Science.gov

Sample records for del semen tras

  1. Semen analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... The following things will be evaluated: How the semen thickens into a solid and turns to liquid Fluid thickness, acidity, and sugar content Resistance to flow (viscosity) Movement of the sperm (motility) Number and structure ...

  2. Semen Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Other share options Semen analysis is a test on the fluid that is released when a man has an orgasm ©1996 - 2016 SART, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology . All Rights Reserved. ASRM/SART Nondiscrimination Policy ASRM/ ...

  3. Blood in the semen

    MedlinePlus

    Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation ... Most of the time, blood in the semen is caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . Blood in the ...

  4. Cryopreservation of crane semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    The method for the cryopreservation of crane semen at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is described in detail. Cryopreservation is useful for the long-term storage of crane semen and for specialized propagation needs. A 50% fertility rate from most sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, inseminated with frozen-thawed semen can be expected. Additional research should improve the fertility rate and determine how applicable the technique is to other crane species.

  5. TRAS principles blight arterial bypass and plasty.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A; Kothari, V M

    1997-01-01

    A new concept--Tissue Requisitions (Principle I)/Relinquishes (Principle II) Arterial Supply--of TRAS principles is introduced to help appreciate the failures/successes of modern medicine's attempts at restoring arterial flow in luminally compromised coronary/carotid fields, an invasive branch rightly called vascular ReRheology, which comprises diagnosing/treating arterial blocks. The technical wizardry of arterial reconstruction (bypass) or lumen--restoration (plasty) has to reckon with the TRAS principles all the time. PMID:10740714

  6. Omeprazole and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Banihani, Saleem A

    2016-03-01

    A number of studies have linked omeprazole, a commonly used acid reducer under the brand name Prilosec, with semen quality. This MiniReview systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of omeprazole on semen quality, and male infertility. We searched the MEDLINE electronic database for English-language articles using the keywords 'omeprazole' versus 'sperm' and 'testosterone' and the references from selected articles were reviewed, if relevant. In summary, omeprazole does not appear to change semen quality. This may be because, at least in part, it does not alter the basal levels of pituitary-gonadal hormones; in addition, it counteracts the damaging effect of reactive oxygen species. However, further research is still required to confirm this effect. PMID:26572503

  7. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are common byproducts of chlorinating drinking water. The effects of disinfection byproducts on semen quality have not yet been studied in humans, despite animal studies linking exposure to sperm abnormalities. We are currently analyzing the relationship of...

  8. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  9. Cryopreservation of American kestrel semen with dimethylsulfoxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Morrell, C.A.; Franson, J. Christian; Pattee, Oliver H.

    1993-01-01

    Semen samples from 15 male American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) were frozen in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The semen was thawed 1-14 mo later and used to inseminate six females during three breeding seasons. Kestrels inseminated with thawed semen containing 4% DMSO produced only infertile eggs (N = 14). Kestrels inseminated with thawed semen containing 6%, 8%, or 10% DMSO produced fertile eggs (N = 14) and live chicks (N = 6). Progressive motility of spermatozoa in thawed semen containing 10% DMSO was less (44 ? 6%) than in thawed semen containing 6% (62 ? 10%) or 8% (61 ? 1%) DMSO.

  10. Banking North American buffalo semen.

    PubMed

    Lessard, C; Danielson, J; Rajapaksha, K; Adams, G P; McCorkell, R

    2009-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure to collect and preserve semen from wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) and plains bison (Bison bison bison). Semen samples from three wood and three plains bison bulls were collected by electroejaculation from June through October. In addition, sperm was collected from the cauda epididymis of seven plains bison. Semen was cryopreserved using two commercially available cryopreservation media, an egg yolk-based medium (Triladyl), and a medium free of products of animal origin (Andromed). Sperm morphology and motility were recorded on fresh and post-thawed semen samples. Total sperm motility was not different between plains and wood bison for the months of June (50%), July (69%) and October (54%). However, total sperm motility for wood bison was higher (P<0.05) than plains bison for the months of August and September (August: 80% vs 55%; September: 73% vs 40%). Plains and wood bison did not differ in mean total and mean progressive motility (35 and 15%, respectively) of frozen-thawed sperm samples. The post-thaw motility of Triladyl-treated sperm was higher (P<0.05) than Andromed-treated sperm (35% vs 13%, respectively). Interestingly, post-thawed epididymal spermatozoa had higher total motility (P<0.05) than post-thawed electroejaculated sperm when cryopreserved with a medium free of products of animal origin (Andromed; 35% vs 9%, respectively). In conclusion, we used electroejaculation to collect high quality bison semen, and cryopreserved it for future needs. PMID:19181375

  11. Stainless steel welding and semen quality

    SciTech Connect

    Jelnes, J.E.; Knudsen, L.E. )

    1988-01-01

    Questionnaire studies of patients from fertility clinics suggest that welders may have an increased risk of reduced semen quality. In this study, welders and nonwelders from the same plants were asked to provide blood, urine, and semen samples. Urine was analyzed for chromium and nickel, and for mutagenic activity and metal concentration; blood for metal concentrations, immunoglobulin G, total protein, and measures of genotoxicity in lymphocytes; and semen was evaluated by standard semen analysis. Results of the semen evaluation, presented here, showed no difference in semen quality between welders and nonwelders. Because the metal dust exposure of nonwelders in the plant may be higher than that in the general population, welders were also compared to referents not working in the metal industry. Again, no decrease in semen quality associated with welding was demonstrated.

  12. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  13. Histamine-2 Receptor Antagonists and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Banihani, Saleem A

    2016-01-01

    Histamine-2 receptor antagonists are a class of drugs used to treat the acid-related gastrointestinal diseases such as ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Although such drugs, especially ranitidine and famotidine, are still widely used, their effects on semen quality, and hence on male infertility, is still unclear. This MiniReview systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of histamine-2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, nizatidine and famotidine) on semen quality, particularly, on sperm function. Cimetidine appears to have adverse effects on semen quality. While the effects of ranitidine and nizatidine on semen quality are still controversial, famotidine does not appear to change semen quality. Therefore, additional studies will be required to clarify whether histamine-2 receptor-independent effects of these drugs play a role in semen quality as well as further clinical studies including direct comparison of the histamine-2 receptor antagonists. PMID:26176290

  14. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  15. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  16. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  17. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  18. [Identification of semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae using continuous wavelet transform with FTIR].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang-jiang; Li, Dan-ting; Liang, Jiu-zhen; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2007-01-01

    Infrared spectra of semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae were obtained directly, quickly and accurately by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with OMNI sampler. Continuous wavelet transform was used to extrude local region of infrared spectra of semen celosiae and its confusable varieties. The difference of infrared spectra between semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae was extruded greatly. Accurate identification rate was improved greatly. Morlet wavelet, which can detect singular values of signal effectively, was selected as the mother wavelet. One-dimensional continuous wavelet transform was implemented for the infrared spectra of semen celosiae and its confusable varieties. The difference between semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae was observed at all scales in the wavelet domain. An optimal scale, at which the difference between semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae was the most obvious, was selected to identify semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae. The results show that it is effective to apply continuous wavelet transform on the basis of FTIR to identify the traditional Chinese medicinal materials, which are the same genus but different species. PMID:17390647

  19. Evaluation of semen from nondomestic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of poultry Al technology are applicable to nondomestic birds. However, modifications in the methods of semen collection, evaluation, and insemination are often necessary to accomodate either the bird's size, sperm numbers, or. female anatomy. This section provides a brief overview of procedures used to evaluate semen from nondomestic birds. Unless specified, materials, reagents, etc., are identical to those used in evaluating poultry semen (see appropriate chapters).

  20. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Robert J.; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent

    2016-01-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions. PMID:26811984

  1. Confidentiality and American semen donors.

    PubMed

    Karow, A M

    1993-01-01

    Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162

  2. Procedures for handling fresh stallion semen.

    PubMed

    Katila, T

    1997-11-01

    Handling procedures for semen to be used at the stud-farm and for transport are reviewed. Proper handling of semen is required throughout the entire process, from semen collection to the insemination of the mare. Semen shall not be exposed to mechanical damage, light, cold or heat. All equipment that comes in contact with semen must be warm, clean, dry and free from toxic residues. Skim-milk extender appears to be the medium best suited for the preservation of stallion semen during cooling and storage. When used immediately, semen is usually extended 1:1 (v:v), but for transport, concentrations of 25 to 100 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL are recommended. The proportion of semen plasma should be reduced to < 20%. by centrifuging, by collecting only the first 3 sperm-rich fractions, or by substantially diluting of the ejaculate. The storage temperature can be between 20 to 15 degrees C, if shipment time is no more than 12 h; for longer storage, temperatures < 10 degrees C are recommended. Semen can be cooled rapidly from 35 to 19 degrees C. In the temperature zone between 19 and 8 degrees C, stallion spermatozoa are sensitive to cold shock, and the cooling rate should be slowed to 0.05 degrees C/min. Rapid cooling can be resumed below 8 degrees C. At low temperatures, removal of oxygen-rich air is beneficial for the survival of spermatozoa. The Equitainer transport container keeps a constant temperature of 5 degrees C for 48 h and is therefore recommended for transportation lasting over 24 h. PMID:16728210

  3. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas. PMID:19144029

  4. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Jane M.; Wallgren, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are added to semen extenders to be used for artificial insemination (AI) in livestock breeding to control bacterial contamination in semen arising during collection and processing. The antibiotics to be added and their concentrations for semen for international trade are specified by government directives. Since the animal production industry uses large quantities of semen for artificial insemination, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used in semen extenders. Possible alternatives to antibiotics are discussed, including physical removal of the bacteria during semen processing, as well as the development of novel antimicrobials. Colloid centrifugation, particularly Single Layer Centrifugation, when carried out with a strict aseptic technique, offers a feasible method for reducing bacterial contamination in semen and is a practical method for semen processing laboratories to adopt. However, none of these alternatives to antibiotics should replace strict attention to hygiene during semen collection and handling. PMID:25517429

  5. Semen hyperviscosity: causes, consequences, and cures.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Stefan Stephanus; Gokul, Sheila; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of semen hyperviscosity (SHV) is estimated to be between 12-29% and can lead to male factor infertility both in vivo and in vitro. Semen is composed of fluids secreted by the male accessory glands, which contain proteins essential to the coagulation and liquefaction of semen. Hypofunction of the prostate or seminal vesicles causes abnormal viscosity of seminal fluid. Infection and high levels of seminal leukocytes may also result in the development of SHV. Oxidative stress and biochemical and genetic factors can furthermore contribute to this condition. Hyperviscosity can impair normal sperm movement in the female reproductive tract, and can lead to decreased sperm count. SHV is treated with a hypodermic needle, mucolytic enzymes, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents in certain cases. Further research is needed to better understand the contributors to SHV and the treatments that can be used for infertile males with hyperviscous semen. PMID:23276984

  6. DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND HUMAN SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project, also called the Healthy Men Study will examine potential associations between human exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts, particularly haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs), and male reproductive health as indicated by semen quality. Sinc...

  7. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production.

    PubMed

    Hohenboken, W D

    1999-12-01

    Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons. PMID:10735086

  8. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  9. Exposure to Environmental Ozone Alters Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Rebecca Z.; Kraft, Peter; Fowler, Ian M.; Mamet, Rizvan; Kim, Elizabeth; Berhane, Kiros T.

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic male infertility may be due to exposure to environmental toxicants that alter spermatogenesis or sperm function. We studied the relationship between air pollutant levels and semen quality over a 2-year period in Los Angeles, California, by analyzing repeated semen samples collected by sperm donors. Semen analysis data derived from 5,134 semen samples from a sperm donor bank were correlated with air pollutant levels (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter < 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) measured 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before semen collection dates in Los Angeles between January 1996 and December 1998. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model average sperm concentration and total motile sperm count for the donation from each subject. Changes were analyzed in relationship to biologically relevant time points during spermatogenesis, 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before the day of semen collection. We estimated temperature and seasonality effects after adjusting for a base model, which included donor’s date of birth and age at donation. Forty-eight donors from Los Angeles were included as subjects. Donors were included if they collected repeated semen samples over a 12-month period between January 1996 and December 1998. There was a significant negative correlation between ozone levels at 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before donation and average sperm concentration, which was maintained after correction for donor’s birth date, age at donation, temperature, and seasonality (p < 0.01). No other pollutant measures were significantly associated with sperm quality outcomes. Exposure to ambient ozone levels adversely affects semen quality. PMID:16507458

  10. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses with a Malaysian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667…

  11. Semen searching when sperm is absent.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pilar; Santiago, Begoña; Alcalá, Belén; Atienza, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Sexual assault cases have varying factors that may mask semen findings when analysing evidence at the forensic laboratory. Semenogelin (Sg) is a potential marker for the identification of semen even at azoospermy or when few sperm cells are found. The current study examined Sg in normospermic and azoospermic donors as an internal evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and interference. The impact of a historical review of 53 judicial sexual assault cases over a five-year period was also analysed. The use of varying tests was of importance to prioritize certain samples within cases. Semen findings by Sg were then compared to prostate-specific antigen (PSA), phosphatase enzyme (AP) and Y-chromosome presence, the latter being used in an attempt to link semen fluid identification with obtaining a male DNA profile. Test findings were the highest ever registered for Sg (1:400,000), PSA (1:800,000), AP (1:25,000) and sperm cytology (SC) (1:50,000). Our results demonstrated the usefulness of using the Sg marker to avoid a false semen-negative result (6% cases), particularly in cases where sperm was absent or scarce (11% spermatozoa positive cases). Results were expressed in categories according to the set: Sg-PSA-AP. Thus, categories I (full positive, 46%), VI (full negative, 27%) and III (Sg/PSA positive; 11%) were the most frequent and Y-chromosome was obtained in 59%, 12% and 12% ratios, respectively. In conclusion, Sg was recommended for the workflow procedure of semen investigation when sperm absence is expected either from azoospermic/oligospermic or normospermic semen, especially before/after ejaculation. PMID:25753997

  12. Ebola May Be Present in Semen for Year or More

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160697.html Ebola May Be Present in Semen for Year or ... 31, 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ebola virus stays present in semen longer than previously ...

  13. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  14. Characterization and usage of sexed semen from US field data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to characterize sexed semen available and its usage from US field data. This included investigating active Holstein proven bulls with sexed semen available, as well as percentages and frequencies of sexed semen matings for heifers and cows. Herds were also characterized for the...

  15. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Yucra, Sandra; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-01-01

    Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa), Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years). In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates) by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04) and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02) better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk. PMID:19014632

  16. Effects of storage temperature and semen extender on stored canine semen.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tatsuya; Yoshikuni, Ryuta; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kawakami, Eiichi

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine an optimum temperature and extender for short-term transport of canine ejaculated semen. There was no significant difference in the qualities of semen diluted with two kinds of extender, egg yolk Tris-citrate fructose (EYT-FC) or glucose (EYT-GC) extender, between the 2, 8 or 12 and the 4°C control groups during storage for up to 48 hr, while the 16-24°C groups showed decreased sperm motility during storage for 48 hr. However, the 2°C group showed slightly lower sperm motility and slightly higher sperm abnormality than the 4°C group. Therefore, we concluded that semen qualities can be maintained for up to 48 hr when canine semen samples are extended with EYT-FC or EYT-GC and stored at a temperature in the range of 4-12°C. PMID:24088408

  17. Donor insemination: the gifting and selling of semen.

    PubMed

    Daniels, K R; Lewis, G M

    1996-06-01

    The authors examine the implications for individuals and society of how semen is provided for use in donor insemination treatment. In particular, they focus on whether 'donors' make a gift of their semen or are paid. The role of health professionals in shaping the nature and meaning of semen provision is also explored. The currently predominant practice of buying semen is compared with other reproductive and biomedical exchanges: oocyte and embryo donation, surrogacy, and blood, organ and fetal tissue donation. The authors suggest that the commercialisation of semen determines and reflects the type of men frequently recruited to provide semen. This in turn influences the meaning that donors themselves, recipients, offspring, health professionals and society at large attribute to the provision of semen. PMID:8771635

  18. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  19. New triterpene glycosides from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ding, Bo; Luo, Dan; Chen, Liu-Yuan; Hou, Yun-Long; Dai, Yi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Four new dammarane-type triterpene glycosides, named jujubosides I-IV (1-4), were isolated from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, along with seven known saponins (5-11). The structures of new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. All compounds were evaluated for the effects on neonatal rat cardiomyocyte injury induced by hydrogen peroxide in vitro. PMID:23912064

  20. Correlation of phthalate exposures with semen quality

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Niraj Shukla, Manju; Kumar Patel, Devendra; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Mathur, Neeraj; Kumar Gupta, Yogendra; Saxena, Daya Krishna

    2008-08-15

    Phthalates are widely used man-made chemical released in the environment and human exposure is mainly through diet. As the phthalate plasticizers are not covalently bound to PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into the environment and as a result have become ubiquitously contaminants. The present study investigates the correlation, if any, between the phthalate esters (DEP, DEHP, DBP, DMP, DOP) and sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, LPO, SCSA, and sperm quality. The study was conducted in the urban/rural population of Lucknow visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, CSMMU, Lucknow. Semen analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines while phthalate analysis by HPLC and LPO by spectrophotometer and the sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, SCSA using flow cytometry. The questionnaire data showed no significant difference in the demographic characteristics among the groups. In general, urban population was found to have statistically significant higher levels of phthalate esters than the rural. Further, infertile men showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher levels of pollutants in the semen than fertile men. A negative correlation between semen phthalate level viz DEHP and sperm quality and positive association with depolarized mitochondria, elevation in ROS production and LPO, DNA fragmentation was established. The findings are suggestive that phthalates might be one among the contributing factors associated with the deterioration in semen quality and these adverse effects might be ROS, LPO and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated.

  1. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, J.M.; Taylor, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P < 0.05). Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  2. Characterization of non-LTR retrotransposable TRAS elements in the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae (Aphididae, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Monti, Valentina; Serafini, Chiara; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Mandrioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    A non-LTR TRAS retrotransposon (identified as TRASAp1) has been amplified in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its presence has been assessed also in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. This TRAS element possesses 2 overlapping ORFs (a gag-ORF1 and a pol-ORF2 containing the reverse transcriptase and the endonuclease domains) that show a similarity ranging from 40% to 48% to proteins coded by other TRAS elements identified in insects (including the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the moth Bombyx mori). The study of the TRAS chromosomal insertion sites, performed by standard fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fiber FISH, showed that TRAS elements were located in a subtelomeric position, just before the telomeric (TTAGG) n repeats. In both the aphid species, TRAS elements were present at all termini of autosomes, but the 2 X chromosome telomeres show a clear-cut structural difference. Indeed, cromomycin A3 staining, together with FISH using a TRAS probe, revealed that TRAS signals only occur at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one. Lastly, the analysis of the distribution of TRAS retrotransposons in a M. persicae strain possessing spontaneous fragmentations of the X chromosomes assessed that TRAS elements were not involved in the healing of de novo telomeres. PMID:23530141

  3. Involuntary reduction in vigour of calves born from sexed semen.

    PubMed

    Djedović, Radica; Bogdanović, Vladan; Stanojević, Dragan; Nemes, Zsolt; Gáspárdy, András; Cseh, Sándor

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive traits of heifers and the development characteristics of their calves following artificial insemination (AI) with sexed and non-sexed semen. The analysed characteristics included conception rate, gestation length, calf birth weight, calf vigour, stillbirth rate, and twinning rate. Data of 530 calves produced with sexed and 1,163 calves produced with non-sexed semen were analysed. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to assess the influence of semen type, farm, season of insemination, the calf's sex and the inseminating sire on gestation length and calf birth weight. With the exception of gestation length (P > 0.05), all other traits studied were significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by the type of semen. The conception rate was 55% for conventional and 44% for sexed semen, and the average gestation length was 274.6 and 274.9 days, respectively. The mean calf birth weight was 37.47 kg for non-sexed and 36.75 kg for sexed semen. The stillbirth rate was 6.19% for conventional and 7.54% for sexed semen, while the twinning rate was 3.78% for conventional and 1.13% for sexed semen. The calves produced with non-sexed and sexed semen differed significantly in viability (P < 0.001), the latter having a lower calf vigour score. The use of conventional semen did not affect the ratio of female and male calves (52.7:47.3%; P > 0.05); however, artificial insemination with X-sorted sexed semen significantly altered the sex ratio of calves (85.1:14.9%, P < 0.01). The results obtained in this investigation are in agreement with the majority of studies which compared the fertility traits, sex ratio and calf characteristics depending on the application of artificial insemination with sexed or conventional semen. PMID:27342094

  4. Characterization of semen from olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Amboka, J N O; Mwethera, P G

    2003-12-01

    Electroejaculation is an accepted method of semen collection from non-human primates and is typically performed using direct penile or rectal probe electro-stimulation. Six mature male olive baboons (Papio anubis) were subjected to rectal probe electro-stimulation procedure that yielded 65 usable ejaculates in 69 attempts over a period of 16 weeks. The four non-usable ejaculates consisted of seminal fluid without sperm cells and thus were not analysed. The analysis of ejaculate volume, concentration, % motility, liquefaction times, and morphology in this study has provided information on the quality of semen samples. It is anticipated that this analysis will provide valuable information for male fertility studies and the development of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system in the olive baboon as a model for human IVF. PMID:14641787

  5. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Todor I; Ejnik, John W; Guandalini, Gustavo; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Centeno, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4-7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97-100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n=10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans' semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments. PMID:22944582

  6. Zooplankton Feeding on the Nuisance Flagellate Gonyostomum semen

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Karin S. L.; Vrede, Tobias; Lebret, Karen; Johnson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    The large bloom-forming flagellate Gonyostomum semen has been hypothesized to be inedible to naturally occurring zooplankton due to its large cell size and ejection of long slimy threads (trichocysts) induced by physical stimulation. In a grazing experiment using radiolabelled algae and zooplankton collected from lakes with recurring blooms of G. semen and lakes that rarely experience blooms, we found that Eudiaptomus gracilis and Holopedium gibberum fed on G. semen at high rates, whereas Daphnia cristata and Ceriodaphnia spp. did not. Grazing rates of E. gracilis were similar between bloom-lakes and lakes with low biomass of G. semen, indicating that the ability to feed on G. semen was not a result of local adaptation. The high grazing rates of two of the taxa in our experiment imply that some of the nutrients and energy taken up by G. semen can be transferred directly to higher trophic levels, although the predominance of small cladocerans during blooms may limit the importance of G. semen as a food resource. Based on grazing rates and previous observations on abundances of E. gracilis and H. gibberum, we conclude that there is a potential for grazer control of G. semen and discuss why blooms of G. semen still occur. PMID:23667489

  7. Sperm ubiquitination in epididymal feline semen.

    PubMed

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Varesi, Sara; Nonnis, Simona; Maffioli, Elisa; Negri, Armando; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    Ubiquitin is a 8.5-kDa peptide that tags other proteins for proteasomal degradation. It has been proposed that ubiquitination might be responsible for the elimination of defective spermatozoa during transit through the epididymis in humans and cattle, but its exact biological function in seminal plasma has not yet been clarified. In the domestic cat (Felis catus), the percentage of immature, unviable, and abnormal spermatozoa decreases during the epididymal transit, indicating the existence of a mechanism that removes defective spermatozoa. Magnetic cell separation techniques, based on the use of magnetic beads coated with anti-ubiquitin antibodies, may allow the selective capture of ubiquitinated spermatozoa from semen, thus contributing to the identification of a potential correlation between semen quality and ubiquitination process. Moreover, the selective identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins in different epididymal regions could give a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in feline sperm maturation. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to verify the possibility of separating ubiquitinated spermatozoa with magnetic ubiquitin beads and identify the morphological and acrosomal differences between whole sample and unbound gametes, (2) to characterize all the ubiquitinated proteins in spermatozoa retrieved in the three epididymal regions by a proteomic approach. The data indicated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in cat epididymal semen. However, a correlation between abnormal and ubiquitinated spermatozoa has not been found, and ubiquitin cannot be considered as a biomarker of quality of epididymal feline spermatozoa. To the author's knowledge, this is the first identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins of cat spermatozoa collected from different epididymal regions. The proteomic pattern allows a further characterization of cat epididymal semen and represents a contribute to a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in

  8. Random laser action in bovine semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.

  9. Chronic boron exposure and human semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Wendie A; Xun, Lin; Jia, Juan; Kennedy, Nola; Elashoff, David A; Ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2 ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9 ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (p<0.0001). Boron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups. PMID:19962437

  10. Assessment of motion and kinematic characteristics of frozen-thawed Sirohi goat semen using computer-assisted semen analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Mukul; Yadav, Sarvajeet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the motion and kinematics characteristic of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in Sirohi goat using computer-assisted semen analysis. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out in Sirohi buck. Semen collection was made biweekly from each buck with the help of artificial vagina. A total of 12 ejaculates were collected from two bucks (six ejaculates from each buck). Freshly collected semen was pooled and later evaluated. The pooled semen sample was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and later subjected to a process of cryopreservation. The motion and kinematic characteristics of spermatozoa were studied during freez-thawing process. Results: Significantly (p<0.01) higher value of live percent, hypo-osmotic swelling test, and acrosomal integrity were recorded in neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. The proportion of spermatozoa showing slow progression were the highest in the neat and diluted semen followed by rapid and non-progressively motile, while a reverse pattern was observed in the frozen thaw semen where the proportion of non-progressively motile spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01) higher followed by slow and rapid progression. Conclusion: This study showed that the best results for motion, vitality, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome status were obtained in the neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. Further, the process of cryopreservation results in a shift of motility from slow to non-progressive in the post-thaw semen with a significant decrease in the path velocities when compared to neat and diluted semen. Hence, it can be concluded that freezing-thawing process reduces the motility and kinematic characters spermatozoa and may be an important factor affecting the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa resulting in poor conception rate after insemination in goats. PMID:27051209

  11. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses with a Malaysian sample.

    PubMed

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667 teachers in 14 randomly selected schools in Selangor state, Malaysia. Analyses were conducted in a 3-stage process using both confirmatory (stages 1 and 3) and exploratory factor analyses (stage 2) to test, modify, and confirm the underlying factor structure of the TRAS in a non-Western teacher sample. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support a 3-factor model previously reported in the original TRAS study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an 8-item, 4-factor structure. Further confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated appropriateness of the 4-factor structure. Reliability estimates for the four factors-commitment, value, concern, and confidence-were moderate. The modified short form TRAS (Malay version) has potential to be used as a simple tool for relatively quick assessment of teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward reporting may exist and the transferability of newly developed instruments to other populations should be evaluated. PMID:22902514

  12. Effects of age and environmental factors on semen production and semen quality of Austrian Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Fuerst-Waltl, Birgit; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Perner, Christa; Sölkner, Johann

    2006-09-01

    More than 90% of the breeding stock of Austrian dual purpose Simmental cows is artificially inseminated. Knowledge of factors affecting sperm production and semen quality is of importance with regard to reproductive efficiency and thus genetic improvement as well as for the productivity and profitability of AI centers. Hence, semen data from two Austrian AI centres collected in the years 2000 and 2001 were evaluated. In total, 3625 and 3654 ejaculates from 147 and 127 AI bulls, respectively, were analysed regarding ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, percentage of viable spermatozoa in the ejaculate, total spermatozoa per ejaculate and motility. Effects accounted for were the bull (random), age of bull, collection interval, number of collection on collection day, bull handler, semen collector, temperature on day of semen collection, in the course of epididymal maturation (average temperature of days 1-11 before collection) and during spermatogenesis (average temperature of days 12-65 before collection). Age of bull significantly affected all traits (P<0.01 to P<0.001) except motility score in center 2. Ejaculate volume and total number of spermatozoa increased with age of bull while sperm concentration was lower in higher age classes (center 1). The collection team was also found to significantly influence semen quality traits. With increasing collection interval ejaculate volume and total number of spermatozoa increased significantly (P<0.05 to P<0.001) while collection intervals between 4-9 days and 1-6 days were superior with regard to sperm concentration and percentage of viable spermatozoa, respectively (P<0.10 to P<0.001). First ejaculates were superior with respect to ejaculate volumes, sperm concentrations and total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (P<0.001). Temperature, either on day of semen collection or during epididymal maturation or spermatogenesis, had important but inconsistent effects on semen production and sperm quality. Overall, however

  13. Semen collection methods affect the bacterial composition of post-thawed semen of silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus).

    PubMed

    Boonthai, Traimat; Khaopong, Weerasith; Sangsong, Jumlong; Sooksawat, Treerat; Nimrat, Subuntith; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2016-03-01

    Biosafety issue associated with the risk of pathogenic contamination of cryopreserved semen is a common concern because of associated declines in sperm quality, storage period and disease transmission. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methods of semen collection on sperm quality and bacterial composition of post-thawed semen of silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus). Semen collection methods consisted of four treatments: (1) hand-stripping of abdomen without rinsing of urogenital area with water, (2) hand-stripping of abdomen after rinsing of urogenital area with water, (3) catheterization without rinsing of urogenital area with water and (4) catheterization after rinsing of urogenital area with water. Semen diluted with calcium-free Hank's balanced salt solution containing 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was frozen at a freezing rate of -8°Cmin(-1) before plunging in liquid nitrogen. Post-thawed semen collected by catheterization after rinsing urogenital area had the lowest bacterial number, about 2-log reduction of total heterotrophic, Gram negative and pseudomonad bacteria, compared with the other three collection treatments. However, percentages of motile and viable sperm were not significantly (P>0.05) different among treatments. This method eliminated Flavobacterium aquatile, Bacillus megaterium, Kocuria varians, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Aeromonas media in cryopreserved semen. This is the first report demonstrating the effects of semen collection methods on bacteriological quality of frozen-thawed fish semen. PMID:26778122

  14. Successful pregnancies with directional freezing of large volume buck semen.

    PubMed

    Gacitua, H; Arav, A

    2005-02-01

    Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed buck semen shows variable results which depend on many factors related to semen quality and the cryopreservation processing. We conducted experiments based on a new freezing method, directional freezing, of large volumes (8 ml). In the first experiment semen from three Saanen bucks, ages 1-2-years-old and genetically selected for milk improvement, was frozen individually. Two to three-years-old Saanen females (n = 164) were synchronized with controlled internal drug release (CIDR), pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and prostaglandin. Double cervical inseminations were performed with frozen-thawed semen and fresh semen as control. In the second experiment we used pooled, washed frozen semen to examine the effect of washed seminal plasma. The motility after washing was 80-90% and after thawing was 55-65% for all bucks. The sperm concentration increased with the collections and the advance into the breeding season from 1.9 x 10(9) to 4.4 x 10(9) cell/ml average. Two inseminations were carried out at 8h intervals. The first insemination was performed at 32 h after CIDR withdrawal with fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Pregnancy rates were assessed by ultrasonography conducted 40 and 90 days post-insemination (from three bucks). Results were 58, 67, 50% with fresh semen, and for frozen semen were 33, 37 and 53%; these results were significantly different in one of the three bucks (P < 0.005). In the second experiment with pooled, washed semen the pregnancy rate was 41.6%, which compared with the average results of the frozen semen in the first experiment 38.9% no significant difference was found. We conclude that freezing buck semen in large volumes (8 ml) is possible. Cryobanking of buck semen will facilitate a genetic breeding program in goats and preservation of biodiversity. Washed semen did not improve the fertility of the semen when Andromed bull extender is used. PMID:15629809

  15. Porcine semen as a vector for transmission of viral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Maes, Dominiek; Van Soom, Ann; Appeltant, Ruth; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Nauwynck, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Different viruses have been detected in porcine semen. Some of them are on the list of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and consequently, these pathogens are of socioeconomic and/or public health importance and are of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Artificial insemination (AI) is one of the most commonly used assisted reproductive technologies in pig production worldwide. This extensive use has enabled pig producers to benefit from superior genetics at a lower cost compared to natural breeding. However, the broad distribution of processed semen doses for field AI has increased the risk of widespread transmission of swine viral pathogens. Contamination of semen can be due to infections of the boar or can occur during semen collection, processing, and storage. It can result in reduced semen quality, embryonic mortality, endometritis, and systemic infection and/or disease in the recipient female. The presence of viral pathogens in semen can be assessed by demonstration of viable virus, nucleic acid of virus, or indirectly by measuring serum antibodies in the boar. The best way to prevent disease transmission via the semen is to assure that the boars in AI centers are free from the disease, to enforce very strict biosecurity protocols, and to perform routine health monitoring of boars. Prevention of viral semen contamination should be the primary focus because it is easier to prevent contamination than to eliminate viruses once present in semen. Nevertheless, research and development of novel semen processing treatments such as single-layer centrifugation is ongoing and may allow in the future to decontaminate semen. PMID:26506911

  16. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  17. Opportunities to improve liquid and frozen storage of boar semen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination has facilitated the utilization of superior genetics, and has reduced boar biosecurity problems and housing costs. The use of frozen semen permits the flexibility to inseminate animals at unscheduled times and to use semen of deceased boars. While good long-term storage exten...

  18. [Advances in researches on polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase in semen].

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui-xiang; Lu, Kun-gang; Zhang, Hong-ye; Lu, Jin-chun

    2011-11-01

    Reproductive tract infection is one of the important factors of male reproduction. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase (PMNE) in semen, as a marker of male reproductive tract inflammation, especially recessive infection, potentially affects male fertility. The concentration of PMNE in semen is correlated significantly not only with semen white blood cell count and seminal plasma ROS level, but also with the levels of other inflammation related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, PMNE has a negative impact on sperm quality by decreasing sperm motility, increasing the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm and interfering with DNA integrity. PMNE inhibitors in semen can form a compound with PMNE, and the imbalanced proportions of the two may promote the development of chronic inflammation, and consequently lead to male infertility. At present, PMNE in semen is detected mainly by enzyme immunoassay, but this method still needs to be standardized, and the diagnostic standards to be unified. PMID:22141276

  19. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2014-10-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes "semen" as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome. PMID:25568479

  20. Perfluorochemicals and Human Semen Quality: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Kim, Sungduk; Sweeney, Anne M.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Lynch, Courtney D.; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relation between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality is evolving, although limited data exist for men recruited from general populations. Objectives: We examined the relation between perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples planning pregnancy. Methods: Using population-based sampling strategies, we recruited 501 couples discontinuing contraception from two U.S. geographic regions from 2005 through 2009. Baseline interviews and anthropometric assessments were conducted, followed by blood collection for the quantification of seven serum PFCs (perfluorosulfonates, perfluorocarboxylates, and perfluorosulfonamides) using tandem mass spectrometry. Men collected a baseline semen sample and another approximately 1 month later. Semen samples were shipped with freezer packs, and analyses were performed on the day after collection. We used linear regression to estimate the difference in each semen parameter associated with a one unit increase in the natural log–transformed PFC concentration after adjusting for confounders and modeling repeated semen samples. Sensitivity analyses included optimal Box-Cox transformation of semen quality end points. Results: Six PFCs [2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)] were associated with 17 semen quality end points before Box-Cox transformation. PFOSA was associated with smaller sperm head area and perimeter, a lower percentage of DNA stainability, and a higher percentage of bicephalic and immature sperm. PFDeA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS were associated with a lower percentage of sperm with coiled tails. Conclusions: Select PFCs were associated with certain semen end points, with the most significant associations observed for PFOSA but with results in varying directions. Citation

  1. A successful new approach to honeybee semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-10-01

    Honeybee biodiversity is under massive threat, and improved methods for gamete cryopreservation could be a precious tool for both the in situ- and ex situ-conservation of subspecies and ecotypes. Recent cryoprotocols for drone semen have improved the viability and fertility of frozen-thawed semen by using increased diluent:semen-ratios, but there is still much room for progress. As semen cryopreserved after dilution often appeared hyperactive, we speculated that the disruption of sperm-sperm interactions during dilution and cryopreservation could reduce the fertile lifespan of the cells. We therefore developed protocols to reduce admixture, or abolish it altogether by dialyzing semen against a hypertonic solution of cryoprotectant. Additionally, we tested methods to reduce the cryoprotectant concentration after thawing. Insemination of queens with semen cryopreserved after dialysis yielded 49%, 59% and 79% female (= stemming from fertilized eggs) pupae in three separate experiments, and the numbers of sperm found in the spermathecae of the queens were significantly higher than those previously reported. Post-thaw dilution and reconcentration of semen for cryoprotectant removal reduced fertility, but sizeable proportions of female brood were still produced. Workers stemming from cryopreserved semen did not differ from bees stemming from untreated semen with regard to indicators of fluctuating asymmetry, but were slightly heavier. Cryopreservation after dialysis tended to increase the proportion of cells with DNA-nicks, as measured by the TUNEL-assay, but this increase appears small when compared to the baseline variations of this indicator. Overall, we conclude that cryoprotectant-addition through dialysis can improve the quality of cryopreserved drone semen. Testing of offspring for vitality and genetic integrity should continue. PMID:25088062

  2. COMPARATIVE ANTIVIRAL AND PROVIRAL FACTORS IN SEMEN AND VACCINES FOR PREVENTING VIRAL DISSEMINATION FROM THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many animal and human viruses are disseminated via semen, but there is little information on how to measure and stimulate protective anti-viral immunity in the male reproductive tract and semen. This information is important since successful vaccination through the stimulation of protective immune ...

  3. Semen characteristics after vasectomy in the ram.

    PubMed

    Janett, F; Hüssy, D; Lischer, C; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in semen characteristics in vasectomized rams and to determine if infertility was present 14 days after vasectomy. Experiments were performed using five cross-breed rams, aged between 18 and 30 months. Semen was collected weekly by artificial vagina from 2 months before to 5 months after vasectomy. After sexual rest for 10 days, vasectomy was performed by the cranial midscrotal approach. In all ejaculates the volume, concentration, total sperm number, motility and morphology (normal spermatozoa, loose heads) were determined and sperm viability (SYBR-14/PI) was evaluated in all semen samples collected after vasectomy. In the first ejaculate obtained 14 days post vasectomy all rams showed a significant (P < 0.05) drop in mean volume (from 1.2 to 0.5 mL), total sperm count (from 5176.8 to 51.1 x 10(6)) and morphologically normal sperm (from 84.1 to 15.7%), when compared to the last prevasectomy collection. We could also demonstrate a positive correlation (r = 0.89) between the individual cumulative total number of spermatozoa after vasectomy and the scrotal circumference measured before vasectomy. Sperm motility and viability could never be demonstrated after vasectomy and normal spermatozoa continuously decreased concomitant with an increase in loose heads. On post mortem examination 5 months after surgery, spermatocele formation and multiple sperm granulomas were present in all five rams. Our results show that in the first ejaculate collected by artificial vagina 14 days after vasectomy, no motile and viable spermatozoa could be detected. Despite weekly collections during a 5-month period after sterilization, azoospermia could never be achieved. PMID:11516127

  4. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.33 Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and...

  5. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.33 Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and...

  6. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.33 Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and...

  7. Effect of semen extender and storage temperature on ram sperm motility over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of ram semen for long period of time depends on a number of factors, including type of extender and storage temperature. A study compared the effect of semen extender and storage temperature on motility of ram semen stored for 72 h. Semen collected via electroejaculator from 5 mature Katahd...

  8. Two new hepaprotective saponins from Semen celosiae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Liang; Wang, Ying; Guo, Mei-Li; Li, Yu-Xian

    2010-07-01

    Two new oleanolic acid saponins, namely celosin C (1) and celosin D (2), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Semen celosiae. Their structures were identified as celosin C (1) and celosin D (2) by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. The hepatoprotective activity of 1 and 2 with oral dose 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg, respectively, were investigated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The results indicate that they have significant hepatoprotective effects (p<0.01). PMID:19945514

  9. Semen A Altshuler: scientist, mentor, teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochelaev, Boris I.

    2011-10-01

    International Conference `Resonances in Condensed Matter' is devoted to 100 years of the birthday of the Corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Professor of the Kazan University Semen Alexandrovich Altshuler (1911-1983). He is well known by pioneer works on EPR, the prediction and grounds for an existence of the neutron magnetic moment, the prediction and the theory of the acoustic paramagnetic resonance, and as a founder of the Kazan scientific school `Magnetic radiospectroscopy of condensed matter' (with E K Zavoiskii and B M Kozyrev)

  10. Application of liquid semen technology improves conception rate of sex-sorted semen in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z Z

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to compare reproductive performance of liquid sex-sorted (SS) semen with that of conventional (CON) semen in lactating dairy cows. Between 2011 and 2013, commercial dairy herds (n = 101, 203, and 253 for 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively) with predominantly Holstein-Friesian cows were enrolled in a contract mating program to produce surplus heifers for export using liquid SS semen. During the spring mating period, each herd was allocated with liquid SS semen at 50% of its daily requirement and the remaining daily requirement was allocated with CON liquid semen. Sperm for producing SS semen was sorted by Sexing Technologies NZ Ltd. (Hamilton, New Zealand) and then packaged using the liquid semen technology of LIC (Hamilton, New Zealand) at a dose of 1 × 10(6) sperm. Artificial insemination (AI) with liquid SS semen was carried out between 43 and 46 h after collection. Conventional semen straws contained 1.25 × 10(6), 1.75 × 10(6), or 2 × 10(6) sperm for semen to be used on d 1, 2, or 3 after collection, respectively. Only CON inseminations on the same days as when SS semen was used were included in the comparison. Herd managers biased usage of SS semen toward cows with a longer postpartum interval before the mating start date (64.0 vs. 62.8 d), cows of higher genetic merit (NZ$107.0 vs. NZ$98.4), younger cows (5.1 vs. 5.2 yr), and cows in which they had more confidence of being genuinely in estrus as measured by a lower percentage of short returns between 1 and 17 d (5.3 vs. 7.5%). After adjusting for these factors, the estimated difference in nonreturn rate between AI with SS and CON semen over the 3 seasons was -3.8 percentage points (SS = 70.2% vs. CON = 74.0%; SS/CON = 94.9%). The estimated maximum difference in calving rate per AI between SS and CON semen was -3.1 percentage points for 2011 (SS = 51.2% vs. CON = 54.3%; SS/CON = 94.3%) and -3.0 percentage points for 2012 (SS = 49.7% vs. CON = 52.6%; SS/CON = 94.5%). Calving data for 2013

  11. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  12. Effect of environmental pollutants on human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-01-01

    With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of health effects of polluted environment must be made for maintaining and enhancing the quality of human life on this earth. Significant number of malformed children are born each year. Sixty-five to 70% of all birth defects have an unknown etiology. More than one-third of early human conception and up to 15% of recognized pregnancies are terminated by spontaneous abortion. The extent of the effect of environmental pollution on human reproductive performance is for the most part unknown. Of the approximately five million chemicals in existence, humans could be expose to a sufficient quantity of an estimated 53,000 for toxicity to be of potential problem. Methods that do not require autopsy or surgery such as semen analysis would be attractive for assessing the effect of environmental toxicology on quality of human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the effects of heavily polluted environment of industrial area of Ludhiana and relatively clean, pollution free environment of Chandigarh on the human semen quality. It was believed that the function of the male reproductive system may often be the most sensitive to toxic effects.

  13. Semen analysis: its place in modern reproductive medical practice.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Robert I; Baker, H W Gordon; Clarke, Gary N; Harrison, Keith L; Matson, Phillip L; Holden, Carol A; de Kretser, David M

    2003-02-01

    Semen analysis is the most important laboratory investigation for men when assessing the infertile couple. Advances in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques, particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) involving the direct injection of a single spermatozoon into an egg, have not diminished the role of semen analysis in modern reproductive practice. Semen analysis is the most basic laboratory investigation undertaken and is descriptive in terms of semen volume, appearance, viscosity, sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology. Since the results are used by clinicians to choose appropriate treatment options, a reliable service is imperative. It is crucial that the laboratory is experienced in the performance of semen analyses to ensure an accurate result. To ensure a quality semen analysis service, laboratories must participate in internal and external quality assurance activities, incorporate rigorous training protocols for technical staff and use reliable procedures. The World Health Organization laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm cervical mucous interaction, clearly describes the variables that need to be assessed and the methods of analysis and quality assurance to be used. PMID:12701680

  14. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. PMID:23153624

  15. Heritability of semen traits in German Warmblood stallions.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, M; Sieme, H; Martinsson, G; Distl, O

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate genetic parameters for semen quality traits of 241 fertile German Warmblood stallions regularly employed in artificial insemination (AI). Stallions were owned by the National Studs Celle and Warendorf in Germany. Semen traits analyzed were gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility and total number of progressively motile sperm. Semen protocols from a total of 63,972 ejaculates were collected between the years 2001 and 2014 for the present analysis. A multivariate linear animal model was employed for estimation of additive genetic and permanent environmental variances among stallions and breeding values (EBVs) for semen traits. Heritabilities estimated for all German Warmblood stallions were highest for gel-free volume (h(2)=0.28) and lowest for total number of progressively motile sperm (h(2)=0.13). The additive genetic correlation among gel-free volume and sperm concentration was highly negative (rg=-0.76). Average reliabilities of EBVs were at 0.37-0.68 for the 241 stallions with own records. The inter-stallion variance explained between 33 and 61% of the trait variance, underlining the major impact of the individual stallion on semen quality traits analyzed here. Recording of semen traits from stallions employed in AI may be recommended because EBVs achieve sufficient accuracies to improve semen quality in future generations. Due to favorable genetic correlations, sperm concentration, total number of sperm and total number of progressively motile sperm may be increased simultaneously. PMID:27080493

  16. Reference value of semen quality in Chinese young men.

    PubMed

    Junqing, Wu; Qiuying, Yang; Jianguo, Tao; Wei, Yuan; Liwei, Bo; Yuxian, Li; Yumei, Zhou; Kangshou, Yao; Weiqun, Lu; Lu, Chen; Ersheng, Gao

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate semen quality in young Chinese men and to establish reference values. Normal healthy young men from seven geographical areas were enrolled. The study showed that the mean sperm volume was 2.61 mL, and mean percent of sperm with forward progression was 59.89, while median of semen viability was 79.0%, and geometric mean of semen density was 55.45 x 10(6)/mL. Proportion of routine semen indexes that met World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were as follows: 81.9% for semen volume, 91.1% for liquefaction time, 93.4% for viscosity, 90.8% for pH, 81.3% for sperm with forward progression, 65.3% for sperm viability, 93.8% for semen density, 98.8% for normal sperm morphology, and 89.1% for total sperm count. Participants whose sperm met all WHO standard parameters accounted for 42.3%. Because the infertility rate in China is about 10-15%, the fifteenth percentile of semen parameters might be used as the lower limit of reference values, which may be more appropriate for young Chinese men. The fifteenth percentiles of parameters in this study were as follows: 1.5 mL for semen volume, 7.2 for pH value, 45% for proportion of sperm with forward progression, 68% for sperm viability, 30 x 10(6)/mL for semen density, 68% for proportion of sperm with normal morphology, and 50 x 10(6) for total sperm count. PMID:12057790

  17. Cytosine methylation of sperm DNA in horse semen after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Aurich, Christine; Schreiner, Bettina; Ille, Natascha; Alvarenga, Marco; Scarlet, Dragos

    2016-09-15

    Semen processing may contribute to epigenetic changes in spermatozoa. We have therefore addressed changes in sperm DNA cytosine methylation induced by cryopreservation of stallion semen. The relative amount of 5-methylcytosine relative to the genomic cytosine content of sperm DNA was analyzed by ELISA. In experiment 1, raw semen (n = 6 stallions, one ejaculate each) was shock-frozen. Postthaw semen motility and membrane integrity were completely absent, whereas DNA methylation was similar in raw (0.4 ± 0.2%) and shock-frozen (0.3 ± 0.1%) semen (not significant). In experiment 2, three ejaculates per stallion (n = 6) were included. Semen quality and DNA methylation was assessed before addition of the freezing extender and after freezing-thawing with either Ghent (G) or BotuCrio (BC) extender. Semen motility, morphology, and membrane integrity were significantly reduced by cryopreservation but not influenced by the extender (e.g., total motility: G 69.5 ± 2.0, BC 68.4 ± 2.2%; P < 0.001 vs. centrifugation). Cryopreservation significantly (P < 0.01) increased the level of DNA methylation (before freezing 0.6 ± 0.1%, postthaw G 6.4 ± 3.7, BC 4.4 ± 1.5%; P < 0.01), but no differences between the freezing extenders were seen. The level of DNA methylation was not correlated to semen motility, morphology, or membrane integrity. The results demonstrate that semen processing for cryopreservation increases the DNA methylation level in stallion semen. We conclude that assessment of sperm DNA methylation allows for evaluation of an additional parameter characterizing semen quality. The lower fertility rates of mares after insemination with frozen-thawed semen may at least in part be explained by cytosine methylation of sperm-DNA induced by the cryopreservation procedure. PMID:27242182

  18. Effects of sperm concentration at semen collection and storage period of frozen semen on dairy cow conception.

    PubMed

    Haugan, T; Gröhn, Y T; Kommisrud, E; Ropstad, E; Reksen, O

    2007-01-01

    The present study was based on data obtained from artificial inseminations (AIs) performed with cryopreserved semen from elite bulls used in the Norwegian breeding program. Semen was diluted to standardize the number of spermatozoa to 18 million per AI dose. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the net sperm concentration at semen collection and the storage period in liquid nitrogen have any effect on probability of conception in dairy cattle. We demonstrated that the natural range of sperm concentration at semen collection within some of the bulls was associated with the probability of conception. However, no primary trend among bulls was found on the effect of sperm concentration at semen collection. This appears to be due to differences among bulls in their response to the dilution ratio of seminal plasma to extender. The effect of storage time was investigated in semen that had been stored between 1000 days and 2400 days in AI straws in liquid nitrogen at the AI center. Our findings showed that use of semen with the longest storage period, i.e. 1951-2400 days, resulted in a more than one percentage point lower probability of conception than semen with a shorter storage period. In conclusion, the net sperm concentration at semen collection, which affects the dilution ratio of seminal plasma to extender, should be considered individually among bulls to achieve optimal reproductive performance. Furthermore, this study gives support to the idea that a measurable degree of damage to the spermatozoa could occur during the preservation time in liquid nitrogen. PMID:16464545

  19. Bacterial Communities in Semen from Men of Infertile Couples: Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Relationships of Seminal Microbiota to Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shun-Long; Chiu, Chih-Min; Lin, Feng-Mao; Huang, Wei-Chih; Liang, Chao; Yang, Ting; Yang, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Wei-Yun; Chang, Yi-An; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2014-01-01

    Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility. PMID:25340531

  20. The effect of semen extender, seminal plasma and raw semen on uterine and ovarian blood flow in mares.

    PubMed

    Bollwein, Heinrich; Sowade, Cornelia; Stolla, R

    2003-09-01

    Transrectal color Doppler sonography was used to evaluate the effect of intrauterine infusion of skim milk semen extender, seminal plasma and raw semen on the endometrium and blood flow in the uterine and ovarian arteries in mares. Six Trotter mares (mean age: 12 years) were examined during estrus in three cycles. Each mare received an intrauterine infusion of 20 ml of skim milk semen extender, seminal plasma or raw semen during estrus in one of three cycles. Blood flow measurements in both uterine and ovarian arteries and the determination of intrauterine fluid via sonography were performed before each infusion and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after infusion. Forty-eight hours later, the intrauterine infusion and measurements were repeated using the same time intervals. Changes in blood flow were detected using transrectal color Doppler sonography and were evaluated using the mean time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV) of the blood flow. Cytological and bacteriological examination of uterine swabs performed 48 h after the second infusion revealed less inflammation and bacterial growth in mares infused with skim milk semen extender than in those infused with seminal plasma or raw semen. There was an increase in intrauterine fluid as early as 1 h after infusion of any of the substances. The infusion of skim milk semen extender had no effect on uterine blood flow. Within 1 h after infusion of seminal plasma or raw semen, there was an increase in the TAMV values of both uterine arteries (P<0.05). In contrast, ovarian blood flow increased only in the artery ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle and only after the infusion of raw semen (P<0.05). In conclusion, the changes in uterine perfusion observed after intrauterine infusion may be associated with endometrial inflammation and vasodilatory components in the seminal plasma, whereas the changes seen in ovarian blood flow are possibly attributable to the interaction between sperm and oviduct. PMID:12832011

  1. Semen analysis in the Usher syndrome type 2A.

    PubMed

    van Aarem, A; Wagenaar, M; Tonnaer, E; Pieke Dahl, S; Bisseling, J; Janssen, H; Bastiaans, B; Kimberling, W; Cremers, C

    1999-01-01

    Semen analysis in patients with Usher syndrome suggested that defective connecting cilia axonemes may be involved in the irreversible, progressive loss of photoreceptors in Usher's syndrome. In the framework of clinical genetic research into Usher syndrome, a pilot study was set up to test these findings. The semen of 6 Usher 2A patients was analysed. The fertility status of the study group of Usher 2A patients was evaluated, including semen analysis, supplemented by electron microscopic examination of the spermatozoa. Except for a significantly increased pH value, no abnormalities were found in the functional semen analysis, whereas electron microscopy revealed microtubular tail abnormalities. The latter finding was of little relevance, however, in view of the normal motility of the spermatozoa observed in these patients. There were no fertility problems in our group of Usher 2A patients, nor have any been mentioned in Usher patients in general. Earlier study findings were not supported by our data. PMID:10325550

  2. [Communication between clinicians and laboratorians in semen analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-jun; Cao, Xing-wu

    2015-05-01

    By direct communication between clinicians and laboratorians, obstacles between clinical work and laboratory diagnosis were unequivocally found at an academic conference. Many clinical physicians feel disappointed and frustrated at the laboratory diagnosis by semen analysis and frankly express their expectations, as to recognize the role and significance of laboratory diagnosis, understand the value of routine semen analysis, work out the puzzles in the analysis of sperm morphology, fulfil the requirements for the identification of cells in semen, and obtain responses from and initiate discussions among laboratorians about the relevant questions. Both laboratorians and clinicians are appealing for strengthened management and earlier establishment of national standards and operating specifications for laboratory diagnosis by semen analysis. PMID:26117933

  3. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes “semen” as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome. PMID:25568479

  4. Semen quality and sperm functional parameters in fertile Indian men.

    PubMed

    Pal, P C; Rajalakshmi, M; Manocha, M; Sharma, R S; Mittal, S; Rao, D N

    2006-02-01

    The reports of a decline in the reproductive health of men worldwide prompted the present study to be undertaken so that baseline semen parameters could be established in Indian men. Semen profile and sperm function parameters were evaluated in 368 Indian men of proven fertility, settled in Delhi. The results of the study were compared with available published information from Indian men. The mean sperm concentration and semen volumes were 68.22 +/- 15.14 x 10(6) ml(-1) and 3.20 +/- 0.94 ml, respectively. Rapid, linear progressive motility and sluggish linear motility were 40.95 +/- 9.15% and 24.95 +/- 7.01%, respectively. A comparison of the results of the present study with earlier published data did not support the contention of a decrease in the semen quality in Indian men. PMID:16420238

  5. Evidence of excretion of Schmallenberg virus in bull semen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel orthobunyavirus, discovered in Germany in late 2011. It mainly infects cattle, sheep and goats and could lead to congenital infection, causing abortion and fetal abnormalities. SBV is transmitted by biting midges from the Culicoides genus and there is no evidence that natural infection occurs directly between ruminants. Here, we could detect SBV RNA in infected bull semen using qRT-PCR (three bulls out of seven tested positive; 29 positive semen batches out of 136). We also found that highly positive semen batches from SBV infected bulls can provoke an acute infection in IFNAR-/- mice, suggesting the potential presence of infectious virus in the semen of SBV infected bulls. PMID:24708245

  6. Cryogenic preservation of semen from the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen containing 6% or 7% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) resulting in 32 fertile eggs and 17 goslings; with 7% DMSO, 19 of 31 eggs were fertile. Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE), adjusted to 270 ? 30 mOs and 7.5 ? 0.4 pH, was used to dilute semen samples and the DMSO before cryopreservation. About half of the live spermatozoa in the fresh semen (92.9 ? 2.5% live cells, laboratory studies; 87.3 ? 7.3%, insemination trials) survived the freeze-thaw process (46.7 ? 7.8%, laboratory; 33.3 ? 17.8%, insemination trials). Samples of frozen-thawed semen contained a greater percentage of bent spermatozoa (27.1 ? 8.4% of live cells) than fresh semen (14.4 ? 3.0% of live cells). Fecal- and urate-contaminated semen (a common problem when collecting goose semen) reduced the sperm motility score from 3.2 ? 0.6 to 2.7? 0.7 and number of live spermatozoa in frozen-thawed semen from 49 ? 9% to 24 ?18%. Other variables examined that had less of an effect on semen quality included semen extenders, semen holding temperature, dilution and equilibration, relationship between hour of semen collection and level of semen contamination, and the relationship between season and sperm concentration.

  7. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)−1). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.32, −0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  8. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of frozen semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    Frozen feline semen was prepared using two types of extenders, egg yolk Tris-fructose citric acid (EYT-FC) and egg yolk sodium citrate solution (EYC), and the semen qualities after thawing and the conception rates obtained by unilateral intrauterine horn insemination (UIUI) were investigated. Cats used in the experiment were six males and 11 females aged 2-12 years (the number of experimental cases was 17). For preparation of frozen semen, semen collected by the artificial vagina method was adjusted to I x 10(8) sperm/m/ and 7% glycerol, put in 250 microl straws, and then frozen using a cell freezer. The mean sperm motility after thawing was 30.0+/-9.7 (SE) % in the semen prepared with EYT-FC and 30.0+/-3.3% in the semen prepared with EYC. Four of seven animals were fertilized by UIUI using two straws in both extenders, and the conception rate was 57.1%. The mean ratios of number of kits to the number of ovulations in the inseminated side were 61.1+/-24.5% and 30.5+/-3.4% for EYT-FC and EYC, respectively, showing that the ratio tended to be higher in the semen prepared with EYT-FC. The above findings, comparing the two extenders for preparation of frozen feline semen, showed that EYT-FC is slightly superior to EYC. To increase conception and fertility rates, it may be important to increase the sperm count for insemination and to inseminate both uterine horns. PMID:11193339

  9. Artificial insemination and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of Al and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds began because of the increased emphasis on conservation of avian species threatened with extinction. Over the years, aviculturists have developed techniques for Al and cryopreservation of semen obtained from a variety of birds ranging from passerines to Andean condors. Generally, for each new species, we develop a practical semen collection technique and then evaluate the semen. A commercial semen extender (Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender) is modified and used to dilute the semen and provide support for the sperm during the freezing process (the pH and osmolality of the extender is adjusted to reflect the pH and osmolality of the semen being frozen). We find that the freezing schedule developed by Sexton (1977), which utilizes dimethylsulfoxide (DMS0) as cryoprotectant, works well for many species. We cool the sample sequentially in an ethanol bath, in liquid nitrogen vapor, and lastly in liquid nitrogen. Although we have experimented with a variety of freezing protocols, we prefer a 15-min equilibration period in DMSO at 5 C. We begin the freezing process by cooling at -1 C/min from 5 to -20 C in the ethanol bath. The samples are transferred into a vapor tank at a location just above liquid nitrogen and frozen at -50 C/min to -80 C. To complete the freezing process, the samples are plunged into the liquid nitrogen in the bottom of the vapor tank. The samples remain in liquid nitrogen until they are thawed just before insemination. If necessary, the freezing equipment can be transported in a van to remote locations.

  10. Cryopreservation of lar gibbon semen collected by manual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Masaki; Morita, Natsumi; Tajima, Shunichiro; Almunia, Julio; Maeda, Masami; Kamiguchi, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We confirmed ejaculation as a result of manual stimulation in a lar gibbon, and attempted to cryopreserve the semen using TES-Tris-egg yolk-based (TTE) extender. After measuring the amount of semen (g), we first diluted the semen with TTE extender, and calculated sperm concentration (sperm/ml), total sperm count (sperm), and progressive sperm motility (%). Then, we cooled diluted semen slowly to 4 °C over 2 h, and added an equal volume of secondary extender containing glycerol over 30 min. Finally, we flash-froze the semen solution by plunging into liquid nitrogen. In addition, we freeze-thawed the solution to determine the recovery rate of the motile sperm. Collection of semen was successful on four of the five occasions. The median (min-max) quantity of ejaculate was 0.19 g (0.09-0.26 g), the median sperm concentration was 1.38 × 10(9) sperm/ml (1.20-1.53 × 10(9) sperm/ml), and the median total sperm count was 0.26 × 10(9) sperm (0.11-0.40 × 10(9) sperm). Moreover, the median sperm motility immediately after ejaculation was 65 % (60-75 %), the median sperm motility after freeze-thawing was 30 % (25-35 %), and the median recovery rate was 42.3 % (40.0-58.3 %). We were able to (1) collect semen from a lar gibbon by manual stimulation, (2) reveal andrological findings regarding semen characteristics, and (3) preserve the genetic resource using TTE cryopreservation. PMID:27179974

  11. New Approaches to Boar Semen Evaluation, Processing and Improvement.

    PubMed

    Sutovsky, P

    2015-07-01

    The improvement of boar reproductive performance may be the next frontier in reproductive management of swine herd in Unites States, facilitated by better understanding of boar sperm function and by the introduction of new advanced instrumentation in the andrology field. Objective single ejaculate evaluation and individual boar fertility prediction may be possible by introducing automated flow cytometric semen analysis with vital stains (e.g. acrosomal integrity and mito-potential), DNA fragmentation analysis and biomarkers (ubiquitin, PAWP, ALOX15, aggresome) associated with normal or defective sperm phenotypes. Measurement of sperm-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a helpful indicator of normal semen sample. Semen ROS levels could be managed by the addition of ROS-scavenging antioxidants. Alternative energy regeneration substrates and sperm stimulants such as inorganic pyrophosphate and caffeine could increase sperm lifespan in extended semen and within the female reproductive system. Such technology could be combined with timed sperm release in the female reproductive system after artificial insemination. Sperm phenotype analysis by the image-based flow cytometry will go hand in hand with the advancement of swine genomics, linking aberrant sperm phenotype to the fertility influencing gene polymorphisms. Finally, poor-quality ejaculates could be rescued and acceptable ejaculates improved by semen purification methods such as the nanoparticle-based semen purification and magnetic-activated sperm sorting. Altogether, these scientific and technological advances could benefit swine industry, provided that the challenges of new technology adoption, dissemination and cost reduction are met. PMID:26174914

  12. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection

    PubMed Central

    Łukaszewicz, Ewa Teresa; Kowalczyk, Artur Mikołaj; Rzońca, Zenon

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.), one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 106 mL-1 with dummy female and 614.5 x 106 mL-1 for massage method) was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P≥0.05). Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species. PMID:26397704

  13. The effect of bacterial contamination of semen on sperm chromatin integrity and standard semen parameters in men from infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Rybar, R; Prinosilova, P; Kopecka, V; Hlavicova, J; Veznik, Z; Zajicova, A; Rubes, J

    2012-05-01

    A considerable proportion of male factor infertility cases are associated with inflammatory processes. The most common sexually transmissible agents causing sexually transmitted diseases in industrial countries are Chlamydia trachomatis, genital Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma spp. This study was undertaken to investigate whether these bacterial contaminants in semen affect sperm quality parameters and particularly DNA integrity (detected by sperm chromatin structure assay) in males from infertile couples (n = 293). The results showed that semen contaminations with the investigated bacterial species were not associated with sperm DNA fragmentation. However, contaminations with Mycoplasma spp. and C. trachomatis were associated with decreased sperm concentrations. Total sperm numbers in contaminated semen samples tended to be decreased, but not significantly. Mycoplasma had the highest adverse effect on sperm quality (concentration, motility, morphology and DNA condensation). Antibiotic therapy of the selected 47 men was successful in 55%, but semen quality parameters did not improve at least up to 3 months after the therapy. The presence of pathogenic bacteria in semen is primarily associated with low sperm production. Our data showed that Mycoplasma spp. contamination of semen had the highest adverse effect on sperm quality. Sperm chromatin integrity assessed by the presence of DNA breaks was not disturbed. PMID:21762193

  14. The semen microbiome and its relationship with local immunology and viral load in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cindy M; Osborne, Brendan J W; Hungate, Bruce A; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha; Price, Lance B; Kaul, Rupert

    2014-07-01

    Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024), TNF-α (p = 0.009), and IL-1b (p = 0.002). IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r(2)  = 0.18, p = 0.02). Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r(2) = 0.15, p = 0.02). HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25058515

  15. Toxicity of cryoprotectants to honey bee semen and queens.

    PubMed

    Wegener, J; Bienefeld, K

    2012-02-01

    Given the threats to the intraspecific biodiversity of Apis mellifera and the pressure on bee breeding to come up with disease-tolerant lines, techniques to cryopreserve drone semen are of great interest. Freeze-thawed drone semen of high viability and/or motility has repeatedly been obtained, but fertility of such semen, when it was measured, was always low. The cryoprotective agent (CPA) most frequently used with drone semen is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), although this substance has been suspected of causing genetic damage in sperm. No form of sperm washing is currently performed. Using a membrane permeability assay, we measured the short-term toxicity of four possible replacements for DMSO, 1,3-propane diol, 2,3-butane diol, ethylene glycol, and dimethyl formamide. We also tested whether the practice of inseminating queens with CPA-containing semen affects sperm numbers in the storage organs of queens, or sperm fertility. Finally, we tested whether CPA-toxicity in vivo can be reduced by using mixtures of two CPAs, DMSO, and ethylene glycol. Our results show that, although short-term toxicity of all CPAs tested was low, the presence of single CPAs in insemination mixtures at concentrations required for slow freezing greatly reduced the number of sperm reaching the spermatheca. Contrary to earlier reports, this was also true for DMSO. Ethylene glycol was additionally shown to reduce the viability of spermatozoa reaching the storage organ. Mixtures of DMSO and EthGly performed better than either substance used singly at the same concentration. We conclude that the toxicity of CPAs, including DMSO, on honey bee semen and/or queens has been underestimated in the past. This could partly explain the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo quality of cryopreserved drone semen, described by others. Combinations of several CPAs and techniques to partly remove CPAs after thawing could help to solve this problem. PMID:22115807

  16. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle. PMID:24074254

  17. Factors affecting economics of using sexed semen in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McCullock, Katelyn; Hoag, Dana L K; Parsons, Jay; Lacy, Michael; Seidel, George E; Wailes, William

    2013-10-01

    The use of sexed semen in the dairy industry has grown rapidly. However, high costs and low fertility have limited the use of this potentially valuable tool. This study used simulation to evaluate 160,000 combinations of key variables in 3 spheres of influence related to profit feasibility: (1) market (e.g., milk and calf prices), (2) dairy farm management (e.g., conception rates), and (3) technology (e.g., accuracy of sexing). These influential variables were used to determine the most favorable circumstances in which managers or technicians can effect change. Three distinct scenarios were created to model 3 initiatives that a producer might take with sexed semen: (1) using sexed semen on heifers, (2) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and (3) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and breeding all other cows with beef semen. Due to the large number of management, market, and technology combinations, a response surface and interpretive graphs were created to map the scope of influence for the key variables. Technology variables such as the added cost of sexed semen had relatively little effect on profitability, defined as net present value gain per cow, whereas management variables such as conception rate had a significant effect. Milk price had relatively little effect within each scenario, but was important across scenarios. Profitability was very sensitive to the price of dairy heifer calves, relative to beef and dairy bull calves. Scenarios 1 and 2 added about $50 to $75 per cow in net present value, which ranged from $0 to $200 and from $100 to $300, respectively. Scenario 3 usually was not profitable, primarily because fewer excess dairy replacement heifers were available for sale. Dairy heifer price proved to be the most influential variable, regardless of scenario. PMID:23932128

  18. EVALUATION OF CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE AND DNA INTEGRITY IN SPERM: AN INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SEMEN COLLECTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Home collection of ejaculated semen would facilitate participation rates and geographic diversity in reproductive epidemiology studies. Our study addressed concerns that home collection and overnight mail return might induce chromosome/DNA damage. We collected semen from 10 hea...

  19. Cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen in Bioxcell extender.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Iqbal, S; Ullah, N

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to compare commercially available extender Bioxcell with tris-citric egg yolk extender for post thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. For comparison of post thaw semen quality: semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (at 42 degrees C) for three weeks (replicates). Qualifying ejaculates having motility >60% from each buffalo bull were divided in two aliquots and diluted (at 37 degrees C having 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) in tris-citric egg yolk or Bioxcell extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 degrees C in 2 hours, equilibrated for 4 hours and filled in 0.5 ml straws. Semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm) for 10 minutes. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). After 24 hours of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 degrees C for 30 seconds to assess sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, normal apical ridge, and abnormalities (head, mid piece, and tail). For comparison of in vivo fertility: semen from two buffalo bulls of known fertility was cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell as described earlier, and used for inseminations under field conditions. Post-thaw percentage of sperm motility (45.3 +/- 1.1, 45.0 +/- 1.4), viability (66.2 +/- 1.1, 64.4 +/- 1.3) plasma membrane integrity (60.4 +/- 1.2, 59.2 +/- 1.4) and normal apical ridge (82.9 +/- 0.5, 80.7 +/- 0.5) did not differ (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. Similarly, sperm abnormalities of head (1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.20 +/- 0.1), mid piece (0.67 +/- 0.1, 0.87 +/- 0.1) and tail (11.7 +/- 0.2, 11.6 +/- 0.3) remained similar (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. In vivo fertility rates of buffalo semen cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell also remained similar (44% vs. 47%). It is concluded that commercially available Bioxcell may be

  20. Microsatellite analysis of cryopreserved stallion semen stored on FTA paper.

    PubMed

    Schulman, M L; Harper, C K; Bell, E; Nel, A; Guthrie, A J

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and validate a method to permit microsatellite analysis of DNA profiles obtained from frozen-thawed stallion sperm cells. This would provide reliable and accurate verification of the identification of a semen donor. Ejaculates from 5 pony stallions were collected, processed and frozen in 0.5 ml plastic straws. Aliquots of 100 microl of the frozen-thawed semen thus obtained were either placed directly, or diluted (1:10; 1:100; and 1:1000) and placed on slides of FTA paper. Similarly, blood samples obtained from each of the stallions were placed onto slides of FTA paper. A punch was removed from each sample after drying Each sample was mixed with FTA purification reagent, Dithiothreitol and Proteinase K before incubation and processing. All samples were processed with a set of 13 microsatellite markers. Further analysis permitted a comparison of the DNA profiles of the frozen-thawed semen and the blood samples. A full profile of markers was obtained from the 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of the frozen-thawed semen samples as well as from the blood samples. The DNA profiles from the frozen-thawed semen and blood samples obtained from the stallions matched in all cases. PMID:12665139

  1. High sperm chromatin stability in semen with high viscosity.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Sánchez, A

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of high semen viscosity on sperm chromatin stability. Semen samples obtained from men with normal and high viscosity were studied. Sperm chromatin stability was tested by exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) only and SDS together with a zinc-chelating agent, disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (SDS+EDTA). After SDS incubation, stable sperm was 61.36 +/- 3.0 and 54.71 +/- 3.42% for normal and high semen viscosity, respectively (P:NS), and after SDS+EDTA, it was further reduced to 12.48 +/- 0.99% in semen samples with normal consistency and in a less magnitude in semen samples with high viscosity (25.6 +/- 5.2). Comparing values obtained in SDS+EDTA, a high sperm stability was observed in samples with hyperviscosity (p < .02). In samples with normal viscosity the percentage of grossly swollen sperm increased 5.40 times from the values obtained in sperm incubated with SDS to the values obtained with SDS+EDTA, whereas in samples with high viscosity the percentage increased only 2.2 times. It is concluded that hyperviscosity is associated with a high sperm chromatin stability in situations when a zinc-chelating agent is present. PMID:8122934

  2. Semen quality assessments and their significance in reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Kordan, W; Fraser, L; Wysocki, P; Strzezek, R; Lecewicz, M; Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Dziekońska, A; Soliwoda, D; Koziorowska-Gilun, M

    2013-01-01

    Semen quality assessment methods are very important in predicting the fertilizing ability of persevered spermatozoa and to improve animal reproductive technology. This review discusses some of the current laboratory methods used for semen quality assessments, with references to their relevance in the evaluation of male fertility and semen preservation technologies. Semen quality assessment methods include sperm motility evaluations, analyzed with the computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system, and plasma membrane integrity evaluations using fluorescent stains, such as Hoechst 33258 (H33258), SYBR-14, propidium iodide (PI), ethidium homodimer (EthD) and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and biochemical tests, such as the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level. This review addresses the significance of specific fluorochromes and ATP measurements for the evaluation of the sperm mitochondrial status. Laboratory methods used for the evaluation of chromatin status, DNA integrity, and apoptotic changes in spermatozoa have been discussed. Special emphasis has been focused on the application of proteomic techniques, such as two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), for the identification of the properties and functions of seminal plasma proteins in order to define their role in the fertilization-related processes. PMID:24597323

  3. Rooster Semen Cryopreservation: Effect of Pedigree Line and Male Age on Post-Thaw Sperm Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in preservation of commercial genetic stocks. Our objective was to evaluate the cryosurvival of semen from 8 pedigreed layer lines at the onset and end of production. Semen from 160 roosters (20/line) was...

  4. Rooster Semen Cryopreservation: Effect of Line Genetics and Male Age on Sperm Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in commercial production or preservation of genetic stocks. Our objective was to evaluate the cryosurvival of semen from 8 pedigreed layer lines at the onset and end of production. Semen from 160 roosters...

  5. The effects of semen collection on fertility in captive, naturally fertile, sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, J.M.; Taylor, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    We tested to see if semen collection interferes with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile, Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had previously produced fertile eggs. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection had minimal effect on semen quality and semen quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm viability, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation. Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we did not observe differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no statistically significant differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. However, 4 eggs were broken by adults during the disturbance associated with capturing birds for semen collection. We found that females with mates from which we consistently gathered better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than females with sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60). We interpret these results to mean that males that were successfully breeding with their mates had little left at the time of our collection.

  6. Semen predictors of in vitro fertilization and embryo cleavage.

    PubMed

    Daya, S; Gunby, J; Kohut, J

    1989-11-01

    In vitro fertilization treatment for male infertility is not very successful because fertilization is known to be affected by semen quality. Information on fertilizing ability may provide prognostic information for couples contemplating such treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify semen variables that would predict fertilization and embryo cleavage. Sperm was prepared by the swim-up method before insemination of oocytes obtained by laparoscopy after ovulation induction. Routine semen analysis and the hypoosmotic swelling test for assessment of sperm membrane integrity were performed on aliquots of prepared sperm. Logistic regression and receiver-operator characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine the overall best-fitting model and discriminatory level of variables that would predict cleavage. The results indicate that after the swim-up procedure, at least 10 million sperm/ml, capable of undergoing swelling in hypoosmotic medium, are necessary to increase the likelihood of in vitro fertilization and cleavage. PMID:2589452

  7. Rotation of Boar Semen Doses During Storage Affects Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Waberski, D

    2015-08-01

    It is common practice to rotate boar semen doses during storage for prevention of sperm sedimentation. In this study, the effect of rotation of boar semen doses during storage on sperm quality was investigated. Manual turning twice daily and automatic rotation five times per hour resulted in the following effects: alkalinization of the BTS-extender, loss of membrane integrity at day 3, and loss of motility and changes in sperm kinematics during a thermoresistance test at day 5. Using a pH-stabilized variant of BTS extender, sperm motility and velocity decreased in continuously rotated samples, whereas membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity remain unaffected. It is concluded that rotation of semen samples adversely affects sperm quality and, therefore, should no longer be recommended for AI practice. PMID:25974759

  8. Analysis of PAEs in semen of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Yuan; Wang, Yu; Xie, Fang-Qin; Li, Yan-Xing; Wan, Xue-Lian; Ma, Wei-Wei; Wang, De-Cai; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health. Aim: To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility. Methods: Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed. Results: The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels. Conclusions: The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population. PMID:25384258

  9. A trial of semen collection by transrectal electroejaculation method from Amur leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus).

    PubMed

    Tajima, Hideo; Yoshizawa, Madoka; Sasaki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Fujio; Narushima, Etsuo; Ogawa, Yuka; Orima, Hiromitsu; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Toyonaga, Mari; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kawakami, Eiichi; Hori, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    We collected semen from a male Amur leopard cat using the transrectal electroejaculation method and investigated the semen qualities for about four years. In addition, the influence of the season on the spermatogenic function of the Amur leopard cat was investigated with regard to the semen qualities, testicular volume and serum testosterone level. As a result, we could collect semen with good sperm qualities that would be useable for artificial insemination. Some seasonality was noted in the testicular volume and serum testosterone level. We clarified that the semen qualities were favorable before and during the female breeding season compared with those after the breeding season. PMID:26935841

  10. A trial of semen collection by transrectal electroejaculation method from Amur leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus)

    PubMed Central

    TAJIMA, Hideo; YOSHIZAWA, Madoka; SASAKI, Shinichi; YAMAMOTO, Fujio; NARUSHIMA, Etsuo; OGAWA, Yuka; ORIMA, Hiromitsu; TSUTSUI, Toshihiko; TOYONAGA, Mari; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi; HORI, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We collected semen from a male Amur leopard cat using the transrectal electroejaculation method and investigated the semen qualities for about four years. In addition, the influence of the season on the spermatogenic function of the Amur leopard cat was investigated with regard to the semen qualities, testicular volume and serum testosterone level. As a result, we could collect semen with good sperm qualities that would be useable for artificial insemination. Some seasonality was noted in the testicular volume and serum testosterone level. We clarified that the semen qualities were favorable before and during the female breeding season compared with those after the breeding season. PMID:26935841

  11. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-02-01

    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation. PMID:24665683

  12. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

  13. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-06-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  14. Reproduction in nondomestic birds: Physiology, semen collection, artificial insemination and cryopreservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Bertschinger, H.; Donoghue, A.M.; Blanco, J.; Soley, J.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering work by Quinn and Burrows in the late 1930s led to successful artificial insemination (AI) programs in the domestic poultry industry. A variety of species specific modifications to the Quinn and Burrows massage technique made AI possible in nondomestic birds. Massage semen collection and insemination techniques span the entire range of species from sparrows to ostriches. Also, cooperative semen collection and electroejaculation have found limited use in some nondomestic species. Artificial insemination produces good fertility, often exceeding fertility levels in naturally copulating populations. However, aviculturists should explore other ways to improve fertility before resorting to AI. Artificial insemination is labor intensive and may pose risks to nondomestic birds as well as handlers associated with capture and insemination. Semen collection and AI makes semen cryopreservation and germ plasma preservation possible. Yet, semen cryopreservation techniques need improvement before fertility with frozen-thawed semen will equal fertility from AI with fresh semen.

  15. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled. PMID:27313137

  16. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled. PMID:27313137

  17. Seminal Plasma Heparin Binding Proteins Improve Semen Quality by Reducing Oxidative Stress during Cryopreservation of Cattle Bull Semen

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maulikkumar; Gandotra, Vinod K.; Cheema, Ranjna S.; Bansal, Amrit K.; Kumar, Ajeet

    2016-01-01

    Heparin binding proteins (HBPs) are produced by accessory glands. These are secreted into the seminal fluid, bind to the spermatozoa at the time of ejaculation, favour capacitation, acrosome reaction, and alter the immune system response toward the sperm. The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the effect of purified seminal plasma-HBPs (SP-HBPs) on cross bred cattle bull sperm attributes during two phases of cryopreservation: Pre freezing and freezing-thawing. SP-HBPs were purified from pooled seminal plasma by heparin affinity chromatography. Three doses of SP-HBPs i.e. 10, 20, 40 μg/mL semen were standardized to find out the optimum dose and 20 μg/mL was found to be an optimum dose. Semen as such and treated with SP-HBPs was diluted with sodium citrate-egg yolk diluter and cryopreserved as per the standard protocol. Sperm parameters i.e. motility, viability, Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), acrosome damage, in vitro capacitation and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in SP-HBP treated and untreated (control) semen at both phases of cryopreservation. A considerable variation in percent sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity (HOST), acrosome damage, acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation was observed at both phases among the bulls irrespective of the treatment. Incubation of neat semen with 20 μg/mL SP-HBP before processing for cryopreservation enhanced the average motility, viability, membrane integrity by 7.2%, 1.5%, 7.9%, and 5.6%, 6.6%, 7.4% in pre-frozen and frozen-thawed semen in comparison to control. There was also an average increase of 4.1%/3.9% in in vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction in SP-HBPs-treated frozen-thawed semen as compared to control. However, binding of SP-HBPs to the sperm declined acrosome damage and lipid peroxidation by 1.3%/4.1% and 22.1/32.7 μM/109 spermatozoa in SP-HBP treated pre-frozen/frozen-thawed semen as compared to control, respectively. Significant (p<0.05) effects were observed only in

  18. Bloody semen, severe hypertension and a worried man

    PubMed Central

    Ambakederemo, Tamaraemumoemi Emmanuella; Dodiyi-Manuel, Sotonye Tamunobelema; Ebuenyi, Ikenna Desmond

    2015-01-01

    Haematospermia is often associated with severe uncontrolled hypertension. The bloody semen is often very worrisome for the patient and his sexual partner(s). In addition to anti-hypertensive, counselling and lifestyle modification are essential for management of the condition. PMID:26175817

  19. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  20. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  1. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  2. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  3. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  4. Semen analysis of infertile Igbo males in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwafia, W C; Igweh, J C; Udebuani, I N

    2006-01-01

    The semen samples of 1,110 (one thousand, one hundred and ten) Igbo males attending infertility clinic, aged between 30-50 years were collected and analyzed. The specimens were collected and analysed in the microbiology laboratory of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. The standard method of masturbation after 3-5 days of prior abstinence from sex before sample collection was applied. The samples were examined for semen volume and microscopically as a wet preparation for sperm motility, morphology and count. The semen volume result showed that 91.07 % were normal. 6.3% sperm samples were motile. In the sperm count, only 7.3% had normal cells, 62.0% showed abnormal morphology. The aetiology of male infertility in the population studied seems to be related to the sperm count, motility and morphology but not volume. Racial factor seems to play no role and it is important to abstain from sexual intercourse some days before collection of semen for analysis. PMID:17242721

  5. Characteristics of ejaculated rat semen after lesion of scrotal nerves.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luis I; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Carrillo, Porfirio; Toledo, Rebeca; Hernandez, Maria Elena; Manzo, Jorge

    2007-05-16

    The scrotum, representing the pouch surrounding the testes and their associated structures, plays a significant role in maintaining the gonad at a temperature lower than that of the body. Although thermoregulation of the testes has been ascribed as a main function of the scrotum, here we found that mechanical stimulation of the scrotum is important during mating to facilitate the appropriate expulsion of semen during ejaculation. Previously we showed that the scrotal skin area is innervated by two nerve branches, the proximal (Psb) and distal (Dsb) scrotal branches which supply the proximal or distal half of the scrotum, respectively. The sensory field of each nerve is testosterone-dependent. The decreased androgen levels following castration reduce the sensitive area to mechanical stimuli that can be restored following exogenous administration of the hormone. Here, we tested the effect of scrotal nerve transection on sexual parameters of experienced male rats. Data show that lesion of PSb or DSb alone or combined did not affect the execution of sexual behavior. However, these lesions significantly reduced the proportion of males that expelled semen during ejaculation, with that semen showing a reduced quantity of sperm. Thus, scrotal nerves are important in reproduction not for the appropriate display of sexual behavior, but for the expulsion of a normal quantity of semen and number of sperm during ejaculation. Our suggestion is that scrotal afferents trigger spinal reflexes to activate autonomic efferents supplying the male reproductive tract for the control of seminal emission. PMID:17343882

  6. THE CURRENT STATE OF SEMEN STORAGE AND AI TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkeys are the only commercial livestock species completely dependent upon artificial insemination (AI) for fertile egg production. Given that every breeder hen must be inseminated weekly during egg production, AI is both time and labor-intensive. Methods for the timing, frequency, semen dosage a...

  7. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  8. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  9. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  10. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  11. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  12. Urinary Bisphenol A and Semen Quality, The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Alexandra E.; Chen, Zhen; Perry, Melissa J.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production volume industrial chemical found in several consumer products, has been negatively associated with sperm quality. This study aimed to estimate the association between BPA and 35 measures of semen quality among reproductive aged men recruited from 16 counties in Michigan and Texas, 2005–2009. Of 501 enrolled males, 418 (83.4%) provided a urine sample and at least one semen sample. Linear and logistic regression models assessed the association between urinary BPA levels and individual semen quality endpoints. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to account for repeated measures of semen quality and adjusted models accounted for 11 a priori covariates. Geometric mean total urinary BPA concentration among participants was 0.55 ng/mL (95% CI 0.49–0.63). A negative relation between BPA and DNA fragmentation was the sole significant finding in adjusted linear regression (β=−0.0544, p=0.035) and suggestive of less sperm DNA damage. PMID:25462789

  13. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality
    Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5

    1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  14. Processing, selecting and ritualizing: ambivalent relationships to semen.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dean A

    2015-05-01

    Two articles on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and reproduction have recently been published in Reproductive BioMedicine Online, both describing developments that increase reproductive options for HIV-positive men. A study of a semen-processing technique used at a South African hospital found that two out of 103 processed samples tested positive for HIV DNA and none for RNA, indicating 98.1% and 100% effectiveness, respectively. The authors recommend semen processing followed by viral validation of processed sperm samples when providing assisted reproduction treatment to couples with an HIV-positive male partner. The other article reviews developments such as semen processing, antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which have all reduced the risk of HIV transmission in the context of reproduction. The author also notes, however, that research on fertility in the context of HIV focuses almost exclusively on heterosexual couples, and has overlooked the links between reproduction, HIV and homosexuality. This article analyses the ambivalent role of semen - associated with both reproduction and infection - and how reproductive medicine and health care in different ways seek to 'get hold' of sperm. By taking this analytic approach, sex and parenthood can be thought of as two different but related kinds of intimacy and kinship. PMID:25773527

  15. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen of Male Survivors.

    PubMed

    Uyeki, Timothy M; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Brown, Shelley; McElroy, Anita K; Cannon, Deborah; Gibbons, Aridth; Sealy, Tara; Kainulainen, Markus H; Schuh, Amy J; Kraft, Colleen S; Mehta, Aneesh K; Lyon, G Marshall; Varkey, Jay B; Ribner, Bruce S; Ellison, Richard T; Carmody, Ellie; Nau, Gerard J; Spiropoulou, Christina; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute

    2016-06-15

    We investigated the duration of Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA and infectious EBOV in semen specimens of 5 Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. EBOV RNA and infectious EBOV was detected by real-time RT-PCR and virus culture out to 290 days and 70 days, respectively, after EVD onset. PMID:27045122

  16. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that

  17. Palmitoleate enhances quality of rooster semen during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Rad, Hamed Mirzaei; Eslami, Mohsen; Ghanie, Abolfazl

    2016-02-01

    The practice of artificial insemination is widely utilized in poultry; and this requires a broad use of semen storage techniques to prevent the reduction of fertilizing ability of stored semen. The antioxidant activity of palmitoleic acid with in vitro experiments has been shown. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmitoleic acid on the quality of rooster semen stored at 4C. Semen was collected from ten roosters twice a week. Ejaculates with greater than 80% forward spermatozoa motility were pooled and after dilution semen was enriched with 0 (control), 0.125 (P 0.125), 0.25 (P 0.25), 0.5 (P 0.5) and 1 (P 1) millimolar palmitoleate. Forward spermatozoa progressive motility and viability, as well as amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant activity (AOA) were evaluated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa at 0, 24 and 48h of storage. Motility was 78.5±2.21, 77.5±1.04, and 69.5±2.32% at 24h and 58.66±1.35, 49.33±1.36 and 43.00±2.08% at 48h in P 0.125, P 0.25 and control, respectively (P<0.02). There were no significant differences in amount of MDA in the seminal plasma among groups, while the amounts of MDA in spermatozoa were less in the P 0.125, P 0.25 and P 0.5 groups compared to the control group at 24 and 48h of storage (P<0.002). Total amounts of AOA in seminal plasma were greater in palmitoleate treatment groups than the control at 24 and 48h (P<0.01). Moreover, palmitoleate treatment groups had greater values of total AOA in spermatozoa compared to the control group at 24 and 48h of storage (P<0.05). In conclusion, enrichment of rooster semen with small doses of palmitoleate has beneficial effects on the semen quality during cold storage. PMID:26723480

  18. Effectiveness of two systems for transporting equine semen.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, L

    1998-10-15

    The storage and transport of cooled, liquid semen is an effective way of facilitating the use of desirable stallions for breeding mares located on distant farms. The Equitainer System is the most widely used transport container and it has been shown that it is possible to ship semen in this container and obtain good conception rates. However, the cost of Equitainers is high, and stud-farms that ship large quantities of semen have tended to rely on cheaper alternatives, even though little documentation exists concerning their reliability, especially under extreme temperature conditions. Two different containers for transporting equine semen (the Equitainer and a styrofoam box) were compared in their effectiveness at maintaining semen quality (i.e. sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity) during 24 h of storage. The transport containers were stored at 2 different environmental temperatures, i.e., room temperature (20 degrees C) and 37 degrees C. Thirty-seven ejaculates from 10 Standardbred stallions (3 to 6 samples per stallion) were examined. Sperm function and plasma membrane integrity were assessed using a Mika Motion Analyzer and a fluorescein stain (Calcein AM/Ethidium homodimer) in fresh diluted semen that had been stored for 24 h at room temperature (20 degrees C). Another 18 ejaculates from 5 stallions were examined using methods described above, but the transport boxes were kept at a high environmental temperature (37 degrees C). After storage at room temperature, there was no significant difference in total sperm motility and frequency of spermatozoa with an intact plasma membrane between the 2 types of transport boxes. A significant difference was seen in linear sperm motility, with the Equitainer being the better container. However, a significant difference was also seen in average path velocity, with the styrofoam box being the better container. After storage at 37 degrees C, the Equitaner maintained semen quality better. A significant difference

  19. Does human semen contain a functional haemostatic system? A possible role for Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in fertility through semen liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Lwaleed, Bashir A; Greenfield, Robert S; Birch, Brian R; Cooper, Alan J

    2005-05-01

    There is already evidence that a few components of the haemostatic system exist in semen. If these comprise a functional system, they may have a role in seminal clotting and liquefaction processes and ultimately may influence fertility. What might be expected in semen as collected from fertility clinics i.e., after having both coagulated and subsequently liquefied is uncertain. It does however still contain significant amounts of Tissue Factor (TF) although its effect on semen quality remains poorly understood. The present study analyses semen for Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI). Measurements were made in seminal plasma, swim-up sperm and prostasomes and its relationship with conventional fertility parameters assessed. TFPI antigen levels in seminal plasma were measured in a total of 176 subjects using an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These include sub-fertile (n=37), normally fertile (n=40), fertile sperm donor (n=34), vasectomized subjects (n=65) and in a further group defined by normality in several parameters derived from the World Health Organization (WHO) fertility criteria and termed "pooled normal semen parameters" (PNSP). For characterization studies, both TFPI activity and antigen were measured on whole semen, swim-up sperm and prostasome-rich fraction (n=5). TFPI levels were significantly higher in normal men as compared to sub-fertile (P<0.01) or vasectomized subjects (P<0.001). TFPI levels were even higher in the donor quality semen and the PNSP group. TFPI levels also correlated with semen liquefaction time, normal semen viscosity, sperm progression, percentage of motile sperm and sperm counts (density). In conclusion, the present finding substantiates the concept of an active clotting system in human semen. TFPI could regulate the activity of abundant TF, as it does elsewhere. Given a functional set of coagulation factors in semen, the TF/TFPI balance might impinge on its liquefaction and hence on global fertility. PMID:15886798

  20. Evaluation of seasonal variations of semen freezability in Leccese ram.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Martemucci, G

    2003-11-20

    The experiment was carried out in Southern Italy (41 degrees N latitude) to examine the effects of seasonal variations of semen freezability in Leccese ram. Semen from five rams, collected every 2 weeks for a whole year, was frozen in straws, using a system based on Tris-fructose egg yolk as extender to constitute semen doses of 100x10(6) spermatozoa. Post-thaw survival and acrosomal status of cells were assessed by dual staining by Hoechst 33258 and FITC-PSA. Three different forms of fluorescence distribution were displayed indicating sperm without acrosome (unstained cells), sperm with damaged acrosome (cells with incomplete fluorescence over the head), sperm with widespread fluorescence (cells completely fluorescent). Motility and kinetic rating at thawing and after 1 and 3h incubation (37 degrees C) were also assessed. Semen frozen in summer and autumn, corresponding to the breeding season, showed the highest (P<0.01) post-thaw survival of spermatozoa (41.7%) and the lowest (P<0.01) incidence of spermatozoa with damaged acrosome. The positive influence of the summer-autumn period was expressed also on motility and kinetic rating of spermatozoa at thawing. The integrity of the acrosomal membrane was positively correlated (P<0.01) with sperm viability before processing (r=0.32) and after thawing (r=0.51). In conclusion, the results show that season exerts a significant influence on semen freezability in Leccese ram, with the best performance occurring the summer and autumn period, corresponding to the reproductive season in temperate zones. PMID:12853182

  1. Application and commercialization of flow cytometrically sex-sorted semen.

    PubMed

    Rath, D; Johnson, L A

    2008-07-01

    The current technology to sort X and Y chromosome bearing sperm population requires individual identification and selection of spermatozoa in a modified high-speed flow cytometer. For farm animal species, the technology is capable of producing sexed sperm at greater than 90% purity. However, only in the bovine, the technology has reached a developmental level that allows its commercial application. Meanwhile, the demand for female calves has grown rapidly, which encourages the demand for sex-sorted semen from high genetic value bulls. The success of the technology will depend mainly on the fertilizing capacity of the sorted spermatozoa, as this is the most affecting and economically relevant factor. To date, fertility is still variable and is quite dependent on post-sort processing. New processing techniques are under investigation and will likely be able to improve the fertility rates after AI with sex-sorted semen. It is of great importance to select the right bulls and to test the sorted samples on a routine basis. In addition to the demand for sex-sorted semen by the cattle industry, there is also a significant demand expressed by pig farmers. However, it is still unknown if the use of sex-sorted semen through commercial pig AI will be economically feasible. For the pig, the combination of in vitro fertilization with sexed semen and non-surgical embryo transfer is an alternative that merits further scientific attention. Recent developments in ovine AI and ET will make it very likely that commercial sheep industry will adopt the sexing technology in their breeding concepts. PMID:18638144

  2. Long term storage of bee semen – A six month assessment of cryopreserved semen quality using motility as an index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bee (Apis mellifera Linn.) spermatozoa is known for its ability to remain viable for at the least two years within the spermatheca as attested to by the queens’ continued laying of fertile eggs without remating over two to three (Woyke 1960; Winston 1987). However, the semen collected from the dron...

  3. TEMPORARY STORAGE OF BOVINE SEMEN CRYOPRESERVED IN LIQUID NITROGEN ON DRY ICE AND REFREEZING OF FROZEN-THAWED SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Abdussamad, A M; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to investigate whether viability of bovine semen stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) will be adversely affected by temporary exposure to dry ice (-79°C). It was convincingly shown that post thaw-motility was not affected, regardless whether semen was thawed immediately or after being returned to liquid nitrogen. Shipping or temporary storage on dry ice, thus, is a viable option. In Experiment 2, refreezing of frozen-thawed semen was attempted. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was reduced by a factor of ten to between 6.0 % and 7.4 %, regardless whether thawing occurred directly after removal from liquid nitrogen or after an interim period on dry ice. When semen was refrozen on dry ice before being returned to liquid nitrogen, motility rates were significantly improved (13.0 % to 17.0 %, P<0.05). In both experiments sperm cells that remained motile displayed vigorous forward movement and normal morphological appearance. PMID:26576003

  4. Critical sources of bacterial contamination and adoption of standard sanitary protocol during semen collection and processing in Semen Station

    PubMed Central

    Sannat, Chandrahas; Nair, Ajit; Sahu, S. B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. A.; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Shende, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was conducted to locate the critical sources of bacterial contamination and to evaluate the standard sanitation protocol so as to improve the hygienic conditions during collection, evaluation, and processing of bull semen in the Semen Station. Materials and Methods: The study compared two different hygienic procedures during the collection, evaluation and processing of semen in Central Semen Station, Anjora, Durg. Routinely used materials including artificial vagina (AV) inner liner, cone, semen collection tube, buffer, extender/diluter, straws; and the laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box and laminar air flow (LAF) cabinet of extender preparation lab, processing lab, sealing filling machine, and bacteriological lab were subjected to bacteriological examination in two phases of study using two different sanitary protocols. Bacterial load in above items/environment was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU). Results: Bacterial load in a laboratory environment and AV equipments during two different sanitary protocol in present investigation differed highly significantly (p<0.001). Potential sources of bacterial contamination during semen collection and processing included laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box, and LAF cabinets; AV equipments, including AV Liner and cone. Bacterial load was reduced highly significantly (p<0.001) in AV liner (from 2.33±0.67 to 0.50±0.52), cone (from 4.16±1.20 to 1.91±0.55), and extender (from 1.33±0.38 to 0) after application of improved practices of packaging, handling, and sterilization in Phase II of study. Glasswares, buffers, and straws showed nil bacterial contamination in both the phases of study. With slight modification in fumigation protocol (formalin @600 ml/1000 ft3), bacterial load was significantly decreased (p<0.001) up to 0-6 CFU in processing lab (from 6.43±1.34 to 2.86±0.59), pass box (from 12.13±2

  5. Characterization of semen collected from beagles and captive Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Kojima, E; Tsuruga, H; Komatsu, T; Murase, T; Tsubota, T; Kita, I

    2001-02-01

    This study characterized semen collected from the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus aponicus, to provide information on semen cryopreservation for artificial breeding. Preliminary studies using a beagle dog as the model species showed that sperm concentration and total sperm count were lower in semen collected by electroejaculation than in semen collected by digital manipulation, but that sperm motility, viability and morphology were similar. Characterization of semen obtained from Japanese black bears by electroejaculation under general anesthesia revealed that semen volume and total number of spermatozoa collected were lower; but that sperm concentration, motility, viability and morphology were equivalent to those reported in other ursids. When semen was collected via a catheter inserted into the urethra during the stimulation for ejaculation, the sperm concentration, total sperm count and motility were relatively higher than when semen was collected directly in a test tube. Specific normal semen characteristics (mean +/- SEM) were pH, 7.6 +/- 0.0; volume, 0.212 +/- 0.038 mL; sperm concentration, 361 +/- 100 x 10(6)/mL; total sperm count, 84.0 +/- 32.2 x 106; +++ motility, 30 +/- 5%; motility, 77 +/- 3%; viability 77 +/- 2%; and abnormal morphology, 11+/- 2%. These results suggest that semen can be collected from Japanese black bears by electroejaculation. PMID:11245261

  6. Do Cigarette Smoking and Obesity Affect Semen Abnormality in Idiopathic Infertile Males?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Dai; Lee, Hyo Serk; Lee, Joong Shik; Park, Yong-Seog

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to find the relative risk of semen abnormality with respect to smoking history and obesity. Materials and Methods Subfertile or infertile men were enrolled in this study from July 2010 to June 2011. All participants provided their cigarette use information, self-reported weight, height, semen analysis, physical examination, and sexually transmitted disease status. None of the enrolled patients had any specific pathological reason for infertility. Semen abnormality was defined as a condition in which one or more parameters did not satisfy the World Health Organization's criteria. Results A total of 1,073 male patients were considered for this study. After the application of the inclusion criteria, 193 patients were finally analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups according to semen abnormality: the normal semen group (n=72) and the abnormal semen group (n=121). Baseline characteristics, except age and smoking history, were not significantly different between the two groups. Smoking history and age were risk factors for the semen abnormality of idiopathic infertile male patients. Conclusions Smoking and old age were risk factors for semen abnormality. However, obesity did not affect the semen abnormality. Smoking affected semen quality and is therefore expected to play a negative role in conception. PMID:25237661

  7. "Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratosevich, Nicolas

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and incorporates the…

  8. Impact of pig insemination technique and semen preparation on profitability.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Peña, D; Knox, R V; Pettigrew, J; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2014-01-01

    Artificial insemination technique and semen preparation impact boar utilization efficiency, genetic dissemination, and biosecurity. Intrauterine (IUI) and deep intrauterine (DUI) AI techniques require lower number of spermatozoa per dose compared to conventional (CON) AI. Frozen semen (FRO) has been associated with lower reproductive performance compared to fresh semen (FRE) preparation. The combined effects of 3 AI techniques (CON, IUI, and DUI) and 2 semen preparations (FRE and FRO) on the financial indicators of a pig crossbreeding system were studied. A 3-tier system was simulated in ZPLAN and the genetic improvement in a representative scenario was characterized. The cross of nucleus lines B and A generated 200,000 BA sows at the multiplier level. The BA sows were inseminated (CON, IUI, or DUI) with FRE or FRO from line C boars at the commercial level. Semen preparation and AI technique were represented by distinct sow:boar ratios in the C × BA cross. A range of farrowing rates (60 to 90%) and litter sizes (8 to 14 liveborn pigs) were tested. Genetic improvement per year for number born alive, adjusted 21-d litter weight, days to 113.5 kg, backfat, and ADG were 0.01 pigs per litter, 0.06 kg, -0.09 d, -0.29 mm, and 0.88 g, respectively. On average, the net profit for FRE (FRO) increased (P-value < 0.0001) from CON to IUI and DUI by 2.2 (3.2%) and 2.6% (4%), respectively. The differences in profit between techniques were driven by differences in costs. Differences in fixed costs between IUI and DUI relative to CON were -2.4 (-5.2%) and -3.4% (-7.4%), respectively. The differences in total costs between FRE and FRO were lower than -5%. The difference in variable costs between FRE and FRO ranged from -5.3 (CON) to -24.7% (DUI). Overall, insemination technique and semen preparation had a nonlinear effect on profit. The average relative difference in profit between FRE and FRO was less than 3% for the scenarios studied. PMID:24352964

  9. Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

    1988-12-01

    Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P < 0.05). An extender was developed to freeze ram semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for

  10. A study on the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in semen on bovine fertility.

    PubMed Central

    Eaglesome, M D; Garcia, M M; Bielanski, A B

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were done to demonstrate whether the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bovine semen could affect fertilization and/or early embryonic development. In the first experiment, superovulated heifers were inseminated with semen naturally contaminated with P. aeruginosa (ADRI 102) or clean semen and seven day-old embryos were collected nonsurgically. The endometrium of treated heifers appeared more sensitive to the flush procedures. In experiment 2, heifers were inseminated at synchronized estrus with semen experimentally contaminated with P. aeruginosa (ADRI 102) and processed in the same way as commercial semen with antibiotics (gentamicin, lincomycin, spectinomycin and tylosin) or processed without antibiotics added. Embryos were recovered at slaughter seven days later. In general, there was no significant reduction in fertility or development of embryos in vitro as a result of relatively high numbers of P. aeruginosa in bovine semen. PMID:7704848

  11. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    LoRicco, Josephine G; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C; Roan, Nadia R; Makhatadze, George I

    2016-07-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248-286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86-107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection. PMID:27226574

  12. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal semen samples using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zufang; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Yongzeng; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Growth in the percentage of male infertility has caused extensive concerns. The fast and reliable method is urgently required for diagnosis of semen samples. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize and differentiate the normal and abnormal semen samples based on the differences of their specific Raman spectra which originated from biochemical components. Our preliminary results demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis methods has the potential of being used to detect and differentiate semen samples.

  13. Bull breeding soundness, semen evaluation and cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, P J; McPherson, F J

    2016-06-01

    The bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) has evolved as a cost-effective veterinary procedure which provides benefits such as risk-reduction and improvements in strategic bull usage, herd fertility and economics. Semen evaluation is an important component of the BBSE when performed appropriately; a consideration that is increasingly addressed by third party andrology laboratories. The combination of competent physical/reproductive exams (including scrotal circumference measurements) and semen evaluations can contribute greatly to the fertility and economics of individual herds as well as adding to understanding of those factors which affect cattle fertility. Despite such advantages, there remain challenges in achieving full acceptance of BBSEs, particularly by the dairy industry and in developing countries. PMID:27091815

  14. Challenges and Limits Using Antimicrobial Peptides in Boar Semen Preservation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Grobbel, M; Müller, K; Junkes, C; Dathe, M; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotics are of great importance for the preservation of ejaculates for livestock breading. The use of antibiotics, however, is not an appropriate compensation for a lack of hygiene standards in artificial insemination (AI) centres. Sophisticated hygiene management and the proper identification of hygienic critical control points (HCCPs) at AI centres provide the basis for counteracting the development of antibiotic resistance in contaminant bacteria and their settlement in AI centres. In recent years, efforts have been made to use antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the preservation of boar semen. Investigations have included the testing of synthetic magainin derivatives and cyclic hexapeptides. One prerequisite for the application of AMPs is that they have a minor impact on eukaryotic cells. Bacterial selectivity, proteolytic stability, thermodynamic resistance, and mechanisms including synergistic interaction with conventional antibiotics have made cyclic hexapeptides highly promising candidates for potential application as peptide antibiotics for semen preservation. PMID:26174913

  15. Symmetry-breaking phase-transitions in highly concentrated semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plouraboué, Franck; Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Cazin, Sébastien; Yu, Hui; Degond, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    New experimental evidence of self-motion of a confined active suspension is presented. Depositing fresh semen sample in an annular shaped micro-fluidic chip leads to a spontaneous rotation motion of the fluid at sufficiently large sperm concentration. The rotation occurs unpredictably clockwise or counterclockwise and is robust and stable. Furthermore, for highly active and concentrated semen, richer dynamics can occur such as self-sustained or damped rotation oscillations. Experimental results obtained with systematic dilution provide a clear evidence of a phase transition toward collective motion associated with local alignment of spermatozoa akin to the Vicsek model. A macroscopic theory based on previously derived Self-Organized Hydrodynamics (SOH) models is adapted to this context and provides predictions consistent with the observed stationary motion.

  16. Semen parameters from 2002 to 2013 in Korea young population: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Yoo Seok; Cho, In-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the differences of semen parameters in Korean young population for three periods from 2002 to 2013. Materials and Methods A total of 516 semen samples were collected from Korean men presenting for infertility, varicoceles or other infectious problems for three periods from 2002 to 2012: January 2002-December 2003, January 2007-December 2008, and January 2012-December 2013. A standard World Health Organization procedure for semen analysis was performed for assessment of semen concentration, volume, motility, morphology, and pH. Results A total of 160, 162, 194 men constituted the study populations in 2002 to 2003, in 2007 to 2008, and in 2012 to 2013, respectively. The overall sperm parameter results suggested a statistically significant difference between 2002 to 2003 and 2012 to 2013 except pH. However, considering the data from 2007 to 2008, there were no trends in changes in overall semen parameters. Negative correlations were observed in all semen parameters with increasing age in all patients, except for pH. In addition, semen volume, motility, and morphology had higher negative correlation coefficients with age, from 2002 to 2013, serially. Conclusions There were no significant changes in the semen parameters of Korean men from 2002 to 2013. In addition, semen volume, motility, and morphology showed higher negative correlation coefficients with age from 2002 to 2013, serially. PMID:26682024

  17. Protective effects of l-carnitine on astheno- and normozoospermic human semen samples during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Feng; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuyan; Du, Congqi; Yao, Lingnv; Mao, Huan; Lin, Wenqin

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of l-carnitine (LC), as an antioxidant, in preventing spermatozoa damage during the freezing-thawing process in both astheno- and normozoospermic human semen samples. Seventy semen samples (37 asthenozoospermic and 33 normozoospermic) were involved in this study. Cryopreservation medium supplemented with 1.0 g/l LC was mixed with semen at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v). Controls were cryopreserved with freezing medium only. Assessment of motility, viability (VIA), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were performed on aliquots of fresh semen, frozen-thawed control and frozen-thawed LC treated samples. Supplementation of the cryopreservation medium with LC induced a significant improvement in post-thaw sperm parameters in both the asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic semen samples, compared with those of the control, regarding sperm fast forward motility, forward motility, total motility and VIA. LC showed better protective effects towards asthenozoospermia for DFI (F = 115.85, P < 0.01) and VIA (F = 67.14, P < 0.01) than did normozoospermic semen samples. We conclude that supplementation with LC prior to the cryopreservation process reduced spermatozoa cryodamage in both asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic semen samples. LC had better protective effects for asthenozoospermic human semen samples. Future research should focus on the molecular mechanism for and the different protective effects of LC between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic semen samples during cryopreservation. PMID:26081351

  18. Superoxide Dismutase: A Predicting Factor for Boar Semen Characteristics for Short-Term Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Nemec Svete, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in seminal plasma were evaluated on the basis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as predictors for distinguishing satisfactory from unsatisfactory boar semen samples after storage. SOD on day 0 correlated significantly with progressive motility (r = −0.686; P < 0.05) and viability (r = −0.513; P < 0.05) after storage; TBARS correlated only with motility (r = −0.480; P < 0.05). Semen samples that, after 3 days of storage, fulfilled all criteria for semen characteristics (viability > 85%, motility > 70%, progressive motility > 25%, and normal morphology > 50%) had significantly lower SOD levels on the day 0 than those with at least one criterion not fulfilled (P < 0.05) following storage. SOD levels of less than 1.05 U/mL predicted with 87.5% accuracy that fresh semen will suit the requirements for satisfactory semen characteristics after storage, while semen with SOD levels higher than 1.05 U/mL will not fulfill with 100% accuracy at least one semen characteristic after storage. These results support the proposal that SOD in fresh boar semen can be used as a predictor of semen quality after storage. PMID:24729963

  19. Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in boar semen by PCR.

    PubMed

    Christopher-Hennings, J; Nelson, E A; Nelson, J K; Hines, R J; Swenson, S L; Hill, H T; Zimmerman, J J; Katz, J B; Yaeger, M J; Chase, C C

    1995-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a devastating disease in swine. The presence and transmission of PRRSV by boar semen has been demonstrated by using a swine bioassay. In this assay, 4- to 8-week-old pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with semen from PRRSV-infected boars. Seroconversion of these piglets indicated the presence of PRRSV in semen. Seroconversion in gilts has also been demonstrated following artificial insemination with semen from PRRSV-infected boars. These methods of detecting PRRSV in boar semen are time-consuming, laborious, and expensive. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable and sensitive PCR assay to directly detect PRRSV in boar semen. Primers from open reading frames 1b and 7 of the PRRSV genome were used in nested PCRs. Virus was detected at concentrations as low as 10 infectious virions per ml in PRRSV-spiked semen. Specificity was confirmed by using a nested PCR and a 32P-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The primers did not react with related arteriviruses or other swine viruses. The PCR assay showed good correlation with the swine bioassay, and both methods were superior to virus isolation. To consistently identify PRRSV in boar semen, the cell fraction was separated by centrifugation at 600 x g for 20 min, a lysis buffer without a reducing agent (2-mercaptoethanol) was used, and nondiluted and 1:20-diluted cell fractions were evaluated by PCR. PRRSV was not reliably detected in the seminal plasma fraction of boar semen. PMID:7665637

  20. A sucrose-DMSO extender for freezing rabbit semen.

    PubMed

    Vicente, J S; Viudes-de-Castro, M P

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define a simple extender for freezing rabbit semen from selected males used to inseminate selected doses to obtain embryos for an embryo bank. Four experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, freezing extender was defined on the basis of the results of the post-thawing motility rate. Three factors and their interactions were studied: final concentration of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 M), egg yolk (0% of 10 v/v) and sugar (none, or 0.5 M of glucose, lactose, sucrose, or maltose). The sucrose and 1.75 DMSO improved significantly the post-thawing motility rate (sucrose 1.75 M DMSO extender: 42 +/- 3%). In the second experiment, this freezing extender was used to freeze semen from three lines. The post-thawing motility and normal acrosome rates were similar among the lines when the covariates, fresh motility and normal acrosome rates, respectively, were used in the analysis (52 +/- 1 and 66 +/- 1%, respectively). In the third experiment, frozen semen from the White New Zealand line (NZ) was tested by morphological normality and viability of embryos recovered. Recovery data from NZ does inseminated with fresh and frozen semen were compared. No significant differences were found in the number of normal embryos obtained per donor dose (8.9 +/- 0.5) and in their survival after vitrification (52% of live foetuses at 29 days of gestation). The sucrose-DMSO extender and freezing procedure used in this work can offer satisfactory results to apply in conservation and genetic programmes. PMID:8987100

  1. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  2. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  3. Prospective surveillance of semen quality in the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Perkins, C.; Lewis, E.L.; Katz, D.F.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1988-04-01

    We performed a prospective surveillance of semen quality among workers in the plant where 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane was first recognized as an occupational cause of impaired semen quality and of infertility. All male employees of the Agricultural Chemical Division were required to participate. Ninety-seven workers (92% participation) provided 258 semen samples over the 4 years of the program. Most samples were analyzed at the plant with a mini-laboratory designed for the study. Motility and shape measures were made objectively. Sixty-six subjects (68%) were non-azoospermic. Generalized multiple regression showed no significant predictors for any response, with the exception of the motility measures, which were reduced with longer times between ejaculation and assay. Between- and within-person standard deviations and correlations were calculated. Comparison of this population with fertile artificial insemination donors (16 men, 498 ejaculates) revealed generally higher ejaculate-to-ejaculate standard deviations in the worker samples. This is probably due to less well controlled conditions of sperm collection in the workplace setting. For cross-sectional studies, one ejaculate per worker is recommended as sufficient; for estimating an individual worker's mean, even three ejaculates may not provide enough precision.

  4. Personality of semen donors and their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Taus, L; Gerzová, J

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined, using three generally accepted methods, the personality structure of 80 semen donors (Cattell's 16-factor questionnaire, 16PF, Eysenck's personality questionnaire, EOD, and Leary's method of interpersonal diagnosis of personality). The donors were selected by means of the Questionnaire of semen donors. The group is subdivided into four sub-groups by the grade of education, i.e. university graduates, men with secondary and elementary education and university students. All are 20-40 years old. The authors describe the assembled results in different sub-groups and in the group as a whole and compare them mutually and with the standardized norm. With regard to the specificity of individual methods and their application the findings are summarized. The donors are balanced personalities, slightly extrovert, emotionally well developed with a realistic outlook. They have positive, sensitive relations with their environment an behaviour towards other people, they are considerate, careful and disciplined. They respect social norms as regards preservation of originality of personality. They have a slight tendency of sheltering behaviour, they wish to be somewhat more aggressive. No pathological phenomena were observed in the donors. Their intelligence is above average. They make a favourable impression with regard to the demand of mental health and transmission of genetic information. The authors evaluate favourably the Questionnaire for semen donors as the method for selection of donors. PMID:1807935

  5. High levels of lipid peroxidation in semen of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, E; D'Agata, R; Salemi, M; Calogero, A E

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (one of the final products of lipid peroxidation and well-known marker of oxidative stress) in semen of infertile men with type 2 diabetes and to investigate its relationship with their glycaemic control. Forty infertile men with type 2 diabetes were evaluated. The mean ages were 36.5 ± 8.0. Men with diabetes were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin >10% and group B (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin <7%. A single sample was examined according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm-Cervical Mucus Interaction, 1999, Cambridge University Press). MDA was assessed using the thiobarbituric acid method. MDA concentration in semen of group A patients (0.95 ± 0.35 nmol ml(-1)) was significantly higher than in group B patients (0.43 ± 0.13 nmol ml(-1)) (P value < 0.05) and had negative relationship with sperm density (r = -.717; P value < 0.05), total sperm count (r = -.625; P value < 0.05), progressive motility (r = -.489; P value < 0.05) and normal forms (r = -.545; P value < 0.05). Based on these results, it could be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation in men with diabetes with poor metabolic control was associated with low sperm quality. PMID:21919944

  6. A multilaboratory study on the variability of bovine semen analysis.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the variability of semen analysis, five replicates of 10 different bovine frozen semen batches were coded with different identification numbers and submitted to various laboratories for evaluation. Three studies were conducted: study I included eight laboratories in semen processing centers in the United States; study II included one laboratory in one semen processing center and five veterinary university laboratories in the United States; and study III included five veterinary university laboratories in Brazil. Evaluation methodology, sample classification criteria, and reporting format varied considerably among laboratories. There were laboratory effects (P < 0.05) on sperm concentration, motility, and morphology results in all studies. When Bland-Altman plots were evaluated, differences in sperm concentration were approximately between -5 and +5 × 10(6) sperm/mL in study I, when the same method of evaluation was used by all laboratories but ranged between -30 and +30 × 10(6) sperm/mL in studies II and III. Differences in the proportions of motile sperm were approximately -30% to +30%, and differences in the proportion of normal sperm were -15% to +15% in studies I and II; these differences were -15% to +15% and -10% to +10%, respectively, in study III. Mean absolute (one tail) proportional differences in estimates across all laboratories ranged from 9% to 31%, 16% to 37%, and 9% to 14% for sperm concentration, motile sperm, and normal sperm across studies; much larger (48%-86%) differences were observed for sperm abnormality categories. Intralaboratory and interlaboratory precision varied considerably across laboratories and seemed to be at least in part related to methods used for evaluation; precision was better when the NucleoCounter was used for evaluation of sperm concentration, whereas the use of computer-assisted sperm analysis for evaluation of sperm motility resulted in greater precision in some but not all laboratories. None of the

  7. Semen residual viral load and reproductive outcomes in HIV-infected men undergoing ICSI after extended semen preparation.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Maria Jose; Obradors, Albert; Woodward, Bryan; Vernaeve, Valerie; Vassena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following a triple gradient extended semen wash from ejaculates of serodiscordant couples, and analyse their reproductive outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For this purpose, a retrospective analysis of our database was performed in serodiscordant couples, with HIV-infected men and non-infected women, using fresh or frozen sperm with ICSI in oocytes from either the patients or donors from January 2006 to September 2013. Overall, the rate of positive HIV test after semen washing was 1.86%. The positive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in patients with their own oocytes were 47.1%, 37.5% and 30.8%, respectively, and 58.6%, 50.8% and 39.1%, respectively, in oocyte donation cycles. To summarize, the described method of sperm washing based on triple gradient sperm selection coupled with extensive centrifugations is a highly reliable technique for HIV removal, as it provides lower than reported post-wash positive tests while maintaining high pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles. Despite extensive personnel training and effectiveness of the washing protocol, post-wash HIV test on semen is recommended to identify residual positive samples. PMID:26995657

  8. Persistence of DNA from laundered semen stains: Implications for child sex trafficking cases.

    PubMed

    Brayley-Morris, Helen; Sorrell, Amber; Revoir, Andrew P; Meakin, Georgina E; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Morgan, Ruth M

    2015-11-01

    In sexual assault cases, particularly those involving internal child sex trafficking (ICST), victims often hide their semen-stained clothing. This can result in a lag time of several months before the items are laundered and subsequently seized during a criminal investigation. Although it has been demonstrated previously that DNA can be recovered from clothing washed immediately after semen deposition, laundered items of clothing are not routinely examined in ICST cases, due to the assumption that the time delay and washing would result in no detectable DNA. The aim of this study was to examine whether viable DNA profiles could be recovered from laundered semen stains where there has been a significant lag time between semen deposition from one or more individuals and one or more washes of the stained clothing. Items of UK school uniform (T-shirts, trousers, tights) were stained with fresh semen (either from a single donor or a 1:1 mixture from two donors) and stored in a wardrobe for eight months. Stained and unstained items (socks) were then washed at 30 °C or 60 °C and with non-biological or biological detergent. DNA samples extracted from the semen-stained sites and from the unstained socks were quantified and profiled. High quantities of DNA, (6-18 μg) matching the DNA profiles of the semen donors, were recovered from all semen-stained clothing that had been laundered once, irrespective of wash conditions. This quantity,and profile quality,did not decline significantly with multiple washes. The two donor semen samples yielded ∼ 10-fold more DNA from the T-shirts than from the trousers. This disparity resulted in the T-shirts yielding a ∼ 1:1 mixture of DNA from the two donors, whereas the trousers yielded a major DNA profile matching only that of the second donor. The quantities of DNA recovered from the unstained socks were an order of magnitude lower, with most of the DNA being attributable to the donor of the semen on the stained clothing within the

  9. Comparison of Holstein service-sire fertility for heifer and cow breedings with conventional and sexed semen.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a service-sire fertility evaluation implemented in August 2008, is based on up to 7 conventional-semen breedings for parities 1 through 5 (Ccow). The same procedure was used to derive SCR for other types of breedings: sexed semen for cows (Scow) and conventional semen and...

  10. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine...

  11. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine...

  12. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine...

  13. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  14. Influence of pre-cryopreservation pH and temperature on boar semen quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of shipping temperature and pH on semen quality parameters could determine the effectiveness of current National Animal Germplasm Program protocols. The purpose of this project is to determine associations between pH, shipping temperature, and boar semen quality: cell size, cell inte...

  15. The breeding management affects fresh and cryopreserved semen characteristics in Melopsittacus undulatus.

    PubMed

    Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Parrillo, Salvatore; Cicconi, Mirko; Robbe, Domenico

    2014-01-10

    Melopsittacus undulatus is a companion parrot worldwide diffused. Many parrots are considered endangered or vulnerable. The preservation of semen is crucial in endangered species, thus, M. undulatus could be a good model to study sperm characteristics and semen cryopreservation in these other endangered parrots. In this study the effect of the breeding management (males bred in promiscuous aviary or in couple) on sperm characteristics (motility, membrane integrity and morphometry) of fresh and cryopreserved semen was evaluated. The computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed a significant effect of the husbandry method on semen characteristics in budgerigars: male housed in couple with the female in individual cages allowed the higher results in term of both semen quantity and sperm quality. Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in males bred in couple (68.7±8.9% and 54±15.9%, respectively) than in promiscuous aviary (48.3±15.1% and 24.4±12.4%, respectively), such as sperm velocity (average path velocity, straight line velocity, and curvilinear velocity). The type of sperm movement (amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness, and linearity), sperm membrane integrity and morphometry parameters seemed not affected by the husbandry method. The standardization of a CASA procedure for the semen analysis in M. undulatus allow further studies on parrot semen manipulation and cryopreservation, but the method used for the breeding of the male could have a significant effect on the semen quality. PMID:24361005

  16. 19 Beef cattle pregnancy rates following insemination with aged frozen angus semen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination has proven to be a valuable asset to the cattle industry. It is assumed that once good quality semen is frozen in liquid nitrogen it should remain viable indefinitely; however, semen viability has not been systematically evaluated after being stored for several decades. In th...

  17. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  18. Sexed-semen usage for Holstein AI in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dairy industry has used sexed-semen to reduce the birth of undesirable bull calves for over a decade. While the efficacy of sexed-semen has been determined experimentally, we sought to tabulate statistics on the generalized use of the technology in the US dairy herd and determine its effectivene...

  19. Evaluation of Lama glama semen viscosity with a cone-plate rotational viscometer.

    PubMed

    Casaretto, C; Martínez Sarrasague, M; Giuliano, S; Rubin de Celis, E; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M

    2012-05-01

    Llama semen is highly viscous. This characteristic is usually evaluated subjectively by measuring the thread formed when carefully pippeting a sample of semen. The aims of this study were (i) to objectively determine and analyse llama semen viscosity, (ii) to compare semen viscosity between ejaculates of the same male as well as between different males, (iii) to study the correlation between viscosity and other semen characteristics and (iv) to evaluate the effect of collagenase on semen viscosity. Semen viscosity was evaluated using a cone-plate Brookfield rotational viscometer. A non Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour was observed in the 45 semen samples evaluated. Rheological parameters were determined obtaining the following results (mean ± SD): apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1): 46.71 ± 26.8 cpoise and at 115 s(-1): 12.61 ± 4.1 cpoise; structural viscosity (K) (dyne s cm(-2)): 2.18 ± 1.4 and coefficient of consistency (n): 0.45 ± 0.1. Statistical differences were found between different ejaculates of the same male for structural viscosity and apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1) (P < 0.01). Correlation was found only between coefficient of consistency (n) and sperm concentration (P < 0.01). Significant differences for coefficient of consistency (n) and viscosity at 115 s(-1) were found between samples incubated with and without collagenase (P < 0.05). PMID:21729143

  20. Description of semen characteristics from six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) collected by electroejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serafim, M K B; Lira, R A; Costa, L L M; Gadelha, I C N; Freitas, C I A; Silva, A R

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the semen from six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) collected by electroejaculation. Six mature males were physically restrained and electroejaculated twice for the collection of semen. Semen collected was immediately evaluated for appearance, volume, pH, sperm motility, vigor, morphology, percentage of live sperm and functional membrane integrity by light microscopy. Semen was obtained from all (100%) twelve attempts conducted for electroejaculation. Armadillos' semen had a white-translucent appearance, and great viscosity. Mean values obtained in analysis of the semen were: 353+/-86 microl for volume, 9 for pH, 45+/-14 x 10(6)sperm/ml for concentration, 61+/-7% motile sperm with 2+/-0.2 for vigor, 55+/-7% live sperm, 86+/-2% morphologic normal sperm, and 46+/-6% functional membrane integrity. In conclusion, semen from six-banded armadillos can be efficiently obtained by electroejaculation. The characteristics of semen collected by electroejaculation in six-banded armadillos provide background information that may be useful for assisted breeding programs in the members of the Xenarthra family. PMID:19748749

  1. Peculiarities of semen coagulation and liquefaction in males from infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Mikhailichenko, Vladimir V; Esipov, Andrey S

    2005-07-01

    The results of electrosemengraphy showed frequent absence of postejaculatory semen coagulation (62% of patients examined) and 3 variants of ejaculate liquefaction in males from infertile couples. Semen liquefaction was mostly of a cascade nature (one- and two-cascade types), but viscid ejaculates often liquefied slowly and monotonously (monotonous type of liquefaction). PMID:16009198

  2. Detection of Ureaplasma spp. in semen samples from sheep in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra Batista; de Souza Neto, Orestes Luiz; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; da Rocha Mota, André; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; de Moraes, Érica Paes Barreto Xavier; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; do Mota, Rinaldo Apareci

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to verify the presence of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas DNA in sheep semen samples from the State of Pernambuco. The PCR assay was conducted of according with standard protocols with generic primers. Mollicutes DNA was detected in 26.0% and Ureaplasma spp. in 12.0% of semen samples. PMID:24516459

  3. A review of the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of raphani semen.

    PubMed

    Sham, Tung-Ting; Yuen, Ailsa Chui-Ying; Ng, Yam-Fung; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2013-01-01

    The dried ripe seed of Raphanus sativus L., commonly known as radish seed (or Raphani Semen), is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat constipation, chronic tracheitis, and hypertension. The major active compounds in Raphani Semen are alkaloids, glucosinolates, brassinosteroids, and flavonoids. Fatty acids are its main nutritional contents. Raphani Semen has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and cough. So far, there is no report about the adverse/toxic effects of this herb on humans. However, Raphani Semen processed by roasting was reported to exhibit some adverse effects on mice. Additionally, erucic acid, the main fatty acid in Raphani Semen, was shown to enhance the toxicity of doxorubicin. Thus, Raphani Semen has a potential risk of causing toxicity and drug interaction. In summary, Raphani Semen is a valuable TCM herb with multiple pharmacological effects. More studies on Raphani Semen could help better understand its pharmacological mechanisms so as to provide clear scientific evidence to explain its traditional uses, to identify its therapeutic potential on other diseases, and to understand its possible harmful effects. PMID:23935670

  4. EFFECTS OF GENETICS ON QUALITY AND CRYOPRESERVATION OF SEMEN FROM PEDIGREED CHICKEN LAYER LINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in commercial production or preservation of genetic stocks. The objective of the present work was to compare semen quality from 4 pedigreed layer lines (Lines 1, 2, 3, and 4) before and after freezing. A ...

  5. Cryopreservation of boar semen and its future importance to the industry.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Janice L; Lessard, Christian; Jacques, Joannie; Brèque, Christelle; Dobrinski, Ina; Zeng, Wenxian; Galantino-Homer, Hannah L

    2008-11-01

    Whereas AI has arguably been the most important management tool leading to improved herd productivity, long-term storage of semen brings forth additional advantages to producers of agriculturally important animals and the AI industry. Semen cryopreservation greatly facilitates the distribution of agriculturally desirable genes, rapidly increasing herd productivity. Of particular importance to the pig industry, the use of frozen semen would help to control transmission of certain pathogens, thereby protecting the health status of the herd. Moreover, a reserve of cryopreserved semen would minimize the effects of a sudden outbreak of a contagious illness or a natural disaster. Successful cryopreservation of boar semen is necessary for international sales. Finally, effective gene banking depends on the availability of functional, cryopreserved germplasm. Despite these potential advantages of long-term semen storage, porcine sperm are notoriously sensitive to cold temperatures, and frozen-thawed semen is not routinely used by the industry. The objective of our laboratories is to develop protocols for efficient long-term storage of porcine semen using cryopreservation. We hypothesize that since the sperm plasma membrane is the primary site of cold-induced damage, reinforcing the membranes with molecules having particular properties, such as cholesterol, will improve the ability of boar sperm to withstand cold temperatures and cryopreservation protocols. Based on our data, such approaches should help alleviate the problems with sperm function after cooling, thereby resulting in better survival and motility characteristics, and reduced non-regulated capacitation and spontaneous acrosome reactions. PMID:18653225

  6. A PROTOCOL FOR THE SHORT-TERM STORAGE OF ATLANTIC STURGEON SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term, liquid-phase storage trials were conducted in 2009 on Atlantic sturgeon semen obtained from captive males, held at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Fish Technology Center and wild males, collected ripe on the spawning grounds from the Hudson River. Semen samples collected, c...

  7. Applications and cost benefits of sexed semen in pasture-based dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Butler, S T; Hutchinson, I A; Cromie, A R; Shalloo, L

    2014-05-01

    Sexed semen technology is now commercially available in many countries around the world, and is primarily used in dairy cattle breeding. Sperm are sorted by flow cytometry on the basis of a 4% difference in DNA content between sperm containing X and Y chromosomes. Despite reliably producing a 90% gender bias, the fertility of the sexed semen product is compromised compared with conventional semen. The negative implications of the reduced fertility of sexed semen are amplified in seasonal systems of dairy production, as the importance of fertility is greater in these systems compared with year-round calving systems. A review of the literature indicates that conception rates (CR) to 1st service with frozen-thawed sexed semen are ~75% to 80% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen. Preliminary results from a large-scale field trial carried out in Ireland in 2013 suggest that significant improvements in the performance of sexed semen have been made, with CR of 87% of those achieved with conventional semen. The improved fertility of a sexed semen product that delivers a 90% gender bias has considerable implications for the future of breeding management in pasture-based dairy production systems. Sexed semen may facilitate faster, more profitable dairy herd expansion by increasing the number of dairy heifer replacements born. Biosecurity can be improved by maintaining a closed herd during the period of herd expansion. In a non-expansion scenario, sexed semen may be used to increase the value of beef output from the dairy herd. The replacement heifer requirements for a herd could be met by using sexed semen in the 1st 3 weeks of the breeding season, with the remaining animals bred to beef sires, increasing the sale value over that of a dairy bull calf. Alternatively, very short gestation sires could be used to shorten the calving interval. Market prices have a considerable effect on the economics of sexed semen use, and widespread use of sexed semen should

  8. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p<0.05) higher in pure Jersey as compare to crossbred Jersey bulls. Live sperm percentage and acrosome integrity was significantly (p<0.01) higher in pure Jersey bulls as compared to crossbred Jersey bulls. However, no statistical difference (p>0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA

  9. Influence of boar breeds or hybrid genetic composition on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Vilić, Marinko; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme concentrations of seminal plasma are important for spermatozoa metabolism and function in boars. The need has arisen for introducing a biochemical evaluation of semen, along with the usual standard semen analyses. There are no data on the influence of boar breeds on the seminal plasma biochemical variables investigated in this study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic composition of boars on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables. Semen samples of 27 boars (Swedish Landrace, German Landrace, Large White, Pietrain and Pig Improvement Company hybrid-PIC-hybrid), aged between 1.5 and 3 years, were collected. After evaluation of semen quality, the seminal plasma was separated from the spermatozoa by centrifugation of semen. The seminal plasma was subjected to spectrophotometric analysis to determine alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and to atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis to measure the concentration of calcium and magnesium. Conventional semen quality variables differed depending on breed and PIC-hybrid genetic composition, though these differences were typically insignificant. In the seminal plasma, significant differences were determined in enzyme activity (ALP, GGT, CK and LDH) and in calcium concentration among boars of different breeds. There are, therefore, differences in semen quality and significant differences in the seminal plasma biochemical variables among boars of different breeds and PIC-hybrid genetic composition. The data and differences in semen variables detected in the present study provide knowledge for enhancing evaluation and monitoring of boar reproductive potential, semen quality and explain the potential causes of boar infertility. PMID:26692346

  10. The in vitro effect of leptin on semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Amir; Batavani, Rooz Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of leptin addition in different levels to the semen extender on sperm quality (motility and motility parameters, viability, sperm membrane integrity, and DNA damage). Semen specimens were evaluated immediately after leptin addition, equilibration time and after thawing the frozen semen. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ˚C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng mL-1 leptin. The diluted semen was kept 4 hr in refrigerator to reach to the equilibration time and then packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Our results showed that, in the fresh semen, no significant difference was observed in all sperm quality parameters evaluated among all of the examined leptin concentrations. Addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin into semen extender significantly preserved sperm motility, all of the motility parameters, and viability in equilibrated semen compared to that of control group. However, in vitro addition of 200 ng mL-1 leptin, significantly decreased theses parameters. In the frozen thawed semen, all leptin concentrations decreased sperm motility and viability, but significant decrease was observed in concentrations of 100 and 200 ng mL-1. Adding leptin to semen extender did not have any significant influence on sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane integrity in all examined groups. These findings suggest that in vitro addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin could preserve sperm motility and viability in cooled semen of buffaloes. PMID:25593679

  11. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Human Sperm and Association with Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Łakota, Paweł; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Buciński, Adam; Jerzak, Leszek

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), europium (Eu), and gadolinium (Gd) concentrations in human semen and correlate the results with sperm quality. The median semen content of La was 19.5 µg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) (range 2.27-269), of Ce was 41.9 µg kg(-1) dw (range 4.52 to 167), of Eu was 0.68 µg kg(-1) dw (range 0.06-1.95), of Gd was 3.19 µg kg(-1) dw (range 0.38-12.0), and of calcium (Ca) was 4063 mg kg(-1) dw (range 484-17,191). Concentrations of La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca were significantly lower in nondrinkers' semen than in semen from drinkers. Significant differences were detected between La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen from nondrinkers and moderate drinkers. Concentrations of La, Ce, and Gd in semen of short-term smokers were significantly lower than those in extremely long-term smokers. Significant differences were also detected between La concentration in semen from a group of short-term smokers and that of a group of long-term smokers. Positive correlations were found between La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen. La, Ce, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen were positively associated with progressive motility and percentage of normal spermatozoa. Positive correlations were found between Ca and sperm concentration. Concentrations of La, Ce, and Gd were negatively associated with sperm concentration, whilst Ca concentration was negatively associated with volume of ejaculate. At the examined level, La, Ce, Eu, and Gd did not affect sperm quality, whereas alcohol consumption and smoking might have increased the level of rare earth elements in semen. PMID:25762379

  12. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samuel S.; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Gillies, Robert D.; Foster, Andrew L.; Barbati, Zachary R.; Smith, Davey M.; Fierer, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods. We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results. Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions. One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  13. Freezing African Elephant Semen as a New Population Management Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Robert; Saragusty, Joseph; Göritz, Frank; Bartels, Paul; Potier, Romain; Baker, Barbara; Streich, W. Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The captive elephant population is not self-sustaining and with a limited number of breeding bulls, its genetic diversity is in decline. One way to overcome this is to import young and healthy animals from the wild. We introduce here a more sustainable alternative method - importation of semen from wild bulls without removing them from their natural habitat. Due to the logistics involved, the only practical option would be to transport cryopreserved sperm. Despite some early reports on African elephant semen cryopreservation, the utility of this new population management tool has not been evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 14 wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) bulls and cryopreserved using the directional freezing technique. Sperm treatments evaluated included the need for centrifugation, the use of hen or quail yolk, the concentration of glycerol (3%, 5% or 7%) in the extender, and maintenance of motility over time after thawing. Our results suggest that dilution in an extender containing hen yolk and 7% glycerol after centrifugation best preserved post-thaw sperm motility when compared to all other treatments (P≤0.012 for all). Using this approach we were able to achieve after thawing (mean ± SD) 54.6±3.9% motility, 85.3±2.4% acrosome integrity, and 86.8±4.6% normal morphology with no decrease in motility over 1 h incubation at 37°C. Sperm cryopreserved during this study has already lead to a pregnancy of a captive female elephant following artificial insemination. Conclusions/Significance With working techniques for artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation of both African and Asian elephants in hand, population managers can now enrich captive or isolated wild elephant populations without removing valuable individuals from their natural habitat. PMID:23483917

  14. Semen quality in workers exposed to 2-ethoxyethanol.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Clapp, D E; Halperin, W E; Turner, T W; Hornung, R W

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate whether long term exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE) may affect semen quality, a cross sectional study was conducted among men exposed to 2EE used as a binder slurry in a metal castings process. Full shift breathing zone exposures to 2EE ranged from non-detectable to 24 ppm (geometric mean 6.6 ppm). Because of the potential for substantial absorption of 2EE through skin exposure, urine measurements of the metabolite of 2EE, 2-ethoxyacetic acid (2EAA) were conducted, showing levels of 2EAA ranging from non-detectable to 163 mg 2EAA/g creatinine. Only 37 exposed men (50% participation) and 39 non-exposed comparison (26% participation) from elsewhere in the plant provided a sperm sample. A questionnaire to determine personal habits, and medical and work histories, and a physical examination of the urogenital tract were also administered. The average sperm count per ejaculate among the workers exposed to 2EE was significantly lower than that of the unexposed group (113 v 154 million sperm per ejaculate respectively; p = 0.05) after consideration of abstinence, sample age, subjects' age, tobacco, alcohol and caffeine use, urogenital disorders, fever, and other illnesses. The mean sperm concentrations of the exposed and unexposed groups did not significantly differ from each other (44 and 53 million/ml respectively). No effect of exposure to 2EE on semen volume, sperm viability, motility, velocity, and normal morphology or testicular volume was detected, although some differences in the proportion of abnormal sperm shapes were observed. These data suggest that there may be an effect of 2EE on sperm count among these workers, although the possibility that other factors may be affecting the semen quality in both exposed and unexposed men in this population or that the results reflect bias introduced by the low participation rates cannot be excluded. PMID:2818974

  15. Phthalate exposure and semen quality in fertile US men.

    PubMed

    Thurston, S W; Mendiola, J; Bellamy, A R; Levine, H; Wang, C; Sparks, A; Redmon, J B; Drobnis, E Z; Swan, S H

    2016-07-01

    Several experimental and observational studies have demonstrated the antiandrogenicity of several phthalates. However, there is limited evidence of an association between phthalate exposure in adult life and semen quality. The aim of this study was to examine phthalate exposure during adulthood in relation to semen quality in fertile US men. This multi-center cross-sectional study included 420 partners of pregnant women who attended a prenatal clinic in one of five US cities during 1999-2001. Nine phthalate metabolites [mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP)], as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono (three carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)] were measured in urine collected at the same time as the semen sample. We regressed natural log-transformed (ln) sperm concentration, ln(total sperm count), ln(total motile sperm count), percent motile spermatozoa, and percent spermatozoa with normal morphology on each of the nine natural log-transformed metabolite concentrations and on the molar-weighted sum of DEHP metabolites in separate models. We fit unadjusted models and models that adjusted for confounders determined a priori. In unadjusted models, ln(MiBP) was significantly and positively associated with motility and ln(MBzP) significantly negatively associated with ln(total sperm count). In adjusted linear models, urinary metabolite concentrations of DEHP, DBP, DEP, and DOP were not associated with any semen parameter. We found an inverse association between ln(MBzP) concentrations and sperm motility (β = -1.47, 95% CI: -2.61, -0.33), adjusted for ln(creatinine concentration), geographic location, age, race, smoking status, stress, recent fever, time from sample collection and time to complete analysis. Several sensitivity

  16. Two new flavonoid glycosides from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Zhi-Lin; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yang, Jing-Yu; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Two novel flavonoid glycosides, 6"'-dihydrophaseoylspinosin (1) and 6″,6"'-diferuloylspinosin (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, together with six known flavonoids, isovitexin-2″-O-β-(6-O-E-feruloyl)glucopyranoside (3), spinosin (4), isospinosin (5), 6"'-feruloylspinosin (6), swertisin (7), and isovitexin-2″-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-TOF-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22296152

  17. A novel spinosin derivative from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Lin; Wang, Hui; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2011-12-01

    A novel spinosin derivative, 6‴-(4‴'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-vanilloyl spinosin (1) was isolated from the methanol extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, together with five known flavonoids, swertish, spinosin, 6‴-feruloylspinosin, isospinosin and kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, and two alkanoids, zizyphusine and 6-(2',3'-dihydroxyl-4'-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-furan-1'-yl)-cyclopentene[c]pyrrole-1,3-diol. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-TOF-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:22115038

  18. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy. PMID:27494016

  19. Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

    2015-02-01

    The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen

  20. A new hepoprotective saponin from Semen Celosia cristatae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Liang; Gao, Gang-Long; Xia, Yin-Fang; Feng, Jing; Qiao, Zeng-Yong

    2011-06-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, named semenoside A (1), was isolated from Semen Celosia cristatae. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, HR-FAB-MS and ESI-MS techniques, and physicochemical properties. The hepatoprotective activity of semenoside A with an oral dose of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0mg/kg, respectively, were investigated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The results indicated that it had significant hepatoprotective effects (p < 0.01). PMID:21262329

  1. Effect of different antioxidant additives in semen diluent on cryopreservability (−196°C) of buffalo semen

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hardik A.; Siddiquee, G. M.; Chaudhari, Dinesh V.; Suthar, Vishal S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different antioxidant additives in standard tris-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TFYG) extender on the cryopreservability of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen collection using artificial vagina, twice weekly for 5 weeks from three pedigreed health breeding bulls of Mehsani breed, aged between 6 and 8 years. Immediately after initial evaluation all 30 qualifying ejaculates (10/bull) were split into three aliquots and diluted at 34°C keeping the concentration of 100 million spermatozoa/ml with standard TFYG extender as control and TFYG having two antioxidant additives - Cysteine HCl at 1 mg/ml and ascorbic acid at 0.2 mg/ml to study their comparative performance. Semen filled in French Mini straws using IS-4 system and gradually cooled to 4°C and equilibrated for 4 h in cold handing cabinet. After completion of equilibration, straws were cryopreserved in LN2 by Programmable Bio-freezer. Semen was examined at post-dilution, post-equilibration, and post-thaw stages for sperm quality parameters, and at each stage plasma was separated for enzymatic analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP). Results: The mean percentage of sperms in TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage in terms of progressive motility (52.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52), livability (78.70±0.21, 82.33±0.23, 81.73±0.22), and abnormality (5.43±0.21, 5.03±0.17, 5.23±0.18) varied significantly (p<0.05) between control TFYG and TFYG having antioxidant additives. The mean U/L activities of AST (78.70±0.47, 72.80±0.48, 73.30±0.54), LDH (172.70±0.41, 155.78±0.42, 156.33±0.41), and AKP (103.61±0.34, 90.20±0.34, 91.03±0.34) in semen diluted with TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage, respectively, which showed significantly (p<0.05) higher leakage of enzymes in control TFYG than TFYG

  2. Association between Semen Exposure and Incident Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Maria F.; Warner, Lee; King, Caroline C.; Sobel, Jack D.; Klein, Robert S.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Rompalo, Anne M.; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To identify correlates of incident bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed with Nugent scoring among high-risk women. Study Design. We conducted both cohort and case-crossover analyses, stratified by HIV infection status, based on 871 HIV-infected and 439 HIV-uninfected participants in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study, conducted in 4 US sites in 1993–2000. Results. BV incidence was 21% and 19% among HIV-infected and -uninfected women, respectively. Fewer correlates of BV were found with case-crossover than with cohort design. Reporting frequent coitus (regardless of consistency of condom use) was correlated with BV in cohort analyses but not in case-crossover analyses. The sole correlate of BV in both types of analyses was the detection of spermatozoa on Gram stain, which is a marker of semen exposure. Conclusion. The inconsistent association between condom use and BV in prior studies could be from reporting bias. We found evidence of a relationship between semen exposure and incident BV. PMID:22190844

  3. Laser researches on livestock semen and oocytes: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Z.; Harith, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of the past and present literature pertinent to laser effects on sperm motility parameters, improvement of oocyte maturation and characterization of semen in livestock. The aim was, on one hand, to make the readers aware of such knowledge and on the other hand to trigger the interest of the animal reproduction scientific community in attempting some laser techniques that have not yet been fully exploited in the field of artificial insemination. With respect to the conventional methods, laser is a more sensitive and less costly technology that can be used for improving artificial insemination and embryo production system. Since 1980s, laser treatment came on the biological samples scene; its applications have continuously been developed thereafter. Exploitation of laser light by various researchers for improving the reproductive efficiency of sperm cells and the maturation rate in different livestock is demonstrated herein. Laser irradiation, in principal, can increase the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and consequently increases the energy provided to the cell. Since sperm motility and oocyte maturation depend on the energy consumption, an increase in the energy supply to the cells will be of great importance. In addition, the authors also discuss the use of laser spectrochemical analytical techniques, such as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF), in characterization of semen samples. PMID:26257928

  4. Clinical use and misuse of automated semen analysis.

    PubMed

    Sherins, R J

    1991-01-01

    During the past six years, there has been an explosion of technology which allows automated machine-vision for sperm analysis. CASA clearly provides an opportunity for objective, systematic assessment of sperm motion. But there are many caveats in using this type of equipment. CASA requires a disciplined and standardized approach to semen collection, specimen preparation, machine settings, calibration and avoidance of sampling bias. Potential sources of error can be minimized. Unfortunately, the rapid commercialization of this technology preceded detailed statistical analysis of such data to allow equally rapid comparisons of data between different CASA machines and among different laboratories. Thus, it is now imperative that we standardize use of this technology and obtain more detailed biological insights into sperm motion parameters in semen and after capacitation before we empirically employ CASA for studies of fertility prediction. In the basic science arena, CASA technology will likely evolve to provide new algorithms for accurate sperm motion analysis and give us an opportunity to address the biophysics of sperm movement. In the clinical arena, CASA instruments provide the opportunity to share and compare sperm motion data among laboratories by virtue of its objectivity, assuming standardized conditions of utilization. Identification of men with specific sperm motion disorders is certain, but the biological relevance of motility dysfunction to actual fertilization remains uncertain and surely the subject for further study. PMID:1785785

  5. Human semen hyperviscosity: prevalence, pathogenesis and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Elia, Jlenia; Delfino, Michele; Imbrogno, Norina; Capogreco, Francesca; Lucarelli, Marco; Rossi, Tiziana; Mazzilli, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to determine the prevalence of subjects with semen hyperviscosity (SHV) in a large population of male partners of subfertile couples; (b) to identify any correlation between SHV and infections or inflammation of the genital tract; (c) to assess the effects of therapeutic approaches for treating SHV; and (d) to assess sperm kinetic parameters after successful treatment of SHV. A retrospective study of 1 833 male partners of subfertile couples was conducted. Next, clinical, seminal, bacteriological and ultrasound studies involving 52 subjects suffering from SHV were performed, and the SHV was classified as being mild (length of thread > 2 cm and 4 cm and 6 cm). The prevalence of SHV was observed in 26.2% (480) of the subjects, with 13.2% suffering from mild, 6.6% from moderate and 6.4% from severe SHV. Treatment was completely successful in only 27 subjects (52.0%), primarily in those who had mild basal SHV with a positive semen culture. In these subjects, progressive motility percentage, straight line velocity and linearity were significantly higher than pre-treatment levels. SHV is often found in subjects with subfertility. Pathogenesis was strictly related to infective/inflammatory factors in only 48.0% of cases; therefore, it is possible that biochemical, enzymatic or genetic factors have a role in this condition. PMID:19701219

  6. Human semen hyperviscosity: prevalence, pathogenesis and therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Jlenia; Delfino, Michele; Imbrogno, Norina; Capogreco, Francesca; Lucarelli, Marco; Rossi, Tiziana; Mazzilli, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to determine the prevalence of subjects with semen hyperviscosity (SHV) in a large population of male partners of subfertile couples; (b) to identify any correlation between SHV and infections or inflammation of the genital tract; (c) to assess the effects of therapeutic approaches for treating SHV; and (d) to assess sperm kinetic parameters after successful treatment of SHV. A retrospective study of 1 833 male partners of subfertile couples was conducted. Next, clinical, seminal, bacteriological and ultrasound studies involving 52 subjects suffering from SHV were performed, and the SHV was classified as being mild (length of thread > 2 cm and ≤ 4 cm), moderate (> 4 cm and ≤ 6 cm) or severe (> 6 cm). The prevalence of SHV was observed in 26.2% (480) of the subjects, with 13.2% suffering from mild, 6.6% from moderate and 6.4% from severe SHV. Treatment was completely successful in only 27 subjects (52.0%), primarily in those who had mild basal SHV with a positive semen culture. In these subjects, progressive motility percentage, straight line velocity and linearity were significantly higher than pre-treatment levels. SHV is often found in subjects with subfertility. Pathogenesis was strictly related to infective/inflammatory factors in only 48.0% of cases; therefore, it is possible that biochemical, enzymatic or genetic factors have a role in this condition. PMID:19701219

  7. Do malignant diseases affect semen quality? Sperm parameters of men with cancers.

    PubMed

    Caponecchia, L; Cimino, G; Sacchetto, R; Fiori, C; Sebastianelli, A; Salacone, P; Marcucci, I; Tomassini, S; Rago, R

    2016-04-01

    The advent of modern treatments together with the improvement of the surgical techniques has significantly increased 5-year survival rates of young patients with cancer. Although the deleterious effects of chemotherapy and radiation are well documented, controversies exist about the effect of cancer itself on semen parameters before treatment. We collected data on 236 patients representative of different types of cancers reoffered at our institution for sperm cryopreservation with the aim to correlate the pre-freeze semen parameters with type of cancer, disease stage and with semen quality of 102 fertile and healthy men. The median baseline semen parameters of all our patients with cancer are placed above the 5th percentile of the World Health Organization reference value, but the type of cancer may impact the sperm parameters. In testicular tumours and in Hodgkin lymphoma, we show a semen concentration statistically lower than in the fertile population, while in patients with other cancers, there is no difference with the healthy men. We found no correlation between semen quality and disease stage. Eighty-six per cent of our patients do not have children at the time of semen cryopreservation, and the only established clinical option for preserving fertility of these men is cryopreservation of spermatozoa. PMID:26173956

  8. Characterisation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in semen during urethral infection in men.

    PubMed Central

    Isbey, S F; Alcorn, T M; Davis, R H; Haizlip, J; Leone, P A; Cohen, M S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of Neisseria gonorrhoeae organisms in urine and semen in men with gonococcal urethritis, and to compare selected phenotypic characteristics of organisms harvested from the urethra and semen. DESIGN: Samples from two groups of subjects were examined. Patients with symptomatic urethritis receiving treatment at an STD clinic, as well as six subjects with experimental urethritis. Semen and urine specimens were obtained after the urethral exudate was sampled. RESULTS: Using quantitative cultures, we found an average of 6 x 10(6) gonococci in urine or semen of 17 men with symptomatic urethritis seeking treatment at an STD clinic, and 2 x 10(4) gonococci in secretions of six male subjects with early experimental infection. Gonococcal outer membrane opacity (Opa) proteins and lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) recovered from urine and semen of these subjects were very similar. CONCLUSIONS: Men with symptomatic gonorrhoea excrete a large number of gonococci in semen which is not affected by the duration of symptoms. The similar phenotype of organisms in urine and semen suggests the bacteria come from the same compartment. These data help to explain the efficiency of gonococcal transmission from men to their partners, and identify an appropriate target for a preventative vaccine or immunotherapy designed to reduce the inoculum in infected patients. Images PMID:9534748

  9. Semen inflammatory markers and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Marvast, L; Aflatoonian, A; Talebi, A R; Ghasemzadeh, J; Pacey, A A

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have given conflicting results about the effect of generally infection and Chlamydia trachomatis on seminal ILs and semen parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between semen quality and the level of seminal interleukins (ILs) in infertile couples with C. trachomatis. Blood, first void urine (FVU) and semen were obtained from 250 infertile men who had failed to conceive after 12 months of trying. Serological analysis for specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis in serum, the presence of C. trachomatis in FVU and semen sample and semen analysis were carried out. The main results are as follows: (i) elevated IL-6 and IL-8 are observed in C. trachomatis-positive men, but this is not significant and it varies by diagnostic method; and (ii) IL-6 and IL-8 levels were correlated with each other and the concentration of leucocytes, but IL-8 was correlated with semen volume and patient's age. This study showed that men with such an infection in FVU samples (PCR positive) had only lower semen volume compared with men without infection. PMID:26646684

  10. Bacteriospermia and Its Impact on Basic Semen Parameters among Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Balan; Jayachandran, Abiramy Lakshmy; Sathiyanarayanan, Sarasa; Tanjore Singaravelu, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Veeraraghavan; Elangovan, Vanithadevi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Semen analysis is considered as the surrogate marker for male fecundity while assessing infertile men. There are several reasons for altered semen quality and bacteriospermia could be one among them. Thereby the aim of our work is to study the semen culture and its impact on semen parameters among infertile men. Materials and Methods. Semen samples were collected from men attending infertility clinic. Semen parameters were analysed based on WHO guidelines. Also, samples were subjected to culture using standard bacteriological techniques. Results. A total of 85 samples were collected. A number of 47 (55.30%) had normal sperm count, 37 (43.50%) had oligozoospermia, and one (1.17%) had azoospermia. Teratozoospermia was the most common abnormality observed (81.17%) followed by asthenozoospermia (28.23%). The prevalence of bacteriospermia was 35.3%. Enterococcus faecalis (30%) was the most common organism isolated followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (23.33%), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), and E. coli (10%). Other less frequently isolated organisms were Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.66%), Proteus sp. (6.66%), and Citrobacter sp. (3.33%). Conclusion. The presence of asymptomatic bacteriospermia did not correlate with abnormal semen parameters. PMID:26880908

  11. Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.

    PubMed

    Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical composition of seminal plasma, along with semen quality, of alpacas maintained on different diets (hay; hay+pasture grazing; pasture grazing+sheep concentrate; pasture grazing+horse concentrate; Periods 1-4, respectively). Alpacas (n=5) were fed the four different diets for a period of 6 weeks each. During the period of feeding of each diet, semen was collected using an artificial vagina to determine its volume, viscosity, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Moreover, testicular volume and body condition score were evaluated. Seminal plasma was analysed biochemically to measure total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Protein profiles were investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was high variability in semen parameters between different males maintained on the same diet. Semen volume increased significantly (P<0.05) when alpacas were fed diets containing commercial sheep and horse concentrates. In contrast, sperm concentration and motility decreased significantly (P<0.05) from Period 1 to Period 4. Dietary changes had no effect on viscosity. Significant reductions were seen in triglyceride and cholesterol content, as well as γ-glutamyl transferase, ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, from Period 1 to Period 4. Regardless of experimental period, a wide variation was seen in seminal plasma enzyme concentrations between alpacas, whereas diet had no effect on glucose and total protein concentrations in the seminal plasma. Eight protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 200 to 14kDa, were considered in electrophoresis gel after image analysis. Proteins fractions of the 14-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 14-kDa, TP8) and 21-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 21-kDa, TP7) bands

  12. Semen evaluation in four autochthonous wild raptor species using computer-aided sperm analyzer.

    PubMed

    Dogliero, Andrea; Rota, Ada; Lofiego, Renato; Mauthe von Degerfeld, Mitzy; Quaranta, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    At least 10 percent of the approximately 300 species of the order Falconiformes are listed as being globally threatened. The present work describes the seminal characteristics of three diurnal and one nocturnal raptor species. Semen was collected from clinically healthy Accipiter nisus (n = 1), Falco subbuteo (n = 6), and Falco tinnunculus (n = 5) adult males that were housed at the 'Centro Animali Non Convenzionali' of the Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Turin. The semen was collected after a period of recovery and before their release as well as from seven Bubo bubo males bred in captivity as part of a raptor conservation project. All the potential semen donors were trained in semen collection during the breeding season via a ritualized procedure. Ejaculation was achieved using a massaging technique. Each sample was evaluated for volume, degree of contamination, and spermatozoa concentration. The semen motility and kinetic parameters were assessed on diluted semen (modified tyroides albumin lactate pyruvate, pH 7.5, temperature 37.5 °C) using a computer-aided sperm analyzer. Semen collection was successful in all the diurnal species and in five B bubo individuals. The sperm motility and sperm kinetic parameters were very variable both among and within species. In contrast with previous studies that involved raptors bred in captivity and imprinted on humans, we worked with wild birds and attempted to overcome the problem of poor semen quality, which is strongly influenced by stress, by adopting a ritualized procedure that has never been reported for semen collection purposes. PMID:26725000

  13. An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Perler, L; Bruhn, S; Suter, D; Eichhorn, L; Hofmann, M; Nathues, H; Baechlein, C; Ritzmann, M; Palzer, A; Grossmann, K; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Thür, B

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV-free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspicious semen were slaughtered and tested immediately. Investigations in the stud resulted in 8 positive boars with recent semen deliveries to CH (Seven with antibodies and virus, one with antibodies only). In one boar out of six tested, virus was detected in semen. Of the 59 slaughtered sows, five from three herds were virus-positive. In one herd, the virus had spread, and all pigs were slaughtered or non-marketable animals euthanized. In the remaining herds, no further infections were detected. After confirmatory testings in all herds 3 weeks after the first examination gave negative results, restrictions were lifted in January 2013, and Switzerland regained its PRRSV-free status. The events demonstrate that import of semen from non-PRRS-free countries - even from negative studs - poses a risk, because monitoring protocols in boar studs are often insufficient to timely detect an infection, and infections of sows/herds occur even with low numbers of semen doses. The outbreak was eradicated successfully mainly due to the high disease awareness of the importer and because immediate actions were taken before clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a single case in the country was made. To minimize the risk of an introduction of PRRSV in the future, stricter import guidelines for boar semen have been implemented. PMID:25209832

  14. Thermotemporal dynamics of contaminant bacteria and antimicrobials in extended porcine semen.

    PubMed

    Althouse, G C; Pierdon, M S; Lu, K G

    2008-11-01

    Bacterial contamination of extended porcine semen has been associated with deleterious effects on both semen quality and sow fertility. Retrospective, prospective and in vitro studies were performed to delineate the prevalence and behavior of certain bacterial contaminants in extended semen, and antimicrobial pharmacodynamics in various semen diluents. Retrospective review of extended semen samples submitted from North American boar studs for microbiological screening at the University of Pennsylvania Reference Andrology Laboratory in 2005 and 2006 yielded bacteriospermia prevalence rates of 17% (144/832) and 26% (256/984), respectively. In a prospective study of regional boar studs, of 91 extended semen samples tested over 1-y, 29% were positive for bacteriospermia. Retrospective and prospective studies both showed that the preponderance of contaminant positive samples occurred during the fall months (P<0.05). To better understand behavior of select contaminant bacteria, generation intervals were determined for Serratia marcescens (SM) and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (AX) at 16, 22 and 37 degrees C. Generation times were temperature-dependent, with intervals decreasing two- to four-fold as incubation temperature increased. Growth patterns for SM, AX and Burkholderia cepacia were evaluated in various semen diluents. The different diluents exhibited constant or episodic patterns of growth within and among bacteria throughout the 5-d test period. Kill-time kinetics at 37 degrees C of several genera of bacteria in four semen diluents containing amoxicillin, gentamicin, tylosin, and lincomycin/spectinomycin (single drug or combination) ranged from 75 to over 360min, and was highly dependent (P<0.05) upon both type of bacteria and semen diluent. PMID:18774598

  15. Cryopreserving turkey semen in straws and nitrogen vapour using DMSO or DMA: effects of cryoprotectant concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on post-thaw semen quality.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Miranda, M; Zaniboni, L; Manchisi, A; Cerolini, S

    2016-04-01

    1. This study was designed to identify a suitable protocol for freezing turkey semen in straws exposed to nitrogen vapour by examining the effects of dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant (CPA), CPA concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on in vitro post-thaw semen quality. 2. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:1 (v:v) with a freezing extender composed of Tselutin diluent containing DMA or DMSO to give final concentrations of 8% or 18% DMA and 4% or 10% DMSO. The semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen (LN2) surface (1, 5 and 10 cm) for 10 min. Semen samples were thawed at 4°C for 5 min or at 50°C for 10 s. After thawing, sperm motility, viability and osmotic tolerance were determined. 3. Cryosurvival of turkey sperm was affected by DMSO concentration. Freezing rate affected the motility of sperm cryopreserved using both CPAs, while thawing rates showed an effect on the motility of sperm cryopreserved using DMA and on the viability of sperm cryopreserved using DMSO. Significant interactions between freezing rate × thawing rate on sperm viability in the DMA protocol were found. 4. The most effective freezing protocol was the use of 18% DMA or 10% DMSO with freezing 10 cm above the LN2 surface and a thawing temperature of 50°C. An efficient protocol for turkey semen would improve prospects for sperm cryobanks and the commercial use of frozen turkey semen. PMID:26872498

  16. The effect of cryopreservation on goat semen characteristics related to sperm freezability.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A; Hidalgo, M

    2010-08-01

    Seminal quality parameters were used to evaluate the effect of freeze-thawing procedure on goat sperm characteristics, and to relate possible changes in sperm parameters to cryopreservation success. Semen samples (n=110) were frozen with TRIS and milk-based extenders and thawed. Sperm quality parameters (motility, morphology and acrosome) were compared between fresh and frozen-thawed samples. Sperm freezability was judged by classifying the semen samples as "suitable" or "not suitable" according to the sperm quality parameters assessed before and after thawing. Fertility data was obtained after cervical insemination with frozen semen doses. The ejaculates were grouped into two categories according to their fertility results. In experiment 1, significant differences were found between semen extenders (P<0.001), bucks (P<0.05) and ejaculates within the same male (P<0.05) in terms of sperm quality. There was no seasonal effect (P>0.05) on the majority of the sperm parameters assessed after thawing. Moreover, significant differences (P<0.001) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of the freeze-thawing procedure on sperm quality parameters was also different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. The number of sperm quality parameters that had changed after cryopreservation was lower in "suitable" semen samples before and after thawing. In experiment 2, no differences (P>0.05) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of freezing and thawing on sperm quality parameters were different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. Only mean beat cross frequency (BCF) values were significantly higher (P<0.05) in TRIS diluted samples that led to successful pregnancies after artificial insemination. In conclusion, CASA-derived motility parameters, together with traditional semen assessment methods, give valuable information on

  17. [Progress in the studies of semen delayed liquefaction from chronic prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-fei; Liang, Chao-zhao

    2007-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a common disease among adult men. It can result in male infertility mainly by alternating the semen quality, volume, pH, component, viscosity and liquefaction. There seems to be a strong association between CP and semen delayed liquefaction. Researches on the mechanism of semen delayed liquefaction resulting from CP mainly focus on the proteolytic ferment, plasminogen activator, prostate acid phosphatase, tissue factor, lack of zinc, and pH. This article briefly reviews the progress in these aspects. PMID:17302037

  18. Mechanisms of the harmful effects of bacterial semen infection on ejaculated human spermatozoa: potential inflammatory markers in semen.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Monika; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the male reproductive tract by microorganisms, and its subsequent consequences for sperm fertilizing potential, has been intensely discussed. The role of the bacteria that are responsible for the colonization and contamination of the male urogenital tract, rather than its infection, in diminished sperm parameters raises the most controversy. There are numerous premises suggesting that bacterial semen infection is associated with male infertility. However, the molecular mechanism by which the fertility is affected is complex and multifactorial, and still presents a puzzle. Some authors have suggested that direct interactions between bacteria and human spermatozoa facilitate sperm immobilization, affect sperm morphology, and thus weaken the ability of sperm to fertilize. On the other hand, the massive infiltration of activated leukocytes into the inflammatory site may be associated with impairment of sperm fertilizing potential, due to oxidative, apoptotic, and immune processes. This review presents current research trends and aims to summarize the present knowledge of semen inflammation and causative bacterial agents in the male urogenital tract, with its consequence on seminological parameters, and male fertility status. PMID:26306512

  19. Semen cryopreservation and usage rate for assisted reproductive technology in 898 men with cancer.

    PubMed

    Muller, Iris; Oude Ophuis, Ralph J A; Broekmans, Frank J M; Lock, Tycho M T W

    2016-02-01

    An undesired side effect of cancer treatment is potential subfertility or infertility. Timely cryopreservation of semen is the best modality to ensure fertility. This retrospective data analysis established the usage rate of cryopreserved semen from cancer patients. Pubertal and post-pubertal patients who could become infertile as a result of cancer (treatment) were offered the option to cryopreserve semen prior to treatment. Of the 898 patients who cryopreserved their semen in our hospital, 96 (10.7%) used this for assisted reproductive technology. The live birth rates for intrauterine insemination, in-vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cryopreserved embryo transfer were 13%, 29%, 32% and 17%, respectively. Of all couples involved, 77% achieved parenthood, i.e. 60 of the 78 patients (with complete follow-up) fathered at least one child. PMID:26687904

  20. Study on extraction process of tannins from Semen Cuscutae and their anti-papilloma activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangning; Li, Xiaorong; Gao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the extraction methods of tannin constituents from Semen Cuscutae and their anti-papilloma effects. Single factor test and orthogonal design methods were used to determine the optimal extraction method; the mouse skin papilloma model induced by DMBA/croton oil was established, which was a classic two-stage carcinogenesis model being used to observe and evaluate the anti-carcinogenic effects of tannins extracted from Semen Cuscutae in different stages. The optimal extraction method of Semen Cuscutae was a 20-fold volume of solvent, a temperature of 50 °C, three times of extraction, with 20 min each, skin papilloma experiment revealed that the number of bearing tumors gradually reduced, and the inhibition rate gradually increased with the increase of dose, in the high-dose group, its inhibition rate reached 70.2%. Tannin extract from Semen Cuscutae has an obvious inhibitory effect on skin papilloma development. PMID:24146476

  1. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  2. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  3. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  4. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species. PMID:23797622

  5. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species. PMID:23797622

  6. Critical appraisal of conventional semen analysis in the context of varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Thinus

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is present in approximately 15% of men, and, although it is the most commonly diagnosed cause of male infertility, nearly two-thirds of men with varicoceles remain fertile. It was decided to make use of the current evidence obtained from the previous meta-analyses between 2004 and 2015 as well as available articles covering this field, preferably randomized controlled articles dealing with the topic of semen analysis before and after repair. Two important meta-analyses were discussed as well as other articles dealing with the topic of semen analysis before and after varicocelectomy. The evidence suggests that all semen parameters improve after varicocele repair. Based on the available evidence, it is clear that there is a benefit in treating men with a palpable varicocele. One can expect that all semen parameters will improve within 3 months after repair. PMID:26620460

  7. Critical appraisal of conventional semen analysis in the context of varicocele.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Thinus

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is present in approximately 15% of men, and, although it is the most commonly diagnosed cause of male infertility, nearly two-thirds of men with varicoceles remain fertile. It was decided to make use of the current evidence obtained from the previous meta-analyses between 2004 and 2015 as well as available articles covering this field, preferably randomized controlled articles dealing with the topic of semen analysis before and after repair. Two important meta-analyses were discussed as well as other articles dealing with the topic of semen analysis before and after varicocelectomy. The evidence suggests that all semen parameters improve after varicocele repair. Based on the available evidence, it is clear that there is a benefit in treating men with a palpable varicocele. One can expect that all semen parameters will improve within 3 months after repair. PMID:26620460

  8. Advances in cryopreservation of stallion semen in modified INRA82.

    PubMed

    Vidament, M; Yvon, J M; Couty, I; Arnaud, G; Nguekam-Feugang, J; Noue, P; Cottron, S; Le Tellier, A; Noel, F; Palmer, E; Magistrini, M

    2001-12-01

    In the procedure used in this paper, semen was first diluted in INRA82+2% egg yolk (E1) at 37 degrees C. Before or after cooling to 4 degrees C, semen was centrifuged and diluted in E1+2.5% glycerol (E2). Cooled semen was frozen in 0.5-ml straws. Straws were thawed at 37 degrees C for 30s. For fertility trials, frozen ejaculates were used only if total post-thaw motility was above 35%. Most mares were inseminated two times before ovulation with 400 x 10(6) total spermatozoa every 24h. This paper presents post-thaw motility (CASA) and fertility results obtained when some steps of the procedure were evaluated. Use of the first three jets of ejaculate before the centrifugation did not improve post-thaw motility compared to use of the whole semen (25% versus 25%, 2 stallions x 12 ejaculates, P>0.80). When the first dilution was performed in E2 at 22 degrees C instead of in E1 at 37 degrees C, motility was slightly improved (38% versus 36%, n>283 ejaculates per group, P<0.04) but fertility was similar (51% versus 58%, n>196 cycles per group, P>0.10). Coating the spermatozoa with 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8mM of Concanavalin A resulted in unchanged post-thaw motility (6 stallions x 3 ejaculates, P>0.05). The extender E2 was modified or supplemented with different substances. Increasing egg yolk concentration from 2 to 4% (v/v) did not increase post-thaw motility (42% versus 34%, 6 stallions x 2 ejaculates, P>0.05). Different glycerol concentrations (range: 1.7-3.7%) had no significant effect on post-thaw motility even though 2.4-2.8% resulted in a nonsignificant higher motility (7 stallions x 2 ejaculates, P>0.05). Glutamine at 50mM in E2 improved post-thaw motility compared with no glutamine (49% versus 46%, n>584 ejaculates per group, P<0.0001) but not fertility (53% versus 54%, n>451 cycles per group, P>0.80). Thawing at 75 degrees C for 10s slightly increased motility after 120 min at 37 degrees C (6 stallions x 1 ejaculate, P<0.05) but no effect on per-cycle fertility was

  9. Evaluation of different cryoprotectants (CPAs) in boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhee; Lee, Young-Jun; Ji, Dong-Beom; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2011-07-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the use of dimethylacetamide (DMA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in boar sperm cryopreservation. Semen from eight boars was cryopreserved following treatment with 3, 5, and 7% DMA and DMSO, and 3% glycerol (control). After thawing, sperm conventional parameters and membrane integrities were evaluated. There were no significant differences among different DMA concentrations in all evaluations. Membrane intactness were higher in 5% and 7% DMSO than 3% DMSO (P<0.05). Sperm motility of 5% DMSO was lower than that of 3% glycerol (P<0.005), and membrane intactness were lower in 5% DMA and DMSO than 3% glycerol (P<0.05). DMA and DMSO didn't improve sperm quality and glycerol remains the most useful for boar sperm cryopreservation. PMID:21441721

  10. Electroejaculation and semen characteristics of Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus).

    PubMed

    Chen, L M; Hou, R; Zhang, Z H; Wang, J S; An, X R; Chen, Y F; Zheng, H P; Xia, G L; Zhang, M J

    2007-10-01

    This study details the seminal traits in the rare Asiatic black bear, revealing that this species generally produces high quality, concentrated ejaculates containing sperm of high motility and morphological integrity and similar to other members of the Ursine lineage. Semen was collected by electroejaculation and 23 trials were performed on 18 bears. The mean values were obtained for volume (0.61 ml), pH (7.1), sperm concentration (1049 x 10(6) ml(-1)), total sperm counts (502.8 x 10(6)), motility percentage (63.8%), forward progressive status (3.5), abnormal sperm percentage (37.9%) and intact acrosome percentage (76.6%). PMID:17250981

  11. Detection of Neospora caninum in the semen and blood of naturally infected bulls.

    PubMed

    Ferre, Ignacio; Aduriz, Gorka; Del-Pozo, Itziar; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Hurtado, Ana; Ugarte-Garagalza, Carlos; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2005-03-15

    A prospective study was designed to investigate the presence of Neospora caninum in semen and blood of eight bulls seropositive to N. caninum using nested-PCR procedures. Positive semen and blood samples were bioassayed in a BALB/c nu/nu mouse model. Specific anti-N. caninum serological and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses were also studied. In parallel, five seronegative bulls acted as non-infected controls. All bulls were located in a collaborating AI centre and monitored for 22 weeks. Six of eight seropositive bulls showed N. caninum DNA in their semen and/or blood samples at some time during the course of the study. In all positive semen samples, we consistently found Neospora-DNA in the cell fraction and not in seminal plasma. Parasite load, as determined by a real-time PCR in nested-PCR positive semen samples, ranged from 1 to 10 parasites/ml. We found no association between the presence of N. caninum DNA in semen and blood. N. caninum could not be detected in the BALB/c nu/nu mice inoculated with PCR-positive semen or blood samples. Specific IgG antibody levels in seropositive bulls fluctuated over time, at times falling below cut-off level. The response was predominantly IgG2, with significant differences compared to control bulls (P < 0.05). The overall mean specific IFN-gamma response in seropositive bulls was also higher than those observed in the control group (P < 0.05), although extensive variation in individual responses was observed among bulls and over time. No significant association was found between bulls showing Neospora DNA in semen, blood, or both, and specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgA levels or IFN-gamma response. This study is the first to report the presence of Neospora DNA in semen and blood of naturally-infected bulls. Our observations indicate intermittent presence of N. caninum in blood and semen and shedding in semen in low numbers. PMID:15725454

  12. Evaluation of ebselen supplementation on cryopreservation medium in human semen

    PubMed Central

    Khodayari Naeini, Zohreh; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Nikzad, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells. Objective: This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation. Results: After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm. PMID:24976819

  13. The Association Between Testis Cancer and Semen Abnormalities Before Orchiectomy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Burner, Elizabeth; Parikh, Pooja M.; Beroukhim Kay, Dorsa; Hays, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common solid organ malignancy in young men. It is a largely curable disease, so the extent to which it affects quality of life—including male fertility—is important. Abnormal semen analysis is highly predictive of male infertility. We conducted a systematic review of published studies that reported pre-orchiectomy semen parameters (as a surrogate for fertility) in TGCT patients to evaluate the association between TGCT and semen abnormalities before orchiectomy. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications reporting semen parameters before orchiectomy in adult patients diagnosed with TGCT. Further, we assessed the association between TGCT and semen abnormalities that may lead to infertility. Results: We applied MeSH search terms to four online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, Web of Science, and Ovid), resulting in 701 potentially relevant citations. After conducting a three-stage screening process, six articles were included in the systematic review. For each study, the participants' data and the study's quality and risk of bias were assessed and described. All studies showed semen abnormalities—including count, motility, and morphology—in men with TGCT prior to orchiectomy. Conclusions: TGCT is associated with semen abnormalities before orchiectomy. This review shows an increase in abnormal semen parameters among men with TGCT even outside the treatment effects of orchiectomy, radiation, or chemotherapy. To improve long-term quality of life, these findings should be considered when counseling patients on future fertility and sperm banking during discussions about treatment and prognosis for TGCT. PMID:25538860

  14. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. PMID:26893165

  15. In vivo adverse effects of alpha-tocopherol on the semen quality of male bucks.

    PubMed

    Majid, A; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has detrimental effects on semen quality during spermatogenesis and semen processing for artificial insemination. This work was conducted to study the effect of different levels of vitamin E on the semen traits, oxidative status and trace minerals in Beetal bucks. Thirty-six bucks of similar body weight and age (1 year) were randomly divided into four groups. One group was kept as control with no supplementation (group 1), and the others were supplemented with 200 (group 2), 400 (group 3) and 800 IU (group 4) vitamin E/animal/day for 2 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and evaluated. Seminal plasma was separated to study the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). Group 3 showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) semen volume and per cent motility and lower dead sperm percentage compared to control group. Superoxide dismutase, GPx, Zn, Cu and Mn were higher in the same group. The level of AST decreased in group 3 without any change on the concentration of ALT. It is suggested that vitamin E at the rate of 400 IU/buck/day supported higher semen volume, per cent motility, per cent live spermatozoa, antioxidants (SOD, GPx) and trace mineral levels (Zn, Cu, Mn) in the seminal plasma. The increased supplementation from 0 to 400 showed a general increasing trend in improving semen quality. However, the dose of 800 IU/kg had no useful effect in further improving the semen quality. PMID:25580862

  16. Effect of Semen on Vaginal Fluid Cytokines and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Kathy J.; Aura, Jan; Nunez, Norma; Lee, Zandra; Lawler, Rick; Richardson, Carol E.; Culhane, Jennifer; Hitti, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The presence of semen in vaginal fluid, as identified by an acid phosphatase spot test, does not influence vaginal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. Objective: determine whether semen, as detected by acid phosphatase, influences vaginal cytokines or secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations. Methods: 138 pregnant women had vaginal fluid collected for Gram stain, acid phosphatase detection by colorimetric assay, and interleukin 1-Beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor measurement by enzyme immunoassay. Results for women with and without acid phosphatase were compared by Mann-Whitney test. Results: of 138 subjects, 28 (20%) had acid phosphatase detected; of these, only 19 (68%) reported recent intercourse and 3 (11%) had sperm seen on Gram stain. There were no significant differences in proinflammatory cytokine concentrations; however, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations were significantly higher among women with acid phosphatase. Conclusions: proinflammatory cytokine measurement does not appear to be affected by the presence of semen, but secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is significantly higher when semen is present. Detection of semen by acid phosphatase was associated with higher vaginal SLPI concentrations, however, the presence of semen did not appear to influence vaginal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. PMID:18615190

  17. Reducing Inter-Laboratory Differences between Semen Analyses Using Z Score and Regression Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Leushuis, Esther; Wetzels, Alex; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; van Trooyen, Netty; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Horst, Frans A.L.; Hompes, Peter G.A. Hompes; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2016-01-01

    Background Standardization of the semen analysis may improve reproducibility. We assessed variability between laboratories in semen analyses and evaluated whether a transformation using Z scores and regression statistics was able to reduce this variability. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study. We calculated between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CVB) for sperm concentration and for morphology. Subsequently, we standardized the semen analysis results by calculating laboratory specific Z scores, and by using regression. We used analysis of variance for four semen parameters to assess systematic differences between laboratories before and after the transformations, both in the circulation samples and in the samples obtained in the prospective cohort study in the Netherlands between January 2002 and February 2004. Results The mean CVBwas 7% for sperm concentration (range 3 to 13%) and 32% for sperm morphology (range 18 to 51%). The differences between the laboratories were statistically significant for all semen parameters (all P<0.001). Standardization using Z scores did not reduce the differences in semen analysis results between the laboratories (all P<0.001). Conclusion There exists large between-laboratory variability for sperm morphology and small, but statistically significant, between-laboratory variation for sperm concentration. Standardization using Z scores does not eliminate between-laboratory variability. PMID:26985342

  18. Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

  19. HIV enhancing activity of semen impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R.; Kluge, Silvia F.; Müller, Janis A.; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. Here, we report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was Maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  20. Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations and semen quality of male partners of subfertile couples in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Toshima, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi; Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been known as a testicular toxicant in experimental rodents. Possible association between iAs exposure and semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) was explored in male partners of couples (n = 42) who visited a gynecology clinic in Tokyo for infertility consultation. Semen parameters were measured according to WHO guideline at the clinic, and urinary iAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-ICP mass spectrometry. Biological attributes, dietary habits, and exposure levels to other chemicals with known effects on semen parameters were taken into consideration as covariates. Multiple regression analyses and logistic regression analyses did not find iAs exposure as significant contributor to semen parameters. Lower exposure level of subjects (estimated to be 0.5 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) was considered a reason of the absence of adverse effects on semen parameters, which were seen in rodents dosed with 4-7.5 mg kg(-1). PMID:26865228

  1. Semen analysis in post-pubertal patients with posterior urethral valves: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Puri, A; Gaur, K K; Kumar, A; Bhatnagar, V

    2002-03-01

    The issues of sexual function and fertility are becoming relevant in patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV), as more of them reach adulthood. To evaluate the semen of post-pubertal patients with PUV as a determinant of future fertility, all such patients (age >16 years) attending the follow-up urology clinic of our department from 1985 to December 1999 were contacted. Of the nine patients contacted, eight agreed to form the study group. All eight patients were asked to provide a post-masturbation semen sample and urine. Semen was analysed for pH, viscosity, liquefaction time, sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and agglutination. The patients ages ranged from 16 to 21 years (mean 17.5 years). One patient with chronic renal failure awaiting a renal transplant refused to give a semen sample; two tried but failed to ejaculate on three consecutive visits. Their urine was negative for sperm. Of the five patients who gave semen, the liquefaction time was high in two. pH ranged from 7.2 to 8, sperm counts were 24-80 million. None of the patients had oligospermia. Abnormal sperm agglutination was present in four cases; a higher percentage of immotile sperm was also present in four. Semen abnormalities in the form of increased liquefaction time, abnormal sperm agglutination, and a high percentage of immotile sperm were thus seen in the present study. The bearing of these findings on subsequent sexual function and fertility remains a matter of speculation. PMID:11956780

  2. Effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing methods on post-thaw boar semen quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung-Hsun; Wu, Ting-Wen; Cheng, Feng-Pang; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of glycerol (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5%) and dimethylacetamide (DMA: 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) on post-sperm quality characteristics following semen freezing in dry ice (D) or liquid nitrogen (N). Semen was collected from Duroc boars and was allocated to 32 treatment groups for cryopreservation. Analysis of post-thaw semen quality and fertility after artificial insemination (AI) was used to examine the combinatorial effects of different treatments. The best scores for post-thaw sperm motility, sperm viability, and sperm acrosomal integrity were observed in semen frozen in: (a) dry ice in the presence of 5% glycerol and no DMA (16D-treatment); (b) dry ice in the presence of 3% glycerol and no DMA (9D-treatment); and (c) liquid nitrogen in the presence of 3% glycerol and 1% DMA (10N-treatment), with no significant difference observed among these three treatments. The farrowing rates after AI with post-thawed semen after 9D- and 10N-treatments were 33% and 50%, respectively. To summarize, the results of the present study indicated that the freezing extender containing 3% glycerol in combination with the straw-freezing method using dry ice produced the best post-thaw quality parameters of boar semen. Combinations of glycerol and DMA did not enhance the cryosurvival of boar spermatozoa. PMID:26952752

  3. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  4. Presence of aerobic micro-organisms and their influence on basic semen parameters in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, E; Marchlewska, K; Oszukowska, E; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, R; Swierczynska-Cieplucha, A; Kula, K; Slowikowska-Hilczer, J

    2015-09-01

    Urogenital tract infections in males are one of the significant etiological factors in infertility. In this prospective study, 72 patients with abnormal semen parameters or any other symptoms of urogenital tract infection were examined. Semen analysis according to the WHO 2010 manual was performed together with microbial assessment: aerobic bacteria culture, Chlamydia antigen test, Candida culture, Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma-specific culture. In total, 69.4% of semen samples were positive for at least one micro-organism. Ureaplasma sp. was the most common micro-organism found in 33% of semen samples of infertile patients with suspected male genital tract infection. The 2nd most common micro-organisms were Enterococcus faecalis (12.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7%), Chlamydia trachomatis (7%) and Candida sp. (5.6%). Generally, bacteria were sensitive to at least one of the antibiotics tested. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the presence of aerobic micro-organisms in semen and basic semen parameters: volume, pH, concentration, total count, motility, vitality and morphology. PMID:25209133

  5. Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis techniques as a potential tool for semen investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zufang; Lin, Jinyong; Cao, Gang; Chen, Xiwen; Li, Yongzeng; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Wang, Jing; Lin, Hongxin; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Molecular characterization of semen that can be used to provide an objective diagnosis of semen quality is still lacking. Raman spectroscopy measures vibrational modes of molecules, thus can be utilized to characterize biological fluids. Here, we employed Raman spectroscopy to characterize and compare normal and abnormal semen samples in the fingerprint region (400-1800cm-1). Multivariate analysis methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used for spectral analysis to differentiate between normal and abnormal semen samples. Compared with PCA-LDA analysis, PLS-DA improved the diagnostic results, showing a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 73%. Furthermore, our preliminary quantitative analysis based on PLS algorithm demonstrated that spermatozoa concentration were relatively well predicted (R2=0.825). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate methods can provide as a new diagnostic technique for semen analysis and differentiation between normal and abnormal semen samples.

  6. Optimal rates for cooling chicken semen from +5 to -196 C.

    PubMed

    Sexton, T J

    1980-12-01

    Optimal rates for cooling chicken semen from +5 to -196 C were determined. Semen was diluted 1:5 with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender and held at 5 C for 2 hr before adding dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 4% v/v. The semen-DMSO mixture was allowed to equilibrate for 2 hr at 5 C before it was placed in a plastic freeze straw of .5 cc capacity. A two step controlled-rate procedure was used to test the various cooling rates (1 to 50 C/min) through certain temperature ranges (+5 to -20 C and -20 to -180 C) and to determine the optimal semen temperature for making the transition of cooling in alcohol (Step 1) to cooling in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor (Step 2). Fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa was maximal when semen samples were cooled from +5 C to -20 C at a rate of 1 C/min (Step 1), then transferred to LN2 vapor (Step 2) and cooled to -80 C at 30 C/min before the samples were plunged in liquid nitrogen. After storage in LN2 for 24 hr and subsequent thawing at +2 C, the fertilizing capacity of the sperm was 47%. PMID:7267522

  7. Influence of chicken native breeds on some physical and biochemical characteristics and short-term storage of semen.

    PubMed

    Mohan, J; Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Moudgal, R P; Biswas, A; Shit, N

    2011-06-01

    1. The major objective of this study was to examine the influence of 24-h storage of semen at low temperature on semen characteristics and fertilising ability of spermatozoa in two native breeds (Kadaknath-KN, Aseel Peela-AP) and White Leghorn (WL) chicken. 2. Various physical and biochemical properties of freshly ejaculated semen of KN and AP were investigated. Fertility was examined in freshly-ejaculated as well as 24-h-stored (3°C) semen diluted (1:3) with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender. 3. No significant difference was observed in sperm motility among the different breeds whereas live counts were higher in WL than the native breeds. Body weight, semen volume and sperm concentration were highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. A similar trend was observed in the percentage of dead and morphologically-abnormal spermatozoa. 4. The activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in seminal plasma were higher in WL than KN, whereas the opposite trend was recorded for glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases. The cholesterol content of semen was highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. Cholesterol was much lower in seminal plasma compared with whole semen but there were no differences between breeds. Mean values of the methylene blue reduction time test were higher in WL than in the native breeds. 5. Fertility and hatchability, using freshly-diluted semen, were poorer in the native breeds than in WL. The pattern of fertility deteriorated further, especially in native fowls, when the birds were inseminated with 24-h-stored semen. 6. In conclusion, variation in physical and biochemical characteristics of semen in native breeds compared to WL correlated with poor fertility after short-term storage of semen. PMID:21732887

  8. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...APHIS is amending the regulations governing the importation of certain animal embryos and animal semen by removing one of the conditions for the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region, a region of Europe that we recognize as a single low-risk region for classical swine fever. We have determined that the 40-day holding period for swine semen and donor boars after......

  9. Isolation, culture and characterisation of somatic cells derived from semen and milk of endangered sheep and eland antelope.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, L; Gómez, M C; Damiani, P; Wirtu, G; Dresser, B L; Bondioli, K R; Lyons, L A; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2007-01-01

    Semen and milk are potential sources of somatic cells for genome banks. In the present study, we cultured and characterised cells from: (1) cooled sheep milk; (2) fresh, cooled and frozen-thawed semen from Gulf Coast native (GCN) sheep (Ovis aries); and (3) fresh eland (Taurotragus oryx) semen. Cells attached to the culture surface from fresh (29%), cooled (43%) and slow-frozen (1 degrees C/min; 14%) ram semen, whereas no attachment occurred in the fast-frozen (10 degrees C/min) group. Proliferation occurred in fresh (50%) and cooled (100%) groups, but no cells proliferated after passage 1 (P1). Eland semen yielded cell lines (100%) that were cryopreserved at P1. In samples from GCN and cross-bred milk, cell attachment (83% and 95%, respectively) and proliferation (60% and 37%, respectively) were observed. Immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin indicated an epithelial origin of semen-derived cells, whereas milk yielded either fibroblasts, epithelial or a mixture of cell types. Deoxyribonucleic acid microsatellite analysis using cattle-derived markers confirmed that eland cells were from the semen donor. Eland epithelial cells were transferred into eland oocytes and 12 (71%), six (35%) and two (12%) embryos cleaved and developed to morulae or blastocyst stages, respectively. In conclusion, we have developed a technique for obtaining somatic cells from semen. We have also demonstrated that semen-derived cells can serve as karyoplast donors for nuclear transfer. PMID:17524303

  10. Protocol optimization for long-term liquid storage of goat semen in a chemically defined extender.

    PubMed

    Zhao, B-T; Han, D; Xu, C-L; Luo, M-J; Chang, Z-L; Tan, J-H

    2009-12-01

    A specific problem in the preservation of goat semen has been the detrimental effect of seminal plasma on the viability of spermatozoa in extenders containing egg yolk or milk. The use of chemically defined extenders will have obvious advantages in liquid storage of buck semen. Our previous study showed that the self-made mZAP extender performed better than commercial extenders, and maintained a sperm motility of 34% for 9 days and a fertilizing potential for successful pregnancies for 7 days. The aim of this study was to extend the viability and fertilizing potential of liquid-stored goat spermatozoa by optimizing procedures for semen processing and storage in the mZAP extender. Semen samples collected from five goat bucks of the Lubei White and Boer breeds were diluted with the extender, cooled and stored at 5 degrees C. Stored semen was evaluated for sperm viability parameters, every 48 h of storage. Data from three ejaculates of different bucks were analysed for each treatment. The percentage data were arcsine-transformed before being analysed with anova and Duncan's multiple comparison test. While cooling at the rate of 0.1-0.25 degrees C/min did not affect sperm viability parameters, doing so at the rate of 0.6 degrees C/min from 30 to 15 degrees C reduced goat sperm motility and membrane integrity. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were significantly higher in semen coated with the extender containing 20% egg yolk than in non-coated semen. Sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosomal intactness were significantly higher when coated semen was 21-fold diluted than when it was 11- or 51-fold diluted and when extender was renewed at 48-h intervals than when it was not renewed during storage. When goat semen coated with the egg yolk-containing extender was 21-fold diluted, cooled at the rate of 0.07-0.25 degrees C/min, stored at 5 degrees C and the extender renewed every 48 h, a sperm motility of 48% was maintained for 13 days, and an in vitro