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Sample records for del salvador 1991-2001

  1. Water Quality in the Nation's Streams and Aquifers Overview of Selected Findings, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2004-01-01

    This report accompanies the publication of the last 15 of 51 river basin and aquifer assessments by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during 1991?2001. It highlights selected water-quality findings of regional and national interest through examples from river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. Forthcoming reports in the USGS series ?The Quality of Our Nation?s Waters? will present comprehensive national syntheses of information collected in the 51 study units on pesticides in water, sediment, and fish; volatile organic compounds in major aquifers used for domestic and public supply; nutrients and trace elements in streams and ground water; and aquatic ecology. This report, summaries of the 51 water-quality assessments, and a 1999 national synthesis of information on nutrients and pesticides, are available free of charge as USGS Circulars and on the World Wide Web at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/nawqa_sumr.html.

  2. El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    The Central American republic of El Salvador lies on the Pacific with a south coast between Guatemala and Honduras. The climate rises from tropical maritime along the coast to subtropical hill and valley strip to a mountainous interior. The population consists of 98% Mestizo and 10% Indian, totaling 5.1 million, growing at 2.4 annually. Literacy varies from 40-60%; the infant mortality rate is 71/1000, and the life expectancy is 63-66 years. The economy is based on agricultural products as coffee, sugar and cotton and light industry such as textiles and petroleum refining, but due to political unrest, the 1986 earthquake, and fluctuating commodity prices, inflation runs about 36% and the per capita income is $700. El Salvador takes pride in its independence since 1821, but its history is marked by revolutions and control of government, military and ecclesiastical power by "the fourteen families." The current democratic government, considered to be the result of a fair election, is undertaking land reform and participates in the Central American peace process. PMID:12177956

  3. El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on El Salvador capsulizes specific statistical and descriptive information on geography, demography, government. and economic conditions. The man text describes the people, their history and the nature of the peace process, principal government officials, political conditions, human rights, the state of the economy, foreign relations, and relations with the US. In 1992, the estimated population was about 5 million of which 89% are mestizo (Spanish-Indian), 10% Indian, and 1% Caucasian. 58% live in rural areas. It is largely Roman Catholic. Literacy is about 65% among adults. 6 years of education are compulsory. 40% are engaged in agriculture, 27% in services, and 16% in industry. The gross domestic product was $5.1 billion; per capita income was $1160. El Salvador's history has been marked by frequent revolutions. Almost every present since 1932 has been a military officer. In the more recent past (1969-80), Honduras and El Salvador fought over borders; a peace treaty was signed in 1980, but it was not until 1992 that the land in dispute was awarded by the International Court of Justice to Honduras. During the 1970, efforts by Duarte were made toward democratic reform, but fraud and corruption contributed to the rise of armed guerrilla warfare as a means to bring about change. There were rightist and leftists groups accelerating violence; event he Salvadoran armed forces engaged in lawlessness. The judicial system failed. Nicaragua after 1979 supplied arms and munitions to 5 guerrilla groups. Duarte returned to power and his junta initiated land reform and nationalized banks and marketing of coffee and sugar. The elections in 1982 led to the transfer of power to Alvaro Magana. The new constitution in 1983 appeased some, but land reforms still did not satisfy guerrillas. Duarte was elected again in 1984 and Alfredo Christiani in 1989 in a peaceful transfer of power. In 1991 and 1992 peace accords were signed with the guerrillas. During this 12-year

  4. Spotlight: El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    As of mid-1998, El Salvador had a population of 5.8 million people residing in a land area of 8000 sq. miles. There were 29 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 41 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 2.5% annually. The average woman has 3.9 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy is 65 years for men and 72 years for female. With 39% of El Salvador's population under age 15 years, it will continue to grow rapidly even as birth rates decline. The proportion of urban residents in El Salvador is expected to grow beyond the 1994 level of 45%. Population growth has intensified competition for farmland and jobs, with extreme poverty forcing Salvadoran farmers and laborers to make choices which are beneficial in the short term, but which may cause long-term environmental damage. Human and chemical wastes, often untreated and unregulated, pollute 90% of the rivers and almost all topsoil and drinking water in heavily populated areas. 66% of farmland in the mountainous area is eroded, and the resulting pollution and agricultural runoff threaten shellfish and seafood businesses close to the coast. While forests once covered 85% of El Salvador, now only less than 5% is forest, and much of the cleared land is so degraded that there is little hope of restoring endangered plant and animal species. Most of the country's workers are employed in agriculture, but industrial parks are helping the country's economic growth. 74% of Salvadoran men and 70% of women are literate, school enrollment levels are low, and about 4% of the country's gross national product comes from official development assistance. The El Salvador Environment Fund was created in 1994 to support small projects for environmental protection and child development. PMID:12348787

  5. El Salvador and Its Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Gertraude Roth

    Since a 1979 coup, El Salvador has been ruled by a civilian-military junta supported by the oligarchy; officially, the junta is committed to social and economic reforms. Civilian guerrillas oppose the government which they believe is not interested in real reform. The United States supplies financial and military aid to the junta and believes the…

  6. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated. PMID:16770509

  7. Women in physics in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, T.; de Contreras, D.; Rivera, W.

    2013-03-01

    Current conditions impose serious limitations on admission to careers and specialization for physicists in general and especially for women in physics. This is a critical issue in a country where political instability, a civil war, and postwar conditions have limited the development of science and technology, and where there are just a few masters in science in the whole university and even fewer professionals with a PhD degree. In the past three years, El Salvador has defined clear lines of work that involve female physicists at the University of El Salvador. These lines are seismology, meteorology, climatology, and physics education.

  8. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  9. Parents Talk About ETV in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias, Luis F. Valero; McAnany, Emile G.

    Parents of children participating in El Salvador's educational television program were interviewed in group sessions. While the parents had little specific information about education television, and thus had some fears and misconceptions, their impression of educational television, probably derived almost completely from their children's…

  10. A new medical mission to El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Geiger, J; Eisenberg, C; Gloyd, S; Quiroga, J; Schlenker, T; Scrimshaw, N; Devin, J

    1989-10-19

    El Salvador has a long history of human right abuses and a record of violations of medical neutrality and international humanitarian law. A civil war broke out between the Salvadorian armed forces and a guerrilla opposition, the Farabundo Marti Liberacion Nacional (FMLN) in 1979. To investigate and report on specific allegations of abuses of human rights and medical neutrality by both sides in the conflict, a medical mission visited El Salvador in early June, 1989. It was sponsored by Physicians for Human Rights. The delegation consisted of 5 physicians, an attorney, and an observer from the staff of the Select Committee on Hunger of the US House of Representatives. The mission explored violations of medical neutrality. It investigated the reported obstruction of civil health personnel and of the delivery of supplies to people living in congested rural areas, refugees, and displaced persons, allegations of assault, intimidation, harassment, and torture of health workers; reports of attacks on hospitals and clinics; and the impact of 19 years civil war on El Salvador's medical institutions. The Salvadorian public health system has been seriously damaged by the civil war. A network of "community health promoters"--Salvadorians trained to give simple prevention and curative care--has begun. This network serves primarily those in contested areas. Nearly all roads in rural areas are controlled by military road blocks. Health workers have reported military interference with vaccination campaigns. The Salvadorian army harasses people they believe support the FMLN and obstructs their access to the communities. In February, 1989, the Atlacatl Battalion of the Salvadorian army attacked FMLN medical personnel. The Nongovernmental Human Rights Commission of El Salvador claims to have identified 40 different kinds of torture. Medical education has suffered from budgetary restrictions and from the hostility of the Salvadorian government. PMID:2797078

  11. Expansion of the 5 DE Noviembre hydroelectric project, El Salvador, C.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerte, E.G.; Mendoza, V.; Wang, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    With an area of 21,050 square kilometers, the Republic of El Salvador is the smallest country in Central American. El Salvador, independent since 1821, is a democratic country with its President elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The population in El Salvador was estimated at 5.1 million in 1992. Over the period of 1984 to 1993, the peak load of the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) system, which serves about 98 percent of the country`s power needs, grew 6.5 percent per year. During the same period the energy generation increased at an annual rate of 6.8 percent. These growths were achieved in spite of the political turmoil and civil war that had gripped the country from 1980 to 1992. Since the end of the civil war, the country has witnessed significant economic recovery and growth. System demands will continue to increase at a rapid rate, due primarily to continued economic recovery and expansion resulting from establishment of the now political system. CEL generating facilities will be undergoing significant rehabilitation to correct the problems accumulated over the civil war period.

  12. Television and Educational Reform in El Salvador. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornik, Robert C.; And Others

    Standord University's Institute for Communication Research was asked in 1968 to conduct an evaluation of a new instructional television (ITV) system in El Salvador: to study the effects of ITV on El Salvador's school system; to derive conclusions from the experience that might help guide other nations interested in applying instructional…

  13. Living with floods in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water issues impact all aspects of life. This is especially true for a rural community in El Salvador, which has developed an interesting relationship with almost annually recurring floods. What most would consider a natural disaster has been embraced by the majority of these community members; many even rely on it. This presentation aims to provide a realistic assessment of how some communities are interacting with and using natural disasters to their advantage, and discuss the implications for natural disaster preparedness planning, public policy, and scientist/government officials' sometimes inappropriate strategies.

  14. Obituary -- Salvador González Bedolla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, H. José

    1997-04-01

    It is with great sadness that I must communicate the passing of our colleague Salvador Félix González Bedolla. The observational astronomers of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional owe much to his pioneering effort at San Pedro Mártir, work that formed him as an astronomer, and helped him become one of the best photometric observers in México and, at the Instituto de Astronomóa of the UNAM, the academic technician with the highest productivity of articles derived from observations at the OAN. Salvador was an excellent student. He obtained the highest achievement award (Gabino Barreda) in high school, studied physics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and also finished the credits for his Master's degree in Physics with only his thesis separating him from his degree, an act which was constantly put off until his death. He began his career in Astronomy in 1973 under Dr. Eugenio Mendoza. Later he worked with Josef Warman in the observation of short period stars in the Observatorio `José Arbol y Bonilla'' in Zacatecas, México. I then began working continuously with him in this field of research which, thanks to his great work capacity, produced very good results. He continued in these fields of research not only within the Institute of Astronomy, but also in other research facilities, especially two: With the variable group from the Observatory at Nice, France, beginning in 1985, specializing in the pulsation of early stars. His main interest was in the β Cep stars and in the possibility of relating these stars to the new types of variables (such as the OB stars, the `53 Per' variables, the `ultrashort' period and the ``slow'' and Be variables) discovered near this zone. Hence, in view of this, his efforts were aimed at monitoring the stars that belong to these new groups in order to discover if they are really different from the classical β Cep stars. Moreover, beginning in 1984, Salvador began working with a group of astronomers from

  15. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  16. Religious Coping, Spirituality, and Substance Use and Abuse Among Youth in High-Risk Communities in San Salvador, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11–17 years) and young adults (18–25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth. PMID:23647129

  17. Chaparrastique (San Mighel) Volcano Eruptions since Dec. 29th, 2013, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    The December 29th, 2013 eruption of Chaparrastique (San Miguel) volcano in El Salvador came as a surprise and was the first of several small eruptions in the past two years. They came after many years of preceeding earthquake swarms and significant degassing. Being the second volcano to erupt in El Salvador in less than ten years, it caused grave concern for the population of the country. Although they were not large eruptions (VEI 2), the materials were widespread and caused deposits of volcanic tephra as far at the capital San Salvador and closed the airports in the vecinity for a couple of days. This is a summary of the research, mitigation and services that were done days after the first eruption on December 29, 2013 and the follwing months. In conjunction with the team of the Direccion General del Observatorio Ambiental from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales possible first response strategies were discussed and decided to obtain results that could be quickly put in place to mitigate and decide on actions such as evacuations or relocations of people living in volcano related high-risk hazard areas. Collection of samples, mapping and measurements of the volcanic tephra in the field together with Digital Globe and areal photography after the event, allowed identification of four different volcanic products that can be correlated to the opening of the vent and ending in the eruption of juvenile materials of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition, and the production of a lahar hazard map based on LaharZ.

  18. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvador Dali: The Late...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work... that the objects to be ] included in the exhibition ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work,'' imported...

  19. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... of earthquakes that occurred in 2001. See 66 FR 14214 and section 244(a)(b)(1)(B) of the Immigration... system. See 66 FR 14214 (Mar. 9, 2001) (describing the devastation caused by earthquakes). El Salvador's... conditions in El Salvador resulting from a series of earthquakes in 2001, and El Salvador remains...

  20. Religious coping, spirituality, and substance use and abuse among youth in high-risk communities in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth. PMID:23647129

  1. The relationship between community structural characteristics, the context of crack use, and HIV risk behaviors in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; McAuliffe, Timothy; Rivas de Mendoza, Lorena; Glasman, Laura; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores community structural factors in different low-income communities in the San Salvador, El Salvador, that account for differences in the social context in which crack is used and HIV risk behaviors among crack users. Results suggest that both more distal (type of low-income community, level of violent crime, and poverty) and proximate structural factors (type of site where drugs are used, and whether drugs are used within or outside of community of residence) influence HIV risk behaviors among drug users. Additionally, our results suggest that community structural factors influence the historical and geographic variation in drug use sites. PMID:22217125

  2. The Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway regulates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Eunjeong; Kim, Wan-Young; Hur, Jeongmi; Kim, Hanbyul; Nam, Sun Ah; Choi, Arum; Kim, Yu-Mi; Park, Sang Hee; Chung, Chaeuk; Kim, Jin; Min, Soohong; Myung, Seung-Jae; Lim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the final pathway of various renal injuries that result in chronic kidney disease. The mammalian Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell death, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in disease development in patients with TIF and in a mouse model of TIF. Mice with tubular epithelial cell (TEC)-specific deletions of Sav1 (Salvador homolog 1) exhibited aggravated renal TIF, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic changes, apoptosis, and proliferation after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Moreover, Sav1 depletion in TECs increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and activated β-catenin expression after UUO, which likely accounts for the abovementioned enhanced TEC fibrotic phenotype. In addition, TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), a major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, was significantly activated in Sav1-knockout mice in vivo. An in vitro study showed that TAZ directly regulates TGF-β and TGF-β receptor II expression. Collectively, our data indicate that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of TIF and that regulating this pathway may be a therapeutic strategy for reducing TIF. PMID:27550469

  3. The Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway regulates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunjeong; Kim, Wan-Young; Hur, Jeongmi; Kim, Hanbyul; Nam, Sun Ah; Choi, Arum; Kim, Yu-Mi; Park, Sang Hee; Chung, Chaeuk; Kim, Jin; Min, Soohong; Myung, Seung-Jae; Lim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the final pathway of various renal injuries that result in chronic kidney disease. The mammalian Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell death, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in disease development in patients with TIF and in a mouse model of TIF. Mice with tubular epithelial cell (TEC)-specific deletions of Sav1 (Salvador homolog 1) exhibited aggravated renal TIF, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic changes, apoptosis, and proliferation after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Moreover, Sav1 depletion in TECs increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and activated β-catenin expression after UUO, which likely accounts for the abovementioned enhanced TEC fibrotic phenotype. In addition, TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), a major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, was significantly activated in Sav1-knockout mice in vivo. An in vitro study showed that TAZ directly regulates TGF-β and TGF-β receptor II expression. Collectively, our data indicate that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of TIF and that regulating this pathway may be a therapeutic strategy for reducing TIF. PMID:27550469

  4. Education and the Production of Diasporic Citizens in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Enrique, III

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Dyrness and Sepúlveda argue that in El Salvador, young people are participants in a diasporic social imaginary that connects them with Salvadorans and other Latinos in the United States--before they have ever left the country. The authors explore how this transnational relationship manifests in two school communities in San…

  5. An Introduction to the Psychedelic Psychotherapy of Salvador Roquet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villoldo, Alberto

    1977-01-01

    Psychosynthesis as developed by Salvador Roquet presents a new method combining Freudian, Frommian, and transpersonal therapies. Its immediate result is to obtain results expected from long-term psychoanalysis in an abbreviated period of time. It also helps the individual take responsibility for his own development. (Author/RK)

  6. South Africa, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Home: Understanding the Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Zala

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the historical, social, cultural, economic, and political connections that make the struggles of the people of South Africa, Nicaragua, and El Salvador relevant to the lives of Black people in the United States. Considers the U.S. government's role with respect to each of these countries. (DMM)

  7. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  8. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system. PMID:27186500

  9. Teaching Democratic Theories of Education in El Salvador: Is the Laboratory Open?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Jeffrey

    A philosophy of education course focused on concepts of democratic education was taught to primary and secondary school teachers working in a private bilingual school in San Salvador (El Salvador). The teachers' school was an "International School" serving children of the wealthy and the educated who lived nearby. The course was designed so that…

  10. Comparison of Indicators of Educational Quality among Institutions of Higher Education in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.; Egginton, Everett

    El Salvador has a new higher education law that established minimum requirements for educational quality. Analyzing data from El Salvador's 39 private universities made available by the country's Ministry of Education, this study assesses educational quality among these universities, especially addressing the effect of the size of the university…

  11. Teaching Disaster Preparedness to Rural Communities in El Salvador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Natural disasters are becoming more common around the world, and it is widely accepted that developing nations show the highest rates of vulnerability. It makes sense to focus preparedness and mitigation efforts in these countries. However, it is important to realize that different teaching styles are required for different cultures with varying education systems and classroom atmospheres. The pedagogical models we use in the US can't be directly exported. A realistic assessment of the situation seen during two years living and working in rural El Salvador is presented, along with methods used and lessons learned.

  12. Report on dipole-dipole resistivity and technology transfer at the Ahuachapan Geothermal field Ahuachapan, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B. )

    1988-08-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 90 megawatt geothermal-sourced powerplant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the period November 1987 through May 1988 a deep resistivity survey and technology transfer was performed at the AGF at the request of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) project. The resistivity surveying is ongoing at the time of this report under the supervision of CEL personnel. LANL and contract personnel were present at the site during performance of the initial surveying for the purpose of technology transfer. This report presents the results and interpretation of the two initial resistivity survey lines performed on site during and shortly after the technology transfer period.

  13. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Exploitation model, performance predictions, economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Goranson, C.

    1991-05-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with funding from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). This report describes the work done during the second year of the study (FY89--90). The first year's report included (1) the development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) the evaluation of the reservoir's initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) the evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. In the present report the results of reservoir engineering studies to evaluate different production-injection scenarios for the Ahuachapan geothermal field are discussed. The purpose of the work was to evaluate possible reservoir management options to enhance as well as to maintain the productivity of the field during a 30-year period (1990--2020). The ultimate objective was to determine the feasibility of increasing the electrical power output at Ahuachapan from the current level of about 50 MW{sub e} to the total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub e}. 20 refs., 75 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2010-02-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 and July 2007, 6 with community leaders, and 3 with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities' strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities' needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities' different but complementary resources. PMID:19910099

  15. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, A. Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2009-01-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 - July 2007, six with community leaders, and three with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities’ strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities’ needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities’ different but complementary resources. PMID:19910099

  16. Positive emotions in earthquake survivors in El Salvador (2001).

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Cervellón, Priscilla; Pérez-Sales, Pau; Vidales, Diana; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze, within a more extensive intervention program, the existence of positive emotions and positive coping in the refugees at the two largest shelters created after the earthquakes of El Salvador in January, 2001. One hundred and fifteen survivors were interviewed in the shelters about different aspects related to positive cognitions and emotions experienced during their sojourn at the camps, as well as their perception of aspects of posttraumatic growth. The results show that most of the people affected by the earthquake revealed a consistent pattern of positive reactions and emotions. The potential implications of these results in the individual sphere, as buffering elements to protect people from the effects of a traumatic experience receive comment. PMID:15686859

  17. Extreme Weather Risk Assessment: The Case of Jiquilisco, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Karla; Ceppi, Claudia; Molero, Juanjo; Rios Insua, David

    2014-05-01

    All major climate models predict increases in both global and regional mean temperatures throughout this century, under different scenarios concerning future trends in population growth or economic and technological development. This consistency of results across models has strengthened the evidence about global warming. Despite the convincing facts and findings of climate researchers, there is still a great deal of skepticism around climate change. There is somewhat less consensus about some of the consequences of climate change, for example in reference to extreme weather changes, in particular as regards more local scales. However, such changes seem to have already considerable impact in many regions across the world in terms of lives, economic losses, and required changes in lifestyles. This may demand appropriate policy responses both at national and local levels. Our work provides a framework for extreme weather multithreat risk management, based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This may be useful in comparing the effectiveness of different actions to manage risks and inform judgment concerning the appropriate resource allocation to mitigate the risks. The methodology has been applied to the case study of the "El Marillo II" community, located in the municipality of Jiquilisco in El Salvador. There, the main problem related with extreme weather conditions are the frequent floods caused by rainfall, hurricanes , and water increases in the Lempa river nearby located. However, droughts are also very relevant. Based on several sources like SNET, newspapers, field visits to the region and interviews, we have built a detailed database that comprises extreme weather daily data from January 1971 until December 2011. Forecasting models for floods and droughts were built suggesting the need to properly manage the risks. We subsequently obtained the optimal portfolio of countermeasures, given the budget constraints. KEYWORDS: CLIMATE CHANGE, EXTREME WEATHER, RISK

  18. Chronic pain and gender in Salvador population, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sá, Katia Nunes; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Lessa, Ines

    2008-10-31

    Chronic pain is a public health problem with high impact on various population segments. There are few population studies with the aim of delineating the profile of the chronic pain patient, and generating data for actions to prevent, control and minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in the population of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil and identify independent predictors associated with this morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample population of 2297 individuals of >20 years of age, in Salvador, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied at home to collect data about socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, chronic pain and abdominal circumference measurement. The chronic pain was defined as pain with a duration of longer than 6 months. Prevalence of pain and the OR (univariate analysis) were estimated and adjusted (logistic regression), and their ICs at 95% and p<0.05 in the two analyses. The presence of chronic pain was found in 41.4% of the total study population, women being more affected (48.4% against 32.8% in men), with OR of 1.92 IC 95% 1.6-2,28 p<0.001. Among the studied factors, in the gross analysis, the following were shown to be associated with chronic pain: conjugal situation, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, presence of central obesity and age, all with p<0.05. In the multivariate analysis, female sex, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and age were sustained as independent predictors. The presence of chronic pain was predominant in women, the elderly, smokers or ex-smokers and excessive alcohol consumers. PMID:18672325

  19. A Decade of Digital Reference, 1991-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Ennis, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses results of four surveys sent to members of the Association of Research Libraries to investigate changes in academic library reference services due to new and rapidly evolving technologies. Highlights include digital reference options; local databases; CD-ROMs; intermediary online searching; end-user online search services; and the…

  20. Geographic Dimensions of Aging in Canada, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eric G.; Pacey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Although population aging on a national scale has received much attention in Canada, its geographical dimensions have not. This paper examines the demographic processes that underlie population aging at the provincial and metropolitan scales for the periods 1991 to 1996 and 1996 to 2001. We differentiate between the effects of aging-in-place and…

  1. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  2. The relationship between community structural characteristics, the context of crack use and HIV risk behaviors in San Salvador, El Salvador1

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; McAuliffe, Timothy; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Glasman, Laura; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores community structural factors in different low-income communities in the San Salvador, El Salvador that account for differences in the social context in which crack is used and in the HIV risk behaviors among crack users. Results suggest that both more distal (type of low-income community, level of violent crime and poverty) and proximate structural factors (type of site where drugs are used, and whether drugs are used within or outside of community of residence) influence HIV risk behaviors among drug users. Additionally, our results suggest that community structural factors influence the historical and geographic variation in drug use sites. PMID:22217125

  3. Geological control of earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige Aga, Meaza

    2010-05-01

    Geological control of earthquake induced landslides in El Salvador. M., Tsige(1), I., Garcia-Flórez(1), R., Mateos(2) (1)Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Geología, Madrid, Spain, (meaza@geo.ucm.es) (2)IGME, Mallorca El Salvador is located at one of the most seismically active areas en Central America, and suffered severe damage and loss of life in historical and recent earthquakes, as a consequence of earthquake induced landslides. The most common landslides were shallow disrupted soil-slides on steep slopes and were particularly dense in the central part of the country. Most of them are cited in the recent mechanically weak volcanic pyroclastic deposits known as "Tierra Blanca" and "Tierra Color Café" which are prone to seismic wave amplification and are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to the 2001 (Mw = 7.6 and Mw = 6.7), seismic events. The earthquakes also triggered numerous deep large scale landslides responsible for the enormous devastation of villages and towns and are the source for the current high seismic hazard as well. Many of these landslides are located at distances more than 50 and 100 km from the focal distance, although some of them occurred at near field. Until now there has been little effort to explain the causes and concentration of the deep large-scale landslides especially their distribution, failure mechanism and post-rapture behavior of the landslide mass (long run-out). It has been done a field investigation of landslides, geological materiales and interpretation of aerial photographs taken before and after the two 2001 (Mw= 7.6 and Mw= 6.7) El Salvador earthquakes. The result of the study showed that most of the large-scale landslides occured as coherent block slides with the sliding surface parallel to a pre-existing fractures and fault planes (La Leona, Barriolera, El Desague, Jiboa landslides). Besides that the pre-existing fractures are weak zones controlling

  4. Tsunami hazard and risk assessment in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; González-Riancho, P.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; García-Aguilar, O.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Aguirre, I.; Alvarez, J. A.; Gavidia, F.; Jaimes, I.; Larreynaga, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructure around the world. Several works have attempted to study these phenomena in order to understand their origin, causes, evolution, consequences, and magnitude of their damages, to finally propose mechanisms to protect coastal societies. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce risk on coastal areas. This work -Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador-, funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, examines the state of the art and presents a comprehensive methodology for assessing the risk of tsunamis at any coastal area worldwide and applying it to the coast of El Salvador. The conceptual framework is based on the definition of Risk as the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from a given hazard to a given element at danger or peril, over a specified time period (European Commission, Schneiderbauer et al., 2004). The HAZARD assessment (Phase I of the project) is based on propagation models for earthquake-generated tsunamis, developed through the characterization of tsunamigenic sources -sismotectonic faults- and other dynamics under study -tsunami waves, sea level, etc.-. The study area is located in a high seismic activity area and has been hit by 11 tsunamis between 1859 and 1997, nine of them recorded in the twentieth century and all generated by earthquakes. Simulations of historical and potential tsunamis with greater or lesser affection to the country's coast have been performed, including distant sources, intermediate and close. Deterministic analyses of the threats under study -coastal flooding- have been carried out, resulting in different hazard maps (maximum wave height elevation, maximum water depth, minimum tsunami

  5. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Juan Carlos; Morales, Josefina A; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 150 unrelated male individuals from El Salvador, Central America. A total of 131 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 118 were unique. The haplotype diversity (99.08%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.33%) were estimated. R(ST) genetic distances were calculated between El Salvador and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The highest R(ST) genetic distances were found when comparing El Salvador with African populations (0.334 Salvador and Southern and Central Native groups presented a wide range of values (from 0.024 to 0.210) that can be explained by the differences in the proportion of European versus Amerindian contributions in these population groups. The Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot analysis, based on pairwise R(ST) values, showed that the general population of El Salvador is closer to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Southern/Central American cluster of Native and Mestizo populations. PMID:19962926

  6. "Contra Viento y Marea" (Against Wind and Tide): Building Civic Identity among Children of Emigration in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article examines contrasting approaches to citizenship education in two schools in San Salvador, El Salvador, in the face of highly visible transnational migration. I argue that while transnational realities challenge education for democratic citizenship, educational processes that enable students to interrogate their own transnational…

  7. Observations and Modeling of the August 27, 2012 Earthquake and Tsunami affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Lynett, Patrick J.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Newman, Andrew V.; Convers, Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local tsunami. Following the event, local and international tsunami teams surveyed the tsunami effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The tsunami reached a maximum height of ~6 m with inundation of up to 340 m inland along a 25 km section of coastline in eastern El Salvador. Less severe inundation was reported in northern Nicaragua. In the far-field, the tsunami was recorded by a DART buoy and tide gauges in several locations of the eastern Pacific Ocean but did not cause any damage. The field measurements and recordings are compared to numerical modeling results using initial conditions of tsunami generation based on finite-fault earthquake and tsunami inversions and a uniform slip model.

  8. Legislative attitudes toward overpopulation: the case of EL Salvador.

    PubMed

    Verner, J G

    1975-10-01

    The members of the 1972-1974 national assembly of El Salvador were asked to complete questionnaires on population in an effort to determine what their general attitude toward the population problem was. Indications were that the legislators were factually aware of the dimensions of population growth and the existing overpopulation, and that both problems were seen as impediments to economic progress. They also showed a willingness to act quickly on various public programs for controlling population growth, primarily in the areas of public education and healht. However, while admitting the urgency of the problems, none of the legislators had individually done anything about them and no such plans were underway. They indicated in their responses that they would have to play a major role in formulating any population control policy and that such a policy would probably concentrate on measures to deal with overpopulation in the short run, i.e., to cut the population growth rate by educating and informing the populous both with general and governmental publicity and through sex education in schools. The policy would also in part attempt to alleviate the general social conditions that the legislators perceived as contributing to high birthrates, i.e., illiteracy, lack of sex information, unemployment, rural isolation, unavailability of contraceptives, and lack of family planning Support would be sought from the public in spite of the Catholic Church, though the Church would eventually have to be considered in the formulation of a final policy. The fact of religious opposition plus the fact that the government has not yet embarked on a policy make the adoption and implementation of such a policy unlikely in the forseeable future. The ligislators themselves were pessimistic as to the possibility of controlling the population and felt that in view of its rapid growth, the country would not be able to provide educational and employment opportunites for the advancement of the

  9. Demand for sanitation in Salvador, Brazil: a hybrid choice approach.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andreia C; Roberts, Jennifer A; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cairncross, Sandy

    2011-04-01

    Funds to promote access to water and sanitation in developing countries are scarce and most of the investments come from the national governments and households sources, not international resources. In many of these countries, mainly in middle income countries, households are paying direct taxes to access these services, and understanding what determines their choice and motivation is fundamental to promote access to them. It has been argued that is not enough to supply a wide range of alternatives unless the individuals can recognise their benefits and sustainability. The objective of this paper is to understand the choice of sanitation technology by residents in the city of Salvador, Brazil. We propose a unique hybrid choice model that incorporates a set of latent attitudinal variables and explains how the demographic factors within a household influence choice. The substantial difference of our hybrid choice model from descriptive frameworks is that it integrates choice and latent variables (such as attitudes and preferences) allowing us to model explicitly the cognitive process that influences sanitation adoption, draw conclusions from cognitive variables associated with individuals' socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and establishes a causal pathway among these variables. The results show that the attributes of health protection, accessibility, privacy, and house modernisation were what households cared about when opting for flush toilet and sewerage connection, rather than the high cost and consequent household socio-economic status associated with them. The hybrid model is statistically consistent with these findings, and seems to fill the gap between behavioural theory and discrete choice models applied to sanitation. PMID:21439700

  10. Channeling Remittances to Education: A Field Experiment Among Migrants from El Salvador*

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, Kate; Aycinena, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We implement a randomized experiment offering Salvadoran migrants matching funds for educational remittances, which are channeled directly to a beneficiary student in El Salvador chosen by the migrant. The matches lead to increased educational expenditures, higher private school attendance, and lower labor supply of youths in El Salvador households connected to migrant study participants. We find substantial “crowd-in” of educational investments: for each $1 received by beneficiaries, educational expenditures increase by $3.72. We find no shifting of expenditures away from other students, and no effect on remittances. PMID:26000091

  11. Basic Education in El Salvador: Consolidating the Foundations for Quality and Equal Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rincon, Hernan, Ed.; Sala, Mariella, Ed.; Sala, Fiorella, Ed.; Tarnapol Whitacre, Paula, Ed.; Lee, Thomas, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This study of basic education in El Salvador was carried out between September and December of 2003 by a team of researchers. This publication has two parts: (1) The introduction which addresses the main findings of the study and proposes education policy priorities for the next reform effort; and (2) A summary of the original study of basic…

  12. 77 FR 2990 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... notice published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2012, at 77 FR 1710. We are correcting the dates for the re-registration period to state that the period runs from January 9, 2012 through March 12... a notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 1710, extending the designation of El Salvador for TPS...

  13. Small States and Big Institutions: USAID and Education Policy Formation in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the institutional power of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in the process of education policy formation in El Salvador during 2003-2005. The results show how bi- and multi-lateral institutions are able to leverage financial and intellectual capital to guide the policymaking process and sway…

  14. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in El Salvador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2012, tomato plants grown near the town of Yuroconte in the municipality of La Palma in El Salvador, were observed with symptoms resembling those of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) infection. Disease incidence in several fields in the area ranged from 40 to 60%. Heavy infes...

  15. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    2009-01-01

    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  16. Philip Morris involvement in the development of an air quality laboratory in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Kummerfeldt, C E; Barnoya, J; Bero, L

    2009-01-01

    Background: The tobacco industry has organised research institutions to generate misleading data on indoor air quality, including second-hand smoke exposure and health effects. Objectives: To describe tobacco industry involvement in the organisation and financial support of an air quality research laboratory in El Salvador. Methods: Tobacco industry documents on the internet were systematically searched from August 2007 to February 2008 for air quality studies undertaken in El Salvador, and laboratory personnel were interviewed. Results: Philip Morris sought to establish a network of air quality laboratories throughout Latin America. In El Salvador, in 1997, through Tabacalera de El Salvador (a subsidiary of Philip Morris) and the Salvadoran Foundation for Economic Development (FUSADES), the industry organised an air quality research laboratory. FUSADES was part of the industry’s Latin American Scientific Network, which consisted of doctors hired as consultants who would send air samples from their research to FUSADES. Philip Morris Scientific Affairs personnel hired LabStat, a Canadian-based laboratory, to provide technical assistance to FUSADES (train and assist the laboratory in air quality measurements). In addition, the Washington-based HMS Group successfully implemented a plan to upgrade the laboratory and obtain international certifications. HMS Group also assisted in searching for sustainable funding for FUSADES, including seeking funds from international aid for Hurricane Mitch. Conclusion: Air quality studies that have used the FUSADES laboratory should be carefully interpreted, given the support that this laboratory received from Philip Morris. PMID:19211614

  17. Geodetically resolved slip distribution of the 27 August 2012 Mw=7.3 El Salvador earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Hernandez, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Rogers, R.; Rodriguez, M.

    2013-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 a Mw=7.3 earthquake occurred offshore of Central America causing a small tsunami in El Salvador and Nicaragua but little damage otherwise. This is the largest magnitude earthquake in this area since 2001. We use co-seismic displacements estimated from episodic and continuous GPS station time series to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for this event. The estimated surface displacements are small (<2 cm) due to the distance and low magnitude of the earthquake. We use TDEFNODE to model the displacements using two different modeling approaches. In the first model, we solve for homogeneous slip on free rectangular fault(s), and in the second model we solve for distributed slip on the main thrust, realized using different slab models. The results indicate that we can match the seismic moment release, with models indicating rupture of a large area, with a low magnitude of slip. The slip is at shallow-to-intermediate depths on the main thrust off the coast of El Salvador. Additionally, we observe a deeper region of slip to the east, that reaches towards the Gulf of Fonseca between El Salvador and Nicaragua. The observed tsunami additionally indicates near-trench rupture off the coast of El Salvador. The duration of the rupturing is estimated from seismic data to be 70 s, which indicates a slow rupture process. Since the geodetic moment we obtain agrees with the seismic moment, this indicates that the earthquake was not associated with aseismic slip.

  18. Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B.; Carracedo, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Background From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. Methodology/Principal Findings We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ∼90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090–16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a

  19. Assessment of landslide hazards resulting from the February 13, 2001, El Salvador earthquake; a report to the government of El Salvador and the U. S. Agency for International Development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Crone, Anthony J.; Escobar, Demetreo; Harp, Edwin L.; Major, Jon J.; Martinez, Mauricio; Pullinger, Carlos; Smith, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    On February 13, 2001, a magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurred about 40 km eastsoutheast of the capital city of San Salvador in central El Salvador and triggered thousands of landslides in the area east of Lago de Ilopango. The landslides are concentrated in a 2,500-km2 area and are particularly abundant in areas underlain by thick deposits of poorly consolidated, late Pleistocene and Holocene Tierra Blanca rhyolitic tephras that were erupted from Ilopango caldera. Drainages in the tephra deposits are deeply incised, and steep valley walls failed during the strong shaking. Many drainages are clogged with landslide debris that locally buries the adjacent valley floor. The fine grain-size of the tephra facilitates its easy mobilization by rainfall runoff. The potential for remobilizing the landslide debris as debris flows and in floods is significant as this sediment is transported through the drainage systems during the upcoming rainy season. In addition to thousands of shallow failures, two very large landslides occurred that blocked the Rio El Desague and the Rio Jiboa. The Rio El Desague landslide has an estimated volume of 1.5 million m3, and the Rio Jiboa landslide has an estimated volume of 12 million m3. Field studies indicate that catastrophic draining of the Rio El Desague landslide-dammed lake would pose a minimal flooding hazard, whereas catastrophic draining of the Rio Jiboa lake would pose a serious hazard and warrants immediate action. Construction of a spillway across part of the dam could moderate the impact of catastrophic lake draining and the associated flood. Two major slope failures on the northern side of Volcan San Vicente occurred in the upper reaches of Quebrada Del Muerto and the Quebrada El Blanco. The landslide debris in the Quebrada Del Muerto consists dominantly of blocks of well-lithified andesite, whereas the debris in the Quebrada El Blanco consists of poorly consolidated pyroclastic sediment. The large blocks of lithified rock in

  20. Obliquely convergent plate motion and its relation with forearc sliver movement, El Salvador volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikoff, B.; DeMets, C.; Garibaldi, N.; Hernandez, W.; Hernandez, D.

    2012-12-01

    The magmatic arc in El Salvador is interpreted to result from the subduction of the Cocos plate underneath the Caribbean plate along the Middle America trench. In addition, El Salvador contains a fore-arc sliver that moves 11 mm/yr westward relative to the back-arc. Well-defined strike-slip faults along the magmatic arc accommodate forearc sliver motion, but are offset at several locations by en echelon pull-apart step-overs with abundant normal faults. All basaltic-andesitic magmatic centers (San Miguel, San Vincente, San Salvador, Santa Ana) are located within these step-overs, while the two major rhyolitic calderas (Ilopango, Coatepeque) occur directly along the strike-slip faults. There are two puzzling aspects about the strike-slip tectonism. First, a silicic, shallow magma body that intrudes the San Miguel fault zone (part of the El Salvador fault system) was emplaced syn-tectonically (sigmoidal field and magnetic foliations, subhorizontally plunging magnetic lineations and dextral shear at the microscale). Within the dextrally sheared portion of the intrusion, an obsidian band with a 40Ar/39Ar age of 7.46 Ma indicates that dextral strike-slip tectonism in the Salvadoran arc has been an ongoing process for ~7.5 Ma. This casts significant doubt on whether Cocos ridge subduction (that started ~1 Ma ago) is the cause of the ongoing forearc movement. The potentially more significant problem is that the fore-arc sliver in El Salvador moves 11 mm/yr westward relative to the back-arc despite a nearly orthogonal angle of convergence (with a convergence rate of ~77 mm/yr) near El Salvador and absence of significant frictional coupling along the subduction interface. Further, GPS indicates that the Nicaraguan and Salvadoran forearcs define a semi-rigid sliver moving at nearly the same trench-parallel rates despite along-trench changes in the subduction angle. Consequently, it is tempting to attribute the movement of both forearc slivers to Cocos ridge subduction

  1. Anomalous Change of Diffuse CO2 Emission Rates at San Salvador volcano, El Salvador, Central America: a premonitory geochemical signature of magmatic and/or tectonic reactivation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, N.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Soriano, T.; Barahona, F.; Cartagena, R.; Olmos, R.; Lopez, D.

    2002-12-01

    San Salvador volcano is located towards the southern part of the Central American graben. The most recent magmatic activity was mainly focused on the volcano NW flank forming monogenetic explosion craters, cinder cones, and lava flows. Flank vents continue to erupt at a rate of once every 82 yrs with the last eruption in 1917 (Sofield, 1999). The city of San Salvador, with a population 1.7 million located at the skirts of the volcano, will be at high risk if an eruption occurs. The purpose of this work is to provide a multidisciplinary approach for the volcanic surveillance by means of introducing geochemical continuous monitoring of diffuse CO2 and H2S emission rates. Soil CO2 and H2S efflux are continuously monitored at Cerro La Hoya, which is located at San Salvador volcano southern flank, by means of a soil gas efflux continuous monitoring station. Since Nov.11, 2001, until Aug.30, 2002, about 6,800 observations of soil gas efflux and meteorological measurements had been recorded. Soil H2S efflux values were negligible during this period. On the contrary, two distinct diffuse CO2 degassing periods have been observed: (1) a stationary period from Nov. 11 to Dec. 27, 2001, and (2) a clear increasing trend period from Dec. 28, 2001, up to date. From Nov.11 to Dec.27, 2001, CO2 efflux showed an average of 700 gm-2d-1 peaking values up to 1,194 gm-2d-1. From Dec.28, 2001, to Aug.30, 2002, CO2 efflux showed an average of 7,435 gm-2d-1 peaking values up to 45,285 gm-2d-1. Soil temperature showed similar average and peak values for both periods. It is quite evident that this anomalous change of CO2 efflux rate at San Salvador is not driven by meteorological fluctuations. Therefore, this anomalous change of diffuse CO2 emission should be related to an increase of CO2 pressure in the volcanic-hydrothermal system. This increase of fluid pressure could be related to subsurface strain/stress changes, which might be taking place due to either magmatic or tectonic

  2. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas. PMID:19178778

  3. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-10-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighbourhoods or valleys within neighbourhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  4. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) <1 year; 2) 1–4 years; 3) 5–9 years, or 4) 10–14 or 10–11 years, for Mexico City and El Salvador, respectively. Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in

  5. Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

    2014-05-01

    In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of

  6. Do Community-Managed Schools Work? An Evaluation of El Salvador's EDUCO Program. Working Paper Series on Impact Evaluation of Education Reforms. Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Emmanuel; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    This paper measures the effects on student outcomes of decentralizing educational responsibility to communities and schools. In El Salvador, community-managed schools emerged during the 1980s when public schools could not be extended to rural areas because of the country's civil war. In 1991, El Salvador's Ministry of Education decided to draw on…

  7. Risk Behaviors and STI Prevalence Among People with HIV in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Bailey, G; Shah, N; Creswell, J; Guardado, ME; Nieto, AI; Estrada, MC; Cedillos, R; Pascale, JM; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ≥1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men and 398 women. Prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was low (≤1%), while prevalence of other STI was high: Mycoplasma genitalium (14%), syphilis (15% seropositivity, active syphilis 3%) and HSV-2 (85%). In multivariate analysis, disclosing HIV status to partner (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3, p<0.001), participation in HIV support groups (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p=0.01), easy access to condoms (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p=0.04) were protective factors for unprotected sex. Reporting a casual partner in the last 12 months (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.5, p=0.004). and having an STI (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.3-5.5, p=0.02) were associated with an increased odds of unprotected sex. Prevention interventions among HIV-positives in El Salvador should focus on increasing condom access, promoting HIV disclosure and couples testing and reducing the number of partners. The positive role of support groups should be used to enhance behavioral change. PMID:23049671

  8. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. Methods We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. Results The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Conclusions Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading. PMID:24138776

  9. Evolving Hazard Monitoring and Communication at San Vicente Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    El Salvador has 20 potentially active volcanoes, four of which have erupted in the last 100 years. Since San Vicente Volcano has had no historic eruptions, monitoring is not a high priority; especially given the current eruptive crisis at San Miguel Volcano. Though probability of eruptive hazards remains low at San Vicente, it is arguably one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the country due to rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flow risk. At least 250 deaths occurred in November 2009 from landslides and debris flows triggered by Hurricane Ida. This disaster caused the Universidad de El Salvador - Facultad Multidisciplinaria Paracentral (UES-FMP, San Vicente, El Salvador) to partner with governmental and nongovernmental organizations (including the U.S. Peace Corps, U.S. Fulbright Program, Korean International Cooperation Agency, Protección Civil and the Centro de Protección para Desastres (CEPRODE)) to focus its faculty and student research toward hazard monitoring and risk studies. Newly established monitoring efforts include: measurement of surface cracks and localized rainfall by Protección Civil and local residents using crude extensometers and rain gauges; installation of six weather stations that operate within the most at-risk municipalities; seismic refraction surveys to better characterize stratigraphy and seasonal water table changes; and most recently, a USAID/NSF-funded initiative partnered with the UES-FMP to monitor seasonal hydrologic conditions related to flooding and groundwater recharge. The information from these initiatives is now used to communicate current conditions and warnings through a network of two-way radios established by CEPRODE and Protección Civil. Representatives from the multi-institutional team also communicate the data to authorities who make better-informed decisions regarding warnings and evacuations, as well as determine suitable areas for population relocation in the event of a crisis. Data will eventually be used

  10. Anomalous Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide and Seismicity of San Miguel Volcano, EL Salvador in October, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Hernández, A.; Cartagena, R.; Henríquez, B.; López, D.; Cárdenas, C.; Galle, B.

    2007-12-01

    San Miguel (also known as Chaparrastique) volcano in eastern El Salvador is located 15 km southwest of the city of San Miguel. This volcano has erupted more than 30 times since 1699, with the last gas and ash emission on January 16, 2002. During 2006, San Miguel presented anomalous gas emissions and seismicity. In this work, the seismic parameters reported by SNET (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales de El Salvador) and the crater gas emissions measured by researchers of the University of El Salvador are compared. For the gas efflux, two types of measurements were done using the Mini-DOAS system (Galle et al., 2002): transects around the crater perimeter (~100 m) and transects following roads located between 5 and 10 km from the crater. Several measurements between October 2005 and May 2006 indicate that the sulfur dioxide efflux during quiet periods is around 20 ton/day. From May to June 2006, a progressive increase in fumarolic activity and noise from gas emissions were observed. From May to August 2006, the sulfur dioxide emissions increased to 60 ton/day. A seismic crisis started on October 9, 2006, increasing the RSAM from 10-20 to 208 on October 10, 2006. During this time, the sulfur dioxide efflux reached a maximum of 492 ton/day. This increase in sulfur dioxide efflux represents 25 times the basic emissions during the previous quiet period and 8 times the values observed from May to August 2006. The correlation coefficient between sulfur dioxide efflux and RSAM values during this period of time was 0.81, which is statistically significant at a level higher than 99.9% . These anomalous changes in seismicity and sulfur dioxide emissions at San Miguel volcano suggest a magmatic reactivation with an increase in the exsolution of magma volatiles, long period seismic events, and volcanic tremor.

  11. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.55). Within 2 weeks, influenza in Panama was increased by 1 case for every 1% increase in RH (RR=1.04, p=.003), and it was increased by 2 cases for every 1C increase of minimum temperature (RR=2.01, p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.4). Influenza counts in Guatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza

  12. Cross-bedded limestone facies on San Salvador Island, Bahamas: New perspective on eolian calcarenites

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, M.V. )

    1989-08-01

    Limestones of eolian origin have been known from worldwide tropical regins since the early 1900s. On San Salvador Island, most of the exposed bed rock is Holocene and Pleistocene eolian calcarenite made of skeletal, peloidal, and oolitic fine to medium sand. The Pleistocene Grotto Beach Formation is composed of 50-90% ooids. An eolian interpretation for this interval is supported by paleosols, subaerial crusts, vadose cement, terrestrial fossils, karst features, associated reef and beach deposits, grainfall, sandflow, and climbing ripple strata, and shore-parallel sand bodies. Whole dune-forms are locally preserved; they were stabilized or frozen in place by early cementation and/or vegetation.

  13. Late Pennsylvanian and early permian chondrichthyan microremains from San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla, Mexico)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derycke-Khatir, C.; Vachard, D.; Degardin, J.-M.; Flores de Dios, A.; Buitron, B.; Hansen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The San Salvador Patlanoaya section (Puebla State, Mexico) is known for its richness of many fossil groups. Among them, the calcareous shells have been principally investigated. This paper deals with Missourian-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) and Leonardian (late Early Permian) Mexican fish remains. A discussion about Helicoprion and related genera, is followed by the systematic description of the revised or discovered taxa: Cooperella typicalis, Moreyella cf. M. typicalis, M. (?) sp., "Sturgeonella" quinqueloba, Hybodontidae gen. sp. 1 and 2, scale indet. Palaeobiogeographic implications are suggested. ?? 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Bio-gas in El Salvador; specialist, projects and stage of development

    SciTech Connect

    Oliva, M.H.V.

    1980-11-01

    Results from tests on bio-gas production that were carried out at a laboratory level in El Salvador were put into practice for the production of energy in that country, in a project started in June, 1980. This document deals with the projects, either already accomplished or in progress, their locations, technical operations, and basic sources of bio-gas. The bibliography supplied is a combined list provided by each technician in the various projects. An annex is presented on projects of alternative sources of energy.

  15. Staurojoenina and other symbionts in Neotermes from San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, M.; Margulis, L.

    1997-01-01

    Staurojoenina, a conspicuous hypermastigote protist (undocumented in any Neotermes) and other hindgut symbionts are reported for the first time in Neotermes nr. jouteli, a dry-wood-eating termite (Kalotermitidae), from the red mangroves at the northeast corner of San Salvador Island. Other distinctive protists (Macrotrichomonas, Metadevescovina, two morphotypes of small trichomonads) and bacteria (Arthromitus-type filamentous spore-formers) symbionts were also found in this termite. This Staurojoenina sp. replete with epibiotic bacterial symbionts is not distinguished from previously described species of Staurojoenina.

  16. With God's Help I Can Do It: Crack Users' Formal and Informal Recovery Experiences in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; De Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Corbett, A. Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Crack use has increased dramatically in El Salvador in the last few decades. As with other developing countries with sudden onsets of drug problems, El Salvador has few medical staff trained in addictions treatment. Little research has examined drug users' attempts to reduce or abstain from drug use in countries where government-regulated formal medical treatment for drug addiction is scarce. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data gathered from active crack users to explore their formal and informal strategies to reduce or abstain from drugs, and compares these with components of informal and formal treatment in developed countries. PMID:20735191

  17. Quality, not just quantity: Lessons learned from HIV testing in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Rasanathan, Jennifer J. K.; Dourado, Ines; Gruskin, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that an early HIV diagnosis is a critical first step toward continued engagement in care. We examined HIV testing experiences in Salvador, Brazil, to understand how a focus on quality services can inform service provision more generally in the post–2015 global health agenda. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with HIV-positive pregnant women in Salvador, a large urban centre of northeast Brazil. Interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded for analysis. Deductive codes confirmed factors identified in the literature review. Inductive codes highlighted new factors emerging from the initial coding. ‘Quality’ was defined according to global and national guidelines as HIV testing with informed and voluntary consent, counselling, and confidentiality (3Cs). No pregnant woman experienced all elements of the 3Cs. Three women did not experience any informed and voluntary consent, counselling, or confidentiality. Few women provided consent overall and none received pre-test counselling. Post-test counselling and confidentiality of services were more consistently provided. This study suggests that testing in Salvador—the third-largest city in the country—is not of the quality called for by global and national guidelines, despite the fact that HIV testing is being routinely provided for HIV-positive pregnant women in Brazil. Going forward, additional clarity around the 3Cs is necessary to improve how the quality, not just the quantity, of HIV services is measured. PMID:24881693

  18. Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway in a developmental checkpoint monitoring Helix-Loop-Helix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    The E-proteins and Id-proteins are, respectively, the positive and negative heterodimer partners for the basic-helix-loop-helix protein family, and as such contribute to a remarkably large number of cell fate decisions. E-proteins and Id-proteins also function to inhibit or promote cell proliferation and cancer. Using a genetic modifier screen in Drosophila, we show that the Id-protein Extramacrochaetae enables growth by suppressing activation of the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway of tumor suppressors, activation that requires transcriptional activation of the expanded gene by the E-protein Daughterless. Daughterless protein binds to an intronic enhancer in the expanded gene, both activating the SWH pathway independently of the transmembrane protein Crumbs, and bypassing the negative feedback regulation that targets the same expanded enhancer. Thus the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway has a cell-autonomous function to prevent inappropriate differentiation due to transcription factor imbalance, and monitors the intrinsic developmental status of progenitor cells, distinct from any responses to cell-cell interactions. PMID:25579975

  19. Association between Nutritional Status and Severity of Dengue Infection in Children in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Marón, Gabriela M.; Clará, A. Wilfrido; Diddle, John Wesley; Pleités, Ernesto B.; Miller, Laura; MacDonald, Gene; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations and some studies suggest that dengue virus infection is more severe among children with better nutritional status. We examined the nutritional status of children in El Salvador and its relationship between this and the severity of dengue infection. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age of children with dengue fever (66), dengue hemorrhagic fever (62), and healthy controls (74) were compared. There were no differences in weight-for-age or BMI-for-age Z-scores between the three groups. Children with dengue fever had a greater height-for-age than healthy controls but no significant differences in rates of stunting. There was no difference in height between children with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Excess nutrition does not appear to be a risk factor for severe forms of dengue infection in El Salvador, nor does malnutrition appear to be predictive of good outcomes. PMID:20134012

  20. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  1. Shifting the Narrative: Child-Led Responses to Climate Change and Disasters in El Salvador and the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Children and young people are commonly treated in the climate change and disasters literature as victims of natural events requiring protection by adults. This article critiques that narrative, drawing on examples from the Philippines and El Salvador that explore how children's groups have responded to such issues through child-centred…

  2. Household Survival in the Face of Poverty in Salvador, Brazil: Towards an Integrated Model of Household Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, William P.

    1988-01-01

    Compares the survival strategies of low-income urban households in a squatter settlement in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil with those of such households in other regions. Suggests, uses, and criticizes a simple additive model of survival household activities. Identifies important factors that emerge, and suggests issues for further research. (Author/BJV)

  3. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…

  4. The University as Agent of Social Transformation: The Case of the University of Central America in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's…

  5. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  6. Evidence of the negative effect of sexual minority stigma on HIV testing among MSM and transgender women in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John; Guardado, Maria Elena; de Maria Hernández, Flor; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Melendez, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was administered to 670 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in San Salvador through respondent driven sampling to identify determinants of ever testing for HIV using a minority stress framework. A positive association was found between ever testing and older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.10], past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.92), perceiving that most social acquaintances had tested (aOR 1.81), and knowing a PLHIV (aOR 1.94). A negative association was found between homelessness and ever testing (aOR 0.43). Among the MSM sub-sample (n = 506), similar results were found for older age (aOR 2.63), and past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.56). Internalized homonegativity was negatively associated with ever testing for HIV among MSM (aOR 0.46), and HIV testing stigma and experienced provider discrimination further strengthened this relationship. It is important to mitigate sexual minority stigma in order to increase HIV testing among MSM. Future research should explore this construct among TW. PMID:24907779

  7. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  8. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences - finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained with the high resolution

  9. Tectonic evolution of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Insights from analogue experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, c. 150 km long and 20 km wide segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the El Salvador Volcanic Arc striking N90°-100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Our analysis of structural field data, remote sensing images and morphometric indices reveals a trenchward migration of the volcanic arc and furthermore suggests that not all structures within the ESFZ can be explained within the current tectonic context, but require a phase of extension or an extensional component of deformation at some stage in the evolution of the ESFZ. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to subduction roll-back of the Cocos Plate beneath the Chortis Block in Mio-Pliocene times. Such a possible evolution leads to open questions that we address in our research: Is the ESFZ a neo-formed fault zone, i.e. did it form during one phase of strike-slip or transtensional deformation, or do the structures in the ESFZ reflect a two-phase evolution, i.e. an early phase of extension overprinted by a later phase of strike-slip or transtension? Did subduction roll-back occur beneath El Salvador? We carried out analogue model experiments to test whether or not an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Analogue modeling is an effective tool in testing various hypotheses, as it allows the experimenter to control specific parameters and to test their influence on the resulting structures. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures of the ESFZ and can explain the shallow geometry of the fault zone. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in inter

  10. MAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 over San Salvador: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Carlos; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We present the first Multi-AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements at San Salvador. MAX-DOAS observes spectra of scattered sun light taken at different elevation angles. From the spectra the so called slant column density (SCD, the integrated trace gas concentration along the atmospheric light path) is derived. We quantify the dSCD of NO2 at different measurement conditions. From the measured NO2 SCDs we calculate the tropospheric vertical column density using the so called geometric approximation. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas dSCDs will be presented. We also use the MAX-DOAS results for the validation of satellite observations.

  11. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  12. Decline and unevenness of infant mortality in Salvador, Brazil, 1980-1988.

    PubMed

    Paim, J S; Costa, M da C

    1993-01-01

    Data relating to infant mortality in Salvador, Brazil, were analyzed in order to determine how infant mortality evolved in various parts of the city during the period 1980-1988. This analysis showed sharp drops in the numbers of infant deaths, proportional infant mortality (infant deaths as a percentage of total deaths), and the infant mortality coefficient (infant deaths per thousand live births) during the study period despite deteriorating economic conditions. It also suggested that while these declines occurred throughout the city, the overall distribution of infant mortality in different reporting zones remained uneven. Among other things, these findings call attention to a need for further investigation of the roles played by various health measures (including immunization, control of respiratory and diarrheal diseases, encouragement of breast-feeding, and monitoring of growth and development) and of reduced fertility (resulting from birth spacing, use of contraceptives, and female sterilization) in bringing about declines in infant mortality during hard economic times. PMID:8490672

  13. No choice in El Salvador. The Catholic church works overtime to prohibit abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A

    1999-12-01

    The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy reports on the recent amendment of the Constitution to recognize life from the moment of conception. Researcher Soledad Varela discovered that the Catholic Church in El Salvador had been actively engaged in manipulative tactics to sway an already conservative legislature into passing the extreme laws. Although some legislators were in favor of this amendment, some believe that the reform was wrong and that therapeutic abortions and terminations of pregnancies resulting from rape should not be penalized. Restrictive abortion laws did not stop abortions from occurring; in fact, the UN estimated that 35% of all pregnancies in Chile end in illegal abortions. With the new restrictions, mothers are abandoning unwanted newborns. Illegal practitioners have become harder to trace. Nevertheless, others seem to be successful at evading the law. The wealthy have the right to choose and still avail themselves of legal, more liberal abortion laws from other countries. PMID:12349419

  14. Marvels of illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Conley, Dave; Hine, Hank; Kropf, Joan; Tush, Peter; Ayala, Andrea; Macknik, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904-1989). Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers' perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here, we review the significance of illusions in Dali's art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit. PMID:26483651

  15. Marvels of illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Conley, Dave; Hine, Hank; Kropf, Joan; Tush, Peter; Ayala, Andrea; Macknik, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904–1989). Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers' perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The “Marvels of Illusion” exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here, we review the significance of illusions in Dali's art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the “Marvels of Illusion” exhibit. PMID:26483651

  16. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area. PMID:27555980

  17. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area. PMID:27555980

  18. Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  19. Titan2D Based Pyroclastic Flows Hazard Maps for Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Escobar, C. D.; Gutierrez, R. E.

    2009-05-01

    Santa Ana Volcano is located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located to the west of El Salvador, Central America. It is one the six active volcanoes monitor by the Servicios Nacionales de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) in El Salvador, out of twenty that are considered active in this small country by Smithsonian definition. The Santa Ana Volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and in its close distal areas by the second largest city of the country. On October 1st 2005, after a few months of increased fumarolic and seismic activity, it erupted generating a 10 km high steam and ash plume, reportedly seen by some aircraft and estimated using photography by SNET members. Ash was deposited to the west, north-west part of the country, following typical wind pattern for the region, as well as small pyroclastic flows and major lahars in its eastern part. Coffee plantations were lost, as was some crop of coffee in the following season. However, to the west the ash fertilized the land and resulted in an enhanced harvest of coffee beans. Only 2 people were killed from the Blast, thanks to the auto evacuation of proximal communities. Whilst the last eruption had a relatively low human life toll, a stronger eruption spells havoc almost certainly for the region. At this moment no exhaustive study and understanding exists of the pyroclastic flows generated by the Santa Ana Volcano nor a map for this particular hazard. This study proposes the use of Titan2D for those two purposes, using a DEM generated by the SNET using topographic maps as well as DEMs generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Images (ASTER).

  20. Spread pattern of the first dengue epidemic in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Florisneide R; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Carvalho, Marilia S; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2008-01-01

    Background The explosive epidemics of dengue that have been occurring in various countries have stimulated investigation into new approaches to improve understanding of the problem and to develop new strategies for controlling the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of diffusion of the first dengue epidemic that occurred in the city of Salvador in 1995. Methods The epidemiological charts and records of notified cases of dengue in Salvador in 1995 constituted the source of data. The cases of the disease were georeferenced according to census areas (spatial units) and epidemiological weeks (temporal unit). Kernel density estimation was used to identify the pattern of spatial diffusion using the R-Project computer software program. Results Of the 2,006 census areas in the city, 1,400 (70%) registered cases of dengue in 1995 and the spatial distribution of these records revealed that by the end of 1995 practically the entire city had been affected by the virus, with the largest concentration of cases occurring in the western region, composed of census areas with a high population density and predominantly horizontal residences compared to the eastern region of the city, where there is a predominance of vertical residential buildings. Conclusion The pattern found in this study shows the characteristics of the classic process of spreading by contagion that is common to most infectious diseases. It was possible to identify the epicenter of the epidemic from which centrifugal waves of the disease emanated. Our results suggest that, if a more agile control instrument existed that would be capable of rapidly reducing the vector population within a few days or of raising the group immunity of the population by means of a vaccine, it would theoretically be possible to adopt control actions around the epicenter of the epidemic and consequently reduce the incidence of the disease in the city. This finding emphasizes the need for further

  1. [The Nobel Prize for nitric oxide. The unjust exclusion of Dr. Salvador Moncada].

    PubMed

    de Berrazueta, J R

    1999-04-01

    The 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded jointly to North-American scientists, Dr Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad, for their discoveries in relation to "nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system". This has raised an important polemic because of the exclusion the South-American scientist, now nationalized British, Dr. Salvador Moncada. This short historical review examines some of the fundamental contributions to the knowledge in this field. It shows the sequence of the discoveries and the communication of them to the scientific community by the rewarded scientists and by Dr. Moncada. It is based on some fundamental publications in order to better understand this story, which does not coincide with the writing in 1996 by the Lasker Prize Committee, and which in 1998 was re-written again by the Nobel Committee of the Swedish Academy. More than 90 universities, academies and societies have acknowledged Dr. Moncada up to now with priority in the discovery of the fact that nitric oxide is released by endothelial cells, and the revealing of its metabolic way. More than 20,000 citations of their fundamental papers endorse in the scientific community his primacy in this field. Even Robert Furchgott, author of the brilliant discovery of the endothelium derived relaxing factor, that opened this field to the science, declared about the award of the 1998 Nobel Prize: "I feel that the Nobel Prize Committee could have made an exception this year and chosen a fourth person, Salvador Moncada (to share the prize)". PMID:10217961

  2. Catching-up with pentavalent vaccine: Exploring reasons behind lower rotavirus vaccine coverage in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Burnett, Eleanor; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Flannery, Brendan; Kleinbaum, David; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2015-11-27

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in El Salvador in 2006 and is recommended to be given concomitantly with DTP-HepB-Haemophilus influenzae type b (pentavalent) vaccine at ages 2 months (upper age limit 15 weeks) and 4 months (upper age limit 8 months) of age. However, rotavirus vaccination coverage continues to lag behind that of pentavalent vaccine, even in years when national rotavirus vaccine stock-outs have not occurred. We analyzed factors associated with receipt of oral rotavirus vaccine among children who received at least 2 doses of pentavalent vaccine in a stratified cluster survey of children aged 24-59 months conducted in El Salvador in 2011. Vaccine doses included were documented on vaccination cards (94.4%) or in health facility records (5.6%). Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to assess factors associated with vaccination status and age at vaccination. Receipt of pentavalent vaccine by age 15 weeks was associated with rotavirus vaccination (OR: 5.1; 95% CI 2.7, 9.4), and receipt of the second pentavalent dose by age 32 weeks was associated with receipt of two rotavirus vaccine doses (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 2.1-12.3). Timely coverage with the first pentavalent vaccine dose was 88.2% in the 2007 cohort and 91.1% in the 2008 cohort (p=0.04). Children born in 2009, when a four-month national rotavirus vaccine stock-out occurred, had an older median age of receipt of rotavirus vaccine and were less likely to receive rotavirus on the same date as the same dose of pentavalent vaccine than children born in 2007 and 2008. Upper age limit recommendations for rotavirus vaccine administration contributed to suboptimal vaccination coverage. Survey data suggest that late rotavirus vaccination and co-administration with later doses of pentavalent vaccine among children born in 2009 helped increase rotavirus vaccine coverage following shortages. PMID:26263200

  3. Subsurface architecture of a strike-slip collapse structure: insights from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxby, Jennifer; Gottsmann, Joachim; Cashman, Katherine; Gutierrez, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    While most calderas are created by roof collapse along ring-like faults into an emptying magma reservoir during a large and violent explosive eruption, an additional condition for caldera formation may be tectonically induced extensional stresses. Here we provide geophysical insights into the shallow sub-volcanic plumbing system of a collapse caldera in a major strike-slip tectonic setting by inverting Bouguer gravity data from the Ilopango caldera in El Salvador. Despite a long history of catastrophic eruptions with the most recent in 500 A.D., the internal architecture of the caldera has not been investigated, although studies of the most recent eruption have not identified the ring faults commonly associated with caldera collapse. The gravity data show that low-density material aligned along the principal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) forms a pronounced gravity low beneath the caldera. Extending to around 6 km depth, the low density structure likely maps a complex stacked shallow plumbing system composed of magmatic and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs. A substantial volume of the plumbing system must be composed of a vapour phase to explain the modeled negative density contrasts. We use these constraints to map the possible multi-phase parameter space contributing to the subsurface architecture of the caldera and propose that the local extension along the complex ESFZ controls accumulation, ascent and eruption of magma at Ilopango. The data further suggest that future eruptions at Ilopango could be facilitated by rapid rise of magma along conjugate fault damage zones through a mechanically weak crust under tension. This may explain the absence of clear ring fault structures at the caldera.

  4. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  5. Integration of foreign and local medical staff in a disaster area: the Honduras and El Salvador experiences.

    PubMed

    Waisman, Yehezkel

    2003-06-01

    International medical aid after natural disasters may take various forms, ranging from self-sufficient military forces to single experts or specialists who function primarily as advisers. A model integrating foreign and local medical staff has not previously been reported. In response to the call for international aid by the Honduran and El Salvadorian governments in the wake of Hurricane Mitch in November 1998 and the San Salvador earthquake in January 2001, Israel sent medical supplies and 10 member teams of medical professionals to each country. The aim of the present paper is to describe the unique Israeli approach to providing healthcare in disaster areas by integrating foreign and local medical staff, and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages. The paper focuses on the experience of the two emergency medicine physicians on the team who were assigned to the Atlantida General Hospital in La Ceiba, Honduras. The same team in San Salvador subsequently applied the same approach. PMID:12789069

  6. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  7. Assessment of earthquake-induced landslides hazard in El Salvador after the 2001 earthquakes using macroseismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo; Giunta, Giuseppe; Ángel Hernández, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Two strong earthquakes and a number of smaller aftershocks struck El Salvador in the year 2001. The January 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 7.7, occurred along the Cocos plate, 40 km off El Salvador southern coast. It resulted in about 1300 deaths and widespread damage, mainly due to massive landsliding. Two of the largest earthquake-induced landslides, Las Barioleras and Las Colinas (about 2x105 m3) produced major damage to buildings and infrastructures and 500 fatalities. A neighborhood in Santa Tecla, west of San Salvador, was destroyed. The February 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred 40 km east-southeast of San Salvador. This earthquake caused over 300 fatalities and triggered several landslides over an area of 2,500 km2 mostly in poorly consolidated volcaniclastic deposits. The La Leona landslide (5-7x105 m3) caused 12 fatalities and extensive damage to the Panamerican Highway. Two very large landslides of 1.5 km3 and 12 km3 produced hazardous barrier lakes at Rio El Desague and Rio Jiboa, respectively. More than 16.000 landslides occurred throughout the country after both quakes; most of them occurred in pyroclastic deposits, with a volume less than 1x103m3. The present work aims to define the relationship between the above described earthquake intensity, size and areal distribution of induced landslides, as well as to refine the earthquake intensity in sparsely populated zones by using landslide effects. Landslides triggered by the 2001 seismic sequences provided useful indication for a realistic seismic hazard assessment, providing a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides.

  8. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Mexico, El Salvador and Panama.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of sugarcane orange rust were observed on July 17, 2008 in sugarcane varieties, Mex 57-1285, Mex 61-230 and Co 301 (a clone received in Mexico in 1953) at the Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Caña de Azúcar en Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, Mexico.In El Salvador, from August 2008 through ...

  9. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  10. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; de Antinori, María E. Barnett; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/Findings Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07–1.31) and 1.32 (1.08–1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08–1.93) and 1.97 (1.34–2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6–0.86) and 0.79 (0.69–0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7–0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01–1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05–1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5–0.9). Conclusions/Significance The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had

  11. First results on small ruminant brucellosis and tuberculosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Linderot de Cardona, Kristina; De Gracia Scanapieco, Abelardo; Braun, Peggy G

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a first-time study performed in El Salvador on the presence or absence of antibodies to three important animal diseases in small ruminants. The work was conducted in the west and central departments of the country, selecting 42 and 43 cantons with an existing sheep and goat population, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 396 sheep and 335 goats and tested for seropositivity to Brucella (B.) spp. The specimens from goats were also tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Four (1 %) sheep and none of the goats were seropositive by Rose Bengal test. All animals were negative by indirect ELISA (iELISA) for B. abortus. All animals were negative by iELISA for CAE. A total of 383 sheep and 330 goats underwent the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test for tuberculosis. Seventy (18 %) sheep and 43 (13 %) goats reacted to the SICT test. Those reactors were subjected to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, and one (0.3 %) goat was deemed to be a positive reactor. No mycobacteria were diagnosed in concluding analyses, and further studies are considered necessary to determine the prevalence of the investigated diseases. Additionally, it is recommended that small ruminants should be included in the national eradication program on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis to prevent potential reservoirs. PMID:26992736

  12. Present-day crustal deformation along the El Salvador Fault Zone from ZFESNet GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staller, Alejandra; Martínez-Díaz, José Jesús; Benito, Belén; Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Díaz, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions obtained from new GPS data compiled along the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ). We calculated a GPS-derived horizontal velocity field representing the present-day crustal deformation rates in the ESFZ based on the analysis of 30 GPS campaign stations of the ZFESNet network, measured over a 4.5 year period from 2007 to 2012. The velocity field and subsequent strain rate analysis clearly indicate dextral strike-slip tectonics with extensional component throughout the ESFZ. Our results suggest that the boundary between the Salvadoran forearc and Caribbean blocks is a deformation zone which varies along the fault zone. We estimate that the movement between the two blocks is at least ~ 12 mm yr- 1. From west to east, this movement is variably distributed between faults or segments of the ESFZ. We propose a kinematic model with three main blocks; the Western, Central and Eastern blocks delimited by major faults. For the first time, we were able to provide a quantitative measure of the present-day horizontal geodetic slip rate of the main segments of ESFZ, ranging from ~ 2 mm yr- 1 in the east segment to ~ 8 mm yr- 1, in the west and central segments. This study contributes new kinematic and slip rate data that should be used to update and improve the seismic hazard assessments in northern Central America.

  13. Double incision wound healing bioassay using Hamelia patens from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Beloz, Alfredo; Rucinski, James C; Balick, Michael J; Tipton, Camille

    2003-10-01

    Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae) has received little attention in the laboratory for its wound healing ability even though it is commonly used as a treatment for wounds throughout Central America. A double incision wound healing bioassay was carried out with a crude extract of Hamelia patens collected from El Salvador. Animals were divided into three groups. Group I (n = 14) had the left incision treated with 5% (w/w) Hamelia patens and the contralateral side with petroleum jelly (PJ). Group II (n = 14) had the left incision treated with 10% (w/w) ointment and the contralateral side with petroleum jelly. Group III (n = 10) had the left incision treated with petroleum jelly and the contralateral side left untreated. Breaking strength of the incisions was measured on day 7 and day 12. For Groups I and II, there was no significant difference between treatment and control incisions at day 7. On day 12, there was a significant difference between the treated and control incisions for Groups I and II. There was no significant difference between petroleum jelly and untreated incisions for Group III on day 7 and day 12. Hamelia patens does increase breaking strength of wounds significantly more than the control group. Further wound healing studies of this plant are warranted. PMID:12963138

  14. [Trends and spatial distribution of mortality from external causes in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, E D; Paim, J S; da Silva, L M; Costa, M da C

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, external causes (ICD-9 E800-E999) have been ranked as the second leading causal group for mortality in Brazil, thus becoming a major public health problem. This study aimed to describe spatial distribution trends for violent deaths in the urban setting of Salvador, a city in Northeast Brazil, for the years 1988, 1991, and 1994. An ecological study was conducted, and mortality data were obtained from death certificates and the archives of the Institute for Forensic Medicine. There was an increase of 34.6% in the number of deaths from external causes between 1988 and 1994. The highest mortality rates were among men from 20 to 29 years of age (from 192.0 to 262.0/100,000) and those 65 years and over (from 188.7 to 258.1/100,000). Homicides were the leading cause of violent deaths in about 75.0% of neighborhoods. The authors discuss the need for comprehensive public policies and an interdisciplinary approach to elucidate the causes and deal with the problem of violence. PMID:11175529

  15. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes. PMID:24172028

  16. Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction in Salvador, northeastern Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, E D; Lisboa Lôbo, C F; Villa, M; Nicolosi, A; Glasser, D B

    2002-08-01

    Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Brazil and to explore potential sociodemographic, medical, and lifestyle correlates. A cross-sectional, population-based, household survey was conducted in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Cluster samples of representative households were randomly selected for interviews. Of 654 eligible subjects, 602 (92%) participated. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers. ED was categorized as 'none', 'mild', 'moderate', or 'severe' according to the ability to 'attain and/or maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse'. All data were obtained by self-report. The age-adjusted prevalence of ED was 39.5% (minimal 25.1%, moderate 13.1%, severe 1.3%). Prevalence and severity increased with age. Having never been married, diabetes, depression, or prostate disease and current depressive or lower urinary tract symptoms were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased prevalence. Medical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle variables associated with ED may alert physicians to patients at risk for ED and offer insight to its etiology. PMID:12161762

  17. [Multifactorial analysis of risk factors for low birth weight in Salvador, Bahia].

    PubMed

    Solla, J J; Pereira, R A; Medina, M G; Pinto, L L; Mota, E

    1997-07-01

    This study is a multifactorial analysis of the risk factors for low birthweight in a group of newborns in an urban area of Brazil. A total of 1023 infants born in four maternity units in Salvador, Bahia, between July 1987 and February 1988 were included in the study. The sources of information were clinical histories and interviews with the mothers in the maternity units. The analysis was by means of logistic regression. In the final model the risk factors were the following: maternal age less than 21 years or more than 35; gestational age less than 38 weeks; unfavorable outcome of an earlier pregnancy; interval of 12 months or less since prior birth; tobacco smoking; and hypertension. The population attributable risk values for the risk factors included in the final model are presented. These factors should be used to identify pregnant women at high risk of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby, in order to provide them with more prenatal care. PMID:9410586

  18. [Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

    2011-05-01

    A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil), examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data processing. Personnel of the surveillance service were found to have varied professional and educational backgrounds, with limited experience in the sanitary surveillance of drugstores, and insufficient technical training for the performance of the tasks assigned. Deficiencies of a managerial nature were detected in the service. Its operation is primarily focused on granting drugstore licenses, prioritizing attendance to spontaneous demand, thereby configuring a technological model of intervention based on sanitary inspection. The findings revealed a need for updating the service and the adoption of technologies to enhance control of risk, given that technological evolution provides drugs that are increasingly more potent, with a concomitant rise in levels risk. PMID:21655712

  19. The smectite to chlorite transition in the Chipilapa geothermal system, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.; Santana de Zamora, A.

    1999-04-01

    Clay mineralogical, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe studies have been carried out on separated <2 {micro}m fractions from cutting and core material from three wells in the Chipilapa geothermal system in El Salvador. The data indicate that the smectite to chlorite transition is prevalent, but a secondary smectite to illite transition is also present. At depths approximately <750 m, smectite with very minor chlorite mixed-layers (approximately <15%) is dominant, and has a composition midway between a di- and tri-smectite. At {approximately}750 m there is a very clear distinction and sharp transition into discrete chlorite with very minor smectite mixed-layers (approximately <10%). Corrensite is recorded only as a rare and minor phase. Smectite occurs in abundance at temperatures up to {approximately}200 C, and the transition from a smectite-dominant to chlorite-dominant assemblage takes place over a narrow temperature range ({approximately}150 to 200 C). The stability range of smectite is very similar to that recorded in other geothermal systems, whereas the smectite to chlorite transition differs greatly from that recorded in other systems. The transition does not involve continuous chlorite/smectite mixed-layering but a marked step: It is the sharpest and most discontinuous stepped sequence of this mineralogical transition recorded.

  20. Hippo Stabilises Its Adaptor Salvador by Antagonising the HECT Ubiquitin Ligase Herc4

    PubMed Central

    Aerne, Birgit L.; Gailite, Ieva; Sims, David; Tapon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Signalling through the Hippo (Hpo) pathway involves a kinase cascade, which leads to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the pro-growth transcriptional co-activator Yorkie (Yki). Despite the identification of a large number of pathway members and modulators, our understanding of the molecular events that lead to activation of Hpo and the downstream kinase Warts (Wts) remain incomplete. Recently, targeted degradation of several Hpo pathway components has been demonstrated as a means of regulating pathway activity. In particular, the stability of scaffold protein Salvador (Sav), which is believed to promote Hpo/Wts association, is crucially dependent on its binding partner Hpo. In a cell-based RNAi screen for ubiquitin regulators involved in Sav stability, we identify the HECT domain protein Herc4 (HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ligase) as a Sav E3 ligase. Herc4 expression promotes Sav ubiquitylation and degradation, while Herc4 depletion stabilises Sav. Interestingly, Hpo reduces Sav/Herc4 interaction in a kinase-dependent manner. This suggests the existence of a positive feedback loop, where Hpo stabilises its own positive regulator by antagonising Herc4-mediated degradation of Sav. PMID:26125558

  1. Evaluation and Statistical Review of Idaho Supplementation Studies :1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Lutch, Jeffrey; Steinhorst, Kirk; Beasley, Chris

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) was developed to evaluate the utility of supplementation as a recovery tool for Snake River basin chinook salmon (Supplementation Technical Workgroup 1987), and to help define the potential role of supplementation in managing Idaho's anadromous fisheries (IDFG 1990; IDFG 1992). Supplementation as defined by the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project group is the use of artificial propagation in the attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population (RASP 1992). Poor survival has led to the decline and continued depression of upriver chinook salmon stocks due to mainstem passage and mortality factors associated with the lower Snake and Columbia river dams. Although immediate efforts should focus on alleviating the poor passage and flow conditions, supplementation may concurrently be a viable tool to meet the Northwest Power Planning Council's interim goal of doubling anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 1987) and avoiding short-term loss of spawning aggregates.

  2. The Changing Face of South Africa's National System of Innovation, 1991?2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael; Blankley, William

    2005-01-01

    The article examines changes in the South African national system of innovation (NSI) since the onset of democracy in 1994. In particular, the recently completed 2001/02 Survey of Research and Experimental Development (R&D) is used to quantify the shifts in R&D activity for the major business, government and higher education players. The major…

  3. Effects of temperature variation on suicide in five U.S. counties, 1991-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, P. G.; McDonald, A. N.; Scheitlin, K. N.; Stapleton, J. E.; Allen, J. S.; Carter, W. M.; Holley, M. R.; Inman, D. D.; Roberts, J. B.

    2007-05-01

    Effects of weather variables on suicide are well-documented, but there is still little consistency among the results of most studies. Nevertheless, most studies show a peak in suicides during the spring season, and this is often attributed to increased temperatures. The purpose of this study is to test the relationship between monthly temperature and monthly suicide, independent of months or seasons, for five counties located across the United States. Harmonic analysis shows that four of the five counties display some seasonal components in the suicide data. However, simple linear regression shows no correlation between suicide and temperature, and discriminant analysis shows that monthly departure from mean annual suicide rates is not a useful tool for identifying months with temperatures that are colder or warmer than the annual average. Therefore, it appears that the seasonality of suicides is due to factors other than temperature.

  4. Three thousand years of flank and central vent eruptions of the San Salvador volcanic complex (El Salvador) and their effects on El Cambio archeological site: a review based on tephrostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hernández, W.; Pullinger, C.; Chávez, H.; Castillo Taracena, C. R.; Cañas-Dinarte, C.

    2011-09-01

    The volcanic events of the last 3,000 years at San Salvador volcanic complex are reviewed using detailed stratigraphic records exposed in new excavations between 2005 and 2007, at El Cambio archeological site (Zapotitán Valley, El Salvador), and in other outcrops on the northern and northwestern sectors of the complex. The sequences that overlie Tierra Blanca Joven (cal. 429 ± 107 ad), from the Ilopango caldera, comprise the Loma Caldera (cal. 590 ± 90 ad) and El Playón (1658-1671) deposits and the San Andrés Tuff (cal. 1031 ± 29 ad), related to El Boquerón Volcano. The surge deposits within the El Playón, San Andrés Tuff and overlying Talpetate II sequences indicate the significance of phreatomagmatic phases in both central vent and flank eruptions during the last 1,600 years. Newly identified volcanic deposits underlying Tierra Blanca Joven at El Cambio extend the stratigraphic record of the area to 3,000 years bp. Paleosols interstratified with those deposits contain cultural artifacts which could be associated with the Middle Preclassic period (900-400 bc). If correct, human occupation of the site during the Preclassic period was more intense than previously known and volcanic eruptions must have affected prehistoric settlements. The archeological findings provide information on how prehistoric populations dealt with volcanic hazards, thousands of years ago in the eastern Zapotitán Valley, where several housing projects are currently being developed. The new stratigraphic and volcanological data can be used as a basis for local and regional hazard assessment related to future secondary vent activity in the San Salvador Volcanic Complex.

  5. Explosive and Phreatomagmatic Activity from San Salvador Volcanic Complex (El Salvador) and Their Effects on El Cambio Archaeological Site: a Review of the Last 3000 yrs. Based on Volcanic Stratigraphy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado, H.; Pullinger, C.; Castillo, R.; Chávez, H. I.

    2007-05-01

    El Cambio archeological site (ECAS; Zapotitán Valley), 4 km NW from the San Salvador Volcanic Complex comprises 3000 yrs. of pyroclastic record. Sheets (1983) identified different levels rich in cultural remains intercalated within the volcanic deposits, indicating that different prehistoric settings were affected by San Salvador volcano eruptions, and giving information on the reoccupation frequency in the area. Accordingly, ECAS was occupied since the Late Pre-Classic period until before the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera (425AD) reference, that originated the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ), pyroclastic deposits generally used as key-layer in stratigraphic reconstructions. Within the next two centuries, there is no evidence of human occupation at ECAS until the end of Late Classic which was a period of maximum splendor in the valley. During this time the area was affected by at least 3 eruptions from the San Salvador volcanic complex that produced the: Laguna Caldera volcanic fall deposits (which affected Joya de Cerén archeological site in 625AD), "Talpetate" surge deposits or Toba de San Andrés (600-900AD), and fall deposits of El Playón volcano (1658). We report new data on volcanic stratigraphy and archeological history including the following: a) the phreatomagmatic nature of eruptions that affected the area, the new excavations allowed the detailed study of surge deposits indicating magma-water interaction at Laguna Caldera and El Playón, previously considered strombolian eruptions; b)document the occupation of ECAS during Middle Pre-Classic period, new surge deposits below TBJ have been identified (with Middle Pre-Classic artifacts and pottery), that had not been documented before, extending the historic record up to 3000 yrs. BP. and c) detailed study of the "Talpetate" deposits, this sequence consists of fall, pyroclastic flow and surge deposits, present in the rim and slopes of San Salvador Volcano, which can be correlated with surge deposits

  6. Dimensions of health and social structure in the early intermediate period cemetery at Villa El Salvador, Peru.

    PubMed

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina A; Delgado, Mercedes

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines relationships between the social structure of a community and the health of its members, based on analysis of human skeletal remains (N = 64) from Villa El Salvador XII (100 BC-AD 100), a prehistoric cemetery located in the lower Lurín Valley, Peru. The ambiguity of social status as conventionally inferred from archaeological context is among the principal complicating factors in such an inquiry. We use multidimensional scaling of skeletal markers to identify the presence of patterned health-based heterogeneity in our sample, without making a priori assumptions about underlying social structure at Villa El Salvador. This procedure situates every skeleton relative to all others in the sample on the basis of multiple health markers, eliciting health groups. Once recognized, the relevance of those groups to social structure can be evaluated by comparison with a broad range of presumptive archaeological status indicators. We test the hypothesis that the distribution of stress indicators in human skeletons covaries with archaeological indicators of social differentiation. Based on multivariate analysis of skeletal indicators, we conclude that the cemetery at Villa El Salvador was utilized by two social groups with different geographic affinities: one of local coastal origin, and the other probably from the upper Lurín Valley or adjacent higher altitudes. These groups differ in skeletal characteristics related to childhood health, probably reflecting systematic contrasts in the growth environments of the studied individuals. This same division is independently supported by the distribution of cranial deformation, a possible marker of ethnicity. We also document some inequality in the distribution of labor among male individuals, as reflected by the relative advancement of degenerative joint disease, and congruent with differences in the number and quality of associated funerary offerings. PMID:16596594

  7. Is It Still a Disaster if It is Routine? A Case Study in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, T.; Rios Sanchez, M.; MacLennan, C.; Gierke, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador is among the world's highest ranked in terms of risks of natural disasters. According to a United Nations study, almost 90% of the country's territory is highly susceptible to the effects of a natural disaster and correspondingly 95% of the country's population lives within the disaster-prone regions. This high vulnerability, coupled with the country's relatively small area, has led to some paradoxical situations involving the way disaster risk is managed at the local level. One extreme example occurs annually in a small town that borders a large, shallow lake (laguna). The lake level rises by 2 to 4 meters during every year's wet season from May to October, prompting the surrounding families to temporarily relocate in response to these annual floods. A series of storms related to Tropical Depression 12E during the 2011 wet season resulted in flooding levels of nearly 5 meters. Nearly 300 households were evacuated, and a government-run emergency shelter was set up nearby. Owing to the regularity of the situation, however, not a single person needed to use the emergency shelter. Many of those who are most affected by the annual flooding will move their belongings to second homes (their own or those of relatives or friends) in advance of the wet season but remain in their flood-prone dwellings so as to be eligible to receive the aid that is sure to come when the lake level rises. Considerable funds are provided to the community for relief. This scenario occurs predictably every year. The regularity of the flooding raises questions concerning the local views on the normalcy of the flooding. To evaluate the local perceptions of flood risk, a vulnerability analysis was conducted using surveys and interviews. To better characterize the flooding risks, a hazard analysis was performed using satellite imagery and GIS. In addition to the surveys of families affected by flooding each year, the residents living in higher elevations unaffected by flooding were

  8. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries. PMID:26874326

  9. Identification of Focal Mechanisms of Seisms Occurring in the San Salvador Volcano-Ilopango Lake Area Between 1994 and March 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Mendez Martinez, Luz de; Portillo, Mercy

    2009-04-19

    We studied the geographic area located in the central part of El Salvador, between the San Salvador Volcano (Quezaltepec) and Ilopango Lake. Its latitude is between 13 deg. 36' and 13 deg. 54', and longitude is between -89 deg. 18' and -88 deg. 57'. This area is directly affected by the WNW axis, the most prominent weak tectonic system in the region. Our research aimed to determine the focal mechanisms of seisms occurring in the studied area between 1994 and March 2005. Our analysis provided information about displacement types of the geological faults, using the wave impulse P method and computer applications ARCGIS and SEISAN, with the subroutine FOCMEC. Information of the studied seisms was obtained from the National Service of Territorial Studies (SNET) database. Geographic models used in the preparation of maps are from the geographic information system of the School of Physics at the University of El Salvador. The 37 focal mechanisms on the map of faults were identified in digital seismographs to determinate the arrival polarity of the wave P for each seism station. Data from the focal mechanisms were analyzed and correlated with their replications. The analysis allowed us to identify evidences to consider the fault continuity not reported by the last geological mission in El Salvador conducted in the 1970s. The fault continuity is located northwest of the studied geographical area, between San Salvador City and the San Salvador Volcano. The compression and strain axes for this area are two main horizontal force axes. The average orientation for the strain axis is NNE-SSW, and WNW-SEE for the compression axis. There is also important seismic activity in the Ilopango Lake and surrounding area. However, data did not allow us to make any inference. The tensors distribution resulted in a high dispersion corresponding to typical fauces models.

  10. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful. PMID:26733693

  11. Thermal Monitoring of Santa Ana Volcano. El Salvador. C.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henríquez, B.; Escobar, D.; López, D.; Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Hernández, A.; Funes, R.; Benítez, E.

    2006-12-01

    The thermal regime of Santa Ana volcano has been monitored measuring temperatures in the fumaroles and the crater lake from 2002 to 2005. SNET (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales) monitored five fumaroles and the crater lake, and researchers from UES(Universidad de El Salvador) monitored two fumaroles and the soils within the crater. Temperatures measured within the crater lake indicate a 3.4 °C increase in temperature from 2002 to 2004, suggesting an increase in heat flow to the lake during that period. This increase in heat flow could be produced by new magma input to the magmatic chamber beneath the lake or the opening of new permeable conduits for the transfer of gases and heat to the surface. A continuous monitoring station within the crater soils registered an increase of temperature from 84 to 95 °C three days after a landslide within the crater ejected ash that was dispersed around the volcano (explosion around June 16, 2005). After incandescence was first observed in the crater on August 26, 2005, discrete temperature measurements on August 29, 2005 in one of the fumaroles showed an increase in temperature of 1.8 °C with respect to previous measurements. In addition, the same day, a new fumarolica zone in the SE of the crater was identified presenting high CO2 fluxes and temperatures around 60 to 70 °C. These results show increments in temperature and changes in the thermal regime of Santa Ana volcano that can be summarized as follows: a) gradual increase in the annual temperature of the lake, b) significant increment in the temperatures of fumaroles within the crater, and c) appearance of new fumaroles in the crater border. These thermal observations could be considered as possible precursory signals of the October 1st, 2005 eruption of Santa Ana volcano.

  12. Comparison of flank margin cave development on San Salvador island, Bahamas, and Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mylroie, J.; Carew, J.L.; Frank, E.F.; Larsen, Matthew C.

    1995-01-01

    Despite differences in rock age and geologic setting, both San Salvador and Isla do Mona show evidence of re-invasion of the flank margin caves by dissolutionally aggressive water following a vadose interval. The flank margin caves have very similar morphologies and characteristics, and the only major difference is attrutable to the larger lens size and the longer duration of stable lens position on Isla de Mona. The data indicate that dissolution occurs rapidly in these environments, and despite the development of large voids, the same geochemical environment can be re-established after an emergence episode. 

  13. Laurentia and Salvador-Congo: Keystone cratons in Late Proterozoic break-up of Rodinia and assembly of Gondwana supercontinents

    SciTech Connect

    Unrug, R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The break-up of Rodinia, the supercontinent assembled in the Middle Proterozoic chelogenic cycle (1.65--1.0 Ga), and the simultaneous assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent were the major tectonic events of the Neoproterozoic. Laurentia occupied a central keystone position in the configuration of Rodinia. Its break-up resulted in rearrangement of Rodinia fragments: some were incorporated in the accreting Gondwana, while Laurentia, Baltica and Siberia drifted independently. Reconstructions of the position of Laurentia in the Rodinia Supercontinent are based on two criteria. The first is the continuity of Middle Proterozoic mobile belts suturing the older cratons and the match of piercing points of the mobile belts at the post- Middle Proterozoic margins of the older cratons. The second is the similarity of sedimentary sequences along Late Proterozoic passive margins formed during break-up of Rodinia. The first criterion allows for several interpretations. The second may be invalid, as conjugate margins developing over an oblique detachment will accumulate dissimilar sedimentary sequences. In reconstructions of the Gondwana Supercontinent the recently redefined Salvador-Congo craton occupied the central keystone position, between the East Gondwana continent and a number of smaller cratons of West Gondwana. It is entirely surrounded by collisional mobile belts, all containing important transcurrent shear zone systems. The margins of the Salvador-Congo craton were facing three major Late Proterozoic oceans.

  14. Precursory Activity of the 2005 Eruption of Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, A.; Patrick, M.; Rose, W. I.; Escobar, D.; Montalvo, F.; Gutierrez, E.; Olmos, R.

    2007-12-01

    After a period of unrest, Santa Ana (Illamatepec) volcano in El Salvador erupted suddenly on October 1st, 2005 at 1420 UTC (0820 local time), ejecting its acidic crater lake and generating a gas-and-ash plume ~10 km above the volcano. The short-lived eruption (~1 hr duration) deposited ballistics and ash up to 5m thick at the crater rim and depositing ash up to 40 km to the west. Underlying phreatomagmatic deposits exposed in the crater suggest that larger eruptions of this type are characteristic of recent historic activity. In this study, precursory activity to the 2005 eruption is investigated by analyzing physical and chemical parameters of the crater lake. Data has been compiled on water chemistry, temperature, and color of the lake from direct sampling and ground observations from 2004-2007. Lake water data suggests three phases of activity: (1) constant, well constrained activity from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2004 showing SO4 ~10,000 ppm, Cl ~6000 ppm, and SO4/Cl ~1.6; (2) potential precursory activity from Jan. 2005 to Oct. 2005 expressed as a ramping up of SO4 to 11,625 ppm in May with a sudden decrease to 8250 ppm one month later, increased variability in Cl, and color change from dark coffee color to green in mid-September; and (3) post- eruption activity to present showing increasing Cl to a maximum of 22340 ppm, low SO4/Cl=0.38-0.8, an increase in temperature to 65.6 degrees C, and color change to yellowish-green). Analysis of high resolution satellite imagery from the ASTER sensor (15-90m/pixel) from 2000 to 2007 provides further information on lake size, temperature, and color. ASTER images show that the lake re-established itself further to the west after the eruption, drowning the adjacent high temperature fumarole field (max. 875 degrees C) which potentially contributed to the observed post-eruption changes in the lake. The combination of synoptic satellite-based remote sensing data with ground measurements will enhance the capabilities to recognize and

  15. Water Balance of the San Simon Groundwater Basin, El Salvador, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, M.; Lopez, D. L.; Matus, A.

    2008-05-01

    The Berlin hydrothermal field in El Salvador, Central America is located in the San Simon River Basin on the northwest slope of the Berlin-Tecapa volcanic complex, in the eastern portion of the country. This hydrothermal field, which has been exploited since 1992, is a liquid-dominated system governed by faults and caldera structures allowing infiltration and transport of meteoric fluids. San Simon River is a tributary of the Lempa River, the largest river in the country. Geophysical studies have found that the Berlin field is composed of three aquifers (Shallow, Intermediate, Deep). Exploitation involves the removal of hot fluids from the geothermal reservoir (deep aquifer) and re-injection of lower temperature fluids. This study analyzes the surficial hydrology and groundwater storage change (since exploitation) in the hydrothermal reservoir to produce a water budget. Field monitoring of springs, fumarolic activity, domestic wells, tributaries to the San Simon River, and meteorological data provide constraints on the hydrology. Springs occur in the system close to fault zones or at contacts between different lithologies. The water balance for the San Simon groundwater basin (July 2004 - June 2005) indicates that 2.51 - 3.46 E7 m3/yr of water are infiltrated to the ground, 1.30 - 1.45E7 m3/yr comprises the overland flow, 5.74 E6 m3/yr form the base flow of the San Simon River, and 1.54 E5 m3/yr is released thru the evaporation of Alegria Lake. The shallow aquifer is affected by pumping of 4.78 E6 m3/yr by the national water company. To complete the water balance of the San Simon Basin, a correlation between the composition of the fumarolic gases and the diffuse flux of soil CO2 was performed. The flux of water released from fumarolic areas was estimated at 1.48 E5 m3/yr. An analysis of the increase in chloride concentration with time in the deep aquifer and the net mass withdrawn from this aquifer allow an estimation of the decrease in storage in the hydrothermal

  16. Analyzing the Learning of the Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model within a New Physical Education Undergraduate Degree Program in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Mauro H.; Mandigo, James L.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador has an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggles nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 by universities, federal governments, a corporate sponsor, and sport associations as a program to combat youth violence…

  17. Rising from the Ashes: How the Global Education Policy of Community-Based Management Was Born from El Salvador's Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the emergence of global education policies and conflict-affected contexts by analysing the trajectory of community-level education decentralization within and beyond El Salvador from the 1980s, during the country's civil war, to the 2000s, by which point this approach to education governance was being…

  18. Jesuit Education and Social Change in El Salvador. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 1055. Garland Studies in Higher Education, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beirne, Charles J.

    This book on the University of Central America Jose Simeon Canas (UCA) in El Salvador reviews its history, its establishment, its work for social change, and the consequent 1989 assassination of six Jesuit priests and two women. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the text and a description and discussion of the November 16, 1989 assassination.…

  19. Drug use and treatment success among gang and non-gang members in El Salvador: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study’s inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as “spiritual.” Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. Results Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. Conclusions Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among

  20. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. Pereira, Pedro A.; Lopes, Wilson A.; Carvalho, Luiz S.; da Rocha, Gisele O.; de Carvalho Bahia, Nei; Loyola, Josiane; Quiterio, Simone L.; Escaleira, Viviane; Arbilla, Graciela; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as waste incineration and industrial processes, are the main anthropic sources of metals to the atmosphere. In urban areas, vehicular emissions—and dust resuspension associated to road traffic—become the most important manmade source. This work investigated the atmospheric concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and elements such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc, from three different sites around Salvador Region (Bahia, Brazil), namely: (i) Lapa Bus Station, strongly impacted by heavy-duty diesel vehicles; (ii) Aratu harbor, impacted by an intense movement of goods, including metal ores and concentrates and near industrial centers and; (iii) Bananeira Village located on Maré Island, a non-vehicle-influenced site, with activities such as handcraft work and fishery, although placed near the port. Results have pointed out that TSP concentrations ranged between 16.9 (Bananeira) and 354.0 μg m -3 (Aratu#1), while for PM 10 they ranged between 30.9 and 393.0 μg m -3, both in the Lapa Bus Station. Iron was the major element in both Lapa Station and Aratu (#1 and #2), with average concentrations in the PM 10 samples of 148.9, 79.6 and 205.0 ng m -3, respectively. Zinc, on the other hand, was predominant in samples from Bananeira, with an average concentration of 145.0 ng m -3 in TSP samples, since no PM 10 sample was taken from this site. The main sources of iron in the Lapa Station and Aratu harbor were, respectively, soil resuspension by buses and discharge of solid granaries, as fertilizers and metal ores. On the other hand, zinc and copper in the bus station were mainly from

  1. Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paploski, Igor A D; Prates, Ana Paula P B; Cardoso, Cristiane W; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M O; Waller, Lance A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5-9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30-33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome. PMID:27144515

  2. Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Paploski, Igor A.D.; Prates, Ana Paula P.B.; Cardoso, Cristiane W.; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Waller, Lance A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Kitron, Uriel

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5–9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30–33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome. PMID:27144515

  3. A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.

  4. Structural Factors Influencing Patterns of Drug Selling and Use and HIV Risk in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern. PMID:20550091

  5. [Spatial distribution of traumatic brain injury cases seen at the trauma units of reference in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Maia, Helena Fraga; Dourado, Inês; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Carvalho, Silvana Sá

    2014-08-01

    An exploratory study was performed with patients who suffered traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the period from July 31, 2007 to August 1, 2008. The spatial distribution of the TBI cases seen at the trauma unit of reference in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil was analyzed. Both the residential addresses and places of occurrence were geocoded by means of GPS receiver devices. The spatial aggregation of cases was evaluated using the nearest neighbor hierarchical clustering technique in the CrimeStat® 3.2 program. TBI cases were not randomly distributed; rather, they formed clusters in relation to both place of residence and place of occurrence of the trauma. Many of the clusters were identified in areas far removed from the locations of emergency services as well as from the locations where multi-professional rehabilitation is offered. Thus, the spatial distribution of the health services, in relation to the places of occurrence of TBI, reveals inequalities. PMID:25237801

  6. Social network based recruitment successfully reveals HIV-1 transmission networks among high risk individuals in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Ann M.; Murillo, Wendy; de Maria Hernandez, Flor; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Eron, Joseph J.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV in Central America is concentrated among certain groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). We compared social recruitment chains and HIV transmission clusters from 699 MSM and 757 FSW to better understand factors contributing to ongoing HIV transmission in El Salvador. Methods Phylogenies were reconstructed using pol sequences from 119 HIV-positive individuals recruited by respondent driven sampling (RDS) and compared to RDS chains in three cities in El Salvador. Transmission clusters with a mean pairwise genetic distance ≤0.015 and Bayesian posterior probabilities=1 were identified. Factors associated with cluster membership were evaluated among MSM. Results Sequences from 34 (43%) MSM and 4 (10%) FSW grouped in 14 transmission clusters. Clusters were defined by risk group (12 MSM clusters) and geographic residence (only one spanned separate cities). In 4 MSM clusters (all n=2), individuals were also members of the same RDS chain but only 2 had members directly linked through recruitment. All large clusters (n≥3) spanned more than one RDS chain. Among MSM, factors independently associated with cluster membership included recent infection by BED assay (P=0.02), sex with stable male partners (P=0.02), and sex with ≥3 male partners in past year (P=0.04). Conclusions We found few HIV transmissions corresponding directly with the social recruitment. However, we identified clustering in nearly one half of MSM suggesting RDS recruitment was indirectly but successfully uncovering transmission networks, particularly among recent infections. Interrogating RDS chains with phylogenetic analyses may help refine methods for identifying transmission clusters. PMID:23364512

  7. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Conclusions/Significance Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with

  8. Habitat use patterns of the invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans: a comparison between mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pimiento, Catalina; Nifong, James C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Monaco, Eric; Silliman, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific red lionfish Pterois volitans is widespread both in its native and its non-native habitats. The rapid invasion of this top predator has had a marked negative effect on fish populations in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. It is now well documented that lionfish are invading many tropical and sub-tropical habitats. However, there are fewer data available on the change in lionfish abundance over time and the variation of body size and diet across habitats. A recent study in San Salvador, Bahamas, found body size differences between individuals from mangrove and reef systems. That study further suggested that ontogenetic investigation of habitat use patterns could help clarify whether lionfish are using the mangrove areas of San Salvador as nurseries. The aim of the present study is to determine temporal trends in lionfish relative abundance in mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, and to further assess whether there is evidence suggesting an ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reef areas. Accordingly, we collected lionfish from mangrove and reef habitats and calculated catch per unit effort (a proxy for relative abundance), compared body size distributions across these two systems, and employed a combination of stable isotope, stomach content, and genetic analyses of prey, to evaluate differences in lionfish trophic interactions and habitat use patterns. Our results show that populations may have increased in San Salvador during the last 4 years, and that there is a strong similarity in body size between habitats, stark differences in prey items, and no apparent overlap in the use of habitat and/or food resources. These results suggest that there is not evidence an for ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reefs, and support other studies that propose lionfish are opportunistic forages with little movement across habitats.

  9. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Granieri, Domenico; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni B.; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is a basaltic volcano along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Volcanism is induced by the convergence of the Cocos Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate, along a 1200-km arc, extending from Guatemala to Costa Rica and parallel to the Central American Trench. The volcano is located in the eastern part of El Salvador, in proximity to the large communities of San Miguel, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. Approximately 70,000 residents, mostly farmers, live around the crater and the city of San Miguel, the second largest city of El Salvador, ten km from the summit, has a population of ~180,000 inhabitants. The Pan-American and Coastal highways cross the north and south flanks of the volcano.San Miguel volcano has produced modest eruptions, with at least 28 VEI 1-2 events between 1699 and 1967 (datafrom Smithsonian Institution http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=343100). It is characterized by visible milddegassing from a summit vent and fumarole field, and by intermittent lava flows and Strombolian activity. Since the last vigorous fire fountaining of 1976, San Miguel has only experienced small steam explosions and gas emissions, minor ash fall and rock avalanches. On 29 December 2013 the volcano erupted producing an eruption that has been classified as VEI 2. While eruptions tend to be low-VEI, the presence of major routes and the dense population in the surrounding of the volcano increases the risk that weak explosions with gas and/or ash emission may pose. In this study, we present the first inventory of SO2, CO2, HCl, and HF emission rates on San Miguel volcano, and an analysis of the hazard from volcanogenic SO2 discharged before, during, and after the December 2013 eruption. SO2 was chosen as it is amongst the most critical volcanogenic pollutants, which may cause acute and chronicle disease to humans. Data were gathered by the geochemical monitoring network managed by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

  10. Analysis of the spatial dynamics and drivers of forest cover change in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, Hector

    This work studies the changes of forest cover that have happened in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador during the period 1979-2003. Although historically the trend has been towards the loss of forest cover since colonial times, over the period of study a large increase in forest cover was detected. The main tool of evaluation was the analysis of LANDSAT satellite imagery. Images for the dates 1979, 1990-91, and 2003 were classified into forest and noon-forest land covers. Then the changes in land cover were analyzed to determine what were the social, geophysical and climatic drivers determining why and where these new forest appeared. The results indicate that there has been an overall increase in forest cover from 20% in 1979 to 43% in 2003. Although there has been extensive deforestation, this has happened mostly around the main urban centers within the basin. In the more rural and remote areas, the tendency has been towards a resurgence in forest cover. The increase in forest was found to be significantly related to remittances, inaccessibility to roads and markets, density of urban populations, poverty and the civil war of the 1980s. Among the geospatial factors that determined where deforestation and reforestation happened were distance to roads and urban centers, slope, elevation, land use capability, and irrigation potential. The results indicate that the tendency in the future will be towards further reforestation but at a slower rate. Although reforestation and deforestation happened simultaneously, there are clear differences in the spatial patterns that each of these phenomena follow. In terms of climate, it was found areas subjected to inter-annual rainfall extremes due to El Nino Southern Oscillation, particularly areas with low agricultural potential, were more likely to be abandoned and left to revert to forest than those with more stable rainfall. The results of this study support the hypothesis that El Salvador is undergoing a Forest Transition

  11. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  12. The Relative Contribution of Immigration or Local Increase for Persistence of Urban Schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Ronald E.; Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Reis, Eliana A.; Carmo, Theomira M.; dos Santos, Cláudio R. A.; Costa, Jackson M.; Aminu, Peace T.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Mitermayer G.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely. PMID:25775457

  13. Event centrality and posttraumatic outcomes in the context of pervasive violence: a study of teachers in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Roland, Ashli G; Currier, Joseph M; Rojas-Flores, Lisseth; Herrera, Sofia

    2014-05-01

    It is well established that the importance assigned to a trauma can affect one's recovery and psychological health in numerous ways. Event centrality is an increasingly popular construct that captures the tendency among survivors to reevaluate and possibly accommodate their worldviews posttrauma. The centrality given to trauma appears to serve as a "double-edged sword" in that this construct might factor prominently in both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Focusing on 257 violence-exposed teachers from educational departments throughout El Salvador, we examined whether the centrality assigned by the teachers to stressful life events uniquely predicted both PTSD symptomatology and PTG. Results revealed that event centrality was positively related to both PTSD and PTG, even when controlling for demographic factors, violence exposure, and depression. In addition, PTSD symptomatology and PTG were not associated with one another in this sample. In summary, these findings support the role of event centrality as a contributing factor for PTSD and PTG among persons exposed to pervasive trauma. PMID:24033152

  14. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meats and prepared foods in public hospitals in salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Wellington Luis Reis; Ferreira, Jeane dos Santos; Carvalho, Joelza Silva; Cerqueira, Ellayne Souza; Oliveira, Lucimara Cardoso; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw meat and fish and foods prepared from them for patient consumption in public hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. A total of 114 samples of raw meat and fish (chicken, n = 30; beef, n = 30; pork, n = 24; and fish, n = 30) and 63 samples of prepared foods (made with chicken, n = 15; beef, n = 15; pork, n = 15; and fish, n = 18) were collected from the kitchens of 10 different hospitals. Of the 114 investigated raw meat and fish samples, 28.1% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 23.3% beef, 23.3% chicken, 37.5% pork, and 30% fish samples. Of the prepared foods, 9.5% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 5.6% chicken products, 6.7% pork products, and 22.2% fish products. MRSA contamination was not detected in prepared beef dishes. A statistical analysis showed no association between the presence of MRSA and the type of raw food (P > 0.05). The high prevalence of MRSA among the raw foods tested and the presence of the microorganism in prepared foods emphasizes the necessity of enforcing hygienic practices within hospital kitchens. PMID:25472504

  15. Fault kinematics in northern Central America and coupling along the subduction interface of the Cocos Plate, from GPS data in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Kostoglodov, V.; Molina, E.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Monterosso, D.; Robles, V.; Figueroa, C.; Amaya, W.; Barrier, E.; Chiquin, L.; Moran, S.; Flores, O.; Romero, J.; Santiago, J. A.; Manea, M.; Manea, V. C.

    2012-06-01

    New GPS measurements in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador are used to constrain the fault kinematics in the North America (NA), Caribbean (CA) and Cocos (CO) plates triple junction area. The regional GPS velocity field is first analysed in terms of strain partitioning across the major volcano-tectonic structures, using elastic half-space modelling, then inverted through a block model. We show the dominant role of the Motagua Fault with respect to the Polochic Fault in the accommodation of the present-day deformation associated with the NA and CA relative motion. The NA/CA motion decreases from 18-22 mm yr-1 in eastern Guatemala to 14-20 mm yr-1 in central Guatemala (assuming a uniform locking depth of 14-28 km), down to a few millimetres per year in western Guatemala. As a consequence, the western tip of the CA Plate deforms internally, with ≃9 mm yr-1 of east-west extension (≃5 mm yr-1 across the Guatemala city graben alone). Up to 15 mm yr-1 of dextral motion can be accommodated across the volcanic arc in El Salvador and southeastern Guatemala. The arc seems to mark the northern boundary of an independent forearc sliver (AR), pinned to the NA plate. The inversion of the velocity field shows that a four-block (NA, CA, CO and AR) model, that combines relative block rotations with elastic deformation at the block boundaries, can account for most of the GPS observations and constrain the overall kinematics of the active structures. This regional modelling also evidences lateral variations of coupling at the CO subduction interface, with a fairly high-coupling (≃0.6) offshore Chiapas and low-coupling (≃0.25) offshore Guatemala and El Salvador.

  16. Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in San Salvador: Correlates and Sexual Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Erin; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John

    2015-08-01

    High rates of heavy alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been linked to increased vulnerability for HIV and poor mental health. While theories explaining elevated drinking levels among sexual minorities have been forwarded, few investigations have assessed the potential pathways using empirical data, particularly with an explicit focus on self-stigma and among MSM and TW in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the relationship between stigma-related stress (specifically, self-stigma and concealment of one's sexual orientation) and binge drinking in a sample of MSM and TW (n = 670) in San Salvador, El Salvador, recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Levels of alcohol consumption among participants were high: only 39 % of the sample did not drink alcohol or did not binge drink, while 34 % engaged in binge drinking at least weekly. Among MSM, high self-stigma was associated with binge drinking at least weekly (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.1, p < 0.05). No such relationship was found with less than weekly binge drinking. Among both MSM and TW, having a female partner was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 3.3, p < 0.05) and binge drinking at least weekly (aRRR = 3.4, p < 0.05), while disclosure of sexual orientation to multiple types of people was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 2.9 for disclosure to one-two types of people, p < 0.01; aRRR = 4.0 for disclosure to three-nine types of people, p < 0.01). No such relationship was found with at least weekly binge drinking. Binge drinking at least weekly was marginally associated with a number of sexual health outcomes, including high number of lifetime partners (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, p < 0.10), inconsistent condom use with a non-regular partner (aOR = 0.5, p < 0.10), and decreased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months (a

  17. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  18. Earthquakes and Volcanic Processes at San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador, Determined from a Small, Temporary Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, S.; Schiek, C. G.; Zeiler, C. P.; Velasco, A. A.; Hurtado, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The San Miguel volcano lies within the Central American volcanic chain in eastern El Salvador. The volcano has experienced at least 29 eruptions with Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI) of 2. Since 1970, however, eruptions have decreased in intensity to an average of VEI 1, with the most recent eruption occurring in 2002. Eruptions at San Miguel volcano consist mostly of central vent and phreatic eruptions. A critical challenge related to the explosive nature of this volcano is to understand the relationships between precursory surface deformation, earthquake activity, and volcanic activity. In this project, we seek to determine sub-surface structures within and near the volcano, relate the local deformation to these structures, and better understand the hazard that the volcano presents in the region. To accomplish these goals, we deployed a six station, broadband seismic network around San Miguel volcano in collaboration with researchers from Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET). This network operated continuously from 23 March 2007 to 15 January 2008 and had a high data recovery rate. The data were processed to determine earthquake locations, magnitudes, and, for some of the larger events, focal mechanisms. We obtained high precision locations using a double-difference approach and identified at least 25 events near the volcano. Ongoing analysis will seek to identify earthquake types (e.g., long period, tectonic, and hybrid events) that occurred in the vicinity of San Miguel volcano. These results will be combined with radar interferometric measurements of surface deformation in order to determine the relationship between surface and subsurface processes at the volcano.

  19. El Niño, Climate, and Cholera Associations in Piura, Peru, 1991-2001: A Wavelet Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Iván J; Grady, Sue C

    2016-03-01

    In Peru, it was hypothesized that epidemic cholera in 1991 was linked to El Niño, the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. While previous studies demonstrated an association in 1997-1998, using cross-sectional data, they did not assess the consistency of this relationship across the decade. Thus, how strong or variable an El Niño-cholera relationship was in Peru or whether El Niño triggered epidemic cholera early in the decade remains unknown. In this study, wavelet and mediation analyses were used to characterize temporal patterns among El Niño, local climate variables (rainfall, river discharge, and air temperature), and cholera incidence in Piura, Peru from 1991 to 2001 and to estimate the mediating effects of local climate on El Niño-cholera relationships. The study hypothesis is that El Niño-related connections with cholera in Piura were transient and interconnected via local climate pathways. Overall, our findings provide evidence that a strong El Niño-cholera link, mediated by local hydrology, existed in the latter part of the 1990s but found no evidence of an El Niño association in the earlier part of the decade, suggesting that El Niño may not have precipitated cholera emergence in Piura. Further examinations of cholera epicenters in Peru are recommended to support these results in Piura. For public health planning, the results may improve existing efforts that utilize El Niño monitoring for preparedness during future climate-related extremes in the region. PMID:26832694

  20. Asthma Hospitalization Rates among Children, and School Building Conditions, by New York State School Districts, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Erin; Kielb, Christine; Lin, Shao

    2006-01-01

    School-age children spend a significant portion of their day at school where they can be exposed to asthma triggers, but little information exists regarding potential relationships between childhood asthma and school environmental factors. This study examined patterns of asthma hospitalization and possible factors contributing to asthma…

  1. Intracranial haemorrhages in French haemophilia patients (1991-2001): clinical presentation, management and prognosis factors for death.

    PubMed

    Stieltjes, N; Calvez, T; Demiguel, V; Torchet, M F; Briquel, M E; Fressinaud, E; Claeyssens, S; Coatmelec, B; Chambost, H

    2005-09-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is known to be a severe although uncommon complication of haemophilia. A national survey has been conducted in France in order to collect information about ICHs which occurred in haemophiliacs between 1991 and 2001 and to propose recommendations for the diagnostic and treatment of ICH. Within this period, 123 episodes of ICH were recorded from 106 patients. Two-thirds of ICH concerned patients with severe haemophilia. Half of the cases occurred in patients under 15 years of age, 67.2% of which were post-traumatic. Ten cases occurred in neonates with three fatal outcomes. Overall mortality was high (21.9%) suggesting that availability of clotting factor concentrates has not improved the prognosis of this event. Morbidity was also high with 60% of long-term sequelae. The following parameters have been identified as prognostic factors for death: thrombocytopenia, HCV infection, intraventricular or intraparenchymatous haemorrhage. A delay in diagnosis was mentioned in 43.3% of cases, often related to the lack of recognition of the initial symptoms, which may be very common (apathy, tearfulness in young children and headache in elder patients). Delayed replacement therapy was recorded in 37.2% of cases. Emergency units initially dealt with half of these patients. Information concerning recognition and management of these episodes, not only in severe haemophilia, but also in moderate and mild forms, should be regularly supplied to paediatricians in maternity and physicians from emergency units, as well as to patients and their relatives. PMID:16128887

  2. Effects of Habitat Characteristics and Water Quality on Macroinvertebrate Communities along the Neversink Riverin Southeastern New York, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.; Carter, James L.; Lester, Gary T.

    2008-01-01

    The Neversink River, in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State, feeds the Neversink Reservoir, which diverts 85 percent of the river?s flow to New York City. Acidification of several headwater reaches has affected macroinvertebrate assemblages throughout the river system above the reservoir, and the alteration of flow conditions below the reservoir dam has affected macroinvertebrate assemblages for at least 10 kilometers downstream from the reservoir. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, compiled data from 30 stream reaches to quantify the effects of acidification and of the reservoir on the structure and function of macroinvertebrate assemblages throughout the Neversink River. Acidic headwater reaches supported greater numbers of acid-tolerant chironomid taxa and fewer numbers of acid-sensitive Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera than neutral reaches, and fewer scraper individuals and more shredder individuals. The 14 reaches below the reservoir, with sharply decreased flows and altered flow patterns compared to reaches above the reservoir, supported more Chironomidae and fewer Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera than the upper reaches; they also had greater numbers of shredder individuals and fewer scraper and filterer individuals than reaches above the reservoir. Water-quality variables such as pH and aluminum concentration appear to have affected macroinvertebrate assemblages more strongly in the headwaters than below the reservoir, whereas physical-habitat variables such as mean channel width and water temperature have affected these assemblages more strongly downstream from the reservoir than in the headwaters. The water-quality changes due to acidification, combined with the decreased flows and lowered water temperatures below the reservoir, have disrupted downstream continuum of macroinvertebrate communities that would normally be observed from the headwaters to the mouth. The information presented herein provides a basis for further evaluation of the Neversink and similar river systems, and for assessment of the effectiveness of future conservation efforts.

  3. Vulnerability in the context of HIV and syphilis infection in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila D; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2015-05-01

    Social, individual, and programmatic vulnerability of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the context of the HIV epidemic and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a reality in many countries. The survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis in Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities selected 383 MSM in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) technique. Individual vulnerability early sexual initiation (51%), average of eight sex partners, and unprotected receptive anal sex with casual (32%) and steady partners (45%) and positive rapid tests HIV (6.5%) and syphilis (9%). Social vulnerability young adults (80%), black race/skin color (91%), mean monthly family income of BRL 1,000.00, and personal history of discrimination (57%). Programmatic factors no previous HIV test (63%) and no access to lubricant gel (88%). The study showed a profile of vulnerability and the urgent need for interventions and STI prevention in the MSM population in Salvador, in addition to high prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis. PMID:26083178

  4. Using Peer-Referral Chains with Incentives to Promote HIV Testing and Identify Undiagnosed HIV Infections Among Crack Users in San Salvador.

    PubMed

    Glasman, Laura R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Lechuga, Julia; Tarima, Sergey; Bodnar, Gloria; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas

    2016-06-01

    In El Salvador, crack users are at high risk for HIV but they are not targeted by efforts to promote early HIV diagnosis. We evaluated the promise of peer-referral chains with incentives to increase HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infections among networks of crack users in San Salvador. For 14 months, we offered HIV testing in communities with a high prevalence of crack use. For the following 14 months, we promoted chains in which crack users from these communities referred their peers to HIV testing and received a small monetary incentive. We recorded the monthly numbers of HIV testers, and their crack use, sexual risk behaviors and test results. After launching the referral chains, the monthly numbers of HIV testers increased significantly (Z = 6.90, p < .001) and decayed more slowly (Z = 5.93, p < .001), and the total number of crack-using testers increased nearly fourfold. Testers in the peer-referral period reported fewer HIV risk behaviors, but a similar percentage (~5 %) tested HIV positive in both periods. More women than men received an HIV-positive diagnosis throughout the study (χ(2)(1, N = 799) = 4.23, p = .040). Peer-referral chains with incentives can potentially increase HIV testing among networks of crack users while retaining a focus on high-risk individuals. PMID:26687093

  5. The 2012 August 27 Mw7.3 El Salvador earthquake: expression of weak coupling on the Middle America subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter C.; DeMets, Charles; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Mattioli, Glen S.; Rogers, Robert; Rodriguez, Manuel; Marroquin, Griselda; Tenorio, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Subduction zones exhibit variable degrees of interseismic coupling as resolved by inversions of geodetic data and analyses of seismic energy release. The degree to which a plate boundary fault is coupled can have profound effects on its seismogenic behaviour. Here we use GPS measurements to estimate co- and post-seismic deformation from the 2012 August 27, Mw7.3 megathrust earthquake offshore El Salvador, which was a tsunami earthquake. Inversions of estimated coseismic displacements are in agreement with published seismically derived source models, which indicate shallow (<20 km depth) rupture of the plate interface. Measured post-seismic deformation in the first year following the earthquake exceeds the coseismic deformation. Our analysis indicates that the post-seismic deformation is dominated by afterslip, as opposed to viscous relaxation, and we estimate a post-seismic moment release one to eight times greater than the coseismic moment during the first 500 d, depending on the relative location of coseismic versus post-seismic slip on the plate interface. We suggest that the excessive post-seismic motion is characteristic for the El Salvador-Nicaragua segment of the Central American margin and may be a characteristic of margins hosting tsunami earthquakes.

  6. Numerical modelling of rapid, flow-like landslides across 3-D terrains: a Tsunami Squares approach to El Picacho landslide, El Salvador, September 19, 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiajia; Ward, Steven N.; Xiao, Lili

    2015-06-01

    Flow-like landslides are rapidly moving fluid-solid mixtures that can cause significant destruction along paths that run far from their original sources. Existing models for run out prediction and motion simulation of flow-like landslides have many limitations. In this paper, we develop a new method named `Tsunami Squares' to simulate the generation, propagation and stoppage of flow-like landslides based on conservation of volume and momentum. Landslide materials in the new method form divisible squares that are displaced, then further fractured. The squares move under the influence of gravity-driven acceleration and suffer decelerations due to basal and dynamic frictions. Distinctively, this method takes into account solid and fluid mechanics, particle interactions and flow regime transitions. We apply this approach to simulate the 1982 El Picacho landslide in San Salvador, capital city of El Salvador. Landslide products from Tsunami Squares such as run out distance, velocities, erosion and deposition depths and impacted area agree well with field investigated and eyewitness data.

  7. Tectonic interpretation of the 13 february 2001, mw 6.6, El Salvador Earthquake: New evidences of coseismic surface rupture and paleoseismic activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Canora, C.; Villamor, P.; Capote, R.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Berryman, K.; Bejar, M.; Tsige, M.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2001 a major strike slip earthquake stroke the central part of El Salvador causing hundreds of people killed, thousands injured and extensive damage. After this event the scientific effort was mainly focused on the study of the enormous and catastrophic landslides triggered by this event and no evidences of surface faulting were detected. This earthquake was produced by the reactivation of the Ilopango-San Vicente segment of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Recently, a surface rupture displacement on the ground was identified. The analysis of aerial and field photographs taken few hours after the event and the mapping of the conserved ground structures shows a pure strike-slip displacement ranging from 20 to 50 cm, with secondary features indicating dextral shearing. The paleoseismic analysis made through the excavation of six trenches and Radiocarbon dating indicate a minimum slip rate of 2.0 mm/yr and a recurrence of major ruptures (Mw > 6.5) lower than 500 yr. These evidences give interesting local data to increase our understanding about the tectonic behavior and the way how active deformation develops along the northern limit of the forearc sliver related to the Centroamerican subduction area.

  8. Osteoporosis-related life habits and knowledge about osteoporosis among women in El Salvador: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Rauda, Roberto; Martinez-Garcia, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder, characterized by reduced bone mass, deterioration of bone structure, increased bone fragility, and increased fracture risk. It is more frequent to find among women than men at a 4:1 ratio. Evidence suggests that to adopt changes on some life habits can prevent or delay development of osteoporosis. Several osteoporosis-risk factors have been confirmed in the US and western Europe, but in El Salvador there are neither reliable epidemiological statistics about this skeletal disorder nor studies addressing osteoporosis-risk factors in women. The aim of this study was to determinate the extent of osteoporosis knowledge, the levels of both daily calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity, and the influence of several osteoporosis-risk factors on these variables in three age groups of Salvadorean women. Methods In this exploratory cross-sectional study, an osteoporosis knowledge assessment questionnaire incluiding a food frequency and a physical activity record section were used to collect data and it was delivered through a face-to-face interview. A convenience sample (n = 197) comprised of three groups of women aged 25–35 years, 36–49 years, and over 49 years was taken. Among-group comparisons of means were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. To determinate the overall influence of osteoporosis-risk factors, the multivariate analysis was used. Results Study results indicated that better educated women had more knowledge about osteoporosis than women with a low education level, regardless of age, even though this knowledge was rather fair. Older women got more weight-bearing physical activity at home and less at place of employment than reported by the younger women; however, neither group performed sufficient high-intensity WBPA to improve bone mass. Regardless of age, the most women consumed 60% or less than the Dietary Reference Intake of calcium and depend on household income, lactose intolerance and coffee

  9. A descriptive study of youth risk behavior in urban and rural secondary school students in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E; Selwyn, BJ; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-01-01

    Background Adolescence is an important stage of life for establishing healthy behaviors, attitudes, and lifestyles that contribute to current and future health. Health risk behavior is one indicator of health of young people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well as a target for health policies and programs. This study examined the prevalence and distribution of youth health risk behaviors from five risk behavior domains–aggression, victimization, depression and suicidal ideation, substance use, and sexual behaviors–among public secondary school students in central El Salvador. Methods We employed a multi-stage sampling design in which school districts, schools, and classrooms were randomly selected. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire based on the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Sixteen schools and 982 students aged 12–20 years participated in the study. Results Health risk behaviors with highest prevalence rates included: engagement in physical fight (32.1%); threatened/injured with a weapon (19.9%); feelings of sadness/hopelessness (32.2%); current cigarette use (13.6%); and no condom use at last sexual intercourse (69.1%). Urban and male students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of most youth risk behaviors; female students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of feelings of sadness/hopelessness (35.6%), suicidal ideation (17.9%) and, among the sexually experienced, forced sexual intercourse (20.6%). Conclusion A high percentage of Salvadoran adolescents in this sample engaged in health risk behaviors, warranting enhanced adolescent health promotion strategies. Future health promotion efforts should target: the young age of sexual intercourse as well as low condom use among students, the higher prevalence of risk behaviors among urban students, and the important gender differences in risk behaviors, including the higher

  10. Implications of different digital elevation models and preprocessing techniques to delineate debris flow inundation hazard zones in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy rains and steep, volcanic slopes in El Salvador cause numerous landslides every year, posing a persistent threat to the population, economy and environment. Although potential debris inundation hazard zones have been delineated using digital elevation models (DEMs), some disparities exist between the simulated zones and actual affected areas. Moreover, these hazard zones have only been identified for volcanic lahars and not the shallow landslides that occur nearly every year. This is despite the availability of tools to delineate a variety of landslide types (e.g., the USGS-developed LAHARZ software). Limitations in DEM spatial resolution, age of the data, and hydrological preprocessing techniques can contribute to inaccurate hazard zone definitions. This study investigates the impacts of using different elevation models and pit filling techniques in the final debris hazard zone delineations, in an effort to determine which combination of methods most closely agrees with observed landslide events. In particular, a national DEM digitized from topographic sheets from the 1970s and 1980s provide an elevation product at a 10 meter resolution. Both natural and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain limit the accuracy of current landslide hazard assessments derived from this source. Global products from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER GDEM) offer more recent data but at the cost of spatial resolution. New data derived from the NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in 2013 provides the opportunity to update hazard zones at a higher spatial resolution (approximately 6 meters). Hydrological filling of sinks or pits for current hazard zone simulation has previously been achieved through ArcInfo spatial analyst. Such hydrological processing typically only fills pits and can lead to drastic modifications of original elevation values

  11. Initial Analysis of Inner Crater Eruptive Deposits and Modeling of the 2005 Eruption of Ilamatepec (Santa Ana) Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2011-12-01

    The October 1st, 2005 eruption of Ilamatepec Volcano, also known as Santa Ana Volcano in El Salvador, Central America, was a relatively small phreatic possibly phreatomagmatic eruption that generated an approximately 10km high ash column, with a volume of 1.5 million cubic meters. It generated small pyroclastic density currents, and shortly after the eruption a hot lahar. All of these volcanic products present grat danger to the surrounding population and the surrounding fertile lands growing coffe and sugar cane, the major export products. To better understand the eruptive behavior of this active composite volcano, older deposits need to be studied. An initial analysis of the inner crater eruptive deposits was undertaken in 2011. The many layers that can be seen within the crater suggest that Santa Ana volcano alternates its eruptions from phreatic to phreatomagmatic to magmatic, back to phreatomagmatic to phreatic with a period of rest in between. The last magmatic eruption of the Santa Ana Volcano took place in 1904. There are some historical records of it, and the scoracious materials and lava flows can still be well traced on the flanks and the crater of Ilamatepec, while the 2005 eruption has been eroded away in most areas of the flanks. Observations and data collected in 2005 and 2011 indicate that pyroclastic density currents went not only to the Southeastern flanks of the volcano, but also towards the Northwestern flanks, an area behind the highest rim of the volcano. Deposits up to 0.5 m were found in 2011, after significant erosion already had taken place. We present here the partial stratigraphic column taken within the inner crater walls that indicate alternating eruption styles from eruptions well pre-1904, with radiocarbon dating pending. Additionally, we show the results of the modeling of pyroclastic deposits, and lahars using Titan2D on DEMs extracted from the only topographic map (pre-1980) which has a 10 m resolution of the volcano, and a DEM

  12. Study of the Contribution of Population Education to Educational Renewal and Innovation in El Salvador, The Republic of Korea, Philippines and Tunisia. Co-ordinated Action Programme for the Advancement of Population Education (CAPAPE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Population Education Section.

    Presented are four national case studies carried out by the Population Education Section of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (Unesco). Designed to assess the effects of population education programs on the educational process, these research projects focused on El Salvador, The Republic of Korea, Philippines,…

  13. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention. PMID:26648372

  14. Analysis of rainfall-triggered landslide hazards through the dynamic integration of remotely sensed, modeled and in situ environmental factors in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric Ross

    Landslides pose a persistent threat to El Salvador's population, economy and environment. Government officials share responsibility in managing this hazard by alerting populations when and where landslides may occur as well as developing and enforcing proper land use and zoning practices. This thesis addresses gaps in current knowledge between identifying precisely when and where slope failures may initiate and outlining the extent of the potential debris inundation areas. Improvements on hazard maps are achieved by considering a series of environmental variables to determine causal factors through spatial and temporal analysis techniques in Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing. The output is a more dynamic tool that links high resolution geomorphic and hydrological factors to daily precipitation. Directly incorporable into existing decision support systems, this allows for better disaster management and is transferable to other developing countries.

  15. Use of strontium isotopes to constrain the timing and mode of dolomitization of upper Cenozoic sediments in a core from San Salvador, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swart, Peter K.; Ruiz, Joaquin; Holmes, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and the activity ratios of 234U/238U and 230Th/238U have been measured in dolomites from a 168-m-deep core taken on the island of San Salvador, Bahamas. These data suggest two periods of dolomitization. The first episode dolomitized Miocene age sediments during the latest Miocene, and the second dolomitized the Pliocene portion of the core and was still active as recently as 150 ka. The late timing of the second episode argues against penecontemporaneous models of dolomitization for the Pliocene sediments. Instead, dolomitization is favored either as a result of mixing-zone development during the large Pleistocene sea-level changes or by movement of seawater through the platform.

  16. High cadmium residues observed during a pilot study in shorebirds and their prey downstream from the El Salvador copper mine, Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeer, K. ); Castilla, J.C. )

    1991-02-01

    Untreated mining wastes, at the rate of 39,000 tons per day, are discharged through a semi-artificial canal directly to the marine shore from the El Salvador copper mine in northern Chile. The tailings were deposited on a sandy beach near Chanaral between 1938 and 1974 and since 1975 at Caleta Palito, 8 km north of Chanaral. Since no chemical analyses of marine organisms have been conducted along the 20 km beach area contaminated with tailings, a pilot study was initiated in the last weeks of November 1981 and March 1982 to determine cadmium and copper residues in discharged mine tailings on the beach deposits, algae, marine invertebrates, shorebirds and prey from their stomachs. The results of the analyses are presented here.

  17. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José

    2013-04-01

    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  18. Prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Wendy; Lorenzana de Rivera, Ivette; Albert, Jan; Guardado, María Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    Transmitted drug resistance has important implications for the successful use and management of therapy among persons infected with HIV. We estimated the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in 145 samples from female sex workers (n = 47) and men who have sex with men (n = 98) in El Salvador. Samples were collected during March to September 2008, using a respondent driven sampling. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced to identify drug resistance mutations and transmitted drug resistance was scored as recommended by World Health Organization. Specimens were classified as recent or established infections using the Immunoglobulin G-Capture BED-Enzyme Immunoassay. The overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was 9.4% (95% CI: 4.7-16.1%), and was 5.9% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 4.2% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 0.8% for protease inhibitors. Transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 10.3% (95% CI: 2.8-24.2%) among female sex workers, and 9.0% (95% CI: 3.6-17.6%) among men who have sex with men. Nineteen patients were classified as having recent infection (16.2%, 95% CI: 10.1-24.2%), while 98 patients (83.8%, 95% CI: 75.8-89.9%) were classified as having established infections. Transmitted drug resistance among recent and established infections was similar at 10.5% and 9.2%, respectively. This study shows that the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance is moderate among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador. These results highlight the importance of transmitted drug resistance surveillance in a representative sample of recently infected patients following the World Health Organization guidelines. PMID:22930496

  19. Re-Os geochronology of the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile: Tracking analytical improvements in accuracy and precision over the past decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly J.; Morgan, John W.; Markey, Richard J.; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-04-01

    Sulfide minerals from the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile, were dated by Re-Os geochronology to clarify the timing and duration of mineralization. As these data are collected over the past 10 years, they chronicle the evolution of Re-Os analytical procedures and improvements in spike-sample equilibration, mass spectrometry and data reduction. Included in the data is the first tennantite-pyrite Re-Os isochron along with tennantite-enargite-pyrite Os tracing of ore metals based on initial osmium systematics (187Os/188Osi). Porphyry-associated mineralization follows the traditional early (A), transitional (B), and late (D) stage classification of relative timing of vein formation. Most Cu- and Mo-bearing sulfides were deposited during stages A and B. Field relationships clearly show the B-stage veins are older than the D-stage veins. Samples analyzed with Carius tube digestion and mixed-double spike indicate B-stage molybdenite mineralization between 41.8 and 41.2 Ma. These ages best represent the timing of main-stage mineralization at El Salvador. A five-point 187Re-187Os isochron for pyrite-tennantite from the latest D-stage veins yields an age of 42.37 ± 0.45 Ma. The isochron age, while older, is within error of early analyses of molybdenite by alkaline fusion digestion using single Re and Os spikes (42.4-42.0 Ma). A separate pyrite and tennantite-enargite pair containing significant common Os yields an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.134 ± 0.042, compatible with a predominantly mantle origin. We appreciate the early analyses for their historical significance while emphasize the geological implications of the 41.8-41.2 Ma molybdenite ages. Temperature estimates by sulfur thermometry and fluid inclusions are 390-510 °C for the B-stage molybdenites and 230-240 °C for the latest D-stage pyrite and tennantite. Analyses based on Carius tube digestion and updated spike calibrations suggest a ∼0.6 m.y. duration (∼41.8 to 41.2 Ma) in-line with published

  20. Factors associated with HIV infection among a respondent-driven sample of men who have sex with men in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra; Kerr, Ligia; Amorim, Leila Denise; Dourado, Inês

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect men who have sex with men (MSM); therefore, we investigated the sociodemographic, biological, and sexual behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection in the city of Salvador, Bahia. This study is part of the national survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among men who have sex with men in 10 Brazilian Cities, which is a cross-sectional survey whose participants were selected by means of the respondent-driven sampling. Exact logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of potential risk factors with HIV infection due to an HIV prevalence lower than 10% and a small sample size (383). The prevalence of HIV was 6.3% (95%CI 3.9-8.8) and the risk factors associated with HIV infection in our adjusted final model included having never been tested for syphilis (OR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.3 - 7.3) and having more than eight sexual partners (OR = 3.3; 95%CI 1.4 - 8.1). This study highlights the high prevalence of HIV among MSM in the sample compared with the general population and confirms the importance of testing for syphilis in the context of the HIV epidemic as early detection may provide opportunities to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:27532750

  1. The deep-water species of Halimeda Lamouroux (Halimedaceae, Chlorophyta) from San Salvador Island, Bahamas: species composition, distribution and depth records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Stephen M.; Norris, James N.

    1988-03-01

    Caribbean species of Halimeda from the steep slopes of San Salvador Island, Bahamas, were collected along vertical transects between 25 and 255 m, on the northeast, northwest, west, southwest and south sides of the island, using the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's submersible Johnson Sea Link I. The characteristics delineating species (segment and utricle size) were assessed for selected species, and the depth and western Atlantic distributions of the species reviewed. Halimeda copiosa was found to show a variation of surface utricle diameter with depth, with the deeper plants having 15% larger diameter utricles than the shallower plants. Of the seven species, one variety and one form of Halimeda studied from our submersible dive sites, H. copiosa, H. cryptica and H. gracilis grew to the greatest depths, from 120 to 150-m depths. H. lacrimosa var. globosa was found growing to 91 m, and H. tuna f. platydisca and H. discoidea to a depth of 73 m. Those of lesser depth, to 61 m, were H. goreauii, H. tuna f. tuna and H. lacrimosa var. lacrimosa. These represent substantial increases in depth distribution of the nine taxa found.

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306

  3. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rosangela de Castro; Siqueira, Marilda Agudo Mendonça; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Bastos, Jacione Silva; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria; Vilas-Boas, Ana Luisa; Bouzas, Maiara Lana; Motta, Fernando do Couto; Brites, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1)pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7%) specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74%) and A(H1N1)pdm09 in 9/34 (26%). Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8%) and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467). No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures. PMID:24714967

  4. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rosangela de Castro; Siqueira, Marilda Agudo Mendonça; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Bastos, Jacione Silva; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria; Vilas-Boas, Ana Luisa; Bouzas, Maiara Lana; Motta, Fernando do Couto; Brites, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1)pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7%) specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74%) and A(H1N1)pdm09 in 9/34 (26%). Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8%) and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467). No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures. PMID:24714967

  5. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granieri, Domenico; Salerno, Giuseppe; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael R.; Papale, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    San Miguel volcano, El Salvador, erupted on 29 December 2013, after a 46 year period characterized by weak activity. Prior to the eruption a trend of increasing SO2 emission rate was observed, with all values measured after mid-November greater than the average value of the previous year (~310 t d-1). During the eruption, SO2 emissions increased from the level of ~330 t d-1 to 2200 t d-1, dropping after the eruption to an average level of 680 t d-1. Wind measurements and SO2 emission rates during the preeruptive, syneruptive, and posteruptive stages were used to model SO2 dispersion around the volcano. Atmospheric SO2 concentration exceeded the dangerous threshold of 5 ppm in the crater region and in some sectors with medium elevation of the highly visited volcanic cone. Combining the SO2 emission rate with measured CO2/SO2, HCl/SO2, and HF/SO2 plume gas ratios, we estimate the CO2, HCl, and HF outputs for the first time on this volcano.

  6. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  7. Fidelity of rocky intertidal mollusks in subtidal death assemblages to their counterpart life assemblages: a case study in San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2016-04-01

    Rocky shores preserved in the geological record were rarely reported until a couple of decades ago. Even today, most of the literature focuses on bioerosional features in these high-energy environments due to their higher fossilization potential relative to shell material. Hard parts of taxa adapted to intertidal rocky shores may be preserved as allochthonous material in death assemblages (DAs) formed in adjacent shallow subtidal habitats due to lateral mixing. To test if life assemblages (LAs) of rocky intertidal mollusks (RIM) are faithfully recorded in shallow subtidal DAs, two ~30 m long transects across a proximal-distal gradient were studied on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. These transects encompass a proximal ripple field which grades into a facies dominated by green algae, and a distal ripple field. A total of 22 bulk samples, representing 155 liters of sediment, were wet-sieved with a 2-mm mesh. The samples yielded 528 RIM shells representing 15 species. Unexpectedly, abundance and compositional similarity of RIM shells to counterpart LAs sharply peaks along a belt of lag deposits of coarse sands fringing proximal ripple fields, in transition to green algae communities. These results suggest that, although a substantial transport of intertidal shells takes place in shallow subtidal environments, the signal is diluted in background sediment composition even in close proximity to the shore (30 m), and significant concentrations (loosely packed) of RIM shells in subtidal DAs might be used as a proxy to pinpoint past rocky intertidal environments.

  8. I/S and C/S mixed layers, some indicators of recent physical-chemical changes in active geothermal systems: The case study of Chipilapa (El Salvador)

    SciTech Connect

    Beaufort, D.; Papapanagiotou, P.; patrier, P.; Fouillac, A.M.; Traineau, H.

    1996-01-24

    I/S and C/S mixed layers from the geothermal field of Chipilapa (El Salvador) have been studied in details in order to reevaluate their potential use as indicator of the thermodynamic conditions in which they were formed. It is funded that overprinting of clay bearing alteration stages is common. For a given alteration stage, the spatial variation of I/S and C/S mixed layer ininerals is controlled by kinetics of mixed layer transformation and not only by temperature. Clay geo-thermometers cannot give reliable results because the present crystal-chemical states of the I/S and C/S mixed layers is not their initial state, it was aquired during the overall hydrothermal history which post dated the nucleation of smectitic clay material at high temperature. Occurrences of smectites or smectite-rich mixed layers at high temperature in reservoirs is a promising guide for reconstruct the zones in which boiling or mixing of non isotherinal fluids occurred very recently or still presently.

  9. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  10. [Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Drummont, Patrícia; Silva, Fabiana O da; Viana, Blandina F

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap-nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 degrees 01' W e 38 degrees 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased (chi2 = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cells partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n = 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. PMID:18641893

  11. The He-CO 2 isotope and relative abundance characteristics of geothermal fluids in El Salvador and Honduras: New constraints on volatile mass balance of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G. A. M.; Hilton, D. R.; Fischer, T. P.; Walker, J. A.

    2007-06-01

    We report helium and carbon isotope and relative abundance data of fumaroles, hot springs, water springs, mud-pots and geothermal wells from El Salvador and Honduras to investigate both along and across-arc controls on the release of CO 2 from the subducted slab. El Salvador localities show typical volcanic front volcanic gas signatures, with 3He/ 4He ratios of 5.2-7.6 RA, δ13C values of - 3.6‰ to - 1.3‰ and CO 2/ 3He ratios of 8-25 × 10 9. In Honduras, we find similar values only for volatiles collected in the Sula Graben region located ˜ 200 km behind the volcanic front. All other areas in Honduras show significantly lower 3He/ 4He ratios (0.7-3.5 RA), lower δ13C values (< - 7.3‰) and more variable CO 2/ 3He ratios (6.2 × 10 7-2.0 × 10 11): characteristics consistent with degassing-induced fractionation of CO 2 and He and/or interaction with crustal rocks. The provenance of CO 2 released along the volcanic front is dominated by subducted marine carbonates (L = 76 ± 4%) and organic sediments (S = 14 ± 3%), with the mantle wedge (M) contributing 10 ± 3% to the total carbon flux. The L/S ratio of the El Salvador volatiles (average = 5.6) is comparable to volcanic front localities in Costa Rica and Nicaragua [A.M. Shaw, D.R. Hilton, T.P. Fischer, L.A. Walker, G.E. Alvarado, Contrasting He-C relationships in Nicaragua and Costa Rica: insights into C cycling through subduction zones. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214 (2003) 499-513] but is approximately one-half the input value of sediments at the trench (L. Li, G.E. Bebout, Carbon and nitrogen geochemistry of sediments in the Central American convergent margin: Insights regarding subduction input fluxes, diagenesis, and paleoproductivity, J. Geophys. Res. 110 (2005), doi: 10.1029/2004JB003276). We use the L/S ratio of El Salvador geothermal fluids, together with estimates of the CO 2 output flux from the arc, to constrain the amount and composition of subducted sediments involved in the supply of CO 2 to the

  12. Evolution of garnet distribution, shape and composition in high-grade pelitic migmatites of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil: insights from LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Raimondo, Tom; Santos de Souza, Jailma

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is a widely used mineral in metamorphic petrology and more particularly for thermobarometric modelling to reconstruct the P-T-t evolution of Earth's crust. This is due to its ubiquity in high grade rocks (T > 450°C), its occurrence in many assemblages of interest for thermobarometry, and mostly to its ability to preserve chemical zoning. Two types of zoning are distinguished: growth and diffusion zoning. Growth zoning reflects crystallisation coeval with changes in P-T conditions or bulk composition. This type of zoning is therefore particularly useful to unravel the P-T evolution of open systems and determine the growth mechanisms involved. However, growth zoning in major elements is commonly altered by processes such as volume diffusion, which is particularly efficient at high temperatures and for elements like Fe or Mg that have high diffusion coefficients. In such cases, information that relates to the environmental conditions of garnet growth is either totally or partially obliterated. To minimise the impact of this process on growth zoning and retain useful information, trace elements are more appropriate because of their lower diffusion coefficients compared to major elements. In this study, the distribution of trace elements in garnet has been imaged using an emerging LA-ICP-MS mapping technique. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution, with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U) and minimal sample preparation required. This technique has been applied to high-grade pelitic gneisses and migmatites from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (adjacent to the Farol da Bara, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). Structurally, it is located in a steeply-dipping high strain zone that may have played a major role in the segregation and

  13. Neotectonic development of the El Salvador Fault Zone and implications for deformation in the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from 4-D analog modeling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Martinez-Díaz, José Jesús; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Villamor, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, approximately 150 km long and 20 km wide, segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the Central American Volcanic Arc striking N100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Structural field data and mapping suggest a phase of extension, at some stage during the evolution of the ESFZ. This phase would explain dip-slip movements on structures that are currently associated with the active, dominantly strike slip and that do not fit with the current tectonic regime. Field observations suggest trenchward migration of the arc. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to slab rollback of the Cocos plate beneath the Chortis Block during the Miocene/Pliocene. We carried out 4-D analog model experiments to test whether an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in intersegment areas with local transtension and segments with almost pure strike-slip motion. The results of our experiments combined with field data along the Central American Volcanic Arc indicate that the slab rollback intensity beneath the Chortis Block is greater in Nicaragua and decreases westward to Guatemala.

  14. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    PubMed

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries. PMID:25006801

  15. The Influence of the Digital Divide on Face Preferences in El Salvador: People without Internet Access Prefer More Feminine Men, More Masculine Women, and Women with Higher Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18–25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries. PMID:25006801

  16. The unrest of S. Miguel volcano (El Salvador, CA): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, A.; Hernandez, D.; Gutiérrez, E.; Handal, L.; Polío, C.; Rapisarda, S.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-10-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of S. Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a more than 9 km high column and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic Density Currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multi-parametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors, designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes, and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were co-located into multi-parametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  17. Developing and Transitioning Numerical Air Quality Models to Improve Air Quality and Public Health Decision-Making in El Salvador and Costa Rica As Part of the Servir Applied Sciences Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Huff, A. K.; Gomori, S. G.; Sadoff, N.

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the capacity for air quality modeling and improve air quality monitoring and management in the SERVIR Mesoamerica region, members of SERVIR's Applied Sciences Team (AST) are developing national numerical air quality models for El Salvador and Costa Rica. We are working with stakeholders from the El Salvador Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARN); National University of Costa Rica (UNA); the Costa Rica Ministry of the Environment, Energy, and Telecommunications (MINAET); and Costa Rica National Meteorological Institute (IMN), who are leaders in air quality monitoring and management in the Mesoamerica region. Focusing initially on these institutions will build sustainability in regional modeling activities by developing air quality modeling capability that can be shared with other countries in Mesoamerica. The air quality models are based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and incorporate meteorological inputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, as well as national emissions inventories from El Salvador and Costa Rica. The models are being optimized for urban air quality, which is a priority of decision-makers in Mesoamerica. Once experimental versions of the modeling systems are complete, they will be transitioned to servers run by stakeholders in El Salvador and Costa Rica. The numerical air quality models will provide decision support for stakeholders to identify 1) high-priority areas for expanding national ambient air monitoring networks, 2) needed revisions to national air quality regulations, and 3) gaps in national emissions inventories. This project illustrates SERVIR's goal of the transition of science to support decision-making through capacity building in Mesoamerica, and it aligns with the Group on Earth Observations' health societal benefit theme. This presentation will describe technical aspects of the development of the models and outline key steps in our successful

  18. Activities of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Walton H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the water quality of a large part of the Nation's rivers and aquifers and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions. In meeting these goals, the program will produce water-quality, ecological, and geographic information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, upon which national-level assessment activities are based. The program's 60 study-unit investigations are associated with principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. Study units encompass areas from 1,200 to more than 65,000 mi2 (square miles) and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the upper Snake River Basin was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for implementation. From 1991 to 1995, a high-intensity data-collection phase of the upper Snake River Basin study unit (fig. 1) was implemented and completed. Components of this phase are described in a report by Gilliom and others (1995). In 1997, a low-intensity phase of data collection began, and work continued on data analysis, report writing, and data documentation and archiving activities that began in 1996. Principal data-collection activities during the low-intensity phase will include monitoring of surface-water and ground-water quality, assessment of aquatic biological conditions, and continued compilation of environmental setting information.

  19. Caller Characteristics, Call Contents, and Types of Assistance Provided by Caller Sex and Age Group in a Canadian Inuit Crisis Line in Nunavut, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Josephine C. H.; Maranzan, Kathryn Amanda; Boone, Margaret; Vander Velde, John; Levy, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of calls made to a northern Canadian Inuit crisis line in the territory of Nunavut between 1991 and 2001 revealed that the majority of users were adult females who called to discuss problems primarily related to relationships and loneliness/boredom. Younger callers tended to make prank calls. The volunteer staff used mostly empathetic…

  20. Is There a Home Advantage in School Readiness for Young Children? Trends in Parent Engagement in Cognitive Activities with Young Children, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Maryellen

    2015-01-01

    The desire to understand the "home advantage" has spurred a large body of research describing the contribution of differences in family background and parenting styles to school readiness and the achievement gap. Using the National Household Education Survey at two time points provides a fuller picture of the trends in parenting and…

  1. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver cómo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  2. Il problema del litio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  3. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  4. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  5. Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes

    Cancer.gov

    El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

  6. Ácaros del mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  7. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  8. Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Vivian L.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article…

  9. Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano

    Cancer.gov

    Una hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.

  10. DelPhi: a comprehensive suite for DelPhi software and associated resources

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate modeling of electrostatic potential and corresponding energies becomes increasingly important for understanding properties of biological macromolecules and their complexes. However, this is not an easy task due to the irregular shape of biological entities and the presence of water and mobile ions. Results Here we report a comprehensive suite for the well-known Poisson-Boltzmann solver, DelPhi, enriched with additional features to facilitate DelPhi usage. The suite allows for easy download of both DelPhi executable files and source code along with a makefile for local installations. The users can obtain the DelPhi manual and parameter files required for the corresponding investigation. Non-experienced researchers can download examples containing all necessary data to carry out DelPhi runs on a set of selected examples illustrating various DelPhi features and demonstrating DelPhi’s accuracy against analytical solutions. Conclusions DelPhi suite offers not only the DelPhi executable and sources files, examples and parameter files, but also provides links to third party developed resources either utilizing DelPhi or providing plugins for DelPhi. In addition, the users and developers are offered a forum to share ideas, resolve issues, report bugs and seek help with respect to the DelPhi package. The resource is available free of charge for academic users from URL: http://compbio.clemson.edu/DelPhi.php. PMID:22583952

  11. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  12. Líneas Vitales: Programas y servicios del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Artículos y videos sobre los programas y servicios del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de la serie educativa Líneas Vitales del NCI, la cual está dirigida especialmente a poblaciones multiculturales.

  13. Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)

    Cancer.gov

    En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science

  14. Instantánea del mieloma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el mieloma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Instantánea del melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el melanoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Instantánea del linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el linfoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  17. Instantánea del sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  18. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  19. Gonadal dysgenesis in del (18p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, A.; Fouquet, F.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a girl with syndromal gonadal dysgenesis and a de novo del (18p). Genetic factors controlling gonadal development are located not only on the X chromosome, but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on 18p. We conclude that patients with del (18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  1. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  2. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  3. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements. PMID

  4. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  5. Del Mod System. 1972 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Charlotte H.

    The overall aim of the Del Mod System is the improvement of science programs taught in Delaware schools; it is a working agreement among the University of Delaware, Delaware Technical and Community College, Delaware State College, State Department of Public Instruction, industry, and the schools. It was formed to bring about changes in science…

  6. Educational and Demographic Profile: Del Norte County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Del Norte County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  7. Andrea del Sarto rehabilitated: a psychoanalytic emendation.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Ernest Jones's "The Influence of Andrea del Sarto's Wife on His Art" (1913) is an early example of psychoanalysis applied to the study of a prominent painter. Greatly influenced by Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood, Jones gave excessive credence to Vasari's highly prejudicial account of the life of del Sarto, on which the study relied heavily. Jones attempted to account psychologically for the circumstance that del Sarto, though highly skilled and "faultless," was not the equal of the three preeminent masters of the Italian High Renaissance: Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Jones's uncritical acceptance of the Vasari biography encouraged him to view Sarto's assumed deficiency as the result of excessive attachment to his wife, a pathological uxoriousness. A contemporary psychoanalytic perspective, with its emphasis on the emotive response of the analyst, requires us to pay attention to the evocative nature of the work of the artist, an approach Jones neglected. In an examination of several paintings, the artist's sensitivity to the position of the spectator is explored, as is the interest in involving the viewer spatially and emotionally. An appreciation for the viewer's position is consistent with a capacity for using projected internal objects for creative purposes. The presence of this capacity suggests a revised view of del Sarto's contribution to art and of his relationship with his wife. PMID:12580329

  8. Clinical and laboratory update on the DEL variant.

    PubMed

    Nuchnoi, Pornlada; Thongbus, Jairak; Srisarin, Apapan; Kerdpin, Usanee; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    Serological assays for the RhD blood group are based on detection of the RhD antigen on human red blood cells using a specific anti-D antibody. The weak expression of the RhD antigen in the DEL variant hinders the sensitivity of conventional serological assays. Evidence of anti-D immunization in patients with D-negativity who have received DEL-variant blood units has been reported in various populations. This observation has prompted the need for genetic epidemiological and clinical data on the DEL variant in the development of DEL molecular diagnostic testing. This review highlights the molecular features of the DEL variant, the clinical consequences of DEL-blood transfusion, and current approaches for detection of the DEL-variant for donor screening and transfusion. PMID:25316658

  9. Del Norte means north to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    Del Norte Regional Recycling and Transfer Station is owned by the city of Oxnard, California and operated by BLT Enterprises, Inc. The Del Norte facility--located in southwestern Ventura County about an hour northwest of Los Angeles--processes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, aluminum, steel, glass, old corrugated containers (OCC), newspapers, computer printout paper, white and colored ledger paper, coated book, supermix paper, telephone books, and old magazines. According to the company, there has been virtually no community opposition to the site. The facility has few neighbors, and those are agricultural. To keep the community relationship strong, the facility`s design and location all but eliminated odor and noise complaints. The building was designed against the prevailing wind pattern, and BLT processes odorous material fast. A misting system installed for dust suppression also can be used with a solution for odor control should the need arise.

  10. del, Einstein, Mach, Gamow, and Lanczos: Gödel's remarkable excursion into cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    This article is an expanded version of a talk given at the International Symposium Celebrating the 100th Birthday of Kurt Gödel (Vienna, 2006). It seeks to trace the path which led this preeminent mathematical logician to discover one of the famous results of General Relativity, the rotating Gödel Universe. This universe has some remarkable properties, which gave the philosophers plenty to worry about. It allows a person to travel into his own past, with all the ensuing causal paradoxes; it allows no unique temporal ordering of events; and though Gödel's Universe is rigid and infinite, the Foucault pendulum planes everywhere in it rotate in unison, a clear affront to adherents of Mach's Principle. We also discuss some lesser known precursors in the field, who just missed discovering Gödel's universe. While the article gives all the necessary derivations in simplified form (for example, of the metric and its geodesics), much of it should be accessible to the general reader, who can simply skip most of the mathematics. [Reprinted, with permission, from Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Horizons of Truth, edited by Matthias Baaz, Christos H. Papadimitriou, Dana S. Scott, Hilary Putnam, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Cambridge U. P., New York, 2009).

  11. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  12. Visualization of the Gödel universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buser, M.; Kajari, E.; Schleich, W. P.

    2013-01-01

    The standard model of modern cosmology, which is based on the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric, allows the definition of an absolute time. However, there exist (cosmological) models consistent with the theory of general relativity for which such a definition cannot be given since they offer the possibility for time travel. The simplest of these models is the cosmological solution discovered by Kurt Gödel, which describes a homogeneous, rotating universe. Disregarding the paradoxes that come along with the abolishment of causality in such space-times, we are interested in the purely academic question of how an observer would visually perceive the time travel of an object in Gödel's universe. For this purpose, we employ the technique of ray tracing, a standard tool in computer graphics, and visualize various scenarios to bring out the optical effects experienced by an observer located in this universe. In this way, we provide a new perspective on the space-time structure of Gödel's model.

  13. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  14. A Description of Del Mod and Its Final Evaluation, Final Report, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Charlotte H.; Bolig, John R.

    This monograph presents an overview of five Del Mod System final reports, comments by the project director, financial structure of the Del Mod System, and descriptions of Del Mod Projects. The Del Mod System was concerned with changing the science and mathematics education programs in the state of Delaware. Between 1970 and 1976, Del Mod conducted…

  15. Ephemeral skin-flows on talus affected by permafrost degradation (Corral del Veleta, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanarro, L. M.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Gómez, A.

    2009-04-01

    destroyed but rather tends to ‘blur' as the years pass, although it does not completely lose its original shape: the fine material inside the lobes becomes compacted and the multiple lobes become blurred. In contrast, in other sectors of the slope, where the presence of permafrost levels or buried ice has been detected, the skin flows, once formed, change their physiognomy from year to year, which may be related to the influence of the nival dynamic along with the degradation of the permafrost and the dislodgement of the active layer. References Akerman, H, .J, 1984: Notes on talus morphology and processes in Spitsbergen. Geografiska Annaler 66A (4): 267-284. Benedict, J. B. 1970. Downslope soil movement in a Colorado alpine region: rates, processes, and climatic significance, Arctic and Alpine Research, 2(3): 165-226 Caine N (1976). The influence of snow and increased snowfall on contemporary geomorphic processes in alpine areas. In: Steinoff HW, Ives JD (eds) Ecological impacts of snowpack augmentation in the San Juan Mountains. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, pp 145-200 Castillo, A. and Fedeli, B. 2002. Algunas pautas del comportamiento hidrogeológico de rocas duras afectadas por glaciarismo y periglaciarismo en Sierra Nevada (España). Geogaceta, 32: 195-197. Gómez, A., Palacios, D., Ramos, M., Tanarro, L.M., Schulte, L and Salvador, F., 2001: Location of permafrost in marginal regions: Corral del Veleta, Sierra Nevada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 12: 93-110. Gómez, A.; Palacios, D.; Luengo, E.; Tanarro, L. M.; Schulte, L. & Ramos, M. 2003. Talus instability in a recent deglaciation area and its relantionship to buried ice and snow cover evolution (Picacho del Veleta, Sierra Nevada, Spain). Geografiska Annaler, 85 A(2): 165-182. Hall, K., 1985: Some observations on ground temperatures and transport processes at a nivation site in northern Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 39: 27-37. Harris, C., 1987: Mechanisms of mass movement in periglacial

  16. Huave de San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (Huave of San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Huave, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Mateo del Mar, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  17. Hydrogeologic model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S. ); Retana, M.; Cuellar, G. )

    1989-01-01

    A hydrogeological model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field has been developed. It considers the lithology and structural features of the area and discerns their impact on the movement of cold and hot fluids in the system. Three aquifers were identified, their zones of mixing and flow patterns were obtained on the basis of temperature and geochemical data from wells and surface manifestations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  18. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-08-01

    These are appendices F through I of the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field Reservoir Analysis. The volume contains: well logs, water chemistry plots, gas chemistry plots, temperature plots, and flow plots. (JEF)

  19. Results of investigations at the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Goff, F.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Hanold, B.

    1990-04-01

    Well logging operations were performed in eight of the geothermal wells at Ahuachapan. High-temperature downhole instruments, including a temperature/rabbit, caliper, fluid velocity spinner/temperature/pressure (STP), and fluid sampler, were deployed in each well. The caliper tool was used primarily to determine if chemical deposits were present in well casings or liners and to investigate a suspected break in the casing in one well. STP logs were obtained from six of the eight wells at various flow rates ranging from 30 to 80 kg/s. A static STP log was also run with the wells shut-in to provide data to be used in the thermodynamic analysis of several production wells. The geochemical data obtained show a system configuration like that proposed by C. Laky and associates in 1989. Our data indicate recharge to the system from the volcanic highlands south of the field. Additionally, our data indicate encroachment of dilute fluids into deeper production zones because of overproduction. 17 refs., 50 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA )

    1989-08-01

    These are appendices A thru E of the Ahuachapan geothermal field reservoir analysis. The volume contains: mineralogy contours, ionic chlorine and silicon dioxide contours, well summaries, and temperature and pressure effects. (JEF)

  1. Research and Evaluation Within the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.

    Described is the Del Mod System, its inception, the fundings associated with it, and its objectives. A number of projects have already been completed and implemented. This monograph describes the evaluations of such projects and of the Del Mod systems-approach to science education. The area of evaluation and the method of data collection (with…

  2. Instantánea del sarcoma de Kaposi

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  3. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn...

  4. 75 FR 11104 - Del Norte Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Forest Service Del Norte Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Del Norte Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Crescent City... and Designated Federal Official roles and (5) review operational guidelines; (6) selection of...

  5. Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization promotes…

  7. A new iterative Chebyshev spectral method for solving the elliptic equation [del] [center dot] ([sigma] [del]u) = f

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shengkai; Yedlin, M.J. )

    1994-08-01

    We present a new iterative Chebyshev spectral method for solving the elliptic equation [del] [center dot] ([sigma] [del]u) = f. We rewrite the equation in the form of a Poisson's equation [del][sup 2]u = (f - [del]u [center dot] [del][sigma]/[sigma]). In each iteration we compute the right-hand side terms from the guess values first. Then we solve the resultant Poisson equation by a direct method to obtain the updated values. Three numerical examples are presented. For the sam number of iterations, the accuracy of the present method is about 6-8 orders better than the Chebyshev spectral multigrid method. On a SPARC Station 2 computer, the CPU time of the new method is about one-third of the Chebyshev spectral multigrid method. To obtain the same accuracy, the CPU time of the present method is about one-tenth of the Chebyshev spectral multigrid method. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  9. Neurological aspects of del(1q) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murayama, K; Greenwood, R S; Rao, K W; Aylsworth, A S

    1991-09-15

    We have studied three children with de novo terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 (46,XX,del(1)(q43)). They all have minor anomalies and neurological signs (severe psychomotor developmental delay, generalized hypotonia, and seizures) that have been described previously. In addition, all of these three patients have autistic-like behavior. They avoid eye contact, show no interest in people, express little emotion, and repeat stereotypic movements such as head nodding and purposeless finger manipulation. They also spend excessive time in making unusual sounds consisting of a high-pitched shrill cry with little intonation in infancy and a harsh, strained, and glottal stridency in later life. They make no labial, lingual, or nasal sounds. We suggest that these observations may be unique clinical manifestations of certain terminal 1q deletions. PMID:1746617

  10. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function. PMID:26098522