Sample records for del ruiz colombia

  1. Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zollweg, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

  2. Deadly Lahars from Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia: November 13, 1985

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N. Banks

    This web site describes a series of Lahars that occurred from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in the Andes mountains, the northernmost and highest volcano in Colombia. Beginning in November 1984, the volcano began showing clear signs of unrest. An explosive eruption from Ruiz's summit crater on November 13, 1985, at 9:08 p.m. generated an eruption column and sent a series of pyroclastic flows and surges across the volcano's summit. Within minutes, pumice and ash began to fall to the northeast along with heavy rain that had started earlier in the day. Within four hours, lahars had traveled 100 km and left behind a wake of destruction: more than 23,000 people killed, about 5,000 injured, and more than 5,000 homes destroyed along the Chinchina, Guali, and Lagunillas rivers and destroying the town of Armero, Columbia. This deadly eruption of Nevado del Ruiz offers lessons on the generation of lahars for scientists, emergency-response professionals, and communities located downstream of such ice- and snow-covered volcanoes. The narrative is illustrated with 9 photographs.

  3. Volcanic hazard maps of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Eduardo; Cepeda, Hector

    1990-07-01

    Although the potential hazards associated with an eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano were known to civil authorities before the catastrophic eruption there in November 1985, their low perception of risk and the long quiescent period since the last eruption (140 years), caused them to wait for stronger activity before developing an eruption alert system. Unfortunately, the eruption occurred suddenly after a period of relative quiet, and as a result more than 25,000 people were killed. Although it was accurate and reasonably comprehensive, the hazard map that existed before the eruption was poorly understood by the authorities and even less so by the general population, because the scientific terminology and probabilistic approach to natural hazards were unfamiliar to many of them. This confusion was shared by the communication media, which at critical times placed undue emphasis on the possibility of lava flows rather than on the more imminent threat from mudflows, in keeping with the popular but often inaccurate perception of volcanic eruptions. This work presents an updated hazard map of Nevado del Ruiz that combines information on various hazardous phenomena with their relative probability of occurrence in order to depict numerical "hazard levels" that are easily comprehensible to nonspecialists and therefore less susceptible to misinterpretation. The scale of relative risk is arbitrary, ranging from five to one, and is intended to provide an intuitive indication of danger to people, property and crops. The map is meant to facilitate emergency preparedness and management by political and civil authorities, to educate the public concerning volcanic hazards and to assist in land-use planning decisions.

  4. A warning model based on temporal changes of coda Q for volcanic activity at Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Londoño; Yasuaki Sudo

    2002-01-01

    The coda Q has been calculated for Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (NRV) from 1985 to 1999 by using a single scattering model. During this period, the inverse of Q (Q-1 proportional to attenuation) exhibited a long-term decrease with time, as well as shorter-term variations related to the volcanic activity. Q-1 increased prior to volcanic crises and decreased afterward. Based

  5. Deformation monitoring at Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia - October 1985 - March 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, N.G.; Carvajal, C.; Mora, H.; Tryggvason, E.

    1990-01-01

    Deformation studies began at Nevado del Ruiz 23 days before the devastating 13 November 1985 eruption, at least 12 months after precursory seismicity and fumarolic activity began. The late start in geodetic monitoring, limited number of stations in the pre-eruption network, and inconsistent patterns in the observed deformation limit conclusions about intrusive activity in the months and weeks prior to the eruption. However, the data require that the magma source of the devastating eruption was either deeper than 7 km or, if shallow, recovered the same volume and position within one week of the eruption. Geodetic monitoring resumed 1 week after the eruption and, by April 1986, included 11 tilt-leveling stations, 38 EDM lines, and 7 short leveling lines - a network capable of detecting emplacement or movement of magma volumes as small as 3 MCM (3 ?? 106 m3) to a depth of 2-3 km (using a point-source model), 10 MCM to 7 km, 50 MCM to 10 km, and 200 MCM to 15 km beneath Ruiz. In addition, 4 telemetered tiltmeters provided the capability of detecting, in real time, the fairly rapid ascent of much smaller magma bodies. Stations established to detect instability of the summit ice cap after the eruption were discontinued in early 1986. The data collected from the geodetic networks have higher than normal variance but demonstrate that little or no cumulative deformation of Ruiz occurred from October 1985 through March 1988. Thus, little, if any, magma intruded above 5 km beneath the summit during or after the 13 November 1985 eruption. This lack of significant intrusive activity agrees with the surprisingly low seismic energy release under Ruiz and makes direct degassing of a large batholith an improbable explanation of the large sulfur flux to date at Ruiz. Part of the variance in the geodetic data results from real but noncumulative deformation that may in part be pressure-buffered by a fairly large geothermal water-gas mixture for which abundant physical evidence exists. Part of the noncumulative deformation, some of the fairly dispersed and low-level seismicity under Ruiz, and some phreatic events appear to correlate with seasonal precipitation patterns. Hence rain/snow-loading and groundwater interaction may cause deformation events and possibly help trigger some phreatic explosions and seismic events at Ruiz and, as search of the literature reveals, at other volcanoes in metastable states. ?? 1990.

  6. The behaviour of REE and Zr-Hf fractionation in the volcanic waters of Nevado del Ruiz system (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Censi, Paolo; Zuddas, Pierpaolo; Makario Londoño, John; Chacón, Zoraida; Alzate, Diego; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical behaviour of Rare Earth Element (REE), Zr and Hf have been investigated in the thermal waters of Nevado del Ruiz volcanic system. These fluids are characterised by a wide range of pH ranging between 1.0 and 8.8. The acidic waters are sulphate dominated with different Cl/SO4 ratios. The Nevado del Ruiz waters allowed to investigate the behaviour of investigated elements in a wide spectrum of pH and chemical composition of water. The important role of the pH and the ionic complexes have been evidenced in the distribution of REE, Zr and Hf in the aqueous phase. The pH rules the precipitation of authigenic oxyhydroxides of Fe, Al producing changes in REE, Zr, Hf amount and strong anomalies of Cerium and Europium. Y-Ho and Zr-Hf (twin pairs) have different behaviour in strong acidic waters with respect to the water with higher pH. Yttrium and Ho have the same behaviour of Zr and Hf in waters with pH near neutral-to-neutral, showing super-chondritic ratios. The twin pairs showed to be sensitive to the co-precipitation and/or adsorption onto the surface of authigenic particulate suggesting an enhanced scavenging of Ho and Hf respect to Y and Zr, leading to super-chondritic ratios. In acidic waters a different behaviour of twin pairs occurs with chondritic Y/Ho ratios (reflecting the Y/Ho ratio of average local rock) and sub-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios. For the first time, Zr and Hf have been investigated in natural acidic fluids to understand the behaviour of these elements in extreme acidic conditions and different major anions chemistry. Zr/Hf molar ratio changes from 4.75 to 49.29 in water with pH<3.6. In strong acidic waters, a different fractionation of Zr and Hf have been recognised as function of major anion contents (Cl and SO4), suggesting the formation of complexes leading to sub-chondritic Zr/Hf molar ratios.

  7. Remanent magnetization of andesitic and dacitic pumice from the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) reversed due to self-reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Maja; Heller, Friedrich; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente

    1990-07-01

    The natural remanent magnetization of andesitic pumice emitted during the 1985 eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Colombia) has a direction opposite to the present geomagnetic field. The self-reversing mechanism can be re-activated in the laboratory during cycles of heating and subsequent cooling in air and zero magnetic field. Laboratory-produced thermoremanent magnetization is dominated by the same self-reversal process in fields up to several mT. Microchemical, optical and Curie temperature analyses indicate that the ferromagnetic minerals are members of the magnetite-ulvöspinel and hematite-ilmenite series with average compositions of Fe 2.73Ti 0.27O 4 and Fe 1.38Ti 0.62O 3, respectively. In analogy with the magnetic behaviour of synthetically grown antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic FeMn-FeNi films, the self-reversal can probably be interpreted in terms of an exchange field acting between a Ti-poor canted antiferromagnetic and a Ti-rich ferrimagnetic phase in the hemoilmenite grains.

  8. DOAS evaluation of volcanic SO2 using a modeled background spectrum: Examples from the NOVAC stations at Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Tungurahua (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübcke, Peter; Lampel, Johannes; Bobrowski, Nicole; Arellano, Santiago; Galle, Bo; Garzón, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Silvana; Vogel, Leif; Warnach, Simon; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    SO2 emission rates are monitored using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the UV at an increasing number of volcano observatories. The Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) has currently installed 80 scanning DOAS instruments at 30 volcanoes world-wide. One important question for the evaluation of spectra using DOAS is the availability of background spectra that are not influenced by volcanic gas emissions. An SO2 contaminated background spectrum would lead to a negative offset of the retrieved SO2 column densities, and thus to an underestimation of the volcanic SO2 emission rate. In NOVAC this problem is approached by performing a scan, e.g. through a plane from one horizon to the other horizon, and defining the average of the 20% spectra with the lowest SO2 content as the zero-baseline value, which is assumed to be gas free. To verify this assumption we revisit the idea of evaluating spectra using the DOAS method with a modeled background spectrum based on a high-resolution solar atlas. One challenge when evaluating spectra with a modeled background spectrum is properly accounting for instrumental effects that are usually removed when calculating the measured optical density relative to a measured background spectrum. We present our approach to handle these instrumental effects, showing that we gain a similar fit quality to the method using a measured reference spectrum. For example, wavelength dependent structures in the spectrum due to the spectrometer (e.g., quantum efficiency of the detector and grating efficiency) were identified with help of a principal component analysis of an SO2 free subset of the residual spectra. These structures were included in a second iteration of the fit in order to improve the evaluation. We further discuss influences like strong ozone absorption and the instrument temperature on the quality of the SO2 fit using a modeled background spectrum. The new evaluation scheme was applied to data from Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Tungurahua (Ecuador). We investigated how often and under which circumstances SO2 contaminated background spectra occur and how big the effect on the SO2 emission rates is. At Nevado del Ruiz, although characterized currently by a large emission and therefore broad plume the NOVAC stations are installed at a distance of only 2-5 km from the volcano. At this volcano up to 30% of the scans underestimate the SO2 emission rate, with stronger underestimation occurring at low wind speeds (below 5 m/s). At Tungurahua, where the stations are installed at more than 5 km distance from the volcano preliminary results indicate that fewer scans are influenced by contaminated background spectra.

  9. Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobilization, flow and deposition of lahars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Janda, Richard J.; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Borrero, Carlos A.

    1990-07-01

    A complex sequence of pyroclastic flows and surges erupted by Nevado del Ruiz volcano on 13 November 1985 interacted with snow and ice on the summit ice cap to trigger catastrophic lahars (volcanic debris flows), which killed more than 23,000 people living at or beyond the base of the volcano. The rapid transfer of heat from the hot eruptive products to about 10 km 2 of the snowpack, combined with seismic shaking, produced large volumes of meltwater that flowed downslope, liquefied some of the new volcanic deposits, and generated avalanches of saturated snow, ice and rock debris within minutes of the 21:08 (local time) eruption. About 2 × 10 7 m 3 of water was discharged into the upper reaches of the Molinos, Nereidas, Guali, Azufrado and Lagunillas valleys, where rapid entrainment of valley-fill sediment transformed the dilute flows and avalanches to debris flows. Computed mean velocities of the lahars at peak flow ranged up to 17 m s -1. Flows were rapid in the steep, narrow upper canyons and slowed with distance away from the volcano as flow depth and channel slope diminished. Computed peak discharges ranged up to 48,000 m 3 s -1 and were greatest in reaches 10 to 20 km downstream from the summit. A total of about 9 × 10 7 m 3 of lahar slurry was transported to depositional areas up to 104 km from the source area. Initial volumes of individual lahars increased up to 4 times with distance away from the summit. The sedimentology and stratigraphy of the lahar deposits provide compelling evidence that: (1) multiple initial meltwater pulses tended to coalesce into single flood waves; (2) lahars remained fully developed debris flows until they reached confluences with major rivers; and (3) debris-flow slurry composition and rheology varied to produce gradationally density-stratified flows. Key lessons and reminders from the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcanic eruption are: (1) catastrophic lahars can be generated on ice- and snow-capped volcanoes by relatively small eruptions; (2) the surface area of snow on an ice cap can be more critical than total ice volume when considering lahar potential; (3) placement of hot rock debris on snow is insufficient to generate lahars; the two materials must be mechanically mixed together for sufficiently rapid head transfer; (4) lahars can increase their volumes significantly by entrainment of water and eroded sediment; and (5) valley-confined lahars can maintain relatively high velocities and can have catastrophic impacts as far as 100 km downstream.

  10. Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobilization, flow and deposition of lahars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, T.C.; Janda, R.J.; Thouret, J.-C.; Borrero, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    A complex sequence of pyroclastic flows and surges erupted by Nevado del Ruiz volcano on 13 November 1985 interacted with snow and ice on the summit ice cap to trigger catastrophic lahars (volcanic debris flows), which killed more than 23,000 people living at or beyond the base of the volcano. The rapid transfer of heat from the hot eruptive products to about 10 km2 of the snowpack, combined with seismic shaking, produced large volumes of meltwater that flowed downslope, liquefied some of the new volcanic deposits, and generated avalanches of saturated snow, ice and rock debris within minutes of the 21:08 (local time) eruption. About 2 ?? 107 m3 of water was discharged into the upper reaches of the Molinos, Nereidas, Guali, Azufrado and Lagunillas valleys, where rapid entrainment of valley-fill sediment transformed the dilute flows and avalanches to debris flows. Computed mean velocities of the lahars at peak flow ranged up to 17 m s-1. Flows were rapid in the steep, narrow upper canyons and slowed with distance away from the volcano as flow depth and channel slope diminished. Computed peak discharges ranged up to 48,000 m3 s-1 and were greatest in reaches 10 to 20 km downstream from the summit. A total of about 9 ?? 107 m3 of lahar slurry was transported to depositional areas up to 104 km from the source area. Initial volumes of individual lahars increased up to 4 times with distance away from the summit. The sedimentology and stratigraphy of the lahar deposits provide compelling evidence that: (1) multiple initial meltwater pulses tended to coalesce into single flood waves; (2) lahars remained fully developed debris flows until they reached confluences with major rivers; and (3) debris-flow slurry composition and rheology varied to produce gradationally density-stratified flows. Key lessons and reminders from the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcanic eruption are: (1) catastrophic lahars can be generated on ice- and snow-capped volcanoes by relatively small eruptions; (2) the surface area of snow on an ice cap can be more critical than total ice volume when considering lahar potential; (3) placement of hot rock debris on snow is insufficient to generate lahars; the two materials must be mechanically mixed together for sufficiently rapid head transfer; (4) lahars can increase their volumes significantly by entrainment of water and eroded sediment; and (5) valley-confined lahars can maintain relatively high velocities and can have catastrophic impacts as far as 100 km downstream. ?? 1990.

  11. Internal [sup 238]U-series systematics of pumice from the November 13, 1985, eruption of Nevado de Ruiz, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, S.J.; Williams, S.N. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Sturchio, N.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Murrell, M.T. (Los Almos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1993-03-01

    High-precision mass spectrometer and alpha scintillation measurements of [sup 238]U-series nuclides were obtained for whole-rock pumice and constituent mineral and glass separates to help interpret the timing and nature of magmatic processes that led up to the 1985 eruption of Nevado de Ruiz volcano. Internal isochron diagrams for [sup 226]Ra/Ba vs. [sup 230]Th/Ba and [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th vs. [sup 238]U/[sup 232]Th show that data define linear arrays, indicating an average crystallization age of 6.1 [+-] 0.5 ka (Ra-Th isochron) and 7 [+-] 6 ka (Th-U isochron). Stratigraphic, petrographic geochemical, repose time, and eruption volume data for the Holocene eruptive sequence of Nevado del Ruiz indicate that significant changes occurred in the subvolcanic magma chamber between eruptions R9 ([approx]8.6 ka) and R8 ([approx]3.0 ka). This coincides with the average crystallization age derived from the U-series data and may represent the injection of a new batch (or batches) of mantle-derived magma into the subvolcanic magma chamber. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Compartmentalized Fluid Flow In The Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano Hydrothermal System(S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, C. A.; Mejia, E.

    2011-12-01

    Combination of several extensive and compressive fault/fracture systems with different lithologic units compartmentalized the hydrothermal system(s) in the vicinity of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano. Three main fault/fracture systems are observed in the Ruiz volcano area, a N10°-20°E system (San Jerónimo and Palestina faults), a N40°-60°W system (Villamaría-Termales, San Ramón, Nereidas, Río Claro, San Eugenio and Campoalegrito faults), and a N60°-80°E system (Santa Rosa fault). The NW trend system act as the main path for fluid circulation, location of faults and fractures belonging to this system and their intersections with other fault systems and/or with lithologic contacts control hot springs location. The observed fault location and hot spring location pattern allow to subdivide the hydrothermal system(s) in at least five blocks. In the southernmost block, hot springs are mostly located in one of the four quadrants originated by fault intersections suggesting that there is a compartmentalization into higher and lower permeability quadrants. It is still unknown if all blocks belong to the same hydrothermal system or if there is more than one hydrothermal system.

  13. Andres Ruiz-Linares CURRICULUM VITAE ANDRES RUIZ-LINARES

    E-print Network

    Linares, Andrés Ruiz

    loci involved in predisposition to Bipolar mood disorder in the population of Antioquia, Colombia in Antioquia, Colombia. #12;Andres Ruiz-Linares 2 2. "Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Bipolar Disorder to the identification of gene regions involved in susceptibility to Bipolar Disorder in Antioquian patients. 3. "A

  14. Spectral Characterization of Volcanic Earthquakes at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano Using

    E-print Network

    Duin, Robert P.W.

    aeropuerto, Manizales (Caldas), Colombia, morozcoa@unal.edu.co 2 Information and Communication Theory Group Departamento de Inform´atica y Computaci´on, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, km 7 v´ia al

  15. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  16. DELIMITACIÒN DE ZONAS DE BAJA VELOCIDAD EN EL VOLCAN NEVADO DEL RUIZ A PARTIR DE RETARDOS EN TIEMPOS DE VIAJE DE LA ONDA P EN SISMOS TECTONICO REGIONALES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Raigosa A; Olga Patricia; Bohórquez O

    A 3d model of low velocity zones in Nevado Del Ruiz volcano is attempted by mean of a method that detects travel - time delay in P waves of tectonic earthquakes. The method takes a crustal model with homogeneous medium, useful to small seismic network and its developing is called in this study \\

  17. Albert Hirschman en Colombia y la planeación del desarrollo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caballero Argáez Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Este ensayo se refiere a los ejercicios de diagnóstico y formulación de estrategias de inversión pública en Colombia en los años cincuenta del siglo XX. Se hace un recuento de los antecedentes del Informe del Consejo Nacional de Planificación correspondiente al año de 1952, que contó con la asesoría de Albert Hirschman (quien residió en Colombia entre 1952 y 1956)

  18. DISSIMILARITY-BASED CLASSIFICATION OF SEISMIC SIGNALS AT NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO

    E-print Network

    Duin, Robert P.W.

    , Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales. E-mail: morozcoa@unal.edu.co, gcastell@telesat.com.co 2 INGEOMINAS - Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales, Avenida 12 de Octubre No. 15-47, Colombia. E-mail: megarcia@ingeominas.gov.co 3 Information and Communication Theory Group, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD

  19. La regulación del precio del etanol en Colombia. ¿Teoría del interés general o teoría del interés privado?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Marina Romero Alvarado

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados del trabajo de investigación en el que la unidad de análisis se delimitó a la regulación del precio del etanol en Colombia, desde la perspectiva de la regulación económica, siguiendo los enfoques de la teoría del interés general versus teoría del interés privado. El desarrollo del trabajo consistió en hallar la

  20. Reversed magnetization in pyroclastics from the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Heller; Juan Carlos Carracedo; Vicente Solert

    1986-01-01

    One of the fundamental principles of palaeomagnetism and rock magnetism states that the direction of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is acquired parallel to the applied field. However, ferromagnetic mineral phases with complex microstructures may violate this rule1,2 and produce a magnetization vector which is antiparallel to the direction of the external field. Andesitic pumice, which was hurled several kilometres during

  1. El Teatro Taller de Colombia: La resurrección del atavismo

    E-print Network

    Gonzá lez Cajiao, Fernando

    1991-10-01

    FALL 1991 73 El Teatro Taller de Colombia: La resurrección del atavismo Fernando González Cajiao Tendrían que ser los sicólogos, o tal vez los antropólogos, quienes nos explicaran científicamente por qué y cómo subyacen por generaciones en el... orígenes acuáticos. Eso debió ser lo que me pasó al ver mi primera obra del Teatro Taller de Colombia. Se trataba de La cabeza de cukup (título alucinante), presentada en la plaza y calles de la localidad de Chía, no lejos de Bogotá; aunque, 74 LATIN...

  2. COLOMBIA: El IV Festival del Nuevo Teatro

    E-print Network

    Gonzá lez, Patricia E.

    1980-10-01

    a muerte y la ejecución está programada para el día siguiente. Mr. Smith compra al sheriff de Galveston y se lleva al negro, quien entonces asume el nombre de La bala de plata—TEC FALL 1980 83 Cristóbal Jones. El rumbo que llevan es una isla del... de mimos que vienen a divertirnos. Dentro del ambiente farandulero unos se convierten en músicos y otros en actores que nos cuentan una historia. Luego se desarrolla la tragicomedia de tantos caudillos derrocados en tantos países latinoamericanos y...

  3. EL MODELO DE REGULACIÓN DEL SERVICIO PÚBLICO DE TELECOMUNICACIONES EN COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raúl Andrés Tabarquino Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza el desarrollo del modelo de regulación en la prestación del servicio público de telecomunicaciones en Colombia, a partir de la liberalización de los servicios públicos domiciliarios (SPD) establecida en el marco normativo de la Constitución Política de Colombia de 1991 y la Ley 142 de 1994. Basado en la revisión de la literatura existente sobre

  4. La Lic. Irlanda Ruiz discutir lo El derecho a la educacin.

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    La Lic. Irlanda Ruiz discutirá lo siguente:: · El derecho a la educación. · Derechos y obligaciones No incluye alimentos Nos reservamos el derecho de admisión. Costo: $45 pago recibido antes del 28 de febrero

  5. Colombia.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers. PMID:12177933

  6. REFERENCIA: Hoffmann, Odile, 2002, Del territorio tnico a la ciudad : las expresiones de identidad negra en Colombia a principios del siglo XXI pp 277-307 dans B.Nates (comp.),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    identidad negra en Colombia a principios del siglo XXI » pp 277-307 dans B.Nates (comp.), Territorio y cultura. Territorios de conflicto y cambio sociocultural, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia. Del territorio étnico a la ciudad : las expresiones de identidad negra en Colombia a principios del siglo XXI

  7. FINANCIACIÓN Y DEMANDA DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR ESTUDIO DEL CASO EN COLOMBIA (1990-2005)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Ruiz; Carlos Andrés Cano; Isabel Cristina Montes

    2008-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar la relación existente entre la demanda por educación superior y variables relacionadas a su financiación. En particular, se analiza como la financiación pública y privada, y además las señales del mercado laboral explican las matrículas en educación superior en tres regiones de Colombia: Bogotá, Cali y Medellín. El estudio se realiza a través de

  8. Inflación y crecimiento económico: determinantes del desempleo en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson Manolo Chávez Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Este documento pretende establecer si la tasa de desempleo en Colombia es explicada por la inflación esperada y por la tasa de crecimiento económico para los años comprendidos entre 2001 y 2009, suponiendo que los agentes económicos tienen expectativas adaptativas. Por otra parte, se intenta determinar si el crecimiento económico causa menores tasas de desempleo, comprobando así la Ley de

  9. A geological and engineering reservoir characterization of the Caballos Formation (Cretaceous), Puerto Colon field Putumayo basin, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Ruiz Castellanos, Hector

    1994-01-01

    A GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CABALLOS FORMATION (CRETACEOUS), PUERTO COLON FIELD, PUTUMAYO BASIN, COLOMBIA A Thesis by HECTOR RUIZ CASTELLANOS Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...: Petroleum Engineering ABSTRACT A Geological and Engineering Reservoir Characterization of the Caballos Formation (Cretaceous), Puerto Colon Field Putumayo Basin Colombia. (December 1994) Hector Ruiz Castellanos, B. S. , Universidad Industrial de...

  10. Análisis comparativo del sistema de “retención en la fuente” para el recaudo del impuesto de renta en Colombia y en España

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constanza Loreth Fajardo-CaLderón; Dora Cecilia Suárez Amaya

    2011-01-01

    El estudio realizado desde el semillero de investigación de tributaria SITUQ logra desarrollar el trabajo de investigación “Análisis comparativo de impuestos de carácter nacional del Derecho Tributario de Colombia y el Derecho Tributario de España”, con el cual se conoce el marco histórico de los impuestos en Colombia; se comprenden los sistemas tributarios; se establece el estado de arte de

  11. Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-01-01

    The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV). PMID:24869552

  12. In Colombia

    E-print Network

    1975-10-01

    28 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW In Colombia Muestras Regionales de Teatro. 95 groups presented plays in Bogotá, Cali, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga and Medellin between September 1 and 7, 1975. Festival Nacional del Nuevo Teatro. October 6-17, 1975...

  13. Earthquake on June 6, 1994, Triggers Landslides and Catastrophic Lahar Near Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    R. Schuster

    This page describes how quickly an earthquake-triggered lahar happened and the losses that occurred. Some losses may have occurred because people did not know they should flee to high ground after an earthquake. Within minutes of the 1994 magnitude 6.4 earthquake beneath the south-southwest flank of Nevado del Huila volcano in Colombia, dozens of landslides swept down from the steep valleys above Rio Paez. The landslides quickly turned into debris flows, which joined to produce a single enormous flow. That lahar destroyed most of or parts of several towns along the river and displaced about 20,000 people from their homes. There were several hundred casualties. Bridges and roads were destroyed. The location map of Nevado del Huila volcano shows the path of the 1994 lahar.

  14. Captura y Reconfiguración Cooptada del Estado en Guatemala, México y Colombia Análisis conceptual de las memorias de la Primera Discusión Internacional Sobre Captura y Reconfiguración Cooptada del Estado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Jorge Garay-Salamanca; Isaac de León-Beltrán; Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán

    2010-01-01

    La evidencia muestra que el narcotráfico es importante en el fortalecimiento de la corrupción de Guatemala, México y Colombia; por lo tanto, es problemático analizar de modo separado ambos fenómenos. Los hechos muestran también que las organizaciones narcotraficantes de los tres países han aprendido a regular la coerción del Estado. Este aprendizaje ha representado un salto que va desde la

  15. Publi dans: NATES, Beatriz (comp.), Territorio y cultura: del campo a la ciudad. ltimas tendencias en teora y mtodo. Memorias del Primer Seminario Internacional sobre Territorio y Cultura. Quito: Abya Yala/ Manizales (Colombia): Alianza

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : Abya Yala/ Manizales (Colombia): Alianza Francesa de Manizales/ Universidad de Caldas, Departamento de communication présentée en espagnol lors du Primer Seminario Internacional "Territorio y cultura: del campo a la Sociología, Manizales, Colombia, 13-15.X.1999 halshs-00124392,version1-14Jan2007 Manuscrit auteur, publié

  16. Teatro en Colombia

    E-print Network

    Gutié rrez, Alfonso

    1998-04-01

    194 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW v •;íf Grupo Teatro Taller de Colombia. Festival al Aire Puro. Foto: Alfonso Gutiérrez. SPRING 1998 195 Teatro en Colombia Alfonso Gutiérrez I Encuentro Internacional de Teatro Callejero Fue una celebración... con bombos y platillos los 25 años de labores del Teatro Taller de Colombia. Jorge Vargas y Mario Matallana en 1972 montaron Génesis (La creación del mundo) y empezaron a trabajar por Centro América. Después de muchos años de luchas lograron...

  17. Keeping watch over Colombia’s slumbering volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ordoñez, Milton; López, Christian; Alpala, Jorge; Narváez, Lourdes; Arcos, Dario; Battaglia, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Located in the Central Cordillera (Colombian Andes), Nevado del Ruiz is a volcanic complex, topped by glaciers, rising 5,321 m above sea level. A relatively small explosive eruption from Ruiz's summit crater on November 13, 1985, generated an eruption column and sent a series of pyroclastic flows and surges across the volcano's ice-covered summit. Pumice and meltwater produced by the hot pyroclastic flows and surges swept into gullies and channels on the slopes of Ruiz as a series of lahars. Within two hours of the beginning of the eruption, lahars had traveled 100 km and left behind a wake of destruction: more than 25,000 people were killed (23,000 in the town of Armero and 2,000 in the town of Chinchiná), about 5,000 injured, and more than 5,000 homes destroyed along the Chinchiná, Gualí, and Lagunillas rivers.

  18. MARINE BIODIVERSITY IN COLOMBIA: ACHIEVEMENTS, STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE, AND CHALLENGES BIODIVERSIDAD MARINA EN COLOMBIA: ESTADO ACTUAL DEL CONOCIMIENTO Y DESAFIOS FUTUROS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M. Díaz; Arturo Acero

    Colombia is recognized as a megadiverse country on the basis of the number of terrestrial animal and plant species occur- ring within its boundaries. However, due to the circumstance that it possesses coasts on both the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, each of them exhibiting distinct geological, oceanographic, and climatic features, Colombia is perhaps the country with the highest

  19. 1998. O.Hoffmann "Polticas agrarias, reformas del Estado y afiliaciones identitarias: una comparacin entre Colombia y Mxico" Revista Mexicana de Sociologa N4/98, Mxico, pp99-123.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    comparación entre Colombia y México" Revista Mexicana de Sociología Nº4/98, México, pp99-123. www internacional. A finales del siglo XX y compartiendo los mismos dogmas neoliberales, México y Colombia Colombia y México O. Hoffmann La Constitución colombiana de 1991 reconoce la naturaleza multiénica y

  20. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  1. El impacto del petróleo y la minería en el desarrollo regional y local en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Perry; Mauricio Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo estudia el impacto de la explotación de hidrocarburos y minerales sobre el desarrollo regional y local reciente en Colombia. Examina si los Departamentos y Municipios productores de hidrocarburos y carbón, y receptores de regalíashan crecido más, o presentan mayores niveles de PIB per cápita, en comparación con los departamentos que no se han beneficiado de éstos recursos. Asimismo,

  2. ESTADO ACTUAL DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN PSICOLOGIA ORGANIZACIONAL Y DEL TRABAJO EN COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ÁLVARO ENRÍQUEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2006-01-01

    From the organizational and work psychology (OWP) concept, a description of topics and problems of the fi eld at the global level and the role of research is done. Next, the current state of OWP research in Colombia is presented and its limits and future possibilities. Based on COLCIENCIAS information system, characteristics and communalities of the eight OWP reported groups

  3. Sert y Wiener en Colombia. La vivienda social en la aplicación del urbanismo moderno

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Schnitter

    2007-01-01

    Los planes urbanísticos elaborados por José Luis Sert (1902-1983) y Paul Lester Wiener (1895-1967) para Colombia entre 1948 y 1953, evidencian la transmisión de los principios formulados por los Congresos Internacionales de Arquitectura Moderna CIAM. Esta condición nos permite dar seguimiento a las ideas de Sert en especial el concepto de unidad vecinal referenciado en los planes y destacar el

  4. Evaluación del impacto de un ensayo comunitario sobre el consumo de frutas y verduras en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Esperanza Prada; Lucia Yalile Dubeibe-Blanco; Oscar F. Herrán; Martha Herrera-Anaya

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an alimentary inter- vention on the frequency of consumption of fruits and veg- etables (FV) in the municipality of Girón, Santander, Colombia. Material and Methods. A community interven- tion was carried out over a ten-month period, where 66 families who use fourteen community homes (HC) received an alimentary intervention based on educational strategies. Seventy-three

  5. Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Epipsocidae), from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and description of the female E.chiquibulensis García Aldrete.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; González Obando, Ranulfo; García Aldrete, Alfonso Neri

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and the female of Edmockfordiachiquibulensis García Aldrete, are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Edmockfordia is included; the genus was previously known only from Belize. The genus is re-diagnosed to include female characters. The distribution of the genus is considerably widened, from Belize to northeastern South America. PMID:26019670

  6. Language Policy and the Manufacturing of Consent for Foreign Intervention in Colombia (La política lingüística y la fabricación del consentimiento para la intervención extranjera en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Marlon

    2013-01-01

    The present paper provides a critical analysis of Colombia's National Program of Bilingualism focusing on the ideologies behind it, how it facilitates the manufacturing of Colombian citizens' consent for foreign intervention through free trade agreements, and the progressive dismantling of public education. The program is analyzed with a critical…

  7. COMPROMISO TICO UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA

    E-print Network

    Prieto, Germán A.

    #12;22 COMPROMISO ÉTICO UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA Versión 0.4 ¿Qué es? Un documento que propone un acuerdo en torno a siete valores guía del comportamiento en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia naturaleza, fines y principios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. ¿Para qué sirve? Como guía para

  8. Consejo Estudiantil de Geologa Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    E-print Network

    Prieto, Germán A.

    Consejo Estudiantil de Geología Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogotá - CEGUN Consejo Estudiantil de Geología ­ Universidad Nacional de Colombia Facultad de Ciencias - Departamento de Geociencias@gmail.com CONVOCATORIA REVISTA FACIES COLOMBIA DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOCIENCIAS FACIES COLOMBIA Con motivo del lanzamiento

  9. BES++: HPC Profile Open Source C Implementation Arkaitz Ruiz Alvarez

    E-print Network

    Humphrey, Marty

    BES++: HPC Profile Open Source C Implementation Arkaitz Ruiz Alvarez arkaitz mangement systems. Recognizing this, the HPC Profile Working Group in the Open Grid Forum (OGF) has recently++, our open source implementation of the OGF HPC Profile. BES++ supports LSF, PBS and SGE resource

  10. Virtual Reality for Archeological Maya Cities Rocio RUIZ1

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Virtual Reality for Archeological Maya Cities Rocio RUIZ1 , Suzanne WEGHORST 2 , Jesus SAVAGE3, the participants will use Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and VRML interactive 3D objects. Keywords: Maya, archeology, heritage, Calakmul, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, VRML, Palenque 1

  11. RAPID COMMUNICATION J.M. Ruiz E. Blumwald

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    RAPID COMMUNICATION J.M. Ruiz Æ E. Blumwald Salinity-induced glutathione synthesis in Brassica) plants over- expressing a vacuolar Na+ /H+ antiporter. A 3-fold increase in cysteine and glutathione content was observed in wild-type plants exposed to salt stress, but not in the transgenic plants

  12. Integracin en espacios de Banach Jos Rodrguez Ruiz

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, José

    Integración en espacios de Banach José Rodríguez Ruiz #12;#12;INTEGRACI�N EN ESPACIOS DE BANACH D Departamento de Matemáticas de la Universidad de Murcia INFORMA: Que la Tesis Doctoral "INTEGRACI�N EN ESPACIOS;#12;INTEGRACI�N EN ESPACIOS DE BANACH D. Bernardo Cascales Salinas y D. Gabriel Vera Botí, Catedráticos de

  13. COMUNIDAD DE MARIPOSAS DIURNAS (LEPIDOPTERA:RHOPALOCERA) EN UN GRADIENTE ALTITUDINAL DEL CAÑON DEL RÍO COMBEIMA-TOLIMA, COLOMBIA Butterflies Community (Lepidoptera:Rhopalocera) Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Combeima River Canyon Tolima, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ÉDGAR CAMERO

    Altitudinal variations in composition, richness, diversity and structure were studied in the butterflies' communities along an altitudinal gradient in Combeima River basin (Juntas-Tolima, Colombia) from 1800 m until 3000 m during one year through three sampling times, using insect nets and VanSomeren-Rydon traps. 101 butterflies species were collected that were classified into 59 genera and five families. Butterflies

  14. Aspectos de la biología y dinámica poblacional del pargo coliamarillo Lutjanus argentiventris en el Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola A. Rojas; Carlos F. Gutiérrez; Vladimir Puentes; Angel A. Villa; Efraín A. Rubio

    2004-01-01

    Yellowtail snapper Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters, 1869) was captured during experimental fishing trips around the Gorgona National Natural Park, Colombia, from March 1997 to December 2000. Average capture size (total length, TL) was 482 mm and sex ratio was 1:1.2. Advanced sexual maturity stages in females were observed during the whole study with no clear reproductive pattern; average size at sexual

  15. Peace Summit in Colombia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    2001-01-01

    Peace talks between Colombian President Andres Pastrana and guerrilla leader Manuel Marulanda entered their second day today, fueling hopes for some breakthrough in ending the country's 37-year conflict. On Thursday, Pastrana rather boldly placed himself in the hands of the enemy, flying into the town of San Vicente del Caguan with a minimal security detail. The town is held by the main rebel army in Colombia, the 17,000 strong Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, known by its Spanish initials, FARC. Two years ago, Pastrana ceded a 16,200 square mile area of the country to FARC as a goodwill gesture to jumpstart peace talks. So far, these talks have been disappointing, as kidnappings and violence by both the rebels and right-wing paramilitaries have continued unabated. Popular fatigue and anger at continued insecurity in Colombia has inspired Pastrana's latest efforts to secure peace. At the very least, he is expected to get FARC to return to the formal negotiations they left in November, claiming the government had made insufficient efforts to halt attacks by right-wing paramilitary groups. The outcome of this meeting will also most likely impact US policy in the region, as Colombia is now the second-largest recipient of US foreign aid, mostly in the form of combat helicopters and troop training. These have been provided ostensibly to battle the drug trade, which is protected and taxed by the FARC, but in reality, Colombia's civil war and drug war are now almost impossible to segregate.

  16. Educational Management Challenges for the 21st Ferran Ruiz Tarrag1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Barcelona Faculty of Education, Building G-5 08193 Bellaterra, Spain {Ferran Ruiz Tarragó, frtarragoEducational Management Challenges for the 21st Century Ferran Ruiz Tarragó1 , Ann Elizabeth Wilson2 , 1 Council for the Evaluation of the Educational System. Government of Catalonia, Department

  17. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Oficina Nacional de Planeacin

    E-print Network

    Prieto, Germán A.

    Universidad Nacional de Colombia Oficina Nacional de Planeación En Pesos NOMBRE DEL PROYECTO NIVEL.561.286.958 SISTEMA DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN Y SEGUIMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD ACADÉMICA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA 900.000.000 900.000.000 DESARROLLO DE LA PLANTA DOCENTE DE LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA EN EL PERIODO 2010

  18. Modified team-based learning strategy to improve human anatomy learning: A pilot study at the Universidad del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Emilio G; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the course, student's grades on mid-term examinations and students' perceptions of their experiences. Students reported a positive attitude toward the use of the TBL sessions, and the results showed a significant improvement in their learning between the first and second sessions. Significantly positive correlations (P?

  19. Turonian Crustacea from Mexico and Colombia 403 Upper Cretaceous Crustacea from Mexico and Colombia

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    con depósitos de similar edad y paleoambiente de la Formación San Rafael en Colombia. Foraminíferos baja energía, a una profundidad no menor a 50 m. El segundo reporte para esta localidad del cirripedio

  20. EFECTOS DEL CAUDAL SOBRE LA COLONIZACIÓN DE ALGAS EN UN RÍO DE ALTA MONTAÑA TROPICAL (BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA) Influence of the flow on the colonization of algae in a river of tro- pical high mountains (Boyacá, Colombia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JHON DONATO

    In Totas stream (Boyacá, Colombia), environmental and hydrological variables were measured to detect their influence on the colonization of periphytic algae; we also considered diversity and density, and equally colonization patterns and the devel- opment stages of the community by means of the days of appearance, morphology and cellular sizes. The samplings were made in three different climatic times in

  1. Dinámica del sistema agroforestal de chagras como eje de la producción indígena en el Trapecio Amazónico (Colombia) Chagras' agroforestal system dynamics as the basis for indigenous production in the Amazonian Trapezium (Colombia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Amparo Triana-Moreno; Nohra Cecilia Rodríguez; Jesús García

    Resumen: La tradición indígena, la pertenencia a la cuenca Amazónica y la cercanía a un importante centro urbano como Leticia (Amazonas, Colombia) son factores que aportan elementos característicos al sistema de producción de Ciudad Jitoma y lo dife- rencian de otras formas de producción indígena y no-indígena, incluso dentro de la misma región ama- zónica. En el presente estudio se

  2. Estimado Colega, Es un deseo de muchos de nosotros en Colombia el de poder contar con un Instituto

    E-print Network

    Uribe, Bernardo

    Estimado Colega, Es un deseo de muchos de nosotros en Colombia el de poder contar con un Instituto creación de un Instituto de Matemáticas en Colombia ha existido desde hace varios años. Son muchos los miembros de la comunidad matemática del país y del extranjero que consideran que Colombia ha alcanzado el

  3. RANGE EXTENSION OF Anoura aequatoris AND NOTES ON DISTRIBUTIONAL LIMITS OF SMALL Anoura IN COLOMBIA

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    IN COLOMBIA EXTENSIÓN DEL RANGO GEOGRÁFICO DE Anoura aequatoris Y NOTAS SOBRE LOS LÍMITES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LOS PEQUEÑOS Anoura EN COLOMBIA HUGO MANTILLA-MELUK1,2 ,ALEX MAURICIO JIMENEZ-ORTEGA2,3 , ROBERT. J. BAKER1 ABSTRACT We report 33 new records of Anoura aequatoris for Colombia including a specimen from

  4. Aerodynamic focusing of high-density aerosols D.E. Ruiz a,n

    E-print Network

    Aerodynamic focusing of high-density aerosols D.E. Ruiz a,n , L.M. Gunderson a , M.J. Hay a , E Accepted 24 May 2014 Available online 17 June 2014 Keywords: Aerodynamic lens High-density aerosol beam recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities

  5. Distributed Load Balancing over Directed Network Topologies Alejandro Gonzalez-Ruiz and Yasamin Mostofi

    E-print Network

    Mostofi, Yasamin

    Distributed Load Balancing over Directed Network Topologies Alejandro Gonzalez-Ruiz and Yasamin the problem of dis- tributed load balancing over a directed graph that is not fully connected. We study Informed Load Balancing (I-LB), an approach in which the nodes first reach an agreement over the balanced

  6. Cepstral Analysis of Photonic Nanojet-Illuminated Biological Cells Csar Mndez Ruiz and Jamesina J. Simpson

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Jamesina J.

    Cepstral Analysis of Photonic Nanojet-Illuminated Biological Cells César Méndez Ruiz and Jamesina J- scale internal refractive index fluctuations within biological cells change significantly during for the case of nanojet-illuminated cells compared to flat surfaces. Index Terms Biological media, cancer

  7. CADS: A Collaborative Adaptive Data Sharing Platform1 Vagelis Hristidis Eduardo Ruiz

    E-print Network

    Hristidis, Vagelis

    CADS: A Collaborative Adaptive Data Sharing Platform1 Vagelis Hristidis Eduardo Ruiz School and analysis capabilities. We propose CADS, a Collaborative Adaptive Data Sharing platform, where-time. A key novelty of CADS is that it learns with time the most important data attributes of the application

  8. El Poder de Cambiar: La Experiencia del Proyecto Costa Atlantica de Colombia (The Power To Change: The Experience of the Atlantic Coast Project in Columbia, 1977-1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetley, Andrew

    In 1977, the Bernard van Leer Foundation began supporting a project in Colombia that had the objective of improving the quality of early childhood care and education in a small village. The Costa Atlantica project offered an approach to development that was based on community organization, social management, participation, cooperation, popular…

  9. Treasures of Colombia, Panama,

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    s Treasures of Colombia, Panama, & Costa Rica Aboard the Variety Voyager · January 10­19, 2014 nights in Cartagena, Colombia, board the state-of-the-art yacht Variety Voyager for a seven-night voyage and birds in Colombia, Panama, and Costa Rica, including the tamandua, or anteater (cover), with thick

  10. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Southwestern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Luisa Maria; Rozo, Juan C.; Forero, Liliana; van Soolingen, Dick

    2011-01-01

    Using spoligotyping, we identified 13 genotypes and 17 orphan types among 160 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The Beijing genotype represented 15.6% of the isolates and was correlated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, female sex of the patients, and residence in Buenaventura and may represent a new public health threat. PMID:21762581

  11. El parque tecnolgico de Pasto, Colombia, crear una oficina de transferencia basada en la de la Universidad de Alicante

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    El parque tecnológico de Pasto, Colombia, creará una oficina de transferencia basada en la de la Parquesoft, el Parque Tecnológico del Software de Pasto, Colombia. El objetivo de la visita, que se Pasto (Colombia), es un centro de desarrollo tecnológico ideado para articularse como Cluster de Arte

  12. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael O.; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided. PMID:24596488

  13. ESTRUCTURA DE LA VEGETACIÓN DEL CANÓN DEL RÍO CHICAMOCHA, 500-1200 M; SANTANDER- COLOMBIA: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN Structure of the plant communities from Chicamocha canyon, 500-1200 m.a.s.l.; Santander, Colombia: a tool for conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SOFÍA ALBESIANO; J. ORLANDO RANGEL-CH

    In the middle part of the basin of the canyon of the Chicamocha river (Cepita and Piedecuesta, Santander-Colombia), between the 500 and the 1170 m of altitude, the scrub vegetation-type is dominant in the physiognomy of plant communities, although there are some forest types growing along the shores of small rivers and streams. The lower classes of frequency distributions of

  14. El Perfil de la Informalidad Laboral en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Guataquí R; Andrés Felipe García S; Mauricio Rodríguez A

    2010-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo analiza el proceso de implementación del concepto de informalidad en el análisis del mercado laboral colombiano. A la luz de dicho concepto, abordamos la evolución de la informalidad laboral en Colombia, sus principales componentes y características. Utilizando información de la Encuesta de Hogares GEIH-DANE 2010 contrastamos la tasa de informalidad y su composición, generadas por la definición

  15. Costos laborales y no laborales y su impacto sobre el desempleo, la duración del desempleo y la informalidad en Colombia, 1980-2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Sánchez; Valentina Duque; Mauricio Ruíz

    2009-01-01

    Este documento describe y analiza la evolución del desempleo desde 1980 estimando el efecto de los costos laborales no salariales (parafiscales) y salario mínimo sobre la tasa y duración del desempleo así como el efecto de los costos mencionados sobre la informalidad. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que aumentos en las regulaciones laborales aumentan la informalidad, el desempleo y su duración.

  16. ETNICIDAD NEGRA Y ELECCIONES EN COLOMBIA Publi in Journal of Latin American Anthropology, Vol 7, No. 2, 2002. Pp. 168-197.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 ETNICIDAD NEGRA Y ELECCIONES EN COLOMBIA Publié in Journal of Latin American Anthropology, Vol 7, Université Paris III and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris Resumen: En Colombia, a pesar del circunscripción electoral especial. En las elecciones parlamentarias de 1994 en Colombia, se aplicó por primera

  17. Palynomorphs and foraminifera from Colombia housed in the systematic collections of Ecopetrol-ICP

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    -ICP Diana Espitia1, María Carolina Vargas2, José E. Arenas3, Carlos A. Jaramillo4, Milton J. Rueda5 and Hermann Duque-Caro6 1DTH-EOS Ltda., Bucaramanga, Colombia. despitiav@gmail.com 2Instituto Colombiano del Research-Panamá, Panamá. 5Paleoflora Ltda. Bucaramanga, Colombia. 6Duque Caro & Cia. Ltda., Bogotá

  18. ¿Cuándo votan los pobres? Partidos, maquinarias y cambios constitucionales en el siglo XIX en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Alonso Sarzosa

    2008-01-01

    En Colombia la democracia ha sido el mecanismo normal para acceder al poder. Sin embargo, desde los albores de la república los enfrentamientos bélicos partidistas y los cambios constitucionales fueron una constante. Este trabajo muestra cómo en el siglo XIX en Colombia, los cambios constitucionales estaban íntimamente relacionados con la popularidad del partido que gobernaba. A través de cambios constitucionales

  19. directorio2011 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA

    E-print Network

    Prieto, Germán A.

    directorio2011 #12;UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA Rector Moisés Edificio Uriel Gutiérrez Carrera 45 No. 26-85 Código Postal en Bogotá UN. 11001 Indicativo en Colombia (57 DE COLOMBIA -4- OTROS INSTITUTOS.................................................................51

  20. Vegetative propagation of Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pavon) Oken: the effects of IBA concentration, propagation medium and cutting origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mesén; A. C. Newton; R. R. B. Leakey

    1997-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of IBA, rooting media and cutting origins on the rooting of leafy stem cuttings of Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pavon) Oken were investigated in three experiments using non-mist propagators. During the rooting period, changes in dry mass, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and relative water content (RWC) of the cuttings were assessed. In Experiment 1, cuttings

  1. Lecciones Inaugurales Curso 81-82. Facultad de Ciencias. Francisco Ruiz Bevi. Crisis energtica y materias primas en la

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Lecciones Inaugurales Curso 81-82. Facultad de Ciencias. Francisco Ruiz Beviá. Crisis energética y. Curso 83-84. Facultad de Medicina. Carlos Belmonte Martínez. Curso 84-85. Facultad Ciencias Económicas y Historia de la Ciencia" Curso 85-86. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Asunción Alba Pelayo. "Unamuno y

  2. Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Tufts University

    Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade Agreement@bu.edu #12;Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade Agreement SerieBrief # 66 | Abril 2011 Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia

  3. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  4. Julie Bovasso in Colombia

    E-print Network

    de Medina, Helena

    1975-04-01

    84 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Julie Bovasso in Colombia Foto: Aurelio Jiménez, U.S.I.S. (Bogotá) Left to right: Julie Bovasso, Mauricio Figueroa, Ernesto González (back to camera), Jaime Rairan, Enisberto Jaraba, Virginia Córdoba. Bearing... out her own stated premise that there is no "one technique," Julie Bovasso, North American eight-time award winner, playwright, director, actress and self-appointed voice of the New York theatre scene, made history in Colombia by bringing her...

  5. Output Fluctuations and Monetary Shocks: Evidence from Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Reinhart; Vincent Reinhart

    1991-01-01

    Usando los datos anuales para Colombia durante los 30 años pasados, probamos las teorías de oposición que explican fluctuaciones macroeconómicas: la síntesis neoclásica, que postula eso en presencia de rigidez temporal del precio una extensión monetaria inesperada produce los aumentos de la salida que erosionan en un cierto plazo con aumentos en el nivel de precios; y una explicación alternativa,

  6. Una aproximación histórica a las representaciones contables en Colombia. (A historical approach to accounting representations in Colombia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Antonio Machado Rivera

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza un abordaje de las representaciones contables para analizar cómo han evolucionado a través del tiempo, desde el marco interpretativo de la nueva historia. Representaciones tales como información, certificación y control, entre otras, desde el plano praxiológico han estado presentes, con dinámicas propias, en la historia de la profesión contable en Colombia, tomando como fuente las

  7. English Teaching Profile: Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Colombia provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, postsecondary, and teacher education). The following topics are covered: the characteristics…

  8. Administrative morality in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Paez Murcia, Angela Maria

    2013-05-31

    ADMINISTRATIVE MORALITY IN COLOMBIA By Copyright 2013 Angela María Páez Murcia Submitted to the graduate degree program in Public Affairs and Administration and the Graduate... administration by allowing ordinary people to file a lawsuit to challenge governmental corruption. This constitutional reform fostered high hopes of law-­?inspired social change. The...

  9. Recruiting Teachers in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a system of special schools in Colombia which introduces students to teaching careers as early as the 8th grade. The Colombian system is based on a simple idea: Every student is a potential teacher. Principals talk about molding "ciudadano-pedagogos"--citizen-educators who view teaching as a way of…

  10. Colombia Country Assessment for Youth Development Accounts

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Colombia Country Assessment for Youth Development Accounts By Rainier Masa Summary Colombia stands in Colombia, and managed to attract more savers than borrowers (CGAP, 1998; Wisniwski, 1999). It serves more, and Megabanco.5 Although microfinance has a strong presence in the country, Colombia remains the only important

  11. Phenotypic instability and epigenetic variability in a diploid potato of hybrid origin, Solanum ruiz-lealii

    PubMed Central

    Marfil, Carlos F; Camadro, Elsa L; Masuelli, Ricardo W

    2009-01-01

    Background The wild potato Solanum ruiz-lealii Brüch. (2n = 2x = 24), a species of hybrid origin, is endemic to Mendoza province, Argentina. Recurrent flower malformations, which varied among inflorescences of the same plant, were observed in a natural population. These abnormalities could be the result of genomic instabilities, nucleus-cytoplasmic incompatibility or epigenetic changes. To shed some light on their origin, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of plants with normal and plants with both normal and malformed flowers (from here on designated as plants with normal and plants with abnormal flower phenotypes, respectively) were analyzed by AFLP and restriction analyses, respectively. Also, the wide genome methylation status and the level of methylation of a repetitive sequence were studied by MSAP and Southern blots analyses, respectively. Results AFLP markers and restriction patterns of mitochondrial DNA did not allow the differentiation of normal from abnormal flower phenotypes. However, methylation patterns of nuclear DNA discriminated normal and abnormal flower phenotypes into two different groups, indicating that abnormal phenotypes have a similar methylation status which, in turn, was different from the methylation patterns of normal phenotypes. The abnormal flower phenotype was obtained by treating a normal plant with 5-Azacytidine, a demethylating agent, giving support to the idea of the role of DNA methylation in the origin of flower abnormalities. In addition, the variability detected for DNA methylation was greater than the detected for nucleotide sequence. Conclusion The epigenetic nature of the observed flower abnormalities is consistent with the results and indicates that in the diploid hybrid studied, natural variation in methylation profiles of anonymous DNA sequences could be of biological significance. PMID:19232108

  12. Wireless Strain Sensor Development for Civil Infrastructure T. Nagayama, M. Ruiz-Sandoval*, B. F. Spencer Jr., K. A. Mechitov**, G. Agha**

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., B.F.

    Wireless Strain Sensor Development for Civil Infrastructure T. Nagayama, M. Ruiz-Sandoval*, B. F in that they have the potential to dramatically improve SHM/DD. The Berkeley Mote smart sensor, with its embedded infrastructure applications. Strain is one of the important physical quantities used to judge the health

  13. Predicting Neuropsychological Development from Skull Imaging H. J. Lin, S. Ruiz-Correa, L. G. Shapiro, M. L. Speltz, M.L. Cunningham and R. W. Sze

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Predicting Neuropsychological Development from Skull Imaging H. J. Lin, S. Ruiz-Correa, L. G pedi- atric disease caused by the premature fusion of sutures of the skull. Although studies have shown for this association is still unclear. It is hypothesized that an abnormally shaped skull produces a secondary defor

  14. A Guide to the Birds of Colombia

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    A Guide to the Birds of Colombia Steven L. Hilty and William L. Brown Colombiaisperhapsthe world yet to be surpassed by any field guide to any region. A Guide to the Birds of Colombia treats close had begun research in Colombia in the 1960s, while Hilty's bril- liant field skills were first brought

  15. The Marriage Squeeze in Colombia, 19732005

    E-print Network

    Jones, James Holland

    140 HSBI The Marriage Squeeze in Colombia, 1973­2005: The Role of Excess Male Death Marriage Squeeze in Colombia James Holland Jones* and Brodie Ferguson Department of Anthropological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford ABSTRACT: Colombia has been characterized by extreme levels of civil violence

  16. CURRENT STATUS OF ONCHOCERCIASIS IN COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AUGUSTO CORREDOR; RUBEN SANTIAGO NICHOLLS; SOFIA DUQUE; PAULINA MUNOZ DE HOYOS; CARLOS ARTURO ALVAREZ; RONALD H. GUDERIAN; HECTOR HUGO LOPEZ; GLORIA INES PALMA

    To assess the current epidemiologic status of onchocerciasis in Colombia two surveys were undertaken in 1995 in a suspected new focus on the border between Colombia and Ecuador and in the known focus located on the Micay River. No new focus was found along the Colombia-Ecuador border. In the known focus, communities along the upper Micay River and its tributaries

  17. Glaciares de los Andes Tropicales vctimas del Cambio Climtico

    E-print Network

    Rabatel, Antoine

    tiempo hasta que volví a ver otros. He tenido la gran suerte de visitar algunos de los más dramáticos del mundo, en Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina. Llegué en mis viajes hasta la Antártida

  18. 7223440 Aguirre Sierra, Arnzazu 1 51103464 Almarcha Ruiz, Marta Cristina 1

    E-print Network

    Espigares, Tíscar

    51071400 Sánchez Patan, Arturo 2 9045456 Sandoval del Campo, Sarah 2 5288696 Sanz Aceves, Álvaro 2 5309010 Sanz Martínez, Jorge 2 51446557 Sanz Sierra, Ángel 2 9048341 Serrano Oñoro, Seila 2 50770878 Sobrino

  19. The Colombia Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage of the RSNC network is presented along with the improvement in earthquake location and the quality of the data. New tools to calculate moment magnitude and focal mechanism are implemented as a result of the network expansion. The principal seismic sources in Colombia and the challenges for the future of the network are discussed.

  20. DAMAGE BY TIBRACA LIMBATIVENTRIS (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) TO RICE IN SOUTHWESTERN COLOMBIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Action thresholds for Tibraca limbativentris Stall (TL) on rice were calculated to be 8.8 and 25.8 TL/10 sweep nets for 30 and 40 day old plants respectively. Population dynamics of TL in two localities of Valle del Cauca Colombia, indicates a density of 1.2 TL/ sweep (12 TL/10 sweeps). Densities e...

  1. Mantidflies of Colombia (neuroptera, mantispidae).

    PubMed

    Ardila-Camacho, Adrian; García, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study revises the Mantispidae of Colombia. 151 adult specimens of 12 entomological museums of Colombia were examined and identified. On the basis of the specimens studied and a comprehensive literature search, it is determined that 20 nominal species (including two doubtful records) plus four proposed as new to science, in ten genera (Anchieta, Plega, Trichoscelia, Gerstaeckerella, Buyda, Climaciella, Dicromantispa, Entanoneura, Leptomantispa, and Zeugomantispa) and, three subfamilies (Symphrasinae, Drepanicinae, and Mantispinae) occur in Colombia. In addition, A. eurydella (Westwood), C. amapaensis Penny and P. fasciatella (Westwood) are redescribed, providing complementary information to the original descriptions. A list of Colombian Mantispidae, distribution maps and taxonomic keys to subfamilies, genera and species are included. Illustrations of the external morphology and male genitalia are provided for selected species. The taxonomic status of P. hagenella (Westwood) is discussed, and its diagnostic characters are redefined. Anchieta remipes (Gerstaecker) is newly transferred to this genus from Trichoscelia. PMID:25947479

  2. Lorica, una colonia árabe a orillas del río Sinú

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joaquín Viloria De La Hoz

    2003-01-01

    En este artículo se estudian las circunstancias como llegaron los primeros inmigrantes árabes a Colombia desde finales del siglo XIX, así como sus actividades económicas más importantes. La investigación escogió a Lorica como punto de referencia, al ser una de las poblaciones más próspera de la subregión del Sinú durante el siglo XIX y primeras décadas del siguiente, en donde

  3. El Colegio Mayor del Rosario y la reforma universitaria Santanderista

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Eduardo Fajardo; Carlos Cañon; Juanita Villaveces; Diego HERRERA

    2002-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta evidencia del impacto financiero y administrativo de la reforma educativa de Santander en una universidad privada de comienzos del siglo XIX en Colombia. La reforma educativa emprendida por el gobierno colombiano durante las dácadas de 1820 y 1830fue un ambicioso proyecto de modernización que era visto como una parte importante del proceso de rompimiento con el pasado

  4. Lepanthes (Orchidaceae) species of Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julián Farfán; J. Tupac Otero; Carlyle A. Luer

    2003-01-01

    orchids constitute one of the most species-rich families of plants in the world, and Colombia possesses a large proportion of this number, including around of 4000 species, grouped into 205 genera. With an estimated number of 4000 species in about 29 genera, the subtribe Pleurothallidinae is one of the most diverse groups within the family, accounting for 15-20% of all

  5. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  6. CARDIOPATÍAS CONGÉNITAS EN NIÑOS MENORES DE CINCO AÑOS. SERIE DE CASOS, 2003-2006: HOSPITAL REGIONAL, SANTANDER DE QUILICHAO, CAUCA, COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Hugo Rodríguez; Richard G. Shoemaker

    RESUMEN Este estudio descriptivo investiga las cardiopatías congénitas en menores de cinco años; se basó en una serie de casos consecutivos que consultaron o fueron remitidos a un hospital nivel dos en la región norte del departamento del Cauca, Colombia, entre el primero de julio de 2003 y el 31 de diciembre de 2005. Objetivo: Describir la situación actual con

  7. Descentralización y Finanzas Públicas: Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Junguito; Ligia A. Melo; Martha A. Misas

    1995-01-01

    La constitución política de 1991 afianzó el proceso de descentralización del país, otorgando mayor autonomía a las regresiones y transfiriendo un porcentaje creciente de los ingresos corrientes del Gobierno Central hacia las entidades territoriales. En este artículo se analiza el efecto del proceso de descentralización sobre las finanzas del Gobierno Central y de los entes regionales. En primer lugar, se

  8. Energy and natural resource policies in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DeLaPedraja

    1989-01-01

    Despite being richly endowed with mineral, metal, and water resources, Colombia has enjoyed neither economic prosperity nor abundant energy. This book explores the history and development of Colombia's petroleum, natural gas, electric, coal, and atomic energy industries. The author surveys the political and economic factors - both domestic and international - that have shaped the nation's energy and resource policies

  9. RESEARCH ON CASSAVA FOLIAGE PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernardo Ospina; Luis Fernando Cadavid; Jorge Luis Gil; Álvaro Andrés Albán

    Cassava cultivation in Colombia has been increasing recently due to its multiplicity of uses and markets. One of the most important uses for the crop is the foliage in animal feeding, as a source of protein in balanced feeds for monogastrics and ruminants. In Colombia, the animal production sector is growing very fast and domestic production of cereals such us

  10. Cryphonectria canker on Tibouchina in Colombia By M. J. WINGFIELD

    E-print Network

    Cryphonectria canker on Tibouchina in Colombia By M. J. WINGFIELD 1 , C. RODAS 2 , H. MYBURG 3 , M.Wing®eld@fabi.up.ac.za; 2 Smur®t Carton de Colombia, Cali, Colombia and Wright Forest Management Consultants Inc., Cary NC canker disease on Tibouchina spp. (Melastomataceae) in Colombia. We used morphological studies

  11. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ...13-16] RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U...customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective...November 22, 2006, the United States and Colombia signed the United States-Colombia...

  12. Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. and Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae) essential oils from Eastern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Andreotti, Elisa; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Maldonado, Maria E; Bruni, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500?g/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. PMID:21783920

  13. Informalidad del mercado de crédito para la vivienda de interés social

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Rocha; Fabio Sánchez Torres; Jorge Tovar

    2007-01-01

    Se trata de un documento dedicado a revelar los principales rasgos del mercado de crédito para Vivienda de Interés Social, VIS, para la población pobre en Colombia y a analizar los resultados de la política durante lo corrido del presente milenio. La primera mitad del estudio estudia la oferta VIS sobre los resultados de 70 encuestas aplicadas a oferentes de

  14. Humanitarian IED clearance in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Molina, A.; Diaz, D.; Grasmueck, M.; Moreno, H. A.; Hernández, R. D.

    2008-04-01

    The development of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED's) by insurgents in Colombia is characterized by a quick response to counter IED measures. Many current IED's do not contain any metal parts and can have any shape or form. Due to the low metal content or the absence of any metal parts, sensors based on metal detection are not useful anymore. Due to the wide variety of sizes, shapes, and enclosure materials of current IED's, one and two-dimensional GPR sensors using a "library" of known shapes as well as acoustic sensors using material characteristic frequencies have become ineffective. Therefore, the Colombian experience strongly suggests that chemical sensors are the way for IED detection in soils since they do not depend on IED metal content, size, or shape but only on the presence of explosives, a necessary ingredient for any IED. Promising recently developed chemical sensors make use of semiconducting organic polymers (SOPs) such as FIDO and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Once an explosive has been detected, the IED needs to be identified and located. Therefore, there is a need for three-dimensional high resolution scans for identification of all subsoil features including rocks, roots, and IED's. The recently developed 3D-GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) can map all features of the subsoil with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm or less. The objectives of this contribution are to inform about the IED problem in Colombia and how novel technologies may contribute to humanitarian IED clearance under humid tropical conditions.

  15. In: Biology, Evolution and Conservation of River Dolphins... ISBN 978-60876-633-8 Editors: Manuel Ruiz-Garcia and Joseph Shostell 2010 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    as in the Amazon River basin (Figure 1). Marine Sotalia are found from Honduras to the state of Santa Catarina and Colombia) and "lam" (Nicaragua). The distribution of riverine Sotalia comprises most of the Amazon River

  16. An Energy Overview of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site--each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Colombia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  17. Ornithological surveys in Serrania de 10s Churumbelos, southern Colombia

    E-print Network

    Cuervo, Andrés

    Ornithological surveys in Serrania de 10s Churumbelos, southern Colombia Paul G. W. Salaman, Thomas resultadosindicanfuertementequela Serrania de10sChurumbelosdebeser una prioridadpara la conservaci6n en Colombia, en tanto que. Figure I: Map of Serrania de 10s Churumbelos, southern Colombia. ~ h " eChurumbelos massif of southern

  18. Regional patterns of agricultural land use and deforestation in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    Regional patterns of agricultural land use and deforestation in Colombia Andre´s Etter a, Australia c Facultad de Estudios Ambientales y Rurales, Universidad Javeriana, Bogota´, Colombia Received 14, including Colombia. However, the location and extent of deforestation and associated ecological impacts

  19. Demographic and Social Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Jones, James Holland

    Demographic and Social Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia A Dyadic Power, and Colombia (Flake and Forste 2006). In Peru, low educational attainment and early union formation increase-dominant decision-making was associated with higher risk of IPV in Nicaragua, Haiti, and Colombia. The welter

  20. Enero de 2011OHVG UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA

    E-print Network

    Prieto, Germán A.

    Enero de 2011OHVG UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA CONVOCATORIA PARA SELECCIÓN Y VINCULACIÓN DE Nacional de Colombia. 7. Términos para presentación de documentos y selección: LOS SIGUIENTES DOCUMENTOS SE) Formato de Hoja de Vida Simplificada de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Descargar en: http

  1. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Eucalyptus canker diseases in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Eucalyptus canker diseases in Colombia By C. A. Rodas1,3 , B, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa; 3 Smurfit Carto´n de Colombia, Investigacio´n Forestal, Carrera 3 No. 10-36, Cali, Valle, Colombia. 4 E-mail: bernard.slippers@fabi.up.ac.za (for correspondence) Summary

  2. BIOCOMBUSTIBLES EN ARGENTINA, BRASIL Y COLOMBIA: AVANCES Y LIMITACIONES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 BIOCOMBUSTIBLES EN ARGENTINA, BRASIL Y COLOMBIA: AVANCES Y LIMITACIONES Silvina Cecilia Carrizo contextos internacionales, nacionales y locales. Se profundiza la mirada sobre Argentina, Brasil y Colombia and local contexts. The study focuses on Argentina, Brazil and Colombia, continental leaders in the sector

  3. Condenados al silencio jvenes excombatientes en Colombia1 Anne Rethmann

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Condenados al silencio ­ jóvenes excombatientes en Colombia1 Anne Rethmann Estudió antropología sí, tiene soluciones. Palabras Claves Agency and structure, jóvenes combatientes, Colombia, programas ­ or the world may perish." (Bauman 2004: 58f.) 1 Este artículo se base en el trabajo de campo en Colombia

  4. Enero de 2011OHVG UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA

    E-print Network

    Prieto, Germán A.

    Enero de 2011OHVG UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA CONVOCATORIA PARA SELECCIÓN Y VINCULACIÓN DE Universidad Nacional de Colombia. 7. Términos para presentación de documentos y selección: LOS SIGUIENTES convocatoria: a) Formato de Hoja de Vida Simplificada de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Descargar en: http

  5. Phylogeny of dengue virus type 3 circulating in Colombia between 2001 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julián; Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel Rafael; Jimenez, Raquel Elvira Ocazionez

    2009-10-01

    Dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) re-appeared in Colombia in 2001 after 23 years of apparent absence, in the state of Santander in the North-eastern region near to Venezuelan border. In 2002, the virus was isolated in the state of Valle del Cauca in the South-east region near to Ecuadorian/Peruvian border, and in the state of Antioquia in the North-east region near to Panama border. To gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of DENV-3 in Colombia, we sequenced the complete E gene of 21 isolates sampled in the period 2001-2007. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Colombian strains seem to have been introduced from Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, but not from Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay or Central America countries. This study also confirms previous report showing that Colombian isolates is closely related to DENV-3 genotype III. PMID:19619216

  6. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from medellín, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 5% of all breast cancers can be attributed to a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. The genetic component of breast cancer in Colombia has been, for the most part, studied on cases from the Bogota region. Five different founder mutations were in two studies of breast cancer patients in the Bogota region. It is important that the frequency of mutations be established among unselected cases of breast cancer of other regions of Colombia in order to estimate the genetic burden of this cancer in Colombia and to plan genetic services. The aim of this study was to establish the mutation frequencies of the BRCA genes in breast cancer patients unselected for family history or age, from Medellin, Colombia. Methods We enrolled 280 unselected women with breast cancer from a large public hospital in Medellin, Colombia. A detailed family history from each patient and a blood sample was obtained and processed for DNA analysis. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were sought using a combination of techniques including a panel of recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations which consists of fifty BRCA1 mutations and forty-six BRCA2 mutations, including the five recurrent Colombian BRCA mutations. All mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Genetic testing was successfully completed for 244 of the 280 cases (87%). Among the 244 cases, three deleterious mutations were identified (two in BRCA1 and one in BRCA2) representing 1.2% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 34 years. The two BRCA1 mutations were known founder mutations (3450del4 in exon 11 and A1708E in exon 18). The BRCA2 mutation was in exon 11 (5844del5) and has not been previously reported in individuals of Colombian descent. Among the three mutation-positive families was a breast cancer family and two families with no history of breast or ovarian cancer. Conclusion The frequency of BRCA mutations in unselected breast cancer cases from the Medellin region of Colombia is low and is approximately 1.2%. PMID:24742220

  7. This series introduces the subject of Colombia by presenting all sides of the country: environment, drugs, political history (Plan Colombia),

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    This series introduces the subject of Colombia by presenting all sides of the country: environment, drugs, political history (Plan Colombia), youth, political violence (the Patriotic Union), forced - November 29th - Baile Rojo Plan Colombia WE CAN NOT KEEP SILENT with Gildardo Tuberquia to answer

  8. Catastrophic volcanic collapse: relation to hydrothermal processes.

    PubMed

    López, D L; Williams, S N

    1993-06-18

    Catastrophic volcanic collapse, without precursory magmatic activity, is characteristic of many volcanic disasters. The extent and locations of hydrothermal discharges at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, suggest that at many volcanoes collapse may result from the interactions between hydrothermal fluids and the volcanic edifice. Rock dissolution and hydrothermal mineral alteration, combined with physical triggers such as earth-quakes, can produce volcanic collapse. Hot spring water compositions, residence times, and flow paths through faults were used to model potential collapse at Ruiz. Caldera dimensions, deposits, and alteration mineral volumes are consistent with parameters observed at other volcanoes. PMID:17793659

  9. INTRODUCED LAND SNAILS AND SLUGS IN COLOMBIA.

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, BERNHARD

    2002-05-01

    Twelve species of introduced land molluscs, including seven slug species, have been found in the cold zone above 2000 m altitude in the Departamentos Cundinamarca and Boyacá, and the Distrito Especial in Colombia. The introduced land molluscs remain generally restricted to disturbed environments, from which native species are often absent. Most recorded species originated from Europe. Deroceras laeve has been present in Colombia for more than a century, whereas the other species are probably more recent introductions. The records of Boettgerilla pallens, which is indigenous to the Caucasus and has spread over Europe only during the last decades, demonstrates that the process of introduction of alien molluscs is continuing. PMID:12011238

  10. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...Service Exports Colombia Colombia houses the 3rd largest...inhabitants. Five cities in Colombia boast a consumer base...than a million people. Colombia is the fastest growing...information technology and communications, military...

  11. How Profitable is Higher Education in Colombia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Hernández

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the education premium for graduate students in Colombia, focusing on the screening hypothesis which is tested via sheepskin effects. A new dataset for higher education is constructed using administrative records of educational institutions and social security information. The findings suggest that the Colombian labor market places a high value on an individual’s alma mater, followed in, second

  12. A Regional Economic Policy for Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan David Barón; Gerson Javier Pérez V; Peter Rowland

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for a regional economic policy in Colombia. The regional characteristics and disparities of the country are studied, and regional disparities are shown to be both significant and persistent over time. This calls for a policy initiative to promote the development of the poorer regions of the country. The study here draws lessons from other cases

  13. Sixteen bird species new for Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Salaman; Nick Bayly; Robert Burridge; Mark Gurney; Alonso Quevedo; Luis Eduardo Urueña; Thomas Donegan

    2008-01-01

    We document 16 bird species (Anas platyrhynchos, Anas strepera, Phalacrocorax auritus, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Stercorarius pomarinus, Stercorarius longicaudus, Larus fuscus, Columbina cruziana, Chalcostigma stanleyi, Empidonax minimus, Vireo griseus, Anthus rubescens Passerculus sandwichensis, Vermivora ruficapilla, Limnothlypis swainsonii and Dives warszewiczi) and one bird subspecies (Oxyura j. jamaicensis) new to Colombia. These comprise three species whose presence in the country or wider region

  14. Violence and Drug Prohibition in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Medina; Hermes Martínez

    2003-01-01

    We assess the role of inequality, poverty and drug prohibition, in explaining homicide rates(HR) in Colombia using panel data at the municipality level between 1990 and 1998. We use maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate several specifications of spatial models. When we pool the data we find a significant relation between the HR and poverty which is reinforced when the inequality

  15. Trade Reforms and Wage Inequiality in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orazio Attanasio; Pinelopi K. Goldberg; Nina Pavcnik

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the drastic tariff reductions of the 1980s and 1990s in Colombia on the wage distribution. We identify three main channels through which the wage distribution was affected: increasing returns to college education, changes in industry wages that hurt sectors with initially lower wages and a higher fraction of unskilled workers, and shifts of the labor

  16. Trade reforms and wage inequality in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orazio Attanasio; Pinelopi K. Goldberg; Nina Pavcnik

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the drastic tariff reductions of the 1980s and 1990s in Colombia on the wage distribution. We identify three main channels through which the wage distribution was affected: increasing returns to college education, changes in industry wages that hurt sectors with initially lower wages and a higher fraction of unskilled workers, and shifts of the labor

  17. Socioeconomic factors associated with malaria in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Banguero

    1984-01-01

    In spite of progress made to control tropical diseases many developing countries in the world still show high rates of incidence. A program for malaria eradication has been in operation in Colombia since 1953, and the malaria incidence rate was falling until 1971. However, in recent years the rate has begun to rise again in affected areas of the country.

  18. Sociomedical aspects of malaria control in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Lipowsky; Axel Kroeger; María Luisa Vazquez

    1992-01-01

    A household interview survey combined with a serological survey on the incidence of malaria attacks and prevalence of antibodies has been carried out in rural and urban areas of the pacific coast of Colombia. Additional information on people's knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards malaria was collected by means of participant observation and informal interviews. The results show that people incorporate

  19. Planktonic Foraminifera Record of the Mid Albian Sea Level Rise, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Sukop, Mike

    Planktonic Foraminifera Record of the Mid Albian Sea Level Rise, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia Cretaceous unit in southern Colombia named "Tetuán Limestone", have allowed the comparison between planktic foraminifera interval zones in Colombia: Ticinella primula and Biticinella breggiensis, with late

  20. College/University: 1995-2001 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Education College/University: 1995-2001 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota Colombia Highest of birth: 11.07.1978 Country: Colombia E-mail: Salgvero.Gustavo@ MH-Hannover.de Supervisor: PD. Bernhard

  1. 19 CFR 10.3009 - Certification for goods exported to Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Certification for goods exported to Colombia. 10.3009 Section 10.3009 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Export Requirements... Certification for goods exported to Colombia. (a) Submission of...

  2. 78 FR 47046 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental Cooperation Agreement AGENCY...regarding the first United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Work Program...for implementing the United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation...

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State...I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of...

  4. 19 CFR 10.3009 - Certification for goods exported to Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Certification for goods exported to Colombia. 10.3009 Section 10.3009 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Export Requirements... Certification for goods exported to Colombia. (a) Submission of...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of U. S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State...I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of...

  6. 78 FR 18877 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS Case 2012-D032) AGENCY: Defense...DFARS) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade...of eligible products and services from Colombia. DATES: Effective date: March...

  7. 78 FR 49972 - Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States AGENCY: Animal...importation of cape gooseberry from Colombia into the United States. As a condition of entry, cape gooseberry from Colombia would be subject to a systems...

  8. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Colombia AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD...FAR) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade...of eligible products and services from Colombia. DATES: Effective Date: January...

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State...I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of...

  10. 77 FR 50557 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Federal Register...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State...I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of...

  11. 78 FR 6810 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY: International...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama published at 77 FR 71778...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama published at 77 FR...

  12. 77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Colombia AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD...FAR) to implement the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade...of eligible products and services from Colombia. DATES: Effective Date: May 15,...

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential...Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State...I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of...

  14. NEW CONCEPTS FOR STATIC CONCENTRATION OF DIRECT AND DIFFUSE RADIATION A. Luque, J. Eguren, J.M. Ruiz, A. Cuevas, J. del Alamo, J.M. Gomez, M.

    E-print Network

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    some kind of tracking to keep the cells illuminated while the sun position varies. Fur thermore.T.S.I.T.) Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Madrid 3, Spain Phone ~341) 2441060 SUMl1ARY The rules for casting maximum en,ergy on a cell placed in a static concentrator of minimum entry aperture are derived

  15. Gobernanza pública, violencia y políticas de alivio a la pobreza. La ampliación del marco conceptual del programa Familias en Acción

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Bernal Castillo

    2003-01-01

    En Colombia es posible observar décadas de implementación de políticas públicas sectoriales con pobres resultados para el bienestar de los individuos, lo que muestra que en las sociedades regionales y rurales no existen los elementos de gobernanza pública requeridos para hacer que el impacto del gobierno en su desarrollo no dependa sólo de los recursos fiscales, sino también de algo

  16. Mineral resources of Colombia (other than petroleum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singewald, Quentin Dreyer

    1950-01-01

    The following report summarizes data acquired during 1942-45, in Colombia, by geologists and engineers of the Foreign Economic Administration, with whom the United States Geological Survey cooperated. Twenty-nine mineral commodities are considered, but the data for five of them are scant because they were of no interest to FEA personnel. Petroleum is not considered. Preliminary to a review of individual mineral commodities, resumes are given of the general geography and geology of Colombia and of the country's mining laws. The principal mineral commodities, besides petroleum, produced in Colombia are (1) emeralds, gold, platinum, and silver, mainly for export, and (2) barite, cement, clay, coal, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, silica, and stone, mainly for the domestic market. A large number of other mineral commodities are known in "raw" prospects, some of which may eventually become productive. Their distribution and apparent potentialities, as of 1945, are given. Factors unfavorable to mining are the ruggedness of the terrain, the scarcity of outcrops, and the very high transportation costs.

  17. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  18. The Great Tumaco, Colombia Earthquake of 12 December 1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darrell G. Herd; T. Leslie Youd; Hansjurgen Meyer; Jorge Luis Arango C; Waverly J. Person; Carlos Mendoza

    1981-01-01

    Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the

  19. Education in Rural Colombia: An Investment in Human Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, A. Eugene

    The hypothesis examined in this study is that education as an active force will perform two functions: (1) develop technical innovations and transform the productive structure, and (2) produce men who can undertake social and political innovations in Colombia. The plight of education in rural Colombia is revealed when contrasted with the urban…

  20. COLOMBIA'S ELECTORAL AND PARTY SYSTEM: PROPOSALS FOR By Grard Roland and Juan Gonzalo Zapata

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    1 COLOMBIA'S ELECTORAL AND PARTY SYSTEM: PROPOSALS FOR REFORMS. By Gérard Roland and Juan Gonzalo for their comments on the first draft. #12;2 1. Introduction and summary. Colombia's political system, despite to tackle Colombia's major problems head-on. However, the major obstacle to reforms in Colombia has been

  1. Self-reversal of natural remanent magnetization in andesitic pumice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Haag; F. Heller; R. Allenspach; K. Roche

    1990-01-01

    The natural remanent magnetization of andesitic pumice erupted from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Colombia) in 1985 is reversed with respect to the present geomagnetic field because of self-reversal. Laboratory thermoremanent magnetization acquired in fields of < 1 mT fully re-establishes the self-reversal mechanism. Hysteresis experiments indicate that the mechanism is caused by antiparallel coupling as a result of exchange

  2. Epidemiology of endemic goitre in western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gaitan, E.; Merino, H.; Rodriguez, G.; Medina, P.; Meyer, J. D.; DeRouen, T. A.; MacLennan, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on recent epidemiological observations in western Colombia, which further demonstrate the presence of naturally-occurring goitrogens contaminating water supplies in areas where goitre persists despite prolonged and continuous iodine supplementation. 'Prospective' and 'cross-sectional' studies in 41 localities where the populations have been on a uniform and adequate iodine supplementation for the last 10-20 years indicate that, in the endemia of western Colombia, environmental factors other than nutritional iodine deficiency are responsible for differences in goitre prevalence. Further epidemiological studies to determine the causal factors for the persistence of the endemia established a correlation between the sources of drinking water and goitre prevalence rates. Organic compounds containing sulfur with marked thionamide-like antithyroid activity were isolated from water supplying endemic goitre districts, and results are presented supporting the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens. Bacteriological investigations showed that the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in drinking water and bacterial concentration were related significantly with goitre prevalence only in the presence of other variables, particularly the presence of sedimentary rocks. In the light of these epidemiological observations and experimental studies it may be concluded that, at present, endemic goitre in western Colombia is not due to nutritional iodine deficiency, but that water supplies are contaminated with sulfur-bearing organic compounds with thionamide-like antithyroid activity most probably deriving from sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter and that these compounds are the main factor underlying the endemia. PMID:80287

  3. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  4. Modernism and contraceptive use in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, W H; Pitt Ford, T R

    1976-03-01

    This analysis addresses the question of whether fertility can be lowered without the prior occurrence of the social and economic changes that have come to be labeled modernization. The data show that there exists in Colombia a relatively high level of motivation to control fertility that, for many women, is not coupled with both knowledge of and access to a method of contraception. For the "traditional" woman, the problem may not be lack of motivation so much as lack of access to methods that she is aware of, such as the pill, and lack of knowledge of methods that require few resources of supplies, such as rhythm and withdrawal. PMID:1273911

  5. Burden of disease in Nariño, Colombia, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo-Montalvo, Elizabeth; Hidalgo-Patiño, Carlos; Hidalgo-Eraso, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to measure burden of disease and identifies health priorities from the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) indicator. Methods: This is the first study on burden of disease for a department in Colombia by using a standardized methodology. By using the DALYs indicator, burden of disease was identified in the department of Nariño according to the guidelines established by the World Health Organization. Results: The DALYs in the Department of Nariño highlight the emergence of communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional diseases during the first years of life; of accidents and lesions among youth, and non-communicable diseases in older individuals. Also, accidents and lesions are highlighted in men and non-communicable diseases in women. Conclusions: This study is part of the knowledge management process in the Departmental Health Plan for Nariño - Colombia 2012-2015 and contributes to the system of indicators of the 2012 ten-year public health plan. This research evidences that communicable diseases generate the biggest part of the burden of disease in the Department of Nariño, that DALYs due to non-communicable diseases are on the rise, and that accidents and lesions, especially due to violence are an important cause of DALYs in this region, which is higher than that of the country. PMID:25386034

  6. Problemas del seguimiento y la evaluación del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo en Colombia (1991-2003)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac De León Beltrán; Carlos Alberto Alfonso Correa

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es clasificar los problemas que ha enfrentado el Departamento Nacional de Planeación al hacer seguimiento y evaluación de los Planes Nacionales de Desarrollo, y más específicamente la Dirección de Evaluación de Políticas Públicas de la misma entidad. La clasificación de los problemas se hace de acuerdo a los siguientes criterios: 1. Problemas de diseño institucional,

  7. 77 FR 71778 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogotá, Columbia and Panama City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogot[aacute], Columbia...a Trade Mission to Bogot[aacute], Colombia and Panama City, Panama. Dates are...briefings, and networking events. In both Colombia and Panama the governments and...

  8. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ...REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...sugar established by the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered...States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

  9. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopusgriseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopusgriseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopusgriseicollisgriseicollis and Scytalopusgriseicollisgilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. PMID:26085800

  10. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopus griseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopus griseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopus griseicollis griseicollis and Scytalopus griseicollis gilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.

  11. Medición de Indicadores Betas del Capital Propio a Través de Información Contable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edinson Caicedo

    2004-01-01

    En Colombia se han realizado diferentes trabajos para tratar de medir la relación rentabilidad riesgo con el propósito de estimar el costo del capital propio de la inversión ( Mora (1996), Burbano(1997), Herrara y Mora (1998), Superintendencia de Valores (1995, 1996 y 1997)); sin embargo, el problema de medir dicha relación en el país, se agrava cuando por las características

  12. Policy learning : new challenges for smart value capture in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Acosta, Patricia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Contribucion por Valorizacion is a form of value capture similar to Special Assessment, used in Colombia to complement Local revenues for major public infrastructure programs. SA's continued use countrywide and its resulting ...

  13. The Impact of Minimum Wages in Mexico and Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Bell

    1997-01-01

    Divergent trends in the real value of the minimum wage in Mexico and Colombia in the 1980s provide an opportunity for evaluating the impact of minimum wages on developing economies. Using panel data for each country, substantial disemployment effects of minimum wages are found in Colombia, where the impact is estimated at roughly 2-12 percent over the 1981-87 period. In

  14. DESALINEACIN ELECTORAL Y NUEVOS ESCENARIOS POLTICOS. UN ESTUDIO COMPARADO SOBRE LOS CASOS DE COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA Y URUGUAY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA Y URUGUAY Enrico GIACOMETTI SARTHOU Universidad de Salamanca giacometti estudiar estos procesos de cambio, los casos escogidos serán Costa Rica, Colombia y Uruguay. Palabras Clave

  15. EL COLOMBIANO | Colombia, jueves 11 de agosto de 2005 Inicio Acceso a Internet Empresas Paute aqu Aviso legal Contctenos

    E-print Network

    Wilf, Peter

    EL COLOMBIANO | Colombia, jueves 11 de agosto de 2005 Inicio Acceso a Internet Empresas Paute aquí Campaña cívica Colombia Defensor Deportes Economía Educación Informes comerciales Internacional Medio

  16. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents ...U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...

  18. 78 FR 16470 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY: International Trade Administration...of the Notice of the U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama published at 77 FR 77032, December 31,...

  19. Better lead than bread? A critical analysis of the US's plan Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Stokes

    2001-01-01

    Colombia's continuing 35?year civil war has claimed over 300,000 lives. Plan Colombia is a $1.3 billion dollar US military aid package to the Colombian military. It is the largest international intervention into Colombia's civil war and will make Colombia the third largest US military aid recipient in the world today. The US government claims the aid will be used to

  20. Fungal Diversity Ceratocystis neglecta sp. nov., infecting Eucalyptus trees in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Fungal Diversity 73 Ceratocystis neglecta sp. nov., infecting Eucalyptus trees in Colombia Rodas, C Eucalyptus trees in Colombia. Fungal Diversity 28: 73-84. Commercial plantation forestry utilising species of non-native Eucalyptus trees forms an important industry in Colombia. These trees are, however

  1. Colombia is considered among the countries with the highest levels of amphibian species richness

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    Colombia is considered among the countries with the highest levels of amphibian species richness Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1633-1636. Copyright: © José F, Colombia José F. González-Maya1 , Mauricio González2 , Diego Zárrate-Charry3 , Fidela Charry4 , Amancay A

  2. Andean deformation and rift inversion, eastern edge of Cordillera Oriental (GuatequeMedina area), Colombia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ), Colombia Y. Branquet, a , A. Cheilletzb , P. R. Cobboldc , P. Babyd , B. Laumoniere and G. Giulianif; Colombia; Cordillera Oriental; Guateque­Medina area hal-00076871,version1-16Nov2006 Author manuscript Oriental (CO) and adjacent Llanos foothills, which produce much of the oil in Colombia. The CO resulted

  3. Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    1 of 2 Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia Principal within the Colombia context. The team is developing a basic wind resource map of the Colombian coastal the Colombian and American renewable energy industry to assist with this study for Colombia. Notably, NMSU

  4. Identification and genetic diversity of Rosellinia spp. associated with root rot of coffee in Colombia

    E-print Network

    in Colombia Bertha L. Castro & Angela J. Carreño & Narmer F. Galeano & Jolanda Roux & Michael J. Wingfield rot on a wide range of herbaceous and woody hosts. In Colombia, these fungi cause serious diseases (Fernández and López 1964; Castro and Esquivel 1991). Other than in Colombia, these pathogens are known

  5. Aurapex penicillata gen. sp. nov. from native Miconia theaezans and Tibouchina spp. in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Aurapex penicillata gen. sp. nov. from native Miconia theaezans and Tibouchina spp. in Colombia in Colombia. Fruiting structures of the fungus could be distinguished from those of C. cubensis by their distinctly orange conidiomatal necks. This fungus also was found on several plant species native to Colombia

  6. Protected areas in Northern Colombia on track to sustainable development? Carla Marchant & Axel Borsdorf

    E-print Network

    Borsdorf, Axel

    Protected areas in Northern Colombia ­ on track to sustainable development? Carla Marchant & Axel Santa Marta, Colombia Profile Protected area Colombian biosphere reserves Mountain range Andes Country Colombia Abstract On the way to more peace, Colombian biosphere reserves, national parks and privately

  7. Asset-building Initiatives in Peru and Colombia: Pilot Study and Directions

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Asset-building Initiatives in Peru and Colombia: Pilot Study and Directions By Yves Moury 2006-building pilot initiatives have begun in Southern Peru and one is soon to be approved in Colombia. In rural Peru in Peru and Colombia. The first, a six-year asset-building pilot program, is now underway in southern Peru

  8. Modeling the age of tropical moist forest fragments in heavily-cleared lowland landscapes of Colombia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    of Colombia Andres Etter a,b,c,*, Clive McAlpine a,b , David Pullar b , Hugh Possingham a a The Ecology Centre-00, Bogota´, Colombia Received 31 August 2004; received in revised form 7 December 2004; accepted 7 December deforestation; Forest fragment age; Land use drivers; Colombia www.elsevier.com/locate/foreco Forest Ecology

  9. THE VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE IN RISK SCENARII : A COMMUNITY CASE STUDY; INDIGENOUS NASA IN HUILA COLOMBIA

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    IN HUILA COLOMBIA Philippe Woloszyn Space sciences CNRS Research Worker ESO UMR 6590 CNRS/Université Rennes Francisco José de Caldas. Bogotá. Colombia. ythernandezp@udistrital.edu.co Summary: The main goal in Colombia and their resilience capacities, through identifying people community action against natural

  10. CLEI2005 Cali, Colombia Articulos CLI 195 An Architectural Model to Support

    E-print Network

    Guerrero, Luis

    CLEI2005 Cali, Colombia Articulos CLI 195 An Architectural Model to Support Collaborative Work, Colombia ccollazo@unicauca.edu.co Rosa Alarcón Department of Computer Science, Pontificia Universidad Cali, Colombia Articulos CLI 196 2 On the other hand, information technology (IT) devices are becoming

  11. Hoja de vida de Alexander Berenstein Fecha y lugar de nacimiento: enero 16, 1973, Bogota, Colombia.

    E-print Network

    Ferri, Stefano

    Hoja de vida de Alexander Berenstein Fecha y lugar de nacimiento: enero 16, 1973, Bogot´a, Colombia asistente, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogot´a. Miembro de asociaciones cient´ificas: american-algebra of compact operators, Bogot´a Meeting in Model Theory, Bogot´a, Colombia, diciembre 2001. [2] Non dividing

  12. Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia

    E-print Network

    from Colombia Marieka GRYZENHOUTa, *, Carlos A. RODASb , Julio MENA PORTALESc , Paul CLEGGd , Brenda D, South Africa b Smurfit Carto´n de Colombia, Investigacio´n Forestal, Carrera 3 No. 10-36, Cali, Valle, Colombia c Institute of Ecology and Systematics, Carretera de Varona Km. 3.5, Capdevila, Boyeros, Apdo

  13. Traditional uses of wild felids in Colombia REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE CONSERVACIN

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    Traditional uses of wild felids in Colombia 64 REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE CONSERVACIÓN LATIN region of Colombia: new threats for conservation? José F. González-Maya1, 4, Diego Zárrate-Charry*1, 4, 4 & Cristal Ange4 1Proyecto de Conservación de Aguas y Tierras. ProCAT Colombia/Internacional. Calle

  14. 75 FR 9578 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates...Mission to Bogot[aacute] and Cartagena, Colombia and Panama City, Panama, September...in Bogot[aacute], and Cartagena, Colombia, and Panama City, Panama. In...

  15. 19 CFR 10.3034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia. 10.3034 Section 10.3034 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned...re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia. (a) General. This...

  16. 78 FR 72972 - Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...8541] Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental...providing notice that the United States and Colombia intend to hold the first meeting of the...Environment) of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA)...

  17. 19 CFR 10.3034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia. 10.3034 Section 10.3034 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned...re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia. (a) General. This...

  18. Experimento teatral en Colombia: El teatro identificador.

    E-print Network

    Gonzá lez Cajiao, Fernando

    1975-10-01

    conservar intacta la tradición popular, pero ha sido necesaria la asesoría de personas profesionales en su ramo, y por lo tanto, la Fundación cuenta con la colaboración de economistas y sociólogos en cargados de la selección del material para las...

  19. Evidence for natural gas hydrate occurrences in Colombia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, P.D.; Krason, J.; Dominic, K.

    1987-05-01

    Multichannel and selected single-channel seismic lines of the continental margin sediments of the Colombia basin display compelling evidence for large accumulations of natural gas hydrate. Seismic bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs), interpreted to mark the base of the hydrate stability zone, are pronounced and very widespread along the entire Panama-Colombia lower continental slope. BSRs have also been identified at two locations on the abyssal plain. Water depths for these suspected hydrate occurrences range from 900 to 4000 m. Although no gas hydrate samples have been recovered from this area, biogenic methane is abundant in Pliocene turbidites underlying the abyssal plain. More deeply buried rocks beneath the abyssal plain are thermally mature. Thermogenic gas from these rocks may migrate upward along structural pathways into the hydrate stability zone and form hydrate. Impermeable hydrate layers may form caps over large accumulations of free gas, accounting for the very well-defined BSRs in the area. The abyssal plain and the deformed continental margin hold the highest potential for major economic accumulations of gas hydrate in the basin. The extensive continuity of BSRs, relatively shallow water depths, and promixity to onshore production facilities render the marginal deformed belt sediments the most favorable target for future economic development of the gas hydrate resource within the Colombia basin. The widespread evidence of gas hydrates in the Colombia basin suggests a high potential for conventional hydrocarbon deposits offshore of Panama and Colombia.

  20. Colombia: A Study of the Educational System of Colombia and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Colombia in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Stanley

    The educational system of Colombia is described, and placement recommendations concerning Colombian students who want to study in the United States are presented. After describing preschool and primary education, secondary school and nonformal/vocational education are described. Attention is directed to current secondary school curricula and the…

  1. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  2. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1–)4–6(–7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  3. The Great Tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herd, D.G.; Youd, T.L.; Meyer, H.; Arango, C.J.L.; Person, W.J.; Mendoza, C.

    1981-01-01

    Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

  4. Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9–12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

  5. Obsidian provenance studies in Colombia and Ecuador: obsidian sources revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovic Bellot-Gurlet; Olivier Dorighel; Gérard Poupeau

    2008-01-01

    The field occurrences, elemental compositions and formation ages of Colombian and Ecuadorian obsidians are revisited. It is shown that the regional sources of this raw material are linked to two major volcanic structures: the Chacana and the Paletara calderas, localised on the eastern cordillera of Ecuador and on the central Andean cordillera of south Colombia respectively. Seventy-two samples were analysed

  6. Mental Health Service Delivery Following Health System Reform in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio Romero-Gonzalez; Gerardo Gonzalez; Robert A. Rosenheck

    2003-01-01

    Background: In 1993, Colombia underwent an ambitious and comprehensive process of health system reform based on managed competition and structured pluralism, but did not include coverage for mental health services. Aims of the Study: In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the reform on access to mental health services and whether there were changes in the pattern

  7. SEGUROS DE DESEMPLEO: REVISIÓN DE LITERATURA Y PROPUESTA PARA COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bardey; Samir Kiuhan; Julio César Suárez

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se estudia la posibilidad de introducir seguros de desempleo en Colombia.. En una primera parte, se propone una revisión de literatura de los seguros de desempleo en la cual se exponen las ventajas generadas por una cobertura contra este riesgo, así como sus inconvenientes. En una segunda parte, se estudian varios escenarios para introducir seguros de desempleo

  8. Foreign and Domestic Firms in Colombia: How Do They Differ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rowland

    This paper studies foreign and domestic firms in Colombia and, in particular, whether these firms behave differently. The study uses a dataset containing the 2003 balance sheets and income statements for some 7,001 firms. The dataset was obtained from the Superintendencia de Sociedades. The study concludes that foreign and domestic firms differ in a number of aspects. Foreign firms tend

  9. Consideraciones para una política económica regional en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan David Barón; Gerson Javier Pérez; Peter Rowland

    2004-01-01

    Este trabajo propone un marco de trabajo para una política económica regional en Colombia. Se estudian las características regionales y se muestra que las disparidades regionales son significativas y persistentes en el tiempo. Por ello, se hace necesario llevar a cabo una política económica que promueva el desarrollo de las regiones más pobres de país. Este estudio aprovecha lecciones de

  10. El perfil de la informalidad laboral en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Guataquí Roa; Andrés Felipe García-Suaza; Mauricio Rodríguez-Acosta

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the implementation process of the concept of labor informality into the Colombian labor market. Taking this concept as departure point, we dissect labor market informality in Colombia, its main components and features. By using data from the 2010 GEIH-DANE household survey we contrast the informality rate and its components, as given by three different definitions: the standard Colombian

  11. POLÍTICAS ACTIVAS DE EMPLEO PARA CALI-COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARLOS GIOVANNI GONZÁLEZ ESPITIA; JHON JAMES MORA RODRÍGUEZ

    2011-01-01

    El artículo discute la implementación de políticas activas de empleo para el mercado laboral en Cali-Colombia. El principal objetivo de una política activa de empleo es la reducción de la tasa de desempleo, la reducción de la participación en la informalidad y el reemplazo de trabajos malos o de baja calidad por trabajos buenos. La acción colectiva de las instituciones

  12. Secondary Syphilis in Cali, Colombia: New Concepts in Disease Pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana R. Cruz; Allan Pillay; Ana V. Zuluaga; Lady G. Ramirez; Jorge E. Duque; Gloria E. Aristizabal; Mary D. Fiel-Gan; Roberto Jaramillo; Rodolfo Trujillo; Carlos Valencia; Linda Jagodzinski; David L. Cox; Justin D. Radolf; Juan C. Salazar

    2010-01-01

    Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18–68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with

  13. The San Juan Delta, Colombia: tides, circulations, and salt dispersion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan D. Restrepoa

    The San Juan River delta (Colombia) with an area of 800 km2 is the largest delta environment on the Pacific coast of South America. It consists of active distributaries maintained by an average discharge of 2500 m3 s? 1, is tide dominated, and has relatively narrow estuarine mixing zones o17 km wide and typically B7 km wide. Water level and

  14. Working with Urban Youth: Experiences from Medellin, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    In the slums of Medellin, Colombia, a program seeks to improve children's physical health, intellectual development, and self-concept through such activities as carpentry, breadmaking, and sports and literature clubs. These activities help develop ethical and moral values, planning and organizing skills, and a future orientation. (SK)

  15. Gasto, inversión y financiamiento para el desarrollo sostenible en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Alberto Galán; Francisco Javier Canal

    2002-01-01

    El Sistema Nacional Ambiental (SINA) se estableció mediante la Ley 99 de 1993, caracterizado por una estructura descentralizada, democrática y participativa. Su función es el manejo ambiental de Colombia y la expectativa es que se fundamente en la acción coordinada y descentralizada de las autoridades locales y regionales, así como en la participación de las etnias y la ciudadanía en

  16. Regional patterns of agricultural land use and deforestation in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Etter; Clive McAlpine; Kerrie Wilson; Stuart Phinn; Hugh Possingham

    2006-01-01

    An expanding human population and associated demands for goods and services continues to exert an increasing pressure on ecological systems. Although the rate of expansion of agricultural lands has slowed since 1960, rapid deforestation still occurs in many tropical countries, including Colombia. However, the location and extent of deforestation and associated ecological impacts within tropical countries is often not well

  17. Borehole stability analysis at the Coporo-1 well, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Arias, Henry

    2000-01-01

    Coporo-1 is an 18,000-ft dry hole located in the tectonically active foothills of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. A mechanical stability analysis allowed explaining most of the drilling stability-related problems and elaborating an optimal mud...

  18. Social Representations of Human Papillomavirus in Bogotá, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Wiesner; Jesús Acosta; Adriana Díaz del Castillo; Sandra Tovar

    2012-01-01

    Identifying DNA of Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as a new screening method for cervical cancer control. Conventionally, health education for screening programs is based on scientific information without considering any community cognitive processes. We examine HPV social representations of 124 men and women from diverse educational status living in Bogotá, Colombia. The social representation of HPV involves a

  19. A Case Study of Leakage Management in Medellin City, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Garzon-Contreras; C Palacio-Sierra

    The analysis of the results of water loss control, in the last ten years, showed that Colombia has not made significant progress in this field. For example, for the group of the country's biggest water utilities, water losses have been reduced by less than 1 point, from 40.3% in 1990 to 39.4% in 2001. And, for medium sized water utilities

  20. Earthworm communities under an agricultural intensification gradient in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Decaëns; J. J. Jiménez

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Eastern Plains of Colombia and assessed the impact of agricultural intensification on the structure of earthworm communities. Earthworms were hand-sorted in a variety of agroecosystems of increasing intensity, from natural savanna to pastures and annual crops. An agricultural intensification index was used to rank systems along an intensification gradient, i.e. from native savanna

  1. The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

  2. Teaching Writing in the Republic of Colombia, 1800-1850

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Meri L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform…

  3. Teacher Training in Colombia: A Need for Continuous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, M.; Calvo, G.; Franco, M. C.; Londono, S.; Vergara, M.

    2007-01-01

    Educational authorities of most countries, including those of Colombia, typically associate the quality of education with the teacher's role. The teacher then is conceived as a fundamental actor in an educational process and as such assembles and directly transmits pertinent knowledge. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals…

  4. Education, Conflict and Social (In)Justice: Insights from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of repression and resistance within the Colombian education system through exploring human rights violations against educators. Drawing on the findings of several fieldwork visits carried out since 2005 across Colombia, the paper focuses on the darker side of the education/conflict relationship, demonstrating…

  5. Geodynamics of the northern Andes: Subductions and intracontinental deformation (Colombia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Taboada; Luis A. Rivera; Andrés Fuenzalida; Armando Cisternas; Hervé Philip; Harmen Bijwaard; José Olaya; Clara Rivera

    2000-01-01

    New regional seismological data acquired in Colombia during 1993 to 1996 and tectonic field data from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) permit a reexamination of the complex geodynamics of northwestern South America. The effect of the accretion of the Baudó-Panama oceanic arc, which began 12 Myr ago, is highlighted in connection with mountain building in the EC. The Istmina and Ibagué

  6. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  7. Critical Literacy as Policy and Advocacy: Lessons from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Raúl Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This article, the first column for this issue's Policy and Advocacy department, features a discussion about a recent experience in a graduate program in Medellín, Colombia introducing students to critical literacy. Graduate students used ideas from critical literacy to engage in an in-depth analysis of textbooks they had used in their…

  8. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of…

  9. A Comparative Study of School Effectiveness in Aguablanca, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Michael; Dixon, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    The principal aim of this article is to describe and document a comparison of public and private school effectiveness in the marginalized (often referred to as slum) district of Aguablanca, in the city of Cali, Colombia. The data suggest that teachers and parents are largely satisfied with the current status of education provision in Aguablanca.…

  10. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  11. Conceptualizations of Nature from Science Students in Northeastern Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-Jerez, William

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore rural and provincial students' conceptualizations of nature in Colombia alongside the science education offered in their school communities. Students' perceptions of nature were produced from interviews that revolved around a focusing event and two eliciting devices to document their views about home,…

  12. CANALES SERVICIOS Toda la Web Colombia, martes 18 de julio de 2006 Inicio Accesoa Internet Empresas Pauteaqu AvisoLegal Contctenos

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    CANALES SERVICIOS Toda la Web Colombia, martes 18 de julio de 2006 Inicio Accesoa Internet Empresas bilingüe Arte y Cultura Automotores Campaña Cívica Ciencia Colombia Deportes Economía Educación Fincas y Publicaciones Gente La Chiva La República Suplementos El Colombia

  13. Two new species of Piaroa (Arachnida: Schizomida, Hubbardiidae) from Colombia, with comments on the genus taxonomy and the flagellar setae pattern of Hubbardiinae.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, Jairo A; Delgado-Santa, Leonardo; De Armas, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008, P. escalerete sp. nov. and P. bacata sp. nov. are described from Valle del Cauca, and Cundinamarca departments, Colombia, respectively. The female flagellum is fully illustrated for a Piaroa species for the first time; the generic diagnosis is also emended and the relationships of the new species with those previously described are discussed. New characters for Piaroa species, a new nomenclature for the chitinized arch and a reinterpretation of the Hubbardiinae flagellar setae pattern are proposed. A distribution map of the known species of Piaroa is provided.  PMID:25284395

  14. A NEW SPECIES OF WREN (TROGLODYTIDAE: THRYOPHILUS) FROM THE DRY CAUCA RIVER CANYON, NORTHWESTERN COLOMBIA

    E-print Network

    Cuervo, Andrés

    COLOMBIA Carlos EstEban lara,1 andrés M. CuErvo,2,6 sandra v. valdErraMa,3 diEgo CaldErón-F.,4 and Carlos daniEl CadEna5 1 Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Calle 59A no. 63-20, Medellín, Colombia; 2 Department of Biological Sciences and Museum of Natural Science

  15. LA TICA CATLICA Y EL ESPRITU DE LA GUERRA EN COLOMBIA Bernardo CONGOTE OCHOA,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LA �TICA CAT�LICA Y EL ESPÍRITU DE LA GUERRA EN COLOMBIA 1 Bernardo CONGOTE OCHOA, Maestría Ciencia Política, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia. Profesor Invitado, Departamento de Ciencia Política y Relaciones Internacionales de la Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar, Cartagena, Colombia colombiamada

  16. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held periodically between 1997 and 2012, the year of the sixth edition. As well, national and international research groups have been formed to work actively on global projects, such as the Geophysics Laboratory of Universidad de Los Andes in Venezuela. In the future, international groups will be formed to jointly treat issues including localization and size of destructive events along borders, common scales for the evaluation of intensities, integrated data bases, etc. Additionally the methods employed will be validated by paleoseismology, neotectonics and instrumental seismicity, among others.

  17. CURRICULAR CHOICES FOR ELITE BILINGUAL SCHOOLS ON COLOMBIA'S CARIBBEAN COAST: AMERICAN ACCREDITATION OR THE INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE

    E-print Network

    Nalley, Joel Josiah

    2010-06-14

    Discusses the movement towards international recognition among "elite" bilingual schools on Colombia's Caribbean coast, with a special focus on U.S. accrediting agencies and the International Baccalaureate.

  18. Frequency and Clinical Manifestations of Dengue in Urban Medellin, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Beatty, Mark E.; Goez, Yenny; Ramirez, Ruth E.; Letson, G. William; Diaz, Francisco J.; Piedrahita, Leidy Diana; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    A dengue fever surveillance study was conducted at three medical facilities located in the low-income district of San Javier in Medellin, Colombia. During March 2008 to 2009, 781 patients with fever regardless of chief complaint were recruited for acute dengue virus infection testing. Of the 781 tested, 73 (9.3%) were positive for dengue infection. Serotypes DENV-2 (77%) and -3 (23%) were detected by PCR. One patient met the diagnostic criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Only 3 out of 73 (4.1%) febrile subjects testing positive for dengue infection were diagnosed with dengue fever by the treating physician. This study confirms dengue virus as an important cause of acute febrile illness in Medellin, Colombia, but it is difficult to diagnose without dengue diagnostic testing. PMID:24987421

  19. Old, new plays may revitalize Colombia's Llanos basin

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, M. (Keeley (Martin), Leighton Buzzard (United Kingdom)); Arevalo, E.C. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))

    1994-05-16

    Reevaluation of Colombia's Llanos basin has identified 10 plays and 94 leads and prospects. Some of the plays are conceptual and unproven, such as dip and fault closures within Paleozoic clastics, hydrodynamic trapping in the Paleozoic, and fractured/weathered granitic basement. But all of these higher risk plays have giant field analogs elsewhere in the world. The state oil concern Ecopetrol during third quarter 1993 set in motion a strategy to increase exploration investment in Colombia, specifically in three areas set aside for licensing: Llanos, Putamayo, and Upper Magdalena. In the first of a series of review articles on the areas set aside for licensing new potential is identified in the Llanos basin for both deeper higher risk but large Paleozoic targets and for smaller, shallower traps involving proven lower risk plays.

  20. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  1. [A complexity-based approach to zoonoses in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Angela N

    2012-01-01

    The present reflection was aimed at making a contribution towards improving control policy and programs integrality and efficacy in an attempt to answer the following question, "How can understanding zoonoses in Colombia be approached from a complexity-based approach?" The first part of this article examines zoonoses as a complex problem and the reiterated tendency of control policy and programs to deal with them as a simple problem, involving unidisciplinary and reductionist responses. The current status of complexity is synthesized as a paradigm, as are the advantages of using it in analysis and formulating policy and interventions. Possible fields of work are proposed for development when approaching zoonoses in Colombia from a complexity science viewpoint. PMID:23250375

  2. [Tobacco control: an intersectorial experience in Tunja (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems. PMID:25087863

  3. Heat flow from eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Munroe, R.J.; Moses, T.H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flows were determined at 12 sites in four distinct areas between longitude 77?? and 80??W in eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia. Evidently, most of the region is underlain by mafic oceanic crust so that the crustal radiogenic component of heat flow is very small (??? 0.1 ??cal cm-2 sec-1). Low heat-flow values (??? 0.7 ??cal cm-2 sec-1) in northwestern Colombia may reflect thermal transients associated with shallow subduction. The normal values (??? 1) at about 78??W are consistent with the mean heat flow from the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. At 80??W, a fairly high value of 1.8 may define the easterly limit of thermal transients due to Cenozoic volcanic activity in Central America. ?? 1974.

  4. 75 FR 5761 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; November 15-18, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ...telecommunications equipment; and travel and tourism services. Commercial Setting Colombia...components, safety and security, and tourism, among others. Colombia's increasingly...concentrating business opportunities in ports, tourism, oil refinery and industries such...

  5. The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martínez, Mónica Flórez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare. PMID:19015725

  6. Potential of a hand transplantation program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, C; Bermúdez, J; Latorre, L F; DeBedout, R

    2011-11-01

    The protocols and published results on hand transplantation show acceptable results of this technology. None of the registered groups, however has a sufficient number of patients to allow continuity of the process. In Colombia the main problems are violence, drug traffic, and guerrillas. Thanks to the profitability of drug traffic, guerrillas, who initially were created based on ideologic differences, have become terrorist groups whose main source of income is drug traffic. From that interest comes the use of landmines to protect illicit crops. Colombia is the most mined country in the world, followed by Cambodia and Afghanistan, and the only country in Latin America where there are still landmines. The mines, violence, and trauma produce a large number of people with disabilities and amputations. From 1990 to 2006, the number of victims rose from 21 to 1,041 per year. In Colombia, amputations are more frequently due to trauma than to disease. The fact that 88% of the victims are children and people of working age, affects the political and economic development. These alarming numbers generate a challenge for government, which has led to the creation of policies and laws aimed at comprehensive action against mines. This program under the Presidency has among its objectives assistance to victims, including integrated treatment, prostheses, and other procedures, financed entirely by the government. The number, type of victims, and their motivation to be transplanted, along with government programs directed to their attention, are key factors that we think will enable the continuity of our hand transplantation program at the Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, giving Colombia the unfortunate privilege of having the largest number of potential patients for transplantation. PMID:22099834

  7. Syphilis Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Mejia; Christian T. Bautista; Luis Leal; Claudia Ayala; Franklyn Prieto; Fernando de la Hoz; Martha L. Alzate; Jacqueline Acosta; Jose L. Sanchez

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemiology of Treponema pallidum (syphilis) among female sex workers (FSW) in Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire, which collected\\u000a socio-demographic characteristics and risk behavior information. Blood samples were screened for syphilis using the VDRL test\\u000a and the MHATP assay. Results The prevalence of syphilis

  8. Domestic Wastewater Management in a Rural Community in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a process of technology transfer for the collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal of domestic wastewater in the rural community of La Florida, located near Pereira, Colombia. An unconventional wastewater-treatment system, consisting of a gritremoval chamber, three septic tanks, three up-flow anaerobic filters, and seven subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, was selected, designed, built, and

  9. Primate censusing in northern Colombia: A comparison of two techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Green

    1978-01-01

    Five primate species were observed in an 83 hectare study site in northern Colombia. They wereAlouatta seniculus, Aotus trivirgatus, Ateles belzebuth hybridus, Cebus albifrons, andSaguinus leucopus. Average group size for the four diurnal species ranged from 5.3 individuals per sighting forCebus to 3.3 forAlouatta andAteles. BecauseCebus utilized regenerating forest, mature stands as well as cultivated sectors, they were able to

  10. Observations on the woolly monkey ( Lagothrix lagothricha ) in northern Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kavanagh; Lawrence Dresdale

    1975-01-01

    Woolly monkeys,Lagothrix lagothricha, were briefly studied in a cloud forest in Bolivar, Colombia during the dry season. Results suggest that this species is wholly\\u000a arboreal, lives in multi-male heterosexual groups and does not defend territory. Woolly monkeys are folivorous and frugivorous.\\u000a Social and auto-grooming are both reported. All age-sex classes except natal-coated infants and adult males indulge in play.\\u000a Agonistic

  11. Opon Gas Field, Colombia: Part II - drilling case history

    SciTech Connect

    Greener, J.M.; Trimble, G.E.; Singer, G.M.; Barnes, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Opon Gas Field development drilling case history in the Middle Magdalena Basin of north-central Colombia, South America. World class levels of drilling fluid and cementing densities in excess of 22.0 ppg were required to control the extreme pressures encountered. A continuous improvement process is detailed in regard to casing, drilling fluid, cement and related drilling mechanics programs in a severely pressured and environmentally sensitive operation.

  12. Fusarium circinatum and pitch canker of Pinus in Colombia E. T. Steenkamp & C. A. Rodas & M. Kvas &

    E-print Network

    Fusarium circinatum and pitch canker of Pinus in Colombia E. T. Steenkamp & C. A. Rodas & M. Kvas 2005­2007, symptoms typical of those associated with F. circinatum were observed in Colombia on nursery species commonly grown in Colombia. By making use of morphology and DNA-based methods, as well

  13. 2014 American Geophysical Union. All rights reserved. Seismic anisotropy and slab dynamics from SKS splitting recorded in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Becker, Thorsten W.

    SKS splitting recorded in Colombia Robert W. Porritt1 , Thorsten W. Becker1 , Gaspar Monsalve2 1, California, 90089-0740, USA 2 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Departamento de Geociencias y Medio Ambiente, Carrera 80 No. 65-223, Medellin, Colombia This article has been accepted

  14. Towards climate change adaptation, sustainable development and conflict resolution the Cinturn Andino Biosphere Reserve in Southern Colombia

    E-print Network

    Borsdorf, Axel

    Andino Biosphere Reserve in Southern Colombia Axel Borsdorf, Falk Borsdorf & Luis Alfonso Ortega Keywords: biosphere reserve, Seville Strategy, climate change adaptation, organic farming, Colombia Abstract Cinturón Andino is the largest biosphere reserve of Colombia, located in the south- ernmost region of the state

  15. Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medelln, Colombia WE1-1 August 3-5, 2011

    E-print Network

    Kalva, Hari

    9th Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medellín, Colombia WE1, August 3-5, 2011, Medellín, Colombia. Design and Development of a System for Aerial Video Survey of Large Medellín, Colombia WE1-2 August 3-5, 2011 the challenges of designing a complete multimedia system, 2

  16. Notable altitudinal range extension of the northern naked-tailed armadillo Cabassous centralis (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) in Colombia Juan F. Díaz-N. & Camilo Sánchez-Giraldo Grupo de Mastozoología - CTUA. Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia. Apartado Aéreo 1226 Medellín, Colombia. juanfdiazn, Colombia The Northern naked-tailed armadillo, Cabassous centralis Miller 1899, is distributed through

  17. Comparing the Effectiveness of Regulation and Pro-Social Emotions to Enhance Cooperation: Experimental Evidence from Fishing Communities in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Murphy, James J.

    : Experimental Evidence from Fishing Communities in Colombia Maria Claudia Lopez James J. Murphy John M. Spraggon of the School of Environmental and Rural Studies at Universidad Javeriana, Colombia for their ideas and support of Environmental and Rural Studies, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Bogotá, Colombia, and Visiting Scholar

  18. MIEDO Y A SIEDAD E LOS PROCESOS DE RECLUTAMIE TO I SURGE TE, COLOMBIA 1964-1980.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 MIEDO Y A SIEDAD E LOS PROCESOS DE RECLUTAMIE TO I SURGE TE, COLOMBIA 1964-1980. Juan Carlos S la ansiedad colectiva y la incertidumbre de los militantes de guerrillas en Colombia, y en especial investigación de los discursos históricos y las representaciones políticas de dos guerrillas en Colombia y

  19. Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medelln, Colombia WE1-1 August 3-5, 2011

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    9th Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medellín, Colombia WE1, August 3-5, 2011, Medellín, Colombia. 3D Visualization of particle system with extracted data from sensor American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology, Medellin : Colombia (2011)" #12;9th Latin

  20. 77 FR 77035 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama...S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama May 13-16, 2013. The subject...Carlos Suarez, U.S. Commercial Service Colombia, Tel: 57-1-2752519, Email:...

  1. 78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY...with the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia into the continental United States...via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. We are making the pest risk...

  2. 78 FR 29779 - Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ...Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of...Pursuant to Article 17.5 of the U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA), the...the Labor Chapter) of the U.S.-Colombia TPA, including activities of the...

  3. 77 FR 29519 - To Implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...2012 To Implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other...States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the ``Agreement...June 28, 2007, the United States and Colombia amended the Agreement. The...

  4. 78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY...continental United States of Swiss chard from Colombia. Based on the findings of a pest risk...via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. DATES: Effective: November 20,...

  5. How does network structure affect partnerships for promoting physical activity? Evidence from Brazil and Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana C. Parra; Marsela Dauti; Jenine K. Harris; Lissette Reyes; Deborah C. Malta; Ross C. Brownson; Mario A. Quintero; Michael Pratt

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the network structure and factors associated with collaboration in two networks that promote physical activity (PA) in Brazil and Colombia. Organizations that focus on studying and promoting PA in Brazil (35) and Colombia (53) were identified using a modified one-step reputational snowball sampling process. Participants completed an on-line survey between December 2008

  6. CTX-M-12 ?-Lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, José María; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 ?-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia. PMID:14742223

  7. Developing the Intercultural Perspective in Foreign Language Teaching in Colombia: A Review of Six Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Álvarez Valencia, José Aldemar

    2014-01-01

    The steadfast spread of English as the dominant world language has heightened the need to integrate culture in the foreign language teaching (FLT) curriculum, but how does this process crystallize in countries such as Colombia? The results of this review provide insight on the status of the intercultural perspective in FLT in Colombia by looking…

  8. 75 FR 67011 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ...of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary...U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...

  9. Re-Imagining Teacher Professional Development and Citizenship Education: Lessons for Import from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of teachers in the implementation of citizenship education in Colombia. Consistent with its highly-decentralized school system, Colombia's National Program of Citizenship Competencies was developed with the participation of many local, national, and international partners. Among the most involved and most critical…

  10. First record of Diatraea tabernella in the Cauca River Valley of Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diatraea tabernella (Dyar) is first recorded in the Cauca River Valley of Colombia. Even though information on its status has been unknown for almost a century in Colombia, its recent register creates concern about its potential economic importance in virtue of its abundance and distribution in the ...

  11. Results of Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in Public Schools in Bogota, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Constanza; Pineros, Marion; Jones, Nathan R.; Warren, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Bogota, Colombia, in 2001 and 2007 to examine changes in tobacco use among youth 13-15 years of age. The current tobacco control effort in Bogota will be accessed relative to Colombia ratifying the World Health Organization Framework…

  12. 76 FR 53299 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ...of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary...U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably...

  13. 59S.A. BALAGUERA-REINA Y J.F. GONZLEZ-MAYA-POPULATION ECOLOGY OF C. ACUTUS IN VIPIS, MAGDALENA, COLOMBIA POPULATIONSTRUCTURE,DENSITY,ANDHABITATOF

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    , COLOMBIA POPULATIONSTRUCTURE,DENSITY,ANDHABITATOF CROCODYLUS ACUTUS CUVIER 1807 IN THE VIA PARQUE ISLA DE SALAMANCA,MAGDALENADEPARTMENT,COLOMBIA SERGIO A. BALAGUERA-REINA1 AND JOSE F. GONZALEZ-MAYA1,2 1 Proyecto de Conservación deAguas y Tierras, ProCAT Colombia, Calle 127B # 45­76, Bogotá, Colombia. Abstract: Information

  14. How many people named Malcom do you think live in Colombia, S.A.? I have no idea but figured it would be a

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    How many people named Malcom do you think live in Colombia, S.A.? I have no idea but figured in Newark for two years before going back to Colombia. He worked for several companies in Colombia and is ranked fifth in Colombia in his age group. He won three med- als in the Pan American Cup held in Miami

  15. Targeting "Plan Colombia": A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Political Visual Narratives by the Beehive Collective and the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erler, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This article compares the Beehive Collective's "Plan Colombia" to a museum exhibition representing the official U.S. position on Plan Colombia. Through a dialectical (Kellner & Share, 2007; Greene, 1988) reading of "Plan Colombia" and "Target America," I examine how each uses visual narrative to promote a particular reading of Plan Colombia

  16. Gestión del riesgo del cambio (segunda parte)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Pablo Zorrilla Salgador

    1970-01-01

    Segunda parte del artículo acerca del uso de futuros sobre el tipo de cambio. Esta continuación abarca estrategias, definiciones, metodología y explicaciones sobre todo lo relacionado con el Ratio de cobertura de los futuros y la aparición del riesgo base.

  17. Assessing the impact of El Niño Modoki on seasonal precipitation in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia Raquel; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the tropical Pacific SST on precipitation in Colombia is examined using a 341 station dataset covering the period 1979-2009. Through a singular value decomposition the two main coupled variability modes show SST patterns clearly associated with canonical El Niño and El Niño Modoki, respectively, presenting great coupling strength with the corresponding seasonal precipitation modes in Colombia. The results reveal that, mainly in winter and summer, canonical El Niño and El Niño Modoki events are associated with a significant rainfall decrease over the northern, central, and western Colombia. The opposite effect occurs in some localities during spring, summer, and autumn. The southwestern region of Colombia exhibits an opposite behavior connected to canonical El Niño and El Niño Modoki events during years when both events do not coexist, showing different seasonal precipitation response to these different patterns. The results found establish the foundations for precipitation modeling in Colombia from the Pacific SST.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909

  19. The Use of CHIRPS to Analyze Historical Rainfall in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Rojas, A.; Funk, C.; Peterson, P.; Landsfeld, M. F.; Husak, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    The climate of Colombia is characterized by a high spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, temperature, and wind due to its tropical location, a complex terrain (coastal regions, plains, and three mountain ranges with strong gradients of elevation [0 - 4500 m]), and the influence of two oceans. Given the high variability of rainfall, achieving a complete and accurate coverage of the country based on in-situ measurements becomes a difficult task, so satellite measurements provide a good alternative. The Meteorological Office of Colombia has joined forces with the U.S. Geological Survey Famine Early Warning Systems Network program to integrate historical data from rainfall stations with the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations satellite-derived rainfall estimates to develop a historical database from 1981-2013 at a temporal resolution of 5 days and a spatial resolution of 5 km. This database accurately describes key characteristics of precipitation such as bimodal and single mode regimes, for example 1) regions such as the western part of the country and the mountainous region of the Andes in which a bimodal regime is present showing two rainy seasons, the first rainy season between the months of April and May and a second season from September to November, and 2) areas with a single mode regime during July-August in the eastern plains of the country and another focused on May-October for the Caribbean region in the northern part of the country. Furthermore, correlating the sea surface temperature in El Niño 3.4 region and the new historical rainfall database corroborated results from previous studies showing, with high statistical significance, a negative correlation over central, western and northern Colombia, as well as a positive correlation for the eastern and southern parts of the country. The study also confirms that the relationship mentioned above is stronger (greater correlation) in the months of lowest precipitation.

  20. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species.  PMID:25661025

  1. Mössbauer analysis of coal coke samples from Samacá, Boyacá, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco Serrano, W. A.; Quintão Lima, D.; Fabris, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Three samples of coke produced from coal from a mine in the municipality of Samacá, department of Boyacá, Colombia, were studied essentially with Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were treated with NaOH 5 mol L - 1 in order to increase the proportion of iron oxides, by selectively dissolving silicate minerals and any remaining gibbsite, before the physical analysis. Room temperature Mössbauer data revealed that all samples do contain major proportions (>50 % of the relative subspectral area) of hematite along with (super) paramagnetic species as iron-bearing chemical compounds. The superparamagnetic contribution may be due to very fine grains of iron oxides, including nanometric hematite.

  2. Polycystic echinococcosis in Colombia: the larval cestodes in infected rodents.

    PubMed

    Morales, G A; Guzman, V H; Wells, E A; Angel, D

    1979-07-01

    Described are the characteristics of the polycystic larval cestodes found in an endemic area of echinococcosis in the Easter Plains of Colombia and the tissue reaction evoked in infected rodents. Of 848 free-ranging animals examined, polycystic hydatids were found in 44/93 Cuniculus paca and 1/369 Proechimys sp. None of 20 Dasyprocta fuliginosa examined was infected, but hunters provided a heart with hydatid cysts and information about two additional animals with infected livers. Recognition of an endemic area of polycystic echinococcosis provides a means to investigate the life cycle of the parasites and to study the histogenesis of the larval cestodes in susceptible laboratory animals. PMID:501848

  3. The Quindio, Colombia, Earthquake of January 25, 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) recently released a Special Earthquake Report on the Quindio, Colombia Earthquake of January 25, 1999. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, this report is part of the EERI's Learning from Earthquakes project. Sections contained in the report include an Introduction, Geosciences and Geotechnical Aspects, Structural and Nonstructural Damage, Observations on Lifelines, Health Impacts, Emergency Response, Emergency Shelter and Temporary Housing, Recovery and Reconstruction, and Lessons Learned. Figures and images supplement the report and help make more complicated material easier to understand. This report provides an excellent example of a case study.

  4. Operational fog collection and its role in environmental education and social reintegration: A case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, C. M.; Lopez, A.; Aristizabal, H. F.; Molina, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    Experimental efforts with fog collection in Colombia began eight years ago, and in recent papers we have suggested the implementation of operational fog collection as an alternative to meet water requirements in rural areas of the Andes Mountain Range. Since then, an increasing number of individuals from academia and environmental organizations in the country have shown a remarkable interest on this appropriate technology, and some started its exploration in a larger scale. In this work we describe the implementation process of the first operational fog collection project in Colombia and discuss its role in rural water supply, in environmental education issues and in the process of "social reintegration" of people who have been victims of forced displacement. Both the fog collection evaluation stage and construction and administration of the operational system involved the participation of the community of a rural village. The study zone, located in the Andes Mountains of the Valle del Cauca Department and with altitudes ranging from 2600 to 2800 meters a.s.l., has serious limitations in water availability. Eight standard fog collectors (SFC) were implemented and used during the period May/2008 - Feb/2009 in order to assess the water yield from fog. The best average monthly collection rate in the period of study was around 2.0 l.m-2.day-1. The constructed large fog collector (LFC), with a vertical collection surface of 25 m2, and the associated hydraulic system are currently managed and administered by the village inhabitants. The fog collection system benefits a rural school, and the water is mainly used in small-scale irrigation activities for horticultural crops and livestock development. The project has also brought positive impacts in the community organization, mainly comprising people who have been forced out of their rural homes by the country's nearly half-century old armed conflict. The system also allows agriculture- and environment-related issues to be incorporated in children's current education. We highly recommend exploring this technology in the search for solutions of water and food security for victims of forced displacement in Colombia. Additional efforts to increase the number of LFCs in the study zone are underway.

  5. RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABESTICIMENTO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VALENTINA GUTIÉRREZ; DIANA PATRICIA JARAMILLO

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar dichas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera

  6. Efectos del salario mínimo sobre el estatus laboral de los jóvenes en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yenny Catalina Aguirre Botero

    2011-01-01

    Resumen: Las altas tasas de desempleo que ha presentado la economía colombiana en las últimas décadas, particularmente en la población más joven, son preocupantes. Una de las causas probables para esta situación podría ser la imposición de un salario mínimo en el mercado laboral, que desplaza a los jóvenes a la condición de desempleados o inactivos. Para determinar esta relación,

  7. Benchmarking of Leakage for Water Suppliers in Valle Del Cauca Region of Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Garzón-Contreras; I Gómez-Otero; C Muñoz-Trochez

    2005-01-01

    The geographic location, the diverse topography, and the climate that characterizes the Colombian territory have determined its abundance of water resources. However, water resources are not distributed homogeneously within the different regions of the country, putting them to strong variations that determine their availability; for this reason we find in the continental territory areas with shortage of water, and areas

  8. Sediment and solute transport in a mountainous watershed in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, C. D.; Castro, A.; Morales, A.; Hoyos, F.; Moreno, P.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    A main goal of this study was to improve prediction of sediment and solute transport using soil surface and soil nutrient changes, based on field measurements, within small watersheds receiving conservation measures. Sediment samples and solute concentrations were measured from two streams in the southwestern region of the Colombian Andes. Two modeling approaches for stream discharge and sediment transport predicted were used with one of these being used for nutrient transport prediction. These streams are a part of a recent initiative from a water fund established by Asobolo, Asocaña, and Cenicaña in collaboration with the Natural Capital Project to improve conservation efforts and monitor their effects. On-site soil depth changes, groundwater depth measurements, and soil nutrient concentrations were also monitored to provide more information about changes within this mountainous watershed during one part of the yearly rainy season. This information is being coupled closely with the outlet sediment concentration and solute concentration patterns to discern correlations. Lateral transects in the upper, middle, and lower part of the hillsides in the Aguaclara watershed of the Rio Bolo watershed network showed differences in soil nutrient status and soil surface depth changes. The model based on semi-distributed hydrology was able to reproduce discharge and sediment transport rates as well as the initially used model indicating available options for comparison of conservation changes in the future.

  9. Sediment and solute transport in a mountainous watershed in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Christian; Hoyos Villada, Fanny; Morales Vargas, Amalia; Rivera, Baudelino; Da Silva, Mayesse; Moreno Padilla, Pedro; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Sediment samples and solute concentrations were measured from the La Vega micro watershed in the southwestern region of the Colombian Andes. A main goal of this study was to improve prediction of soil surface and soil nutrient changes, based on field measurements, within small basin of the Aguaclara watershed network receiving different types of conservation measures. Two modeling approaches for stream discharge and sediment transport predictions were used with one of these based on infiltration-excess and the other on saturation-excess runoff. These streams are a part of a recent initiative from a water fund established by Asobolo, Asocaña, and Cenicaña in collaboration with the Natural Capital Project to improve conservation efforts and monitor their effects. On-site soil depth changes, groundwater depth measurements, and soil nutrient concentrations were also monitored to provide more information about changes within this mountainous watershed during one part of the yearly rainy season. This information is being coupled closely with the outlet sediment concentration and solute concentration patterns to discern correlations between scales. Lateral transects in the upper, middle, and lower part of the hillsides in the La Vega micro watershed showed differences in soil nutrient status and soil surface depth changes. The model based on saturation-excess, semi-distributed hydrology was able to reproduce discharge and sediment transport rates as well as the initially used infiltration excess model indicating available options for comparison of conservation changes in the future.

  10. Retrospective distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M; Hernández, Carolina; Montilla, Marleny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI) shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein. PMID:25946157

  11. Retrospective distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    León, Cielo M; Hernández, Carolina; Montilla, Marleny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI) shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein. PMID:25946157

  12. [Colombia: what has happened with its health reform?].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Nieto, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The health reform adopted in Colombia in 1993 was promoted by different agencies as the model to follow in matters of health policy. Following the guidelines of the Washington Consensus and the World Bank, the Government of Colombia, with the support of national political and economic elites, reorganized the management of health services based on market principles, dismantled the state system, increased finances of the sector, assigned the management of the system to the private sector, segmented the provision of services, and promoted interaction of actors in a competitive scheme of low regulation. After 20 years of implementation, the Colombian model shows serious flaws and is an object of controversy. The Government has weakened as the governing entity for health; private groups that manage the resources were established as strong centers of economic and political power; and violations of the right to health increased. Additionally, corruption and service cost overruns have put a strain on the sustainability of the system, and the state network is in danger of closing. Despite its loss of prestige at the internal level, various actors within and outside the country tend to keep the model based on contextual reforms. PMID:25597727

  13. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    PubMed

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined. PMID:23856724

  14. Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties

  15. The centipedes (Arthropoda, Myriapoda, Chilopoda) from Colombia: Part I. Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Amazonas; Chaparro, Elisa; Jiménez, Sebastián Galvis; Triana, Hernán Darío Triana; Flórez D, Eduardo; Seoane, José Carlos Sícoli

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an updated list of centipedes of the orders Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha from Colombia based on data from the literature, the World Catalogue of Centipedes (CHILOBASE), and specimens examined in museum collections. Four families, nine genera, 37 species and four subspecies are listed. One species belongs to Scutigeromorpha, and 36 species and four subspecies to Scolopendromorpha. Eleven species and four subspecies of scolopendromorphs are recorded for the first time from Colombia. Newportia Gervais, 1847 is the most diverse genus with 12 species and three subspecies. Six species of Scolopendromorpha are endemic. Three species-Otostigmus inermis Porat, 1876, O. scabricauda (Humbert & Saussure, 1870) and Cryptops iheringi Brölemann, 1902-are deleted from the fauna of Colombia. The Andean Región in Colombia has the most records of Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha. Maps showing the geographical distribution are given for the orders, genera, and some species. PMID:24871718

  16. A new species of Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-03-01

    A new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. Geotrigona joearroyoi sp. n. belongs to the fulvohirta species group and is distinguished on the basis of color...

  17. Notes on the genus Chionolaena in Colombia with a new species Chionolaena barclayae (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species and a new record for Chionolaena are recorded from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia adding to the two species of the genus already known from that mountain complex. PMID:25878550

  18. Cuando llovió dinero en Macondo: Literatura y narcotráfico en Colombia y México

    E-print Network

    Fonseca, Alberto

    2009-05-13

    This study deals with the representation of drug trafficking in six narrative texts from Colombia and Mexico. Narco-narratives examine the social structures that drug trafficking has brought to Latin American society, which ...

  19. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

  20. 3D tomographic structure of the north andean subduction zone at the Colombia-Ecuador border

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Garcia Cano; A. Galve; G. de La Torre; P. Charvis; B. Pontoise; Y. Hello; A. Anglade; B. A. Yates

    2007-01-01

    At the latitude of Ecuador - southern Colombia, the Nazca plate converges toward the South American plate along an ~E-W direction at a rate of about 6 cm\\/yr. Several large subduction earthquakes affected this area during the last century. Near the Ecuador-Colombia border the 500 km long rupture zone of the 1906 event (M = 8.8) was partially reactivated, from

  1. History of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The formal training of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia started in 1958 at Hospital Sanjos6, thanks to the titanic work of Waldemar Wilhelm, a German-born surgeon who settled in BogotA in 1950. Today there are seven institutions in Colombia that offer residency programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad El Bosque in Bogota. PMID:22916408

  2. The development of an indirect fluorescent antibody test for Trypanosoma vivax in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Platt, Kenneth Bradley

    1974-01-01

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST FOR TRYPANOSOMA VIVAX IN COLOMBIA A Thesis KENNETH BRADLEY PLATT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A Es M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTEB OF SCIENCE May 1974 Ma]or Sub]ect: Veterinary Miorobiology THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST FOR TRYPANOSOMA VIVAX IN COLOMBIA A Thesis by KENNETH BRADLEY PLATT Approved as to style end content by: Co-Cha rman...

  3. Colombia's Children at Risk of Recruitment into Armed Groups: Exploring a Community Based, Psychosocial Pedagogy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Burgess

    2009-01-01

    The protracted violent conflict in Colombia has resulted in the internal displacement of over 4.3 million people (IDMC, 2008) and the enlistment of 11,000 to 14,000 children into one of the guerrilla or paramilitary groups. At least 30 percent of the combatants in Colombia's armed groups are children, and over tens of thousands more child soldiers exist in the world.

  4. Transnational peace building: bringing salt and light to Colombia and the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loramy Conradi Gerstbauer

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Lutheran World Relief (LWR), an international relief and development NGO, began a peace-building initiative in Colombia. It facilitated the formation of a partnership between peace-sanctuary churches in Colombia and six communities of faith in the US Midwest, co-ordinated by LWR staff. This partnership, called ‘Sal y Luz’ (Salt and Light), has the goal of education and advocacy both

  5. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Urrutia Cobo

    2006-01-01

    Colombia<\\/span>is a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands located on sloping areas, where food crops and cash products such as corn, potato and specially vegetables are cultivated.

  6. Squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri ) in natural habitats in Panama, Colombia, Brazil, and Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Baldwin; Janice I. Baldwin

    1971-01-01

    Troops ofSaimiri (squirrel monkeys) were observed in 31 locations in natural habitats in Panama, Colombia, Brazil, and Peru. Troop size varied from 10 to 35 animals in Panama and Colombia and from 120 to 300 or more in the unaltered rainforests of Amazonia. Troop size correlated with forest size in all areas.Saimiri associated withCebus (capuchin monkeys) in several areas.Saimiri troops

  7. CARACTERSTICAS Y ARTICULACIN DEL ESPACIO DEL MUNDO TERRENAL Y DEL ESPACIO DEL MS ALL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 12/03/2009 CARACTERÍSTICAS Y ARTICULACI�N DEL ESPACIO DEL MUNDO TERRENAL Y DEL ESPACIO DEL MÁS "El tiempo y el espacio en Gonzalo de Berceo"1. El estudio concierne toda la obra, y se centra en la las "herramientas mentales" que son la concepción del tiempo y del espacio. En lo que toca al segundo

  8. Impacts of El Niño and El Niño Modoki on the precipitation in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba Machado, Samir; Palomino Lemus, Reiner; Raquel Gámiz Fortis, Sonia; Castro Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban Parra, María

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the tropical Pacific SST on precipitation in Colombia is examined using 341 stations covering the period 1979-2009. Through a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) the two main coupled variability modes show SST patterns clearly associated with El Niño (EN) and El Niño Modoki (ENM), respectively, presenting great coupling strength with the corresponding seasonal precipitation modes in Colombia. The results reveal that, mainly in winter and summer, EN and ENM events are associated with a significant rainfall decrease over northern, central, and western Colombia. The opposite effect occurs in some localities during spring, summer, and autumn. The southwestern region of Colombia exhibits an opposite behaviour connected to EN and ENM events during years when both events do not coexist, showing that the seasonal precipitation response is not linear. The Partial Regression Analysis used to quantify separately the influence of the two types of ENSO on seasonal precipitation shows the importance of both types in the reconstruction process. The results obtained in this study establish the base for modeling and forecasting the seasonal precipitation in Colombia using the tropical Pacific SST associated with El Niño and El Niño Modoki. Keywords: Seasonal precipitation, Tropical Pacific SST, El Niño, El Niño Modoki, Singular Value Decomposition, Colombia. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work has been financed by the projects P11-RNM-7941 (Junta de Andalucía-Spain) and CGL2013-48539-R (MINECO-Spain, FEDER).

  9. New blueberry and mortiño relatives (Ericaceae) from northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The inventory of the vascular plants of one of the richest and least studied floras, the Andean and Chocó regions of northwestern Colombia, targets Las Orquídeas National Park. As a result of field trips to areas never before collected, several epiphytic and small terrestrial shrubs in the family Ericaceae have been discovered in the Park's humid forests. Five new, morphologically remarkable species of Ericaceae (tribe Vaccinieae), are here described and illustrated. In a separate phylogenetic analysis, Psammisiapinnata Pedraza, Psammisiapseudoverticillata Pedraza, Satyriaorquidiensis Pedraza, and Satyriapterocalyx Pedraza, were placed by molecular sequence data within clades of the non-monophyletic genera Psammisia and Satyria; phylogenetic evidence for the placement of Psammisiasophiae Pedraza is still lacking. Their affinities are here discussed, along with their preliminary conservation status. PMID:25987884

  10. New blueberry and mortiño relatives (Ericaceae) from northwestern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The inventory of the vascular plants of one of the richest and least studied floras, the Andean and Chocó regions of northwestern Colombia, targets Las Orquídeas National Park. As a result of field trips to areas never before collected, several epiphytic and small terrestrial shrubs in the family Ericaceae have been discovered in the Park’s humid forests. Five new, morphologically remarkable species of Ericaceae (tribe Vaccinieae), are here described and illustrated. In a separate phylogenetic analysis, Psammisia pinnata Pedraza, Psammisia pseudoverticillata Pedraza, Satyria orquidiensis Pedraza, and Satyria pterocalyx Pedraza, were placed by molecular sequence data within clades of the non-monophyletic genera Psammisia and Satyria; phylogenetic evidence for the placement of Psammisia sophiae Pedraza is still lacking. Their affinities are here discussed, along with their preliminary conservation status. PMID:25987884

  11. Genetic polymorphism of 15 STR loci in central western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Porras, L; Beltrán, L; Ortiz, T; Sanchez-Diz, P; Carracedo, A; Henao, J

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed using the AmpFISTR Identifiler PCR Amplification Kit in 1944 samples of healthy unrelated individuals, born in the regions of Caldas, Quindio and Risaralda, Colombia. Allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest are presented for all markers (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA). All loci of the pooled data were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, after Bonferroni correction. Comparisons with neighboring Latin American populations and Andalucia (Spain) revealed significant differences in allele distributions. Genetic data presented in this study can be used for routine forensic applications in the region. PMID:19083781

  12. Morning Edition's Series on the Crisis in Colombia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This week National Public Radio's (NPR) Morning Edition featured a five-part investigative series on the crisis in Columbia, source of most of the cocaine and roughly half the heroin sold in the US. The drug trade, a guerilla insurgency, and a spiraling economy have created a vacuum of sorts in Columbia that the US is trying to fill with vastly increased military aid. Averaging just under nine minutes each, the audio reports offer an overview of the situation and more detailed looks at the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the Columbian military, the paramilitaries, and potential US involvement in the civil war. At time of review only the first three reports were available at the site, but the remaining two are expected shortly.

  13. ALFREDO RUIZ, JR. ADDRESS 122 Larkwood Drive

    E-print Network

    Central Florida, University of

    . Experience includes: medical monitors, business servers, laser range finders, avionics, digital data links microprocessor programmed in "C" and assembler Digital Signal Processors - Analog Devices SHARC and 2181 family conversion functions. Wrote software documentation, manufacturing process sheets, and configuration control

  14. Jose R. Ruiz Ayala Kwangjin Lee

    E-print Network

    Barber, James R.

    intermittent sliding con- tact. For example, in an automotive disk brake, the brake pads do not cover) and is of critical importance in the design of high perfor- mance brakes (Thoms, 1988; Anderson and Knapp, 1989; Ken estimate of the critical speed for practical systems such as brakes, but the more com- plex finite geometry

  15. in Arboleda, Luis Carlos & Paty, Michel (eds.), Formacin de Cultura Cientfica en Colombia. Ensayos sobre Matemticas y Fsica, Instituto de Educacin y

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    115 in Arboleda, Luis Carlos & Paty, Michel (eds.), Formación de Cultura Científica en Colombia (Colombia), 2004, p. 111-151. FORMACI�N Y DESARROLLO DE LA CULTURA CIENTÍFICA EN COLOMBIA: LA FÍSICA DE 1880 introducidas y enseñadas en Colombia desde los tiempos de la Colonia (1550-1810), principalmente en Santafé de

  16. Biochemical Education in Colombia and Peru: Report on IUB Workshops Held in Cali, Colombia, 3-6 July 1990 and Lima, Peru, 9-13 July 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, E. J., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes the activities at the International Union of Biochemistry workshops held in Cali, Colombia, and Lima, Peru, during July 1990. Includes background about the education systems at the college level in these two countries, current teaching practices, and recommendations drafted by the workshop participants. (JJK)

  17. Colombia, Many Countries in One: Economic Growth, Environmental Sustainability, Sociocultural Divergence and Biodiversity. Profile and Paradox. Volumes I and II. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1997 (Colombia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This Fulbright Summer Seminar focused on the environmental challenge posed by Colombia's biodiversity and addressed the relationship between the last decade of Colombian economic development and the country's sociocultural situation, taking into account its historical background and the role of natural resources in a context of sustainable…

  18. Libertad de prensa en Colombia: la contradicción en la búsqueda de la verdad Freedom of the Press in Colombia: The Contradiction in the Search for the Truth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Gómez; Juan Camilo Hernández

    2008-01-01

    Freedom of the press in Colombia is an issue ripe with contradiction. There is no consensus among those who govern and the agencies that investigate or monitor this phenomenon. The Media Observatory of the School of Communication conducted a study among journalists throughout the country to provide input for the discussion. It warns of the primary factors and agents that

  19. Teaching EFL Academic Writing in Colombia: Reflections in Contrastive Rhetoric (La enseñanza de escritura académica en Colombia: reflexiones en retórica contrastiva)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, Juan D.

    2011-01-01

    This essay relates observations to the reasons that advanced students of English as a foreign language in Colombia struggle with English composition. It identifies some cultural, academic, and disciplinary influences that may obfuscate their assimilation of the conventions of written English. It concludes by proposing that the teaching of context…

  20. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras -INVEMAR 191 Bol. Invest. Mar. Cost. 39 (1) ISSN 0122-9761 Santa Marta, Colombia, 2010

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    0122-9761 Santa Marta, Colombia, 2010 NOTA: FAUNA NOCTURNA ASOCIADA A LOS MANGLARES Y OTROS HUMEDALES, ProCAT Colombia/Internacional. sabalaguera@procat-conservation.org, jfgonzalez@procat-conservation.org 2Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe, CECIMAR/INVEMAR, Cerro Punta Betín, Santa Marta

  1. On some Panamerican Cretaceous crabs (Decapoda: Raninoida) 263 Decapod crustacean specimens recently collected from new and previously reported localities of USA, Mexico, and Colombia, as

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    specimens recently collected from new and previously reported localities of USA, Mexico, and Colombia Colombia, Oklahoma and Mexico. Specimens of Cenomanocarcinus vanstraeleni from the Turonian of Mexico and Colombia include features not described previously for this species, such as variation in the shape

  2. Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Cafe (Cenicafe), Chinchina, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Africa; Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Cafe´ (Cenicafe´), Chinchina´, Colombia Relationships Cafe´ (CENICAFE), Chinchina´ , Colombia, A.A. 2427 (correspondence to M. Marin. E-mail: Mauricio fimbriata, Coffea arabica, RAPD, RFLP, ITS, phylogeny, Colombia Abstract One of the most important diseases

  3. 19 CFR 10.3027 - Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Origin Verifications...3027 Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and...

  4. 19 CFR 10.3027 - Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and apparel...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Origin Verifications...3027 Special rule for verifications in Colombia of U.S. imports of textile and...

  5. UTILIDAD DEL VALOR DE USO EN ETNOBOTÁNICA. ESTUDIO EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE PUTUMAYO (COLOMBIA) Use Value usefulness in ethnobotany. Case study in Putumayo department (Colombia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CÉSAR MARÍN-CORBA; DAIRON CÁRDENAS-LÓPEZ; STELLA SUÁREZ-SUÁREZ

    A quantification and comparison among Use Values of trees in western Colombian Amazonia is presented. Applicability and usefulness of available methods for Use Value quantification are discussed. We concluded that Use Value is limited in the expression of real species usefulness and their importance for communities, and also is of limited usefulness as a tool to prioritize species or areas

  6. La etnoeducación campo de articulaciones necesarias: apoyo en la construcción del proyecto educativo institucional en las comunidades wayuu del delta del río Ranchería, Riohacha, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    Two communities wayuu located in the delta of the river Ranchería, near to the capital of the department of The Guajira, Riohacha, organized as defense and with a tradition of occupation that passes the century, they suffer from the own lacks of the most far away rural communities of the department. Currently they seek alternatives that integrate the educational work

  7. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ?19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating GPS sites in the region. Studies of tsunami deposits on the Dutch Antilles suggest that the provenance of paleotsunami responsible for moving 10-100 ton blocks of coral onshore in the past two millennia has been from the east (Sheffers, 2002), and not from the north or south as we might expect from a NW Venezuelan earthquake. The existence of precariously balanced rocks in the region provides an alternative constraint on the occurrence of large local accelerations. The survival of at least four precariously balanced megablocks on the island of Aruba suggests that horizontal accelerations here have not exceeded 1 g for the past several millennia, but refined numerical estimates of potential shaking intensity consistent with their survival have yet to be completed. Accelerations exceeded 2.5 g in the Tohuko 2011 earthquake but above the Mexican subduction zone, accelerations have typically not exceeded 0.5 g in recent Mw~7.5 earthquakes, and hence the existence of these blocks may not exclude the historical occurrence of damaging earthquakes. A broader search for surviving strong-motion indicators in Colombia and Venezuela is planned during the installation of the GPS array.

  8. Evaporite deposits of Bogota area, Cordillera Oriental, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Donald H.

    1972-01-01

    Four evaporite-bearing stratigraphic zones are known in Cretaceous strata of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia north and east of Bogota. The easternmost and oldest zone is probably of Berriasian to Valanginian age. The next oldest is probably late Barremian to early Aptian in age. The third appears to be Aptian. The westernmost and best known sequence in the Sabana de Bogota is Turonian to early Coniacian in age. This youngest sequence contains the thickest salt deposits known in Colombia and is probably the most widespread geographically. Most of the rock salt exposed in the three accessible mines (at Zipaquira, Nemocon, and Upin) has a characteristic lamination of alternating slightly argillaceous and highly argillaceous salt layers of varied but moderate thickness. Black, calcareous claystone, commonly very pyritic, is interbedded conformably with the laminated salt in many places throughout the deposits. Fragments of black claystone derived from the thinner interbeds are ubiquitous in all deposits, both as concordant breccia zones and as isolated clasts. Anhydrite is scarce at Zipaquira and apparently even rarer at Nemocon and Upin. Gypsum is produced at three small deposits in the oldest evaporite zone where it probably was concentrated by leaching of salt initially associated with it. The two intervening evaporite zones are not exposed, but their existence and distribution are indicated by brine springs and locally by "rute," a distinctive black, calcareous mud formed by the leaching of salt beds. Fossils show that the youngest salt-claystone zone, in the Sabana de Bogota, is contemporary with associated hematitic sandstone and siltstone, and with carbonaceous and locally coaly claystone. Although evidence is poor, this same facies relation probably exists within the other three evaporite zones. All salt deposits in this study probably are associated with anticlines, a relation best exemplified by the deposits on the Sabana de Bogota. Within these anticlines the salt deposits appear to be contained stratigraphically in fault-bound crestal, claystone cores that have not been mobilized over great vertical distances. The deposits of this study are not salt domes.

  9. Análisis de las tendencias de mortalidad por cáncer de mama en Colombia y Bogotá 1981-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Hernández; Santiago Herrán; Luis Fernando Cantor

    Abstract Introduction: In Colombia, breast cancer mortality has increased. Paradoxically, Bogota with the highest rates showed a decreasing trend. In this study we examined age, cohort and period effects over breast cancer mortality trends in Bogotá and Colombia as a whole (excluding Bogota) between,1981 and 2000.

  10. 78 FR 15343 - Multi-State, Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Colombia; September 9-12, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ...biometric equipment, and communication jammers, among others...detectors, modern communication systems (MCS), IT-structure...others. The U.S.-Colombia TPA reduced tariffs...Information Technology Colombia's IT sector has been...Information Technology and Communications' (MinTIC) is...

  11. First record of a pectinariid-like (Polychaeta, Annelida) agglutinated worm tube from the Late Cretaceous of Colombia

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    Cretaceous of Colombia Olev Vinn a,*, Javier Luque b a Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A is described from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian, w84 My) of Colombia. The rare agglutinated fossil tube Santonian age for the beds (Kennedy et al., 1995; Etayo, personal communication). The specimen is deposited

  12. Gestión del riesgo del cambio (primera parte)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Pablo Zorrilla Salgador

    1970-01-01

    A partir de la desaparición del sistema Bretton-Woods, y la libre flotación del\\u000atipo de cambio, el mundo se volvió más susceptible a todo tipo de riesgos.\\u000aEl presente artículo pretende explicar a los gestores financieros o empresarios interesados en el tema de instrumentos financieros derivados, a conocer lo\\u000amás relevante y necesario acerca del uso de futuros sobre el

  13. NuestrosEmritosNuestrosEmritosNuestrosEmritos Nuestros Emritos

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    General Mtro. Daniel Barrera Pérez Secretario Administrativo Dra. Rosaura Ruiz Gutiérrez Secretaria de del Departamento de Difusión y Publicaciones Lic. Vicenta de Vega García Asistente de Procesos Portada

  14. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  15. Microplastic resin pellets on an urban tropical beach in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Coley, Isabel; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-07-01

    Microplastics are a problem in oceans worldwide. The current situation in Latin America is not well known. This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of microplastics on an urban Caribbean beach in Cartagena, Colombia. Pellet samples were collected from a tourist beach over a 5-month period covering both dry and rainy seasons. Pellets were classified by color and their surface analyzed by stereomicroscopy, and some were characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The most abundant pellets were white, presenting virgin surfaces, with few signs of oxidation. This is congruent with a short residence time in the marine environment and primary sources possibly located nearby. The frequency of white pellets did not change with sampling period. Surface features identified in the pellets included cracks, material loss, erosion, adhesion, granulation, color change, and glazed surfaces. Reticulated granular pellets exhibited the greatest degradation, easily generating submicroplastics. Sample composition was mostly polyethylene, followed by polypropylene. This pollution problem must be addressed by responsible authorities to avoid pellet deposition in oceans and on beaches around the world. Graphical abstract ?. PMID:26082422

  16. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, ?-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  17. Two new species of Atractus from Colombia (Reptilia, Squamata, Dipsadidae).

    PubMed

    Köhler, Gunther; Kieckbusch, Max

    2014-01-01

    We describe two new species of Atractus from Colombia: one from the Serrania de la Lindosa, south of San José de Guaviare in the province Guaviare, and another from Punta de Betin in the province Magdalena, close to the Caribbean coast. The first new species differs from all congeners by having a combination of 17 smooth dorsal scale rows; loreal present, approximately as long as high; temporals 1+2; seven supralabials; seven infralabials; five maxillary teeth; four gular scale rows; four pre-ventrals; 187 ventrals in single male; 29/31 subcaudals in single male; dorsum of body with longitudinal stripes; venter uniformly dark gray. The second new species differs from all congeners by having a combination of 17 smooth dorsal scale rows; loreal absent; temporals 1+2; seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; eight maxillary teeth; three gular scale rows; three pre-ventrals; 146 ventrals in single male; 31/32 subcaudals in single male; dorsum of body and tail reddish brown with paired, occasionally slightly alternating lateral vertical cream blotches, approximately one dorsal scale broad, not contacting in vertebral region; venter cream with reddish brown blotches, forming two parallel series on anterior body and a checkered pattern on the rest of body. PMID:25544086

  18. Remote sensing for geologic mapping in Eastern Cordillero, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.M.; Narr, W. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Geologic mapping in frontier areas can be done accurately and efficiently by integrating various remote sensing and photometric methods with field mapping. Interpretations of Landsat, airborne radar, and aerial photographs were integrated with field mapping to geologically map part of a northwest-directed fold-thrust belt in the Eastern Cordillera, southwest of Santafe de Bogota, Colombia. Each sensor provided particular advantages: (1) Landsat provided an accurate cartographic basemap, and the best source of regional cultural, physiographic, and regional formation mapping information (2) Airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provided the only cloudfree imagery and was optimal for regional mapping of structural geology because the radar beam's low illumination angle enhanced topographic relief. Qualitative structural information was obtained by stereographic viewing of overlapping flight strips. Map scale features recognized only on the SAR include: (a) the surface trace of a thrust fault, (b) an overturned anticline, and (c) a thrust structure produced by wedging or nappe emplacement (3) Aerial photographs were used to estimate bedding attitudes quantitatively, to resolve questionable geology, and to construct a 1:50,000 topographic map using standard photogrammetry. Transfer of dip and strike data from aerial photographs to cartographic base was accomplished by digitizing corresponding control points on each airphoto and the base, and then removing distortion using a transformation algorithm derived empirically for each airphoto. These digital data, along with digitized field data, were projected into profile planes for cross section construction.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Emilio J.

    2013-01-01

    The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest. PMID:24130438

  20. Genetic evidence of hantavirus infections in wild rodents from northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Londoño, Andres F; Díaz, Francisco J; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Levis, Silvana; Rodas, Juan D

    2011-06-01

    This report builds on recent serological evidence for the presence of hantavirus in northern Colombia by providing sequence-specific and phylogenetic data of hantavirus infections in wild rodents. From August 2007 to August 2008, 354 rodent specimens representing four families were collected in the northwestern Antioquia region of Colombia. Antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus and Maciel virus antigens by IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were found in 15 of 109 (14%) Cherries cane rats (Zygodontomys cherriei), the only sigmodontinae rodents captured. Lung tissue samples from 11 of the 15 seropositive rodents were RT-polymerase chain reaction positive for hantavirus RNA, using primers for the S and M genome segments. Eight of these amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses indicated RNA of a hantavirus closely related to Calabazo virus, previously found in Panama. This is the first report of the genetic characterization of a hantavirus in rodents in Colombia. PMID:21284514

  1. Estadísticas del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica sobre las estadísticas del cáncer, las cuales describen las tendencias en grupos grandes de personas y ofrecen una imagen a través del tiempo de la carga que representa el cáncer en la sociedad.

  2. Bee pathogens found in Bombus atratus from Colombia: A case study.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Viviana; Ravoet, Jorgen; Brunain, Marleen; Smagghe, Guy; Meeus, Ivan; Figueroa, Judith; Riaño, Diego; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-07-01

    Bombus atratus bumblebees from Colombia that were caught in the wild and from breeding programs were screened for a broad set of bee pathogens. We discovered for the first time Lake Sinai Virus and confirmed the infection by other common viruses. The prevalence of Apicystis bombi, Crithidia bombi and Nosema ceranae was remarkably high. According to other studies the former two could have been co-introduced in South America with exotic bumble bees as Bombus terrestris or Bombus ruderatus. Given the fact that none of these species occur in Colombia, our data puts a new light on the spread of these pathogens over the South American continent. PMID:26031564

  3. Highlights of NASA/DOE photovoltaics market assessment visit to Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A NASA/DOE sponsored photovoltaic market assessment team composed of representatives of NASA-Lewis Research Center, DHR, Inc., and Associates in Rural Development, Inc. recently conducted a month-long study in Colombia (June 28 - July 23). The team contacted government officials and private sector representatives in Bogota and Cali, and visited rural development and agricultural sites in the departments of Cundinamarca, Caldas, Valle, and chada to determine the potential market for American photovoltaic products in the Colombia agricultural and rural sectors.

  4. Secondary Syphilis in Cali, Colombia: New Concepts in Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Adriana R.; Pillay, Allan; Zuluaga, Ana V.; Ramirez, Lady G.; Duque, Jorge E.; Aristizabal, Gloria E.; Fiel-Gan, Mary D.; Jaramillo, Roberto; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Valencia, Carlos; Jagodzinski, Linda; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18–68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with SS, a reactive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR-titer ?1?4), and a confirmatory treponemal test (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption test- FTA-ABS). Most subjects enrolled were women (64.9%), predominantly Afro-Colombian (38.6%) or mestizo (56.1%), and all were of low socio-economic status. Three (5.3%) subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV infection at study entry. The duration of signs and symptoms in most patients (53.6%) was less than 30 days; however, some patients reported being symptomatic for several months (range 5–240 days). The typical palmar and plantar exanthem of SS was the most common dermal manifestation (63%), followed by diffuse hypo- or hyperpigmented macules and papules on the trunk, abdomen and extremities. Three patients had patchy alopecia. Whole blood (WB) samples and punch biopsy material from a subset of SS patients were assayed for the presence of Tp DNA polymerase I gene (polA) target by real-time qualitative and quantitative PCR methods. Twelve (46%) of the 26 WB samples studied had quantifiable Tp DNA (ranging between 194.9 and 1954.2 Tp polA copies/ml blood) and seven (64%) were positive when WB DNA was extracted within 24 hours of collection. Tp DNA was also present in 8/12 (66%) skin biopsies available for testing. Strain typing analysis was attempted in all skin and WB samples with detectable Tp DNA. Using arp repeat size analysis and tpr RFLP patterns four different strain types were identified (14d, 16d, 13d and 22a). None of the WB samples had sufficient DNA for typing. The clinical and microbiologic observations presented herein, together with recent Cali syphilis seroprevalence data, provide additional evidence that venereal syphilis is highly endemic in this region of Colombia, thus underscoring the need for health care providers in the region to be acutely aware of the clinical manifestations of SS. This study also provides, for the first time, quantitative evidence that a significant proportion of untreated SS patients have substantial numbers of circulating spirochetes. How Tp is able to persist in the blood and skin of SS patients, despite the known presence of circulating treponemal opsonizing antibodies and the robust pro-inflammatory cellular immune responses characteristic of this stage of the disease, is not fully understood and requires further study. PMID:20502522

  5. [Research ethics: the case with the tule (kuna), Urabbá, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Gloria; Correa, Adriana

    2006-03-01

    An ethical analysis was performed during the development of a research project titled "Culture, nourishment and malaria in the Kuna aboriginals of Urabá, Colombia." This project had 2 objectives; (1) to investigate the prevalence of malaria and its relationship with hypovitaminosis A and nutritional status, and (2) to understand the community's conceptions and practices towards malaria. The current paper summarizes reflections concerning the application of ethical principles and moral values during the course of the malaria research project. Two intercultural relationships were clearly defined: the culture of the Tule (Kuna) Indians, with a traditional medical system, and the culture of the research group, focused on the biomedical model. The rationale and the discussion proposed during the writing of the project proposal was presented as well as the dilemmas that developed during the project within the communities. These problems required rapid decision-making in situations for which the scientists had not been adequately prepared. A need was indicated for application of ethical principles to permeate the analysis throughout the research process in a horizontal manner, such that the human dignity of the participants and the ethnicity of the community are preserved above the purposes of the project. In the research process, mediation between the ethics of conviction and the ethics of consequences must take precedence, with both outcomes tied to an informed consent in place during the process. The establishment of national and local research ethics committees was indicated as necessary to preserve the lifestyle and culture of the ethnic groups. These values were seen as endangered given the trading pressures and health policies in a globalized world. PMID:16929899

  6. Maria Guiomar Nates-Parra: biographical sketch and summary of contributions to the melittological knowledge of Colombia

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

    2013-02-26

    (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0). ISSN 2325-4467 Maria Guiomar Nates-Parra: Biographical sketch and summary of contributions to the melittological knowledge of Colombia Victor H. Gonzalez1,2 & Michael S. Engel2 Abstract. A brief account of some aspects... at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá) who pioneered research and conservation of native bees in Colombia. Guio- mar has dedicated nearly four decades of her life not only to research, but also to the training and mentoring of numerous undergraduate...

  7. Reform and Governance in the Ministry of Education: The Case of Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    The educational development programs of Latin American nations have frequently floundered because of an inability to plan, organize, and execute decisions effectively and to deliver resources with precision and dispatch. This study documents and analyzes Colombia's effort to resolve this problem in its educational institution through the process…

  8. Seismic reprocessing, interpretation and petroleum prospectivity of the East Cano Rondon Area, Llanos Basin, Colombia 

    E-print Network

    Molina, German D

    1999-01-01

    The Llanos Basin, in Eastern Colombia, is the major oil-producing province in the country. In recent years, exploration in this basin has been focused towards plays in the Llanos foothills, where proven thrust traps present the possibility of large...

  9. The hydrocarbon habitat of northern South America: Colombia-Venezuela-Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    James, K.H. [Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A prolific hydrocarbon province extends across the northern margin of South America from Colombia to east of Trinidad. Two key components are a world-class source rock, formed on a regional Late Cretaceous passive margin, and a complex tectonic setting in which a variety of structural and stratigraphic traps, reservoirs, seals and hydrocarbon kitchens have evolved through time. Convergence between the Farallon and Caribbean plates with South America culminated in the late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene with emplacement of Colombia`s Central Cordillera in the west and a nappe-foreland basin system in the north. Regional hydrocarbon generation probably occurred below associated basins. Subsequent oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South America, partitioned into strike-slip and compressional strain, generated an eastward migrating and ongoing uplift-foredeep (kitchen) system from central Venezuela to Trinidad. Similarly, oblique interaction of western Colombia with the Nazca Plate caused segmentation of the earlier orogen, northward extrusion of elements such as the Maracaibo Block, and eastward migration of uplift progressively dividing earlier kitchens into localized foredeeps.

  10. Prevalence and determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women from Bogota, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Molano; E Weiderpass; H Posso; S. A. Morre; M Ronderos; S Franceschi; A Arslan; C. J. L. M. Meijer; N. Munoz; Brule van den AJ

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix and uterus has been hypothesised to be a co-factor for cervical cancer. We performed a cross sectional study in Bogota, Colombia, where cervical cancer rates are high, to determine the prevalence and determinants of C trachomatis infection, and in particular its association with human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: 1829 low income sexually active women

  11. Diet composition of fish species from the southern continental shelf of Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Lopez-Peralta; C. A. T. Arcila

    2002-01-01

    The diet composition of 30 fish species belonging to 16 families from the Pacific Coast of Colombia is described. Benthic crustaceans (37.5%) and bony fishes (23.7%, chiefly demersal) were the most important food items for the fish species analyzed. Data on diet composition of the fish species are presented for the first time which can be a source of information

  12. Primates and their habitats in northern Colombia with recommendations for future management and research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Norman J., Jr.; Struhsaker, Thomas T.; Glander, Kenneth; Chiriví, Hernano

    1976-01-01

    This report covers a survey of forests and wild primates carried out by its authors in northern Colombia during May, July, and August 1974. The results of a 1973 field report on this report by Bernstein et al. (1) are also included.

  13. Curriculum Diversification, Cognitive Achievement and Economic Performance: Evidence from Colombia and Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    A study evaluated diversified secondary school systems in Colombia and Tanzania. It compared advantages that might have accrued to diversified school students and graduates relative to more conventional types of formal training. A random sample of approximately 14,000 school students following diversified and conventional secondary curricula was…

  14. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  15. A preliminary study of forensic entomology in Medell??n, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Wolff; Alejandro Uribe; Adriana Ortiz; Patricia Duque

    2001-01-01

    This is the first report of an ongoing study of insect succession on carrion carried out in Medell??n, Colombia, using pigs (Sus scrofa) as a model to determine the insect sequence over 207 days. During this period, 2314 insects belonging to the following orders and families were collected: Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Otitidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae, Formicidae, Halictidae, Mutilidae,

  16. Decentralization and Regionalization in Educational Administration: Comparisons of Venezuela, Colombia and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    A nation's transition from dictatorship to democracy generally involves institutional reform attempts with new priorities serving a wider range of people and goals. This study describes and compares the goals, means, and outcomes of administrative reforms in the public educational systems of three Hispanic nations (Venezuela, Colombia, and Spain).…

  17. A new species of Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. Geotrigona joearroyoi sp. n. belongs to the fulvohirta species group and is distinguished on the basis of color and type of pubescence on the metasomal terga. New geographical records and an updated key to the species of Geotrigona are provided. PMID:22448115

  18. Foreign and Domestic Firms in Colombia:Development and Trends 1996-2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rowland

    This is the second of three papers investigating the differences between foreign and domestic firms in Colombia. The study uses a dataset containing annual balance sheets and income statements for a sample of 3,452 firms for the period 1996 to 2003. This period includes the 1999 economic crisis. The dataset was obtained from the Superintendencia de Sociedades. If the development

  19. Foreign and Domestic Firms in Colombia:Exports, Imports and External Debt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rowland

    2005-01-01

    This is the third of three papers investigating the differences between foreign and domestic firms in Colombia. The study uses a dataset containing the 2003 balance sheets and income statements for some 7,001 firms obtained from the Superintendencia de Sociedades. This dataset is crossed with a database of the Banco de la República, containing data on exports, imports and external

  20. Exchange Rate Pass-Throught to Domestic Prices: The Case of Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rowland

    2004-01-01

    This study uses two different econometric frameworks to study exchange rate pass-throught to import, producer and consumer prices in Colombia. Both frameworks are based on vector autoregressive (VAR) models, the first using an unrestricted VAR model, and the second using the Johansen framework of multivariate cointegration. Exchange rate pass-through is shown to be incomplete. Import prices, nevertheless, respond quickly to

  1. EXCHANGE RATE PASS-THROUGH TO DOMESTIC PRICES: THE CASE OF COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rowland

    2003-01-01

    This study uses two different econometric frameworks to study exchange rate passthrough to import, producer and consumer prices in Colombia. Both frameworks are based on vector autoregressive (VAR) models, the first using an unrestricted VAR model, and the second using the Johansen framework of multivariate cointegration. Exchange rate pass-through is shown to be incomplete. Import prices, nevertheless, respond quickly to

  2. Private irrigation investment in Colombia: effects of violence, macroeconomic policy, and environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Dinar; Andrew Keck

    1997-01-01

    This paper identifies and estimates the effects of several determinants on private investment in irrigation in Colombia. It attempts to quantify macroeconomic policy, environment, and violence variables that have been identified in previous studies as significantly affecting investment in agriculture in general, and in irrigation in particular. Variables such as violence, climate, and governmental price and credit policies are used

  3. Reverse smokers's and changes in oral mucosa. Department of Sucre, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria J. Alvarez Gómez; Efraín Alvarez Martínez; Raúl Jiménez Gómez; Yolanda Mosquera Silva; Angela María; Gaviria Núñez; Adriana Garcés Agudelo; Alexander Alonso Duque; Alexander Zabala Castaño; Elizabeth Echeverri González; Melissa Isaac Millán; Diana Ramírez Ossa

    Objectives: This work is intended to establish the prevalence of reverse smokers at the villages of Hato Nuevo, San Francisco and Cayo de Palma, Department of Sucre, Colombia, characterizing their socio-culture conditions, clinical and histological changes in the oral mucosa. Design of study: A descriptive study was done through a home to home inquiry to select the people with inclusion

  4. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF MOSQUITO NETS AGAINST MALARIA IN THE AMAZON REGION OF COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEAL ALEXANDER; MAURICIO RODRÍGUEZ; LIGIA PÉREZ; JUAN CARLOS CAICEDO; JESÚS CRUZ; GUILLERMO PRIETO; JOSÉ ANTONIO ARROYO; MARIA CRISTINA COTACIO; MARTHA SUÁREZ; FERNANDO DE LA HOZ; ANDREW J. HALL

    2005-01-01

    The degree of effectiveness of mosquito nets against malaria in the Americas has remained uncertain. We carried out a case-control study of net use and mild malaria in the Amazonas state of Colombia. Two hundred ninety cases were enrolled via the Health Department services, and 977 community-based controls matched for age, sex, and place of residence. We found that a

  5. Universidades pioneras en la formación profesional de administradores de empresas en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Hernán Pérez Gómez

    2012-01-01

    resUmen la formación de administradores de empresas en Colombia fue liderada por universidades que comprendieron la necesidad de formar profesionales para la conducción de las empresas de los diversos sectores de la economía. la enseñanza partió de cursos para directivos y se llegó a consolidar hasta construir planes de estudio estructurados para una formación de carácter profesional; el proceso se

  6. Eco-región Eje Cafetero: una experiencia de desarrollo regional en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Arango Gaviria

    1970-01-01

    Con la expedición de la Ley 388 de 1997, se inicia un nuevo proceso de planificación y desarrollo territorial en Colombia. Los preceptos contemplados en dicha Ley, aunados a procesos político-institucionales en la Eco-región Eje Cafetero, han permitido efectuar propuestas interesantes para su desarrollo regional. En este contexto, el artículo realiza una síntesis de algunos de los elementos que han

  7. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Northern Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Julio A.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C.; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  8. The Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation in the Tropical Andes of Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Germán Poveda; Oscar J. Mesa; Luis F. Salazar; Paola A. Arias; Hernán A. Moreno; Sara C. Vieira; Paula A. Agudelo; Vladimir G. Toro; J. Felipe Alvarez

    2005-01-01

    Using hourly records from 51 rain gauges, spanning between 22 and 28 yr, the authors study the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the tropical Andes of Colombia. Analyses are developed for the seasonal march of the diurnal cycle and its interannual variability during the two phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Also, the diurnal cycle is analyzed at intra-annual time

  9. Tertiary Education in Colombia: Paving the Way for Reform. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    A great challenge facing Colombia is how to become an active member of the new global information and knowledge society. The changes required for this transition mean that the role of tertiary education must also shift to add to the traditional tasks of the transmission of knowledge and providing basic research the roles of training adaptable…

  10. Helminths of two anuran species, Atelopus spurrelli (Bufonidae) and Dendrobates histrionicus (Dendrobatidae), from Colombia, South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen R. Goldberg; Charles R. Bursey

    2003-01-01

    Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species

  11. On the determinants of the inflation rate in Colombia: a disequilibrium market approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesus Otero; Manuel Ramirez

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the inflation rate in Colombia in terms of excess money, excess demand, deviations from PPP, and wage inflation. In contrast to previous results for a group of industrial economias, we find that domestic factors are a far more powerful influence on inflation than are external factors. We also find evidence of non-linear price behavior in response to excess

  12. An overview of seventy years of research (1944–2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reviews toxoplasmosis research in Colombia, beginning with the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1944. Here we summarize prevalence of T. gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. g...

  13. Characterization of bacterial diversity at different depths in the Moravia Hill landfill site at Medellin, Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods was used to assess bacterial diversity at different depths within a former solid waste dump in Medellín, Colombia. Sampling sites included a densely populated area, which is built upon 40 m of solid waste (domestic, industrial, agric...

  14. Application of geostatistical reservoir description for maximizing waterflood infill drilling recovery from La Cira Field, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Cubillos Gutierrez, Helber

    1995-01-01

    pattern of La Cira field in Colombia, South America. This fine scale permeability field is upscaled to yield a coarser grid and input into a 3D simulation model. A selected fine-scale permeability realization of 100 layers was upscaled to a coarse 6-layer...

  15. Descentralización y política de vivienda de interés social en Colombia ¿Qué ha pasado?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Mesa Téllez; Juanita Villaveces Niño

    2008-01-01

    Este documento busca dar respuestas a los interrogantes que surgen una década después de definida la Ley 388 de Ordenamiento Territorial y el desarrollo de los programas de vivienda de interés social a nivel de las entidades territoriales. En Colombia, el proceso de descentralización ha sido visible en sectores como educación y salud, sin embargo, la vivienda no ha tenido

  16. La política de vivienda de interés social en Colombia en los noventa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Luisa Chiappe de Villa

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza el desarrollo de la política de vivienda de interés social en Colombia a partir de 1991, cuando se adoptó el sistema de subsidios a la demanda. Este sistema sustituyó al antiguo esquema en el cual el Estado era directamente constructor de viviendas, proveedor de créditos y de subsidios. La nueva política persigue incrementar la demanda efectiva de

  17. Demography and life history of Geonoma orbignyana: An understory palm used as foliage in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Rodríguez-Buriticá; Maria Andrea Orjuela; Gloria Galeano

    2005-01-01

    Geonoma orbignyana is a common understory palm, whose leaves are used as foliage in Colombia. This palm has been used for more than 30 years; but there is no information about its life history or conservation status. Our objective was to characterize the life history of this palm and population dynamics of a natural population as a first step to

  18. Natural Enzootic Vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Ferro; Jorge Boshell; Abelardo C. Moncayo; Marta Gonzalez; Marta L. Ahumada; Wenli Kang; Scott C. Weaver

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the transmission cycle of enzootic Venezu- elan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strains believed to repre- sent an epizootic progenitor, we identified natural vectors in a sylvatic focus in the middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia. Hamster-baited traps were placed into an active forest focus, and mosquitoes collected from each trap in which a hamster became infected were sorted by

  19. Community life in Colombia under the surveillance of extreme right paramilitary organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Perault

    This article examines the ways in which surveillance mechanisms implemented by the paramilitaries (AUC) in certain regions of Colombia have contributed to the establishment of specific forms of social interactions. The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which the permanent surveillance to which the population is subjected, conditions the ways that people establish contact and communicate

  20. Soil surface macrofaunal communities associated with earthworm casts in grasslands of the Eastern Plains of Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thibaud Decaëns; Lucero Mariani; Patrick Lavelle

    1999-01-01

    Earthworms are known to modify life conditions for other soil organisms through their drilospheric activities. The effects of a large anecic species, Martiodrilus carimaguensis Jiménez and Moreno, on soil macrofaunal communities were investigated in a natural and a man-made grassland of the Eastern Plains of Colombia. Invertebrates were sampled by a standard hand sorting method at different spatial scales: (i)

  1. Nutrition and Child Care Choices Evaluating a Community Nursery Programme in Rural Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orazio P. Attanasio; Marcos Vera-Hernández

    We evaluate the effects of a large nutrition programme in rural Colombia. The intervention we study is a community nursery programme that provides nutrition and child care for the children of poor households. In the first part of the paper, we use an Instrumental Variable approach to estimate the impacts of the programme on children's nutritional status and female employment.

  2. Violence in development: the logic of forced displacement on Colombia's Pacific coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Oslender

    2007-01-01

    A progressive piece of legislation in 1993 granted collective land rights to Colombia's black communities living in the rural areas of the Pacific coast region. This measure aimed partly to support sustainable development strategies in the region through territorial empowering of local communities. Yet 14 years later, the escalation of the country's internal conflict into the Pacific region has created

  3. Intermediary and structural determinants of early childhood health in Colombia: exploring the role of communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Maria Osorio; Catalina Bolancé; Nyovani Madise

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how structural determinants influence intermediary factors of child health inequities and how they operate through the communities where children live. In particular, we explore individual, family and community level characteristics associated with a composite indicator that quantitatively measures intermediary determinants of early childhood health in Colombia. We use data from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey

  4. Drugs, alcohol and community tolerance: an urban ethnography from Colombia and Guatemala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy McIlwaine; Caroline O. N. Moser

    2004-01-01

    Drug and alcohol abuse is identified increasingly in Latin America as a significant source of insecurity. Yet, there has been little research on consump- tion and on the social norms surrounding it. This paper explores the nature of drugs and alcohol consumption among urban poor communities in Colombia and Guatemala, where use is widespread. It also looks at levels of

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM CATS FROM COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii was determined in serum, feces, and tissues 170 unwanted cats from Colombia, South America. Ant...

  6. Noble metal abundances in komatiite suites from Alexo, Ontario, and Gorgona Island, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Bruegmann; N. T. Arndt; A. W. Hofmann; H. J. Tobschall

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of the chalcophile and siderophile metals Cu, Ni, Au, Pd, Ir, Os and Ru is an Archaean komatiite flow from Alexo, Ontario and in a Phanerozoic komatiitic suite of Gorgona Island, Colombia, provides new information about the geochemical behavior of these elements. Cooper, Au and Pd behave as incompatible elements during the crystallization of these ultramafic magmas. In

  7. Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua D. Angrist; Eric Bettinger; Erik Bloom; Elizabeth King; Michael Kremer

    2002-01-01

    Colombia used lotteries to distribute vouchers which partially covered the cost of private secondary school for students who maintained satisfactory academic progress. Three years after the lotteries, winners were about 10 percentage points more likely to have finished 8th grade, primarily because they were less likely to repeat grades, and scored 0.2 standard deviations higher on achievement tests. There is

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  9. Internationalisation in Higher Education in Latin America: Policies and Practice in Colombia and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Caroline; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    There is now an extensive literature about internationalisation in higher education. However, much of the research relates to North America and Europe. This paper is concerned with internationalisation in Latin America and seeks to consider perceptions and experiences in Colombia and Mexico, and to compare practice in the public and private…

  10. Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of fungal endophytes in coffee plants was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Coffee plant sections were sterilized and fungal endophytes were isolated using standard techniques, followed by DNA extraction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of...

  11. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Tertiary Education in Colombia 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

    2013-01-01

    In Colombia, the beginning of a new century has brought with it a palpable feeling of optimism. Colombians and visitors sense that the country's considerable potential can be realised, and education is rightly seen as crucial to this process. As opportunities expand, Colombians will need new and better skills to respond to new challenges and…

  12. Mercury levels in muscle of some fish species from the Dique Channel, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Olivero, J.; Navas, V.; Perez, A. [Univ. of Cartagena (Colombia)] [and others] [Univ. of Cartagena (Colombia); and others

    1997-06-01

    Gold mining is an activity that has been increasing during the last ten years in Colombia. Most mining activities are carried out using mercury for gold amalgamation. In a recent publication we stated that in the Sur de Bolivar, the main gold mining zone in Colombia, the highest mercury concentration in hair was observed in fishermen. The Magdalena River, the largest and most important river in Colombia, receives all this contamination and carries it to the Atlantic Ocean through two means: The main river course and the Dique Channel. The Dique Channel is surrounded by many marshes, which are a major source of fish for nearly two hundred thousands people in northwestern Colombia. The goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the content of mercury in muscle tissue of the four most popular fish species purchased in some towns along the Dique Channel, to establish whether these concentrations fall within the WHO guidelines, and to identify those species which can be consumed with less risk. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Increasing returns and the evolution of violent crime: the case of Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Gaviria

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an explanation of the recent escalation of violent crime in Colombia. The paper considers three implicit models that isolate different types of externalities among criminals. In the first model, criminals make crime more appealing to nearby residents by congesting the law enforcement system and, hence, lowering the probability of punishment. In the second model, the interaction of

  14. English Teaching and Private Enterprise in Colombia: A Business Perspective and a Challenge to Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney Gehman, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Teaching English to employees, and maintaining the language levels of those already hired, is a constant and growing concern for those responsible for corporate education in Colombia's private sector. Although it might be argued that acquisition and maintenance of a second language is an individual responsibility, when faced with an increasingly…

  15. Spatial Double Generalized Beta Regression Models: Extensions and Application to Study Quality of Education in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda-Cuervo, Edilberto; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a proposed Bayesian extension of the generalized beta spatial regression models is applied to the analysis of the quality of education in Colombia. We briefly revise the beta distribution and describe the joint modeling approach for the mean and dispersion parameters in the spatial regression models' setting. Finally, we…

  16. Piercing the Bubble: How Management Students Can Confront Poverty in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Al; Cortes, Juan Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the current relationship between management education in Colombia and the efforts of the management program at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in Medellin to reduce local poverty. The article uses the metaphor of "the bubble" to illustrate how social class, family socialization, and the current UPB management…

  17. Dynamic models for managing durables using a stratified approach: the case of Tunja, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Binder; Hans-Peter Bader; Ruth Scheidegger; Peter Baccini

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic models for managing durables are applied for the first time to an urban region in developing countries, i.e., Tunja in Colombia. The focus lies on the analysis of the material balance of furniture, as an example, in private households. One of the major problems in calculating the material balances in regions in developing countries is the

  18. Beyond the Mincer Equation: The Internal Rate of Return to Higher Education in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Suaza, Andrés Felipe; Guataquí, Juan Carlos; Guerra, José Alberto; Maldonado, Darío

    2014-01-01

    In order to present an estimation of the internal rate of return (IRR) to higher education in Colombia, we take advantage of recent updates on the methodological approach towards earnings equations. In order to overcome the criticism that surrounds interpretations of the education coefficient of Mincer equations as being the rate of return to…

  19. Receiver functions and crustal structure of the northwestern Andean region, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Esteban; Monsalve, Gaspar; Vargas, Carlos Alberto

    2015-04-01

    We used the receiver function technique to deduce crustal thickness beneath the northwestern Andean system, using data from the permanent seismic network of Colombia, combined with some of the IRIS and CTBTO stations in Colombia and Ecuador. The estimation of crustal thickness was made using the primary P to s conversion and crustal reverberations. The bulk crustal VP/VS ratio was constrained using a crustal thickness versus VP/VS stacking method, in addition to estimations using a time to depth conversion technique based on results of a modified Wadati diagram analysis. We observed a wide range of crustal thicknesses, including values around 17 km beneath the Malpelo Island on the Pacific Ocean, 20 to 30 km at the coastal Pacific and Caribbean plains of Colombia, 25 to 40 km beneath the eastern plains and foothills, 35 km beneath the Western Cordillera, 45 km at the Magdalena River intermountain valley, 52 to 58 km under the northern Central Cordillera, and reaching almost 60 km beneath some of the volcanoes of the Southern Cordilleran system of Colombia; crustal thickness can be slightly greater than 60 km beneath the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera. The values of VP/VS are particularly high for some of the stations on the volcanic centers, reaching values above 1.79, probably related to the addition of mafic materials to the lower crust, and in the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera near Bogota, where we speculate about the possibility of crustal seismic anisotropy associated with shear zones.

  20. On the effectiveness of capital controls: The experience of Colombia during the 1990s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio Cárdenas; Felipe Barrera

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effectiveness of capital controls in Colombia. The evidence presented points towards a relative inability of the measures adopted to reduce the level of capital inflows. Nonetheless, the evidence suggests that non-remunerated deposits have been successful in inducing a recomposition of foreign liabilities in favor of long-term maturities. It is likely that this is a positive result

  1. Educational Inequality in Colombia: Family Background, School Quality and Student Achievement in Cartagena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Claudia; Lleras, Christy

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of family socio-economic disadvantage and differences in school resources on student achievement in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Using data from the ICFES and C-600 national databases, we conduct a multilevel analysis to determine the unique contribution of school-level factors above and beyond family…

  2. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  3. The Association between Financial Aid Availability and the College Dropout Rates in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Torres, Fabio Sanchez; Jaime, Haider

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to estimate the association between financial aid and college dropout rates of postsecondary students in Colombia. We use a unique dataset from the Colombian Ministry of Education that includes all enrolled college students in the country between 1998 and 2008. Logistic regression is used to identify the…

  4. Long-Term Educational Consequences of Secondary School Vouchers: Evidence from Administrative Records in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Angrist; Eric Bettinger; Michael Kremer

    2006-01-01

    Colombia's PACES program provided over 125,000 poor children with vouchers that covered the cost of private secondary school. The vouchers were renewable annually conditional on adequate academic progress. Since many vouchers were assigned by lottery, program effects can reliably be assessed by comparing lottery winners and losers. Estimates using administrative records suggest the PACES program increases secondary school completion rates

  5. Access to Higher Education in Colombia: An Assessment of Public Policy and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uribe Correa, Lina

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes a set of national policy initiatives, 2002-2010, regularly referred to as Colombia's "Educational Revolution". Together these policies constitute a Colombian effort to increase access to higher education, an effort in partnership with the World Bank. The dissertation presents findings on policy goals, efforts,…

  6. The Persistence of Educational Semantics: Patterns of Variation in Monitorial Schooling in Colombia (1821-1844)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    This contribution deals with the adoption and interpretation of the monitorial system of education in Colombia between 1821 and 1844, a period during which this pedagogical method was almost mandatory for all the country's elementary schools. The analysis focuses on the differences between "local necessities" and "local semantic resources" in the…

  7. Genetic demography of Antioquia (Colombia) and the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis G. Carvajal-Carmona; Roel Ophoff; Susan Service; Jaana Hartiala; Julio Molina; Pedro Leon; Jorge Ospina; Gabriel Bedoya; Nelson Freimer; Andrés Ruiz-Linares

    2003-01-01

    We report a comparative genetic characterization of two population isolates with parallel demographic histories: the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia (in northwest Colombia). The analysis of mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal polymorphisms shows that Antioquia and the CVCR are genetically very similar, indicating that closely related parental populations founded these two isolates. In both populations, the male ancestry

  8. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3) in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  9. Implementation of the Center-East Broadband Seismic Network in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.; Caneva, A.; Montes v., L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The seismic phenomenon is one of the most important natural hazards for Colombia (e.g. Armenia, 1999, M=6.1; Calima, 2004, M=6.7). In spite of big efforts implemented by different institutions in order to reduce the seismic vulnerability in Colombia, the understanding of the nature of the seismic phenomena and its spatial and temporal distribution and evolution is insufficient. In order to estimate the seismic hazard it is necessary to know the geological conditions of those regions where the cities are developing, it is necessary to study their structure, dynamics and behavior, looking for information which allows understand the processes which generate the seismic events and to obtain an adequate model of ruptures of the system. In this paper we show the implementation of an instrumental seismological network for the Colombia's capital city: Bogota. This project: "The Center-East Broadband Seismic Network" consists on fifteen seismological three components, broadband stations, located near the coordinates: 4.5 N latitude and 73.5 W longitude joined to a similar distribution of geodetic stations (GEORED). This network is expected to be a complementary, high sensitive addition to the National Seismological Network of Colombia. This network has to bring the possibility of improving the understanding of the seismic hazard in the Bogota's region, considering the better understanding of the spatial and temporal microseismic activity in this region, where live more than 15 millions people (30% of Colombia's population), and more than 40% of the GIP is concentrated. Based on the obtained information it will be possible to incorporate structural elements to the adequate development of this region considering the seismic hazard and supply the guidelines to designs and constructions.

  10. Cytogenetic Monitoring of Farmers exposed to pesticides in Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyos, L S; Carvajal, S; Solano, L; Rodriguez, J; Orozco, L; López, Y; Au, W W

    1996-01-01

    We have monitored 30 pesticide-exposed workers and 30 matched controls for expression of chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in their lymphocytes. Peripheral blood cultures were set up within 3 hr after the collection of samples, and four cultures were set up from each donor. For CA analysis, 100 complete metaphase cells from each donor were evaluated. For the SCE assay, 50 complete metaphase cells from each donor were analyzed. The CA and SCE data were analyzed for differences between the two groups using the chi 2 and the Student's t-test, respectively. From the CA analysis it was obvious that the overwhelming majority of aberrations were chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks; therefore, only these data are presented and used for statistical analysis. Isochromatid breaks were counted as two breaks each and chromatid breaks as one in calculating the total chromatid break frequencies. Statistical evaluation of the data indicates that there is no significant difference (p > 0.05; chi 2 test) between the exposed and the nonexposed groups based on chromatid breaks per 100 cells (1.2 +/- 0.3 and 1.5 +/- 0.2, respectively) and total chromatid breaks per 100 cells (1.7 +/- 0.3 and 2.1 +/- 0.2, respectively). No significantly difference between the two groups (p > 0.05, Student's t-test) was observed with SCE frequencies (5.0 +/- 1.1 and 4.8 +/- 0.9, respectively). Linear regression analysis indicates that the data were not influenced by age, cigarette smoking, or alcohol consumption. It is assuring that the exposure conditions among these Indian farmers have not caused detectable increases of chromosome damage using standard assays; this suggests the lack of serious long-term health problems. However, periodic monitoring of such exposed populations should be conducted using the same or other more sensitive assays. In addition, other populations with exposure to different types of pesticides in Colombia should also be investigated. PMID:8781378

  11. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields. PMID:19886425

  12. Síndrome de carga del cuidador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato Zambrano Cruz; Patricia Ceballos Cardona

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Physical and psychological discomfort experimented by caregivers of patients with some degree of brain damage is closely related to their role. Studies from countries other than Colombia show a highly vulnerable population, with poor coping strategies. Objective: To stress the fact that the concept of caregiver burden syndrome (CBS) has not been discussed as to its validity and usefulness.

  13. Reservoir description of low resistivity sandstones in the Mugrosa Formation (Oligocene) of Gala-Llanito Fields, Colombia, South America 

    E-print Network

    Bernal Guerrero, Maria Cristina

    1993-01-01

    The Gala-Llanito oil fields are located in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin in northern Colombia, South America. These fields are operated by Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (ECOPETROL) which is the oil national company. ...

  14. Tejiendo una red de resiliencia = weaving a web of resilience : Internal displacement, social networks and urban integration in Cartagena, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Pollock, Jody (Jody Tamar)

    2013-01-01

    There are over 28.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world today because of conflict, human rights violations and situations of generalized violence. Colombia's protracted internal armed conflict, which ...

  15. Reservoir description of low resistivity sandstones in the Mugrosa Formation (Oligocene) of Gala-Llanito Fields, Colombia, South America

    E-print Network

    Bernal Guerrero, Maria Cristina

    1993-01-01

    The Gala-Llanito oil fields are located in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin in northern Colombia, South America. These fields are operated by Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (ECOPETROL) which is the oil national company. They are in the primary...

  16. NONVIOLENT ORGANIZATIONS IN THE MIDST OF MODERN CONFLICT: AN UNEXPECTED SOURCE OF POWER IN COLOMBIA'S CIVIL WAR

    E-print Network

    Morland, Juliann

    2010-08-20

    and applies these theories from Gene Sharp's "The Politics of Nonviolent Action" to one specific case study of violent conflict, Colombia's civil war, to demonstrate the practical application of nonviolent action and the validity of Sharp's Theory of Power...

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Regions of Low and High Gastric Cancer Risk in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Sheh, Alexander

    The draft genome sequences of six Colombian Helicobacter pylori strains are presented. These strains were isolated from patients from regions of high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia and were characterized by ...

  18. Characterization of Colletotrichum Isolates from Tamarillo, Passiflora, and Mango in Colombia and Identification of a Unique Species from the Genus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Afanador-Kafuri; Dror Minz; Marcel Maymon; Stanley Freeman

    2003-01-01

    Afanador-Kafuri, L., Minz, D., Maymon, M., and Freeman, S. 2003. Characterization of Colletotrichum isolates from tamarillo, passiflora, and mango in Colombia and identification of a unique species from the genus. Phytopathology 93:579-587. This study was conducted to identify the species of Colletotrichum infecting tamarillo, mango, and passiflora in Colombia and to assess whether cross-infection between host species is occurring. Isolates

  19. Depositional environment of the Caballos Formation, San Francisco field, Neiva sub-basin, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia 

    E-print Network

    Sneider, John Scott

    1988-01-01

    DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CABALLOS FORMATION, SAN FRANCISCO FIELD, NEIVA SUB-BASIN, UPPER MAGDALENA VALLEY, COLOMBIA A thesis by JOHN SCOTT SNEIDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTERS OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Geology DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CABALLOS FORMATION, SAN FRANCISCO FIELD, NEIVA SUB-BASIN, UPPER MAGDALENA VALLEY, COLOMBIA A Thesis by JOHN SCOTT SNEIDER Approved...

  20. Depositional environment of the Monserrate Formation: Palogrande, Cebu, and Dina-K fields, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, South America 

    E-print Network

    Goddard, Curtis Fred

    1989-01-01

    DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE MONSERRATE FORMATION: PALOGRANDE, CEBU, AND DINA-K FIELDS, UPPER MAGDALENA VALLEY, COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA A Thesis by CURTIS FRED GODDARD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Geology DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE MONSERRATE FORMATION: PALOGRANDE, CEBU, AND DINA-K FIELDS, UPPER MAGDALENA VALLEY, COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA...

  1. An analysis of the distribution of rainfall and some rainfall associations for selected stations in Western Colombia

    E-print Network

    Morris, David Gordon

    1966-01-01

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL AND SOME RAINFALL ASSOCIATIONS FOR SELECTED STATIONS IN WESTERN COLOMBIA A Thesis By DAVID GORDON MORRIS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&X University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1966 Major Subject: Meteorology AN ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALI AND SOME RAINFALL ASSOCIATIONS FOR SELECTED STATIONS IN WESTERN COLOMBIA A Thesis By DAVID GORDON MORRIS Approved...

  2. Depositional environment of the Caballos Formation, San Francisco field, Neiva sub-basin, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Sneider, John Scott

    1988-01-01

    DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CABALLOS FORMATION, SAN FRANCISCO FIELD, NEIVA SUB-BASIN, UPPER MAGDALENA VALLEY, COLOMBIA A thesis by JOHN SCOTT SNEIDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTERS OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Geology DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CABALLOS FORMATION, SAN FRANCISCO FIELD, NEIVA SUB-BASIN, UPPER MAGDALENA VALLEY, COLOMBIA A Thesis by JOHN SCOTT SNEIDER Approved...

  3. Discriminating Between Different Streamflow Regimes by Using the Fisher-Shannon Method: An Application to the Colombia Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, Jorge O.; Restrepo, Juan C.; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    The Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane, defined by the Fisher information measure (FIM) and the Shannon entropy power (NX), was robustly used to investigate the complex dynamics of eight monthly streamflow time series in Colombia. In the FS plane the streamflow series seem to aggregate into two different clusters corresponding to two different climatological regimes in Colombia. Our findings suggest the use of the statistical quantity defined by the FS information plane as a tool to discriminate among different hydrological regimes.

  4. Discriminating between different streamflow regimes by using the Fisher-Shannon method: An application to the Colombia rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, Jorge O.; Restrepo, Juan C.; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano

    2014-12-01

    The Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane, defined by the Fisher information measure (FIM) and the Shannon entropy power (N X ), was robustly used to investigate the complex dynamics of eight monthly streamflow time series in Colombia. In the FS plane the streamflow series seem to aggregate into two different clusters corresponding to two different climatological regimes in Colombia. Our findings suggest the use of the statistical quantity defined by the FS information plane as a tool to discriminate among different hydrological regimes.

  5. Analysis of the water supply-demand relationship in the Sinú-Caribe basin, Colombia, under different climate change scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. OSPINA-NOREÑA; C. GAY-GARCÍA; A. C. CONDE; G. SÁNCHEZ-TORRES ESQUEDA

    The water resource supply-demand relationship in the Sinú-Caribe Basin, Colombia, was analyzed based on current values and values projected for 2015 and 2025 by the Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y de Estudios Ambientales de Colombia). The projections included estimated changes in the relationship based on general circulation climate change models under A2 greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The WEAP (Water Evaluation

  6. Museo Universitario del Chopo Datos del plan de estudio

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    periodismo cultural para producir información en los diferentes géneros informativos, para su publicación características del fenómeno informativo, delimitando el campo de acción del periodista cultural. Utilizar los elementos del lenguaje periodístico. Distinguir la estructura de los diferentes géneros informativos

  7. Ácaros del mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  8. en Fisioterapia del Deporte

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Experto en Fisioterapia del Deporte III Edición RESERVA DE PLAZAY MATRÍCULA Título: Experto en Fisioterapia del Deporte Precio de título: 1.800 Plazo de preinscripción: hasta 15 de Octubre 2014 Nº de que se encuentra matriculado en cuarto curso de grado en fisioterapia (en caso de alumnos

  9. VALORIZACIÓN DE RESIDUOS AGROINDUSTRIALES - FRUTAS - EN MEDELLÍN Y EL SUR DEL VALLE DEL ABURRÁ, COLOMBIA AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTE VALORIZATION - FRUITS - IN MEDELLÍN AND THE SOUTH OF VALLE DE ABURRÁ, COLOMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Milena Yepes; Lina Johana; Montoya Naranjo; Fernando Orozco Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Industrial residues continuing being and economic problem so companies have to assume high costs to manage them. Such is the case of large amounts of fruit residues produced in Medellín, city and surroundings due to a great number of companies of this agroindustrial sector. In this work a scan was made in Medellín and the South of Valle de Aburrá

  10. Determinación del perfil instrumental del EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Rodriguez, M. V.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se calcula el perfil instrumental para el telescopio de 2,15m del CASLEO con EBASIM. Para ello se usaron flats de cielo y el espectro solar FTS de Kurucz. El método, que se puede utilizar para otras configuraciones instrumentales, es convolucionar ambos espectros para obtener los coeficientes de corrección.

  11. Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

    2013-01-01

    Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880

  12. Dioxin emissions from thermal waste management in Medellín, Colombia: present regulation status and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, B; Cobo, M; de Correa, C Montes; Martínez, K; Abad, E; Rivera, J

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary results of a study undertaken to characterize dioxin and furan releases from waste incineration plants operating in Medellín-Colombia are presented. Emission and fly ash samples were collected from representative plants burning medical and industrial residues to characterize PCDD/PCDF levels. Analyses were carried out following European standards for stationary gas emissions EN-1948:1996 and US EPA 1613 (fly ashes). Final extracts were analyzed by both high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) and high resolution gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (HRGC-ITMS/MS). Preliminary results revealed emission levels of 1-30.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 depending on whether or not an air pollution control system (APCS) was installed. Fly ashes contained 8.5-68 ng I-TEQ/g. Critical issues that should be addressed in an assessment and in developing waste management plans in Colombia are discussed. PMID:17125987

  13. [First case report of Mammomonogamus (Syngamus) laryngeus human infection in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Castaño, Jhon Carlos; Núñez, Fidel Angel; González, María Mercedes; Téllez, Germán; Giraldo, María Isabel

    2006-09-01

    First case report of Mammomonogamus (Syngamus) laryngeus human infection in Colombia Parasitic nematodes of the genus Mammomonogamus affect the respiratory tract of domestic mammals. The male and female of M. laryngeus remain in permanent copula so that the pair appears as a "Y'. To date, a few more than 100 cases of human infections by this parasite have been reported in the biomedical literature. This report describes the first infected patient in Colombia. He had a persistent and productive cough and after an episode of coughing a pair of worms were expelled in sputum with total clinical recovery. Since there is scant clinical information about this parasite, this report includes a description of the adult worms, a summary of the epidemiology and the clinical manifestations in humans. Photographs are presented to facilitate future identification by morphological characteristics. PMID:17175997

  14. Seismic anisotropy and slab dynamics from SKS splitting recorded in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Becker, Thorsten W.; Monsalve, Gaspar

    2014-12-01

    The Nazca, Caribbean, and South America plates meet in northwestern South America where the northern end of the Andean volcanic arc and Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity indicate ongoing subduction. However, the termination of Quaternary volcanism at ~5.5°N and eastward offset in seismicity underneath Colombia suggest the presence of complex slab geometry. To help link geometry to dynamics, we analyze SKS splitting for 38 broadband stations of the Colombian national network. Measurements of fast polarization axes in western Colombia close to the trench show dominantly trench-perpendicular orientations. Orientations measured at stations in the back arc, farther to the east, however, abruptly change to roughly trench parallel anisotropy. This may indicate along-arc mantle flow, possibly related to the suggested "Caldas" slab tear, or a lithospheric signature, but smaller-scale variations in anisotropy remain to be explained. Our observations are atypical globally and challenge our understanding of the complexities of subduction zone seismic anisotropy.

  15. Cesar A. Arias, M.D., M.Sc., Ph.D. received his medical degree from Universidad El Bosque, Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia in 1992, his M.Sc. in clinical microbiology from the University of London,

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    de Bogota, Colombia in 1992, his M.Sc. in clinical microbiology from the University of London, St and Antimicrobial Resistance Unit, Universidad El Bosque, located in Colombia, South America. Cesar A. Arias, MD

  16. Application of geostatistical reservoir description for maximizing waterflood infill drilling recovery from La Cira Field, Colombia 

    E-print Network

    Cubillos Gutierrez, Helber

    1995-01-01

    et al. presented an integrated geostatistical methodology for a site-specific reservoir description to establish additional recovery benefits for gravity-drainage infill wells. Conditional sequential Gaussian simulation was used to distribute 3D... of Geostatistical Reservoir Description for Maximizing Waterflood Infill Drilling Recovery From L a Cira Field, Colombia. (December 1995) Helber Cubillos Gutierrez, B.S., Gubkin Academy of Oil and Gas, Russia Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Akhil Datta...

  17. Family selection study among DNA samples collected from Amerindian ethnic group (Wayuu) in northern Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshimichi Yamamoto; Tadashi Gomyoda; Toshinari Ito; Kaoru Saijo; Inaho Danjoh; Yukio Nakamura

    In the Sonoda-Tajima Cell Collection, one of the cell bank of RIKEN BioResource Center, DNA samples from an Amerindian ethnic minority group (Wayuu) in Colombia analysed for 21 autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs and HV-I and -II regions in mtDNA to select the kinships among those samples in order to study on how the kinships influence population genetic analysis. As a

  18. Emerald mineralisation in Colombia: fluid chemistry and the role of brine mixing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Banks; G. Giuliani; B. W. D. Yardley; A. Cheilletz

    2000-01-01

    Emerald mineralisation in Colombia is located in two distinct zones along the borders of the Eastern Cordillera, some 80?km\\u000a apart. Mineralisation in the western zone has been dated at ca. 35?Ma whereas in the eastern zone it is 30?Ma older. Crush\\u000a leach analysis of the electrolyte chemistry of fluid inclusions contained in emerald, quartz, calcite, dolomite and fluorite\\u000a from both

  19. Poor Household Participation in Payments for Environmental Services: Lessons from the Silvopastoral Project in Quindío, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Pagiola; Ana R. Rios; Agustin Arcenas

    2010-01-01

    As the use of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) approaches in developing countries has grown, concern has arisen over\\u000a the ability of poorer households to participate. This paper uses data from a PES project implemented in Quindío, Colombia,\\u000a to examine the extent to which poorer households that are eligible to participate are in fact able to do so. The project

  20. Revision of the status of various bird species occurring or reported in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Donegan; Paul Salaman; David Caro

    2009-01-01

    The following species are added to Colombia's bird checklist: Parkinson's Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni; Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorrhoa; Grey-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus; Tapaculo Scytalopus sp. (Alto de Pisones bird); and Black-and-white Tanager Conothraupis speculigera. The following species are removed: Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Scaly-naped Pigeon Patagioenas squamosa; Amazonian Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium hardyi; Long-tailed Hermit Phaethornis superciliosis; Spot-tailed Antwren Herpsilochmus sticturus; Caribbean Martin

  1. TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN BOGOTA, COLOMBIA: BUILDING A TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM FOR THE PEOPLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo Ardila; Gerhard Menckhoff

    2002-01-01

    Innovative policies implemented in Bogota, Colombia, during the 3-year (1998-2000) administration of Mayor Enrique Pealosa were intended to transform a car-centered transportation system into a people-oriented one. To achieve this, the administration established policies in seven areas: institutional strengthening, restraining private car use, public space, mass transit, nonmotorized transport, road maintenance, and traffic management. Bogota's transportation system was to become

  2. Helminths of two anuran species, Atelopus spurrelli (Bufonidae) and Dendrobates histrionicus (Dendrobatidae), from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R

    2003-09-01

    Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species of Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchus sp., Onicola sp. and Polymorphus sp. A. spurrelli and D. histrionicus represent new host records for these helminths. PMID:14550481

  3. Electrical power systems (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama and Peru)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This 12-part set of reports contains market information on the following countries and topics: Brazil - potentiometers, steam turbines, gas turbines, electric generators; Chile - power systems; Colombia - electric generators; Dominican Republic - electric generators; Guatemala - power generation and distribution equipment, non-current carriers, electric generators, and turbines; Jamaica - power systems; Panama - power generation and control equipment; and Peru - power generation equipment. These reports have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Maternal Mortality in Colombia in 2011: A Two Level Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery; Cotes-Cantillo, Karol; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo Enrique; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal mortality reduction is a Millennium Development Goal. In Colombia, there is a large disparity in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between and into departments (states) and also between municipalities. We examined socioeconomics variables at the municipal and departmental levels which could be associated to the municipal maternal mortality in Colombia. Methods A multilevel ecology study was carried out using different national data sources in Colombia. The outcome variable was the MMR at municipal level in 2011 with multidimensional poverty at municipal and department level as the principal independent variables and other measures of the social and economic characteristics at municipal and departmental level were also considered explicative variables (overall fertility municipal rate, percentage of local rural population, health insurance coverage, per capita territorial participation allocated to the health sector, transparency index and Gini coefficient). The association between MMR and socioeconomic contextual conditions at municipal and departmental level was assessed using a multilevel Poisson regression model. Results The MMR in the Colombian municipalities was associated significantly with the multidimensional poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 3.52; CI 95%: 1.09-11.38). This association was stronger in municipalities from departments with the highest poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 7.14; CI 95%: 2.01-25.35). Additionally, the MMR at municipal level was marginally associated with municipally health insurance coverage (relative ratio of MMR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.98-1.00), and significantly with transparency index at departmental level (relative ratio of MMR: 0.98; CI 95%: 0.97-0.99). Conclusion Poverty and transparency in a contextual level were associated with the increase of the municipal MMR in Colombia. The results of this study are useful evidence for informing the public policies discussion and formulation processes with a differential approach. PMID:25785719

  5. Educational inequality in Colombia: family background, school quality and student achievement in Cartagena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Rangel; Christy Lleras

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of family socio?economic disadvantage and differences in school resources on student achievement in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Using data from the ICFES and C?600 national databases, we conduct a multilevel analysis to determine the unique contribution of school?level factors above and beyond family background. The results from the hierarchical linear models show that while

  6. Corporate ownership and control contestability in emerging markets: The case of Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis H. Gutiérrez; Carlos Pombo

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the structure of voting control and blockholders’ contestability for a sample of 233 non-financial listed firms in Colombia during 1996–2004. Corporate control is characterized by high ownership concentration and blockholder power, which implies low separation ratios between cash flow rights and voting rights. On average the separation ratios for the largest voting block is 0.95, while that

  7. Migration and its Determinants: A Study of Two Communities in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesus M. Valencia

    2008-01-01

    Using data gathered by the author in two communities in Southwestern Colombia, this paper tests a model of migration which\\u000a incorporates relative deprivation as one of many possible reasons to migrate. The study finds that the product of relative\\u000a deprivation and family income not only has a sensible interpretation; it is a better predictor of migration than its two component

  8. A Systemic Framework to Develop Sustainable Engineering Solutions in Rural Communities in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Catalina Ramírez; Jaime Plazas; Camilo Torres; Juan Camilo Silva; Luis Camilo Caicedo; Miguel Angel González

    In several rural areas in Colombia there is a serious lack of water quality supply. Thereby the problematic situation is understood\\u000a as complex one that involves stakeholders with pluralistic interests, multiple variables and requires the development of sustainable\\u000a and suitable solutions. In order to address this issue, this paper proposes an integration of engineering design framework\\u000a (CDIO) with a systemic

  9. The basement of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia: An allochthonous terrane in northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero Suarez, A.

    The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.

  10. Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Larsson; Carl Folke; Nils Kautsky

    1994-01-01

    Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand\\u000a for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on\\u000a semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that\\u000a is required

  11. NorTropical Warm Pool variability and its effects on the climate of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaurte Villota, Constanza; Romero-Rodriguez, Deisy; Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo

    2015-04-01

    Much has been said about the effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on oceanographic and climatic conditions in Colombia, but little is known about the influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP), which includes the gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and the western tropical North Atlantic. The AWP has been identified by some authors as an area that influences the Earth's climate, associated with anomalous summer rainfall and hurricane activity in the Atlantic. The aim of this study was to understand the variation in the AWP and its effects on the climate of Colombia. An annual average of sea surface temperature (SST) was obtained from the composition of monthly images of the Spectroradiometer Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with resolution of 4 km, for one area that comprises the marine territory of Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica both the Pacific and the Caribbean, and parts of the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, for the period between 2007 and 2013. The results suggest that warm pool is not restricted to the Caribbean, but it also covers a strip Pacific bordering Central America and the northern part of the Colombian coast, so it should be called the Nor-Tropical Warm pool (NTWP). Within the NTWP higher SST correspond to a marine area extending about 1 degree north and south of Central and out of the Colombian Caribbean coast. The NTWP also showed large interannual variability, with the years 2008 and 2009 with lower SST in average, while 2010, 2011 and 2013 years with warmer conditions, matching with greater precipitation. It was also noted that during warmer conditions (high amplitude NTWP) the cold tongue from the south Pacific has less penetration on Colombian coast. Finally, the results suggest a strong influence of NTWP in climatic conditions in Colombia.

  12. The Rupture Process of the Great 1979 Colombia Earthquake: Evidence for the Asperity Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Beck; Larry J. Ruff

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the asperity distribution in the segment of the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone that was ruptured by the 1979 (Mw=8.2) and 1958 (M w =7.7) earthquakes. For the 1979 earthquake, we are able to document directivity in the P-wave source time functions and consequently, have spatially located the moment release. By combining results from both P-wave and surface wave

  13. Questioning Market-Led Agrarian Reform: Experiences from Brazil, Colombia and South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SATURNINO M. BORRAS JR

    2003-01-01

    Market-led agrarian reform (MLAR) has been conceptualized out of the pro-market critique of classic state-led agrarian reform. The pro-market model has been implemented in Brazil, Colombia and South Africa, where its proponents have claimed impressive success. But close examination of the empirical evidence puts into question the basic theoretical and policy assump- tions and current claims of MLAR proponents. The

  14. On the ecology and behavior of Cebus albifrons in eastern Colombia: I. Ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Defler

    1979-01-01

    A-503 contact-hr study of a 35-member group ofCebus albifrons was conducted in eastern Colombia in 1977 and 1978. The group had a female: male socionomic sex ratio of 2.5:1 and used a\\u000a home range of 110–120 ha which overlapped the home range of another group ofC. albifrons about 20–30 ha. The animals spent about 80% of their foraging time eating

  15. Opon gas renews interest in the hydrocarbon prolific middle Magdalena basin, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Stone; R. Elliott; G. Latimer; M. Steuer

    1996-01-01

    A total of 45 fields have been discovered in the Middle Magdelena basin of Colombia since 1918. In August 1994, the Amoco-operated Opon-3 well tested significant hydrocarbons in the basin. The well flowed 45 MMCFGPD and 2000 BCPD from 1118 ft of perforations between 10,018 and 12,348 feet. A second well, Opon-4, tested 58 MMCFGPD from the same interval. Opon

  16. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia resistant to meglumine antimonial treatment.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Iván Darío; Colmenares, Lina María; Muñoz, Carlos Aguirre

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects over 500,000 people worldwide each year. The disease occurs in the Mediterranean basin, Central and South America and is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn L. chagasi). VL is an endemic disease in Colombia, particularly along the Caribbean coast and the Magdalena River Valley and 90% of VL cases occur in children under the age of five. The first line of treatment is chemotherapy with pentavalent antimonial compounds, including sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). These compounds are the ones most used in Colombia, at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Nevertheless resistance of L. infantum to pentavalent antimonials is becoming an important problem. No cases of VL resistant to pentavalent antimonial compounds have previously been reported from Colombia. This report describes the two cases of VL resistance to antimonial compounds in a girl and a boy who did not respond to previous treatment with Pentacarinat and Glucantime regimens but were treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin B. Based on our findings, we recommend liposomal amphotericin B as the first line of treatment for VL due to its low toxicity, shorter administration period and the low price obtained by WHO. PMID:19739006

  17. Serological diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a febrile patient in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Salim; Garzon, Denisse; Tadeu, Luis; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Mills, James N

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis caused by any of at least 20 hantavirus genotypes distributed throughout the Americas. Although HPS has been documented in several bordering countries, it has not been reported in Colombia. Here we report seroconversion to a hantavirus in paired samples from a hospitalized patient with symptoms compatible with HPS from Montería, Córdoba Department, north-western Colombia. Tests for regionally endemic agents including Plasmodium, Leptospira, Salmonella, dengue virus, Brucella, Rickettsia, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses were negative. Because the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial for hemorrhagic fevers conducted by the University of Córdoba, serum samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Testing using Sin Nombre virus ELISA showed IgG and IgM seroconversion between samples. The eventual finding of this first clinical case of hantavirus infection in Colombia is consistent with the high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in humans in the region and the likely exposure of the patient to rodents. The clinical presentation was similar to that found in neighbouring Panama. PMID:24970702

  18. An overview of seventy years of research (1944-2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Cañón-Franco, William Alberto; López-Orozco, Natalia; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Colombia. Recent studies, especially in the states of Antioquia, Quindío and Cundinamarca, indicate that toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem. Approximately half of the women of child bearing age have T. gondii antibodies, and the clinical disease in congenitally infected children is more severe than in Europe. Limited studies indicate that the strains of T. gondii from Colombia are genetically and phenotypically different than in Europe and North America. However, epidemiological factors, such as the involvement of domestic and/or wild animals in transmission, the distribution of strain diversity by natural geographic regions, and the variation in risk factors between regions that are associated with human infection in Colombia, remain unknown. Areas of research for the future are outlined. This review should be of interest to biologists, veterinarians, physicians, and parasitologists. PMID:25190525

  19. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Marya; Demarco, Maria; Araneda, Juan Carlos; Cumsille, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy. PMID:25988312

  20. TEORÍAS DEL DESARROLLO A PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XXI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMARTYA SEN

    1 La evolución de las ideas no sigue el curso de los siglos. Es más, en el transcurso del siglo XX hemos presenciado cambios radicales en lo que a teoría del desarrollo se refiere. Ni siquiera es indispensable definir los siglos de acuerdo con la clasificación del calendario, de cero a noventa y nueve. En su célebre discurso del 8

  1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Oficina Nacional de Control Interno ONCI Informe Final Consolidado de Evaluacin al proceso de Auditoras Internas al Premio de Mejor Gestin UN-SIMEGE 2009-2010

    E-print Network

    Prieto, Germán A.

    Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Oficina Nacional de Control Interno ONCI Informe Final de UN-SIMEGE - Código: U-PR-15.002.001, Versión: 2.0 #12;Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Oficina el Premio a la Mejor Gestión en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Circular 002 de febrero 10 de

  2. Towards understanding the puzzling lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet (China): Insight from a comparison with Yellowstone (USA) and some active volcanic hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qinghai; Kirk Nordstrom, D.; Blaine McCleskey, R.

    2014-11-01

    Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1-2 km) exhibit very acidic waters containing HCl and H2SO4. In contrast, the Tibetan hydrothermal systems, represented by Yangbajain, usually have fairly deep-seated magma chambers so that the released acid fluids are much more likely to be fully neutralized during transport to the surface. The absence of steam-heated acid waters in Tibet, however, may be primarily due to the lack of a confining layer (like young impermeable lavas at Yellowstone) to separate geothermal steam from underlying neutral chloride waters and the possible scenario that the deep geothermal fluids below Tibet carry less H2S than those below Yellowstone.

  3. Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.

    2013-05-01

    To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogotá IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations are located on the three major plates that interact within the Wide Plate Margin Deformation Zone including existing permanent installations on IGS Galapagos and Malpelo Islands on the Nazca Plate, and San Andres Island on the Caribbean plate. The velocity vectors confirm the oblique subduction of the Nazca Plate and Carnegie aseismic ridge collision processes at the Colombia-Ecuador trench which are assumed to be the mechanism for the transpressional deformation and the "escape" of the North Andes Block (NAB). The northernmost vectors in Colombia are indicative of the ongoing collision of the Panama Arc with northwestern Colombia. Planned for the year 2013 is the installation of 10 additional GNSS continuously operating stations, and construction of 20 GPS campaign sites.

  4. Chirurgia Videoassistita del Diaframma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Quarantotto; Giorgio Cavallesco; Gaetano Rocco

    La chirurgia videoassistita del diaframma rappresenta una naturale evoluzione della videotoracoscopia, volta a superare le\\u000a difficoltà tecniche di quest’ultima; questa metodica si pone come compromesso tra la videotoracoscopia e la toracotomia tradizionale:\\u000a in questo modo il chirurgo ha la possibilità di compiere manovre chirurgiche altrimenti di difficile esecuzione col solo accesso\\u000a toracoscopico, godendo di un’ottima visione del campo operatorio e

  5. Wild-weed-crop complexes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) in the Andes of Peru and Colombia, and their implications for conservation and breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Beebe; Orlando Toro Ch; Alma Viviana Gonza´lez; María Isabel Chaco´n; Daniel G. Debouck

    1997-01-01

    During germplasm explorations carried out in Peru and Colombia, interbreeding complexes of wild and cultivated common bean were observed in both countries, eight in Apurimac and Cusco departments of Peru and eight in Cundinamarca and Boyaca´ departments of Colombia. The existence of complexes was evidenced both by segregation of wild and cultivated morphological traits in certain populations, and by the

  6. Praxis Filosfica (Cali, Colombia), Nueva serie, n 22, enero-junho 2006, 5-27. EINSTEIN Y EL ROL DE LAS MATEMTICAS EN LA FSICA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Praxis Filosófica (Cali, Colombia), Nueva serie, n° 22, enero-junho 2006, 5-27. EINSTEIN Y EL ROL Author manuscript, published in "Praxis Filosófica (Cali, Colombia), Nueva serie, n° 22 (2006) p. 5

  7. Morfología de estados inmaduros de tres especies de Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) con una clave para larvas de tercer estado en Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandra María Bran; Martha Eugenia Londoño; Luis Carlos Pardo

    2006-01-01

    Morphology of immature stages of three species of Cyclocephala and taxonomic key to third-instar larvae (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) in Colombia Some larvae species of rhizophagous beetles constitute themselves in a serious phytosanitary problem in several agricultural regions of Colombia as they conform communities, both harmful and innocuous, but apparent morphologic similarities makes it difficult to differentiate them, limiting the field diagnosis.

  8. -DERECHO PBLICO DEL ESTADO AUTONMICO La implantacin del Mster universitario en Derecho Pblico del Estado Autonmico

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    - DERECHO PÚBLICO DEL ESTADO AUTONÓMICO La implantación del Máster universitario en Derecho Público del Estado Autonómico extinguirá el Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Por esta razón se materias del Máster Oficial en Derecho Autonómico y Local. Los estudiantes que comenzaron el Máster Oficial

  9. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  10. A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

  11. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli intestinal pathogens may be involved in the transmission of foodborne illnesses among children in Cartagena, Colombia. PMID:25786140

  12. Coupling between annual and ENSO timescales in the malaria-climate association in Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, G; Rojas, W; Quiñones, M L; Vélez, I D; Mantilla, R I; Ruiz, D; Zuluaga, J S; Rua, G L

    2001-01-01

    We present evidence that the El Niño phenomenon intensifies the annual cycle of malaria cases for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas of Colombia as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the normal annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. We used simultaneous analyses of both variables at both timescales, as well as correlation and power spectral analyses of detailed spatial (municipal) and temporal (monthly) records. During "normal years," endemic malaria in rural Colombia exhibits a clear-cut "normal" annual cycle, which is tightly associated with prevalent climatic conditions, mainly mean temperature, precipitation, dew point, and river discharges. During historical El Niño events (interannual time scale), the timing of malaria outbreaks does not change from the annual cycle, but the number of cases intensifies. Such anomalies are associated with a consistent pattern of hydrological and climatic anomalies: increase in mean temperature, decrease in precipitation, increase in dew point, and decrease in river discharges, all of which favor malaria transmission. Such coupling explains why the effect appears stronger and more persistent during the second half of El Niño's year (0), and during the first half of the year (+1). We illustrate this finding with data for diverse localities in Buenaventura (on the Pacific coast) and Caucasia (along the Cauca river floodplain), but conclusions have been found valid for multiple localities throughout endemic regions of Colombia. The identified coupling between annual and interannual timescales in the climate-malaria system shed new light toward understanding the exact linkages between environmental, entomological, and epidemiological factors conductive to malaria outbreaks, and also imposes the coupling of those timescales in public health intervention programs. PMID:11401760

  13. Typhoid Fever in nineteenth-century Colombia: between medical geography and bacteriology.

    PubMed

    García, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses how the Colombian medical elites made sense of typhoid fever before and during the inception of bacteriological ideas and practices in the second half of the nineteenth century. Assuming that the identity of typhoid fever has to be understood within the broader concerns of the medical community in question, I show how doctors first identified Bogotá's epidemics as typhoid fever during the 1850s, and how they also attached specificity to the fever amongst other continuous fevers, such as its European and North American counterparts. I also found that, in contrast with the discussions amongst their colleagues from other countries, debates about typhoid fever in 1860-70 among doctors in Colombia were framed within the medico-geographical scheme and strongly shaped by the fear of typhoid fever appearing alongside 'paludic' fevers in the highlands. By arguing in medico-geographical and clinical terms that typhoid fever had specificity in Colombia, and by denying the medico-geographical law of antagonism between typhoid and paludic fevers proposed by the Frenchman Charles Boudin, Colombian doctors managed to question European knowledge and claimed that typhoid fever had distinct features in Colombia. The focus on paludic and typhoid fevers in the highlands might explain why the bacteriological aetiology of typhoid fever was ignored and even contested during the 1880s. Anti-Pasteurian arguments were raised against its germ identity and some physicians even supported the idea of spontaneous origin of the disease. By the 1890s, Pasteurian knowledge had come to shape clinical and hygienic practices. PMID:24331213

  14. Mycobacterium leprae in Colombia described by SNP7614 in gyrA, two minisatellites and geography

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Castro, Nora; Beltrán-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Romero-Montoya, Irma Marcela; Li, Wei; Brennan, Patrick J; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    New cases of leprosy are still being detected in Colombia after the country declared achievement of the WHO defined ‘elimination’ status. To study the ecology of leprosy in endemic regions, a combination of geographic and molecular tools were applied for a group of 201 multibacillary patients including six multi-case families from eleven departments. The location (latitude and longitude) of patient residences were mapped. Slit skin smears and/or skin biopsies were collected and DNA was extracted. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis following a multiplex PCR-was developed for rapid and inexpensive strain typing of M. leprae based on copy numbers of two VNTR minisatellite loci 27-5 and 12-5. A SNP (C/T) in gyrA (SNP7614) was mapped by introducing a novel PCR-RFLP into an ongoing drug resistance surveillance effort. Multiple genotypes were detected combining the three molecular markers. The two frequent genotypes in Colombia were SNP7614(C)/27-5(5)/12-5(4) [C54] predominantly distributed in the Atlantic departments and SNP7614 (T)/27-5(4)/12-5(5) [T45] associated with the Andean departments. A novel genotype SNP7614 (C)/27-5(6)/12-5(4) [C64] was detected in cities along the Magdalena river which separates the Andean from Atlantic departments; a subset was further characterized showing association with a rare allele of minisatellite 23-3 and the SNP type 1 of M. leprae. The genotypes within intra-family cases were conserved. Overall, this is the first large scale study that utilized simple and rapid assay formats for identification of major strain types and their distribution in Colombia. It provides the framework for further strain type discrimination and geographic information systems as tools for tracing transmission of leprosy. PMID:23291420

  15. Dynamics of Caribbean and Nazca Plate Subduction Beneath Colombia from Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. C.; Warren, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The tectonics of northwestern South America are controlled by the complex interactions of the South American, Nazca, and Caribbean plates. In order to better understand subduction within the region, we utilize data recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network to calculate P-to-S receiver functions at a range of frequencies across the nation of Colombia. Where the station spacing was dense enough, receiver functions were stacked using the Common Conversion Point (CCP) method in order to better image lateral changes in crustal and upper mantle structure. Along the Pacific margin of Colombia, where the Nazca plate is subducting beneath South America, the subducting slab dips too steeply to image it with receiver functions. However, layering and strong negative arrivals are observed in the crust above the subducting slab where active volcanoes are present. The presence of these arrivals is possibly indicative of slab dehydration and the presence of partial melt within the crust. In northeastern Colombia, the Caribbean plate is subducting beneath South America at an oblique angle. Along the direction of convergence, the slab extends ~500 km inland with a relatively shallow dip before steepening. Preliminary receiver function images from this region show a shallowly-dipping negative arrival, interpreted as the top of the slab. This arrival is underlain by a positive conversion, interpreted as the down-going oceanic Moho. As the dip of the seismicity associated with the subducting slab steepens, these arrivals are no longer observed within the receiver function stacks. These cross sections of the Caribbean plate subduction are consistent with the idea that phase changes within the downgoing oceanic crust and mantle are controlling the slab buoyancy and, as a result, the angle of subduction. As the receiver functions are refined and further combined with local earthquake locations, we will better be able to understand the location of earthquakes within the subducting slab and the role of slab hydration and subsequent dehydration in the region's seismicity.

  16. Boletín del Centro Mexicano del Instituto Internacional de Teatro (ITT)

    E-print Network

    1986-04-01

    96 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Boletín del Centro Mexicano del Instituto Internacional de Teatro (ITT) This tri-lingual (Spanish, English, French) bulletin about recent theatre activities in Mexico is published in collaboration with the Centro... for Children and Youth, University Theatre, the work of the Teatro del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and a list of productions for the 1984 season. It is hoped that the bulletin will help make Mexican theatre better known both nationally...

  17. Shoot Down in Peru: The Secret US Debate Over Intelligence Sharing in Peru and Colombia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Once again, the inestimable National Security Archive (NSA) has created a timely and useful electronic briefing book with declassified documents that shed light on recent events. In this case, the event is the accidental shoot down of a civilian aircraft carrying missionaries in Peru on April 20. The site offers the full text of thirteen declassified documents from 1994 which shed light on internal debate within the Clinton administration over the decision to share aerial tracking intelligence with Peru and Colombia. The documents are preceded by an excellent concise introduction, and for each, a one-paragraph summary is provided.

  18. Debating Diseases in Nineteenth-Century Colombia: Causes, Interests, and the Pasteurian Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    García, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the medical conceptualization of the causes of diseases in nineteenth-century Colombia. It traces the history of some of the pathologies that were of major concern among nineteenth-century doctors: periodic fevers (yellow fever and malaria), continuous fevers (typhoid fever), and leprosy (Greek elephantiasis). By comparing the transforming conceptualizations of these diseases, this article shows that their changing pattern, the idea of climatic determinism of diseases (neo-Hippocratism and medical geography), the weak standing of the medical community in Colombian society, as well as Pasteurian germ practices were all crucial in the uneven and varied reshaping of their understanding. PMID:26095967

  19. HLA-DPB1 polymorphism in seven South American Indian tribes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Briceno, I; Gomez, A; Bernal, J E; Papiha, S S

    1996-06-01

    HLA-DPB1 allele frequencies were investigated in seven geographically and linguistically distinct Amerindian tribes of Colombia. Allele *1301 was found only in the Embera tribe living along the Pacific coast, while allele *0101 was found only in two individuals of the Wayuu tribe inhabiting the Guajira desert. Significant geographical variation was observed in the other two alleles (*1401 and *0402), which were found in all seven tribal groups. The possible reasons for this restricted polymorphism and the genetic diversity found in the investigation are discussed. PMID:8803536

  20. Breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus Lutz in the Magdalena River basin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carrasquilla, María Cristina; Guhl, Felipe; Zipa, Yaneth; Ferro, Cristina; Pardo, Raúl Hernando; Cabrera, Olga Lucía; Santamaría, Erika

    2010-03-01

    The breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus are described for the first time in western Boyacá Province, Colombia, where this species is a public health problem. In addition to being a nuisance due to its enormous density and its high biting rates, C. pachymerus cause dermatological problems in the human population. Analysis of microhabitats by the sugar flotation technique and the use of emergence traps allowed us to recover 155 larvae of Culicoides spp and 65 adults of C. pachymerus from peridomiciliary muddy substrates formed by springs of water and constant rainwater accumulation. These important findings could aid in the design of integrated control measures against this pest. PMID:20428684

  1. Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

  2. Opon Gas Field, Colombia: Part I - geoscience description, well design and well test performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D.M.; Huffmyer, W.A.; Greener, J.M.; Mamerow, B.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the geoscience and engineering aspects of the Opon Gas Field located in the Middle Magdalena Basin, Colombia. The remoteness and extreme downhole conditions make the drilling, completion, testing and geoscience interpretation of the two most recent Opon wells technically very challenging. Multiple faults, steep dips, rugged topography, a sensitive jungle environment and variable surface velocities complicate field definition. A full assessment of the commercial potential of the reservoir requires additional development drilling. Now in the early development stages, the Opon Gas Field has first production scheduled for late 1996.

  3. Como Solicitar Los Beneficios del Seguro del Desempleo Transcripcin

    E-print Network

    Como Solicitar Los Beneficios del Seguro del Desempleo Transcripción Bienvenido a uno de los de desempleo en California, usted ha venido al lugar correcto, y aquí estamos para servirle. Este es a recibir sus beneficios del desempleo. Cuando usted hace una llamada u oprime su botón en su computadora

  4. Instantánea del cáncer de estómago

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de estómago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Instantánea del cáncer de ovario

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de ovario; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Instantánea del cáncer de páncreas

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  7. valorizzazione e fruizione del

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    prevista per il Museo Orto Botanico di Roma, destinata all'educazione ambientale e alla "citizen science dati sulla biodiversità; un' app per Smartphone e Tablet dedicata alla fruizione del patrimonio storico della Biodiversità. Smartphone e tablet Il Progetto "SmartEcoPhone" ha realizzato una cross platform app

  8. Fisiología del crecimiento

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlan L. Rosenbloom

    2007-01-01

    ExtractoEl crecimiento humano es un proceso dinámico y complejo que comienza con la fertilización del óvulo y se completa con la fusión de las epífisis y las metáfisis de los huesos largos, que caracteriza la terminación de la adolescencia. El crecimiento ocurre en fases, con características distintivas en términos de influencias dominantes derivadas de factores y patrones genéticos, ambientales\\/nutricionales y

  9. BANCO DE SEMILLAS GERMINABLE DE UNA COMUNIDAD VEGETAL DE PARAMO HUMEDO SOMETIDA A QUEMA Y PASTOREO (PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL CHINGAZA, COLOMBIA) GERMINABLE SEED BANK OF A HUMID PARAMO PLANT COMMUNITY SUBJECT TO FIRE AND GRAZING (PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL CHINGAZA, COLOMBIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catalina Posada Vergara; Orlando Vargas

    2002-01-01

    In the Páramo of Chingaza (Colombia) four zones of the Espeletia killipii -Chusquea tessellata community subject to variable levels of disturbance by fire and grazing were chosen based upon the recovering time after fire and the grazing intensity. The studied zones were a. without any anthropic disturbance (fire or grazing); b. a site with seven years of fire recovery and

  10. Intraspecific and interspecific variation in the Cryptotis nigrescens species complex of small-eared shrews (Insectivora: Soricidae), with the description of a new species from Colombia

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    1993-09-01

    inhabits conterminous highIands in Costa Rica and Panama; C. mera is known from two isolated mountaintops along the Panama/Colombia border; and we describe a new species from the Central Cordillera of Colombia, which extends the known distribution... discontinua desde Chiapas en México hasta el norte de Costa Rica. La especie C. nigrescens habita en las cordilleras de Costa Rica y Panamá. Se sabe que C. mera vive en las cimas de dos montañas aisladas en la frontera entre Panamá y Colombia. La última es...

  11. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-04-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  12. The current tectonic motion of the Northern Andes along the Algeciras Fault System in SW Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velandia, Francisco; Acosta, Jorge; Terraza, Roberto; Villegas, Henry

    2005-04-01

    Riedel, synthetic and antithetic type faults, principal displacement zones (PDZ), pull-apart basins (such as lazy-S shaped releasing bend, extensive and rhomboidal shaped and releasing sidestep basins) and minor folds located oblique to the main trace of the Algeciras Fault System (AFS) are interpreted from Landsat TM 5 images and geological mapping. These tectonic features are affecting Quaternary deposits and are related to major historical earthquakes and recent registered seismic events, indicating neotectonic activity of the structure. The AFS is classified as a right lateral wrench complex structure, with an important vertical component in which sedimentary cover and basement rocks are involved. In addition, the system represents a simple shear caused by the oblique convergence between the Nazca Plate and the northern Andes. The transpressive boundary in SW Colombia was previously located along the Eastern Frontal Fault System. However, this paper shows that the AFS constitutes the actual boundary of the current transpressive regime along the Northern Andes, which begins at the Gulf of Guayaquil in Ecuador and continues into Colombia and Venezuela.

  13. Prevalence and characterization of influenza viruses in diverse species in Los Llanos, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl; Freiden, Pamela J; Seufzer, Bradley; Jones, Jeremy C; Johnson, Jordan; Parra, Rocio; Gongora, Agustin; Cardenas, Dario; Barajas, Diana; Osorio, Jorge E; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    While much is known about the prevalence of influenza viruses in North America and Eurasia, their prevalence in birds and mammals in South America is largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a baseline for future ecology and epidemiology studies, we conducted 2 years of influenza surveillance in the eastern plains (Los Llanos) region of Colombia. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified influenza viruses in wild birds, domestic poultry, swine and horses. Prevalence ranged from 2.6% to 13.4% across species. Swine showed the highest prevalence and were infected primarily with 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses genetically related to those in humans. In addition, we isolated H5N2 viruses from two resident species of whistling ducks (genus Dendrocygna) that differed completely from previous South American isolates, instead genetically resembling North American wild bird viruses. Both strains caused low pathogenicity in chickens and mammals. The prevalence and subtype diversity of influenza viruses isolated from diverse species within a small area of Colombia highlights the need for enhanced surveillance throughout South America, including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of low-pathogenic H5N2 viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry and the emergence of reassortant viruses in domestic swine. PMID:26038461

  14. Community socioeconomic context and its influence on intermediary determinants of child health: evidence from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ana María; Bolancé, Catalina; Madise, Nyovani

    2015-01-01

    Intermediary determinants are the most immediate mechanisms through which socioeconomic position shapes health inequities. This study examines the effect of community socioeconomic context on different indicators representing intermediary determinants of child health. In the context of Colombia, a developing country with a clear economic expansion, but one of the most unequal countries in the world, two categories of intermediary determinants, namely behavioural and psychosocial factors and the health system, are analysed. Using data from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), the results suggest that whilst the community context can exert a greater influence on factors linked directly to health, in the case of psychosocial factors and parent's behaviours, the family context can be more important. In addition, the results from multilevel analysis indicate that a significant percentage of the variability in the overall index of intermediary determinants of child health is explained by the community context, even after controlling for individual, family and community characteristics. These findings underline the importance of distinguishing between community and family intervention programmes in order to reduce place-based health inequities in Colombia. PMID:24555557

  15. Bird conservation would complement landslide prevention in the Central Andes of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and restoration priorities often focus on separate ecosystem problems. Inspired by the November 11th (2011) landslide event near Manizales, and the current poor results of Colombia’s Article 111 of Law 99 of 1993 as a conservation measure in this country, we set out to prioritize conservation and restoration areas where landslide prevention would complement bird conservation in the Central Andes. This area is one of the most biodiverse places on Earth, but also one of the most threatened. Using the case of the Rio Blanco Reserve, near Manizales, we identified areas for conservation where endemic and small-range bird diversity was high, and where landslide risk was also high. We further prioritized restoration areas by overlapping these conservation priorities with a forest cover map. Restoring forests in bare areas of high landslide risk and important bird diversity yields benefits for both biodiversity and people. We developed a simple landslide susceptibility model using slope, forest cover, aspect, and stream proximity. Using publicly available bird range maps, refined by elevation, we mapped concentrations of endemic and small-range bird species. We identified 1.54 km2 of potential restoration areas in the Rio Blanco Reserve, and 886 km2 in the Central Andes region. By prioritizing these areas, we facilitate the application of Article 111 which requires local and regional governments to invest in land purchases for the conservation of watersheds. PMID:25737819

  16. Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from stools samples and food products in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rúgeles, Laura Cristina; Bai, Jing; Martínez, Aída Juliana; Vanegas, María Consuelo; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar Gilberto

    2010-04-15

    The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among all clinical and food product samples tested. Four different pathotypes were identified from clinical samples, including enteroaggregative E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, shiga-toxin producing E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Food product samples were positive for enteroaggregative and shiga-toxin producing E. coli, suggesting that meat and vegetables may be involved in transmission of these E. coli pathotypes in the community. Most E. coli strains identified belong to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal rather than extraintestinal E. coli clones. Our data is the first molecular E. coli report that confirms the presence of E. coli pathotypes circulating in Colombia among children with diarrhea and food products for human consumption. Implementation of multiplex PCR technology in Latin America and other countries with limited resources may provide an important epidemiological tool for the surveillance of E. coli pathotypes from clinical isolates as well as from water and food product samples. PMID:20153069

  17. Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from stools samples and food products in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rúgeles, Laura Cristina; Bai, Jing; Martínez, Aída Juliana; Vanegas, María Consuelo; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among all clinical and food product samples tested. Four different pathotypes were identified from clinical samples, including enteroaggregative E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, shiga-toxin producing E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Food product samples were positive for enteroaggregative and shiga-toxin producing E. coli, suggesting that meat and vegetables may be involved in transmission of these E. coli pathotypes in the community. Most E. coli strains identified belong to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal rather than extraintestinal E. coli clones. Our data is the first molecular E. coli report that confirms the presence of E. coli pathotypes circulating in Colombia among children with diarrhea and food products for human consumption. Implementation of multiplex PCR technology in Latin America and other countries with limited resources may provide an important epidemiological tool for the surveillance of E. coli pathotypes from clinical isolates as well as from water and food product samples. PMID:20153069

  18. Rural telemedicine infrastructure and services in the Department of Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez, Andrés; Dulcey, María F; Seoane, Joaquín; Shoemaker, Richard G; Villarroel, Valentín; López, Diego M; Simó, Javier

    2005-08-01

    The development of telemedicine programs for the public health network of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, (Department is the major political and territorial division of the country. The Department of Cauca is located on the Pacific coast in the southwest of the country.) would make it possible to satisfy many identified needs such as medical coordination, continuing education, epidemiologic surveillance, patient referral and counterreferral, and an end to the feeling of isolation among professionals who work in rural health centers. Nevertheless, geographic, economic, and social difficulties, and the lack of a telecommunication infrastructure in areas with these characteristics present a challenge of such magnitude that the majority of existing telemedicine projects in Colombia have been centered in urban or other areas which present fewer difficulties. In the municipality of Silvia, the University of Cauca has established a prototype network using the "Hispano-American Health Link" (EHAS in Spanish) program technologies, which uses very high frequency (VHF) and wireless fidelity, (WiFi, a set of standards for wireless local area networks) radio systems for the deployment of low-cost voice and data networks. Over this network information access and exchange services have been developed, in order to meet the needs identified above. The objectives were to obtain information about the development of the project's activities and their possible impact. Project telecommunication network and information services are described, and the results and conclusions of the first evaluation are presented. PMID:16149891

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of recent isolates of classical swine fever virus from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sabogal, Zonia Yubyll; Mogollón, José Darío; Rincón, Maria Antonia; Clavijo, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    The ability to discriminate between different classical Swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates is a prerequisite for identifying the possible origin of an outbreak. To determine the relatedness between Colombian isolates from different geographical regions, genetic sequences of the glycoprotein E2 and the 5'UTR of CSFV were amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared with reference strains of different genetic grouping. The viruses originated from classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks in Colombia during 1998-2002. All viruses characterized belonged to genogroup 1 and were members of the subgroup 1.1. The results indicate that the outbreaks from the year 2002 are caused by a strain related to the virus CSF/Santander, isolated in 1980, suggesting that the current CSF outbreaks are the consequence of a single strain that continues to circulate in the field. For the first time, an association between isolates from outbreaks in Colombia in the 1990s was established with a virus isolate from Brazil, indicating a possible origin of the virus causing the outbreak. PMID:16143418

  20. Prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in north-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery. PMID:24053184