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Instantnea del cncer de pncreas

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer de pncreas; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Instantnea del cncer de ovario

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer de ovario; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Instantnea del cncer de vejiga

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer de vejiga; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Instantnea del cncer de prstata

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer de prstata; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Instantnea del cncer de pulmn

Informacin sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cncer de pulmn; as como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigacin de este tipo de cncer.


Fisiologa del crecimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoEl crecimiento humano es un proceso dinmico y complejo que comienza con la fertilizacin del vulo y se completa con la fusin de las epfisis y las metfisis de los huesos largos, que caracteriza la terminacin de la adolescencia. El crecimiento ocurre en fases, con caractersticas distintivas en trminos de influencias dominantes derivadas de factores y patrones genticos, ambientales\\/nutricionales y

Arlan L. Rosenbloom



[Commodification of health care services for development: the case of Colombia].  


This is a succinct analysis of the circular relationship between health and development and the changes occurring over recent decades regarding health care services production and delivery that have resulted in a new paradigm. From the late 1970s through the 1980s, three major, worldwide shifts occurred that changed health care services in Colombia and in other Latin American countries: the privatization of government entities, the commodification of health care services, and the failure of the Soviet model. Health care system reform in Colombia, considered by some experts to be a model, is an example of health care commodification that, 15 years later, has not achieved the coverage, nor the equity, nor the efficiency, nor the quality, that it should have. More so than the market, the problem has been with the market entities that seek disproportionate profits. A solution for this situation is to appeal to nonprofit organizations for the purchase and sale of health care services. PMID:19115549

Echeverri, Oscar



Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) and HIV co-infection in Colombia.  


Chagas disease is a complex zoonotic pathology caused by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite presents remarkable genetic variability and has been grouped into six discrete typing units (DTUs). The association between the DTUs and clinical outcome remains unknown. Chagas disease and co-infection with HIV/AIDS has been reported widely in Brazil and Argentina. Herein, we present the molecular analyses from a Chagas disease patient with HIV/AIDS co-infection in Colombia who presented severe cardiomyopathy, pleural effusion, and central nervous system involvement. A mixed infection by T. cruzi genotypes was detected. We suggest including T. cruzi in the list of opportunistic pathogens for the management of HIV patients in Colombia. The epidemiological implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:25080354

Hernndez, Carolina; Cucunub, Zulma; Parra, Edgar; Toro, German; Zambrano, Pilar; Ramrez, Juan David



Diagnosis of environmental problems related to vein gold mining in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1985 the annual gold production in Colombia has been fluctuating between 30 and 35 tons (1-1.4 million ounces troy). Exploitation plants can be found in vein and placer gold deposits. During 1992 a preliminary study was undertaken, resulting in a diagnosis of problems in small scale mining in 6 gold areas (vein type) of Colombia. In order to evaluate the general impact caused to the environment due to mining activities, six gold districts located in Nario, Antioquia, Bolivar, Valle and Caldas Departments were visited. Geochemical analysis (ES, AAS, HGAAS, GFAAS) of orebodies, tailings and waters were carried out, with results that showed high levels of heavy metals in the environmental compartments studied.

Prieto, Gloria R.; Gonzalez, Myriam L.


Forecasting Food Price Inflation, Challenges for Central Banks in Developing Countries using an Inflation Targeting Framework: the Case of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replaced with revised version of paper 11\\/17\\/06. Former title: Forecasting Food Price Inflation, Challenges for Central Banks in Developing Countries using an Inflation Targeting Framework: the Case of Colombia

Miguel I. Gomez; Eliana Gonzalez; Luis F. Melo; Jose L. Torres



Tejiendo una red de resiliencia = weaving a web of resilience : Internal displacement, social networks and urban integration in Cartagena, Colombia  

E-print Network

There are over 28.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world today because of conflict, human rights violations and situations of generalized violence. Colombia's protracted internal armed conflict, which ...

Pollock, Jody (Jody Tamar)



Lipoidal Labellar Secretions in Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

The labella of Maxillaria acuminata Lindl., M. cerifera Barb. Rodr. and M. notylioglossa Rchb.f., all members of the M. acuminata alliance, produce a viscid wax?like secretion. Histochemical analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the secretion is similar in all three species, consisting largely of lipid and protein. Light microscopy and low?vacuum scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the secretory process. In a fourth taxon, M. cf. notylioglossa, transmission electron microscopy showed that lipid bodies are associated with smooth endoplasmic reticulum or occur as plastoglobuli within plastids. Lipid bodies vary in appearance and this may reflect differences in chemical composition. They become associated with the plasmalemma and eventually accumulate between the latter and the cell wall. The wall contains no pits or ectodesmata, and it is speculated that lipid passes through the wall as small lipid moieties before eventually reassembling to form lipid globules on the external surface of the cuticle. These globules are able to coalesce forming extensive viscid areas on the labellum. The possible significance of this process to pollination is discussed. PMID:12588723




JOAQUIN RUIZ Executive Dean, Colleges of Letters, Arts and Science  

E-print Network

-2005 Member, Human Resources Committee, American Geological Institute, 2000-2005 Associate Geological Society of America, Fellow Society of Economic Geologists, Fellow Education B.Sc. Geology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, 1977 B.S. Chemistry

Fay, Noah


Morphology: An ambiguous indicator of biogenicity Juan Manuel Garca Ruiz#*  

E-print Network

catastrophist and uniformitarian theories, then advanced to account for the history of the Earth. Scientists proved that fossils were not purely inorganic sports of a mischievous Mother Nature. Comparative anatomy and fossils became a central tool for reconstruction of the history of life on Earth. Until the 1960's, (Tyler

Hyde, Stephen


Illegal Drugs in Colombia: From Illegal Economic Boom to Social Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past thirty years, the illegal drug industry has marked Colombia's development. In no other country has the illegal drug industry had such dramatic social, political, and economic effects. This short article provides a synthesis of the development of the marijuana, coca-cocaine, and poppy-opium-heroin illegal industries. It studies the development of the drug cartels and marketing networks and the

Francisco E. Thoumi



Social change, population policies, and fertility decline in Colombia and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a comparative case-study approach to examine the social and policy correlates of fertility decline. The analysis compares fertility behavior across a mature and young cohort of women in Colombia and Venezuela, two countries that experienced rapid demographic change under dissimilar socioeconomic and population policy conditions. Based on the distinction between birth-spacing and birth-stopping behavior the analysis tests

Emilio A. Parrado



Revision of the status of various bird species occurring or reported in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following species are added to Colombia's bird checklist: Parkinson's Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni; Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorrhoa; Grey-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus; Tapaculo Scytalopus sp. (Alto de Pisones bird); and Black-and-white Tanager Conothraupis speculigera. The following species are removed: Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Scaly-naped Pigeon Patagioenas squamosa; Amazonian Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium hardyi; Long-tailed Hermit Phaethornis superciliosis; Spot-tailed Antwren Herpsilochmus sticturus; Caribbean Martin

Thomas Donegan; Paul Salaman; David Caro



The association between financial aid availability and the college dropout rates in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to estimate the association between financial aid and college dropout rates of postsecondary\\u000a students in Colombia. We use a unique dataset from the Colombian Ministry of Education that includes all enrolled college\\u000a students in the country between 1998 and 2008. Logistic regression is used to identify the correlation between receiving different\\u000a forms of

Tatiana MelguizoFabio; Fabio Sanchez Torres; Haider Jaime



Challenges in Colombia for public relations professionals: a qualitative assessment of the economic and political environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombian public relations professionals face an environment shaped by a government-declared war against guerrillas, paramilitaries, and drug traffickers. Practitioners explained the implications of this conflict-laden environment for the practice of public relations during 10 in-depth, highly structured interviews. Findings include how regionalism has marked the evolution and practice in Colombia, the need for organizational representatives to keep a low profile

Juan-Carlos Molleda; Ana-Mara Surez



On the ecology and behavior of Cebus albifrons in eastern Colombia: II. Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 503-contact-hr study of a 35 member group ofCebus albifrons was conducted in eastern Colombia in 1977 and 1978. The reactions of the group often centered on the largest adult male,\\u000a which seemed dominant over all other members of the group. This alpha male reacted to perceived danger by putting himself\\u000a between the group and the danger where he threatened

Thomas R. Defler



Total Immunoglobulin E Levels and Dengue Infection on San Andres Island, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and dengue serostatus in 168 subjects from San Andres Island, Colombia, revealed altered levels of IgE in 89% of the population. IgE levels were higher in patients with a history of dengue or with a current secondary or current primary infection than in subjects with no exposure (P 5 0.01). Dengue infection accounted




A survey of Colombia's new outer space policy: Reforms in Colombian law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the changes the Colombian government needs to make in its legislation (including the Constitution), to provide a solid basis for its new outer space policy in consonance with international law. In Article 101 paragraph 3 the Colombian Constitution states: The segment of Geostationary Orbit over Colombia is part of your national territory. This article is at odds with international law, which prohibits any claim of sovereignty over outer space. Until now, the issue has not caused any difficulty; however, Colombia has recently embarked on an outer space policy and the existence of this article may deter other nations from entering any agreement or joint project due to the fear of implicitly accepting this claim of sovereignty. What is more, in Colombia such agreements or projects may be declared illegal, since they do not comply with the Constitution. However, the major problem is not this article, but the complex procedure required to change it. A Constitutional reform is necessary. Furthermore, outer space policy is not a priority issue on the public agenda. This barrier may hinder the efforts to set up a space program in Colombia. We introduce an alternative solution that does not reform the Colombian Constitution but allows the development of the country's space policy. This solution involves identifying the space sectors that would not be affected by Article 101, paragraph 3 and including them in the space policy; checking that the non-definition of the limits of outer space means that the agreements with other nations are not affected; and finally, considering the possibility of making specific declarations of non-recognition of sovereignty over outer space in the agreements signed with other nations (Similar to the American flag over the moon declaration. EEUU Law 83 Stat. 202, sect 8). All these measures can help the development of Colombian space policy as we wait for the country to reach a definitive solution in accordance with international law.

Ortiz, Jairo A. Becerra


Interpretation of ERTS-MSS images of a Savanna area in eastern Colombia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of ERTS-1 imagery for extrapolating existing soil maps into unmapped areas of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia, South America is discussed. Interpretations of ERTS-1 data were made according to conventional photointerpretation techniques. Most units delineated in the existing reconnaissance soil map at a scale of 1:250,000 could be recognized and delineated in the ERTS image. The methods of interpretation are described and the results obtained for specific areas are analyzed.

Elberson, G. W. W.



-DERECHO PBLICO DEL ESTADO AUTONMICO La implantacin del Mster universitario en Derecho Pblico del Estado Autonmico  

E-print Network

- DERECHO P?BLICO DEL ESTADO AUTON?MICO La implantación del Máster universitario en Derecho Público del Estado Autonómico extinguirá el Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Por esta razón se materias del Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Los estudiantes que comenzaron el Máster Oficial

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Joint Inversion of Geophysical Data in the Bucaramanga Seismic Nest, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bucaramanga Seismic Nest of Colombia (BSN), situated at a depth of about 160 km beneath Colombia, generates approximately eight or more moderate sized earthquakes (mb > 4.6) each year. The BSN represents the highest concentration of intermediate-depth seismicity in the world, has a remarkably large b value (~2), and has highly variable focal mechanisms. The BSN is not easily discerned and whether it stems from a point source, is a volume, or is aligned on sub-vertical and/or sub-horizontal planes remains unknown. We will collect teleseismic data from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) of magnitude > 5.5 for stations from the National Seismological Network of Colombia of years 1993 to 2012, and compute teleseismic receiver functions and body wave travel times. We apply a constrained optimization approach design for joint inversion of surface wave, body wave travel times, and receiver functions using seismic S wave velocities as a model parameter. In particular, we compute receiver functions stacks based on ray parameter, and invert them jointly with collected body wave travel time observations. Additionally, crustal/upper mantle velocity models of the BSN can reveal other unknown tectonic boundaries in the surrounding area. Our results will solve for crustal/mantle layer thickness, depths, and velocities and used in the interpretation of the location of the BSN.

Grijalva, A. N.; Thompson, L. E.; Velasco, A. A.



An overview of seventy years of research (1944-2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America.  


This paper summarizes prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Colombia. Recent studies, especially in the states of Antioquia, Quindo and Cundinamarca, indicate that toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem. Approximately half of the women of child bearing age have T. gondii antibodies, and the clinical disease in congenitally infected children is more severe than in Europe. Limited studies indicate that the strains of T. gondii from Colombia are genetically and phenotypically different than in Europe and North America. However, epidemiological factors, such as the involvement of domestic and/or wild animals in transmission, the distribution of strain diversity by natural geographic regions, and the variation in risk factors between regions that are associated with human infection in Colombia, remain unknown. Areas of research for the future are outlined. This review should be of interest to biologists, veterinarians, physicians, and parasitologists. PMID:25190525

Can-Franco, William Alberto; Lpez-Orozco, Natalia; Gmez-Marn, Jorge Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P



Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Gonzlez-Correa, C. H.; Gonzlez-Correa, C. A.



An analysis of the distribution of rainfall and some rainfall associations for selected stations in Western Colombia  

E-print Network


Morris, David Gordon



Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformacin" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogot IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations are located on the three major plates that interact within the Wide Plate Margin Deformation Zone including existing permanent installations on IGS Galapagos and Malpelo Islands on the Nazca Plate, and San Andres Island on the Caribbean plate. The velocity vectors confirm the oblique subduction of the Nazca Plate and Carnegie aseismic ridge collision processes at the Colombia-Ecuador trench which are assumed to be the mechanism for the transpressional deformation and the "escape" of the North Andes Block (NAB). The northernmost vectors in Colombia are indicative of the ongoing collision of the Panama Arc with northwestern Colombia. Planned for the year 2013 is the installation of 10 additional GNSS continuously operating stations, and construction of 20 GPS campaign sites.

Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.



Managing water scarcity in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia.An economic assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key words: global change, water scarcity, river basin In Colombia, serious water conflicts began to emerge with the economic development in the 70ies and 80ies and the term "water scarcity" became a common word in this tropical country. Despite a mean annual runoff of 1840 mm, which classifies Colombia as a water rich country, shortfalls in fresh water availability have become a frequent event in the last two decades. One reason for the manifestation of water scarcity is the long-held perception of invulnerable water abundance, which has delayed technical and political developments to use water more efficiently. The Magdalena watershed is the most important and complex area in Colombia, because of its huge anthropogenic present, economic development and increasing environmental problems. This river basin has a total area of 273,459 km2, equivalent to 24% of the territory of the country. It is home to 79% of the country's population (32.5 million of inhabitants) and approximately 85% of Gross Domestic Product of Colombia is generated in this area. Since the economic development of the 1970s and 1980s, large changes in land cover and related environmental conditions have occurred in the Magdalena basin. These changes include deforestation, agricultural land expansion, soil degradation, lower groundwater and increased water pollution. To assess the consequences of geophysical alteration and economic development, we perform an integrated analysis of water demand, water supply, land use changes and possible water management strategies. The main objective of this study is to determine how global and local changes affect the balance between water supply and demand in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia, the consequences of different water pricing schemes, and the social benefits of public or private investments into various water management infrastructures. To achieve this goal, a constrained welfare maximization model has been developed. The General Algebraic Modeling System based mathematical program uses information from spatially detailed Geographic Information System including topography, land cover and water systems. Spatially resolved economic data are included to depict price and income sensitive consumption decisions of major water users. Water management adaptation options include wet ponds and dams. The model maximizes economic net benefits subject to physical and technological constraints. The results of this study are relevant to water management stakeholders, and to governmental agencies for the development of better water policies.

Bolivar Lobato, Martha Isabel; Schneider, Uwe A.



Tomographically-imaged subducted slabs and magmatic history of Caribbean and Pacific subduction beneath Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define the length and geometry of eastward and southeastward-subducting slabs beneath northwestern South America in Colombia using ~100,000 earthquake events recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from 1993 to 2012. Methods include: hypocenter relocation, compilation of focal mechanisms, and P and S wave tomographic calculations performed using LOTOS and Seisan. The margins of Colombia include four distinct subduction zones based on slab dip: 1) in northern Colombia, 12-16-km-thick oceanic crust subducts at a modern GPS rate of 20 mm/yr in a direction of 110 degrees at a shallow angle of 8 degrees; as a result of its low dip, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks are present 400 km from the frontal thrust; magmatic arc migration to the east records 800 km of subduction since 58 Ma ago (Paleocene) with shallow subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plateau starting ~24-33 Ma (Miocene); at depths of 90-150 km, the slab exhibits a negative velocity anomaly we associate with pervasive fracturing; 2) in the central Colombia-Panama area, we define an area of 30-km-thick crust of the Panama arc colliding/subducting at a modern 30/mm in a direction of 95 degrees; the length of this slab shows subduction/collision initiated after 20 Ma (Middle Miocene); we call this feature the Panama indenter since it has produced a V-shaped indentation of the Colombian margin and responsible for widespread crustal deformation and topographic uplift in Colombia; an incipient subduction area is forming near the Panama border with intermediate earthquakes at an eastward dip of 70 degrees to depths of ~150 km; this zone is not visible on tomographic images; 3) a 250-km-wide zone of Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate flanking the Panama indenter subducts at a rate of 25 mm/yr in a direction of 55 degrees and at a normal dip of 40 degrees; the length of this slab suggests subduction began at ~5 Ma; 4) the Caldas tear defines a major dip change to the south where a 35 degrees eastward-dipping slab is subducting in a direction of 120 degrees and has a well-developed Quaternary volcanic arc; subduction initiation of the southern slab has been recorded by Miocene magmatism that has migrated from west to east. Overall, Colombian slab segments are similar to other alternating flat/amagmatic and steep/magmatic slab segments found to the south in the Andes Ecuador, Peru, Chile and Argentina. Its major difference with these other parts of the central and southern Andes is the three-times wider zone of deformation attributed to the Panama indenter.

Bernal-Olaya, R.; Mann, P.; Vargas, C. A.; Koulakov, I.



Frequency and tendency of malaria in Colombia, 1990 to 2011: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a serious health problem in Colombia. This paper intends to analyse the frequency and tendencies of the disease in Colombia over the last 22years. The researchers used the Box-Jenkins (ARIMA) methodology for the analysis of time series. Methods This descriptive study was done retrospectively by using the morbidity records of the Ministry of Health and of the System for the Monitoring of Public Health (SIVIGILA). The information about the population was obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE). The incidence rate according to age and sex was calculated from 1990 to 2011. Also, the Annual Parasite Index (API) for Plasmodium falciparum and for Plasmodium vivax was calculated. The mortality rates per year, from 1990 to 2011, were determined. Finally, the Box-Jenkins (ARIMA) methodology was used for the analysis of time series, grouped weekly. Information for ARIMA modelling was used from the year 2001. Results The total number of reported cases from 1990 to 2011 was 2,964,818 cases with an annual average of 134,764. In the period from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2011 a significant decrease of annual cases was observed. In general, a predominance of P. vivax over P. falciparum was observed. With respect to the API, it must be noted that there were peaks in 1994 in the departments of Guaina and Guaviare, and in 1998 in Guaviare and Choc. The department of Antioquia showed a tendency towards a decrease of the API through the years. In the time series model there were no statistically significant seasonal patterns for the total number of cases of malaria. However, for P. falciparum the number of cases was statistically significant. Lastly, between 1990 and 2009, there were 1,905 deaths caused by malaria in Colombia with a significant tendency towards a decrease in deaths over those years. Plasmodium falciparum was more lethal than P. vivax. Conclusions In Colombia, the transmission of malaria occurs in an endemic and epidemic context, which keeps an unstable endemic transmission pattern. Several factors specific to a country such as Colombia encourage the dissemination and permanence of the illness. PMID:24885393



Museo Universitario del Chopo Datos del plan de estudio  

E-print Network

separación de la agrupación musical más importante del Siglo XX, a nuestros días, The Beatles Imparte NACIONAL AUT?NOMA DE M?XICO #12;Revisar la historia de la banda de rock los Beatles, a través del análisis paralelos en el tiempo del cuarteto Liverpool. CONTENIDO 1. La historia des los Beatles, desde sus inicios

Islas, León


La relacin entre corrupcin y narcotrfico: un anlisis general y algunas referencias a Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

La relacin entre corrupcin y el desarrollo de la industria de drogas ilegales y del narcotrfico en un pas es circular. La corrupcin es simultneamente causa y efecto de dichos desarrollos. tanto la corrupcin como el narcotrfico muchas veces son resultado de porcesos de deslegitimacin del rgimen poltico y de deterioro de las instituciones sociales tanto civiles como oficiales y

Francisco Thoumi




Microsoft Academic Search

En los ltimos aos se ha hecho evidente que los gobiernos cuentan con un margen de maniobra reducido en la elaboracin del presupuesto, pues una proporcin importante de los gastos se encuentra predeterminada por normas legales, mandatos constitucionales, compromisos previamente adquiridos por el gobierno, y requerimientos del actual ejercicio presupuestario. Este estudio analiza el fenmeno de las inflexibilidades presupuestales partiendo

Juan Carlos Echeverry; Jorge Alexander Bonilla; Andrs Moya



Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti in 10 localities in Colombia.  


Insecticide resistance is one of the major threats to the effectiveness of vector control programs. In order to establish a baseline susceptibility profile of Aedes aegypti in the southwest of Colombia, 10 localities in four Departments (States) were evaluated. Standardized WHO bioassay, CDC bottle bioassay and microplate biochemical assays of non-specific ?-esterase (NSE), mixed function oxidases (MFO) and acetylcholinesterase were used. Cross resistance was evaluated with field collected mosquitoes that underwent selection pressure in the laboratory from DDT, propoxur and lambdacyhalothrin during three alternate generations. Mosquitoes with mortality rates below 80% in bioassays were considered resistant. Insecticide resistance varied geographically. Insecticide resistance was observed in 100% of localities in which mosquitoes were exposed to DDT, bendiocarb and temephos using both assays. WHO bioassays showed susceptibility to pyrethroids in all the localities evaluated, however CDC bottle bioassays showed decreases in susceptibility especially with lambdacyhalothrin. All localities showed susceptibility to the organophosphate malathion. Mosquitoes from eight regions with evidence of resistance to any of the insecticide evaluated were also evaluated biochemically. Mosquitoes from five of these regions had increased levels of NSE and two regions had increased levels of MFO. Increase levels of NSE explain partially the low susceptibility to temephos found in all the localities. However, the biochemical mechanisms evaluated do not explain all the resistance observed. Cross resistance was observed between the DDT-selected strain and lambdacyhalothrin, and between the lambdacyhalothrin-selected strain and propoxur and vice versa. The selected strains do not show changes in the biochemical assays evaluated, therefore the observed cross-resistance suggests different biochemical mechanisms. This study shows that Ae. aegypti from Colombia can develop resistance to most of the insecticide classes in the market. Periodic surveillance of insecticide resistance is necessary in order to maintain effective interventions. This study helped to establish the National Network for the surveillance of the insecticide resistance in Colombia. PMID:21300017

Ocampo, Clara B; Salazar-Terreros, Myriam J; Mina, Neila J; McAllister, Janet; Brogdon, William



Setting practical conservation priorities for birds in the Western andes of Colombia.  


We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have sharply restricted where species now live. Our aspirations for direct, practical actions were demanding. First, we identified the global, strategic conservation priorities and then downscaled to practical local actions within the selected priorities. In doing this, we recognized the limitations of incomplete information. We started such a process in Colombia and used the results presented here to implement reforestation of degraded land to prevent the isolation of a large area of cloud forest. We used existing range maps of 171 bird species to identify priority conservation areas that would conserve the greatest number of species at risk in Colombia. By at risk species, we mean those that are endemic and have small ranges. The Western Andes had the highest concentrations of such species-100 in total-but the lowest densities of national parks. We then adjusted the priorities for this region by refining these species ranges by selecting only areas of suitable elevation and remaining habitat. The estimated ranges of these species shrank by 18-100% after accounting for habitat and suitable elevation. Setting conservation priorities on the basis of currently available range maps excluded priority areas in the Western Andes and, by extension, likely elsewhere and for other taxa. By incorporating detailed maps of remaining natural habitats, we made practical recommendations for conservation actions. One recommendation was to restore forest connections to a patch of cloud forest about to become isolated from the main Andes. Establecimiento de Prioridades Prcticas para la Conservacin de Aves en los Andes Occidentales de Colombia. PMID:25065287

Ocampo-Peuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L



Mycobacterium leprae in Colombia described by SNP7614 in gyrA, two minisatellites and geography  

PubMed Central

New cases of leprosy are still being detected in Colombia after the country declared achievement of the WHO defined elimination status. To study the ecology of leprosy in endemic regions, a combination of geographic and molecular tools were applied for a group of 201 multibacillary patients including six multi-case families from eleven departments. The location (latitude and longitude) of patient residences were mapped. Slit skin smears and/or skin biopsies were collected and DNA was extracted. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis following a multiplex PCR-was developed for rapid and inexpensive strain typing of M. leprae based on copy numbers of two VNTR minisatellite loci 27-5 and 12-5. A SNP (C/T) in gyrA (SNP7614) was mapped by introducing a novel PCR-RFLP into an ongoing drug resistance surveillance effort. Multiple genotypes were detected combining the three molecular markers. The two frequent genotypes in Colombia were SNP7614(C)/27-5(5)/12-5(4) [C54] predominantly distributed in the Atlantic departments and SNP7614 (T)/27-5(4)/12-5(5) [T45] associated with the Andean departments. A novel genotype SNP7614 (C)/27-5(6)/12-5(4) [C64] was detected in cities along the Magdalena river which separates the Andean from Atlantic departments; a subset was further characterized showing association with a rare allele of minisatellite 23-3 and the SNP type 1 of M. leprae. The genotypes within intra-family cases were conserved. Overall, this is the first large scale study that utilized simple and rapid assay formats for identification of major strain types and their distribution in Colombia. It provides the framework for further strain type discrimination and geographic information systems as tools for tracing transmission of leprosy. PMID:23291420

Cardona-Castro, Nora; Beltrn-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Romero-Montoya, Irma Marcela; Li, Wei; Brennan, Patrick J; Vissa, Varalakshmi



Population Structure among Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogeographic composition of M. tuberculosis populations reveals associations between lineages and human populations that might have implications for the development of strategies to control the disease. In Latin America, lineage 4 or the Euro-American, is predominant with considerable variations among and within countries. In Colombia, although few studies from specific localities have revealed differences in M. tuberculosis populations, there are still areas of the country where this information is lacking, as is a comparison of Colombian isolates with those from the rest of the world. Principal Findings A total of 414 M. tuberculosis isolates from adult pulmonary tuberculosis cases from three Colombian states were studied. Isolates were genotyped using IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spoligotyping, and 24-locus Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). SIT42 (LAM9) and SIT62 (H1) represented 53.3% of isolates, followed by 8.21% SIT50 (H3), 5.07% SIT53 (T1), and 3.14% SIT727 (H1). Composite spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU- VNTR minimum spanning tree analysis suggest a recent expansion of SIT42 and SIT62 evolved originally from SIT53 (T1). The proportion of Haarlem sublineage (44.3%) was significantly higher than that in neighboring countries. Associations were found between M. tuberculosis MDR and SIT45 (H1), as well as HIV-positive serology with SIT727 (H1) and SIT53 (T1). Conclusions This study showed the population structure of M. tuberculosis in several regions from Colombia with a dominance of the LAM and Haarlem sublineages, particularly in two major urban settings (Medelln and Cali). Dominant spoligotypes were LAM9 (SIT 42) and Haarlem (SIT62). The proportion of the Haarlem sublineage was higher in Colombia compared to that in neighboring countries, suggesting particular conditions of co-evolution with the corresponding human population that favor the success of this sublineage. PMID:24747767

Realpe, Teresa; Correa, Nidia; Rozo, Juan Carlos; Ferro, Beatriz Elena; Gomez, Vernica; Zapata, Elsa; Ribon, Wellman; Puerto, Gloria; Castro, Claudia; Nieto, Luisa Mara; Diaz, Maria Lilia; Rivera, Oriana; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Robledo, Jaime



[Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Purac, Colombia].  


Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Purac National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design conservation actions, to follow and evaluate the need for particular protected areas along their geographical gradients. PMID:22017133

Hernndez-Guzmn, Andrs; Payn, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio



DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Sand Fly Species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Sand flies include a group of insects that are of medical importance and that vary in geographic distribution, ecology, and pathogen transmission. Approximately 163 species of sand flies have been reported in Colombia. Surveillance of the presence of sand fly species and the actualization of species distribution are important for predicting risks for and monitoring the expansion of diseases which sand flies can transmit. Currently, the identification of phlebotomine sand flies is based on morphological characters. However, morphological identification requires considerable skills and taxonomic expertise. In addition, significant morphological similarity between some species, especially among females, may cause difficulties during the identification process. DNA-based approaches have become increasingly useful and promising tools for estimating sand fly diversity and for ensuring the rapid and accurate identification of species. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (COI) is currently being used to differentiate species in different animal taxa, including insects, and it is referred as a barcoding sequence. The present study explored the utility of the DNA barcode approach for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies in Colombia. We sequenced 700 bp of the COI gene from 36 species collected from different geographic localities. The COI barcode sequence divergence within a single species was <2% in most cases, whereas this divergence ranged from 9% to 26.6% among different species. These results indicated that the barcoding gene correctly discriminated among the previously morphologically identified species with an efficacy of nearly 100%. Analyses of the generated sequences indicated that the observed species groupings were consistent with the morphological identifications. In conclusion, the barcoding gene was useful for species discrimination in sand flies from Colombia. PMID:24454877

Contreras Gutierrez, Maria Angelica; Vivero, Rafael J.; Velez, Ivan D.; Porter, Charles H.; Uribe, Sandra



Coupling between annual and ENSO timescales in the malaria-climate association in Colombia.  

PubMed Central

We present evidence that the El Nio phenomenon intensifies the annual cycle of malaria cases for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas of Colombia as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the normal annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. We used simultaneous analyses of both variables at both timescales, as well as correlation and power spectral analyses of detailed spatial (municipal) and temporal (monthly) records. During "normal years," endemic malaria in rural Colombia exhibits a clear-cut "normal" annual cycle, which is tightly associated with prevalent climatic conditions, mainly mean temperature, precipitation, dew point, and river discharges. During historical El Nio events (interannual time scale), the timing of malaria outbreaks does not change from the annual cycle, but the number of cases intensifies. Such anomalies are associated with a consistent pattern of hydrological and climatic anomalies: increase in mean temperature, decrease in precipitation, increase in dew point, and decrease in river discharges, all of which favor malaria transmission. Such coupling explains why the effect appears stronger and more persistent during the second half of El Nio's year (0), and during the first half of the year (+1). We illustrate this finding with data for diverse localities in Buenaventura (on the Pacific coast) and Caucasia (along the Cauca river floodplain), but conclusions have been found valid for multiple localities throughout endemic regions of Colombia. The identified coupling between annual and interannual timescales in the climate-malaria system shed new light toward understanding the exact linkages between environmental, entomological, and epidemiological factors conductive to malaria outbreaks, and also imposes the coupling of those timescales in public health intervention programs. PMID:11401760

Poveda, G; Rojas, W; Quinones, M L; Velez, I D; Mantilla, R I; Ruiz, D; Zuluaga, J S; Rua, G L



Shoot Down in Peru: The Secret US Debate Over Intelligence Sharing in Peru and Colombia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once again, the inestimable National Security Archive (NSA) has created a timely and useful electronic briefing book with declassified documents that shed light on recent events. In this case, the event is the accidental shoot down of a civilian aircraft carrying missionaries in Peru on April 20. The site offers the full text of thirteen declassified documents from 1994 which shed light on internal debate within the Clinton administration over the decision to share aerial tracking intelligence with Peru and Colombia. The documents are preceded by an excellent concise introduction, and for each, a one-paragraph summary is provided.



Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urab, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urab region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urab, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Nio - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Nio/La Nia) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative/positive. The Foliar Emission Rate of banana plants also reflected negative/positive anomalies which are consistent with the increase/decrease observed in the Severity Index of BSD.

Ochoa, A.; lvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buritic, P.; Mira, J.



Hyperlexia in Spanish-speaking children: report of 2 cases from Colombia, South America.  


Hyperlexia is a condition rarely reported in Spanish-speaking children, characterized by the ability to recognize written words without formal training. We present two unrelated autistic children with hyperlexia from Colombia (South America) who were followed for 8 years with formal neuropsychological evaluations of language, motor skills, visual perception, attention and behavior. Both children taught themselves to read before 5 years of age but showed minimal comprehension; both displayed obsessional reading and difficulties in social skills and attention. Brain CT scans were normal. Hyperlexia has been associated with hyperactivation of the left superior temporal cortex; we conclude that the orthographic route is a probable mechanism for the development of hyperlexia. PMID:16843492

Talero-Gutierrez, Claudia



A shore-based preliminary survey of marine ribbon worms (Nemertea) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A checklist of benthic ribbon worm species from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is presented, including synonyms, distributions, a photographic record, and the main morphologic characters of each species for a rapid identification. This is the first research focused broadly on nemerteans in Colombia. 54 specimens of nemerteans were hand-collected from the rocky littoral of two different localities, and identified according to personal experience and specialist literature. 13 species were found; of which 11 represent new records for the country. These species belong to eight different traditionally used families: Tubulanidae, Valenciniidae, Lineidae, Amphiporidae, Cratenemertidae, Emplectonematidae, Drepanophoridae and Ototyphlonemertidae. The most common and abundant species was Dushia atra. The biodiversity of nemerteans in Colombia seems to overlap with the nemertean fauna from Florida and Brazil, explained by the convergence of the North Brazil Current, Guiana Current, Caribbean Currents and the Panama-Colombia Contracurrent in the sampled region. The results of this work suggest that the Caribbean coast of Colombia is a region with a high diversity of nemerteans, and provide important taxonomic data for environmental assessments and future biological research.

Gonzalez-Cueto, Jaime; Quiroga, Sigmer; Norenburg, Jon



Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 09-14-2010

Las mediciones ecocardiogrficas del ventrculo izquierdo del corazn sirven para que los mdicos monitoreen el funcionamiento cardiaco durante el tratamiento contra el cncer. Una reduccin de la fraccin de eyeccin ventricular izquierda (LVEF) durante el tratamiento puede indicar dao cardiaco provocado por los frmacos. Haga clic para ampliar.


MXICO: DESIGUALDAD SOCIAL Y POBREZA Saldos del gobierno del empleo  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gobierno de Felipe Caldern Hinojosa, carente de oficio y de sentido comn, no solamente es el gobierno del desempleo sino que tambin es el gobierno del aumento de las desigualdades sociales y, por tanto, de la pobreza. Y cmo no debera serlo, s se trata de un gobierno conservador que les quita a los pobres para darles a los

Martn Carlos Ramales Osorio



El valor del consejo en el Libro del caballero Zifar Patricia ROCHWERT-ZUILI  

E-print Network

1 El valor del consejo en el Libro del caballero Zifar Patricia ROCHWERT-ZUILI Textes et cultures Libro del caballero Zifar la definición del consejo como elemento fundamental del molinismo. El análisis la realeza. Palabras clave: Consejo, palabra, amistad, verdad, seso, entendimiento, Libro del

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano

Hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cncer de cuello del tero o crvix.


Teatro uruguayo hacia el fin del siglo  

E-print Network

del Interior y la Asociacin General de Autores del Uruguay, y presidida por un representante del Ministerio de Educacin y Cultura. 84 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Pero los magros recursos asignados al Fondo de Teatro por dicha ley, consistentes...

Pignataro Calero, Jorge




Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen evolutivo del derecho como una consecuencia del desarrollo social de nuestra especie. Otras especies con sistemas sociales similares presentan varias reglas para la convivencia en grupo. Algunas de estas reglas son comunes en todas las especies con comportamiento social. El desarrollo de la sociobiologa en las ltimas dcadas es una herramienta importante

Axel P. Retana-Salazar


Trading in birds: imperial power, national pride, and the place of nature in U.S.-Colombia relations.  


Between the 1910s and the 1940s, American naturalists carried out a number of ornithological expeditions in Colombia. With the help of Colombian naturalists, thousands of skins were brought to natural history museums in the United States. By 1948 these birds had become an important treasure: American ornithologists declared Colombia the nation with the most bird species. This story sheds new light on the role science played in the expansion of U.S. political, economic, and cultural influence in Latin America in the early twentieth century, as well as on the relation between nationalist movements in Latin America and the study of the natural world. Recognizing a complex but fruitful interaction between nationalist policies and imperial practices proves important for understanding the success of the naturalists' enterprise in Colombia. PMID:22073769

Quintero, Camilo



Studies on antimalarial drug susceptibility in Colombia, in relation to Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt.  


In Colombia, Plasmodium resistance to antimalarials such as chloroquine and antifolates is a serious problem. As a result, the national Colombian health authorities are monitoring the efficacy of alternative drugs and schemes. The study of genetic polymorphisms related with drug resistance is required in the region. In vitro responses to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, amodiaquine, desethylamodiaquine, artesunate and dihydroartesunate were carried out by HRP ELISA. SNP analysis in Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes was performed by PCR-RFLP in 77 samples from the North West region of Colombia. In vitro resistance to chloroquine was high (74%), followed by mefloquine (30%) and desethylamodiaquine (30%). A positive correlation between the IC(50) of paired drugs was also detected. The allele Pfmdr1 N86 (wild) was present in 100% of the samples and 1246Y (mutant) in 92%. However, their presence did not correlate with in vitro drug resistance. Presence of the mutations K76T and N75E in Pfcrt was confirmed in all samples. Analysis of 4 codons (72, 74, 75 and 76) in pfcrt confirmed the presence of the haplotypes CMET in 91% and SMET in 9% of the samples. PMID:18426617

Restrepo-Pineda, E; Arango, E; Maestre, A; Do Rosrio, V E; Cravo, P



Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.



Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.  


Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R



Giardiasis in children living in post-earthquake camps from Armenia (Colombia)  

PubMed Central

Background An earthquake in the coffee growing region of Colombia on January 25, 1999 destroyed 70% of the houses in Armenia city. Transitory housing camps still remained until two years after the disaster. Parasitological studies found that, in this population, giardiasis was the most frequent parasitic infection. This study was carried out in order to determine the epidemiological risk factors associated with this high prevalence. Methods Fecal samples were obtained from 217 children aged between 3 and 13 years. Stool samples were studied by direct wet examination and stained with ferric hematoxilin for microscopical examination. Epidemiological data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by using the Epi-info software (CDC, Atlanta 2001). Results Giardia cysts were observed in 60.4% of the samples presented and trophozoites in 4.6%. The following epidemiological and laboratory factors were significantly associated with Giardia infection: 1. Use of communal toilet (vs. individual toilet) OR: 3.9, CI95%: 1.216; 2. water provision by municipal ducts (vs. water provision by individual tanks) OR: 3.5, CI95% 1.114, and 3. presence of mucus in stool OR: 2.3, IC95%: 0.96.7. Conclusions A high prevalence of giardiasis was found in children living in temporary houses after the 1999 earthquake in Armenia (Colombia). Giardiasis is an emerging disease in post-disaster situations and adequate prevention measures should be implemented during these circumstances. PMID:11914149

Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Marin-Vasquez, Carolina; Loango, Nelsy; Gallego, Martha; Torres, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Maria Mercedes; Castano-Osorio, Jhon Carlos; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique



Socio-political implications of the fight against alcoholism and tuberculosis in Colombia, 1910-1925.  


The emergence of a modern state in Colombia and the centralization of political and administrative power in Bogot began to take shape during the latter decades of the nineteenth century. The state had a central role within the overarching modernisation discourse that sought to create a common national identity. One of the tasks assigned to the state by the national project was that of implementing policy for regulating public health and strengthening social control institutions. Such objectives should be analyzed as part of larger political centralization processes and the desire to create "ideal" citizens. Public health and sanitary campaigns implemented by government officials during this period targeted vice, immorality, illness and ignorance under the umbrella of social reform programmes. Government officials, hygienists and medical doctors continually placed emphasis on eradicating or regulating alcoholism and tuberculosis from 1910 to 1925, with the hopes of avoiding a national crisis. This paper examines how alcoholism and tuberculosis became central themes in the fears expressed by Colombia's ruling class at the time regarding the broader social decay of the nation. As intellectuals and public officials sought solutions to these ills, their explanations alluded to the disintegration of morality and values and the degenerative effects of vice, addiction and unsanitary conditions. PMID:21311836

Jalil-Paier, Hanni; Donado, Guillermo



A geochemical study of the Rio Pantanos area, Department of Antioquia, Colombia preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling in the Western Cordillera has delineated an 18 km 2 area anomalous in copper, molybdenum, and silver. Highly anomalous metal contents are found in stream sediment, soil, and outcrop samples collected within this area. The area is underlain by intrusive granodiorite to quartz diorite that has porphyritic and granitoid phases. Most of the outcrop samples contain disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite. A geochemical reconnaissance sampling program in the Western Cordillera, formulated by Andros Jimeno V., Director, Instituto National de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (INGEOMINAS), and Earl M. Irving, U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Chief of Party in Colombia, was carried out from 1969 to 1971 by geologists of the INGEOMINAS office in Medellin. This work was part of a cooperative program of INGEOMINAS and the USGS sponsored by the Government of Colombia and the Agency for International Development, U. S. Department of State. Seventeen generally east-trending traverses were completed across the Western Cordillera. These traverses, generally paralleling major drainages, cross the range at intervals of 10 to 30 km.

Alminas, Henry V.; Mosier, Elwin L.



Geothermic Potential Assessment of hydrothermal vents of Township Barranca De Upia - Meta - Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal vents have been traditionally exploited in Colombia as a source of tourism revenue such as pools and saunas. Leaving aside its high potential for geothermal power generation in applications like heating, drying, cooling, extensive use in crops, livestock, electricity generation and more. Currently the use given to this natural resource in the town of Barranca de Upia in Meta department, central Colombia, is like Wellness Centre. However, the geothermal gradient for the area where hydrothermal vents occur, indicates that the water emerges at temperatures above 70 C (Alfaro et al., 2003), which opens a window of opportunity to assess their geothermal potential, in order to know the actual energy potential of the region as an option of augmenting their development. this research is the analysis of information gathered from databases in gravimetry and magnetometry of the study area and the temperatures measured in wells derived from the oil industry. Based on that information, a numerical analysis of the data will be performed in order to establish a model to parameterize the energy potential of the study area and identify possible uses of the energy contained by the hydrothermal vents.

Chica, J.; Chicangana, G.; Eco Energy Research Group



Distribution and abundance of flatfish on the South American continental shelf from Suriname to Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is based on data collected during four trawl surveys conducted in 1988 on the South American continental shelf from Suriname to Colombia. Members of four flatfish families were caught in depths ranging from 15 to 410 m at 264 of the 1200 stations trawled: Bothidae (13 genera, 30 species), Cynoglossidae (1 genus, 4 species), Soleidae (3 genera, 4 species) and Pleuronectidae (1 genus, 3 species). Flatfish comprised less than 5% of total catch by weight at most stations. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed between 4 and 6 groups of stations in each survey characterized according to depth, temperature and species associations. Cynoglossids, soleids and some bothids characterized shallow-water stations while bothids and pleuronectids characterized intermediate and deep-water stations. Highest catches were taken off northern Venezuela and Colombia during times of increased upwelling and in areas influenced by river runoff. Mean density of flatfish was less than 0.0005 indm -2. The major species caught were Paralichthys tropicus, Paralichthys lethostigma, Cyclopsetta chittendeni, Syacium micrurum, Syacium papillosum,, Syacium sp. and Symphurus plagiusa and range extensions were found for six species.

Manickchand-Heileman, Sherry C.


Health care privatization in latin america: comparing divergent privatization approaches in chile, Colombia, and Mexico.  


The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization. PMID:24842976

Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Mndez, Claudio A



Large variation in detection of histidine-rich protein 2 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Colombia.  


Most rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available use histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) as a target. However, it has been reported that sequence variations of this protein affects its sensitivity. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for HRP2 variability in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Colombia and its relationship with RDT performance. To determine possible geographic differences and their effects on the performance of RDTs, 22 blood samples from patients with P. falciparum malaria from Tumaco and Buenaventura, Colombia were assessed by measurement of HRP2 concentration by an HRP2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RDTs, and thick blood smear. Statistical analysis showed an association between RDT performance and HRP2 concentrations. No significant difference was found between locations. A large variation of antigen concentration in samples was found at same parasitemia. In contrast to previously reports, there was no correlation between initial parasitemia and HRP2 concentration. Our results indicate that antigen quantity should be studied more carefully because the sensitivity of the RDT is affected more by antigen concentration than by parasitemia. PMID:20889875

Pava, Zuleima; Echeverry, Diego F; Daz, Gustavo; Murillo, Claribel



Rural telemedicine infrastructure and services in the Department of Cauca, Colombia.  


The development of telemedicine programs for the public health network of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, (Department is the major political and territorial division of the country. The Department of Cauca is located on the Pacific coast in the southwest of the country.) would make it possible to satisfy many identified needs such as medical coordination, continuing education, epidemiologic surveillance, patient referral and counterreferral, and an end to the feeling of isolation among professionals who work in rural health centers. Nevertheless, geographic, economic, and social difficulties, and the lack of a telecommunication infrastructure in areas with these characteristics present a challenge of such magnitude that the majority of existing telemedicine projects in Colombia have been centered in urban or other areas which present fewer difficulties. In the municipality of Silvia, the University of Cauca has established a prototype network using the "Hispano-American Health Link" (EHAS in Spanish) program technologies, which uses very high frequency (VHF) and wireless fidelity, (WiFi, a set of standards for wireless local area networks) radio systems for the deployment of low-cost voice and data networks. Over this network information access and exchange services have been developed, in order to meet the needs identified above. The objectives were to obtain information about the development of the project's activities and their possible impact. Project telecommunication network and information services are described, and the results and conclusions of the first evaluation are presented. PMID:16149891

Rendn, Alvaro; Martnez, Andrs; Dulcey, Mara F; Seoane, Joaqun; Shoemaker, Richard G; Villarroel, Valentn; Lpez, Diego M; Sim, Javier



Prevalence and characterization of influenza viruses in diverse species in Los Llanos, Colombia  

PubMed Central

While much is known about the prevalence of influenza viruses in North America and Eurasia, their prevalence in birds and mammals in South America is largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a baseline for future ecology and epidemiology studies, we conducted 2 years of influenza surveillance in the eastern plains (Los Llanos) region of Colombia. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified influenza viruses in wild birds, domestic poultry, swine and horses. Prevalence ranged from 2.6% to 13.4% across species. Swine showed the highest prevalence and were infected primarily with 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses genetically related to those in humans. In addition, we isolated H5N2 viruses from two resident species of whistling ducks (genus Dendrocygna) that differed completely from previous South American isolates, instead genetically resembling North American wild bird viruses. Both strains caused low pathogenicity in chickens and mammals. The prevalence and subtype diversity of influenza viruses isolated from diverse species within a small area of Colombia highlights the need for enhanced surveillance throughout South America, including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of low-pathogenic H5N2 viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry and the emergence of reassortant viruses in domestic swine.

Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl; Freiden, Pamela J; Seufzer, Bradley; Jones, Jeremy C; Johnson, Jordan; Parra, Rocio; Gongora, Agustin; Cardenas, Dario; Barajas, Diana; Osorio, Jorge E; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey



Aurapex penicillata gen. sp. nov. from native Miconia theaezans and Tibouchina spp. in Colombia.  


Conidiomata of a fungus resembling Chrysoporthe cubensis, a serious canker pathogen of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae, Myrtales) in tropical and subtropical parts of the world, was found on Eucalyptus grandis in Colombia. Fruiting structures of the fungus could be distinguished from those of C. cubensis by their distinctly orange conidiomatal necks. This fungus also was found on several plant species native to Colombia including Tibouchina urvilleana, T. lepidota and Miconia theaezans (Melastomataceae, Myrtales). Morphological comparisons, as well as those based on sequences of the ITS1/ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA repeat and the beta-tubulin gene, were used to characterize this fungus. Its pathogenicity was assessed on various plants from which it has been collected, either in field or greenhouse trials. Phylogenetic analyses showed that isolates reside in a clade distinct from the four clades accommodating Chrysoporthe, Cryphonectria, Endothia and Rostraureum. Members of this clade are distinguished by the presence of orange conidiomatal necks with black bases and a unique internal stromatal structure. No teleomorph has been found for this fungus, for which we have provided the name Aurapex penicillata gen. sp. nov. A. penicillata produced only small lesions after inoculation on young T. urvilleana, M. theaezans and E. grandis trees and appears not to be a serious pathogen. PMID:16800308

Gryzenhout, Marieka; Myburg, Henrietta; Rodas, Carlos A; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J



Prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in north-west Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery. PMID:24053184



Individual and local level factors and antenatal care use in Colombia: a multilevel analysis.  


This paper examined the association between individual and local level factors and the number of antenatal care visits completed by women in Colombia using data from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and multilevel logistic regression models. Our findings suggest that, in addition to maternal socioeconomic status, contextual factors influence whether pregnant women complete the minimum recommended number of antenatal care visits. These factors include: level of women's autonomy in the community, regional inequalities and access barriers caused by distance (OR = 0.057), costs of services (OR = 0.035), and/or a lack of confidence in doctors (OR = 0.036). Our results highlight the existence of inequalities in access to antenatal care and the importance of considering the local context in the design of effective maternal care policies in Colombia. Furthermore, our findings regarding individual factors corroborate the evidence from other countries and offer new insights into the association between local level factors and number of antenatal care visits. PMID:24936823

Osorio, Ana Mara; Tovar, Luis Miguel; Rathmann, Katharina



Relationship between professional antenatal care and facility delivery: an assessment of Colombia.  


The determinants of maternal and child health have been the recurrent topics of study in developing countries. Using the Demographic and Health Survey (2010) of Colombia, this study aimed to identify the determinants for professional antenatal care and institutional delivery, taking into account the interdependence of these two decisions, which we consider using a bivariate probit model. This study found that when certain factors affecting both the decision to seek prenatal care and giving birth in a hospital are neglected, the results of the estimates are inefficient. Estimates show that the effects of education, parity, regional location and economic status on institutional delivery tend to be underestimated in a univariate probit model. The results indicate that economic status, level of education, parity and medical-insurance affiliation influenced the joint likelihood of accessing professional antenatal care and delivering in a health facility. An important finding is that mothers with a higher level of education are 9 percentage points more likely to access these two health services compared with mothers who are illiterate. Another observed finding is the regional disparities. The evidence indicates that mothers in the Pacific Region, the poorest region of Colombia, are 6 percentage points less likely to access such services. Thus, the results indicate that the Colombian health policy should emphasize increasing the level of schooling of mothers and establish health facilities in the poorest regions of the country to ensure that women in need are provided with social health insurance. PMID:23735737

Trujillo, Juan C; Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J



A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

Woodman, N.



19 CFR 10.3027 - Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods.  

...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. 10.3027 Section...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate, CBP...



19 CFR 10.3027 - Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. 10.3027 Section...verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate, CBP...



Researchers are investigating the response of several maize vari- eties to phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on an acid soil in the Eastern Plains of Colombia. Phosphorus and Potassium Interactions in Acid Soils of the Eastern Plains of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the acid soils of the Eastern Plains of Colombia and the tropical lowlands of Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela are high in exchangeable aluminum (Al). Aluminum saturation is often higher than 80 percent in these soils. High amounts of calcite or dolomite limestone are required to reduce the Al saturation to less than 20 percent. Phosphorus and

Luis A. Len


Conocimientos, aceptabilidad y actitudes sobre la vacuna contra el VPH en mdicos generales, gineclogos y pediatras en Colombia Knowledge, Acceptability and Attitudes Towards the HPV Vaccine among Colombian General Practitioners, Gynecologists and Pediatricians in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To survey basic knowledge of the humanpapillomavirus (HPV) among Colombian general paractitioners, gynecologists and pediatricians, as well as their attitudes, personal feelings and perceptions towards the HPV vaccine. Methods: An exploratory, qualitative study was carried out in four regions in Colombia. In each region a focus group made up of general practitioners, gynecologists and pediatricians was set up. Each

Marion Pieros; Claudia Corts; Lina Trujillo; Carolina Wiesner


Education and Language Policy in Colombia: Exploring Processes of Inclusion, Exclusion, and Stratification in Times of Global Reform Polticas educativas y lingsticas en Colombia: procesos de inclusin, exclusin y estratificacin en tiempos de reforma educativa global  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the National Bilingual Program in connection with other education and language reforms in Colombia and some of the processes of inclusion, exclusion, and stratification that accompany current school reforms. The author outlines some patterns that have accompanied language innovations in the country and highlights some interconnected processes that seem to be favored in international reform and are

Jaime A. Usma Wilches


Heat Flow Assessment From Bottom Simulating Reflectors at the Southern Colombia-Northern Ecuador Convergent Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) identified on seismic reflection profiles across sedimentary margins generally coincide with the base of the gas hydrate stability field. BSRs are controlled by temperature and pressure conditions. Therefore BSRs can be used to assess heat flow and hence the thermal regime of the margin. Multichannel seismic reflection data acquired during the SISTEUR cruise along the Ecuador-Colombia convergent margin show a distinct BSR along both strike and dip seismic lines. The BSRs locally show a negative polarity and extend to depths of 0.15 s below the seafloor (bsf) on the upper margin (~800 m of water depth) and to 0.78 s bsf at trench depths (3800 m). We assumed a purely conductive model to determine heat flow and its variation across the margin; seafloor temperature was obtained from local CTD measurements and the thermal conductivity of the sediments was extrapolated from ODP Leg112 offshore Peru. Preliminary heat flow values range between 30-40 mW/m2 along the middle and upper margin slopes, whereas heat flow increases to 60-90 mW/m2 close to the trench. The highest near-trench values appear to coincide with the subduction of the young, hot lithosphere beneath the Colombia margin, whereas lower values fit with the subduction of the older and thicker Carnegie Ridge crust beneath Ecuador. From these data, a preliminary thermal model of the Colombia convergent margin, in the area of the great 1906 subduction earthquake, is presented. The late (?) Miocene (8-14 Ma) subducting Nazca plate is considered as the main thermal source because the interpreted ophiolitic nature of the margin is believed to have negligible radiogenic heat production. The model also integrates a 7 cm/year plate convergence rate, as well as the margin geometry and structures as obtained from the new SISTEUR multichannel seismic reflection and refraction data. Temperatures at the top of the subducting plate, as determined from the thermal model, provide important constraints on the width and nature of the seismically locked rupture zone associated with the great subduction earthquakes on the margin.

Marcaillou, B.; Spence, G.; Collot, J.



Siga adelante: la vida despus del tratamiento del cncer

E-book con consejos para supervivientes de cncer e informacin sobre temas relacionados con la vida despus del tratamiento, entre ellos, la atencin mdica de seguimiento, los cambios fsicos y emocionales y los cambios en el estilo de vida.


A tertiary fold and thrust belt in the Valle del Cauca Basin, Colombian Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface geology and heophysical data, supplemented by regional structural interpretations, indicate that the Valle del Cauca basin and adjacent areas in west-central Colombia form a west-vergent, basement-involved fold and thrust belt. This belt is part of a Cenozoic orogen developed along the west side of the Romeral fault system. Structural analysis and geometrical constraints show that the Mesozoic ophiolitic basement and its Cenozoic sedimentary cover are involved in a "thick-skinned" west-vergent foreland style deformation. The rocks are transported and shortened by deeply rooted thrust faults and stacked in imbricate fashion. The faults have a NE?SW regional trend, are listric in shape, developed as splay faults which are interpreted as joining a common detachment at over 10 km depth. The faults carry Paleogene sedimentary strata and Cretaceous basement rocks westward over Miocene strata of the Valle del Cauca Basin. Fold axes trend parallel or sub parallel to the thrust faults. The folds are westwardly asymmetrical with parallel to kink geometry, and are interpreted to be fault-propagation folds stacked in an imbricate thrust system. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the Valle del Cauca basin was deformed between Oligocene and upper Miocene time. The kinematic history outlined above is consistent with an oblique convergence between the Panama and South American plates during the Cenozoic. A negative residual Bouguer anomaly of 20-70 mgls in the central part of the Valle del Cauca basin indicates that a substantial volume of low density sedimentary rocks is concealed beneath the thrust sheets exposed at the land surface. The hydrocarbon potential of the Valle del Cauca should be reevaluated in light of the structural interpretations presented in this paper.

Alfonso, C. A.; Sacks, P. E.; Secor, D. T.; Rine, J.; Perez, V.



Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 3 de enero 2013

En Estados Unidos nos bombardean con informacin sobre los exmenes de deteccin del cncer. Los comerciales radiales tratan de atraer a la gente a los centros mdicos subrayando los beneficios de los exmenes de deteccin del cncer de pulmn. Algunos grupos de defensa promueven los exmenes para el cncer de prstata o de mama. Y los medios enfatizan los beneficios de estas pruebas. Pero mucha gente no entiende la complejidad de estos procedimientos.


Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 05-25-2010

Aproximadamente 41.000 participantes en un estudio en el Reino Unido se sometieron una sola vez a una examen de deteccin en la parte inferior del colon mediante el uso de un sigmoidoscopio, un instrumento delgado en forma de tubo que se inserta a travs del recto para buscar lesiones precancerosas o cancerosas. Este dispositivo tambin tiene una herramienta para extraer plipos potencialmente precancerosos.


Como Solicitar Los Beneficios del Seguro del Desempleo Transcripcin  

E-print Network

depende en los ingresos que ha ganado en un periodo de 12 meses...esto es lo que se le llama ingresos del éste Segundo...usted puede visitar nuestro sitio de Internet y presentar su solicitud en línea O. Busque el enlace de la "Lista de Verificación" en nuestro sitio del Internet. Púlselo e imprímalo. Al


New pelomedusoid turtles from the late Palaeocene Cerrejn Formation of Colombia and their implications for phylogeny and body size evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelomedusoides comprises five moderate-sized extant genera with an entirely Southern Hemisphere distribution, but the fossil record of these turtles reveals a great diversity of extinct taxa, documents several instances of gigantism, and indicates a complex palaeobiogeographical history for the clade. Here, we report new pelomedusoid turtle fossils from the late Palaeocene Cerrejn Formation of Colombia. The most complete of these

Edwin A. Cadena; Daniel T. Ksepka; Carlos A. Jaramillo; Jonathan I. Bloch



Trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States: effects on trade, production and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computable General Equilibrium model, based on the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, is used to evaluate the impact of separate bilateral free trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States of America (USA). As the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) is to expire shortly, a number of different scenarios have been analyzed:

Jos Elas Durn Lima; Carlos J. De Miguel; Andrs R. Schuschny



Tagging along with the Urban Poor in Colombia 1973-1983. A Contribution to the Chapala Workshop 1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of an urban squatter settlement in Bogota, Colombia, and the author's experiences with its residents in the last ten years are summarized. Topics covered include the unfriendly relationship between the government and squatter settlements; the history of the relationship between the government and this particular barrio; the demography

Vasco, Carlos E.


Population, Land Use and Deforestation in the Pan Amazon Basin: a Comparison of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Per and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the linkages between population change, land use, and deforestation in the Amazon regions of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Per, and Venezuela. We begin with a brief discussion of theories of populationenvironment linkages, and then focus on the case of deforestation in the PanAmazon. The core of the paper reviews available data on deforestation, population growth, migration and

Stephen G. Perz; Carlos Arambur; Jason Bremner



Two new species of Microvelia Westwood, 1834 (Hemiptera:Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Colombia, with a key to Colombian species.  


Only six species of Microvelia have been recorded from Colombia up to the present, namely M. ancona, M. hinei, M. leucothea, M. longipes, M. panamensis, and M. pulchella. Microvelia inguapi sp. n. and M. piedrancha sp. n. are herein described and compared with similar species. An identification key to the Colombian species of Microvelia is presented. PMID:25113373

Padilla-Gil, Dora N; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo



A new species of Tomarus Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini), with a key to the species in Colombia.  


A new Tomarus Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini) species is described from western Colombia. The new species is compared with Tomarus laevicollis (Bates, 1888) from Central America. An identification key is also provided to the species occurring in the country. PMID:25283941

Lpez-Garca, Margarita M; Gasca-lvarez, Hctor J; Amat-Garca, Germn



The Role of Lexical Frequency in the Weakening of Syllable-Final /s/ in the Spanish of Barranquilla, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a quantitative analysis of /s/ in words of different lexical frequencies in a cohesive speech community. Speakers from Barranquilla, Colombia between 20-26 years of age read approximately 100 sentences, containing words with s + consonant sequences. These productions were submitted to auditory acoustical analysis; visual

File-Muriel, Richard J.



The Status of Disability in Colombia and the Importance of Parental Perceptions on the Development of Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal, idiosyncratic, geographical, and social-economic parameters are presented as a framework for understanding parental perceptions of mental retardation in Cali, Colombia. Three stages of special education development are described that define the history of the Colombian case: from a history of neglecting children with disabilities, to

Cuadros, Jose Hermann



Prevalence of Suicide Risk Factors and Suicide-Related Outcomes in the National Mental Health Study, Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A community survey in 4,426 adults was undertaken as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative reporting the prevalence and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes in Colombia. Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes were assessed. Retrospective reports of

Posada-Villa, Jose; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Cendales, Juan Gabriel; Fajardo, Roosevelt



An Educational Revolution to Support Change in the Classroom: Colombia and the Educational Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries strive to strengthen their educational institutions to meet the challenges of the economic and social demands of globalization, tension often arises between providing more access to traditional public education and reforming the quality of the education provided. With its Revolucion Educativa, Colombia offers an interesting

Light, Daniel; Manso, Micaela; Noguera, Teresa



El Proyecto Universidad Desescolarizada: A Feasibility Study of Teaching at a Distance in Colombia, S.A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plans for a nationwide system of education at a distance in Colombia, South America, are now under way to meet growing demands for higher education and to decentralize the current university system. Prior to this decision, a feasibility project was undertaken by the University of Antioquia. The project and results are reported. (Author/JMD)

James, Arthur; Arboleda, Jairo



Bases, Bullets, and Ballots: The Effect of U.S. Military Aid on Political Conflict in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does foreign military assistance strengthen or further weaken fragile states facing internal confict? We address this question by estimating how U.S. military aid affects violence and electoral participation in Colombia. We exploit the allocation of U.S. military aid to Colombian military bases, and compare how aid affects municipalities with and without bases. Using detailed political violence data, we find that

Oeindrila Dube; Suresh Naidu



El Proceso de Gobernanza de la Cadena de la Mora. Un Estudio de Caso en el Departamento de Caldas (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Mora (Rubus Glaucus Benth) es un cultivo relativamente pequeo en el contexto de la agricultura colombiana. No obstante, en la ltima dcada, se ha aumentado el rea cultivada y la productividad por hectrea en diferentes zonas de Colombia, esto debido principalmente a la implementacin de polticas pblicas y estrategias gubernamentales articuladoras, que han generado interesantes dinmicas de cooperacin y

A. I. Tobasura; P. C. Ospina



Operational fog collection and its role in environmental education and social reintegration: A case study in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental efforts with fog collection in Colombia began eight years ago, and in recent papers we have suggested the implementation of operational fog collection as an alternative to meet water requirements in rural areas of the Andes Mountain Range. Since then, an increasing number of individuals from academia and environmental organizations in the country have shown a remarkable interest on

C. M. Escobar; A. Lopez; H. F. Aristizabal; J. M. Molina



Economic Analysis about the Solid Waste Quantities and Optimal Hauling Distance to Install Transfer Stations in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to develop an economic analysis estimating the solid waste quantities and optimal hauling distance to install transfer stations in Colombia, according to landfill location. This goal is met by using a difference in differences approach (impact evaluation technique), means panel data (random effects), comparative static analysis and mathematical optimization. These methods allowed comparing

Jorge Perdomo; Juan Ramrez



Internally displaced women as knowledge producers and users in humanitarian action: the view from Colombia.  


The literature on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises commonly focuses on how inter-and non-governmental organisations can produce better knowledge and how this can be translated into improved programming. Yet, there is little recorded experience of, or concern about, how the beneficiaries of humanitarian relief can produce and use knowledge of their predicament. This paper is based on a case study of how the Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, an internally displaced women's organisation in northern Colombia, employs proactively research-generated data to advance its own agenda in its interactions with donor bodies and the government. The paper finds that beneficiaries of humanitarian aid can, and do, use participatory research to advance their own ends in the legal and political spaces created around humanitarian crisis. However, their agency is limited by poverty, violence, and local balances of power. The paper concludes that beneficiaries' priorities in the production of data about humanitarian crises warrant further study. PMID:23905766

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Lemaitre, Julieta



Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia.  


The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence for an increase in the altitude of malaria distribution in warmer years, which implies that climate change will, without mitigation, result in an increase of the malaria burden in the densely populated highlands of Africa and South America. PMID:24604201

Siraj, A S; Santos-Vega, M; Bouma, M J; Yadeta, D; Ruiz Carrascal, D; Pascual, M



Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.



Comparison of methods to obtain ash from coal of the Southwest of Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method for concentration of mineral matter at low temperature (about 250 C), called Low Temperature Ash (LTA) was applied to a sample of coal from the mine "Las Mercedes" located in Colombia southwestern. This method provides better information about the content of mineral matter in natural coal (NC), removing the organic matter more efficiently without significant transformations of mineral phases present in that coal. These results were observed through Mssbauer spectra and X-ray patterns taken from samples of NC, (LTA) and the conventional method of High Temperature Ash (HTA). The results show that the LTA process provides more representative data of the mineral phases for natural coal than that using the conventional HTA process.

Medina, G.; Tabares, J. A.; Alcazar, G. A. Prez; Barraza, J. M.



Structural and magnetic characterization of the "GASPAR" meteorite from Betitiva, Boyac, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A structural and magnetic characterization has been performed of a plate obtained from the "Gaspar" meteorite from the Oteng region of the Betitiva municipality, Boyac, Colombia. The sample was provided by Ingeominas (Colombian Geological Agency). After the studies the sample was classified as an octahedral iron meteorite, due the Fe and Ni concentrations and the Widmansttten pattern which was observed on the surface of the sample. The plate shows a crack which divides the sample in two regions (side A and B, respectively). Both sides were studied using techniques like X-rays diffraction (XRD), Mssbauer spectrometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electronic microscopy (with EDAX). On both sides an iron Fe-Ni matrix (kamacite) was found; a large quantity of carbon in the form of graphite and in two types: nodular and laminar; and different preferential orientation in both sides of the sample. The studies permit to prove that Gaspar is a fragment of the registered Santa Rosa de Viterbo meteorite.

Flor Torres, L. M.; Prez Alcazar, G. A.



Alcohol, tobacco, and other psychoactive drug use among high school students in Bogota, Colombia.  


This descriptive study identified health behaviors practiced by 10th-grade students enrolled in public schools in Bogot, Colombia. A modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey assessed the health-related behaviors of 1,730 students. In this paper data for tobacco, alcohol, and psychoactive substances use are discussed. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine statistical significance among selected behavioral risk areas and the independent variables that were nominally scaled. Data from the study revealed a high use of gateway substances (tobacco and alcohol) among high school students in Bogot, but lower usage, when compared to US students, of other mind-altering substance such as marijuana, inhalants, and cocaine. PMID:11127000

Prez, M A; Pinzon-Prez, H



Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.  

PubMed Central

The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection. PMID:8348926

Cadavid, D.; Restrepo, A.



[Malaria in the triple border region between Brazil, Colombia and Peru].  


This article aims to analyze the malaria surveillance situation on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. This was a qualitative study using questionnaires in the border towns in 2011. The results were analyzed with the SWOT matrix methodology, pointing to significant differences between the malaria surveillance systems along the border. Weaknesses included lack of linkage between actors, lack of trained personnel, high turnover in teams, and lack of malaria specialists in the local hospitals. The study also showed lack of knowledge on malaria and its prevention in the local population. The strengths are the inclusion of new institutional actors, improvement of professional training, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and possibilities for complementary action between surveillance systems through cooperation between health teams on the border. Malaria control can only be successful if the region is dealt with as a whole. PMID:24356695

Peiter, Paulo Csar; Franco, Vivian da Cruz; Gracie, Renata; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Surez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia



HIV testing among MSM in Bogot, Colombia: the role of structural and individual characteristics.  


This study used mixed methods to examine characteristics related to HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogot, Colombia. A sample of 890 MSM responded to a computerized quantitative survey. Follow-up qualitative data included 20 in-depth interviews with MSM and 12 key informant interviews. Hierarchical logistic set regression indicated that sequential sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, risk appraisal, and social context each added to the explanation of HIV testing. Follow-up logistic regression showed that individuals who were older, had higher income, paid for their own insurance, had had a sexually transmitted infection, knew more people living with HIV, and had greater social support were more likely to have been tested for HIV at least once. Qualitative findings provided details of personal and structural barriers to testing, as well as inter-relationships among these factors. Recommendations to increase HIV testing among Colombian MSM are offered. PMID:25068180

Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J; del Ro Gonzlez, Ana Maria; Romero, Rodrigo A Aguayo; Prez, Carolin



Prevalence of Leptospira spp. in urban rodents from a groceries trade center of Medellin, Colombia.  


Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis, and rats are its most common source of infection. Our goal was to determine the frequency for Leptospira infection in rodents in a farmers market in the city of Medellin. We performed a descriptive transversal study sampling 254 rodents. Rodents were bled and killed, and kidneys samples were taken. Supernatants of macerated kidneys were cultured on Fletcher medium. Microagglutination tests (MATs) with 11 serovars were also carried out in rat serum, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for pathogenic species was used to test each bacterial culture. All animals were identified as Rattus norvegicus; 25% and 20% were positive by MAT and culture, respectively. PCR tests of 12 isolates were positive for pathogenic serovars, and 4 of them were confirmed as L. interrogans by sequencing. These data show the role of this natural carrier and shedder of pathogenic leptospires in the epidemiology of urban leptospirosis in Colombia. PMID:19861630

Agudelo-Flrez, Piedad; Londoo, Andrs F; Quiroz, Vctor H; Angel, Juan C; Moreno, Natal; Loaiza, Erica T; Muoz, Luis F; Rodas, Juan D



HIV testing among MSM in Bogot?, Colombia: The role of structural and individual characteristics  

PubMed Central

This study used mixed methods to examine characteristics related to HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogot, Colombia. A sample of 890 MSM responded to a computerized quantitative survey. Follow-up qualitative data included 20 in-depth interviews with MSM and 12 key informant interviews. Hierarchical logistic set regression indicated that sequential sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, risk appraisal, and social context each added to the explanation of HIV testing. Follow-up logistic regression showed that individuals who were older, had higher income, paid for their own insurance, had had a sexually transmitted infection, knew more people living with HIV, and had greater social support were more likely to have been tested for HIV at least once. Qualitative findings provided details of personal and structural barriers to testing, as well as interrelationships among these factors. Recommendations to increase HIV testing among Colombian MSM are offered. PMID:25068180

Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.; del Rio Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Romero, Rodrigo A. Aguayo; Perez, Carolin



Se da a conocer el plan del Instituto Nacional del Cncer para acelerar la investigacin del cncer

En la 100va Reunin Anual de la Asociacin Estadounidense de Investigacin del Cncer realizada en Denver, el director del Instituto Nacional del Cncer, doctor John E. Niederhuber, dio a conocer detalles importantes, tales como financiamiento de ms subvenciones, creacin de una plataforma para atencin personalizada del cncer y un programa acelerado de gentica del cncer que har avanzar la investigacin oncolgica en este nuevo ambiente econmico.


Antioxidantes y prevencin del cncer

Hoja informativa acerca de los antioxidantes, sustancias que pueden proteger las clulas del dao causado por molculas inestables conocidas como radicales libres. El dao de los radicales libres puede resultar en cncer.


Case Study: del Amo Bioventing  

EPA Science Inventory

The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study....


Temephos Resistance in Aedes aegypti in Colombia Compromises Dengue Vector Control  

PubMed Central

Background Control and prevention of dengue relies heavily on the application of insecticides to control dengue vector mosquitoes. In Colombia, application of the larvicide temephos to the aquatic breeding sites of Aedes aegypti is a key part of the dengue control strategy. Resistance to temephos was recently detected in the dengue-endemic city of Cucuta, leading to questions about its efficacy as a control tool. Here, we characterize the underlying mechanisms and estimate the operational impact of this resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings Larval bioassays of Ae. aegypti larvae from Cucuta determined the temephos LC50 to be 0.066 ppm (95% CI 0.060.074), approximately 15 higher than the value obtained from a susceptible laboratory colony. The efficacy of the field dose of temephos at killing this resistant Cucuta population was greatly reduced, with mortality rates <80% two weeks after application and <50% after 4 weeks. Neither biochemical assays nor partial sequencing of the ace-1 gene implicated target site resistance as the primary resistance mechanism. Synergism assays and microarray analysis suggested that metabolic mechanisms were most likely responsible for the temephos resistance. Interestingly, although the greatest synergism was observed with the carboxylesterase inhibitor, DEF, the primary candidate genes from the microarray analysis, and confirmed by quantitative PCR, were cytochrome P450 oxidases, notably CYP6N12, CYP6F3 and CYP6M11. Conclusions/Significance In Colombia, resistance to temephos in Ae. aegypti compromises the duration of its effect as a vector control tool. Several candidate genes potentially responsible for metabolic resistance to temephos were identified. Given the limited number of insecticides that are approved for vector control, future chemical-based control strategies should take into account the mechanisms underlying the resistance to discern which insecticides would likely lead to the greatest control efficacy while minimizing further selection of resistant phenotypes. PMID:24069492

Grisales, Nelson; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Gomez, Santiago; Fonseca-Gonzalez, Idalyd; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey



Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are potential resources not exploitable now.

Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; Alvarez, A.



Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Background Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Results Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. Conclusion This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub-national administrative regions, and provides a reasonable alternative to more costly, information-intensive approaches. PMID:19454034

Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachon, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga



Land Cover Change in Colombia: Surprising Forest Recovery Trends between 2001 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m) products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird) in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km2) while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km2), which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. Conclusions The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Pramo) and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urab Moist forest ecoregions) should be considered for new protected areas. PMID:22952816

Sanchez-Cuervo, Ana Maria; Aide, T. Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L.; Etter, Andres



Corneal Transplantation at an Ophthalmological Referral Center in Colombia: Indications and Techniques (2004-2011)  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To analize changing trends in indications and surgical techniques of corneal transplantation at an ophthalmological tertiary referral center in Colombia over a 7 year period. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of medical records from patients who underwent corneal transplantation surgeries at Fundacin Oftalmolgica de Santander (FOSCAL) in Bucaramanga, Colombia, between August 2004 and August 2011. Results: During this period from a total of 450 corneal transplants performed, we had access to 402 medical records (89.4%). The patients mean age was 55. Leading indications were: pseudophakic/aphakic bullous kerathopathy (PBK/ABK) (34.6%), corneal scar (15.7%), active infectious keratitis (14.4%) and keratoconus (12.7%). During the first period (2004-2007) PBK/ABK was the leading indication, followed by stromal opacities and keratoconus. During the second period (2008-2011) PBK/ABK remained the leading indication. Infectious keratitis, however, became the second most common indication. Stromal opacities and keratoconus, moved to third and fourth, respectively. All transplants performed in the first period (2004-2007) were penetrating keratoplasties. In the second period (2008-2011) 18.7% of the procedures were performed using the Descemets stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty technique (DSAEK). Conclusions: Similar to other international results, PBK/ABK was the leading indication for corneal transplantation at our institution. Keratoconus is becoming a less common indication for keratoplasty in our institution. Infectious keratitis remains a frequent indication for corneal transplantation in this geographical area. In our institution we started performing DSAEK in 2009, and it is emerging as the procedure of choice in corneal diseases that involve only the endothelial layers. PMID:23898357

Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Gomez, Augusto Jos; Rangel, Carlos Mario; Prada, Anglica Mara; Camacho, Paul Anthony



Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem supportthe ecological footprintthat is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the countrys total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils



[Vertical stratification of epiphytic bryophytes found on Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae) from boyac, Colombia].  


Oak forest represents an ecologically important plant formation in Colombia, partly due to the large amount of epiphyte flora that harbors, especially non-vascular plants which have been poorly studied in Colombia. One of the biggest oak forests in the country is the one found in the Parque Natural Municipal "Robledales de Tipacoque" (PNMRT), in Boyac, municipality of Tipacoque. The epiphyte bryoflora was evaluated in Q. humboldtii, using canopy climbing techniques and dividing the trees (25 individuals sampled) each into five layers (base, trunk, inner canopy, middle and outer canopy). A total of 365 samples were collected: 29% liveworts and 71% mosses. Hepatics represented 10 families, 16 genera and 26 species; mosses 11 families, 26 genera and 49 species. Considering the tree layers, the most diverse one was the base with 51 species, followed by the trunk with 43; in the canopy, the inner canopy was found the most diverse with 28 species, and was followed by the middle canopy with 18, and the outer canopy with 15. A species similarity index shows that the trunk and the middle canopy were the most closely related (0.42) in terms of species composition. The results showed that non-vascular plants were mostly found in lower layers (base and trunk), where the diversity was greater, richer (species number), and this might be caused by the microclimatic conditions in these places, such as higher humidity, lower light intensity and shade. Thus, some species are considered shade epiphytes (ombrophiles) because they are unique to these areas, like Bazzania gracilis and Taxilejeunea pterigonia, among others. Likewise, Jungermannia sp. is considered a sun epiphyte (heliophilous) because it is found only in the outer canopy. We concluded that Q. humboldtii could be considered as a potential host for the conservation of non-vascular epiphytes in Colombian forests. PMID:25102653

Gil Novoa, Jorge Enrique; Morales Puentes, Mara Eugenia



Estimating HIV incidence from case-report data: method and an application in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Quantifying HIV incidence is essential for tracking epidemics but doing this in concentrated epidemic can be a particular challenge because of limited consistent high-quality data about the size, behaviour and prevalence of HIV among key populations. Here, we examine a method for estimating HIV incidence from routinely collected case-reporting data. Methods: A flexible model of HIV infection, diagnosis and survival is constructed and fit to time-series data on the number of reported cases in a Bayesian framework. The time trend in the hazard of infection is specified by a penalized B-spline. We examine the performance of the model by applying it to synthetic data and determining whether the method is capable of recovering the input incidence trend. We then apply the method to real data from Colombia and compare our estimates of incidence with those that have been derived using alternative methods. Results: The method can feasibly be applied and it successfully recovered a range of incidence trajectories in synthetic data experiments. However, estimates for incidence in the recent past are highly uncertain. When applied to data from Colombia, a credible trajectory of incidence is generated which indicates a much lower historic level of HIV incidence than has previously been estimated using other methods. Conclusion: It is feasible, though not satisfactory, to estimate incidence using case-report data in settings with good data availability. Future work should examine the impact on missing or biased data, the utility of alternative formulations of flexible functions specifying incidence trends, and the benefit of also including data on deaths and programme indicators such as the numbers receiving antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25406752

Vesga, Juan Fernando; Cori, Anne; van Sighem, Ard; Hallett, Timothy B.



Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14. director del Instituto Nacional del Cncer

Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prest juramento hoy como 14. director del Instituto Nacional del Cncer (NCI). "Es muy estimulante que ests de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos Kathleen Sebelius en la ceremonia de toma de juramento. Hoy se abre un nuevo captulo para el Instituto Nacional del Cncer.


VIII Encuentro Nacional de Teatro del CLETA  

E-print Network

popular de las "calaveras," poemitas satricos que se circulan en Mxico por motivo del da dos de noviembre, "Da de los Muertos," destacaron esa noche las "calaas" originales del Llanero Solitito; por ejemplo, la siguiente a propsito del actual... contribuir al fortalecimiento de organizaciones polticas y sociales que contribuyan a la destruccin del sistema de explotacin del hombre por el hombre." Durante los diez das que dur el VIII Encuentro, hubo presentaciones tanto en foros cerrados como...

Frischmann, Donald H.



Factores predictores de conductas promotoras de salud en mujeres peri- post-menopusicas de Cali, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

(64.3%), relaciones interpersonales (60.7%), manejo del estrs (57.9%), nutricin (57.3%), responsabilidad en salud (54.9%) y la ms baja fue actividad fsica (49%). El modelo de regresin mltiple, mostr 7 factores que predijeron 37.1% de la variabilidad en las CPS: percepcin del estado de salud (R 2 =21%, p<0.0001); auto-eficacia (R 2 =20.5%, p<0.0001); educacin formal (R 2 =8.3%, p<0.0001); autonoma




Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 29 de marzo de 2011

Los artculos originales en ingls se encuentran disponibles en las pginas del NCI Cancer Bulletin. El Boletn es una publicacin del Instituto Nacional del Cncer (NCI), una entidad gubernamental de los Estados Unidos creada en 1937.


Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 21 de junio de 2011

Los artculos originales en ingls se encuentran disponibles en las pginas del NCI Cancer Bulletin. El Boletn es una publicacin del Instituto Nacional del Cncer (NCI), una entidad gubernamental de los Estados Unidos creada en 1937.


Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 28 de febrero de 2012

Los artculos originales en ingls estn disponibles en las pginas del NCI Cancer Bulletin. El Boletn es una publicacin del Instituto Nacional del Cncer (NCI), una entidad gubernamental de los Estados Unidos creada en 1937.


en el mundo Trasplante del arroz en Madagascar  

E-print Network

Ciencias y Tecnologías del Agua » con la ayuda del Ministerio de Asuntos Extranjeros. África del Norte y internacional MERGUSIE, dedicado al manejo integral del agua en la cuenca vertiente del Merguellil. De éste han tecnologías del agua » del Nepad Los lazos entre el Instituto y el NEPAD (The New Partnership for Africa


Assessing socioeconomic vulnerability to dengue fever in Cali, Colombia: statistical vs expert-based modeling  

PubMed Central

Background As a result of changes in climatic conditions and greater resistance to insecticides, many regions across the globe, including Colombia, have been facing a resurgence of vector-borne diseases, and dengue fever in particular. Timely information on both (1) the spatial distribution of the disease, and (2) prevailing vulnerabilities of the population are needed to adequately plan targeted preventive intervention. We propose a methodology for the spatial assessment of current socioeconomic vulnerabilities to dengue fever in Cali, a tropical urban environment of Colombia. Methods Based on a set of socioeconomic and demographic indicators derived from census data and ancillary geospatial datasets, we develop a spatial approach for both expert-based and purely statistical-based modeling of current vulnerability levels across 340 neighborhoods of the city using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results of both approaches are comparatively evaluated by means of spatial statistics. A web-based approach is proposed to facilitate the visualization and the dissemination of the output vulnerability index to the community. Results The statistical and the expert-based modeling approach exhibit a high concordance, globally, and spatially. The expert-based approach indicates a slightly higher vulnerability mean (0.53) and vulnerability median (0.56) across all neighborhoods, compared to the purely statistical approach (mean?=?0.48; median?=?0.49). Both approaches reveal that high values of vulnerability tend to cluster in the eastern, north-eastern, and western part of the city. These are poor neighborhoods with high percentages of young (i.e., < 15years) and illiterate residents, as well as a high proportion of individuals being either unemployed or doing housework. Conclusions Both modeling approaches reveal similar outputs, indicating that in the absence of local expertise, statistical approaches could be used, with caution. By decomposing identified vulnerability hotspots into their underlying factors, our approach provides valuable information on both (1) the location of neighborhoods, and (2) vulnerability factors that should be given priority in the context of targeted intervention strategies. The results support decision makers to allocate resources in a manner that may reduce existing susceptibilities and strengthen resilience, and thus help to reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases. PMID:23945265



Two lightning flashes correlated with detected terrestrial gamma-ray flashes: The UPC Colombia TGF Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TGFs are intense bursts of gamma rays originated in Earth observed from space. These emissions have been correlated with lightning and thunderstorms (e.g. Cummer et al. 2005). Moreover, there is a clear correlation between lightning and TGF activity being both greater in the tropics, probably the occurrence of TGF in these areas can be related to the tropopause height (Smith et al. 2010). The AGILE satellite of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) have detected TGFs events up to 100 MeV (Tavani et al. 2011), confirming that this is the most energetic radiation on Earth. This satellite operates in the +-2.5 latitude belt over Equator. One of the interesting results (Fuschino et al. 2011) is that the TGFs/lightning occurrence ratio is different depending on the Earth region, being greater over South America. In the framework of the future ASIM mission a campaign is conducted in the south of Colombia in order to measure VLF magnetic fields related with TGF parent lightning. A single LINET sensor was installed in October 2012 in the region of coverage of AGILE. Additional lightning data information is provided by the existing LINET network in Colombia. Since the setup of the sensor, two AGILE TGFs events have occurred near the LINET sensor. The first one occurred in November 23rd 2012. The sub-satellite point was located 1400 km away from the LINET sensor. A VLF signal was detected within 2.5 ms, which is in agreement with other publications. The second TGF event occurred in November 19th where the sub-satellite point was 260 km away from the LINET sensor. Although this event was very close to the sensor the VLF signal detected occurred 170 ms delayed from the TGF. Because of the time differences between the TGF and VLF lightning signals, the first case appears related to the return stroke whereas the second would be related to a leader process. By using VLF signals from the double loop antenna, the direction of the received signal can be retrieved. Correlating this information with GOES satellite images it is possible to deduce the most probably active thunderstorm where the event happened. The first results suggest that the two cases reported here occurred during the developing phase of the associated thunderstorms.

Fabr, Ferran; Montany, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Marisaldi, Martino; Betz, Hans-Dieter



Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Background: Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable mortality. The prevalence of smoking in adolescents in high schools ranges from 23.5% to 41%, respectively. In Colombia, these figures are similar and students entering the University are exposed to initiate smoking. The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants associated with the initiation of tobacco smoking among university students. Methods: A casecontrol paired by sex and age study design was used. The study population was the students of a private university of Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia. The final sample consisted of 167 cases and 314 controls randomly select undergraduate university students. Data analysis was performed using a Logistic regression model adjusted by gender and age; using the initiation of tobacco smoking as the dependent variable, and as independent variables relationship with parents, history of parental smoking, university social environment, being away from hometown, steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smokes, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and Francis Score. Results: The social environment (odds ratio [OR]: 32.70, 7.40-144.55), being away from hometown (OR: 3.06, 1.55-6.07), history of steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smoke (OR: 2.87, 1.43-5.76), a bad relationship with the father (OR: 8.01, 2.01-31.83), history of tobacco consumption of the mother (OR: 2.66, 1.37-5.17) and alcohol consumption (OR: 4.79, 1.91-12.00) appeared as determinants of initiation of tobacco smoking. As protector factors we found media advertisement (OR: 0.19, 0.05-0.71), light physical activity 2-3 times a week (OR: 0.33, 0.12-0.88), and a high result in Francis score (OR: 0.95, 0.919-0.99). Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco. PMID:25317292

Afanador, Laura del Pilar Cadena; Radi, Daniel Sebastin Salazar; Pinto, Luis Enrique Vsquez; Pinzn, Cristian Eduardo Prez; Carreo, Manuel Felipe Castro



Sexual and Reproductive Health for Young Adults in Colombia: Teleconsultation Using Mobile Devices  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual risk behaviors associated with poor information on sexuality have contributed to major public health problems in the area of sexual and reproductive health in teenagers and young adults in Colombia. Objective To report our experience with the use of DoctorChat Mobile to provide sexual education and information among university students in Bogota, Colombia, and knowledge about the sexual risk factors detected among them. Methods A mobile app that allows patients to ask about sexual and reproductive health issues was developed. Sexual and reproductive risk behaviors in a sample of young adults were measured before and after the use of the app through the validated survey Family Health International (FHI) Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS) for Use With Adults Between 15 and 49 Years. A nonprobabilistic convenience recruitment was undertaken through the studys webpage. After completing the first survey, participants were allowed to download and use the app for a 6-month period (intervention), followed by completion of the same survey once again. For the inferential analysis, data was divided into 3 groups (dichotomous data, discrete quantitative data, and ordinal data) to compare the results of the questions between the first and the second survey. The study was carried out with a sample of university students between 18 and 29 years with access to mobile phones. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous. Results A total of 257 subjects met the selection criteria. The preintervention survey was answered by 232 subjects, and 127 of them fully answered the postintervention survey. In total, 54.3% (69/127) of the subjects completed the survey but did not use the app, leaving an effective population of 58 subjects for analysis. Of these subjects, 53% (31/58) were women and 47% (27/58) were men. The mean age was 21 years, ranging between 18 and 29 years. The differences between the answers from both surveys were not statistically significant. The main sexual risk behaviors identified in the population were homosexual intercourse, nonuse of condoms, sexual intercourse with nonregular and commercial partners, the use of psychoactive substances, and lack of knowledge on symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV transmission. Conclusions Although there were no differences between the pre- and postintervention results, the study revealed different risk behaviors among the participating subjects. These findings highlight the importance of promoting high-impact educational strategies on this matter and the importance of providing teenagers and young adults with easily accessible tools with reliable health information, regardless of their socioeconomic status. PMID:25263432

Ramirez, Daniel Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Saenz, Juan Pablo; Trujillo, Stephanie; Correal, Dario Ernesto; Fajardo, Roosevelt; Dominguez, Cristina



Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Methods Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Results Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active engagement of survivors in available, quality services. Such efforts may facilitate achievement of the goals of new Colombian laws, which seek to prevent and respond to GBV, including in conflict settings. Ongoing conflict and generalized GBV in displacement, as well as among the wider population, suggests a need to create sustainable solutions that are accessible to both IDPs and general populations. PMID:25076981



Assessing Voters' Attitudes towards Electronic Voting in Latin America: Evidence from Colombia's 2007 E-Voting Pilot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic voting could increase citizens electoral participation and trust in countries characterized by fragile democratic institutions and public discredit of the political system such as those in Latin America. This paper examines attitudes towards e-voting among participants in a large scale pilot project conducted in Colombia in 2007, focusing on the perceived reliability and usability of different automated voting technologies. Using a multivariate probit model, we determine the effect of socio-demographic, geographic and technical factors on users evaluations of electronic voting vis a vis the traditional paper ballot system. Our results show that users find e-voting not only easier than the current voting system, but also substantially more reliable. While voters opinions on usability are driven by technical issues, their trust in the new technologies is strongly affected by individual characteristics. We conclude that e-voting entails a promising opportunity to empower voters and increase confidence in elections in Colombia.

Alvarez, R. Michael; Katz, Gabriel; Llamosa, Ricardo; Martinez, Hugo E.


Polystomoides magdalenensis n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Polystomatidae), a parasite of buccal cavity of Trachemys callirostris callirostris (Testudinata: Emydidae) from Colombia.  


Polystomoides magdalenensis n. sp. is described from the buccal cavity of the Colombian slider Trachemys callirostris callirostris (Gray, 1856) in the middle of Magdalena River drainage, Colombia. The new species is characterized by a combination of traits, i.e., 29-35 genital spines, outer and inner hamuli length (123-150 and 54-63, respectively), testis size (261.4-554.5 x 388.2-768.4), marginal hook lengths (45-51), and pharynx length (150-333), as well as testis length/oral sucker length, testis length/pharynx length, and testis width/pharynx width ratios. This is the first species described from turtles in Colombia and the fifth reported in chelonians from South America. PMID:20049992

Lenis, Carolina; Garca-Prieto, Luis



Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 12-08-2009

El Instituto Nacional del Cncer (NCI) recientemente puso a disposicin carteles y broches de promocin en espaol para aumentar la concientizacin sobre los estudios clnicos. Se pretende que los instrumentos animen la conversacin con pacientes de cncer que pudieran estar interesados en participar en un estudio clnico.


modelado y analisis del transporte del herbicida glifosato en una ...  

E-print Network

tools for the study of water and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone. This paper presents ... Tests were designed to. characterize the ... laboratory and field data. RESUMEN ..... donde t1 2/ es la vida-mitad (half-life) del contaminante. El parmetro t1 2/ .... En Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44, 892-898.

(Tom N. Jagatic)



E-print Network

de sexo y la forma en que esto afecta las actividades colaborativas. En el presente trabajo se describen los resultados de un experimento desarrollado con el fin de establecer que la diferencia de sexo]. Varios estudios también han demostrado que las diferencias de sexo en el uso del computador están

Guerrero, Luis


Mtodo de determinacin del origen geogrfico del polen apcola comercial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinco muestras de marcas de polen apcola, que son frecuentes en el comercio regional, han sido estudiadas y su composicin po- lnica analizada mediante diferentes tcnicas con el objetivo de conocer su origen geogrfico. Se han usado tres mtodos que pueden con- siderarse complementarios: los valores porcentuales del anlisis de polen por microscopa ptica, el anlisis colorimtrico y el estudio

Pilar de S-Otero; Silvia Marcial-Bugarn; Sandra Armesto-Baztn; Emilia Daz-Losada



Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 04-27-2010

Cada vez es ms evidente que los esfuerzos mundiales de salud de mayor xito dependen no solo del aporte de las mentes ms brillantes, sino de la colaboracin entre ellas para marcar la diferencia en el escenario global. Este enfoque es el motor impulsor detrs de una asociacin excepcional con el NCI, financiada en parte por Susan G.


Boletn del Instituto Nacional del Cncer - 01-05-2010

Al caminar por los pasillos del nuevo centro oncolgico integral en la sede de Ciencias Mdicas de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (UPR) en San Juan, uno debe mantener los ojos abiertos. La mujer que pasa caminando vigorosamente podra ser la doctora Marcia Roxana Cruz-Correa, y no debe uno perderse la oportunidad de conocerla.


The Role of Non-Formal Education in Rural Development: A 10-year Case Study of the Cauca River Valley, Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details several agricultural and health development programs initiated during the past decade in the Cauca Valley in Colombia. Introduced through nonformal educational strategies making use of media, these programs have had mixed results. (LLS)

Garcia, Alvardo Pedrosa



Population Genetics Study of Anopheles Darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The genetic variation and population structure of three populations of Anopheles darlingi from Colombia were studied using random amplified polymorphic markers (RAPDs) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLPs). Six RAPD primers produced 4...

F. Garcia, G. Gallego, M. F. Suarez, R. Gonzalez, R. Wilkerson



Residues of organochlorines in mallards and blue-winged teal collected in Colombia and Wisconsin, 19841989  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the seasonal concentrations of 12 organochlorine (OC) compounds in samples of breast muscle, associated skin, and subcutaneous fat of blue-winged teal (Anas discors) collected in Cinaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia (19871988), and of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and blue-winged teal collected in Wisconsin (19841989). Although these species have similar feeding habits and overlapping breeding distributions, their winter ranges

J. E. Botero; M. W. Meyer; S. S. Hurley; D. H. Rusch



Multi-disciplinary evidence of the Holocene history of a cultivated floodplain area in the wetlands of northern Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

. An environmental reconstruction of the last 10,000 14C years of a frequently flooded wetland ecosystem in the lower Magdalena valley in northern Colombia is presented, on the\\u000a basis of a multi-disciplinary study of the sediments of the upper 15 m of the core from Boquillas (7433'E, 97'N; 20 m a.\\u000a s. l.). We used the following studies: pollen, lithology,

Juan Carlos Berro; Arnoud Boom; Pedro Jos Botero; Luisa Fernanda Herrera; Henry Hooghiemstra; Freddy Romero; Gustavo Sarmiento



Do Latin American Central Bankers Behave NonLinearly?: The Experiences of Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This papers estimates unrestricted monetary reaction functions for four Latin American countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico) and tests for the presence of non-linear effects in central bank behaviour. The analysis covers the post-1999 inflation-targeting period. We deal with the presence of unit roots in the data by estimating the policy rules in a co-integration setting. We test for linear

Luiz de Mello; Diego Moccero; Matteo Mogliani



Distribution of Mercury in Several Environmental Compartments in an Aquatic Ecosystem Impacted by Gold Mining in Northern Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) used in gold amalgamation is a major source of contamination in developing countries. Water, sediments, plankton,\\u000a fish, and human samples from Grande Marsh, a Hg-polluted marsh located in the south of Bolvar, municipality of Montecristo,\\u000a Colombia, were collected during both the rainy and the dry seasons (20032006), at three different sampling sites, and analyzed\\u000a for total Hg (T-Hg)

Jose Marrugo-Negrete; Luis Norberto Benitez; Jess Olivero-Verbel



Ethical and economic considerations of rare diseases in ethnic minorities: the case of mucopolysaccharidosis VI in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder associated with severe disability and premature death. The presence of a mucopolysaccharidosis-like disease in indigenous ethnic groups in Colombia can be inferred from archaeological findings. There are several indigenous patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VI currently receiving enzyme replacement therapy. We discuss the ethical and economic considerations, regarding both direct and indirect costs, of a high-cost orphan disease in a marginalised minority population in a developing country. PMID:22550061

Rueda, Juan-David; Solano, Martha



Modelling official and parallel exchange rates in Colombia under alternative regimes: a non-linear approach (Corrected version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the long-run relationship between the parallel and the official exchange rate in Colombia over two regimes; a crawling peg period and a more flexible crawling band one. The short-run adjustment process of the parallel rate is examined both in a linear and a non-linear context. We find that the change from the crawling peg to the crawling band

Jesus Otero; Costas Milas



Balancing Public Relations with Socioeconomic and Political Environments in Transition: Comparative, Contextualized Research in Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comparative, contextualized research conducted between 2003 and 2004 summarizes and discusses the impact of the socioeconomic and political environments on the practice of public relations in Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. Sixty-one in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with top-level professionals in the capital and main commercial cities in these three countries where the profession thrives but is also challenged. The

Juan-Carlos Molleda; ngeles Moreno



The quest for equity in Latin America: a comparative analysis of the health care reforms in Brazil and Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brazil and Colombia have pursued extensive reforms of their health care systems in the last couple of decades. The purported goals of such reforms were to improve access, increase efficiency and reduce health inequities. Notwithstanding their common goals, each country sought a very different pathway to achieve them. While Brazil attempted to reestablish a greater level of State control through a public national health system, Colombia embraced market competition under an employer-based social insurance scheme. This work thus aims to shed some light onto why they pursued divergent strategies and what that has meant in terms of health outcomes. Methods A critical review of the literature concerning equity frameworks, as well as the health care reforms in Brazil and Colombia was conducted. Then, the shortfall inequality values of crude mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and life expectancy for the period 1960-2005 were calculated for both countries. Subsequently, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed and controlled for possibly confounding factors. Results When controlling for the underlying historical time trend, both countries appear to have experienced a deceleration of the pace of improvements in the years following the reforms, for all the variables analyzed. In the case of Colombia, some of the previous gains in under-five mortality rate and crude mortality rate were, in fact, reversed. Conclusions Neither reform seems to have had a decisive positive impact on the health outcomes analyzed for the defined time period of this research. This, in turn, may be a consequence of both internal characteristics of the respective reforms and external factors beyond the direct control of health reformers. Among the internal characteristics: underfunding, unbridled decentralization and inequitable access to care seem to have been the main constraints. Conversely, international economic adversities, high levels of rural and urban violence, along with entrenched income inequalities seem to have accounted for the highest burden among external factors. PMID:22296659



Role of Litter Turnover in Soil Quality in Tropical Degraded Lands of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Land degradation is the result of soil mismanagement that reduces soil productivity and environmental services. An alternative to improve degraded soils through reactivation of biogeochemical nutrient cycles (via litter production and decomposition) is the establishment of active restoration models using new forestry plantations, agroforestry, and silvopastoral systems. On the other hand, passive models of restoration consist of promoting natural successional processes with native plants. The objective in this review is to discuss the role of litter production and decomposition as a key strategy to reactivate biogeochemical nutrient cycles and thus improve soil quality in degraded land of the tropics. For this purpose the results of different projects of land restoration in Colombia are presented based on the dynamics of litter production, nutrient content, and decomposition. The results indicate that in only 613 years it is possible to detect soil properties improvements due to litter fall and decomposition. Despite that, low soil nutrient availability, particularly of N and P, seems to be major constraint to reclamation of these fragile ecosystems. PMID:24696656

Leon, Juan D.; Osorio, Nelson W.



Equitable financing, out-of-pocket payments and the role of health care reform in Colombia.  


For a health care system to be considered equitable in its financing, the financial burden of contributions has to be progressive or at least proportional. Out-of-pocket financing takes a larger proportion of poor than of non-poor households' income. To remedy this regressive burden, among other goals, Colombia launched a health care reform based on social insurance as a means to reduce health care financing through out-of-pocket payments, and to reduce financial barriers to access. This paper analyzes the evolution of regressivity in out-of-pocket financing from 1984 to 1997, in order to detect if the 1993 health care reform had an impact on such regressivity. The Kakwani index of progressivity was estimated using three national household surveys. Kakwani indices showed a constant trend towards more regressivity (-0.126 in 1984, to -0.3498 in 1997) when using income to build the index, but a trend towards progressivity (-0.0092 in 1984, to 0.0026 in 1997) when using expenses. Our findings suggest that there was a progressive impact of the reform on out-of-pocket financing when household expenses are used to build the Kakwani index; however, due to issues of comparability between surveys, the findings are not conclusive. PMID:12477736

Castano, Ramon A; Arbelaez, Jose J; Giedion, Ursula B; Morales, Luis G



Reducing violence by transforming neighborhoods: a natural experiment in Medelln, Colombia.  


Neighborhood-level interventions provide an opportunity to better understand the impact that neighborhoods have on health. In 2004, municipal authorities in Medelln, Colombia, built a public transit system to connect isolated low-income neighborhoods to the city's urban center. Transit-oriented development was accompanied by municipal investment in neighborhood infrastructure. In this study, the authors examined the effects of this exogenous change in the built environment on violence. Neighborhood conditions and violence were assessed in intervention neighborhoods (n = 25) and comparable control neighborhoods (n = 23) before (2003) and after (2008) completion of the transit project, using a longitudinal sample of 466 residents and homicide records from the Office of the Public Prosecutor. Baseline differences between these groups were of the same magnitude as random assignment of neighborhoods would have generated, and differences that remained after propensity score matching closely resembled imbalances produced by paired randomization. Permutation tests were used to estimate differential change in the outcomes of interest in intervention neighborhoods versus control neighborhoods. The decline in the homicide rate was 66% greater in intervention neighborhoods than in control neighborhoods (rate ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.61), and resident reports of violence decreased 75% more in intervention neighborhoods (odds ratio = 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.11, 0.67). These results show that interventions in neighborhood physical infrastructure can reduce violence. PMID:22472117

Cerd, Magdalena; Morenoff, Jeffrey D; Hansen, Ben B; Tessari Hicks, Kimberly J; Duque, Luis F; Restrepo, Alexandra; Diez-Roux, Ana V



Out-of-pocket expenditures and coping strategies for people living with HIV: Bogot, Colombia, 2009.  


Our objective was to estimate the out-of-pocket expenditure related to medical and non-medical items on health care covered by individuals or household members, and to describe coping strategies they use to meet the financial burden. We undertook a cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of 540 adults with HIV living in urban areas of Bogot, Colombia. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done. We found that although 95% of the patients with HIV in the sample had health insurance, individuals and families spent about 13% of their incomes on medical and non-medical items monthly. Those costs increased for patients taking the second or third antiretroviral drug (ARV) treatment scheme and for patients with AIDS-related physical disabilities. We found statistically significant differences in spending among different insurance plans and socioeconomic status (SES; p?0.05). As a result of the high out-of-pocket expenses, households had to alter their budgets, reducing consumption of basic needs and modifying financial and social family dynamics. Those coping strategies might increase both current and structural poverty. Lack of comprehensive health care increases the economic burden for patients, in terms of financial but also social impact. PMID:21749222

Lopera, Mnica M; Einarson, Thomas R; Ivn Bula, Jorge



Amatoxin and phallotoxin composition in species of the genus Amanita in Colombia: a taxonomic perspective.  


Some species in the genus Amanita have a great variety of toxic secondary metabolites. They are characterized macroscopically by having a white spore print and free gills, and microscopically by the presence of a divergent hymenophoral trama. Some species of Amanita present in Colombia were chemically characterized by analyzing their toxin composition using HPLC. Samples were collected in oak (Quercus humboldtii) and pine (Pinus radiata) forests. Twelve species were recovered, Amanita fuligineodisca, Amanita xylinivolva, Amanita flavoconia, Amanita rubescens, Amanita bisporigera, Amanita muscaria, Amanita humboldtii, Amanita sororcula, Amanita brunneolocularis, Amanita colombiana, Amanita citrina, Amanita porphyria as well as two unreported species. Results showed that most of the analyzed species have ? -amanitin in concentrations ranging from 50 ppm to 6000 ppm. Concentrations of ?-amanitin in the pileus were significantly greater than in the stipe. Phalloidin and phallacidin were only present in A. bisporigera. Chromatographic profiles are proposed as an additional taxonomic tool since specific peaks with similar retention times were conserved at the species level. PMID:21945592

Vargas, N; Bernal, A; Sarria, V; Franco-Molano, A; Restrepo, S



Relationship between fumarole gas composition and eruptive activity at Galeras Volcano, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

Forecasting volcanic eruptions is critical to the mitigation of hazards for the millions of people living dangerously close to active volcanoes. Volcanic gases collected over five years from Galeras Volcano, Colombia, and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition show the effects of long-term degassing of the magma body and a gradual decline in sulfur content of the gases. In contrast, short-term (weeks), sharp variations are the precursors to explosive eruptions. Selective absorption of magmatic SO{sub 2} and HCl due to interaction with low-temperature geothermal waters allows the gas emissions to become dominated by CO{sub 2}. Absorption appears to precede an eruption because magmatic volatiles are slowed or retained by a sealing carapace, reducing the total flux of volatiles and allowing the hydrothermal volatiles to dominate gas emissions. Temporal changes in gas compositions were correlated with eruptive activity and provide new evidence bearing on the mechanism of this type of `pneumatic` explosive eruptions. 18 refs., 5 figs.

Fischer, T.P.; Williams, S.N. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Arehart, G.B.; Sturchio, N.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)



Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reactionSouthern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

Ferro, Cristina; Marin, Dairo; Gongora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, Maria C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marin, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Perez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.



Analysis, characterization and identification of the Meta fault (Colombia) from the distribution of resistivities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were performed between the Vichada and Casanare states in eastern Colombia, with Schlumberger arrays using maximum aperture AB = 600 m and 1 m < MN < 150 m in a region whose average elevation was 75m. Each of the eleven profiles was composed of three VES (on average), the separation between VES and the average distance between points were 417m and 6.25 km respectively; and acquisitions were carried out in late 2011 and early 2012. Resistivity values were estimated in the range of 100 ?m to 10.000 ?m. The apparent resistivity data were processed using the software IPI2Win, and profiles modeled possible layers with a maximum depth of research of 200 m. To the north of the study area the presence of high resistivity values (5000?m - 10000?m) is calculated, compared to those found south of the area (<3000 ? m), these changes in resistivity are associated to changes in lithology between the north and south sections of the study area, which could be associated with the presence of a fault (the Meta fault), which has acted as a tectonic boundary. Map and Volume resistivity in the area of interest (Vichada-Casanare states), the abrupt change in resistivity is observed in the Meta fault (white line).

Alvarado, H.; Martinez L, A.



Geometry of the Subducting Nazca Plate Beneath Colombia From Relocation of Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subduction zones, earthquakes help distinguish the location of the downgoing slab to hundreds of kilometers depth. However, beneath northwestern South America, the distribution of large intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Global CMT catalog has gaps along the subduction zone, so the position of the subducting Nazca plate is uncertain. In addition, the earthquake focal mechanisms, which range from along-strike compression to down-dip extension, vary over short distances, suggesting that the subducting slab may have a complicated morphology. To clarify the geometry of the subducting Nazca plate beneath Colombia, we relocate regional seismicity recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network (RSNC). Our data set contains 1231 earthquakes with catalog locations from 0N-6N and 72W-81W at depths of 0-200 km and magnitudes from M2.5-6.5 that occurred between 1/2010-2/2013. Catalog hypocenters show an ~20 km thick slab subducting to the east, as well as vertical columns extending up from the slab. The shape, thickness, and position of the slab and other features can be refined by using differential travel times to relocate the earthquakes relative to each other. We verify and adjust the network P and S wave picks and pick arrivals at additional or temporary stations, and these arrival times are used to relocate the earthquakes. The hypocenters of the relocated earthquakes are used to generate 3D contours of the subducting plate and visualize bends and folds in the slab.

Chang, Y.; Warren, L. M.; Prieto, G. A.; Grigsby, I.



Wind and Solar Energy Potential Assessment for Development of Renewables Energies Applications in Bucaramanga, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the trend of micro-grids and small-scale renewable generation systems implementation in urban environments requires to have historical and detailed information about the energy potential resource in site. In Colombia, this information is limited and do not favor the design of these applications; for this reason, must be made detailed studies of the energy potential in their cities. In this paper is presented the wind and solar energy resource assessment for the city of Bucaramanga, based on the monitoring on four strategic points during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. According to the analysis, is evidenced a significant solar resource throughout the year ascending on average to 1 734 kWh/m2, equivalent to 4.8 kWh/m2/day. Also, from a wind statistical study based on the Weibull probability distribution and Wind Power Density (WPD) was established the wind potential as Class 1 according to the scale of the Department of Energy of the United States (DOE), since the average speed is near 1.4 m/s. Due this, it is technically unfeasible the using of micro-turbines in the city, even so their potential for natural ventilation of building was analyzed. Finally, is presented a methodology to analyze solar harvesting by sectors in the city, according to the solar motion and shadowing caused by existing structures.

Ordez, G.; Osma, G.; Vergara, P.; Rey, J.



[Pharmacologic and enzymatic effects of snake venoms from Antioquia and Choco (Colombia)].  


We compared several pharmacological and enzymatic effects induced by 11 snake venoms from seven species, six of them from different geographic areas of Antioquia and Choco, north-west of Colombia, South America (Bothrops atrox, B. nasutus, B. schlegelii, B. punctatus, Lachesis muta, Micrurus mipartitus), and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, from specimens captured in other provinces of the country (Tolima, Huila, Meta and Atlantico). Differences were observed in edema-forming, hemorrhage, defibrination, indirect hemolysis, myonecrosis, proteolysis and lethal activity between venoms from different genera or species, as well as according to the geographic area of origin in B. atrox and B. nasutus snake venoms. Bothrops venoms, in particular B. atrox and L. muta, produced major local effects. All of the venoms, including M. mipartitus, had myotoxic effects. The most defibrinating venoms were B. atrox, L. muta, B. punctatus and C. d. terrificus. All of the venoms had indirect hemolytic activity; the venom of M. mipartitus being greatest. The most lethal venoms were those of C. d. terrificus and M. mipartitus. Within Bothrops species, the venom of B. schlegelii was the least active in terms of local and systemic pathologic effects. PMID:1519252

Otero, R; Guillermo Osorio, R; Valderrama, R; Augusto Giraldo, C



[Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia].  


Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia. High Andean paramo ecosystems are an important water resource for many towns, and major cities in this region. The aquatic and wetland vegetation of different paramo lakes, pond, swamps and bogs was studied according to the classical phytosociological approach, which is based on homogenous stands, but excludes any border phenomena or transitional zone. The present research aimed at determining the aquatic and wetland vegetation along different moisture gradients. A total of 89 species in 30 transects were reported, of which Crassula venezuelensis, Carex honplandii, Callitriche nubigena, Eleocharis macrostachya, Ranunculus flagelliformis, R. nubigenus, Eleocharis stenocarpa, Galium ascendens y Alopecurus aequalis were present in more than one third of the transects. Numerical classification and indicator species analysis resulted in the definition of the next 18 communities: 1) Calamagrostis effusa, 2) Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3) Cyperus rufus, 4) Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5) Carex acutata, 6) Poa annua,7) Valeriana sp., 8) Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9) Carex bonplandii, 10) Festuca andicola. 11) Muhlenbergia fustigiata, 12) Elatine paramoana, 13) Isotes palmeri, 14) Crassula venezuelensis, 15) Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16) Callitriche nubigena, 17) Potamogeton paramoanus and 18) Potamogeton illinoensis. The ordination of communities reveals the presence of three different aquatic-terrestrial gradients which are related to the life form structure of species that characterized the various communities. We concluded that patchiness and heterogeneity of the vegetation is mainly the result of alterations caused by human activities (burning, cattle raise and material extraction for road and dam construction). PMID:22458208

Schmidt-Mumm, Udo; Vargas Ros, Orlando