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Sample records for delayed ultimate procedure

  1. Flight test pilot evaluation of a delayed flap approach procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.; Hegarty, D. M.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1977-01-01

    Using NASA's CV-990 aircraft, a delayed flap approach procedure was demonstrated to nine guest pilots from the air transport industry. Four demonstration flights and 37 approaches were conducted under VFR weather conditions. A limited pilot evaluation of the delayed flap procedure was obtained from pilot comments and from questionaires they completed. Pilot acceptability, pilot workload, and ATC compatibility were quantitatively rated. The delayed flap procedure was shown to be feasible, and suggestions for further development work were obtained.

  2. Two planar polishing methods by using FIB technique: Toward ultimate top-down delayering for failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D. D. Huang, Y. M.; Tan, P. K.; Feng, H.; Low, G. R.; Yap, H. H.; He, R.; Tan, H.; Dawood, M. K.; Zhao, Y. Z.; Lam, J.; Mai, Z. H.

    2015-12-15

    Presently two major limiting factors are hindering the failure analysis (FA) development during the semiconductor manufacturing process and technology improvement: (1) Impossibility of manual polishing on the edge dies due to the amenability of layer peeling off; (2) Abundant demand of multi-locations FA, especially focusing different levels of layers simultaneously. Aiming at resolving these limitations, here we demonstrate two unique high precision polishing methods by using focused ion beam (FIB) technique. One is the vertical top down chemical etching at the aimed location; the other one is the planar top down slicing. Using the FIB for delayering not only solves these problems mentioned above, but also offers significant advantages over physical planar polishing methods such as: (1) having a better control of the delayering progress, (2) enabling precisely milling at a region of interest, (3) providing the prevention of over-delayering and (4) possessing capability to capture images at the region of interest simultaneously and cut into the die directly to expose the exact failure without damaging other sections of the specimen.

  3. 32 CFR Appendix H to Part 275 - Procedures for Delay of Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for Delay of Notice H Appendix H to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. H Appendix H to Part 275—Procedures for Delay of Notice A. The customer...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix H to Part 275 - Procedures for Delay of Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures for Delay of Notice H Appendix H to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. H Appendix H to Part 275—Procedures for Delay of Notice A. The customer...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix H to Part 275 - Procedures for Delay of Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for Delay of Notice H Appendix H to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. H Appendix H to Part 275—Procedures for Delay of Notice A. The customer...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix H to Part 275 - Procedures for Delay of Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for Delay of Notice H Appendix H to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. H Appendix H to Part 275—Procedures for Delay of Notice A. The customer...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix H to Part 275 - Procedures for Delay of Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for Delay of Notice H Appendix H to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. H Appendix H to Part 275—Procedures for Delay of Notice A. The customer...

  8. Decreasing Errors in Reading-Related Matching to Sample Using a Delayed-Sample Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Adam H.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2009-01-01

    Two men with intellectual disabilities initially demonstrated intermediate accuracy in two-choice matching-to-sample (MTS) procedures. A printed-letter identity MTS procedure was used with 1 participant, and a spoken-to-printed-word MTS procedure was used with the other participant. Errors decreased substantially under a delayed-sample procedure,…

  9. Using a modified constant prompt-delay procedure to teach spelling to students with physical disabilities.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman-Martin, Mari Beth; Heller, Kathryn Wolff

    2004-01-01

    Current research suggests that constant delay is an effective means of teaching students through near-errorless learning. The current study examined how procedures used in previous research may be modified so that constant delay can be implemented with students who have physical disabilities that prevent them from engaging in fluent academic responding. A multiple baseline design with probes was used to assess the effectiveness of a modified constant-delay procedure in teaching spelling to students with physical disabilities. This procedure was found to be effective for all 3 students. PMID:15669406

  10. A numerical procedure for predicting creep and delayed failures in laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical procedure is described for predicting the viscoelastic response of general laminates. A nonlinear compliance model is used to predict the creep response of the individual laminae. A biaxial delayed failure model predicts ply failure. The numerical procedure, based on lamination theory, increases by increments through time to predict creep compliance and delayed failures in laminates. Numerical stability problems and experimental verification are discussed. Although the program has been quite successful in predicting creep of general laminates, the assumptions associated with lamination theory have resulted in erroneous bounds on the predicted material response. Delayed failure predictions have been conservative. Several improvements are suggested to increase the accuracy of the procedure.

  11. Ultimate Frisbee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ed; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Ultimate Frisbee is a highly competitive noncontact sport similar to football or soccer, played by two teams of seven or more members. Various aspects of the game are described, including: (1) equipment; (2) playing field; and (3) the rules and scoring system. (JN)

  12. Hair follicles are viable after delayed FUE procedure.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour Laran, Alireza; Mirmohammadi, Ramin; Rezaei Bana, Mohammadreza; Manoochehri, Shaghayegh

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, male pattern hair loss is usually managed with hair transplant. However, maintaining the hair follicle viability between extraction and implantation period is a great concern which restricts the hair transplantation period. However, it is possible that the hair follicles can be preserved and be viable for few days. Here, we report a case with delayed follicular unit extraction in three consecutive days with acceptable hair growth after a 5-month follow-up. PMID:25968165

  13. Using a Modified Constant Prompt-Delay Procedure to Teach Spelling to Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman-Martin, Mari Beth; Heller, Kathryn Wolff

    2004-01-01

    Current research suggests that constant delay is an effective means of teaching students through near-errorless learning. The current study examined how procedures used in previous research may be modified so that constant delay can be implemented with students who have physical disabilities that prevent them from engaging in fluent academic…

  14. Scopolamine Effects Under a Titrating-Delayed-Nonmatching-to-Position Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porritt, M.; Poling, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a study of working memory, the performance of rats under titrating-delayed-nonmatching- to-position (TDNMTP) procedures was examined. Overall accuracy and the number of trials completed were inversely related to titration value, whereas the highest delay attained was directly related to titration value. When given intraperitoneally,…

  15. Procedure for calculating estimated ultimate recoveries of Bakken and Three Forks Formations horizontal wells in the Williston Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) are a key component in determining productivity of wells in continuous-type oil and gas reservoirs. EURs form the foundation of a well-performance-based assessment methodology initially developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS; Schmoker, 1999). This methodology was formally reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation (Curtis and others, 2001). The EUR estimation methodology described in this paper was used in the 2013 USGS assessment of continuous oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations and incorporates uncertainties that would not normally be included in a basic decline-curve calculation. These uncertainties relate to (1) the mean time before failure of the entire well-production system (excluding economics), (2) the uncertainty of when (and if) a stable hyperbolic-decline profile is revealed in the production data, (3) the particular formation involved, (4) relations between initial production rates and a stable hyperbolic-decline profile, and (5) the final behavior of the decline extrapolation as production becomes more dependent on matrix storage.

  16. A Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and Constant Time Delay Procedures in Teaching State Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Kenneth David; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compared the effectiveness and efficiency of constant time delay (CTD) and simultaneous prompting (SP) procedures in teaching discrete social studies facts to 4 high school students with learning and behavior disorders using an adapted alternating treatments design nested within a multiple probe design. The results indicated…

  17. Teaching Employment Skills to Adolescents with Mild and Moderate Disabilities Using a Constant Time Delay Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Wanda; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A five-second constant time delay procedure was used to teach three chained vocational tasks (filling a soda machine, using a duplicating machine, and using a photocopier) to four high school students with mild or moderate disabilities. All students acquired the skills with a low percentage of errors. Maintenance and generalization data were…

  18. Using a Constant Time Delay Procedure to Teach Foundational Swimming Skills to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Laura; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Wolery, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a constant time delay procedure to teach foundational swimming skills to three children with autism. The skills included flutter kick, front-crawl arm strokes, and head turns to the side. A multiple-probe design across behaviors and replicated across participants was used.…

  19. Using a Constant Time Delay Procedure to Teach Aquatic Play Skills to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Birkan, Bunyamin; Konukman, Ferman; Erkan, Mert

    2005-01-01

    Effects of a constant time delay procedure on aquatic play skills of children with autism was investigated. A single subject multiple probe model across behaviors with probe conditions was used. Participants were four boys, 7-9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week period using the single opportunity method as an intervention. Results…

  20. An Evaluation of Constant Time Delay and Simultaneous Prompting Procedures in Skill Acquisition for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Julie A. Ackerlund; Weinkauf, Sara; Zeug, Nicole; Klatt, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that various prompting procedures are effective in teaching skills to children and adults with developmental disabilities. Simultaneous prompting includes proving a prompt immediately following an instruction; whereas constant time-delay procedures include a set time delay (i.e., 5 s or 10 s) prior to delivering a…

  1. Effects of Reinforcer Delay and Variability in a Successive-Encounters Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons responded in a successive-encounters procedure that consisted of a search period, a choice period, and a handling period. The search period was either a fixed-interval or mixed-interval schedule presented on the center key of a three-key chamber. Upon completion of the search period, the center key was turned off and the two side keys were lit. A pigeon could either accept a delay followed by food (by pecking the right key) or reject this option and return to the search period (by pecking the left key). During the choice period, a red right key represented the long alternative (a long handling delay followed by food), and a green right key represented the short alternative (a short handling delay followed by food). The experiment consisted of a series of comparisons for which optimal diet theory predicted no changes in preference for the long alternative (because the overall rates of reinforcement were unchanged), whereas the hyperbolic-decay model predicted changes in preference (because the delays to the next possible reinforcer were varied). In all comparisons, the results supported the predictions of the hyperbolic-decay model, which states that the value of a reinforcer is inversely related to the delay between a choice response and reinforcer delivery. PMID:18927053

  2. Monte Carlo Analysis of Airport Throughput and Traffic Delays Using Self Separation Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Sturdy, James L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of three simulation studies of throughput and delay times of arrival and departure operations performed at non-towered, non-radar airports using self-separation procedures. The studies were conducted as part of the validation process of the Small Aircraft Transportation Systems Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept and include an analysis of the predicted airport capacity using with different traffic conditions and system constraints under increasing levels of demand. Results show that SATS HVO procedures can dramatically increase capacity at non-towered, non-radar airports and that the concept offers the potential for increasing capacity of the overall air transportation system.

  3. DELAY PROCEDURE IN THE PERFORASOME ERA: A CASE IN A DIEAP FLAP.

    PubMed

    Hyza, P; Lombardo, G A G; Kubek, T; Jelinkova, Z; Vesely, J; Perrotta, R

    2015-01-01

    The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEAp) flap is becoming a widely used method of autologous breast reconstruction. Despite the huge use of the DIEAp flap in reconstructive field, an evidenced based approach in perforator selection has not yet been developed. Unfortunately there is no clear evidence about the relation between the number and dimension of the perforator vessel and the prediction of flap survival in a living model. An old technique like the vascular delay could be extremely useful as a lifeboat procedure when the vascularization of the flap after the dissection is inadequate. PMID:26650110

  4. Application of NASA-ARC delayed flap approach procedures to Boeing 727 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an engineering and piloted simulator study to adapt a NASA developed-approach energy management system (AEMS) concept to the B727 are presented. The AEMS concept was developed and flight tested on a CV-990. The purpose of the AEMS is to reduce approach time, fuel, and noise by providing computer-driven cockpit displays to assist the pilot in flying optimized delayed flap approach (DFA) procedures. Development of the DFA flight profiles, the AEMS airborne digital computer algorithm, and associated cockpit displays were studied. Study ground rules and pertinent aerodynamic and noise trend data used in developing the flight profiles are presented. Approach time, fuel, and noise for the DFA are compared to several other types of procedures.

  5. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

  6. Peer-Implemented Time Delay Procedures on the Acquisition of Chained Tasks by Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsey, Janet Read; Schuster, John W.; Lingo, Amy Shearer; Collins, Belva C.; Kleinert, Harold L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of and reliability of peer tutors implementing a constant time delay procedure when teaching four high school students with moderate and severe disabilities to prepare foods using picture recipes. We used a multiple probe design across subjects to determine the effectiveness of the peer tutor implemented…

  7. Effects of Constant Time Delay Procedure on the Halliwick's Method of Swimming Rotation Skills for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Ozen, Arzu; Yanardag, Mehmet; Camursoy, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of a constant time delay procedure on the Halliwick's method of swimming rotation skills (i.e., vertical and lateral rotation) for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across behaviors with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 8-9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week…

  8. Delay-specific stimuli and genotype interact to determine temporal discounting in a rapid-acquisition procedure.

    PubMed

    Pope, Derek A; Newland, M Christopher; Hutsell, Blake A

    2015-05-01

    The importance of delay discounting to many socially important behavior problems has stimulated investigations of biological and environmental mechanisms responsible for variations in the form of the discount function. The extant experimental research, however, has yielded disparate results, raising important questions regarding Gene X Environment interactions. The present study determined the influence of stimuli that uniquely signal delays to reinforcement on delay discounting in two inbred mouse strains using a rapid-acquisition procedure. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice responded under a six-component, concurrent-chained schedule in which the terminal-link delays preceding the larger-reinforcer were presented randomly across components of an individual session. Across conditions, components were presented either with or without delay-specific auditory stimuli, i.e., as multiple or mixed schedules. A generalized matching-based model was used to incorporate the impact of current and previous component reinforcer-delay ratios on current component response allocation. Sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and delay were higher for BALB/c mice, but within-component preference reached final levels faster for C57Bl/6 mice. For BALB/c mice, acquisition of preference across blocks of a component was faster under the multiple than the mixed schedule, but final levels of sensitivity to reinforcement were unaffected by schedule. The speed of acquisition of preference was not different across schedules for C57Bl/6 mice, but sensitivity to reinforcement was higher under the multiple than the mixed schedule. Overall, differences in the acquisition and final form of the discount function were determined by a Gene X Environment interaction, but the presence of delay-specific stimuli attenuated genotype-dependent differences in magnitude and delay sensitivity. PMID:25869302

  9. Acquisition of operant behavior in rats with delayed reinforcement: A retractable-lever procedure.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Andrew A; Johnson, Lyndsey E; Tate, Christopher; Chiang, Thomas; Byrne, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Experimentally naïve rats acquired lever pressing with delayed reinforcement when the immediate programmed consequence for lever pressing was the simultaneous retraction of two identical levers. Presses on one lever also produced access to sweetened condensed milk after a delay of 10s following retraction. Presses on the second lever resulted in retraction only. Lever retraction prevented the possibility of adventitious reinforcement of contacting the operanda during the reinforcement delays. Several measures indicated that the delayed reinforcers strengthened behavior. The majority of responses for all rats were on the lever that initiated reinforcer delivery. Responding for seven out of eight rats decreased during a subsequent extinction phase in which retraction was the only consequence arranged for lever pressing. Responding recovered rapidly when food reinforcement was available again. Furthermore, when contingencies on the two levers were switched, rats allocated their behavior accordingly, showing control by the delayed reinforcers. PMID:25464338

  10. A TOTP-Based Enhanced Route Optimization Procedure for Mobile IPv6 to Reduce Handover Delay and Signalling Overhead

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B.; Lawal, Ibrahim A.; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO). PMID:24688398

  11. A TOTP-based enhanced route optimization procedure for mobile IPv6 to reduce handover delay and signalling overhead.

    PubMed

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B; Lawal, Ibrahim A; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO). PMID:24688398

  12. Education and Ultimate Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Richard Peters and John White have both argued that education should contribute to the meaning people are able to find in or give to life. Both dismiss the idea of ultimate or profound meaning ("the meaning of life") in favour of ordinary meaning, or "meaning in life". Thus they exemplify the trend visible also in the general…

  13. The Ultimate Flag Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

    This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

  14. The Ultimate Fizz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckscher, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Many recipes for elementary science activities suggest making carbon dioxide from baking soda and vinegar; however, they often do not give exact measurements of the ingredients. The author was able to turn this "drawback" into a plus by challenging her fifth-grade students to find the "ultimate fizz"--i.,e., "What amount of baking soda added to a…

  15. An influence of delayed reinforcement on the effectiveness of psychostimulants to enhance indices of attention under a five-choice serial reaction time procedure in male rats.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Katz, Jonathan L

    2013-10-01

    The five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) procedure has been considered a translational tool for assessments of the psychopharmacology of attention in preclinical research. Because greater sensitivity to delayed reinforcement may promote the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, effects of reinforcer delay and psychostimulants on performances under a 5-CSRT procedure were determined. Male rats were trained to respond under a 5-CSRT procedure with different delay-of-reinforcement conditions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 s), and effects of d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and morphine (as a negative control) were assessed at 0- and 16-s delays. Under nondrug conditions, as the delay increased both response latency and the number of trials in which a response did not occur (omissions) increased, and the percent correct on trials when responses were emitted decreased. Only modest increases in the percent correct were found with psychostimulants during the 0-s delay condition; however, more substantial enhancements were found with a 16-s delay. Consistent effects of both psychostimulants at either delay on omissions and response latency were not observed. Morphine increased omissions and response latency at both delays and decreased the percent correct (16-s delay). Generally, responses during the intertrial interval were not systematically affected under any condition. The current results demonstrate that measures of attention in a 5-CSRT procedure are sensitive to changes in the delay to reinforcer delivery. More important, psychostimulants significantly enhanced a measure of attention only when reinforcers were delayed, which may be reflective of the psychopharmacological mechanisms involved with clinical treatment of ADHD symptoms. PMID:24099356

  16. Delayed manifestation of bilateral scleral thinning after I-BRITE® procedure and review of literature for cosmetic eye-whitening procedures

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; McCaughey, Michael V; Fenzl, Carlton R; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Kramer, Gregory D; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of delayed-onset bilateral scleral thinning and calcium deposition following a cosmetic ocular-whitening procedure (I-BRITE®). Methods A 33-year-old male patient with a history of right-sided ptosis repair and left-sided anterior uveitis had previously undergone bilateral I-BRITE treatment for chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Four years after the procedure, the patient was referred to our institution with bilateral scleral thinning and overlying calcific depositions. A literature review was performed through PubMed from 1980 through 2014 using the search terms ‘cosmetic’, ‘ocular’, ‘conjunctivectomy’, ‘regional conjunctivectomy’, ‘I-BRITE’, ‘eye-whitening’, ‘scleritis’, ‘necrotizing scleritis’, ‘anterior uveitis’, ‘mitomycin C’, ‘5-fluorouracil’, and ‘bevacizumab’, along with associated cross-referencing from relevant articles. Results Examination of the patient revealed bilateral necrotizing scleritis within the nasal region of both eyes. Calcified plaques were also present within the areas of scleromalacia, along with epithelial defects demonstrated with fluorescein staining. Although evidence of previous intraocular inflammation was apparent within the left eye, there were no active signs of inflammation evident within either eye on initial presentation. Complication rates reported in the literature include: scleral thinning (1.8%), calcific plaque formation (2.9%), fibrovascular proliferation (13%), diplopia (1.2%), elevation of intraocular pressure (4.2%), and recurrence of conjunctival hyperemia (2.1%). Conclusion Cosmetic ocular whitening procedures have an attendant high complication rate, and have been associated with several adverse postoperative complications, which have in turn generated several reservations regarding the veritable benefit of the procedure. Many postsurgical complications may demonstrate delayed apparition, varying from several months to several years after primary

  17. The Effectiveness of a Constant Time Delay Procedure on Teaching Lifetime Sport Skills to Adolescents with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A constant time delay (CTD) procedure was used to teach four adolescents with severe/profound intellectual disabilities to perform bowling, throwing, and putting. Results indicated that the adolescents could be effectively taught gross motor lifetime sport skills with the CTD procedure and that verbal description plus physical assistance could be…

  18. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Constant-Time Delay and Most-to-Least Prompt Procedures in Teaching Daily Living Skills to Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aykut, Cigil

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of constant-time delay and most-to-least prompt procedures in teaching daily living skills to children with mental retardation. Adapted alternating treatment design was used. The outcome shows that both procedures were equally effective in teaching the daily living skills. However,…

  19. Delayed procedural learning in α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, J. W.; Meves, J. M.; Tarantino, I. S.; Caldwell, S.; Geyer, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has long been a procognitive therapeutic target to treat schizophrenia. Evidence on the role of this receptor in cognition has been lacking, however, in part due to the limited availability of suitable ligands. The behavior of α7-nAChR knockout (KO) mice has been examined previously, but cognitive assessments using tests with cross-species translatability have been limited to date. Here, we assessed the cognitive performance of α7-nAChR KO and wild-type (WT) littermate mice in the attentional set-shifting task of executive functioning, the radial arm maze test of spatial working memory span capacity and the novel object recognition test of short-term memory. The reward motivation of these mutants was assessed using the progressive ratio breakpoint test. In addition, we assessed the exploratory behavior and sensorimotor gating using the behavioral pattern monitor and prepulse inhibition, respectively. α7-nAChR KO mice exhibited normal set-shifting, but impaired procedural learning (rule acquisition) in multiple paradigms. Spatial span capacity, short-term memory, motivation for food, exploration and sensorimotor gating were all comparable to WT littermates. The data presented here support the notion that this receptor is important for such procedural learning, when patterns in the environment become clear and a rule is learned. In combination with the impaired attention observed previously in these mice, this finding suggests that agonist treatments should be examined in clinical studies of attention and procedural learning, perhaps in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:21679297

  20. Age-Related Impairment in the 250-Millisecond Delay Eyeblink Classical Conditioning Procedure in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Richard W.; Ewers, Michael; Ross, Charlene; Gould, Thomas J.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we tested 4-, 9-, 12-, and 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice in the 250-msec delay eyeblink classical conditioning procedure to study age-related changes in a form of associative learning. The short life expectancy of mice, complete knowledge about the mouse genome, and the availability of transgenic and knock-out mouse models of age-related impairments make the mouse an excellent species for expanding knowledge on the neurobiologically and behaviorally well-characterized eyeblink classical conditioning paradigm. Based on previous research with delay eyeblink conditioning in rabbits and humans, we predicted that mice would be impaired on this cerebellar-dependent associative learning task in middle-age, at ∼9 months. To fully examine age differences in behavior in mice, we used a battery of additional behavioral measures with which to compare young and older mice. These behaviors included the acoustic startle response, prepulse inhibition, rotorod, and the Morris water maze. Mice began to show impairment in cerebellar-dependent tasks such as rotorod and eyeblink conditioning at 9 to 12 months of age. Performance in hippocampally dependent tasks was not impaired in any group, including 18-month-old mice. These results in mice support results in other species, indicating that cerebellar-dependent tasks show age-related deficits earlier in adulthood than do hippocampally dependent tasks. PMID:12359840

  1. Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing

  2. The Ultimate Alternative. A Curriculum for Teaching Ultimate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporali, John Martin

    1988-01-01

    A curriculum for teaching Ultimate, a cardiovascular frisbee disc sport alternative to traditional ball sports, is presented, covering cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills at three different levels. (CB)

  3. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date. Final rule; delay of effective date.

    PubMed

    2004-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2006, the effective date of certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). In the Federal Register of May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25639), the agency delayed until October 1, 2001, the effective date of certain requirements in the final rule relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record, and distribution of blood derivatives by entities that meet the definition of a "health care entity" in the final rule. The agency further delayed the effective date of these requirements in three subsequent Federal Register notices. Most recently, in the Federal Register of January 31, 2003 (68 FR 4912), FDA delayed the effective date until April 1, 2004. This action further delays the effective date of these requirements until December 1, 2006. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The agency is taking this action to address concerns about the requirements in the final rule raised by affected parties. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section, FDA is working with stakeholders through its counterfeit drug initiative to facilitate widespread, voluntary adoption of track and trace technologies that will generate a de facto electronic pedigree, including prior transaction history back to the original manufacturer, as a routine course of business. If this technology is widely adopted, it is expected to help fulfill the pedigree requirements of the PDMA and obviate or resolve many of the concerns that have been raised with respect to the final rule by ensuring that an electronic pedigree travels with a drug product at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the effective date of Sec

  4. Equivalent Stimuli Are More Strongly Related after Training with Delayed Matching than after Simultaneous Matching: A Study Using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortoloti, Renato; de Rose, Julio C.

    2012-01-01

    Bortoloti and de Rose (2009) found evidence that the level of functional transfer is higher in equivalence classes generated by delayed matching to sample (DMTS) than in classes generated by simultaneous matching (SMTS). We attempted to replicate these findings with the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Two experimental groups…

  5. Comparison of Constant Time Delay and Simultaneous Prompting Procedures: Teaching Functional Sight Words to Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Rasheeda; Lane, Justin D.; Gast, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Constant time delay (CTD) and simultaneous prompting (SP) are effective response prompting procedures for teaching students with moderate to severe disabilities. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of CTD and SP when teaching functional sight words to four students, 8-11 years of age, with moderate intellectual disability (ID)…

  6. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate…

  7. Transanal Pull-Through Procedure with Delayed versus Immediate Coloanal Anastomosis for Anus-Preserving Curative Resection of Lower Rectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yong; Huang, Ping; Ren, Qing-Gui

    2016-06-01

    This case-control study compared the effectiveness and safety of transanal pull-through procedure (TPP) with delayed or immediate coloanal anastomosis (CAA) for anus-preserving curative resection of lower rectal cancer. Lower rectal cancer patients (n = 128) were hospitalized between January 2003 and December 2013 for elective anus-preserving curative resection through a TPP with delayed (n = 72) or immediate (n = 56) CAA. Main outcome measures including surgical safety, resection radicality, and defecation function were assessed. The two groups were comparable in age, sex, gross pathology, histology, and tumor-node-metastasis staging. Both the delayed and immediate CAA TPPs had similar resection radicality and safety profiles. The immediate CAA was associated with a significantly higher risk of anastomotic leakage and defecation impairment. None of patients in the delayed CAA group experienced anastomotic leakage. In conclusion, TPP with delayed CAA may be superior to immediate CAA in minimizing the risk of anastomotic leakage and relevant surgical morbidities, and does not require a temporary ileostomy and second-look restoration of ostomy. PMID:27305886

  8. Ultimate realities: deterministic and evolutionary.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  9. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  10. Lexical Training through Modeling and Elicitation Procedures with Late Talkers Who Have Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouri, Theresa A.

    2005-01-01

    Late talkers with specific language impairment and developmental delay make up a large portion of our early childhood caseloads; therefore, an understanding of best clinical practices for these populations is essential. Early lexical learning was examined in 2 interactive treatment approaches with 29 late-talking preschoolers with language and…

  11. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  12. No way to cool the ultimate greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-10-29

    When the Clinton Administration announced its Climate Change Action Plan last week, some press accounts called it an effort to halt greenhouse warming. To greenhouse experts, however, cutting emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the end of the decade -- the goal of the plan -- will only delay the inevitable. Such modest conservation measures, as a recent study shows, will buy humanity valuable time to adapt to the greenhouse world, but they will have little effect on how warm the global climate ultimately becomes. Centuries down the road, humanity will have to come to grips with elevated temperatures due to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels. Reducing emissions will slow the warming process and give humanity more time to adapt.

  13. Delay Discounting Rates Are Temporally Stable in an Equivalent Present Value Procedure Using Theoretical and Area under the Curve Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Justin; McKay, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Temporal discounting rates have become a popular dependent variable in social science research. While choice procedures are commonly employed to measure discounting rates, equivalent present value (EPV) procedures may be more sensitive to experimental manipulation. However, their use has been impeded by the absence of test-retest reliability data.…

  14. Delay Discounting in Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats: Steady-State and Rapid-Determination Adjusting-Amount Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jeffrey S.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Brewer, Adam T.; Francisco, Monica T.; Madden, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Lewis rats have been shown to make more impulsive choices than Fischer 344 rats in discrete trial choice procedures that arrange fixed (i.e., nontitrating) reinforcement parameters. However, nontitrating procedures yield only gross estimates of preference, as choice measures in animal subjects are rarely graded at the level of the individual…

  15. No More Waits and Delays: Streamlining Workflow to Decrease Patient Time of Stay for Image-guided Musculoskeletal Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yvonne Y; Goodman, Eric M; Osunkoya, Tomiwa O

    2016-01-01

    Long wait times limit our ability to provide the right care at the right time and are commonly products of inefficient workflow. In 2013, the demand for musculoskeletal (MSK) procedures increased beyond our department's ability to provide efficient and timely service. We initiated a quality improvement (QI) project to increase efficiency and decrease patient time of stay. Our project team included three MSK radiologists, one senior resident, one technologist, one administrative assistant/scheduler, and the lead technologist. We adopted and followed the Lean Six Sigma DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) approach. The team used tools such as voice of the customer (VOC), along with affinity and SIPOC (supplier, input, process, output, customer) diagrams, to understand the current process, identify our customers, and develop a project charter in the define stage. During the measure stage, the team collected data, created a detailed process map, and identified wastes with the value stream mapping technique. Within the analyze phase, a fishbone diagram helped the team to identify critical root causes for long wait times. Scatter plots revealed relationships among time variables. Team brainstorming sessions generated improvement ideas, and selected ideas were piloted via plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles. The control phase continued to enable the team to monitor progress using box plots and scheduled reviews. Our project successfully decreased patient time of stay. The highly structured and logical Lean Six Sigma approach was easy to follow and provided a clear course of action with positive results. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163595

  16. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  17. Ultimate boundedness stability and controllability of hereditary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chukwu, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    By generalizing the Liapunov-Yoshizawa techniques, necessary and sufficient conditions are given for uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of a rather general class of nonlinear differential equations of neutral type. Among the applications treated by the methods are the Lienard equation of neutral type and hereditary systems of Lurie type. The absolute stability of this later equation is also investigated. A certain existence result of a solution of a neutral functional differential inclusion with two point boundary values is applied to study the exact function space controllability of a nonlinear neutral functional differential control system. A geometric growth condition is used to characterize both the function space and Euclidean controllability of another nonlinear delay system which has a compact and convex control set. This yields conditions under which perturbed nonlinear delay controllable systems are controllable.

  18. Nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra Systems with Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Zhidong

    2002-03-01

    The paper studies the general nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra multispecies systems with finite delays. The ultimate boundedness, permanence, global attractivity, and existence and uniqueness of strictly positive solutions, positive periodic solutions, and almost periodic solutions are obtained. These results are basically an extension of the known results for nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra multispecies systems without delay to systems with delay.

  19. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and applicants may use to implement general design criteria (GDC) that are applicable to the ultimate......

  20. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J

    1995-01-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics. PMID:7776343

  1. Librarians Are the Ultimate Knowledge Managers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koina, Cathie

    2003-01-01

    Librarians are the ultimate knowledge managers. Everyone knows that. After all, haven't they been the custodians of documented knowledge for centuries? Who could possibly do it better than them? Well, then why aren't people knocking down their doors, begging them to be the knowledge managers of the organisation? Are they just ignorant of how…

  2. Manipulation of Motivating Operations and Use of a Script-Fading Procedure to Teach Mands for Location to Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Melissa A.; Sidener, Tina M.; Progar, Patrick R.; Sidener, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of contriving motivating operations (MOs) and script fading on the acquisition of the mand "Where's [object]?" were evaluated in 2 boys with language delays. During each session, trials were alternated in which high-preference items were present (abolishing operation [AO] trials) or missing (establishing operation [EO] trials) from…

  3. Methods of ultimate carbonaceous BOD determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; McKenzie, S.W.; Cherry, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were conducted to provide an accurate and practical technique for determining the concentration of ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and the rate at which this demand is exerted. The three methods evaluated were carbon derived, nitrification adjusted, and nitrification inhibited. The studies indicate that comparable concentrations and reaction rates can be determined from either non-nitrified samples using no chemical nitrifying inhibitor, or from partially nitrified samples using the chemical inhibitors, 1-allyl-2 thiourea or nitrapyrin, and that the combined use of time-series analysis and Lee's graphical method provide a reliable and accurate technique for determining ultimate biochemical oxygen demand concentration and reaction rate in 5 to 7 days.

  4. Ultimate permeation across atomically thin porous graphene.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Kemal; Buchheim, Jakob; Wyss, Roman M; Droudian, Amirhossein; Gasser, Patrick; Shorubalko, Ivan; Kye, Jeong-Il; Lee, Changho; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2014-04-18

    A two-dimensional (2D) porous layer can make an ideal membrane for separation of chemical mixtures because its infinitesimal thickness promises ultimate permeation. Graphene--with great mechanical strength, chemical stability, and inherent impermeability--offers a unique 2D system with which to realize this membrane and study the mass transport, if perforated precisely. We report highly efficient mass transfer across physically perforated double-layer graphene, having up to a few million pores with narrowly distributed diameters between less than 10 nanometers and 1 micrometer. The measured transport rates are in agreement with predictions of 2D transport theories. Attributed to its atomic thicknesses, these porous graphene membranes show permeances of gas, liquid, and water vapor far in excess of those shown by finite-thickness membranes, highlighting the ultimate permeation these 2D membranes can provide. PMID:24744372

  5. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, T.R.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  6. Ultimate computing. Biomolecular consciousness and nano Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hameroff, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The book advances the premise that the cytoskeleton is the cell's nervous system, the biological controller/computer. If indeed cytoskeletal dynamics in the nanoscale (billionth meter, billionth second) are the texture of intracellular information processing, emerging ''NanoTechnologies'' (scanning tunneling microscopy, Feynman machines, von Neumann replicators, etc.) should enable direct monitoring, decoding and interfacing between biological and technological information devices. This in turn could result in important biomedical applications and perhaps a merger of mind and machine: Ultimate Computing.

  7. Bolometers - Ultimate sensitivity, optimization, and amplifier coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical expressions for Johnson noise and thermal noise in bolometers are considered, and optimization with respect to thermal conductivity and bias power is performed. Numerical approximations are given for the ultimate NEP of bolometers as a function of material parameters and compared with photon noise including photon correlations. A resonating capacitor is shown to improve the coupling to an amplifier, so that the amplifier need not limit performance even for very low temperature bolometers.

  8. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  9. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  10. Physical Demands in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 ± 382 m and 657 ± 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate Frisbee athletes played a game in which activity profile using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Game HRmean and HRpeak were 82 ± 2% and 99 ± 1% of maximum heart rate, respectively. Total game distance was 4.70 ± 0.47 km, of which 0.63 ± 0.14 km was high-intensity running and 0.21 ± 0.11 km was sprinting. In the second half, 10% less (p ≤ 0.05) ground was covered with high-intensity running compared with the first half (0.28 ± 0.08 km vs. 0.31 ± 0.07 km). Less (43-47%; p ≤ 0.05) high-intensity running was performed in the third 9-minute period of each half compared with the first two 9-minute periods of the same half. Players performed 17.4 ± 5.7 sprints during the match. Yo-Yo IR2 performance correlated to the amount of high-intensity running in the last 9 minutes of both halves (r = 0.69, p ≤ 0.05), whereas Yo-Yo IR1 performance correlated with total sprint distance (r = 0.74, p ≤ 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance. PMID:26595132

  11. The ultimate efficiency of photosensitive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    These systems have in common two important but not independent features: they can produce a storable fuel, and they are sensitive only to radiant energy with a characteristic absorption spectrum. General analyses of the conversion efficiencies were made using the operational characteristics of each particular system. An efficiency analysis of a generalized system consisting of a blackbody source, a radiant energy converter having a threshold energy and operating temperature, and a reservoir is reported. This analysis is based upon the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and leads to a determination of the limiting or ultimate efficiency for an energy conversion system having a characteristic threshold.

  12. Delayed discharge.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Essential facts Delays in discharging older peo ple from hospital cost the NHS £820 million a year, according to a report from the National Audit Office (NAO). Last year in acute hospitals, 1.15 million bed days were lost to delayed transfers of care, an increase of 31% since 2013. The NAO says rising demand for NHS services is compounded by reduced local authority spending on adult social care - down by 10% since 2009-10. PMID:27380673

  13. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  14. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. PMID:26359938

  15. Ultimate pressure capacity of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.; Wang, Y.K.; Reich, M.

    1985-05-01

    This report presents the results of an in-depth evaluation of current modeling techniques and analysis procedures for determining ultimate pressure capacity of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments. The material used for describing the nonlinear material behavior of concrete and steel are reviewed in detail. Special attention is focused on post-cracking behavior of concrete which controls one of the containment failure modes, i.e., the shear failure. Various finite element idealizations utilized for containment analysis are reviewed. The effects of major assumptions pertaining to containment geometry, basemat restraint, finite element mesh, rebar locations and orientations, are evaluated. Finally, failure analyses of two selected reinforced and prestressed concrete containments are performed and results are compared with those presented in the literature. 27 refs., 25 figs.

  16. Healthy aging: the ultimate preventative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Martin, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Age is the greatest risk factor for nearly every major cause of mortality in developed nations. Despite this, most biomedical research focuses on individual disease processes without much consideration of the relationships between aging and disease. Recent discoveries in the field of Geroscience, which seeks to understand biological mechanisms of aging, have provided insights into molecular processes that underlie biological aging and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to delay aging and promote healthy longevity. Here we describe some of these advances along with efforts to move Geroscience from the bench to the clinic. We also propose that greater emphasis should be placed on research into basic aging processes, because interventions that slow aging will have a greater impact on quality of life than disease-specific approaches. PMID:26785476

  17. The Phenix ultimate natural convection test

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthe, P.; Pialla, D.; Tenchine, D.; Vasile, A.; Rochwerger, D.

    2012-07-01

    The French sodium cooled fast reactor Phenix was shut down in 2009 after 35 years of operation. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests were performed by the CEA during 9 months. Several topics were involved such as thermal hydraulics, core physics and fuel behaviour. Among these ultimate experiments, two thermal hydraulic tests were performed: an asymmetrical test consisting in a trip of one secondary pump and a natural convection test in the primary circuit. Recognizing the unique opportunity offered by these Phenix ultimate tests, IAEA decided in 2007 to launch a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) devoted to benchmarking analyses with system codes on the Phenix natural convection test. One objective of the natural convection test in Phenix reactor is the assessment of the CATHARE system code for safety studies on future and advanced sodium cooled fast reactors. The aim of this paper is to describe this test, which was performed on June 22-23, 2009, and the associated benchmark specifications for the CRP work. The paper reminds briefly the Phenix reactor with the main physical parameters and the instrumentation used during the natural convection test. After that, the test scenario is described: - initial state at a power of 120 MWth, - test beginning resulting from a manual dry out of the two steam generators, - manual scram, - manual trip on the three primary pumps without back-up by pony motors, - setting and development of natural convection in the primary circuit, in a first phase without significant heat sink in the secondary circuits and in a second phase with significant heat sink in the secondary circuits, by opening the casing of steam generators to create an efficient heat sink, by air natural circulation in the steam generators casing. The benchmark case ends after this second phase, which corresponds to the experimental test duration of nearly 7 hours. The paper presents also the benchmark specifications data supplied by the CEA to all

  18. Olympus: The Ultimate Summit for Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Darrell; Holt, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High above the world-class observatories that dot Hawaii's dormant Mauna Kea volcano, floating farther yet over the hostile and nearly inaccessible peaks of Mt. Everest, lies a summit waiting to be conquered. Here above the clouds and city lights and over 99.7% of the atmosphere is a platform on the edge of space, home to a broad range of astronomy and physics experiments. Today, balloons are lifting experiments longer, higher and more inexpensively than ever before, and returning them safely to Earth for reuse. Week-long flights at altitudes of approximately 35 kilometers carrying payloads in excess of several tons are the norm. NASA now plans to extend this platform and create a new generation of balloons capable of staying afloat with such cargo for 100 days and ultimately 1,000 days. What do some scientists hope to accomplish with 100 or even 1,000 days at the edge of space? To name but a few proposals on the table: Jupiter-size planet searches, large-aperture solar astronomy, large-aperture infrared astronomy, cosmic-ray investigations, long-duration Earth science missions, and hard x-ray imaging experiments. Olympus defines a new era in scientific ballooning. Advances in material science and trajectory control are enabling revolutionary capabilities. Very large scientific payloads can now be reliably launched and retrieved for reflight at a range of altitudes. Balloon flight still remains a fraction of the cost of a rocket launch. The ultra long duration balloon, with its 100-day maiden flight planned for 2001, provides a long-term facility in a near-space environment for many types of science. This is a stratospheric mountaintop well worth the climb.

  19. Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Westerkamp, Christian; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-01-01

    pressure towards the bilabiate syndrome. As bees are very inventive, however, bilabiate constructions will not represent the ultimate response to bees. PMID:17652341

  20. Do postsurgical interventions optimize ultimate scar cosmesis.

    PubMed

    Viera, M H; Amini, S; Konda, S; Berman, B

    2009-06-01

    Keloids and other scars are different manifestations of the normal wound healing process. If located in visible areas, scars may have a psychological impact that could affect the quality of life of the scar-bearing population. Good preoperatory planning including hiding incisions in natural anatomical landmarks or placing them parallel to relaxed skin tension lines are among the techniques used to improve the cosmesis of scars. Once a prominent or noticeable scar has developed, multiple therapeutic modalities can be applied including surgical excision, although high recurrence rates precludes its use as monotherapy. Several advanced surgical correction techniques including Z-plasty and W-plasty may be useful in repositioning scars. Other modalities that have been reported to improve scar cosmesis include cryosurgery, radiotherapy, lasers, and skin substitute grafts. Adjuvant postsurgical treatment modalities have reduced dramatically the recurrence rates associated with the removal of the scar. In this review of the literature the authors discuss evidence based data related to the abovementioned modalities and other topical and intralesional therapies including occlusion, compression, silicone, corticosteroids, interferons, imiquimod, resiquimod, tacrolimus, 5-fluorouracil, retinoids, as well as the role of several over-the-counter agents such as onion extract, vitamin E and the combination of hydrocortisone, vitamin E and silicone. Finally, they address newer modalities including vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, transforming growth factor-3, interleukin-10, mannose-6-phosphate, UVA-1, narrowband UVB, intense pulsed light and photodynamic therapy. Ultimately, the decision of choosing the most appropriate postexcisional management treatment should be taken by physicians on a case-by-case basis in order to obtain the best cosmetically acceptable results. PMID:19528906

  1. Developmental delay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  2. 29 CFR 18.704 - Opinion on ultimate issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Opinion on ultimate issue. 18.704 Section 18.704 Labor... ultimate issue. Testimony in the form of an opinion or inference otherwise admissible is not objectionable because it embraces an ultimate issue to be decided by the judge as trier of fact....

  3. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  4. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  5. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  6. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  7. Effects of Acute and Chronic Cocaine Administration on Titrating-Delay Matching-to-Sample Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of cocaine were examined under a titrating-delay matching-to-sample procedure. In this procedure, the delay between sample stimulus offset and comparison stimuli onset adjusts as a function of the subject's performance. Specifically, matches increase the delay and mismatches decrease the delay. Titrated delay values served as the…

  8. Delayed stoma formation in Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Bronder, C S; Cowey, A; Hill, J

    2004-11-01

    Fournier's gangrene is traditionally treated with prompt surgical debridement and in many cases a diverting colostomy is also fashioned during the same procedure. We present four cases where stoma formation was delayed until the second look procedure. The physiological states at the time of either procedure were compared using POSSUM. The results showed an improvement in the physiological condition in all patients at the time of the second operation, suggesting that a delay can potentially improve prognosis in such cases. PMID:15521946

  9. Choice, changing over, and reinforcement delays.

    PubMed Central

    Shahan, T A; Lattal, K A

    2000-01-01

    In three experiments, pigeons were used to examine the independent effects of two normally confounded delays to reinforcement associated with changing between concurrently available variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. In Experiments 1 and 2, combinations of changeover-delay durations and fixed-interval travel requirements were arranged in a changeover-key procedure. The delay from a changeover-produced stimulus change to a reinforcer was varied while the delay between the last response on one alternative and a reinforcer on the other (the total obtained delay) was held constant. Changeover rates decreased as a negative power function of the total obtained delay. The delay between a changeover-produced stimulus change had a small and inconsistent effect on changeover rates. In Experiment 3, changeover delays and fixed-interval travel requirements were arranged independently. Changeover rates decreased as a negative power function of the total obtained delay despite variations in the delay from a change in stimulus conditions to a reinforcer. Periods of high-rate responding following a changeover, however, were higher near the end of the delay from a change in stimulus conditions to a reinforcer. The results of these experiments suggest that the effects of changeover delays and travel requirements primarily result from changes in the delay between a response at one alternative and a reinforcer at the other, but the pattern of responding immediately after a changeover depends on the delay from a changeover-produced change in stimulus conditions to a reinforcer. PMID:11218228

  10. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  11. Titrating-Delay Matching-to-Sample in the Pigeon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Vaidya, Manish; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The titrating-delay matching-to-sample (TDMTS) procedure offers researchers an additional behavioral task thought to capture some important features of remembering. In this procedure, the delay between sample offset and comparison onset adjusts as a function of the subject's performance. Specifically, correct matches increase the delay and…

  12. Delaying obsolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2015-04-01

    This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878

  13. Do the Adjusting- and Increasing-Delay Tasks Measure the Same Construct – Delay Discounting?

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Andrew R.; Maxfield, Adam D.; Stein, Jeffrey S.; Renda, C. Renee; Madden, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the subjective devaluation of a reward when it is delayed. In animals, the adjusting- and increasing-delay tasks often are used to assess individual differences in, and drug effects on, delay discounting. No study to date, however, has compared systematically the measures of discounting produced in these tasks. The current study examined the correlation between measures of delay discounting derived from adjusting- and increasing-delay procedures. Twenty rats completed 30 sessions under each task (order counterbalanced across rats). Quantitative measures of delay discounting produced by the two tasks were positively correlated, suggesting that the adjusting-and increasing-delay tasks measure the same underlying facet of impulsive choice (i.e., individual or conjoint sensitivities to reward delay and magnitude). The measures derived from either task, however, depended on the sequences in which the tasks were experienced. That is, pre-exposure to one task decreased discounting of delayed rewards in the second task. Consistent with other published findings, exposure to delayed consequences during the initial discounting assessment might explain this effect. Despite the observed correlation between ID and AD indifference delays, we suggest that the ID procedure might be a more appropriate procedure for pharmacological studies. PMID:24978484

  14. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food–rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout) between the two response alternatives in an experiment with three phases: In Phase 1, the delay on one alternative was 0 s, and the other was varied between 0 and 8 s; in Phase 2, both delays were equal and were varied from 0 to 4 s; in Phase 3, the two delays summed to 8 s, and each was varied from 1 to 7 s. The results showed that increasing delay affected local choice, measured by a pulse in preference, in the same way as decreasing magnitude, but we found also that increasing the delay at the other alternative increased local preference. This result casts doubt on the traditional view that a reinforcer strengthens a response depending only on the reinforcer's value discounted by any response–reinforcer delay. The results suggest that food guides, rather than strengthens, behavior. PMID:17465314

  15. "Got Disc?" The "Ultimate" Experience in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.; Darst, Paul W.; Brusseau, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    A quality physical education program is one in which students are exposed to and can participate in a variety of sports and activities. One activity that is increasing in popularity in and outside of physical education is the game of "Ultimate." Opportunities to play Ultimate are increasing rapidly in intramural programs and community and…

  16. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  17. 29 CFR 18.704 - Opinion on ultimate issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opinion on ultimate issue. 18.704 Section 18.704 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.704 Opinion on ultimate issue. Testimony in the form of an opinion or inference otherwise admissible is not...

  18. 29 CFR 18.704 - Opinion on ultimate issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opinion on ultimate issue. 18.704 Section 18.704 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.704 Opinion on ultimate issue. Testimony in the form of an opinion or inference otherwise admissible is not...

  19. 29 CFR 18.704 - Opinion on ultimate issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opinion on ultimate issue. 18.704 Section 18.704 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.704 Opinion on ultimate issue. Testimony in the form of an opinion or inference otherwise admissible is not...

  20. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)…

  1. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tasch, James J.; Misodi, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Gluteal fasciotomy Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. Case Report: We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  2. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems With Unmodeled Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shen; Shi, Peng; Yang, Hongyan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an approximated-based adaptive fuzzy control approach with only one adaptive parameter is presented for a class of single input single output strict-feedback nonlinear systems in order to deal with phenomena like nonlinear uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, dynamic disturbances, and unknown time delays. Lyapunov-Krasovskii function approach is employed to compensate the unknown time delays in the design procedure. By combining the advances of the hyperbolic tangent function with adaptive fuzzy backstepping technique, the proposed controller guarantees the semi-globally uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system from the mean square point of view. Two simulation examples are finally provided to show the superior effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:26302525

  3. Ultimate VHF Broadband Interferometer Zen KAWASAKI and Manabu AKITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Z.; Akita, M.

    2013-12-01

    propagation, like electromagnetic wave propagation in non-dispersive medium. This procedure presented exciting results of lightning channel imaging, and the bi-directional leader propagation can be visualized in terms of azimuth and elevation as a function of time. Moreover all of the VHF radiation process for an entire lightning flash from initiation to termination can be imaged, and it is concluded that the system might be an ultimate broad band digital interferometer. The authors would like to show their appreciation to Paul Krehbiel, NMIMT, who gave a chance and suggestion of a continuous recording scheme for BDITF. M. Stock et al. : Continuous Broadband Digital Interferometry of Lightning using a Generalized Cross Correlation Algorithm M. Akita et al. : Data Processing Procedure 1 using Distribution of Slopes of Phase Differences for Broadband VHF Interferometer

  4. Titrating-delay matching-to-sample in the pigeon.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Vaidya, Manish; Branch, Marc N

    2010-07-01

    The titrating-delay matching-to-sample (TDMTS) procedure offers researchers an additional behavioral task thought to capture some important features of remembering. In this procedure, the delay between sample offset and comparison onset adjusts as a function of the subject's performance. Specifically, correct matches increase the delay and incorrect matches decrease the delay, and steady-state titrated delays serve as the primary dependent measure. The present series of experiments investigated the effects of several procedural variables on performance in TDMTS procedures in an effort to elucidate better its features to allow for more precision in future use. Experiment 1 reports results from a parametric analysis of fixed-ratio response requirements on the sample key that indicated improved remembering in the form of higher daily titrated delay values as the requirement was increased. Experiment 2 investigated the extent to which the initial delay value in each session affected session-wide delay values. Results indicated that regardless of value of the initial delay, the subjects' performances adjusted the delay values in the direction of the known baseline delay-value levels. Experiment 3 manipulated the step size by which delay values were adjusted and the results indicated that larger step sizes increased both session-to-session variability and within-session range of titrated delay values, although the average values remained approximately the same. These results suggest that the TDMTS task serves as a promising procedure to study what many refer to as memory. PMID:21279163

  5. Ultimate Limits to Resource Efficiency in Photonic Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    We review resource-efficiency metrics for transferring classical information with photon, present an overview of the ultimate limits to photon and dimensional efficiency permitted by quantum mechanics, as well as that acheived with structured transmitter-receiver pairs.

  6. Ultimate bending capacity of strain hardening steel pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-fei; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Based on Hencky's total strain theory of plasticity, ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes can be determined analytically assuming an elastic-linear strain hardening material, the simplified analytical solution is proposed as well. Good agreement is observed when ultimate bending capacities obtained from analytical solutions are compared with experimental results from full-size tests of steel pipes. Parametric study conducted as part of this paper indicates that the strain hardening effect has significant influence on the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. It is shown that pipe considering strain hardening yields higher bending capacity than that of pipe assumed as elastic-perfectly plastic material. Thus, the ignorance of strain hardening effect, as commonly assumed in current codes, may underestimate the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. The solutions proposed in this paper are applicable in the design of offshore/onshore steel pipes, supports of offshore platforms and other tubular structural steel members.

  7. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568

  8. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  9. Some remarks on discrete physics as an ultimate dynamical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-10-01

    The standard model of quarks and leptons currently fails to meet `t Hooft`s criterion for an ``Ultimate Dynamical Theory`` in that it contains 19 parameters which must be taken from experiment. Evaluating discrete physics in the same way we find that it requires 17 parameters and has already succeeded in computing 7 of them. While we are confident that the rest can also be computed, the very concept of an ultimate theory is incompatible with our attitude toward physics.

  10. INFORMATION THEORY: 'Ultimate PC' Would Be a Hot Little Number.

    PubMed

    Seife, C

    2000-09-01

    A physicist has used the laws of thermodynamics, information, relativity, and quantum mechanics to figure out the ultimate physical limits on the speed of a computer. His calculations show that, in principle, a kilogram of matter in a liter-sized container could be an "ultimate laptop" more than a trillion trillion trillion times as powerful as today's fastest supercomputer--if it could be turned into a black hole. PMID:17839510

  11. Incidence and Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries to College Ultimate Players

    PubMed Central

    Swedler, David I.; Nuwer, Jamie M.; Nazarov, Anna; Huo, Samantha C.; Malevanchik, Lev

    2015-01-01

    Context: The burden of injuries to college ultimate players has never been fully described. Objective: To quantify the injury rate in ultimate players and describe the diagnoses, anatomic locations, and mechanisms of injuries. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: College ultimate teams in the United States during the 2012 season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Initial injury rate per 1000 athlete-exposures. Results: The initial injury rate in college ultimate players was 12.64 per 1000 athlete-exposures; the rate did not differ between men and women (P = .5). Bivariate analysis indicated that injuries occurred twice as often during games as during practices, men were more likely than women to be injured when laying out for the disc, and men were more likely to incur strains and sprains than women. Conclusions: Injury patterns to college ultimate players were similar to those for athletes in other National Collegiate Athletic Association sports. This is the first study to systematically describe injuries to ultimate players. PMID:25384003

  12. Delay Independent Criterion for Multiple Time-delay Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. J.; Liu, K. F. R.; Yeh, K.; Chen, C. W.; Chung, P. Y.

    Based on the fuzzy Lyapunov method, this work addresses the stability conditions for nonlinear systems with multiple time delays to ensure the stability of building structure control systems. The delay independent conditions are derived via the traditional Lyapunov and fuzzy Lyapunov methods for multiple time-delay systems as approximated by the Tagagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model. The fuzzy Lyapunov function is defined as a fuzzy blending of quadratic Lyapunov functions. A parallel distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is utilized to construct a global fuzzy logic control (FLC) by blending all linear local state feedback controllers in the controller design procedure. Furthermore, the H infinity performance and robustness of the design for modeling errors also need to be considered in the stability conditions.

  13. Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) static ultimate load structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted on the jettisonable metallic shroud used on the Titan/Centaur launch vehicle to verify its structural capabilities and to evaluate its structural interaction with the Centaur stage. A flight configured shroud and the interfacing Titan/Centaur structural assemblies were subjected to tests consisting of combinations of applied axial and shear loads to design ultimate values, including a set of tests on thermal conditions and two dynamic response tests to verify the analytical stiffness model. The strength capabilities were demonstrated at ultimate (125 percent of design limit) loads. It was also verified that the spring rate of the flight configured shroud-to-Centaur forward structural deflections of the specimen became nonlinear, as expected, above limit load values. This test series qualification program verified that the Titan/Centaur shroud and the Centaur and Titan interface components are qualified structurally at design ultimate loads.

  14. The Effect of Delayed Feedback on Infant Learning Reexamined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, W. Stuart; Watson, John S.

    1979-01-01

    Findings confirmed that whereas six- to eight-month-old infants revealed reliable acquisition under immediate reinforcement, a three-second delay precluded response acquisition, as did six-second and ten-second delay of reinforcement. A modified delayed-reinforcement scheduling procedure enabled a previous methodological criticism to be…

  15. Balancing act: the ultimate balance nutrition consulting center.

    PubMed

    Engle, L

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional issues often complicate health care but are very important in HIV treatment where diet can play a strong role in drug absorption and effectiveness. A Canadian company has started a for-fee nutritional counseling service called Ultimate Balance. The nutritionists at Ultimate Balance require medical disclosure and extensive telephone interviews with patients, and also review patients' cases and medications. The nutritional guidance provided is controversial, because it is funded by a company that produces nutritional supplements, and counselors sometimes recommend those supplements. A personal experience with the nutritional counseling service is described. Contact information is provided. PMID:11365979

  16. 37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING STEPPED TOWERS, AND WITH PYLONS CAPPED BY LANTERNS Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. The Ultimate Sampling Dilemma in Experience-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations and 2 experiments demonstrate the ultimate sampling dilemma, which constitutes a serious obstacle to inductive inferences in a probabilistic world. Participants were asked to take the role of a manager who is to make purchasing decisions based on positive versus negative feedback about 3 providers in 2 different product…

  18. 78 FR 40625 - Reporting Ultimate Payees of Political Committee Disbursements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... 11 CFR Part 104 Reporting Ultimate Payees of Political Committee Disbursements AGENCY: Federal... clarifying its interpretation of the regulatory requirement that political committees ] report the full name... purpose of such payments, in three situations: A political committee reimburses an individual who...

  19. Ultimate strain measurement of micromachined membranes using a potentiometric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goforth, R. C.; Ulrich, R. K.; Leong, Y. K.; Zhao, G.

    A potentiometric method for the measurement of ultimate strain of thin films is presented. In this method, an electric potential is applied between two electrodes located one on each side of the thin film under investigation. The electrodes are immersed in an electrolytic solution. The thin film acts as an electrical current barrier. To determine the ultimate strain, a controlled load is applied to the film. Cracking of the film causes a sharp rise in the current from an initial small leakage value. The applied load at the onset of cracking is used to calculate the ultimate strain. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of the method for thin silicon nitride films deposited on aluminum strips. The method is very sensitive and can detect cracks too small to be observed with a microscope. We discuss extension of the method to the measurement of the ultimate strain of micromachined membranes. The load is applied by pressuring one side of the membrane. Micromachined structures are used to determine residual stresses.

  20. Immediate and Ultimate Functions of Physical Activity Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    Play has been difficult to define because it is an aspect of many activities rather than of just a specific kind of activity. Classic theorists such as Piaget and Vygotsky emphasized representational play as play in its purist form, but both immediate and ultimate functions of play can be discerned in simple physical activity play. (Author)

  1. Ultimate Success Rates on National Board Examinations: A Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Leon J.; Wallis, Norman E.; Present, Richard K.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the percentage of optometry students successfully completing the four-component National Board of Examiners in Optometry examination at graduation between 1995 to 1997. Ultimate pass rates for all four components ranged from 87.0% to 90.9%. Results are discussed in relation to the 1993 test-sequence expansion and to the number…

  2. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. PMID:26439762

  3. Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond and Spray Pond Analysis Models.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-05-02

    Version 00 Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function ofmore » windspeed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted.« less

  4. Preventing ultimate harm as the justification for biomoral modification.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-06-01

    Most advocates of biogenetic modification hope to amplify existing human traits in humans in order to increase the value of such traits as intelligence and resistance to disease. These advocates defend such enhancements as beneficial for the affected parties. By contrast, some commentators recommend certain biogenetic modifications to serve social goals. As Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu see things, human moral psychology is deficient relative to the most important risks facing humanity as a whole, including the prospect of Ultimate Harm, the point at which worthwhile life is forever impossible on the planet. These risks can be mitigated, they say, by enhancing moral psychology in novel ways. Persson and Savulescu argue that some parents should modify the underlying biogenetics of their children's moral psychology, if such measures were safe and effective, but they admit these interventions may not decouple humanity from Ultimate Harm. Neither are these modifications the only options, they concede, for addressing risks to humanity. Even with these concessions, saving humanity from itself is a fairly poor reason to modify the moral psychology of children. In most ways, adults would be better candidates, morally speaking, for modifications of psychology. Even then, there is no direct link between morally enhanced human beings and the hoped-for effect of better protection from Ultimate Harm. Asserting a general duty of all to contribute to the avoidance of Ultimate Harm is a better moral strategy than intervening in the moral psychology of some, even though meeting that duty may involve substantial interference with the free exercise of one's interests. PMID:25186171

  5. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  6. Delay Discounting and Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902

  7. Silicon wafer-based tandem cells: The ultimate photovoltaic solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent large price reductions with wafer-based cells have increased the difficulty of dislodging silicon solar cell technology from its dominant market position. With market leaders expected to be manufacturing modules above 16% efficiency at 0.36/Watt by 2017, even the cost per unit area (60-70/m2) will be difficult for any thin-film photovoltaic technology to significantly undercut. This may make dislodgement likely only by appreciably higher energy conversion efficiency approaches. A silicon wafer-based cell able to capitalize on on-going cost reductions within the mainstream industry, but with an appreciably higher than present efficiency, might therefore provide the ultimate PV solution. With average selling prices of 156 mm quasi-square monocrystalline Si photovoltaic wafers recently approaching 1 (per wafer), wafers now provide clean, low cost templates for overgrowth of thin, wider bandgap high performance cells, nearly doubling silicon's ultimate efficiency potential. The range of possible Si-based tandem approaches is reviewed together with recent results and ultimate prospects.

  8. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Israel J; Remelius, Dennis K; Tiee, Joe J; Buck, Steven E; Whittemore, Stephen R; Thompson, David C; Shirey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  9. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Israel J.; Remelius, Dennis K.; Tiee, Joe J.; Buck, Steven E.; Whittemore, Stephen R.; Thompson, David C.; Shirey, Robert

    2010-04-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 106 ) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.ÿ

  10. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  11. The ultimate challenge: prove B. F. Skinner wrong.

    PubMed

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  12. Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology.

    PubMed

    Alessi, G

    1992-11-01

    B. F. Skinner saw behavior as a product of three levels of evolution. J. R. Kantor and Gregory Bateson noted similar relations. This article describes and applies basic evolutionary concepts to each level: (a) phylogenic, (b) ontogenic, and (c) cultural evolution. Each level is analyzed in terms of (a) units of selection, (b) variety of units required for the selection process, (c) selection pressures, (d) interactions among levels, and (e) implications for understanding and predicting behavior. Distinguishing between models of proximate and ultimate causation, as in biology, may help clarify research problems posed by, and facilitate better communication among, psychologists. PMID:1482003

  13. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  14. The ultimate quantum limits on the accuracy of measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    1992-01-01

    A quantum generalization of rate-distortion theory from standard communication and information theory is developed for application to determining the ultimate performance limit of measurement systems in physics. For the estimation of a real or a phase parameter, it is shown that the root-mean-square error obtained in a measurement with a single-mode photon level N cannot do better than approximately N exp -1, while approximately exp(-N) may be obtained for multi-mode fields with the same photon level N. Possible ways to achieve the remarkable exponential performance are indicated.

  15. Some Physics Constraints on Ultimate Achievement in Track and Field

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2009-02-06

    World records in track and field have improved remarkably throughout the last 100 years; however, in several events physics places quite strict limitations on ultimate performance. For example, analysis suggests that records in broad jump and pole vault have approached their optimum possible values. Physical constraints are more subtle for events such as javelin, high jump, and the distance races, and thus there may be opportunities for “breakthroughs” in current records. Considering that there is enormous cultural interest and economic expenditure on sports, for most events the level of scientific analysis isn’t very high. This presents a research opportunity for fans who are engineers or physicists.

  16. Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg; Shur, Michael

    2015-05-07

    We present theoretical studies of the response time of the two-dimensional gated electron gas to femtosecond pulses. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the device response to a short pulse or a step-function signal is either smooth or oscillating time-decay at low and high mobility, μ, values, respectively. At small gate voltage swings, U{sub 0} = U{sub g} − U{sub th}, where U{sub g} is the gate voltage and U{sub th} is the threshold voltage, such that μU{sub 0}/L < v{sub s}, where L is the channel length and v{sub s} is the effective electron saturation velocity, the decay time in the low mobility samples is on the order of L{sup 2}/(μU{sub 0}), in agreement with the analytical drift model. However, the decay is preceded by a delay time on the order of L/s, where s is the plasma wave velocity. This delay is the ballistic transport signature in collision-dominated devices, which becomes important during very short time periods. In the high mobility devices, the period of the decaying oscillations is on the order of the plasma wave velocity transit time. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors, mixers, delay lines, and phase shifters in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits.

  17. Improving NLRB Unfair Labor Practice Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Dennis R.; Lehr, Richard I.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the National Labor Relations Board's unfair labor practices procedures to determine the causes of observed delay, analyzes the proposals of the Labor Reform Act of 1977 that were intended to improve these procedures, and suggests alternative methods of reducing delays. Available from the University of Texas School of Law, 2500 Red River,…

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A DELAYED-INCUBATION, MEMBRANE FILTER TEST FOR ENTEROCCI IN WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A delayed-incubation procedure for assessing bacterial water quality is useful when sampling in remote locations. Although a delayed incubation test for coliforms is available, we are unaware of any published reports of delayed-incubation procedures for enterococci, an EPA recomm...

  19. Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Nonstrict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems With Time Delay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xudong; Yang, Haijiao; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhu, Yanzheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural output-feedback tracking controller is designed for a class of multiple-input and multiple-output nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems with time delay. The system coefficient and uncertain functions of our considered systems are both unknown. By employing neural networks to approximate the unknown function entries, and constructing a new input-driven filter, a backstepping design method of tracking controller is developed for the systems under consideration. The proposed controller can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop systems are ultimately bounded, and the time-varying target signal can be tracked within a small error as well. The main contributions of this paper lie in that the systems under consideration are more general, and an effective design procedure of output-feedback controller is developed for the considered systems, which is more applicable in practice. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26099151

  20. Methods for ultimate load analysis of concrete containments

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, R.S.; Rashid, Y.R.; Yuan, K.A.; Lu, Y.M.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of the research project described in this interim report is to develop a qualified methodology for the ultimate load analysis of concrete containment structures. The EPRI-sponsored nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS-EPGEN, which has recently been modified to incorporate a constitutive model for plain concrete and modeling capabilities for reinforced and prestressed concrete containments, is utilized as the structural analysis tool in this development. The ABAQUS-EPGEN concrete modeling and analysis capabilities are first evaluated by comparing measured data with code predictions for full-scale reinforced concrete slab specimens tested under uniaxial and biaxial tension. These specimen tests simulate the behavior of the cylindrical wall of a typical concrete containment structure under internal pressure. The calculated and measured strain comparisons are used to improve the constitutive model and to qualify the code for concrete containment analysis. The second part of this effort deals with the ultimate load analysis of reinforced and prestressed containments to determine bounds on the global overpressure capacities of typical concrete containment structures. The third part of this effort further examines such local effects through a substructural analysis of the liner-concrete interaction at major concrete cracks.

  1. Ultimate sensitivity of time-resolved optoacoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Karabutov, Alexander A.

    2000-05-01

    The major limitation in sensitivity of the optical tomography is associated with strong optical attenuation in human tissues. Opto-acoustic tomography overcomes this limitation utilizing detection of acoustic waves instead of detection of transmitted photons. Exceptional sensitivity of the opto-acoustic tomography allows early detection of small tumors located dep in human tissues, such as breast. This paper demonstrates that an optimally designed opto-acoustic imaging system can detect early 1-mm tumors with minimal blood content of only 7 percent at the depth of up to 7-cm within the breast attenuating laser irradiation 3.3 times per each 1-cm of its depth. A theoretical consideration of the ultimate sensitivity of piezo-detection in a wide ultrasonic frequency band is developed. The detection sensitivity is presented as a function of the ultrasonic frequency, tumor dimensions and optical absorption coefficient. Comparative analysis of piezo and optical interferometric detection of opto-acoustic transients is presented. The theoretical models of piezo detection were developed for the open-circuit and short-circuit schemes of operation. The ultimate sensitivity limited by thermal noise of electric capacitor of the piezo-element was estimated. It was shown that the limit of detection depends on the frequency band, the electric capacity of the transducer and the sped of sound in the piezo-element. Comparative analysis of various piezo-materials was made from the point of view of their utility for sensitive opto-acoustic detection.

  2. The Displacement Perspective During Ultimate Failure of Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P.; Bhar, A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the state of displacement of symmetric and anti-symmetric angle-ply and cross-ply laminated composite plates during its ultimate failure, subjected to transverse static load. First-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is employed in conjunction with the finite element approach using eight-noded quadratic isoparametric element. The free vibration analyses of isotropic and laminated composite plates are carried out to ensure the overall validity of the present finite element formulation. The mid surface of the laminate is considered as the reference plane. The principal material directions in different laminae are oriented to produce a laminated structural element capable of resisting loads in several directions. The stiffness of a composite laminate is obtained from the properties of the constituent laminae. The affected stiffness of the failed lamina is discarded completely after the failure of weakest ply. The rigidity matrix of the laminate with remaining laminae is re-established. The re-evaluation process continues until the laminate fails completely. To investigate the displacement behaviour of laminates during the ultimate failure, parametric studies are carried out for different cases by varying the stacking sequences, fiber orientations, layer thicknesses, aspect ratios and the number of layers in the laminate. The comparison of results in terms of non-dimensional natural frequencies and ply-by-ply failure analyses obtained from the present investigation are made with those available in the reported literature.

  3. CGI delay compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  4. Within-session delay-of-reinforcement gradients.

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Mark P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-01-01

    Within-session delay-of-reinforcement gradients were generated with pigeons by progressively increasing delays to reinforcement within each session. In Experiment 1, the effects of imposing progressive delays on variable-interval and fixed-interval schedules were investigated while controlling for simultaneous decreases in reinforcer rate across the session via a within-subject yoked-control procedure. Rate of key pecking decreased as a negatively decelerated function of delay of reinforcement within a session. These rate decreases were greater than those during a yoked-interval session in which the rate of immediate reinforcement decreased at the same rate as it did under the progressive-delay procedure. In Experiment 2, delay-of-reinforcement gradients were shallower when the progressive delay intervals were signaled by a blackout than when they were unsignaled. The delay gradients obtained in each experiment were similar to those generated under conditions in which different delays of reinforcement are imposed across blocks of sessions. The present procedure offers a technique for rapidly generating delay-of-reinforcement gradients that might serve as baselines for assessing the effects of other behavioral and pharmacological variables. PMID:15484869

  5. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  6. Use of Delayed Auditory Feedback with Motorically Involved Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Faith; And Others

    A seven-step procedure was developed to improve the intelligibility of children with significant motor problems (such as cerebral palsy). The procedure employs delayed auditory feedback to help the children control their rate of speaking to make it commensurate with their motor abilities. The procedure was pilot-tested with six children. Results…

  7. Ultimate drivers of native biodiversity change in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Norton, David A; Reid, Nick; Young, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to address land degradation and biodiversity loss while maintaining the production of plant and animal products is a key global challenge. Biodiversity decline as a result of vegetation clearance, cultivation, grazing, pesticide and herbicide application, and plantation establishment, amongst other factors, has been widely documented in agricultural ecosystems. In this paper we identify six ultimate drivers that underlie these proximate factors and hence determine what native biodiversity occurs in modern agricultural landscapes; (1) historical legacies; (2) environmental change; (3) economy; (4) social values and awareness; (5) technology and knowledge; and (6) policy and regulation. While historical legacies and environmental change affect native biodiversity directly, all six indirectly affect biodiversity by influencing the decisions that land managers make about the way they use their land and water resources. Understanding these drivers is essential in developing strategies for sustaining native biodiversity in agricultural landscapes into the future. PMID:26834971

  8. Plug nozzles: The ultimate customer driven propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aukerman, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applying the plug cluster nozzle concept to the propulsion system for a typical lunar excursion vehicle. Primary attention for the design criteria is given to user defined factors such as reliability, low volume, and ease of propulsion system development. Total thrust and specific impulse are held constant in the study while other parameters are explored to minimize the design chamber pressure. A brief history of the plug nozzle concept is included to point out the advanced level of technology of the concept and the feasibility of exploiting the variables considered in this study. The plug cluster concept looks very promising as a candidate for consideration for the ultimate customer driven propulsion system.

  9. Ultimate photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures with critical film thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Cong; Jin Kuijuan; Zhao Ruiqiang; Lu Huibin; Guo Haizhong; Ge Chen; He Meng; Wang Can; Yang Guozhen

    2011-05-02

    One order larger photovoltage is obtained with critical thicknesses of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} films in both kinds of heterostructures of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (0.8 wt % Nb-doped) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/Si fabricated at various oxygen pressures. Our self-consistent calculation reveals that the critical thickness of the La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} film with the ultimate value of photovoltage is just the thickness of the depletion layer of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} in both heterojunctions, respectively.

  10. Ultimate Spectrum of Solar/Stellar Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2015-08-01

    We reconstruct an ultimate spectrum of solar/stellar cosmic rays (SCR) in a given point in the heliosphere (stellar sphere) basing on maximal value of magnetic field strenght in active region and its characteristic linear dimension. An accelerator of given dimensions and magnetic field strengh may accelarate to a finite energy for a given time (a maximal energy of SCR). We will use spectrum of SCR proposed by Syrovatsky (1961) for relativistic and non-relativistic energies normaliszing it to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity at maximal SCR energy. Maximal values of SCR flux propagating in the heliosphere are determined by equilibrium between pressure of interplanetary magnrtic field and dynamic pressure of SCR (Frier&Webber, 1963). The obtained spectra would be applied to explain the extreme solar particle event occurred in about 775 AD basing on the tree-ring chronology (Miyake et al., 2012).

  11. Helium separation via porous silicene based ultimate membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei; Wu, Xiaojun; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2013-09-01

    Helium purification has become more important for increasing demands in scientific and industrial applications. In this work, we demonstrated that the porous silicene can be used as an effective ultimate membrane for helium purification on the basis of first-principles calculations. Prinstine silicene monolayer is impermeable to helium gas with a high penetration energy barrier (1.66 eV). However, porous silicene with either Stone-Wales (SW) or divacancy (555 777 or 585) defect presents a surmountable barrier for helium (0.33 to 0.78 eV) but formidable for Ne, Ar, and other gas molecules. In particular, the porous silicene with divacancy defects shows high selectivity for He/Ne and He/Ar, superior to graphene, polyphenylene, and traditional membranes.

  12. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites

    PubMed Central

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J. David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman’s principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides

  13. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    PubMed

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  14. Pigeons' Discounting of Probabilistic and Delayed Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Calvert, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    Pigeons' discounting of probabilistic and delayed food reinforcers was studied using adjusting-amount procedures. In the probability discounting conditions, pigeons chose between an adjusting number of food pellets contingent on a single key peck and a larger, fixed number of pellets contingent on completion of a variable-ratio schedule. In the…

  15. A Delay Discounting Model of Psychotherapy Termination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Joshua K.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) procedures are emerging as an important new method for psychotherapy researchers. In this paper a framework for conceptualizing existing, seemingly discrepant, research findings on termination is introduced and new directions for research are described. To illustrate the value of a DD framework, the common psychotherapy…

  16. Digital time delay

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  17. Effects of amphetamine on delay discounting in rats depend upon the manner in which delay is varied.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; Henson, Cedric; France, Charles P

    2014-12-01

    Whether stimulant drugs like amphetamine increase or decrease choice of larger delayed reinforcers over smaller immediately available reinforcers under delay discounting procedures can depend on several factors, including the order in which delay is presented. This study examined whether the order of delay presentation impacts drug effects on discounting in rats (n = 8) trained and tested under an ascending order, a descending order, as well as under a fixed delay condition. Responses on one lever delivered 1 food pellet immediately and responses on the other lever delivered 3 food pellets immediately or after a delay (4-32 s). In Experiment 1, the delay to the larger reinforcer varied within session and the order of delay presentation (ascending or descending) varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, the same delay value was presented in all blocks of the session (i.e., delay was fixed), and delay varied across conditions. Under the ascending order of delay, amphetamine (0.32-1.78 mg/kg) increased choice of the larger reinforcer in some rats and decreased choice in others. In the same rats responding under the descending and fixed delay conditions, amphetamine markedly decreased choice of the larger reinforcer even in the component associated with no delay. In some subjects, the effects of amphetamine differed depending on the manner in which delay was presented, indicating that drug-induced changes in performance were due, in part, to mechanisms other than altered sensitivity to reinforcer delay. These results also suggest that a history of responding under both orders of delay presentation can modulate drug effects. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24780379

  18. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  19. Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

    2014-08-01

    Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely

  20. 40 CFR 61.242-10 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... repair for valves will be allowed if: (1) The owner or operator demonstrates that emissions of purged... delay of repair, and (2) When repair procedures are effected, the purged material is collected...

  1. 40 CFR 60.482-9 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purged material resulting from immediate repair are greater than the fugitive emissions likely to result from delay of repair, and (2) When repair procedures are effected, the purged material is collected...

  2. Gaussian benchmark for optical communication aiming towards ultimate capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-05-01

    We establish the fundamental limit of communication capacity within Gaussian schemes under phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, which employ multimode Gaussian states for encoding and collective Gaussian operations and measurements for decoding. We prove that this Gaussian capacity is additive, i.e., its upper bound occurs with separable encoding and separable receivers so that a single-mode communication suffices to achieve the largest capacity under Gaussian schemes. This rigorously characterizes the gap between the ultimate Holevo capacity and the capacity within Gaussian communication, showing that Gaussian regime is not sufficient to achieve the Holevo bound particularly in the low-photon regime. Furthermore, the Gaussian benchmark established here can be used to critically assess the performance of non-Gaussian protocols for optical communication. We move on to identify non-Gaussian schemes to beat the Gaussian capacity and show that a non-Gaussian receiver recently implemented by Becerra et al. [F. E. Becerra et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 147 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.316] can achieve this aim with an appropriately chosen encoding strategy.

  3. Histologic remission: the ultimate therapeutic goal in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Bressenot, Aude; Kampman, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of the mucosal layer, and activity of the disease is assumed to be related to mucosal appearance. Mucosal healing has emerged as a major therapeutic goal in UC. Whether mucosal healing should be the ultimate therapeutic goal in these patients is unknown. Even when endoscopy suggests mucosal healing, evidence of histologic activity has been observed. Histologic healing requires complete recovery of the colonic mucosa, with absence of inflammation or structural changes. Histologic improvements have been linked with improved clinical outcomes, such as a reduced risk of relapse and need for surgery/hospitalization and a reduced risk of developing cancer. Hence, there is a rationale for aiming for histologic remission in UC. Numerous methods of classification of histologic activity in UC have been proposed, although only some of these are widely used. We review the current definitions of histologic remission, the range of scoring systems most commonly used, and the evidence of histologic improvement that is available from the latest therapies for UC. We also highlight questions that will require careful consideration if histologic remission is to become more widely used as an end point in clinical trials and a treatment goal in clinical practice. PMID:23911875

  4. Evaluation of ultimate tensile strength using Miniature Disk Bend Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kundan; Pooleery, Arun; Madhusoodanan, K.; Singh, R. N.; Chakravartty, J. K.; Shriwastaw, R. S.; Dutta, B. K.; Sinha, R. K.

    2015-06-01

    Correlations for evaluation of Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) using Miniature Disk Bend Test (MDBT) or Small Punch Test (SPT) has been an open issue since the development of the techniques. The larger plastic strains, in tri-axial state of stress during SPT, make the translation to the equivalent uniaxial parameter less certain. Correlations based on Pmax of load-displacement curve are also in disagreement as the point corresponding to Pmax does not represent a necking situation as in case of UTS, in a uniaxial tensile test. In present work, an attempt has been made for locating necking zone, which appears prior to Pmax, through experiments and FEM analyses. Experimental results on disk specimens from 20MnMoNi55, CrMoV ferritic steel and SS304LN materials along with FEM analyses found that load corresponding to 0.48 mm displacement is to be very close to the necking zone, and gives best fit for a UTS correlation.

  5. The ultimate band compression factor in gradient elution chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2008-01-01

    The equations predicting the ultimate time band compression factor, G = (t{sub R}-t{sub F})/t{sub p} in linear gradient elution chromatography, for an infinitely narrow injection (injection time t{sub p} {yields} 0) were derived for an ideal-model column (dispersionless chromatography, H = 0) assuming the Linear Solvent Strength Model for the retention behavior of the analyte. Numerical solutions can readily be obtained when the LSSM model does not apply. The results can be generalized to any retained organic modifier (k'{sub A}) in the mobile phase. The stronger the retention of the organic modifier, the more effective the band compression. Dispersion in real chromatographic column (H {ne} 0) affects the limits that can be reached in linear gradients but poorly in step gradients. Examples based on a conventional HETP of about 12 {micro}m using a 5 {micro}m particle packed column reveal that the best time compression factor that could be expected is twice the one predicted with an ideal column.

  6. Launching GUPPI: the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuPlain, Ron; Ransom, Scott; Demorest, Paul; Brandt, Patrick; Ford, John; Shelton, Amy L.

    2008-08-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is launching the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI), a prototype flexible digital signal processor designed for pulsar observations with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). GUPPI uses field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware and design tools developed by the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California, Berkeley. The NRAO has been concurrently developing GUPPI software and hardware using minimal software resources. The software handles instrument monitor and control, data acquisition, and hardware interfacing. GUPPI is currently an expert-only spectrometer, but supports future integration with the full GBT production system. The NRAO was able to take advantage of the unique flexibility of the CASPER FPGA hardware platform, develop hardware and software in parallel, and build a suite of software tools for monitoring, controlling, and acquiring data with a new instrument over a short timeline of just a few months. The NRAO interacts regularly with CASPER and its users, and GUPPI stands as an example of what reconfigurable computing and open-source development can do for radio astronomy. GUPPI is modular for portability, and the NRAO provides the results of development as an open-source resource.

  7. Digital exchange of graphic arts material: the ultimate challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, David Q.

    1996-01-01

    The digital exchange of graphic arts material -- particularly advertising material for publications -- in an open standardized environment represents the ultimate challenge for electronic data exchange. To meet the needs of publication advertising, the graphic arts industry must be able to transmit advertisements in an open environment where there are many senders and many receivers of the material. The material being transmitted consists of combinations of pictorial material, text, and line art with these elements superimposed on top of each other and/or interrelated in complex ways. The business relationships established by the traditional workflow environment, the combination of aesthetic and technical requirements, and the large base of existing hardware and software play a major role in limiting the options available. Existing first- and second-generation standards are focused on the CEPS environment, which operates on and stores data as raster files. The revolution in personal computer hardware and software, and the acceptance of these tools by the graphic arts community, dictates that standards must also be created and implemented for this world of vector/raster-based systems. The requirements for digital distribution of advertising material for publications, the existing graphic arts standards base, and the anticipation of future standards developments in response to these needs are explored.

  8. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up. PMID:25912729

  9. [Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with delayed unusual disclosure].

    PubMed

    Thicoïpé, M; Sztark, F; Lassié, P; Tueux, O; Dabadie, P

    1995-01-01

    The authors report the case of a delayed presentation of a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture in a 22-year-old patient admitted to hospital for a minor surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. Nine months before, he had a road traffic accident with a minor thoracic trauma. Three days after surgery, the patient was readmitted for a tension hydrothorax due to the herniation and the perforation of the stomach into the left pleural cavity. Such a delayed presentation of a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture remains uncommon. The peroperative ventilatory factors involved in the development of the hernia are discussed. PMID:8572411

  10. Time delay spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultimate limits to thermally assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Terry W.

    2005-02-01

    The application of thermal energy to enable recording on extremely high anisotropy magnetic media appears to be a viable means of extending the density of stored information. The central physical issue facing the technology is what gain can be realized in writability along with long-term data stability using imaginable media materials. We reasonably expect the material properties M(T) and Hk(T) to determine this, since a stability metric for media with characteristic magnetization switching unit volume V is MV Hk/2kBT. This matter is controversial owing to still open questions related to thermomagnetic recording with temperature elevation above the Curie point and optimal cooling rates. There are indications that multi-component magnetic media may offer advantages in achieving performance goals. Beyond the physical issues lie engineering matters related to the correct system architecture to yield a practical storage device to meet future customer expectations. Here one must address a detailed means of delivering localized heating to the magnetic medium to perform efficient recording. To date, magnetic recording devices have been highly mechanical systems, so it is natural to inquire how a need for an aggressively heated head-medium interface could impact the evolution of future systems. Eventually elements of thermally assisted recording could be combined with patterned media approaches such as self-organized magnetic arrays to push toward ultimate limits where the thermal instability of bits overtakes engineered media materials. Finally, a practical recording system cannot be realized unless a means of finding, following, and reading the smallest bits with a usable signal-to-noise ratio exists—engineering issues separate from an ability to reliably record those bits. This paper is based on an invited presentation of the same title given at the meeting of the American Physical Society, 22-26 March 2004, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

  12. Delayed voice communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

    2013-10-01

    We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

  13. Clinical outcomes of suture delay in forehead flap.

    PubMed

    Isik, Daghan; Kiroglu, Faruk; Isik, Yasemin; Goktas, Ugur; Atik, Bekir

    2012-01-01

    The delay phenomenon is a surgical procedure performed to raise a wider skin flap and to improve the survival of skin flaps. Surgery, chemicals, sutures, and lasers can be used for the delay procedure. In this study, delayed forehead flaps created by suturing were used for coverage of nasal skin defects in eleven patients. In 7 patients, the cross-paramedian forehead flap was used to increase the extent of flap lengthening. In the first session, suture delay was performed on both sides of the forehead flap margin. In the second session, the flap was elevated and sutured to its new position, 7 to 10 days after the initial surgery. All flaps were completely viable, and patient satisfaction was optimal in all cases. The positive effect of surgical delay on flap survival has been shown in experimental and clinical studies. However, experimentally, suture delay or chemical delay procedures have been shown to be beneficial in flap survival only. Suture delay seems to be an inexpensive, effective, easily performed, atraumatic, and safe technique, especially among patients with systemic diseases such as diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, smoking patients who may lose the flap, or patients who need very wide and long flaps. PMID:22337378

  14. Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Daniele; Davì, Fabrizio; Paone, Nicola

    2011-10-01

    Scintillating crystals are employed in high energy physics, in medical imaging, diagnostic and security. Two mechanical properties of lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate cerium-doped Lu 2(1- x) Y 2 xSiO 5:Ce with x=0.1 (LYSO) crystals have been measured: the ultimate tensile stress ( σUTS) and the Young elastic modulus ( E). Measurements are made by means of a 4-points loading device and the experimental results account for an elastic-brittle stress-strain relation, which depends heavily on the specimen preparation and the material defects. σUTS along the [0 1 0] tensile direction ranges within 68.14 and 115.61 MPa, which, in the lowest case, is more than twice with respect to those measured for PbWO 4 (PWO), exhibiting a marked difference between the annealed and the not-annealed samples. The mean elastic modulus ( E), along the same direction, is E=1.80×10 11 (±2.15×10 10) N/m 2, with lower dispersion respect to UTS data. This type of analysis and study can be included into quality control procedures of crystals, based on samples taken out of production; such procedures can be established for industrial processing of crystals aimed to the high energy physics (calorimeters) and medical imaging (PET, etc.) applications.

  15. ViSUS: Visualization Streams for Ultimate Scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, V

    2005-02-14

    In this project we developed a suite of progressive visualization algorithms and a data-streaming infrastructure that enable interactive exploration of scientific datasets of unprecedented size. The methodology aims to globally optimize the data flow in a pipeline of processing modules. Each module reads a multi-resolution representation of the input while producing a multi-resolution representation of the output. The use of multi-resolution representations provides the necessary flexibility to trade speed for accuracy in the visualization process. Maximum coherency and minimum delay in the data-flow is achieved by extensive use of progressive algorithms that continuously map local geometric updates of the input stream into immediate updates of the output stream. We implemented a prototype software infrastructure that demonstrated the flexibility and scalability of this approach by allowing large data visualization on single desktop computers, on PC clusters, and on heterogeneous computing resources distributed over a wide area network. When processing terabytes of scientific data, we have achieved an effective increase in visualization performance of several orders of magnitude in two major settings: (i) interactive visualization on desktop workstations of large datasets that cannot be stored locally; (ii) real-time monitoring of a large scientific simulation with negligible impact on the computing resources available. The ViSUS streaming infrastructure enabled the real-time execution and visualization of the two LLNL simulation codes (Miranda and Raptor) run at Supercomputing 2004 on Blue Gene/L at its presentation as the fastest supercomputer in the world. In addition to SC04, we have run live demonstrations at the IEEE VIS conference and at invited talks at the DOE MICS office, DOE computer graphics forum, UC Riverside, and the University of Maryland. In all cases we have shown the capability to stream and visualize interactively data stored remotely at the San

  16. [The relationships of Zhang Jing-yue's three theories of the Supreme Ultimate].

    PubMed

    Yao, Chun-Peng

    2007-07-01

    Under the influence of Supreme Ultimate of Neo-Confucianism, Zhang Jing-yue put forward the three theories of the Supreme Ultimate, viz., Supreme Ultimate of the Primordial Qi, Supreme Ultimate of the Heart, and Supreme Ultimate of the Vital Gate. These three theories were of trinity relationship, forming the basic frame of Jingyue's system of medical theories. Among them, the theory of Supreme Ultimate of the Primordial Qi was the foundation of natural concept in his medical theories, the theory of Supreme Ultimate of the Vital Gate was the teleology of his medical theories, and the theory of Supreme Ultimate of the Heart, as a cognitive method, was the methodology of his medical theories. Jing-yue' s medical theories were constructed on these three corner-stays, which was a tremendous leap forward in the development of traditional Chinese medicine and Neo-Confucianism. PMID:18453202

  17. R&D paths toward achieving ultimate capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel

    2004-09-01

    Superconducting niobium cavities for particle accelerator application are performing nowadays better than ever and a series of procedures have been established--if applied properly--which will result in multi-cell cavity gradients of up to E{sub acc} = 35 MV/m, the design goal for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In several cases gradients above 40 MV/m have been measured in single cell tests. These gradients are close to or at the critical magnetic field value for niobium--at least what is believed to be the fundamental limitation of the material. However, there are still some open questions, whether the value for the superheated magnetic field of {approx} 180 mT is the final answer.

  18. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  19. The Vernier delay unit

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, W.B.

    1985-02-01

    One of the most critical timing specifications for the SLC machine occurs at the injector and ejector magnets for the Damping Ring. It has been determined that the trigger pulses to the magnets must be controlled to 0.1 ns. The primary source for all trigger pulses for the SLC machine is the Programmable Delay Unit (PDU). The PDU generates a 67.2 ns wide pulse with delay increments of 8.7 ns. The gap between the required accuracy and that available from the PDU requires the design of a new module that is called the Vernier Delay Unit (VDU). This module accepts the 67.2 ns pulse from the PDU and is capable of increasing the delay in steps of 0.1 ns from 0 to 10.7 ns plus the minimum 9 ns delay. The module has two totally independent channels. The pulse input to the module is software selectable from either the auxiliary backplane or a front panel Lemo connector. The auxiliary backplane pulses are to be the 67 ns differential ECL pulses from the PDU. The front panel input is to be a NIM level (-0.7 V 50 termination).

  20. Delay-Amount Tradeoffs in Choices by Pigeons and Rats: Hyperbolic versus Exponential Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, James E.; Biondi, Dawn R.

    2009-01-01

    An adjusting-delay procedure was used to study the choices of pigeons and rats when both delay and amount of reinforcement were varied. In different conditions, the choice alternatives included one versus two reinforcers, one versus three reinforcers, and three versus two reinforcers. The delay to one alternative (the standard alternative) was…

  1. Use of Constant Time Delay and Attentional Responses with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure in teaching social studies and health facts to five adolescents with learning or behavioral disorders. Students were given praise with and without additional information. Results indicated CTD procedures were reliable and effective, and students acquired nontargeted as well…

  2. Mutually injecting semiconductor lasers: simulations for short and zero delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneyev, Nikolay; Radziunas, Mindaugas; Wuensche, Hans J.; Henneberger, Fritz

    2004-09-01

    Distant lasers with mutual optical injection are subject to a delayed coupling. We consider the barely investigated case of delays shorter than the relaxation oscillation period. In order to illuminate the role of these short delays, the ultimate zero-delay limit is considered as a reference. We use a traveling wave equation model, which fully resolves the spatio-temporal distributions of optical fields and carriers in the lasers and treats the wave propagation between the lasers by delayed boundary conditions. Wavelength detuning between the otherwise identical single-mode DFB lasers is used as primary bifurcation parameter. The zero-delay reference exhibits a synchronisation scenario typical for coupled oscillators. The nonsynchronised regimes represents a self-pulsation of the nonlinear carrier-photon system. Additional effects appear when including a short delay. Resonances of the cavity formed by the laser pair cause a staircase dependence on detuning of the pulsation frequency. Irregular dynamics is observed at the borders of the locked regions as well as at the edges of the stairs.

  3. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  4. Data Assimilation by delay-coordinate nudging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazo, Diego; Lopez, Juan Manuel; Carrassi, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A new nudging method for data assimilation, delay-coordinate nudging, is presented. Delay-coordinate nudging makes explicit use of present and past observations in the formulation of the forcing driving the model evolution at each time-step. Numerical experiments with a low order chaotic system show that the new method systematically outperforms standard nudging in different model and observational scenarios, also when using an un-optimized formulation of the delay-nudging coefficients. A connection between the optimal delay and the dominant Lyapunov exponent of the dynamics is found based on heuristic arguments and is confirmed by the numerical results, providing a guideline for the practical implementation of the algorithm. Delay-coordinate nudging preserves the easiness of implementation, the intuitive functioning and the reduced computational cost of the standard nudging, making it a potential alternative especially in the field of seasonal-to-decadal predictions with large Earth system models that limit the use of more sophisticated data assimilation procedures.

  5. Recursive delay calculation unit for parametric beamformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav I.; Jensen, Jørgen A.; Tomov, Borislav

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N-channel system needs N+ 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  7. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts. PMID:27449401

  8. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  9. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  10. Interferometric Propagation Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Radar interferometry based on (near) exact repeat passes has lately been used by many groups of scientists, worldwide, to achieve state of the art measurements of topography, glacier and ice stream motion, earthquake displacements, oil field subsidence, lava flows, crop-induced surface decorrelation, and other effects. Variations of tropospheric and ionospheric propagation delays limit the accuracy of all such measurements. We are investigating the extent of this limitation, using data from the Shuttle radar flight, SIR-C, which is sensitive to the troposphere, and the Earth Resources Satellites, ERS-1/2, which are sensitive to both the troposphere and the ionosphere. We are presently gathering statistics of the delay variations over selected, diverse areas to determine the best accuracy possible for repeat track interferometry. The phases of an interferogram depend on both the topography of the scene and variations in propagation delay. The delay variations can be caused by movement of elements in the scene, by changes in tropospheric water vapor and by changes of the charge concentrations in the ionosphere. We plan to separate these causes by using the data from a third satellite visit (three-pass interferometry). The figure gives the geometry of the three-pass observations. The page of the figure is taken to be perpendicular to the spacecraft orbits. The three observational locations are marked on the figure, giving baselines B-12 and B-13, separated by the angle alpha. These parameters are almost constant over the whole scene. However, each pixel has an individual look angle, theta, which is related to the topography, rho is the slant range. A possible spurious time delay is shown. Additional information is contained in the original.

  11. [Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].

    PubMed

    Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562

  12. Time-Delay Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.; Tinto, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory and mathematical foundations of TDI as it will be implemented by the forthcoming space-based interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We have purposely left out from this first version of our "Living Review" article on TDI all the results of more practical and experimental nature, as well as all the aspects of TDI that the data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the LISA TDI data combinations. Our forthcoming "second edition" of this review paper will include these topics.

  13. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are heritable, and data indicate that delay discounting also has a genetic component. To identify the genes underlying the delay discounting decision-making process and genetic correlates of heightened discounting, researchers have used mouse models. This unit describes a protocol for generating delay discounting behavior in mice and discusses analysis techniques for such behavior. PMID:24510779

  14. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language ... your child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and ...

  15. Tooth formation - delayed or absent

    MedlinePlus

    Delayed or absent tooth formation; Teeth - delayed or absent formation ... The age at which the tooth comes in varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 6 and 9 months, but it may be earlier or later. ...

  16. Effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on ultimate strength of shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on the ultimate strength and stress displacement properties of the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) was determined. The LI-900 Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tiles mounted on the .41 cm thick Strain Isolator Pad (SIP) were investigated. Substructure deformations reduce the ultimate strength of the SIP/tile TPS and increase the scatter in the ultimate strength data. Substructure deformations that occur unsymmetric to the tile can cause the tile to rotate when subjected to a uniform applied load. Load eccentricity reduces SIP/tile TPS ultimate strength and causes tile rotation.

  17. A Prompt Plus Delayed Contingency Procedure for Reducing Bathroom Graffiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, T. Steuart

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made, and results were maintained at three-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency. (Author/DB)

  18. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency. PMID:8881353

  19. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  20. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Airport Capacity and Delay Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Nelson, Caroline; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    The ASAC Airport Capacity Model and the ASAC Airport Delay Model support analyses of technologies addressing airport capacity. NASA's Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Airport Capacity Model estimates the capacity of an airport as a function of weather, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures, traffic characteristics, and the level of technology available. Airport capacity is presented as a Pareto frontier of arrivals per hour versus departures per hour. The ASAC Airport Delay Model allows the user to estimate the minutes of arrival delay for an airport, given its (weather dependent) capacity. Historical weather observations and demand patterns are provided by ASAC as inputs to the delay model. The ASAC economic models can translate a reduction in delay minutes into benefit dollars.

  1. Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor, Surgical Delay, and Skin Flap Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lineaweaver, William C.; Lei, Man-Ping; Mustain, William; Oswald, Tanya M.; Cui, Dongmei; Zhang, Feng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cytokines may be a mechanism by which surgical delay can increase flap survival. We previously found that preoperative vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) administration in the rat transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap could improve skin paddle survival. In this study, we used partial elevation of the rat TRAM flap as a surgical delay to assess endogenous cytokine expression and tissue survival comparable to undelayed TRAM flaps. Methods: In Part I, TRAM flaps underwent surgical delay procedures; 7 days later, the flaps were completely elevated and reinset. At the same time, other flaps were raised and reinset without delay. Skin paddle survival in both groups was evaluated at 7 days. In Part II, skin biopsies from TRAM zones I to IV were taken at the time of delay and at intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Specimens were assessed for selected cytokine gene expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (TR-PCR). Results: Surgical delay significantly (P < 0.001) increased skin paddle survival in the delayed TRAM flaps (16.14 ± 1.53 cm, 81.9%) compared with undelayed flaps (7.68 ± 3.16 cm, 40.9%). TGF-β and PDGF expressions were not changed by surgical delay, but basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and VEGF expressions increased significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) after delay. Conclusions: In the rat TRAM model, surgical delay resulted in increased VEGF expression and increased skin paddle survival. These results correlate with previous studies showing the preoperative injection of VEGF increases skin paddle survival. VEGF may be an important element in the delay phenomenon and may be an agent for pharmacological delay. PMID:15166966

  2. Discounting in Pigeons When the Choice is between Two Delayed Rewards: Implications for Species Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Amanda L; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of delay discounting typically have involved choices between smaller, immediate outcomes and larger, delayed outcomes. In a study of delay discounting in humans, Green et al. (2005) added a period of time prior to both outcomes, creating a delay common to both. They found that the subjective value of the more delayed reward was well described by a hyperboloid discounting function and that the degree to which that outcome was discounted decreased as the common delay increased. In two experiments, we examined the effect of adding a common delay on the discounting of food rewards in pigeons. In Experiment 1, an adjusting-amount procedure was used to establish discounting functions when the common delay was 0, 3, 5, and 10 s, and different stimuli signaled time to the smaller, sooner and larger, later rewards. In contrast to humans, the pigeons showed increases in the degree of discounting when a common delay was added. In Experiment 2, the delay common to both rewards and the delay unique to the larger, later reward were each specifically signaled. With this procedure, the degree of discounting decreased as the common delay increased, a result consistent with that obtained with humans (Green et al., 2005). These findings reveal fundamental similarities between pigeons' and humans' choice behavior, and provide strong interspecies support for the hypothesis that choice between delayed outcomes is based on comparison of their hyperbolically discounted present subjective values. PMID:21887130

  3. 75 FR 80536 - Procedures for the Surrender of Unwanted Controlled Substances by Ultimate Users; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ..., heroin, and methamphetamine combined.\\1\\ In 2009, 2.2 million (nearly one third (28.6%) of first time... Policy 2008 ``Prescription for Danger'' January 24, 2008 \\2\\ 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health... disposal process, and with considering the public health and safety as well as the ease and cost of...

  4. [Examination procedures].

    PubMed

    Vassault, A; Arnaud, J; Szymanovicz, A

    2010-12-01

    Examination procedures have to be written for each examination according to the standard requirements. Using CE marked devices, technical inserts can be used, but because of their lack of homogeneity, it could be easier to document their use as a standard procedure. Document control policy applies for those procedures, the content of which could be as provided in this document. Electronic manuals can be used as well. PMID:21613016

  5. Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment

    DOEpatents

    DeRyckere, John F.; Jenkins, Philip Nord; Cornett, Frank Nolan

    2002-07-09

    Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

  6. Delayed Graft Function 5 Months After Living Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Tim; Pries, Alexandra; Kapischke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 59 Final Diagnosis: Delayed kidney graft function Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Living donor kidney transplantation Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Delayed graft function is a clinical term to describe the failure of the transplanted kidney to function immediately after transplantation. Case Report: A 59-year-old woman suffered from a rare case of delayed graft function lasting 148 days after unrelated living donor kidney transplantation. Until now, 15 years after transplantation, organ function is still good, with serum creatinine levels about 1.4 to 2.0 mg/dl. Conclusions: Even after prolonged graft dysfunction, good graft function can be achieved. PMID:26915643

  7. Adaptive Phase Delay Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.

  8. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  9. 7 CFR 4274.361 - Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or other Federal, State, or local programs at reasonable rates and terms; and (v) The intermediary... influence in the ultimate recipient, and the ultimate recipient and its principal officers (including immediate family) hold no legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary except the...

  10. 7 CFR 4274.361 - Requests to make loans to ultimate recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or other Federal, State, or local programs at reasonable rates and terms; and (v) The intermediary... influence in the ultimate recipient, and the ultimate recipient and its principal officers (including immediate family) hold no legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary except the...

  11. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... Commissioner. (2) A cold weather blend is a blend of kerosene and diesel fuel that is produced in an area... registered ultimate vendor (blending) is a taxable fuel registrant, a registered ultimate vendor, or...

  12. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... Commissioner. (2) A cold weather blend is a blend of kerosene and diesel fuel that is produced in an area... registered ultimate vendor (blending) is a taxable fuel registrant, a registered ultimate vendor, or...

  13. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... Commissioner. (2) A cold weather blend is a blend of kerosene and diesel fuel that is produced in an area... registered ultimate vendor (blending) is a taxable fuel registrant, a registered ultimate vendor, or...

  14. 26 CFR 48.6427-11 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blending).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cold for blending with diesel fuel to be used for heating purposes. Claims relating to kerosene sold... Commissioner. (2) A cold weather blend is a blend of kerosene and diesel fuel that is produced in an area... registered ultimate vendor (blending) is a taxable fuel registrant, a registered ultimate vendor, or...

  15. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate...

  16. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... (75 FR 60133) on September 29, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment period. No comments were received... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported...

  17. 22 CFR 123.9 - Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Country of ultimate destination and approval of... ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.9 Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers. (a) The country designated as the country of...

  18. 45 CFR 77.5 - Remedial action procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TO LETTER OF CREDIT ADMINISTRATION § 77.5 Remedial action procedures. Except as provided in § 77.6... obligations related to its letter of credit and does not determine the organization's ultimate liability...

  19. Delayed iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia after thoracoscopic lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sai-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Zhao, Bai-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia after thoracoscopic lobectomy is extremely rare. We present a 55-year-old female patient who developed an iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia with gastric perforation several months after VATS (video-assisted thoracic surgery) left upper lobectomy with systematic lymphadenectomy. During the readmission, urgent laparotomy was performed. Intraoperatively, the choledochoscopy was introduced into left thoracic cavity through the diaphragmatic defect for dissecting the secondary inflammatory adhesions and achieving satisfactory hemostasis. It appears to be an efficient and feasible approach for the patients who have been diagnosed as delayed diaphragmatic hernia concomitant with remarkable intra-abdominal findings and have a history of thoracic surgery. We consider that delayed-onset diaphragmatic hernia should be suspected in patients complaining of nausea or vomiting after VATS procedure, although it is very rare. PMID:27293866

  20. How we perform delayed enhancement imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Raymond J; Shah, Dipan J; Judd, Robert M

    2003-07-01

    Recently, numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of a segmented inversion recovery fast gradient echo (seg IR-FGE) sequence for differentiating injured from normal myocardium. This technique for delayed enhancement imaging has been shown to be effective in identifying the presence and extent of myocardial infarction, as well as predicting improvement in contractile function after coronary revascularization. In this article we outline the procedure of delayed enhancement imaging performed at our center, describe the seg IR-FGE sequence in more detail, including our process for choosing sequence settings, review our process of image interpretation, and highlight potential pitfalls (and techniques to overcome them) that we have encountered in our experience with performing the technique in over 1500 patients. PMID:12882082

  1. Delayed rule following

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects. PMID:22478363

  2. Do long delay conditioned stimuli develop inhibitory properties?

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Martha; Suits, W. T.; Rahn, Elizabeth J.; Arcediano, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In long-delay conditioning, a long conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired in its final segments with an unconditioned stimulus. With sufficient training, this procedure usually results in conditioned responding being delayed until the final segment of the CS, a pattern of responding known as inhibition of delay. However, there have been no systematic investigations of the associative structure of long delay conditioning, and whether the initial segment of a long delay CS actually becomes inhibitory is debatable. In an appetitive preparation with rat subjects, the initial segment of long delay CS A passed a retardation (Experiment 1a) but not a summation (Experiment 1b) test for conditioned inhibition. Furthermore, retardation was observed only if long delay conditioning and retardation training occurred in the same context (Experiment 2). Thus, the initial segment of a long delay CS appears to share more characteristics with a latent inhibitor than a conditioned inhibitor. Componential theories of conditioning appear best suited to account for these results. PMID:26557103

  3. Delayed awakening in dystonia patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Carlos; Deogaonkar, Anupa; Deogaonkar, Milind; Ebrahim, Zeyd; Rezai, Ali; Machado, Andre; Farag, Ehab

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to identify the incidence, duration and causes of delayed emergence from anesthesia in patients with dystonia undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS) placement. A retrospective review of patients with dystonia who underwent DBS placement was conducted and the following characteristics were noted: age, gender, comorbid conditions, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, anesthetic agents used, amount of initial dose, amount of infusion dose, duration of the infusion and the time needed for emergence. Twenty-four patients underwent 33 DBS procedures for dystonia. Propofol was administered to 21 patients, in 29 of the 33 procedures. Dexmedetomidine was administered to three patients, in four procedures. The average propofol loading dose was 0.7mg/kg, and the infusion rate was 80microg/kg per minute (min), for an average duration of 89min. The average time of emergence was 36min. Only 31% of patients emerged from propofol anesthesia during the expected time frame, 69% of patients had some degree of delayed emergence, and 24% had a significant delay in emergence. Delayed emergence was more common in younger patients due to the higher loading doses these patients received. This study shows a 69% incidence of delayed emergence in dystonia patients undergoing DBS surgery. It also suggests an association between delayed emergence and younger patients who receive higher loading doses. A possible cause of delayed emergence is excessive anesthetic potentiation of the low output pallidal state in dystonia which may depress the pallido-thalamo-cortical circuitry. Delayed emergence could also result from depression of the previously affected ventral pallidal inputs to the septo-hippocampal system that mediates general anesthesia and awareness. Complex neurotransmitter disturbances may also be involved. PMID:20466547

  4. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  5. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity. PMID:27586618

  6. Learning to wait for more likely or just more: greater tolerance to delays of reward with increasingly longer delays.

    PubMed

    Rung, Jillian M; Young, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on training greater tolerance to delays of rewards in the context of delayed gratification. In delayed gratification, waiting for a delayed outcome necessitates the ability to resist defection for a continuously available smaller, immediate outcome. The present research explored the use of a fading procedure for producing greater waiting in a video-game based, delayed gratification task. Participants were assigned to conditions in which either the reward magnitude, or the probability of receiving a reward, was a function of time waited and the delay to the maximum reward was gradually increased throughout this training. Waiting increased for all participants but less for those waiting for a greater reward magnitude than a greater reward probability. All participants showed a tendency to wait in a final testing phase, but training with probabilistic outcomes produced a significantly greater likelihood of waiting during testing. The behavioral requirements of delay discounting versus delay gratification are discussed, as well as the benefits of training greater self-control in a variety of contexts. PMID:25641081

  7. Perfusion delay causes unintentional ischemic preconditioning in isolated heart preparation.

    PubMed

    Minhaz, U; Koide, S; Shohtsu, A; Fujishima, M; Nakazawa, H

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to show that unintentional preconditioning can be induced in the isolated perfused heart during the preparation procedure. The following four groups were compared: hearts were placed in ice cold saline and cooled for 15 s and then mounted to the Langendorff apparatus (n = 5; cool immediate group); hearts were cooled for 60 s and mounted (n = 5; cool delay group); hearts were mounted directly to the apparatus within 15 s after the isolation without cooling (n = 5; noncool immediate group); hearts were mounted without cooling, but the mounting was delayed for 60 s after the isolation (n = 5; noncool delay group). All hearts were paced at a fixed rate of 300 bpm, and an occlusion of left coronary (LCA) for 60 min was performed, which was followed by reperfusion for another 60 min. Coronary flow (CBF), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) release did not change among the four groups during ischemia. At the end of reperfusion the LVDP values were 70 +/- 1%, 66 +/- 2%, 62 +/- 3%, and 73 +/- 2% of preischemic values in cool immediate, cool delay, noncool immediate, and noncool delay groups, respectively. CPK values were 116 +/- 4, 121 +/- 7, 138 +/- 6, and 29 +/- 1 x 10(3) U/g myocardium, and percentage necrosis/risk areas were 24 +/- 1.0%, 21 +/- 1.7%, 38 +/- 2.6%, and 13 +/- 0.5% in cool immediate, cool delay, noncool immediate, and noncool delay groups, respectively. The noncool delay group demonstrated high LVDP, least amount of CPK release, and smallest size of necrosis. These results indicate that an unintentional preconditioning effect can be induced when the cooling procedure is not applied and perfusion is delayed. PMID:8585864

  8. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  9. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1984-08-07

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  10. Discounting of delayed rewards and executive dysfunction in individuals infected with hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Huckans, Marilyn; Seelye, Adriana; Woodhouse, Jonathan; Parcel, Tiffany; Mull, Lisa; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Alex; Lahna, David; Johnson, Amy; Loftis, Jennifer; Woods, Steven Paul; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Hoffman, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine whether adults with hepatitis C, regardless of substance use disorder, are more likely to discount delayed rewards than adults without hepatitis C, and explore the relationship between delay discounting and neuropsychological functioning. Methods Procedures included clinical interviews, neuropsychological testing, and a delay discounting task. Results Regardless of substance abuse history, adults with hepatitis C were significantly more likely to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Delay discounting correlated with performance on executive functioning tasks. Conclusions Increased discounting is associated with broad executive dysfunction, suggesting that HCV associated executive dysfunction may lead to altered decision making style. PMID:20694872

  11. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay. PMID:24880267

  12. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  13. PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Creveling, R.

    1959-03-17

    A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

  14. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  15. Isolating the delay component of impulsive choice in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Jesse; Podos, Jeffrey; Richardson, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsive choice—the preference for small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards—has been linked to various psychological conditions ranging from behavioral disorders to addiction. These links highlight the critical need to dissect the various components of this multifaceted behavioral trait. Delay discounting tasks allow researchers to study an important factor of this behavior: how the subjective value of a rewards changes over a delay period. However, existing methods of delay discounting include a confound of different reward sizes within the procedure. Here we present a new approach of using a single constant reward size to assess delay discounting. A complementary approach could hold delay constant and assess the utility of changing quantities of a reward. Isolating these behavioral components can advance our ability to explore the behavioral complexity of impulsive choice. We present in detail the methods for isolating delay, and further capitalize on this method by pairing it with a standard peak interval task to test whether individual variation in delay discounting can be explained by differences in perception of time in male and female adolescent rats. We find that rats that were more precise in discriminating time intervals were also less impulsive in their choice. Our data suggest that differences in timing and delay discounting are not causally related, but instead are more likely influenced by a common factor. Further, the mean-level change in our measure between post-natal day 28 and 42 suggests this test may be capturing a developmental change in this factor. In summary, this new method of isolating individual components of impulsive choice (delay or quantity) can be efficiently applied in either adolescent or adult animal models and may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying impulsivity and its links to psychological disorders. PMID:24478644

  16. METHODS/MATERIALS MATRIX OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES FOR SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and novel methods for the ultimate disposal of spilled or released hazardous substances. Disposal methods studied include incineration, pyrolysis, landfilling, fixation, biological treatment, and chemical treatment. Applications of ...

  17. A new method to characterize the complex mineralogy of ultimate wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forestier, L. Le; Brown, W.L.; Libourel, G. |

    1995-12-31

    Ultimate wastes, resulting from the incineration of municipal solid wastes, contain high amounts of toxic elements that require stabilization before storage. However, whatever the stabilization processed involved, characterization of their crystal chemistry is essential. In this paper, the authors present a method which allows the determination of the mineralogy of ultimate wastes in detail. They present here an example of results from an ultimate waste, resulting from electrofiltration of fumes. This method is based on grain size and density separations coupled with X-ray diffraction, ICP-ES, ICP-MS, wet chemical methods and electron microprobe analyses. Despite the complexity of this waste, they show that it is possible, not only to determine its mineralogy, but also to give the modal proportions of each phase, and to provide some insights into the crystal chemistry of the main pollutants of this ultimate waste product.

  18. METHYLATED ASIII COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC METABOLITES OF INORGANIC ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    METHYLATED Asm COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE GENOTOXIC METABOLITES OF INORGANIC ARSENIC.

    The methylation of inorganic arsenic has typically been viewed as a detoxification process. Genotoxicity tests have generally shown that arsenite has greater mutagenic p...

  19. 75 FR 11922 - Apria Healthcare, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., Ultimate Staffing (Roth Staffing Companies), and Aerotek, Cromwell, CT; Amended Certification Regarding... in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3938). At the request of the State agency,...

  20. 78 FR 72972 - Application of Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...: The Department of Transportation is directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Ultimate JETCHARTERS, LLC, fit, willing, and able, and awarding it commuter...

  1. Consideration for primary angioplasty: impact on the door-to-drug time in AMI patients ultimately treated with thrombolytic agent.

    PubMed

    Brady, W J; Esterowitz, D; Syverud, S A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if consideration for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) delays administration of thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Retrospective medical record review of patients ultimately diagnosed with AMI who presented to the ED with chest pain and ST segment elevation on the electrocardiogram; these patients also received acute reperfusion therapy (PTCA or thrombolytic agent). AMI was diagnosed by abnormal elevations in the creatinine phosphokinase MB fraction. The study period covered 2 years (July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1996) in a university hospital ED with an annual volume of 60,000 patient-visits. The use of reperfusion therapies, time intervals, and times of presentation were recorded. Patients were divided into two groups based on cardiac catheterization laboratory (CATH) availability: (group I, CATH currently in operation, Monday to Friday, 7 am to 7 pm and group II, CATH currently not in-operation, all other times). Fifty-two patients with AMI met entry criteria. Patients were treated with thrombolytic therapy in 25 cases; PTCA in 27 cases. Patients received thrombolytic agents within statistically equivalent time intervals regardless of the period of presentation; time to thrombolytic therapy for group I patients was 38 +/- 16 minutes compared with 36 +/- 26 minutes for group II patients (P =. 891). A trend toward significance was noted in the use of PTCA compared with thrombolytic agent; Group I patients were more often treated with PTCA (19) compared with group II patients (11, P =.067). Patients were more rapidly treated with PTCA during CATH operation; the mean time to PTCA for group I patients was 73.5 minutes compared with PTCA for group II patients with 107.8 minutes (P =.033). The consideration for PTCA did not significantly delay the administration of thrombolytic therapy at the study site institution. PTCA was initiated more rapidly in patients presenting with

  2. Delayed Nephropleural Fistula After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Kamaljot S; Cwikla, Daniel; Clayman, Ralph V

    2016-01-01

    Pleural effusions due to pleural injury following supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) occur in upwards of 15% of patients; however, these effusions are invariably diagnosed immediately postoperative or during the hospital stay. Herein, we report our initial experience with a delayed nephropleural fistula. A 52-year-old female underwent an uneventful supracostal right PCNL staghorn stone procedure and was discharged on postoperative day 1. She presented to the emergency department 8 days after her original procedure and one day after ureteral stent removal in the office, with right pleural effusion, concomitant contralateral renal colic secondary to migration of a left pelvic stone into her left proximal ureter, and acute renal failure/oliguria. She was treated with right chest tube drainage, bilateral nephrostomy tube placement, and subsequent left holmium laser ureterolithotripsy. PMID:27579431

  3. Delayed Nephropleural Fistula After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Kamaljot S.; Cwikla, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pleural effusions due to pleural injury following supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) occur in upwards of 15% of patients; however, these effusions are invariably diagnosed immediately postoperative or during the hospital stay. Herein, we report our initial experience with a delayed nephropleural fistula. A 52-year-old female underwent an uneventful supracostal right PCNL staghorn stone procedure and was discharged on postoperative day 1. She presented to the emergency department 8 days after her original procedure and one day after ureteral stent removal in the office, with right pleural effusion, concomitant contralateral renal colic secondary to migration of a left pelvic stone into her left proximal ureter, and acute renal failure/oliguria. She was treated with right chest tube drainage, bilateral nephrostomy tube placement, and subsequent left holmium laser ureterolithotripsy. PMID:27579431

  4. On the function of the ultimate legs of some Scolopendridae (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Kronmüller, Christian; Lewis, John G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The function of the variously shaped ultimate legs of Scolopendridae is briefly reviewed. Their function in Scolopendra heros Girard, 1853, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815, Scolopendra morsitans (Linnaeus, 1758), Scolopendra galapagoensis Bollman, 1889, Scolopendra hainanum Kronmüller, 2012, Scolopendra spinosissima Kraepelin, 1903 Cormocephalus aurantiipes (Newport, 1844) and Ethmostigmus trigonopodus (Leach, 1817), in which they are least specialised has been investigated. Specimens were tapped with forceps on different parts of the trunk to simulate the attack of a predator. When tapped on the first third of the trunk (near the head), the centipedes attacked the forceps with their forcipules. When tapped on the last third or the ultimate legs, they adopted a warning position, raising the ultimate legs to display the ventral and medial prefemoral spines as well as the spined coxopleural processes. In some cases the centipedes attacked the forceps with the claws of the ultimate legs by chopping down on them after lifting the legs high into the warning position. When tapped in the mid part of the trunk, the centipedes curled sideways to reach the forceps with their forcipules and ultimate legs simultaneously. Scolopendra galapagoensis not only lifted the ultimate legs into the warning position but also the last 3-4 pairs of locomotory legs, presenting their distodorsal prefemoral spines. This resembles the warning posture of some spiders. In addition to their function in warning behaviour, defensive stabbing, ritualised meeting reactions and during courtship behaviour, the ultimate legs may in addition act as hooks and perhaps be involved in species recognition. No evidence was found that the ultimate legs are used to catch prey, nor of prey or predators being held between the prefemora. PMID:26257548

  5. Combined wind turbine fatigue and ultimate load reduction by individual blade control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Leithead, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    If each blade of the wind turbine has individual pitch actuator, there is possibility of employing the pitch system to mitigate structural loads through advanced control methods. Previously, considerable reduction of blade lifetime equivalent fatigue loads has been achieved by Individual Blade Control (IBC) and in addition, it has also been shown the potential in blade ultimate loads reduction. However, both fatigue and ultimate loads impact on the design and life of wind turbine blades. In this paper, the design and application of IBC that concurrently reduce both blade fatigue and ultimate loads is investigated. The contributions of blade load spectral components, which are 1P, 2P and edgewise mode from blade in-plane and/or out-of-plane bending moments, are firstly explored. Four different control options for reducing various combinations of these load components are compared. In response to the different spectral peaks of both fatigue and ultimate loads, the controller has been designed so that it can act on different frequency components which vary with wind speed. The performance of the IBC controller on fatigue and ultimate load reduction is assessed by simulating a 5MW exemplar wind turbine. Simulation results show that with a proper selection of controlling inputs at different wind speed, the use of a single combined IBC can achieve satisfactory reduction on both fatigue and ultimate loads.

  6. Signal functions in delayed discriminative stimulus control by reinforcement sources.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-05-01

    The discriminative functions of the response-reinforcer relation may contribute to the changes in response rates that occur when reinforcement is delayed. These properties were investigated in three experiments with pigeons using a discrete-trials conditional discrimination procedure. A concurrent variable-interval schedule was arranged on two side keys during a sample component. The key peck that ended the schedule (the sample response) initiated a delay with either a stimulus present throughout the delay interval (full signal), a stimulus present only during the first second of the interval (partial signal), or no stimulus present (unsignaled delay). The delay was followed by a choice component where one alternative was reinforced if the left sample response produced the choice component and the other if the right sample response produced the choice component. Accuracy was high with a full signal; slightly lower with a partial signal; and lowest without a signal. The results parallel the effects of similar delays programmed in conventional reinforcement schedules. This in turn suggests a possible discriminative effect of the response-reinforcer relation in the control of behavior by (delayed) reinforcement. PMID:24700527

  7. Observing Behavior Topography in Delayed Matching to Multiple Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; Balsamo, Lyn M.; Fowler, Thomas R.; Dickson, Chata A.; Lombard, Kristin M.; Tomanari, Gerson Y.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined relations between eye movements and accuracy scores in a delayed matching-to-sample procedure with multiple sample stimuli. Four adult humans responded with high accuracy when there were 2 samples per trial. When the number of samples was increased to 4 per trial, accuracy scores fell to intermediate levels for 2 of the…

  8. Problems and Limitations in Studies on Screening for Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Marten; Westerlund, Monica; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses six common methodological limitations in screening for language delay (LD) as illustrated in 11 recent studies. The limitations are (1) whether the studies define a target population, (2) whether the recruitment procedure is unbiased, (3) attrition, (4) verification bias, (5) small sample size and (6) inconsistencies in choice…

  9. Developmental Delay: Establishing Parameters for a Preschool Category of Exceptionality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Mary; And Others

    This position paper addresses the creation of a new category of eligibility for services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, "Developmental Delay," which would only be applicable to children ages 3 to 5. Such a classification would address concerns about labeling young children, lack of confidence in assessment procedures for…

  10. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures. PMID:27482994

  11. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  12. Delayed unlatching mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2015-05-19

    In various embodiments an apparatus is presented for securing a structure such as a door, window, hatch, or gate that moves between an open and a closed position relative to a fixed structure to provide or deny access to a compartment, a room, an outdoor area, or a facility. Various embodiments provide a delay in opening the closure of sufficient duration to frustrate a rapid activation that might be desired by a person who is attempting to pass through the closure for some illicit purpose. Typically, hydraulics are used to activate the apparatus and no electrical energy or electronic signals are employed. In one embodiment, a plurality of actuations of a hand lever operates a hydraulic pump that moves a locking bolt from a first position in which a locking bolt is engaged with a recess in the fixed structure (preventing opening of a gate) to a second position in which the locking bolt is disengaged from the recess to permit opening of the gate.

  13. Calibrating for Ionospheric Phase Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Technique determines ionospheric phase delay on real-time universally applicable basis in terms of electrons per meter squared by coherently modulating two L-band carrier frequencies received from two Global Positioning System satelites. Two pseudorandom number sequences cross-correlated to derive delay time.

  14. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  15. Linear rotary optical delay lines.

    PubMed

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2014-05-19

    I present several classes of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for the design of high-speed rotary optical delay lines that use a combination of stationary and rotating curvilinear reflectors. Detailed analysis of four distinct classes of optical delay lines is presented. Particularly, I consider delay lines based on a single rotating reflector, a single rotating reflector and a single stationary reflector, two rotating reflectors, and two rotating reflectors and a single stationary reflector. I demonstrate that in each of these cases it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating and stationary reflector surfaces. Moreover, in the case of two rotating reflectors a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, all the blades presented in this paper are chosen to fit into a circle of 10 cm diameter and these delay lines feature in excess of 600 ps of optical delay. Finally, two prototypes of rotary delay lines were fabricated using CNC machining, and their optical properties are characterized. PMID:24921303

  16. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  17. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  18. Delay discounting of different commodities.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Terrell, Heather K; Derenne, Adam

    2010-01-01

    When outcomes are delayed, their value is decreased. Delay discounting is a much-studied topic because it is correlated with certain disorders (e.g., pathological gambling). The present study attempts to determine how people would delay discount a number of different commodities, ranging from money to dating partners to federal education legislation. Participants completed delay discounting tasks pertaining to 5 different commodities, with a different set of 5 commodities for 2 groups. Results showed that different commodities were often discounted differently. Both data sets were also subjected to factor analysis. A 2-factor solution was found for both, suggesting that there are multiple "domains" of commodities. This finding is of interest because it suggests that measuring delay discounting for one commodity within a particular domain of commodities will be predictive of how people discount other commodities within that domain but will not be predictive of how they discount commodities within another domain. PMID:20718227

  19. Remote Task-level Commanding of Centaur over Time Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Ngo, Tam; Burridge, Robert; Wang, Lui; Izygon, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Remote operation of robots on the lunar surface by ground controllers poses unique human-robot interaction challenges due to time delay and constrained bandwidth. One strategy for addressing these challenges is to provide task-level commanding of robots by a ground controller. Decision-support tools are being developed at JSC for remote task-level commanding over time-delay. The approach is to provide ground procedures that guide a controller when executing task-level command sequences and aid awareness of the state of command execution in the robot. This approach is being evaluated using the Centaur robot at JSC. The Centaur Central Commander provides a task-level command interface that executes on the robot side of the delay. Decision support tools have been developed for a human Supervisor in the JSC Cockpit to use when interacting with the Centaur Central Commander. Commands to the Central Commander are defined as instructions in a procedure. Sequences of these instructions are grouped into procedures for the Cockpit Supervisor. When a Supervisor is ready to perform a task, a procedure is loaded into the decision support tool. From this tool, the Supervisor can view command sequences and dispatch individual commands to Centaur. Commands are queued for execution on the robot side of the delay. Reliable command sequences can be dispatched automatically upon approval by the Supervisor. The decision support tool provides the Supervisor with feedback about which commands are waiting for execution and which commands have finished. It also informs the Supervisor when a command fails to have its intended effect. Cockpit procedures are defined using the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) developed at JSC for mission operations. The decision support tool is based on a Procedure Sequencer and multi-agent software developed for human-robot interaction. In this paper the approach for remote task-level commanding of robots is described and the results of the evaluation

  20. Delayed perforation after endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer: Clinical features and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Takafumi; Tanabe, Satoshi; Ishido, Kenji; Azuma, Mizutomo; Wada, Takuya; Suzuki, Mizuto; Kawanishi, Natsuko; Yamane, Sakiko; Sasaki, Tohru; Katada, Chikatoshi; Mikami, Tetsuo; Katada, Natsuya; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2016-01-01

    Perforation is an important procedural complication of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer. Although the incidence of delayed perforation after ESD is low, extreme caution is necessary because many cases require surgical intervention. Among 1984 lesions of early gastric cancer treated in our hospital by ESD in 1588 patients from September 2002 through March 2015, delayed perforation developed in 4 patients (4 lesions, 0.25%). A diagnosis of delayed perforation requires prompt action, including surgical intervention when required. PMID:27114751

  1. Observation of millimeter-wave oscillations from resonant tunneling diodes and some theoretical considerations of ultimate frequency limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Le, H. Q.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of oscillation frequencies up to 56 GHz in resonant tunneling structures are discussed in relation to calculations by several authors of the ultimate frequency limits of these devices. It is found that calculations relying on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation give limits well below the observed oscillation frequencies. Two other techniques for calculating the upper frequency limit were found to give more reasonable results. One method employs the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation obtained by Kundrotas and Dargys (1986); the other uses the energy width of the transmission function for electrons through the double-barrier structure. This last technique is believed to be the most accurate since it is based on general results for the lifetime of any resonant state. It gives frequency limits on the order of 1 THz for two recently fabricated structures. It appears that the primary limitation of the oscillation frequency for double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes is imposed by intrinsic device circuit parameters and by the transit time of the depletion layer rather than by time delays encountered in the double-barrier region.

  2. 14 CFR 17.17 - Initial protest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial protest procedures. 17.17 Section... RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Protests § 17.17 Initial protest procedures. (a) If, as part of a protest, the protester requests a suspension or delay of procurement, in whole or...

  3. Delayed Geodynamo in Hadean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.

    2014-12-01

    Paleointensity measurements of Archean rocks reveal a strong geodynamo at ~3.45 Ga, while excess nitrogen content of lunar soil samples implies no geodynamo at ~3.9 Ga. Here I propose that initiation of a strong geodynamo is delayed due to accretion style of Earth, involving collision and merging of a few dozen Moon to Mars size planetary embryos. Two accretion scenarios consisting of 25 and 50 embryos are investigated. The collision of an embryo heats the proto-Earth's core differentially and the rotating low-viscosity core stably stratifies, creating a spherically symmetric and radially increasing temperature distribution. Convection starts in the outer core after each impact but is destroyed by the next impact. The iron core of an impacting embryo descends in the mantle and merges to the proto-Earth's core. Both adiabatic and non-adiabatic merging cases are studied. A major part of the gravitational energy released due to core merging is used to lift up the upper portion of the core to emplace the impactor core material at the neutrally buoyant level in the proto-Earth's core. The remaining energy is converted to heat. In the adiabatic case the merging embryo's core retains all of the remaining energy, while in the non-adiabatic merging 50% of the remaining energy is shared with the outer part of the proto-Earth's core where the embryo's core descends. The two merging models result in significantly different temperature distributions in the core at the end of accretion. After the accretion, the convecting shell in the outer core grows monotonically and generates geodynamo gradually. It takes about 50-100 Myr for the convecting shell to generate a strong dipole field at the surface, 50,000 to 100,000 nT, in the presence of a large stably stratified liquid inner core when the convecting outer core thickness exceeds about one half the radius of the Earth's core.

  4. The Effect of Delayed Responding on Stroop-Like Task Performance among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Derek E.; Fosco, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Forty-four preschoolers completed 2 conditions of a Stroop-like procedure (e.g., saying "boat" for car and "car" for boat) that differed in whether a 3-s delay was imposed before responding. The test card was visible during the delay period for half of the children and occluded for the other children. Preschoolers' interference control was…

  5. Metabolic adaptations in delayed skin flaps. Glucose utilization and hexokinase activity.

    PubMed

    Im, M J; Su, C T; Hoopes, J E

    1979-08-01

    The distribution of glucose and hexokinase activity was determined in the epithelial tissue of delayed bipedicled skin flaps in guinea pigs. The periods of "delay" were 1, 3, 7, 14, or 21 days. The flap survival was maximal (100% of the flap) when the flap elevation was performed either 7 or 14 days following the "delay" procedure. When the flap elevation was performed 1, 3, or 21 days following the "delay" procedure, the result was partial necrosis. A differential distribution of epithelial glucose was found within the bipedicled flaps. The lowest glucose level (30% of normal) was at a distance of 2 to 3.5 cm from the end of the caudal pedicle during the first day after the "delay" procedure. This decreased glucose content recovered toward normal levels during the later part of the "delay" period. The bipedicled flaps exhibited increased hexokinase activity during the 3-week period of the "delay," and the responses of hexokinase activity and tissue glucose levels to the "delay" procedure were reciprocal in the caudal half of the flaps. PMID:377341

  6. Break-before-Make CMOS Inverter for Power-Efficient Delay Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Raič, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    A modified static CMOS inverter with two inputs and two outputs is proposed to reduce short-circuit current in order to increment delay and reduce power overhead where slow operation is required. The circuit is based on bidirectional delay element connected in series with the PMOS and NMOS switching transistors. It provides differences in the dynamic response so that the direct-path current in the next stage is reduced. The switching transistors are never ON at the same time. Characteristics of various delay element implementations are presented and verified by circuit simulations. Global optimization procedure is used to obtain the most power-efficient transistor sizing. The performance of the modified CMOS inverter chain is compared to standard implementation for various delays. The energy (charge) per delay is reduced up to 40%. The use of the proposed delay element is demonstrated by implementing a low-power delay line and a leading-edge detector cell. PMID:25538951

  7. Time Delay: A Technique to Increase Language Use and Facilitate Generalization in Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, James W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Institutional breakfast serving procedures were manipulated with regard to time delay to assess the effects of such changes on language use (requests for food) in six severely retarded children (ages 11 to 15 years). (Author/DLS)

  8. 40 CFR 60.482-9a - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and connectors will be allowed if: (1) The owner or operator demonstrates that emissions of purged... delay of repair, and (2) When repair procedures are effected, the purged material is collected...

  9. 75 FR 13238 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... further modifications to its proposal. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kimberly Coy, Marketing Specialist... Order) (7 CFR part 1208) and proposed referendum procedures [74 FR 16289]. A second proposal...

  10. Ultimate pier and contraction scour prediction in cohesive soils at selected bridges in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, Timothy D.; Over, Thomas M.; Domanski, Marian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Scour Rate In COhesive Soils-Erosion Function Apparatus (SRICOS-EFA) method includes an ultimate scour prediction that is the equilibrium maximum pier and contraction scour of cohesive soils over time. The purpose of this report is to present the results of testing the ultimate pier and contraction scour methods for cohesive soils on 30 bridge sites in Illinois. Comparison of the ultimate cohesive and noncohesive methods, along with the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) cohesive soil reduction-factor method and measured scour are presented. Also, results of the comparison of historic IDOT laboratory and field values of unconfined compressive strength of soils (Qu) are presented. The unconfined compressive strength is used in both ultimate cohesive and reduction-factor methods, and knowing how the values from field methods compare to the laboratory methods is critical to the informed application of the methods. On average, the non-cohesive method results predict the highest amount of scour, followed by the reduction-factor method results; and the ultimate cohesive method results predict the lowest amount of scour. The 100-year scour predicted for the ultimate cohesive, noncohesive, and reduction-factor methods for each bridge site and soil are always larger than observed scour in this study, except 12% of predicted values that are all within 0.4 ft of the observed scour. The ultimate cohesive scour prediction is smaller than the non-cohesive scour prediction method for 78% of bridge sites and soils. Seventy-six percent of the ultimate cohesive predictions show a 45% or greater reduction from the non-cohesive predictions that are over 10 ft. Comparing the ultimate cohesive and reduction-factor 100-year scour predictions methods for each bridge site and soil, the scour predicted by the ultimate cohesive scour prediction method is less than the reduction-factor 100-year scour prediction method for 51% of bridge sites and soils. Critical shear stress

  11. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible. PMID:27610849

  12. Residual ultimate strength of a very large crude carrier considering probabilistic damage extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choung, Joonmo; Nam, Ji-Myung; Tayyar, Tansel

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides the prediction of ultimate longitudinal strengths of the hull girders of a very large crude carrier considering probabilistic damage extent due to collision and grounding accidents based on IMO Guidelines (2003). The probabilistic density functions of damage extent are expressed as a function of non-dimensional damage variables. The accumulated probabilistic levels of 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% are taken into account for the estimation of damage extent. The ultimate strengths have been calculated using the in-house software called Ultimate Moment Analysis of Damaged Ships which is based on the progressive collapse method, with a new convergence criterion of force vector equilibrium. Damage indices are provided for several probable heeling angles from 0° (sagging) to 180° (hogging) due to collision- and grounding-induced structural failures and consequent flooding of compartments. This paper proves from the residual strength analyses that the second moment of area of a damage section can be a reliable index for the estimation of the residual ultimate strength. A simple polynomial formula is also proposed based on minimum residual ultimate strengths.

  13. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  14. Mapping of minority carrier diffusion length and heavy metal contamination with ultimate surface photovoltage method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J.; Aleynikov, A.; Savtchouk, A.; Edelman, P.

    2004-07-01

    The Ultimate surface photovoltage method of minority carrier diffusion length measurements reffered to as Ultimate SPV, replaces a sequential “one wavelength at a time” approach with simultaneous illumination with the entire set of wavelengths. In this multiwavelength beam, each monochromatic component is chopped with slightly different frequency. This enables simultaneous monitoring of all component SPV signals corresponding to different wavelengths using multi-frequency signal processing. The amplitude and phase of each component signals are then analyzed and used to calculate the diffusion length and surface lifetime. In-flight Ultimate SPV measurement, whereby the wafer continuously moves under SPV probe, is used for fast whole wafer mapping. In addition to speed advantages, Ultimate SPV offers a fundemental accuracy advantage due to elimination of differences in wafer condition during sequential illumination with individual wavelengths. High-speed measurements make it possible to add additional wafer treatments and perform multi-mapping required for separation of Fe and Cu in the silicon bulk. Wafer mapping in time of 2 minutes realized with Ultimate SPV is critical for monitoring of cobalt in silicon.

  15. Universal limiter for transient interpolation modeling of the advective transport equations: The ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    A fresh approach is taken to the embarrassingly difficult problem of adequately modeling simple pure advection. An explicit conservative control-volume formation makes use of a universal limiter for transient interpolation modeling of the advective transport equations. This ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme is applied to unsteady, one-dimensional scalar pure advection at constant velocity, using three critical test profiles: an isolated sine-squared wave, a discontinuous step, and a semi-ellipse. The goal, of course, is to devise a single robust scheme which achieves sharp monotonic resolution of the step without corrupting the other profiles. The semi-ellipse is particularly challenging because of its combination of sudden and gradual changes in gradient. The ULTIMATE strategy can be applied to explicit conservation schemes of any order of accuracy. Second-order schemes are unsatisfactory, showing steepening and clipping typical of currently popular so-called high resolution shock-capturing of TVD schemes. The ULTIMATE third-order upwind scheme is highly satisfactory for most flows of practical importance. Higher order methods give predictably better step resolution, although even-order schemes generate a (monotonic) waviness in the difficult semi-ellipse simulation. Little is to be gained above ULTIMATE fifth-order upwinding which gives results close to the ultimate for which one might hope.

  16. Treatment of delayed male puberty: efficacy of aromatase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, L; Wickman, S

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that inhibition of estrogen synthesis would delay maturation of the growth plates and ultimately result in increased adult height in boys with delayed puberty. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which we treated boys with constitutional delay of puberty with testosterone plus placebo (testosterone-placebo) or with testosterone plus letrozole (testosterone-letrozole). Letrozole effectively inhibited estrogen synthesis: 17beta-estradiol concentrations increased in the testosterone-placebo group, but in the testosterone-letrozole group, no such increase was observed until letrozole treatment was discontinued. After 1.5 years, bone age had advanced by 1.7 +/- 0.3 years in the testosterone-placebo group, but by only 0.9 +/- 0.2 years in the testosterone-letrozole group (p = 0.02). Predicted adult height did not change significantly in the testosterone-placebo group, whereas in the testosterone-letrozole group the increase was 5.1 +/- 1.2 cm (p = 0.004). Our findings suggest that, if estrogen action is inhibited in growing adolescents, adult height will increase. This observation provides a rationale for studies aimed at delaying bone maturation in several growth disorders. PMID:11837512

  17. Procedural simulation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aalpen A; Glaiberman, Craig; Gould, Derek A

    2007-06-01

    In the past few decades, medicine has started to look at the potential use of simulators in medical education. Procedural medicine lends itself well to the use of simulators. Efforts are under way to establish national agendas to change the way medical education is approached and thereby improve patient safety. Universities, credentialing organizations, and hospitals are investing large sums of money to build and use simulation centers for undergraduate and graduate medical education. PMID:17574195

  18. Temporal discrimination and delayed reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Buriticá, Jonathan; Vilchez, Zirahuén; Santos, Cristiano Valerio Dos

    2016-09-01

    We attempted to determine the effect of reinforcement delay on time discrimination in an interval bisection task. Three groups of rats were exposed to immediate, delayed reinforcement and longer signals with immediate reinforcement in acquisition and test. Results show differences in the amount of training necessary to reach the acquisition criteria, the Weber fraction and the range or overall stimulus control. The results suggest an increased difficulty to discriminate the difference among durations rather than an increase in estimated time as main effect of delayed reinforcement. PMID:27431922

  19. Time delay in molecular photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockett, P.; Frumker, E.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    Time-delays in the photoionization of molecules are investigated. As compared to atomic ionization, the time-delays expected from molecular ionization present a much richer phenomenon, with a strong spatial dependence due to the anisotropic nature of the molecular scattering potential. We investigate this from a scattering theory perspective, and make use of molecular photoionization calculations to examine this effect in representative homonuclear and hetronuclear diatomic molecules, nitrogen and carbon monoxide. We present energy and angle-resolved maps of the Wigner delay time for single-photon valence ionization, and discuss the possibilities for experimental measurements.

  20. Cause and effect in biology revisited: is Mayr's proximate-ultimate dichotomy still useful?

    PubMed

    Laland, Kevin N; Sterelny, Kim; Odling-Smee, John; Hoppitt, William; Uller, Tobias

    2011-12-16

    Fifty years ago, Ernst Mayr published a hugely influential paper on the nature of causation in biology, in which he distinguished between proximate and ultimate causes. Mayr equated proximate causation with immediate factors (for example, physiology) and ultimate causation with evolutionary explanations (for example, natural selection). He argued that proximate and ultimate causes addressed different questions and were not alternatives. Mayr's account of causation remains widely accepted today, with both positive and negative ramifications. Several current debates in biology (for example, over evolution and development, niche construction, cooperation, and the evolution of language) are linked by a common axis of acceptance/rejection of Mayr's model of causation. We argue that Mayr's formulation has acted to stabilize the dominant evolutionary paradigm against change but may now hamper progress in the biological sciences. PMID:22174243

  1. Revisiting perceptions of quality of hospice care: managing for the ultimate referral.

    PubMed

    Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. PMID:23928074

  2. Higher order direct model reference adaptive control with generic uniform ultimate boundedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Arnab; Höcht, Leonhard; Holzapfel, Florian

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a new higher order model reference adaptive control (HO-MRAC) approach following direct adaptive control philosophy, which estimates unknown time-varying parameters. This approach leads to a Lyapunov based conventional MRAC update law, augmented by an observer type parameter predictor dynamics. The predictor dynamics are composed of a stable known part, a feedback of the parameter error and unknown higher order parameters, which are updated using a Lyapunov based adaptive design. So, this HO-MRAC can cope with rapidly changing parameters, due to estimation of their time derivatives. Moreover, for stability analysis, a Lyapunov based generic ultimate boundedness theorem is presented, which allows for a computation of separate bounds for each state vector partition. Furthermore, this theorem formulates the explicit specification of transient and ultimate bounds, reaching time on the ultimate bounds and a set of admissible initial conditions. Two challenging illustrative examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding.

    PubMed

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10-20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  4. Intra-Beam Scattering, Impedance, and Instabilities in Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    We have investigated collective effects in an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances in both planes, using PEP-X as an example. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, a 4.5 GeV ring running round beams at 200 mA in 3300 bunches, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current. The Touschek lifetime is 11 hours. Impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. We have investigated collective effects in PEP-X, an ultimate storage ring, i.e. one with diffraction limited emittances (at one angstrom wavelength) in both planes. In an ultimate ring intra-beam scattering (IBS) sets the limit of current that can be stored. In PEP-X, IBS doubles the emittances to 11.5 pm at the design current of 200 mA, assuming round beams. The Touschek lifetime is quite large in PEP-X, 11.6 hours, and - near the operating point - increases with decreasing emittance. It is, however, a very sensitive function of momentum acceptance. In an ultimate ring like PEP-X impedance driven collective effects tend not to be important since the beam current is relatively low. Before ultimate PEP-X can be realized, the question of how to run a machine with round beams needs serious study. For example, in this report we assumed that the vertical emittance is coupling dominated. It may turn out that using vertical dispersion is a preferable way to generate round beams. The choice will affect IBS and the Touschek effect.

  5. Space simulation ultimate pressure lowered two decades by removal of diffusion pump oil contaminants during operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    The complex problem why large space simulation chambers do not realize the true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance have been identified and some advances in vacuum/distillation/fractionation technology have been achieved which resulted in a two decade or more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effect of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and reclaiming contaminated oil by high vacuum molecular distillation are described.

  6. 78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...

  7. Delay in cutaneous melanoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Marcus H.S.B.; Drummond-Lage, Ana P.; Baeta, Cyntia; Rocha, Lorena; Almeida, Alessandra M.; Wainstein, Alberto J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Advanced melanoma is an incurable disease with complex and expensive treatments. The best approach to prevent melanoma at advanced stages is an early diagnosis. A knowledge of factors associated with the process of detecting cutaneous melanomas and the reasons for delays in diagnosis is essential for the improvement of the secondary prevention of the disease. Identify sociodemographic, individual, and medical aspects related to cutaneous melanoma diagnosis delay. Interviews evaluated the knowledge of melanoma, signals, symptoms, persons who were suspected, delays in seeking medical attention, physician's deferrals, and related factors of 211 patients. Melanomas were self-discovered in 41.7% of the patients; healthcare providers detected 29.9% of patients and others detected 27%. The main component in delay was patient-related. Only 31.3% of the patients knew that melanoma was a serious skin cancer, and most thought that the pigmented lesion was not important, causing a delay in seeking medical assistance. Patients (36.4%) reported a wait interval of more than 6 months from the onset of an observed change in a pigmented lesion to the first visit to a physician. The delay interval from the first physician visit to a histopathological diagnosis was shorter (<1 month) in 55.5% of patients. Improper treatments without a histopathological confirmation occurred in 14.7% of patients. A professional delay was related to both inappropriate treatments performed without histopathological confirmation (P = 0.003) and long requirements for medical referrals (P < 0.001). A deficient knowledge in the population regarding melanoma and physicians’ misdiagnoses regarding suspicious lesions contributed to delays in diagnosis. PMID:27495055

  8. Measuring Information-Transfer Delays

    PubMed Central

    Wibral, Michael; Pampu, Nicolae; Priesemann, Viola; Siebenhühner, Felix; Seiwert, Hannes; Lindner, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T.; Vicente, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener’s principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics. PMID:23468850

  9. Delayed-onset chloroquine retinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenfeld, M; Nesher, R; Merin, S

    1986-01-01

    Delayed-onset chloroquine retinopathy was diagnosed in a patient seven years after cessation of treatment by a total dose of 730 g of chloroquine for rheumatoid arthritis. Visual functions continued to deteriorate after the diagnosis. Periodic examinations by ophthalmoscopy and by functional tests such as EOG and visual fields should be continued in patients at risk of delayed-onset chloroquine retinopathy after discontinuance of the drug. PMID:3964626

  10. Tunable silicon CROW delay lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Canciamilla, Antonio; Torregiani, Matteo; Ferrari, Carlo; Melloni, Andrea; Martinelli, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Tunable coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) are powerful and versatile devices that can be used to dynamically control the delay of optical data streams on chip. In this contribution we show that CROW delay lines fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) platform are suitable for applications in the emerging scenario of optical systems at 100 Gbit/s. Issues concerning technology, design, limits and applications of SOI CROWs are discussed. The performances of silicon CROW delay lines activated by thermal tuning are compared to those of glass CROW in terms of power consumption, thermal crosstalk and reconfiguration speed. The continuous delay of 10-ps long optical pulses by 8 bit length is demonstrated by using a silicon CROW with a bandwidth of 87 GHz and made of 12 RRs. At 100 Gbit/s this structure provides comparable figures of merit (fractional delay of 0.75 bit/RR and fractional loss of 0.7 dB per bit-delay) of state-of-the art glass CROW operating at 10 Gbit/s, yet the area of the latter being three order of magnitude larger. The compatibility of silicon CROW with the emerging 100 Gbit/s systems is demonstrated by showing error-free phase-preserving propagation of a 100 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) polarization-division-multiplexing (PolDM) differential quaternary phase shit keying (DQPSK) signal dynamically delayed by the CROW. It is also demonstrated that a silicon CROW can be used in a PolDM system to introduce a polarization selective delay in order to optimize the time interleaving of the two orthogonally polarized data streams.

  11. Measuring information-transfer delays.

    PubMed

    Wibral, Michael; Pampu, Nicolae; Priesemann, Viola; Siebenhühner, Felix; Seiwert, Hannes; Lindner, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T; Vicente, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener's principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics. PMID:23468850

  12. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tasch, James J; Misodi, Emmanuel O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  13. Prediction of Weather Related Center Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, Kulkarni; Banavar, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of an initial study of relations between national delay, center level delays and weather. The results presented in the paper indicate: (a) the methodology used for estimating the delay at the national level can be extended to estimate delays caused by a center and delays experienced by a center, (b)delays caused by a center can be predicted using that center's Weather Impacted Traffic Index (WITI) whereas delays experienced by a center are best predicted using WITI of that center and that of a few prominent centers (c) there is differential impact of weather of different centers on center delays.

  14. Student's Ultimate Career Coursework, Employment, & Student Services Handbook. "SUCCESS Handbook" Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foothill-De Anza Community Coll. District, Cupertino, CA. Occupational Training Inst.

    The Student's Ultimate Career Coursework, Employment and Student Services (SUCCESS) Handbook project was undertaken to identify student support services available through the California Community Colleges (CCC), increase student retention among special needs vocational education students, and identify common barriers to employment. The project…

  15. Ultimate biochemical oxygen demand in semi-intensively managed shrimp pond waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three independent studies were conducted to quantified ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (UBOD) and the corresponding decomposition rate constant for production pond (average 21.5 ha each) waters and effluents on six semi-intensively managed marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in Honduras. S...

  16. Prisoner Fasting as Symbolic Speech: The Ultimate Speech-Action Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.

    The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…

  17. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15 Section 4280.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds...

  18. The Ultimate Flag Games Curriculum: An Answer to a Participation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie

    2011-01-01

    In response to a lack of active participation by students in physical education, the Ultimate Flag Games curriculum was created and has thrived in the decades since its inception. The curriculum has been successful at the middle school, high school, and higher education levels. This article introduced the curriculum, different games, and rules and…

  19. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280.21 Section 4280.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs...

  20. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  1. Qualtum cosmics-and-chaotics--the ultimate tortoise in physics and modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A

    1997-01-01

    Qualtum cosmics is the qualitative opposite of quantum mechanics. The flip-side of qualtum cosmics is qualtum chaotics, the two governing much of what is seen as inscrutable in medicine. The Ultimate (Last) Tortoise is close to Einsteinean idea of a Unified Theory, a single concept that can explain whatsoever there is in physics, (and in medicine, or what have you). PMID:10740733

  2. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stüssi, Edgar; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r = 0.65–0.94). Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters. PMID:25695083

  3. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  4. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  5. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  6. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  7. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This request for... That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. OMB Number:...

  8. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes AGENCY: U.S... Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This request for... Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. OMB Number:...

  9. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280.21 Section 4280.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs...

  10. 22 CFR 123.9 - Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reexports or retransfers. 123.9 Section 123.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.9 Country of ultimate destination... be subject to all the documentation required for a permanent export license (see § 123.1) and...

  11. 22 CFR 123.9 - Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Explosives found at 27 CFR parts 447, 478, and 479, which are unaffected by the Defense Trade Cooperation... reexports or retransfers. 123.9 Section 123.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.9 Country of ultimate...

  12. Reducing the Handover Delay in FMIPv6 Using Proactive Care-of Address Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Zeng, Lieguang

    To deal with the increasing number of mobile devices accessing the Internet and the increasing demands of mobility management, IETF has proposed Mobile IPv6 and its fast handover protocol FMIPv6. In FMIPv6, the possibility of Care-of Address (CoA) collision and the time for Return Routability (RR) procedure result in long handover delay, which makes it unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we propose an improved handover scheme for FMIPv6, which reduces the handover delay by using proactive CoA acquisition, configuration and test method. In our proposal, collision-free CoA is proactively prepared, and the time for RR procedure does not contribute to the handover delay. Furthermore, we analyze our proposal's benefits and overhead tradeoff. The numerical results demonstrate that it outperforms the current schemes, such as FMIPv6 and enhanced FMIPv6, on the aspect of handover delay and packet transmission delay.

  13. Adolescent Pregnancy and Its Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lloyd H.

    This paper examines some probable reasons for the black adolescent male's contribution to increased pregnancy in the black community. Using a situation analysis, it presents the following testable suppositions: (1) black males' fear of retribution for impregnating a girl has diminished, leading to increased sexual intercourse and ultimately to…

  14. Adjudicating pathological criminal incapacity within a climate of ultimate issue barriers: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Geert Philip

    2015-01-01

    Mental health experts are increasingly being utilised by the criminal justice system to provide assistance to courts during the assessment of issues falling beyond the knowledge and/or experience of the courts. A particular domain where the assistance of qualified psychiatrists and psychologists is becoming essential is where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity falls to be assessed. Mental health professionals testifying during trials where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity is raised will present opinion evidence which is one of the exceptions to the rule of inadmissibility of opinion evidence. Mental health professionals providing their opinion evidence are, however, prohibited from expressing opinions on so-called "ultimate issues" upon which only the court may ultimately rule upon. The latter rule is also commonly known in practice as the "ultimate issue" rule which presents multifaceted challenges in respect of the application of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. In this article, the author assesses the application of the ultimate issue rule with reference to the defence of pathological criminal incapacity as it operates within the South African criminal law context. A comparative analysis is also provided with reference to the rule as it operates in the United States of America and more specifically Federal Rule 704. It is concluded that the ultimate issue rule unnecessarily restricts testimony provided by mental health professionals as such placing a barrier on such evidence. As such, it is argued that the rule is superfluous as it remains within the discretion of the trier of fact to decide as to what weight to attach to such evidence. PMID:25681851

  15. Procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  16. Semi-empirical magnetostrictive delay line modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Mojmír; Hristoforou, Evangelos

    In this paper, analogous approach as commonly used at the electric lines was adopted to model the magneostrictive delay line (MDL) operating on amorphous ribbons and wires like that of composition Fe 78Si 7B 15. Particularly, the damping and deterioration of the propagating magnetostrictive wave along the sample and their relation to the intrinsic material properties were of primary interest. Two damping factors taken into the consideration lead to a second-order differential equation of motion that could be solved analytically for instance of a rectangular-pulse excitation. The Laplace transform and convolution, in most of cases as a discrete procedure, has to be utilized in all other cases. Theoretical assessment confronted with some experimental results is showing a fairly good agreement.

  17. A Discounting Framework for Choice With Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2005-01-01

    When choosing between delayed or uncertain outcomes, individuals discount the value of such outcomes on the basis of the expected time to or the likelihood of their occurrence. In an integrative review of the expanding experimental literature on discounting, the authors show that although the same form of hyperbola-like function describes discounting of both delayed and probabilistic outcomes, a variety of recent findings are inconsistent with a single-process account. The authors also review studies that compare discounting in different populations and discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. The present effort illustrates the value of studying choice involving both delayed and probabilistic outcomes within a general discounting framework that uses similar experimental procedures and a common analytical approach. PMID:15367080

  18. Predicting viscoelastic response and delayed failures in general laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, D. A.; Morris, D. H.; Brinson, H. F.

    1982-01-01

    Although graphite fibers behave in an essentially elastic manner, the polymeric matrix of graphite/epoxy composites is a viscoelastic material which exhibits creep and delayed failures. The creep process is quite slow at room temperature, but may be accelerated by higher temperatures, moisture absorption, and other factors. Techniques are being studied to predict long-term behavior of general laminates based on short-term observations of the unidirectional material at elevated temperatures. A preliminary numerical procedure based on lamination theory is developed for predicting creep and delayed failures in laminated composites. A modification of the Findley nonlinear power law is used to model the constitutive behavior of a lamina. An adaptation of the Tsai-Hill failure criterion is used to predict the time-dependent strength of a lamina. Predicted creep and delayed failure results are compared with typical experimental data.

  19. Early identification of motor delay

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), an infant neuromotor test using Canadian norms published in 2010 that could be used to screen for motor delay during the first year of life. Quality of evidence Extensive research has been published on the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability and the content, concurrent, predictive, and known-groups validity of the HINT, as well as on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parental concerns, as assessed by the HINT. Most evidence is level II. Main message Diagnosing motor delays during the first year of life is important because these often indicate more generalized developmental delays or specific disabilities, such as cerebral palsy. Parental concerns about their children’s motor development are strongly predictive of subsequent diagnoses involving motor delay. Conclusion Only through early identification of developmental motor delays, initially with screening tools such as the HINT, is it possible to provide referrals for early intervention that could benefit both the infant and the family. PMID:27521388

  20. Treatment delay in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Law, C W; Roslani, A C; Ng, L L C

    2009-06-01

    Early diagnosis of rectal cancer is important for prompt treatment and better outcome. Little data exists for comparison or to set standards. The primary objective of this study is to identify factors resulting in delays in treatment of rectal cancer, the correlation between the disease stage and diagnosis waiting time, treatment waiting time and duration of symptoms. A five year retrospective audit was undertaken in University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). There were 137 patients recruited and the median time to diagnosis was nine days after the first UMMC Surgical Unit consultation with a mean of 18.7 days. Some 11% had to wait more than four weeks for diagnosis. The median time from confirmation of diagnosis to surgery was 11 days with a mean of 18.6 days. Sixty-two percent of patients were operated upon within two weeks of diagnosis and more than 88% by four weeks. However, 10% of them had delayed surgery done four weeks after diagnosis. Long colonoscopy waiting time was the main cause for delay in diagnosis while delay in staging CTs were the main reason for treatment delays. PMID:20058579

  1. The Delay Fill Technique: A Safer Approach to Combination Augmentation Mastopexy

    PubMed Central

    Patronella, Christopher K.; Mentz, Henry A.; Johnson-Alviza, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Combining breast augmentation with mastopexy is a challenging procedure that has a relatively high revision rate in the literature. Some surgeons prefer a two-stage procedure to avoid the potential for skin flap or nipple–areolar complex necrosis that can occur with a one-stage procedure. The authors compared 101 patients who had subpectoral breast augmentation with immediate implant fill and mastopexy with 203 patients who had subpectoral breast augmentation with delayed (10–14 days) implant fill and mastopexy. They found the revision rate for immediate implant fill was 24%; in the delayed implant fill group, the revision rate was 10.3%. Patients had soft tissue-related complications in 16% of the immediate fill group and in 2% of the delayed fill group. Delaying implant fill in combined breast augmentation mastopexy significantly reduces the risk of soft tissue-related complications and revision procedures; the delay flap phenomenon is responsible for fewer wound-healing complications when implant fill is delayed during a combined augmentation mastopexy procedure. PMID:26528084

  2. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D. I.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Delayed auditory feedback disrupts the production of speech, causing an increase in speech duration as well as many articulatory errors. To determine whether prolonged exposure to delayed auditory feedback (DAF) leads to adaptive compensations in speech production, 10 subjects were exposed in separate experimental sessions to both incremental and constant-delay exposure conditions. Significant adaptation occurred for syntactically structured stimuli in the form of increased speaking rates. After DAF was removed, aftereffects were apparent for all stimulus types in terms of increased speech rates. A carry-over effect from the first to the second experimental session was evident as long as 29 days after the first session. The use of strategies to overcome DAF and the differences between adaptation to DAF and adaptation to visual rearrangement are discussed.

  3. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    DOEpatents

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  4. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  5. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  6. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  7. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  8. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  9. Comparison of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Two Response Prompting Procedures Delivered by Sibling Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Elif; Kircaali-Iftar, Gonul

    2002-01-01

    A study compared a 4 s constant time delay and a simultaneous prompting procedure on teaching receptively identifying animals to three children (ages 7-10) with mild/moderate mental retardation. Both procedures were effectively implemented by sibling tutors, simultaneous prompting was more efficient, and constant time delay resulted in more…

  10. Delayed Development of Pneumothorax After Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Clasen, Stephan; Kettenbach, Joachim; Kosan, Bora; Aebert, Hermann; Schernthaner, Melanie; Kroeber, Stefan-Martin; Boemches, Andrea; Claussen, Claus D.; Pereira, Philippe L.

    2009-05-15

    Acute pneumothorax is a frequent complication after percutaneous pulmonary radiofrequency (RF) ablation. In this study we present three cases showing delayed development of pneumothorax after pulmonary RF ablation in 34 patients. Our purpose is to draw attention to this delayed complication and to propose a possible approach to avoid this major complication. These three cases occurred subsequent to 44 CT-guided pulmonary RF ablation procedures (6.8%) using either internally cooled or multitined expandable RF electrodes. In two patients, the pneumothorax, being initially absent at the end of the intervention, developed without symptoms. One of these patients required chest drain placement 32 h after RF ablation, and in the second patient therapy remained conservative. In the third patient, a slight pneumothorax at the end of the intervention gradually increased and led into tension pneumothorax 5 days after ablation procedure. Underlying bronchopleural fistula along the coagulated former electrode track was diagnosed in two patients. In conclusion, delayed development of pneumothorax after pulmonary RF ablation can occur and is probably due to underlying bronchopleural fistula, potentially leading to tension pneumothorax. Patients and interventionalists should be prepared for delayed onset of this complication, and extensive track ablation following pulmonary RF ablation should be avoided.

  11. Variable Delay Testing Using ONE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satellite. As a result of these tests, we find that TCP is fairly robust to varying delays given a high enough TCP timer granularity. However, performance degrades noticeably for larger file transfers when a finer timer granularity is used. Such results have also been observed in previous simulations by other researchers, and thus, this work serves as an extension of those results.

  12. National Airspace System Delay Estimation Using Weather Weighted Traffic Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Sridhar, Banavar

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of National Airspace System performance, which is usually measured in terms of delays resulting from the application of traffic flow management initiatives in response to weather conditions, volume, equipment outages and runway conditions, is needed both for guiding flow control decisions during the day of operations and for post operations analysis. Comparison of the actual delay, resulting from the traffic flow management initiatives, with the expected delay, based on traffic demand and other conditions, provides the assessment of the National Airspace System performance. This paper provides a method for estimating delay using the expected traffic demand and weather. In order to identify the cause of delays, 517 days of National Airspace System delay data reported by the Federal Aviation Administration s Operations Network were analyzed. This analysis shows that weather is the most important causal factor for delays followed by equipment and runway delays. Guided by these results, the concept of weather weighted traffic counts as a measure of system delay is described. Examples are given to show the variation of these counts as a function of time of the day. The various datasets, consisting of aircraft position data, enroute severe weather data, surface wind speed and visibility data, reported delay data and number of aircraft handled by the Centers data, and their sources are described. The procedure for selecting reference days on which traffic was minimally impacted by weather is described. Different traffic demand on each reference day of the week, determined by analysis of 42 days of traffic and delay data, was used as the expected traffic demand for each day of the week. Next, the method for computing the weather weighted traffic counts using the expected traffic demand, derived from reference days, and the expanded regions around severe weather cells is discussed. It is shown via a numerical example that this approach improves the dynamic range

  13. Nonlinear finite element analysis of nuclear reinforced prestressed concrete containments up to ultimate load capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-06-01

    For safety evaluation of nuclear structures a finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) has been developed. Eight/nine noded isoparametric quadrilateral plate/shell element with reinforcement as a through thickness discrete but integral smeared layer of the element is presented to analyze reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Various constitutive models such as crushing, cracking in tension, tension stiffening and rebar yielding are studied and effect of these parameters on the reserve strength of structures is brought out through a number of benchmark tests. A global model is used to analyze the prestressed concrete containment wall of a typical 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) up to its ultimate capacity. This demonstrates the adequacy of Indian PHWR containment design to withstand severe accident loads.

  14. Ultimate strength analyses of the Watts Bar, Maine Yankee, and Bellefonte containments

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.

    1984-07-01

    As part of Sandia National Laboratories' Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program, structural analyses of the Watts Bar, Maine Yankee, and Bellefonte containment structures were performed with the obtective of obtaining realistic estimates of their ultimate static pressure capacities. The Watts Bar investigation included analyses of the containment shell, equipment hatch, anchorage systems, and personnel lock. The ultimate pressure capability is estimated to be between 120 and 137 psig, corresponding to shell yielding and equipment hatch buckling, respectively. The Maine yankee investigation consisted of an analysis of the containment shell and estimated its failure pressure to be between 96 and 118 psig. For the Bellefonte containment, analyses of the containment shell and equipment hatch were performed. The pressure capacity of the Bellefonte containment is estimated to be between 130 and 139 psig, corresponding to dome tendon yielding and cylinder wall tendon yielding, respectively.

  15. Intertrial Sources of Stimulus Control and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dean C.; Johnston, Mark D.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments compared delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) accuracy under 2 procedures in adults with mental retardation. In the trial-unique procedure, every trial in a session contained different stimuli. Thus, comparison stimuli that were correct on one trial were never incorrect on other trials in that session (or vice versa). In the 2-sample…

  16. The ultimate safe (US) Reactor: A concept for the third millenium

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.

    1986-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (U.S.) Reactor is based on a novel safety concept. Fission products in the reactor are allowed to accumulate only to a level at which they would constitute a harmless source term. Removal of fission products also removes the decay heat - the driving force for the source term. The reactor has no excess criticality and is controlled by the reactivity temperature coefficient. Safety is inherent and passive. Waste is removed from the site promptly.

  17. Multiple proximate and ultimate causes of natal dispersal in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in vertebrates vary, and relative importance of these causes is poorly understood. Among populations, inter- and intrasexual social cues for dispersal are thought to reduce inbreeding and local mate competition, respectively, and specific emigration cue may affect dispersal distance, such that inbreeding avoidance dispersal tends to be farther than dispersal to reduce local competition. To investigate potential occurrence of multiple proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal within populations, we radio-marked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. Natal dispersal probability and distance were monitored over a 3-year period when large-scale management changes reduced density of adult females and increased density of adult males. Most dispersal (95-97%) occurred during two 12-week periods: spring, when yearling males still closely associate with related females, and prior to fall breeding season, when yearling males closely associate with other breeding-age males. Following changes to sex and age structure that reduced potential for inbreeding and increased potential for mate competition, annual dispersal probability did not change; however, probability of spring dispersal decreased, whereas probability of fall dispersal increased. Spring dispersal distances were greater than fall dispersal distances, suggesting that adaptive inbreeding avoidance dispersal requires greater distance than mate competition dispersal where opposite-sex relatives are philopatric and populations are not patchily distributed. Both inbreeding avoidance and mate competition are important ultimate causes of dispersal of white-tailed deer, but ultimate motivations for dispersal are proximately cued by different social mechanisms and elicit different responses in dispersers.

  18. An investigation into geometry and microstructural effects upon the ultimate tensile strengths of butt welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical theory was evaluated empirically. This theory predicts weld ultimate tensile strength based on material properties and fusion line angles, mismatch, peaking, and weld widths. Welds were made on 1/4 and 1/2 in. aluminum 2219-T87, their geometries were measured, they were tensile tested, and these results were compared to theoretical predictions. Statistical analysis of results was performed to evaluate correlation of theory to results for many different categories of weld geometries.

  19. Obtaining reliable phase-gradient delays from otoacoustic emission data

    PubMed Central

    Shera, Christopher A.; Bergevin, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Reflection-source otoacoustic emission phase-gradient delays are widely used to obtain noninvasive estimates of cochlear function and properties, such as the sharpness of mechanical tuning and its variation along the length of the cochlear partition. Although different data-processing strategies are known to yield different delay estimates and trends, their relative reliability has not been established. This paper uses in silico experiments to evaluate six methods for extracting delay trends from reflection-source otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). The six methods include both previously published procedures (e.g., phase smoothing, energy-weighting, data exclusion based on signal-to-noise ratio) and novel strategies (e.g., peak-picking, all-pass factorization). Although some of the methods perform well (e.g., peak-picking), others introduce substantial bias (e.g., phase smoothing) and are not recommended. In addition, since standing waves caused by multiple internal reflection can complicate the interpretation and compromise the application of OAE delays, this paper develops and evaluates two promising signal-processing strategies, the first based on time-frequency filtering using the continuous wavelet transform and the second on cepstral analysis, for separating the direct emission from its subsequent reflections. Altogether, the results help to resolve previous disagreements about the frequency dependence of human OAE delays and the sharpness of cochlear tuning while providing useful analysis methods for future studies. PMID:22894215

  20. Procrastination by pigeons: preference for larger, more delayed work requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, J E

    1996-01-01

    In three experiments, pigeons chose between alternatives that required the completion of a small ratio schedule early in the trial or a larger ratio schedule later in the trial. Completion of the ratio requirement did not lead to an immediate reinforcer, but simply allowed the events of the trial to continue. In Experiment 1, the ratio requirements interrupted periods in which food was delivered on a variable-time schedule. In Experiments 2 and 3, each ratio requirement was preceded and followed by a delay, and only one reinforcer was delivered, at the end of each trial. Two of the experiments used an adjusting-ratio procedure in which the ratio requirement was increased and decreased over trials so as to estimate an indifference point--a ratio size at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. These experiments found clear evidence for "procrastination"--the choice of a larger but more delayed response requirement. In some cases, subjects chose the more delayed ratio schedule even when it was larger than the more immediate alternative by a factor of four or more. The results suggest that as the delay to the start of a ratio requirement is increased, it has progressively less effect on choice behavior, in much the same way that delaying a positive reinforcer reduces it effect on choice. PMID:8583195

  1. Back Propagation Neural Networks for Predicting Ultimate Strengths of Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Tensile Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Hill, Eric v. K.

    1993-01-01

    The research presented herein demonstrates the feasibility of predicting ultimate strengths in simple composite structures through a neural network analysis of their acoustic emission (AE) amplitude distribution data. A series of eleven ASTM D-3039 unidirectional graphite/epoxy tensile samples were loaded to failure to generate the amplitude distributions for this analysis. A back propagation neural network was trained to correlate the AE amplitude distribution signatures generated during the first 25% of loading with the ultimate strengths of the samples. The network was trained using two sets of inputs: (1) the statistical parameters obtained from a Weibull distribution fit of the amplitude distribution data, and (2) the event frequency (amplitude) distribution itself. The neural networks were able to predict ultimate strengths with a worst case error of -8.99% for the Weibull modeled amplitude distribution data and 3.74% when the amplitude distribution itself was used to train the network. The principal reason for the improved prediction capability of the latter technique lies in the ability of the neural network to extract subtle features from within the amplitude distribution.

  2. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding

    PubMed Central

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10–20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  3. [Hirschsprung-neurointestinal dyspasia: diferential diagnosis and reliability of diagnostic procedures].

    PubMed

    Gil-Vernet, J M; Broto, J; Guillén, G

    2006-04-01

    The suspicion of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) or Neurointestinal Dysplasia (NID) arises with the appearance of a common symtomatology : delay in meconium evacuation, abdominal distention, vomiting, intestinal occlusion and ultimately, chronic constipation. The need to perform a correct differential diagnosis between both pathologies is essential, given that the treatment of HD is surgical while NID is expectant. The objective of this paper is to define the necessity of using or not all the diagnostic tests simultaneously to obtain a precise diagnosis. The authors performed a complete clinical review of a series of 42 HD and 18 NID analysing the results of diagnostic procedures (Radiology / transition zone, anorrectal manometry / absence of anal inhibitory reflex, and suction biopsy / AcHE study). The authors concluded that is necessary to perform all the three diagnostic procedures simultaneously in all patients with symtomatology given that not one test has the capacity to provide a diagnosis alone. Anorectal manometry has proven to be the most reliable test to diagnose HD. The authors agree with the guidelines published by Meier Ruge in 2004 to diagnose NID. PMID:16846131

  4. Decentralised robust stabilisation of uncertain large-scale interconnected time-delay systems with unknown upper bounds of uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hansheng

    2016-09-01

    The problem of decentralised robust stabilisation is considered for a class of uncertain large-scale time-delay interconnected dynamical systems. In the paper, the upper bounds of delayed state perturbations, uncertainties, interconnection terms, and external disturbances are assumed to be completely unknown, and the delays are assumed to be any non-negative constants. For such a class of uncertain large-scale time-delay interconnected systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of adaptation-free decentralised local robust state feedback controllers can be constructed. In addition, it is also shown that the solutions of uncertain large-scale time-delay interconnected systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, as an application to the practical mechanical systems, some simulations of a numerical example are provided to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  5. A/R systems reduce delayed and denied reimbursements.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The day-to-day benefits of a comprehensive billing and collections system are pro-active and preventive--administrators are increasingly learning that accelerating billings hastens collections and, ultimately, facility profitability. Effective billing and collections management services work closely with the facility, matching nightly "dumps" of patient files with transcripts. This marriage of otherwise disparate data creates a billing unit that reduces errors and ensures no billable procedures are lost. Ultimately, the goal of any medical practice that engages an ASP application or outsource solution is not to sit idly by while allowing a billing company to take control of a practice's revenue stream. The ability to track the billing process from transcript submission to payment provides a facility with all information necessary to manage cash flow, revenues, and even personal and practice financial planning. PMID:17471813

  6. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  7. Delayed Neutron and Delayed Photon Characteristics from Photofission of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Dore, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Leprince, A.; Ridikas, D.

    2011-12-13

    Delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions from photofission reactions play an important role for applications involving nuclear material detection and characterization. To provide new, accurate, basic nuclear data for evaluations and data libraries, an experimental programme of DN and DP measurements has been undertaken for actinides with bremsstrahlung endpoint energy in the giant resonance region ({approx}15 MeV). In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be presented for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Finally, an example of an application to study the contents of nuclear waste packages will be briefly discussed.

  8. Delay discounting of cocaine by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Woolverton, William L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    The present, subjective value of a reinforcer typically decreases as a function of the delay to its receipt, a phenomenon termed delay discounting. Delay discounting, which is assumed to reflect impulsivity, is hypothesized to play an important role in drug abuse. The present study examined delay discounting of cocaine injections by rhesus monkeys. Subjects were studied on a discrete-trials task in which they chose between 2 doses of cocaine: a smaller, immediate dose and a larger, delayed dose. The immediate dose varied between 0.012 and 0.4 mg/kg/injection, whereas the delayed dose was always 0.2 mg/kg/injection and was delivered after a delay that varied between 0 and 300 s in different conditions. At each delay, the point at which a monkey chose the immediate and delayed doses equally often (i.e., the ED50) provided a measure of the present, subjective value of the delayed dose. Dose-response functions for the immediate dose shifted to the left as delay increased. The amount of the immediate dose predicted to be equal in subjective value to the delayed dose decreased as a function of the delay, and hyperbolic discounting functions provided good fits to the data (median R(2)=.86). The current approach may provide the basis for an animal model of the effect of delay on the subjective value of drugs of abuse. PMID:17563210

  9. Determinants of pigeons' choices in token-based self-control procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Timothy D; Vaidya, Manish

    2003-01-01

    Four pigeons were exposed to a token-based self-control procedure with stimulus lights serving as token reinforcers. Smaller-reinforcer choices produced one token immediately; larger-reinforcer choices produced three tokens following a delay. Each token could be exchanged for 2-s access to food during a signaled exchange period each trial. The main variables of interest were the exchange delays (delays from the choice to the exchange stimulus) and the food delays (also timed from the choice), which were varied separately and together across blocks of sessions. When exchange delays and food delays were shorter following smaller-reinforcer choices, strong preference for the smaller reinforcer was observed. When exchange delays and food delays were equal for both options, strong preference for the larger reinforcer was observed. When food delays were equal for both options but exchange delays were shorter for smaller-reinforcer choices, preference for the larger reinforcer generally was less extreme than under conditions in which both exchange and food delays were equal. When exchange delays were equal for both options but food delays were shorter for smaller-reinforcer choices, preference for the smaller reinforcer generally was less extreme than under conditions in which both exchange and food delays favored smaller-reinforcer choices. On the whole, the results were consistent with prior research on token-based self-control procedures in showing that choices are governed by reinforcer immediacy when exchange and food delays are unequal and by reinforcer amount when exchange and food delays are equal. Further, by decoupling the exchange delays from food delays, the results tentatively support a role for the exchange stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer. PMID:12822687

  10. The effects of physical activity on impulsive choice: Influence of sensitivity to reinforcement amount and delay.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Justin C; Feinstein, Max A; Lacy, Ryan T; Smith, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive choice is a diagnostic feature and/or complicating factor for several psychological disorders and may be examined in the laboratory using delay-discounting procedures. Recent investigators have proposed using quantitative measures of analysis to examine the behavioral processes contributing to impulsive choice. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of physical activity (i.e., wheel running) on impulsive choice in a single-response, discrete-trial procedure using two quantitative methods of analysis. To this end, rats were assigned to physical activity or sedentary groups and trained to respond in a delay-discounting procedure. In this procedure, one lever always produced one food pellet immediately, whereas a second lever produced three food pellets after a 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80-s delay. Estimates of sensitivity to reinforcement amount and sensitivity to reinforcement delay were determined using (1) a simple linear analysis and (2) an analysis of logarithmically transformed response ratios. Both analyses revealed that physical activity decreased sensitivity to reinforcement amount and sensitivity to reinforcement delay. These findings indicate that (1) physical activity has significant but functionally opposing effects on the behavioral processes that contribute to impulsive choice and (2) both quantitative methods of analysis are appropriate for use in single-response, discrete-trial procedures. PMID:26964905

  11. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  12. Engineering Ultimate Self-Protection in Autonomic Agents for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) will push space exploration missions to the limit. Future missions will be required to be self-managing as well as self-directed, in order to meet the challenges of human and robotic space exploration. We discuss security and self protection in autonomic agent based-systems, and propose the ultimate self-protection mechanism for such systems-self-destruction. Like other metaphors in Autonomic Computing, this is inspired by biological systems, and is the analog of biological apoptosis. Finally, we discus the role it might play in future NASA space exploration missions.

  13. The fiber-optic gyroscope: Challenges to become the ultimate rotation-sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Hervé C.

    2013-12-01

    Taking advantage of the development of optical-fiber communication technologies, the fiber-optic gyroscope started to be investigated in the mid 1970s, opening the way for a fully solid-state rotation sensor. It was firstly seen as dedicated to medium-grade applications, but today, it reaches strategic-grade performance and surpasses its well-established competitor, the ring-laser gyroscope, in terms of bias noise and long-term stability. Further progresses remain possible, the challenge being the ultimate inertial navigation performance of one nautical mile per month corresponding to a long-term bias stability of 10-5°/h.

  14. A theoretical approach for estimation of ultimate size of bimetallic nanocomposites synthesized in microemulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Saydi, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    In this research a new idea for prediction of ultimate sizes of bimetallic nanocomposites synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsion system is proposed. In this method, by modifying Tabor Winterton approximation equation, an effective Hamaker constant was introduced. This effective Hamaker constant was applied in the van der Waals attractive interaction energy. The obtained effective van der Waals interaction energy was used as attractive contribution in the total interaction energy. The modified interaction energy was applied successfully to predict some bimetallic nanoparticles, at different mass fraction, synthesized in microemulsion system of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane.

  15. Lava ultimate resin nano ceramic for CAD/ CAM: customization case study.

    PubMed

    Koller, M; Arnetzl, G V; Holly, L; Arnetzl, G

    2012-01-01

    Lava Ultimate Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) blocks are innovative new CAD/CAM materials that make it possible to achieve superior esthetic results in easy steps. The blocks are made of nano ceramic particles embedded in a highly cured resin matrix. Therefore, composite materials can be used to characterize and adjust resin nano ceramic restorations after milling. The milled RNC restorations can be individualized intra-orally or extra-orally, either before or after insertion. Unlike conventional ceramic restorations, customization and glaze firing is neither necessary nor possible with RNC restorations. This opens up the opportunity for intraoral individualization and adaptation of the restorations. PMID:22891419

  16. Time delay and distance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.

  17. Synchronization by small time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruessner, G.; Cheang, S.; Jensen, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    Synchronization is a phenomenon observed in all of the living and in much of the non-living world, for example in the heart beat, Huygens' clocks, the flashing of fireflies and the clapping of audiences. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom involved, different mathematical approaches have been used to describe it, most prominently integrate-and-fire oscillators and the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. In the present work, we study a very simple and general system of smoothly evolving oscillators, which continue to interact even in the synchronized state. We find that under very general circumstances, synchronization generically occurs in the presence of a (small) time delay. Strikingly, the synchronization time is inversely proportional to the time delay.

  18. Delay locked loop integrated circuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

  19. The Effects of Constant Time Delay and Instructive Feedback on the Acquisition of English and Spanish Sight Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelman, Michelle; Vail, Cynthia O.; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this study evaluated the acquisition of instructive feedback information presented to four kindergarten children with mild delays taught in dyads using a constant time delay (CTD) procedure. They also assessed the learning of observational (dyadic partner) information within this instructional arrangement. A multiple probe design…

  20. The Effects of Embedded Skill Instruction on the Acquisition of Target and Nontarget Skills in Preschoolers with Developmental Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Stefanie; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2001-01-01

    In the current study, a constant time delay (CTD) procedure was embedded in classroom activities and routines to teach counting to three preschool children with speech and language delays. CTD was effective in teaching numbers to all three children. One child out of two also was able to acquire non-target information. (Contains references.) (CR)

  1. Impulsive choice and pre-exposure to delays: III. Four-month test-retest outcomes in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Renda, C Renee; Madden, Gregory J

    2016-05-01

    Delay discounting describes the tendency for organisms to devalue outcomes because they are delayed. Robust, positive correlations exist between excessive delay discounting and many maladaptive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, obesity). Several studies have demonstrated that delay discounting can be reduced and this may hold promise for improving treatment outcomes. One method of reducing delay discounting provides rats with extended training with delayed reinforcement (i.e., delay-exposure training) and this significantly reduces impulsive choices, relative to rats trained with an equal number of immediate-reinforcement sessions (i.e., immediate-exposure training). To evaluate the stability of this effect, 12 weanling male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive either delay-exposure or immediate-exposure training for 120 sessions. Impulsive choice was assessed using an increasing-delay procedure immediately following training and 120 days after completion of the initial assessment. Delay-exposed rats discounted delayed food rewards significantly less than immediate-exposed rats in the initial assessment and the reassessment conducted 120 days later. These results are encouraging as they suggest that the effects of delay-exposure training are robust to the passage of time and intervening experience. PMID:27016155

  2. Method for calcining delayed coke

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1981-02-17

    Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.

  3. OPPORTUNITY COSTS OF REWARD DELAYS AND THE DISCOUNTING OF HYPOTHETICAL MONEY AND CIGARETTES

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Patrick S.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the “magnitude effect,” steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  4. Opportunity costs of reward delays and the discounting of hypothetical money and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patrick S; Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the "magnitude effect," steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  5. Delayed recombination and standard rulers

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

  6. Analysis of Delayed Postpolypectomy Bleeding in a Colorectal Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyoung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The colonoscopic polypectomy has become a valuable procedure for removing precursors of colorectal cancer, but some complications can be occurred. The most common complication after colonoscopic polypectomy is bleeding, which is reported to range from 1% to 6% and which can be immediate or delayed. Because the management of delayed postpolypectomy bleeding could be difficult, the use of preventive technique and reductions of risk factors are essential. Methods From January 2007 to December 2008, delayed hemorrhage occurred in 18 of the 1,841 polypectomy patients examined by one endoscopist. These cases were reviewed retrospectively for risk factors, pathologic findings, and treatment methods. Results Delayed bleeding occurred in 18/1,841 patients (0.95%). The mean age was 55.9 ± 10.9 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 8:1. The most common site was the right colon (11 cases, 61.1%), and the average polyp size was 9.2 ± 2.8 mm. Delayed bleeding was identified from 1 to 5 days after resection (mean, 1.6 ± 1.2 days). The most common macroscopic type of polyp was a sessile polyp (10 cases, 55.6%), and histologic finding was a tubular adenoma in 13 cases (72.2%). Seventeen cases were treated with clipping for hemostasis and 1 case with epinephrine injection. Conclusion The right colon and a sessile polyp were associated with an increase in delayed postpolypectomy bleeding. Reducing risk factors and close observation were essential in high risk patients, and prompt management with hemoclips was effective. PMID:21431091

  7. Spectral delay line for display control in swept source OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toadere, Florin; Bradu, Adrian; Poon, Wallace; Schultz, David; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    A modality of controlling the unbalanced dispersion in an optical coherence tomography (OCT) set-up is presented, together with image processing techniques that improve the quality of the interferogram image by reducing its noise and dispersion. The ultimate goal of the study is to obtain dispersion free and enhanced signal to noise ratio OCT images of the human retina. The OCT set-up incorporates a spectral delay line, which is used to compensate for the dispersion in the system. The configuration is driven by a swept optical source. The interferometric signal is digitized by a fast acquisition board, then processed and rendered as images on a computer display. Preliminary results are presented showing images of a multilayer structure obtained using different filtering techniques that were tested for their effects on the noise reduction and image sharpness.

  8. Time-delay of classical and quantum scattering processes: a conceptual overview and a general definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano

    2012-04-01

    We present a step by step introduction to the notion of time-delay in classical and quantum mechanics, with the aim of clarifying its foundation at a conceptual level. In doing so, we motivate the introduction of the concepts of "fuzzy" and "free-flight" sojourn times that we use to provide the most general possible definition for the quantum time-delay, valid for simple and multichannel scattering systems, with or without conditions on the observation of the scattering particle, and for incoming wave packets whose energy can be smeared out or sharply peaked (fixed energy). We conclude our conceptual analysis by presenting what we think is the right interpretation of the concepts of sojourn and delay times in quantum mechanics, explaining why, in ultimate analysis, they should not be called "times."

  9. 78 FR 43270 - List of Applications Delayed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180... Hazardous Materials Special Permits ] and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  10. Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Your baby ...

  11. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-21

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  12. Ultimate osmosis engineered by the pore geometry and functionalization of carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  13. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa. PMID:23569295

  14. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Ultimate Load Behaviour of Brick Masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    The present work brings out the studies on ultimate load behavior of brick masonry subjected to compression and shear-loading. The work composed of both the experimental and numerical investigations, aimed at contributing to the better understanding of the knowledge on the behavior of brick masonry structures under monotonic loading. Two brick masonry specimens have been tested up to ultimate load and the structural response in terms of the load, deflections and strains has been investigated. Due to the complexity, time and expense involved in the experimental investigations on brick masonry, limited number of experimental studies have been conducted and further, numerical studies have been carried out to simulate the experimental tests by suitably adopting the appropriate constitute models for the materials used. The responses and the failure load behaviour obtained from nonlinear numerical models developed are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained results. The proposed numerical models can easily be adopted for further studies on the structural component made using brick masonry considering various geometric configurations, material disposition, loading conditions etc.

  15. Development of base isolation device complied with the ultimate strength design code in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Isao; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the scheme of a research project funded by the Ministry of Land Infrastructure Transport and Tourism (MLIT) from the fiscal year of 2012 to 2014 under the title of "Development of base isolation device complied with the ultimate strength design code." The theoretical prediction tells us a new approach to develop a highly stable laminated rubber bearing that has a constant buckling load even under large lateral displacement. Relatively high shear stiffness makes it more stable and the height of the bearing should be longer than its diameter. They are the newly discovered theoretical buckling stability criteria from the previous studies conducted by the author's research team. The experimental studies in this project show the compatibility with the theoretical prediction and highly linear loaddisplacement relationship under large deformation. The performance of the newly developed device satisfies the requirement of the ultimate strength design code, if the ground condition of the target building is normally solid enough to prevent liquefaction. The theoretically predicted buckling stability of the laminated rubber bearings has been experimentally verified by the specimens of this project.

  16. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Chen Guang; Paik, Jeom Kee

    2014-09-01

    In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR), Common Structural Rules (CSR), and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH) are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS), and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM). To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  17. Formulation of reduction rate for ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panel induced by opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-li; Lee, Joo-sung

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate the characteristics of ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panels with opening and also to fit the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experimental data on longitudinally stiffened steel plates with and without opening subjected to the uniform axial in-pane load which is carried out to study the buckling and post-buckling up to the final failure are chosen. Also, a nonlinear finite element method capable of efficiently analyzing the large elasto-plastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels is developed and used for simulation. The feasibility of the present simulation process is confirmed by a good agreement with the experimental results. More case studies are developed employing the simulation process to analyze the influence of various design variables on the reduction rate of ultimate strength of stiffened panel induced by opening. Based on the computed results, two design formulae are fitted and the accuracy of design formulae is studied. Furthermore, the viability of the design formulae for practical engineering is proved.

  18. The n-of-1 clinical trial: the ultimate strategy for individualizing medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Elizabeth O; Patay, Bradley; Diamant, Joel; Issell, Brian; Topol, Eric J; Schork, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    N-of-1 or single subject clinical trials consider an individual patient as the sole unit of observation in a study investigating the efficacy or side-effect profiles of different interventions. The ultimate goal of an n-of-1 trial is to determine the optimal or best intervention for an individual patient using objective data-driven criteria. Such trials can leverage study design and statistical techniques associated with standard population-based clinical trials, including randomization, washout and crossover periods, as well as placebo controls. Despite their obvious appeal and wide use in educational settings, n-of-1 trials have been used sparingly in medical and general clinical settings. We briefly review the history, motivation and design of n-of-1 trials and emphasize the great utility of modern wireless medical monitoring devices in their execution. We ultimately argue that n-of-1 trials demand serious attention among the health research and clinical care communities given the contemporary focus on individualized medicine. PMID:21695041

  19. Uncovering the ultimate performance of single-walled carbon nanotube films as transparent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustonen, K.; Laiho, P.; Kaskela, A.; Susi, T.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Kauppinen, E. I.

    2015-10-01

    The ultimate performance—ratio of electrical conductivity to optical absorbance—of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transparent conductive films (TCFs) is an issue of considerable application relevance. Here, we present direct experimental evidence that SWCNT bundling is detrimental for their performance. We combine floating catalyst synthesis of non-bundled, high-quality SWCNTs with an aggregation chamber, in which bundles with mean diameters ranging from 1.38 to 2.90 nm are formed from identical 3 μm long SWCNTs. The as-deposited TCFs from 1.38 nm bundles showed sheet resistances of 310 Ω/□ at 90% transparency, while those from larger bundles of 1.80 and 2.90 nm only reached values of 475 and 670 Ω/□, respectively. Based on these observations, we elucidate how networks formed by smaller bundles perform better due to their greater interconnectivity at a given optical density. Finally, we present a semi-empirical model for TCF performance as a function of SWCNT mean length and bundle diameter. This gives an estimate for the ultimate performance of non-doped, random network mixed-metallicity SWCNT TCFs at ˜80 Ω/□ and 90% transparency.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Ultimate Load Behaviour of Brick Masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2016-04-01

    The present work brings out the studies on ultimate load behavior of brick masonry subjected to compression and shear-loading. The work composed of both the experimental and numerical investigations, aimed at contributing to the better understanding of the knowledge on the behavior of brick masonry structures under monotonic loading. Two brick masonry specimens have been tested up to ultimate load and the structural response in terms of the load, deflections and strains has been investigated. Due to the complexity, time and expense involved in the experimental investigations on brick masonry, limited number of experimental studies have been conducted and further, numerical studies have been carried out to simulate the experimental tests by suitably adopting the appropriate constitute models for the materials used. The responses and the failure load behaviour obtained from nonlinear numerical models developed are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained results. The proposed numerical models can easily be adopted for further studies on the structural component made using brick masonry considering various geometric configurations, material disposition, loading conditions etc.

  1. Approaching Ultimate Intrinsic SNR in a Uniform Spherical Sample with Finite Arrays of Loop Coils

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Manushka V.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated to what degree and at what rate the ultimate intrinsic (UI) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may be approached using finite radiofrequency detector arrays. We used full-wave electromagnetic field simulations based on dyadic Green’s functions to compare the SNR of arrays of loops surrounding a uniform sphere with the ultimate intrinsic SNR (UISNR), for increasing numbers of elements over a range of magnetic field strengths, voxel positions, sphere sizes, and acceleration factors. We evaluated the effect of coil conductor losses and the performance of a variety of distinct geometrical arrangements such as “helmet” and “open-pole” configurations in multiple imaging planes. Our results indicate that UISNR at the center is rapidly approached with encircling arrays and performance is substantially lower near the surface, where a quadrature detection configuration tailored to voxel position is optimal. Coil noise is negligible at high field, where sample noise dominates. Central SNR for practical array configurations such as the helmet is similar to that of close-packed arrangements. The observed trends can provide physical insights to improve coil design. PMID:26097442

  2. Ultimate Osmosis Engineered by the Pore Geometry and Functionalization of Carbon Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Osmosis is the key process in establishing versatile functions of cellular systems and enabling clean-water harvesting technologies. Membranes with single-atom thickness not only hold great promises in approaching the ultimate limit of these functions, but also offer an ideal test-bed to explore the underlying physical mechanisms. In this work, we explore diffusive and osmotic transport of water and ions through carbon nanotube and porous graphene based membranes by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our comparative study shows that the cylindrical confinement in carbon nanotubes offers much higher salt rejection at similar permeability in osmosis compared to porous graphene. Moreover, chemical functionalization of the pores modulates the membrane performance by its steric and electrostatic nature, especially at small-size pores due to the fact that the optimal transport is achieved by ordered water transport near pore edges. These findings lay the ground for the ultimate design of forward osmosis membranes with optimized performance trade-off, given the capability of nano-engineering nanostructures by their geometry and chemistry. PMID:26037602

  3. Pancreatic necrosis: results of necrosectomy, packing, and ultimate closure over drains.

    PubMed Central

    Branum, G; Galloway, J; Hirchowitz, W; Fendley, M; Hunter, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The treatment of pancreatic necrosis at a tertiary referral center was reviewed to effect better patient outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreatic necrosis is a devastating disease that leads to death in 10% to 50% of cases. Infected necrosis is particularly deadly because 80% of deaths from necrosis are due to infection or its complications. Therapeutic strategies center on aggressive support of organ systems and prevention and treatment of infectious complications. METHODS: Records of all patients who underwent pancreatic necrosectomy from 1990 to 1996 at Emory University Hospital were reviewed. Patients with infected necrosis were debrided as soon as the diagnosis was made. Reoperation for completion necrosectomy with ultimate closure over lavage catheters was performed as necessary. RESULTS: Of the 244 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis in the study period, 50 underwent pancreatic debridement. The mean age was 52 years, and 74% of patients were transferred from other institutions. Eighty-four percent of patients had infected necrosis, and all patients underwent sequential debridement with eventual closure over drains. Organ failure occurred in 72% of cases, and the overall mortality rate was 12%. The mean length of stay was 54 days. CONCLUSIONS: The management of pancreatic necrosis demands the allocation of extensive resources. An aggressive operative strategy of multiple debridements with ultimate closure over drains can lead to a low mortality rate in patients with this complex disease, but the determination of when to explore patients with sterile necrosis remains difficult. PMID:9637550

  4. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  5. Ultimate Heat Sink Thermal Performance and Water Utilization: Measurements on Cooling and Spray Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G. F.; Hadlock, R. K.; Abbey, O. B.

    1982-02-01

    A data acquisition research program, entitled "Ultimate Heat Sink Performance Field Experiments," has been brought to completion. The primary objective is to obtain the requisite data to characterize thermal performance and water utilization for cooling ponds and spray ponds at elevated temperature. Such data are useful for modeling purposes, but the work reported here does not contain modeling efforts within its scope. The water bodies which have been studied are indicative of nuclear reactor ultimate heat sinks, components of emergency core cooling systems. The data reflect thermal performance and water utilization for meteorological and solar influences which are representative of worst-case combinations of conditions. Constructed water retention ponds, provided with absolute seals against seepage, have been chosen as facilities for the measurement programs; the first pond was located at Raft River, Idaho, and the second at East Mesa, California. The data illustrate and describe, for both cooling ponds and spray ponds, thermal performance and water utilization as the ponds cool from an initially elevated temperature. To obtain the initial elevated temperature, it has been convenient to conduct the measurements at geothermal sites having large supplies and delivery rates of hot geothermal fluid. The data are described and discussed in the text, and presented in the form of data volumes as appendices.

  6. System for sensing droplet formation time delay in a flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    A droplet flow cytometer system which includes a system to optimize the droplet formation time delay based on conditions actually experienced includes an automatic droplet sampler which rapidly moves a plurality of containers stepwise through the droplet stream while simultaneously adjusting the droplet time delay. Through the system sampling of an actual substance to be processed can be used to minimize the effect of the substances variations or the determination of which time delay is optimal. Analysis such as cell counting and the like may be conducted manually or automatically and input to a time delay adjustment which may then act with analysis equipment to revise the time delay estimate actually applied during processing. The automatic sampler can be controlled through a microprocessor and appropriate programming to bracket an initial droplet formation time delay estimate. When maximization counts through volume, weight, or other types of analysis exists in the containers, the increment may then be reduced for a more accurate ultimate setting. This may be accomplished while actually processing the sample without interruption.

  7. Response Allocation in Concurrent Chains when Terminal-Link Delays Follow an Ascending and Descending Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Darren R.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2009-01-01

    Eight pigeons were trained in a concurrent-chains procedure in which the terminal-link immediacy ratio followed an ascending or descending series. Across sessions, one terminal-link delay changed from 2 s to 32 s to 2 s or from 32 s to 2 s to 32 s, while the other was always 8 s. For all pigeons, response allocation tracked changes in delay and…

  8. Reduction of Weather-Related Terminal Area Delays in the Free-Flight Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Chin, David K.; Rovinsky, Robert B.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Lee, David A.; Hemm, Robert V.; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1996-01-01

    While much of the emphasis of the free-flight movement has been concentrated on reducing en-route delays, airport capacity is a major bottleneck in the current airspace system, particularly during bad weather. According to the Air Transport Association (ATA) Air Carrier Delay Reports, ground delays (gate-hold, taxi-in, and taxi-out) comprise 75 percent of total delays. It is likely that the projected steady growth in traffic will only exacerbate these losses. Preliminary analyses show that implementation of the terminal area technologies and procedures under development in NASA s Terminal Area Productivity program can potentially save the airlines at least $350M annually in weather-related delays by the year 2005 at Boston Logan and Detroit airports alone. This paper briefly describes the Terminal Area Productivity program, outlines the costhenefit analyses that are being conducted in support of the program, and presents some preliminary analysis results.

  9. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the NEPA process into early planning (§...

  10. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the NEPA process into early planning (§...

  11. 42 CFR 136a.32 - Delayed implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delayed implementation. 136a.32 Section 136a.32..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.32 Delayed implementation...) During the six month delayed implementation period the former eligibility regulations will apply....

  12. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  13. Articulatory Preparation in the Delayed Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamoto, Alan H.; Liu, Qiang; Mura, Keith; Sanchez, Adrianna

    2008-01-01

    The assumptions that acoustic onset must follow articulatory onset by a fixed delay and that response execution level processes are always effectively isolated in the delayed naming task were investigated with respect to the issue of articulatory preparation in three experiments. The results of these experiments showed that for the delayed naming…

  14. Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last…

  15. 34 CFR 303.10 - Developmental delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental delay. 303.10 Section 303.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.10 Developmental delay. Developmental delay, when...

  16. 34 CFR 303.10 - Developmental delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Developmental delay. 303.10 Section 303.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.10 Developmental delay. Developmental delay, when...

  17. 34 CFR 303.10 - Developmental delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Developmental delay. 303.10 Section 303.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.10 Developmental delay. Developmental delay, when...

  18. Direct-reading group-delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.

  19. Coagulation syndrome: Delayed perforation after colorectal endoscopic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, Kingo; Sato, Chiko; Makazu, Makomo; Kaneko, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kokawa, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Various procedure-related adverse events related to colonoscopic treatment have been reported. Previous studies on the complications of colonoscopic treatment have focused primarily on perforation or bleeding. Coagulation syndrome (CS), which is synonymous with transmural burn syndrome following endoscopic treatment, is another typical adverse event. CS is the result of electrocoagulation injury to the bowel wall that induces a transmural burn and localized peritonitis resulting in serosal inflammation. CS occurs after polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and even endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The occurrence of CS after polypectomy or EMR varies according previous reports; most report an occurrence rate around 1%. However, artificial ulcers after ESD are largely theoretical, and CS following ESD was reported in about 9% of cases, which is higher than that for CS after polypectomy or EMR. Most cases of post-polypectomy syndrome (PPS) have an excellent prognosis, and they are managed conservatively with medical therapy. PPS rarely develops into delayed perforation. Delayed perforation is a severe adverse event that often requires emergency surgery. Since few studies have reported on CS and delayed perforation associated with CS, we focused on CS after colonoscopic treatments in this review. Clinicians should consider delayed perforation in CS patients. PMID:26380051

  20. Coagulation syndrome: Delayed perforation after colorectal endoscopic treatments.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kingo; Sato, Chiko; Makazu, Makomo; Kaneko, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kokawa, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin

    2015-09-10

    Various procedure-related adverse events related to colonoscopic treatment have been reported. Previous studies on the complications of colonoscopic treatment have focused primarily on perforation or bleeding. Coagulation syndrome (CS), which is synonymous with transmural burn syndrome following endoscopic treatment, is another typical adverse event. CS is the result of electrocoagulation injury to the bowel wall that induces a transmural burn and localized peritonitis resulting in serosal inflammation. CS occurs after polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and even endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The occurrence of CS after polypectomy or EMR varies according previous reports; most report an occurrence rate around 1%. However, artificial ulcers after ESD are largely theoretical, and CS following ESD was reported in about 9% of cases, which is higher than that for CS after polypectomy or EMR. Most cases of post-polypectomy syndrome (PPS) have an excellent prognosis, and they are managed conservatively with medical therapy. PPS rarely develops into delayed perforation. Delayed perforation is a severe adverse event that often requires emergency surgery. Since few studies have reported on CS and delayed perforation associated with CS, we focused on CS after colonoscopic treatments in this review. Clinicians should consider delayed perforation in CS patients. PMID:26380051

  1. Delayed-Incubation Membrane-Filter Test for Fecal Coliforms

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Raymond H.; Bordner, Robert H.; Scarpino, Pasquale V.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed-incubation membrane-filter technique for fecal coliforms was developed and compared with the immediate fecal coliform test described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (13th ed., 1971). Laboratory and field evaluations demonstrated that the delayed-incubation test, with the use of the proposed vitamin-free Casitone holding medium, produces fecal coliform counts which very closely approximate those from the immediate test, regardless of the source or type of fresh-water sample. Limited testing indicated that the method is not as effective when used with saline waters. The delayed-incubation membrane-filter test will be especially useful in survey monitoring or emergency situations when the standard immediate fecal coliform test cannot be performed at or near the sample site or when time and temperature limitations for water sample storage cannot be met. The procedure can also be used for analyzing the bacterial quality of water or waste discharges by a standardized procedure in a central examining laboratory remote from the sample source. PMID:4572892

  2. Effects of acute and chronic cocaine administration on titrating-delay matching-to-sample performance.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Branch, Marc N

    2012-03-01

    The effects of cocaine were examined under a titrating-delay matching-to-sample procedure. In this procedure, the delay between sample stimulus offset and comparison stimuli onset adjusts as a function of the subject's performance. Specifically, matches increase the delay and mismatches decrease the delay. Titrated delay values served as the primary dependent measure. After establishing stable performance in pigeons, several behaviorally-effective doses of cocaine were administered acutely. Dose-related within-session decreases in titrated delay values were observed. Following acute determinations, the dose of cocaine that produced the most rapid decline without eliminating performance was administered prior to each daily session. Chronic administration resulted in performance trending toward control levels. A redetermination of the dose-response function following chronic exposure revealed reduced potency (i.e., tolerance) under cocaine on titrated delay matching-to-sample performance. Supplemental analyses suggest that cocaine may serve as a disruptor of the stimulus conditions in which the performance was established. PMID:22389523

  3. The development of high cooling power and low ultimate temperature superfluid Stirling refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashok B.

    The superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR) is a recuperative Stirling cycle refrigerator which provides cooling to below 2 K by using a liquid 3He-4He mixture as the working fluid. In 1990, Kotsubo and Swift demonstrated the first SSR, and by 1995, Brisson and Swift had developed an experimental prototype capable of reaching a low temperature of 296 mK. The goal of this thesis was to improve these capabilities by developing a better understanding of the SSR and building SSR's with higher cooling powers and lower ultimate temperatures. This thesis contains four main parts. In the first part, a numerical analysis demonstrates that the optimal design and ultimate performance of a recuperative Stirling refrigerator is fundamentally different from that of a standard regenerative Stirling refrigerator due to a mass flow imbalance within the recuperator. The analysis also shows that high efficiency recuperators remain a key to SSR performance. Due to a quantum effect called Kapitza resistance, the only realistic and economical method of creating higher efficiency recuperators for use with an SSR is to construct the heat exchangers from very thin (12 μm - 25 μm thick) plastic films. The second part of this thesis involves the design and construction of these recuperators. This research resulted in Kapton heat exchangers which are leaktight to superfluid helium and capable of surviving repeated thermal cycling. In the third part of this thesis, two different single stage SSR's are operated to test whether the plastic recuperators would actually improve SSR performance. Operating from a high temperature of 1.0 K and with 1.5% and 3.0% 3He-4He mixtures, these SSR's achieved a low temperature of 291 mK and delivered net cooling powers of 3705 μW at 750 mK, 977 μW at 500 mK, and 409 μW at 400 mK. Finally, this thesis describes the operation of three versions of a two stage SSR. Unfortunately, due to experimental difficulties, the merits of a two stage SSR were not

  4. BOLD delay times using group delay in sickle cell disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloigner, Julie; Vu, Chau; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that effects red blood cells, which can lead to vasoocclusion, ischemia and infarct. This disease often results in neurological damage and strokes, leading to morbidity and mortality. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique for measuring and mapping the brain activity. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals contain also information about the neurovascular coupling, vascular reactivity, oxygenation and blood propagation. Temporal relationship between BOLD fluctuations in different parts of the brain provides also a mean to investigate the blood delay information. We used the induced desaturation as a label to profile transit times through different brain areas, reflecting oxygen utilization of tissue. In this study, we aimed to compare blood flow propagation delay times between these patients and healthy subjects in areas vascularized by anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In a group comparison analysis with control subjects, BOLD changes in these areas were found to be almost simultaneous and shorter in the SCD patients, because of their increased brain blood flow. Secondly, the analysis of a patient with a stenosis on the anterior cerebral artery indicated that signal of the area vascularized by this artery lagged the MCA signal. These findings suggest that sickle cell disease causes blood propagation modifications, and that these changes could be used as a biomarker of vascular damage.

  5. ADHD and Delay Aversion: The Influence of Non-Temporal Stimulation on Choice for Delayed Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop, Inge; Stock, Pieter; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Jan Roelt; Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Background: Delay aversion, the motivation to escape or avoid delay, results in preference for small immediate over large delayed rewards. Delay aversion has been proposed as one distinctive psychological process that may underlie the behavioural symptoms and cognitive deficits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, the…

  6. Easily Modified Factors Contribute to Delays in Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection: a Cohort Study and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kundrapu, Sirisha; Jury, Lucy A.; Sitzlar, Brett; Sunkesula, Venkata C. K.; Sethi, Ajay K.

    2013-01-01

    Although rapid laboratory tests are available for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), delays in completion of CDI testing are common in clinical practice. We conducted a cohort study of 242 inpatients tested for CDI to determine the timing of different steps involved in diagnostic testing and to identify modifiable factors contributing to delays in diagnosis. The average time from test order to test result was 1.8 days (range, 0.2 to 10.6), with time from order to stool collection accounting for most of the delay (mean, 1.0 day; range, 0 to 10). Several modifiable factors contributed to delays, including not providing stool collection supplies to patients in a timely fashion, rejection of specimens due to incorrect labeling or leaking from the container, and holding samples in the laboratory for batch processing. Delays in testing contributed to delays in initiation of treatment for patients diagnosed with CDI and to frequent prescription of empirical CDI therapy for patients with mild to moderate symptoms whose testing was ultimately negative. An intervention that addressed several easily modified factors contributing to delays resulted in a significant decrease in the time required to complete CDI testing. These findings suggest that health care facilities may benefit from a review of their processes for CDI testing to identify and address modifiable factors that contribute to delays in diagnosis and treatment of CDI. PMID:23678072

  7. Time delay: a technique to increase language use and facilitate generalization in retarded children.

    PubMed Central

    Halle, J W; Marshall, A M; Spradlin, J E

    1979-01-01

    Institutional breakfast-serving procedures were manipulated to assess what effect changes in that aspect of the environment would have on requests for food. During baseline, six severely retarded children were required to pick up their food trays and return to their seats. The first manipulation, delaying the giving of the food tray for 15 seconds, served as a cue to evoke meal requests by three of the six children. Two of the remaining three required a model of an appropriate meal request (i.e., "Tray, please.") at the end of the 15-second delay before they began requesting their meals. To evoke meal requests from the sixth child, an intensive training procedure, consisting of massed trials of delay and modeling, was required. Three different probes were administered to assess generalization across the people serving the meals, across mealtimes, and across both people and mealtimes. Typically, generalized responding in these new situations could be prompted by use of the 15-second delay procedure. Functional aspects of the delay procedure and its potential usefulness for evoking speech and facilitating generalization are discussed. PMID:511809

  8. Modeling of SAW Delay Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles requires rugged sensors having reduced volume, mass, and power that can be used to measure a variety of phenomena. Wireless systems are preferred when retro-fitting sensors onto existing vehicles. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are capable of sensing: temperature, pressure, strain, chemical species, mass loading, acceleration, and shear stress. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. To aid in the development of SAW sensors for IVHM applications, a first order model of a SAW Delay line has been created.

  9. Delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Natalie; U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Karalliedde, Janaka

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome. The patient had a history of hearing loss from childhood and presented to the endocrine clinic when aged 32 with an enlarging goitre. The characteristic Mondini deformity was noted on auditory canal MRI scan. Genetic tests confirmed the diagnosis. Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterised by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, goitre and impaired iodide organification and can present at any age. We highlight to the general physician the classical features of this syndrome that would aid early diagnosis. PMID:27620717

  10. Photothermally induced delayed tissue death.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jeffrey M; Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Feuermann, Daniel; Huleihil, Mahmoud; Mizrahi, Solly

    2006-01-01

    We report pronounced delayed tissue death in photothermal surgery performed on the livers of live healthy rats with highly concentrated sunlight (ultrabright noncoherent light). Exposure times and power levels were selected to produce immediate necroses of the order of hundreds of cubic millimeters. Pathology reveals that lesion volumes increase by up to a factor of 5 within approximately 24 h after surgery, and then stabilize. Islands of viable cells can persist within damaged tissue, in the immediate vicinity of blood vessels, but also necrose within about 48 h. PMID:16822049

  11. An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated by damping wigglers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao

    2015-01-06

    We discuss the approach of generating round beams for ultimate storage rings using vertical damping wigglers (with horizontal magnetic field). The vertical damping wigglers provide damping and excite vertical emittance. This eliminates the need to generate large linear coupling that is impractical with traditional off-axis injection. We use a PEP-X compatible lattice to demonstrate the approach. This lattice uses separate quadrupole and sextupole magnets with realistic gradient strengths. Intrabeam scattering effects are calculated. As a result, the horizontal and vertical emittances are 22.3 pm and 10.3 pm, respectively, for a 200 mA, 4.5 GeV beam, with a vertical damping wiggler of a total length of 90 m, a peak field of 1.5 T and a wiggler period of 100 mm.

  12. Methods for ultimate load analysis of concrete containments: Second phase: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Dameron, R.A.; Dunham, R.S.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1987-03-01

    This summary report gives an overview of research on the influence of special effects on the ultimate load behavior of concrete containment structures. The special effects analyses that were performed include containment response under combined pressure and temperature, shear dislocation at a major concrete crack, wall discontinuity at the wall-basemat juncture, flawed liner, and thermal buckling. The EPRI-sponsored finite element code, ABAQUS-EPGEN, is utilized as the structural analysis tool in this research. The code was modified to incorporate a constitutive model for plain concrete and models for concrete/liner and concrete/rebar interaction. The report provides a general assessment of local effects mechanisms in concrete containment response to overpressurization.

  13. Determination of ultimate carbonaceous BOD and the specific rate constant (K1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Bennett, J.P.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1982-01-01

    Ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BODu) and the specific rate constant (K1) at which the demand is exerted are important parameters in designing biological wastewater treatment plants and in assessing the impact of wastewater on receiving streams. An analytical method is presented which uses time-series concentrations of BOD, defined as the calculated sum of dissolved oxygen (DO) losses at each time of measurement, for determining BODu and K1. Time-series DO measurements are obtained from a water sample that is incubated in darkness at 20 degrees Celsius in the presence of nitrapyrin, a chemical nitrification inhibitor. Time-series concentrations of BOD that approximate first order kinetics can be analyzed graphically or mathematically to compute BODu and K1.

  14. Xenobiology: a new form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Markus

    2010-04-01

    Synthetic biologists try to engineer useful biological systems that do not exist in nature. One of their goals is to design an orthogonal chromosome different from DNA and RNA, termed XNA for xeno nucleic acids. XNA exhibits a variety of structural chemical changes relative to its natural counterparts. These changes make this novel information-storing biopolymer "invisible" to natural biological systems. The lack of cognition to the natural world, however, is seen as an opportunity to implement a genetic firewall that impedes exchange of genetic information with the natural world, which means it could be the ultimate biosafety tool. Here I discuss, why it is necessary to go ahead designing xenobiological systems like XNA and its XNA binding proteins; what the biosafety specifications should look like for this genetic enclave; which steps should be carried out to boot up the first XNA life form; and what it means for the society at large. PMID:20217844

  15. 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba-Son; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750 °C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750 °C. At 800 °C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

  16. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  17. Xenobiology: A new form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biologists try to engineer useful biological systems that do not exist in nature. One of their goals is to design an orthogonal chromosome different from DNA and RNA, termed XNA for xeno nucleic acids. XNA exhibits a variety of structural chemical changes relative to its natural counterparts. These changes make this novel information-storing biopolymer “invisible” to natural biological systems. The lack of cognition to the natural world, however, is seen as an opportunity to implement a genetic firewall that impedes exchange of genetic information with the natural world, which means it could be the ultimate biosafety tool. Here I discuss, why it is necessary to go ahead designing xenobiological systems like XNA and its XNA binding proteins; what the biosafety specifications should look like for this genetic enclave; which steps should be carried out to boot up the first XNA life form; and what it means for the society at large. PMID:20217844

  18. Regions of attraction and ultimate boundedness for linear quadratic regulators with nonlinearities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    The closed-loop stability of multivariable linear time-invariant systems controlled by optimal linear quadratic (LQ) regulators is investigated for the case when the feedback loops have nonlinearities N(sigma) that violate the standard stability condition, sigma N(sigma) or = 0.5 sigma(2). The violations of the condition are assumed to occur either (1) for values of sigma away from the origin (sigma = 0) or (2) for values of sigma in a neighborhood of the origin. It is proved that there exists a region of attraction for case (1) and a region of ultimate boundedness for case (2), and estimates are obtained for these regions. The results provide methods for selecting the performance function parameters to design LQ regulators with better tolerance to nonlinearities. The results are demonstrated by application to the problem of attitude and vibration control of a large, flexible space antenna in the presence of actuator nonlinearities.

  19. Plug nozzles - The ultimate customer driven propulsion system. [applied to manned lunar and Martian landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aukerman, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applying the plug cluster nozzle concept to the propulsion system for a typical lunar excursion vehicle. Primary attention for the design criteria is given to user defined factors such as reliability, low volume, and ease of propulsion system development. Total thrust and specific impulse are held constant in the study while other parameters are explored to minimize the design chamber pressure. A brief history of the plug nozzle concept is included to point out the advanced level of technology of the concept and the feasibility of exploiting the variables considered in the study. The plug cluster concept looks very promising as a candidate for consideration for the ultimate customer driven propulsion system.

  20. The fiber-optic gyroscope, a century after Sagnac's experiment: The ultimate rotation-sensing technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Hervé C.

    2014-12-01

    Taking advantage of the development of optical-fiber communication technologies, the fiber-optic gyroscope (often abbreviated FOG) started to be investigated in the mid-1970s, opening the way for a fully solid-state rotation sensor. It was firstly seen as dedicated to medium-grade applications (1 ° / h range), but today, it reaches strategic-grade performance (10-4 ° / h range) and surpasses its well-established competitor, the ring-laser gyroscope, in terms of bias noise and long-term stability. Further progresses remain possible, the challenge being the ultimate inertial navigation performance of one nautical mile per month corresponding to a long-term bias stability of 10-5 ° / h. This paper is also the opportunity to recall the historical context of Sagnac's experiment, the origin of all optical gyros. xml:lang="fr"

  1. Cancer of unknown primary ultimately diagnosed as male breast cancer: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Rigakos, Georgios; Vakos, Amanda; Papadopoulos, Sotirios; Vernadou, Anastasia; Tsimpidakis, Antonios; Papachristou, Dionysios; Razis, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of unknown primary (CUP) constitute a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians and a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in Western countries. Immunohistochemistry assays are commonly used to identify the primary cancer, but fail in approximately one-third of cases. The identification of the possible origin of CUP is crucial, as it may help select the appropriate treatment options. We herein present the case of a 54-year-old male patient, who presented with lower back pain in June, 2013. Following a thorough investigation, the clinical and pathological findings could not identify the primary cancer, leading towards a misdiagnosis. Ultimately, microRNA testing of the resected spine lesion was able to identify the primary tumor as male breast cancer and allow for optimal treatment of the patient. PMID:27446561

  2. Ultimate capacity evaluation of reinforced concrete slabs using yield line analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Yield line theory offers a simplified nonlinear analytical method that can determine the ultimate bending capacity of flat reinforced concrete planes subject to distributed and concentrated loads. Alternately, yield line theory, combined with hinge rotation limits can determine the energy absorption capacity of plates subject to impulsive and impact loads. This method is especially useful in evaluating existing structures that cannot be qualified using conservative simplifying analytical assumptions. Typical components analyzed by yield line theory are basements, floor and roof slabs subject to vertical loads along with walls subject to out of plant wall loads. One limitation of yield line theory is that it is difficult to evaluate some mechanisms; this is aggravated by the complex geometry and reinforcing layouts commonly found in practice. A yield line evaluation methodology is proposed to solve computationally tedious yield line mechanisms. This methodology is implemented in a small PC based computer program that allows the engineer to quickly evaluate multiple yield line mechanisms.

  3. Biomimetics and the Development of Humanlike Robots as the Ultimate Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    Evolution led to effective solutions to nature's challenges and they were improved over millions of years. Humans have always made efforts to use nature as a model for innovation and problems solving. These efforts became more intensive in recent years where systematic studies of nature are being made towards better understanding and applying more sophisticated capabilities. Making humanlike robots, including the appearance, functions and intelligence, poses the ultimate challenges to biomimetics. For many years, making such robots was considered science fiction, but as a result of significant advances in biologically inspired technologies, such robots are increasingly becoming an engineering reality. There are already humanlike robots that walk, talk, interpret speech, make eye-contact and facial expressions, as well as perform many other humanlike functions. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and issues of concern will be reviewed.

  4. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    In his 1948 lecture to the British Interplanetary Society Stapledon considered the ultimate purpose of colonising other worlds. Having examined the possible motivations arising from improved scientific knowledge and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation will be the increased opportunities for developing human (and post-human) diversity, intellectual and aesthetic potential and, especially, `spirituality'. By the latter concept he meant a striving for ``sensitive and intelligent awareness of things in the universe (including persons), and of the universe as a whole.'' A key insight articulated by Stapledon in this lecture was that this should be the aspiration of all human development anyway, with or without space colonisation, but that the latter would greatly increase the scope for such developments. Another key aspect of his vision was the development of a diverse, but connected, `Commonwealth of Worlds' extending throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond, within which human potential would be maximised. In this paper I analyse Stapledon's vision of space colonisation, and will conclude that his overall conclusions remain sound. However, I will also argue that he was overly utopian in believing that human social and political unity are prerequisites for space exploration (while agreeing that they are desirable objectives in their own right), and that he unnecessarily downplayed the more prosaic scientific and economic motivations which are likely to be key drivers for space exploration (if not colonisation) in the shorter term. Finally, I draw attention to some recent developments in international space policy which, although probably not influenced by Stapledon's work, are nevertheless congruent with his overarching philosophy as outlined in `Interplanetary Man?'.

  5. Delay test generation for synchronous sequential circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadas, Srinivas

    1989-05-01

    We address the problem of generating tests for delay faults in non-scan synchronous sequential circuits. Delay test generation for sequential circuits is a considerably more difficult problem than delay testing of combinational circuits and has received much less attention. In this paper, we present a method for generating test sequences to detect delay faults in sequential circuits using the stuck-at fault sequential test generator STALLION. The method is complete in that it will generate a delay test sequence for a targeted fault given sufficient CPU time, if such a sequence exists. We term faults for which no delay test sequence exists, under out test methodology, sequentially delay redundant. We describe means of eliminating sequential delay redundancies in logic circuits. We present a partial-scan methodology for enhancing the testability of difficult-to-test of untestable sequential circuits, wherein a small number of flip-flops are selected and made controllable/observable. The selection process guarantees the elimination of all sequential delay redundancies. We show that an intimate relationship exists between state assignment and delay testability of a sequential machine. We describe a state assignment algorithm for the synthesis of sequential machines with maximal delay fault testability. Preliminary experimental results using the test generation, partial-scan and synthesis algorithm are presented.

  6. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  7. Time-delayed feedback in neurosystems.

    PubMed

    Schöll, Eckehard; Hiller, Gerald; Hövel, Philipp; Dahlem, Markus A

    2009-03-28

    The influence of time delay in systems of two coupled excitable neurons is studied in the framework of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. A time delay can occur in the coupling between neurons or in a self-feedback loop. The stochastic synchronization of instantaneously coupled neurons under the influence of white noise can be deliberately controlled by local time-delayed feedback. By appropriate choice of the delay time, synchronization can be either enhanced or suppressed. In delay-coupled neurons, antiphase oscillations can be induced for sufficiently large delay and coupling strength. The additional application of time-delayed self-feedback leads to complex scenarios of synchronized in-phase or antiphase oscillations, bursting patterns or amplitude death. PMID:19218152

  8. Ionospheric irregularity influences on GPS time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoori, Azad Ahmad; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Khan, Parvaiz A.; Bhawre, Purushottam

    All the trans-ionospheric signals interact with the ionosphere during their passage through ionosphere, hence are strongly influenced by the ionosphere. One of most important ionospheric effects on the trans-ionospheric signals is the delay both in range and time. Under this investigation we have studied the variability of ionospheric range delay in GPS signals. To accomplish this study we have used the GPS measurements at a low latitude station, IISC Bangalore (13.02N, 77.57E) during January 2012 to December 2012. We studied the diurnal monthly as well as seasonal variability of the range delay. We also selected five intense geomagnetic storms that occurred during 2012 and investigated the variability of delay during the disturbed conditions. From our study we found the diurnal variability of the range delay is similar to the diurnal pattern observed for TEC. The delay is maximum during the month of October while lowest delay is found to occur in the month of December. During summer season the range delay in GPS signals in less while the largest delay occurs during the equinox season. The variability of delay during the geomagnetic storms of 09 Mar. 2012, 24 Apr. 2012, 15 Jul. 2012, 01 Oct. 2012 and 14 Nov. 2012 were also studied. All these geomagnetic storms belonged to intense category. We found that the value of delay is strongly increased during the course of geomagnetic storms. We took the peak value of delay as well as calculated the enhancement in the delay during these geomagnetic storms and then investigated their correlation with the storm intensity index Dst. Both the delays follow a very good correlation with Dst index.

  9. Delayed migration of Sapien valve following a transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Vinayak Vinnie Nilkanth; Khaliel, Feras; Ihleberg, Leo

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of delayed migration of the Sapien XT device after a successful mitral valve-in-valve (VIV) implantation. The procedure was performed through a transapical approach. Echocardiography was used to choose the size of the Sapien XT device. Although the immediate results were satisfactory both the cases presented with severe regurgitation (1 week and 3 months). Investigations revealed atrial migration of the Sapien device in both the cases, which was confirmed at the time of reoperation. We discuss possible mechanisms, which could have resulted in the delayed migration and highlight the difference between VIV procedures in mitral position versus other positions. PMID:23784983

  10. Delayed flowering and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

  11. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Silvia; Bean, Rachel; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, ns, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z*=1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: γα<0.39 and γi<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  12. PRECISION TIME-DELAY GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Carr, B.J.; Peckham, V.D.

    1959-06-16

    A precision time-delay generator circuit with low jitter is described. The first thyratron has a series resonant circuit and a diode which is connected to the second thyratron. The first thyratron is triggered at the begin-ning of a time delay and a capacitor is discharged through the first thyratron and the diode, thereby, triggering the second thyratron. (T.R.H.) l6l9O The instrument described can measure pressures between sea level and 300,000 ft. The pressure- sensing transducer of the instrument is a small cylindrical tube with a thin foil of titanium-tritium fastened around the inside of the tube. Output is a digital signal which can be used for storage or telemetering more conveniently than an analog signal. (W.D.M.) l6l9l An experimental study was made on rolling contacts in the temperature range of 550 to 1000 deg F. Variables such as material composition, hardness, and operating conditions were investigated in a rolling test stand. Ball bearing tests were run to determine the effect of design parameters, bearing materials, lubricants, and operating conditions. (auth)

  13. Delayed coker fractionator advanced control

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. ); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. )

    1993-08-01

    In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.

  14. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-15

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  15. Delay discounting of the μ-opioid receptor agonist remifentanil in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2016-04-01

    Although increased impulsivity (delay discounting) is an important risk factor for drug abuse, the impact of delay on drug taking has received relatively little attention. This study examined delay discounting of the μ-opioid receptor agonist remifentanil in rhesus monkeys (n=4) responding for intravenous infusions under a concurrent choice procedure. Dose-effect curves for remifentanil were determined by varying the dose available on one lever (0.001-0.32 μg/kg/infusion) while keeping the dose available on the other lever (0.1 μg/kg/infusion) the same. Dose-effect curves were determined when both infusions were delivered immediately and when delivery of the fixed dose was delayed (15-180 s). When both doses of remifentanil were delivered immediately, monkeys chose the large dose. Delaying delivery of the fixed dose reduced choice of that dose and increased choice of small immediately available doses. Extending previous studies, these results show that the effects of delay on choice between two doses of a μ-opioid receptor agonist are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. Delaying delivery of a preferred reinforcer (e.g. large dose of drug) reduces its effectiveness and increases the effectiveness of small immediately available doses. This effect of delay, particularly on drug self-administration, might contribute to drug abuse. PMID:26397761

  16. Intertrial sources of stimulus control and delayed matching-to-sample performance in humans.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dean C; Johnston, Mark D; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2006-09-01

    Two experiments compared delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) accuracy under 2 procedures in adults with mental retardation. In the trial-unique procedure, every trial in a session contained different stimuli. Thus, comparison stimuli that were correct on one trial were never incorrect on other trials in that session (or vice versa). In the 2-sample DMTS procedure, the same 2 comparison stimuli were presented on each trial, and their function changed quasi-randomly across trials conditional upon the sample stimulus. Across 2 experiments, 7 of 8 subjects showed the highest overall accuracy under the trial-unique procedure, and no subject showed consistently higher accuracy under the 2-sample procedure. Negative, exponential decay functions fit to logit p values showed that this difference was due largely to the steeper delay-mediated decline in sample control for the 2-sample procedure. Stimulus-control analyses indicated that, under the 2-sample procedure, the selection of the comparison stimulus on Trial N was often controlled by the comparison stimulus selection on Trial N-1 rather than the Trial-N sample stimulus. This source of competing stimulus control is not present in trial-unique procedures. Experiment 2 manipulated intertrial interval duration. There was a small but consistent increase in accuracy as a function of intertrial interval duration under the 2-sample procedure, but not under the trial-unique procedure. PMID:17002231

  17. Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R.; Ivanauskas, F.; Vaitkevičius, H.; Shur, M. S.

    2008-08-01

    We apply an optimization scheme based on rendering of all colors of the enhanced Munsell palette to phosphor-conversion (PC) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This approach yields combinations of peak wavelengths and bandwidths for white PC LEDs with partial and complete conversion that enable lighting with better quality than that obtained using designs based on the standard color-rendering assessment procedure.

  18. Conversion of linear time-invariant time-delay feedback systems into delay-differential equations with commensurate delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Tomomichi

    2014-08-01

    A new stability analysis method of time-delay systems (TDSs) called the monodromy operator approach has been studied under the assumption that a TDS is represented as a time-delay feedback system consisting of a finite-dimensional linear time-invariant (LTI) system and a pure delay. For applying this approach to TDSs described by delay-differential equations (DDEs), the problem of converting DDEs into representation as time-delay feedback systems has been studied. With regard to such a problem, it was shown that, under discontinuous initial functions, it is natural to define the solutions of DDEs in two different ways, and the above conversion problem was solved for each of these two definitions. More precisely, the solution of a DDE was represented as either the state of the finite-dimensional part of a time-delay feedback system or a part of the output of another time-delay feedback system, depending on which definition of the DDE solution one is talking about. Motivated by the importance in establishing a thorough relationship between time-delay feedback systems and DDEs, this paper discusses the opposite problem of converting time-delay feedback systems into representation as DDEs, including the discussions about the conversion of the initial conditions. We show that the state of (the finite-dimensional part of) a time-delay feedback system can be represented as the solution of a DDE in the sense of one of the two definitions, while its 'essential' output can be represented as that of another DDE in the sense of the other type of definition. Rigorously speaking, however, it is also shown that the latter representation is possible regardless of the initial conditions, while some initial condition could prevent the conversion into the former representation. This study hence establishes that the representation of TDSs as time-delay feedback systems possesses higher ability than that with DDEs, as description methods for LTI TDSs with commensurate delays.

  19. Answering the ultimate question “What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?”

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging? PMID:23425777

  20. Stiffness and ultimate load of osseointegrated prosthesis fixations in the upper and lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Techniques for the skeletal attachment of amputation-prostheses have been developed over recent decades. This type of attachment has only been performed on a small number of patients. It poses various potential advantages compared to conventional treatment with a socket, but is also associated with an increased risk of bone or implant-bone interface fracture in the case of a fall. We therefore investigated the bending stiffness and ultimate bending moment of such devices implanted in human and synthetic bones. Methods Eight human specimens and 16 synthetic models of the proximal femora were implanted with lower extremity prostheses and eight human specimens and six synthetic humeri were implanted with upper extremity prostheses. They were dissected according to typical amputation levels and underwent loading in a material testing machine in a four-point bending setup. Bending stiffness, ultimate bending moment and fracture modes were determined in a load to failure experiment. Additionally, axial pull-out was performed on eight synthetic specimens of the lower extremity. Results Maximum bending moment of the synthetic femora was 160.6±27.5 Nm, the flexural rigidity of the synthetic femora was 189.0±22.6 Nm2. Maximum bending moment of the human femora was 100.4±38.5 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 137.8±29.4 Nm2. The maximum bending moment of the six synthetic humeri was 104.9±19.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity was 63.7±3.6 Nm2. For the human humeri the maximum bending moment was 36.7±11.0 Nm, and the flexural rigidity at was 43.7±10.5 Nm2. The maximum pull-out force for the eight synthetic femora was 3571±919 N. Conclusion Significant differences were found between human and synthetic specimens of the lower and upper extremity regarding maximum bending moment, bending displacement and flexural rigidity. The results of this study are relevant with respect to previous finding regarding the load at the interfaces of osseointegrated prosthesis

  1. How to Relate Complex DNA Repair Genotypes to Pathway Function and, Ultimately, Health Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, IM

    2002-01-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of cancer. However, predicting which individuals are at most risk from radiation exposure is a distant goal. Predictive ability is needed to guide policies that regulate radiation exposure and ensure that medical treatments have maximum benefit and minimum risk. Differences between people in susceptibility to radiation are largely based on their genotype, the genes inherited from their parents. Among the important genes are those that produce proteins that repair DNA damaged by radiation. Base Excision Repair (BER) proteins repair single strand breaks and oxidized bases in DNA. Double Strand Break Repair proteins repair broken chromosomes. Using technologies and information from the Human Genome Project, we have previously determined that the DNA sequence of DNA repair genes varies within the human population. An average of 3-4 different variants were found that affect the protein for each of 37 genes studied. The average frequency of these variants is 5%. Given the many genes in each DNA repair pathway and their many variants, technical ability to determine an individual's repair genotype greatly exceeds ability to interpret the information. A long-term goal is to relate DNA repair genotypes to health risk from radiation. This study focused on the BER pathway. The BER genes are known, variants of the genes have been identified at LLNL, and LLNL had recently developed an assay for BER function using white blood cells. The goal of this initial effort was to begin developing data that could be used to test the hypothesis that many different genotypes have similar DNA repair capacity phenotypes (function). Relationships between genotype and phenotype could then be used to group genotypes with similar function and ultimately test the association of groups of genotypes with health risk from radiation. Genotypes with reduced repair function are expected to increase risk of radiation-induced health effects. The goal

  2. Lattice Design for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC expertise in designing and operating high current storage rings and the availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel present an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the SPEAR3 storage ring in the future. The PEP-X 'baseline' design, with 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. As a next step, a so-called 'ultimate' PEP-X lattice, reducing the emittance to 11 pm-rad at zero current, has been designed. This emittance approaches the diffraction limited photon emittance for multi-keV photons, providing near maximum photon brightness and high coherence. It is achieved by using 7-bend achromat cells in the ring arcs and a 90-m damping wiggler in one of the 6 long straight sections. Details of the lattice design, dynamic aperture, and calculations of the intra-beam scattering effect and Touschek lifetime at a nominal 0.2 A current are presented. Accelerator-based light sources are in high demand for many experimental applications. The availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel at SLAC presents an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the existing SPEAR3 light source in the future. The PEP-X study started in 2008, and the 'baseline' design, yielding 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. This relatively conservative design can be built using existing technology. However, for a long term future, it is natural to investigate a more aggressive, so-called 'ultimate' ring design. The goal is to reduce the electron emittance in both x and y planes to near the diffraction limited photon emittance of 8 pm-rad at hard X-ray photon wavelength of 0.1 nm. This would provide a near maximum photon brightness and significant increase in photon coherence. This study was motivated by the advances in low emittance design at MAX-IV. The latter was used as a starting point for the PEP-X arc lattice

  3. Cell probing by delayed luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumeci, Francesco; Ballerini, Monica; Baroni, Giuliana; Costato, Michele; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Milani, Marziale; Scordino, Agata; Triglia, Antonio

    1999-05-01

    Delayed luminescence (D.L.) is a measure that provides important information on biological systems fields, structures and activities, by counting impinging and emitted photons. Many recent experimental works have shown the existence of a close connection, sometimes analytically expressed between the biological state of the system and D.L. parameters. Our investigations aim to show that D.L. is a workable analytical technique covering a large number of disciplinary fields, from agriculture to pollution control and from medical diagnostics to food quality control. The authors have conducted systematic research about D.L. from unicellular alga Acetabularia acetabulum to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cultures and about more complex systems such as Soya seed (Glycine max, L.) and its dependence on sample preparation, history, intracellular signaling, metabolism and pollutant presence. We will discuss the most relevant results together with theoretical considerations on the basic interaction at work between biological systems and electromagnetic fields.

  4. Real-time estimation of ionospheric delay using GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lao-Sheng

    1997-12-01

    When radio waves such as the GPS signals propagate through the ionosphere, they experience an extra time delay. The ionospheric delay can be eliminated (to the first order) through a linear combination of L1 and L2 observations from dual-frequency GPS receivers. Taking advantage of this dispersive principle, one or more dual- frequency GPS receivers can be used to determine a model of the ionospheric delay across a region of interest and, if implemented in real-time, can support single-frequency GPS positioning and navigation applications. The research objectives of this thesis were: (1) to develop algorithms to obtain accurate absolute Total Electron Content (TEC) estimates from dual-frequency GPS observables, and (2) to develop an algorithm to improve the accuracy of real-time ionosphere modelling. In order to fulfil these objectives, four algorithms have been proposed in this thesis. A 'multi-day multipath template technique' is proposed to mitigate the pseudo-range multipath effects at static GPS reference stations. This technique is based on the assumption that the multipath disturbance at a static station will be constant if the physical environment remains unchanged from day to day. The multipath template, either single-day or multi-day, can be generated from the previous days' GPS data. A 'real-time failure detection and repair algorithm' is proposed to detect and repair the GPS carrier phase 'failures', such as the occurrence of cycle slips. The proposed algorithm uses two procedures: (1) application of a statistical test on the state difference estimated from robust and conventional Kalman filters in order to detect and identify the carrier phase failure, and (2) application of a Kalman filter algorithm to repair the 'identified carrier phase failure'. A 'L1/L2 differential delay estimation algorithm' is proposed to estimate GPS satellite transmitter and receiver L1/L2 differential delays. This algorithm, based on the single-site modelling technique, is

  5. Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    D'Huys, Otti; Jüngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators. PMID:25314515

  6. Delay banking for air traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method and associated system for time delay banking for aircraft arrival time, aircraft departure time and/or en route flight position. The delay credit value for a given flight may decrease with passage of time and may be transferred to or traded with other flights having the same or a different user (airline owner or operator). The delay credit value for a given aircraft flight depends upon an initial delay credit value, which is determined by a central system and depends upon one or more other flight characteristics. Optionally, the delay credit value decreases with passage of time. Optionally, a transaction cost is assessed against a delay credit value that is used on behalf of another flight with the same user or is traded with a different user.

  7. CGI delay compensation. [Computer Generated Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during agressive tasks such as nap of the earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitude distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  8. Ultimate thin vertical p–n junction composed of two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Min; Lee, Daeyeong; Qu, Deshun; Liu, Xiaochi; Ryu, Jungjin; Seabaugh, Alan; Yoo, Won Jong

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional crystals are currently receiving significant attention because of their great potential to be an ultrathin body for efficient electrostatic modulation, which enables to overcome the limitations of silicon technology. Here we report that, as a key building block for two-dimensional semiconductor devices, vertical p–n junctions are fabricated in ultrathin MoS2 by introducing AuCl3 and benzyl viologen dopants. Unlike usual unipolar MoS2, the MoS2 p–n junctions show ambipolar carrier transport, current rectification via modulation of potential barrier in films thicker than 8 nm and reversed current rectification via tunnelling in films thinner than 8 nm. The ultimate thinness of the vertical p–n homogeneous junctions in MoS2 is experimentally found to be 3 nm, and the chemical doping depth is found to be 1.5 nm. The ultrathin MoS2 p–n junctions present a significant potential of the two-dimensional crystals for flexible, transparent, high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25800613

  9. Tunable dark plasmons in a metallic nanocube dimer: toward ultimate sensitivity nanoplasmonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shunping; Xu, Hongxing

    2016-07-14

    Metallic nanoparticles can function as label-free nanosensors monitoring the local dielectric environment in their close vicinity, thanks to the localized surface plasmon resonances. The sensing figure of merit is limited by the total loss rate of the plasmon. Here, we theoretically study a silver nanocube dimer and discover for the first time a dark plasmon with its total loss rate at the lower theoretical limit. It originates from the attractive coupling of the dipolar and quadrupolar mode in the individual nanocubes. It shows an unprecedented sensitivity to the interparticle gap distance, i.e., one ångström change in the gap distance results in a shift twice as large as the peak width. The sensing figure of merit using this dark plasmon is 56-61, reaching the ultimate value limited only by the material permittivity. The field of the mode is confined mainly within the gap region which is in the extreme deep subwavelength (3.5 × 10(-6)λ0(3)) region. Besides sensing applications, the dark plasmon also shows foreseeable potential in enhanced spectroscopy, nanolasers and other nanophotonic devices. PMID:27412788

  10. Dynamic Aperture and Tolerances for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Design

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    A lattice for the PEP-X ultimate storage ring light source, having 11 pm-rad natural emittance at a beam energy of 4.5 GeV at zero current, using 90 m of damping wiggler and fitting into the existing 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel, has been recently designed. Such a low emittance lattice requires very strong sextupoles for chromaticity correction, which in turn introduce strong non-linear field effects that limit the beam dynamic aperture. In order to maximize the dynamic aperture we choose the cell phases to cancel the third and fourth order geometric resonances in each 8-cell arc. Four families of chromatic sextupoles and six families of geometric (or harmonic) sextupoles are added to correct the chromatic and amplitude-dependent tunes. To find the best settings of the ten sextupole families, we use a Multi-Objective Genetic Optimizer employing elegant to optimize the beam lifetime and dynamic aperture simultaneously. Then we evaluate dynamic aperture reduction caused by magnetic field multipole errors, magnet fabrication errors and misalignments. A sufficient dynamic aperture is obtained for injection, as well as workable beam lifetime.

  11. PEP-X: An Ultimate Storage Ring Based on Fourth-Order Geometric Achromats

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; Bane, Karl; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    We have designed an 'ultimate' storage ring for the PEP-X light source that achieves the diffraction limited emittances (at 1.5 {angstrom}) of 12 pm-rad in both horizontal and vertical planes with a 4.5-GeV beam. These emittances include the contribution of intrabeam scattering at a nominal current of 200 mA in 3300 bunches. This quality beam in conjunction with a conventional 4-m undulator in a straight section can generate synchrotron radiation having a spectral brightness above 10{sup 22} [photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW] at a 10 keV photon energy. The high coherence at the diffraction limit makes PEP-X competitive with 4th generation light sources based on an energy recovery linac. In addition, the beam lifetime is several hours and the dynamic aperture is large enough to allow off-axis injection. The alignment and stability tolerances, though challenging, are achievable. A ring with all these properties is only possible because of several major advances in mitigating the effects of nonlinear resonances.

  12. Salinization: the ultimate threat to temperate lakes, with particular reference to Southeastern Wisconsin (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Slawski, Thomas M.; Lin, Hebin

    2015-11-01

    Many lakes in Southeastern Wisconsin (the metropolitan-Milwaukee area) are gradually becoming increasingly "salty". While these waterbodies would not be considered presently to be saline lakes, there has been a rapid increase in the chloride concentrations in most of these lakes over the last 30 years, with the lakes increasing from a mean chloride concentration of about 19 mg/L to over 100 mg/L in some cases. While ecological impacts can be expected when chloride values exceed 250 mg/L, the rate of increase presents a basis for concern, especially since the underlying geology of the region is based on limestone/dolomite which is deficient in chlorides. Thus, the origin of the chlorides is anthropogenic: human and industrial wastewaters (treatment of which has effected improvements in trophic status but has not affected other water-borne contaminants) and winter de-icing practices based upon large quantities of sodium chloride are major contributors to the increasing concentrations of chloride in the region's waterways. Without taking remedial measures, the rate of salinization is expected to continue to increase, resulting, ultimately, in the alteration of the freshwater systems in the region.

  13. Influence of Reel Lay on Residual Stress and Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hongqian; Wang, Liquan

    Reel lay is a fast and cost-effective way to install subsea pipelines. During reel lay, pipe's repeated plastic bending produces residual stress, which has influence on pipe's ultimate bearing capacity. First, the deformation of pipe in reel lay is analyzed, and the cyclic bending stages are simplified for convenience of theoretical research. Based on the finite element method (FEM), the Ramberg-Osgood model is adopted to describe material's mechanical property with kinematic hardening rule, and five bending stages are simulated. Further, the influence of material parameters and geometry parameters on pipe's residual stress is studied. Finally, the effect of residual stress on pipe's external pressure bearing capacity and tensile capacity is analyzed. Some important conclusions can be drawn: (1) the influence of diameter-thick ratio on residual stress is small, and material parameters' effect on the residual stress is large; (2) the influence of residual stress on pipe's external pressure bearing capacity is small, but its influence on tensile capacity is large.

  14. Reproductive skew in female common marmosets: what can proximate mechanisms tell us about ultimate causes?

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Digby, Leslie J.; Abbott, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high reproductive skew: most subordinate females fail to reproduce, while others attempt to breed but produce very few surviving infants. An extensive dataset on the mechanisms limiting reproduction in laboratory-housed and free-living subordinate females provides unique insights into the causes of reproductive skew. Non-breeding adult females undergo suppression of ovulation and inhibition of sexual behaviour; however, they receive little or no aggression or mating interference by dominants and do not exhibit behavioural or physiological signs of stress. Breeding subordinate females receive comparable amounts of aggression to non-breeding females but are able to conceive, gestate and lactate normally. In groups containing two breeding females, however, both dominant and subordinate breeders kill one another's infants. These findings suggest that preconception reproductive suppression is not imposed on subordinate females by dominants, at a proximate level, but is instead self-imposed by most subordinates, consistent with restraint models of reproductive skew. In contrast to restraint models, however, this self-suppression probably evolved not in response to the threat of eviction by dominant females but in response to the threat of infanticide. Thus, reproductive skew in this species appears to be generated predominantly by subordinate self-restraint, in a proximate sense, but ultimately by dominant control over subordinates' reproductive attempts. PMID:18945663

  15. Ultimate capacity of linear time-invariant bosonic channels with additive Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Bardhan, Bhaskar; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-optic communications are moving to coherent detection in order to increase their spectral efficiency, i.e., their channel capacity per unit bandwidth. At power levels below the threshold for significant nonlinear effects, the channel model for such operation a linear time-invariant filter followed by additive Gaussian noise is one whose channel capacity is well known from Shannon's noisy channel coding theorem. The fiber channel, however, is really a bosonic channel, meaning that its ultimate classical information capacity must be determined from quantum-mechanical analysis, viz. from the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) theorem. Based on recent results establishing the HSW capacity of a linear (lossy or amplifying) channel with additive Gaussian noise, we provide a general continuous-time result, namely the HSW capacity of a linear time-invariant (LTI) bosonic channel with additive Gaussian noise arising from a thermal environment. In particular, we treat quasi-monochromatic communication under an average power constraint through a channel comprised of a stable LTI filter that may be attenuating at all frequencies or amplifying at some frequencies and attenuating at others. Phase-insensitive additive Gaussian noise-associated with the continuous-time Langevin noise operator needed to preserve free-field commutator brackets is included at the filter output. We compare the resulting spectral efficiencies with corresponding results for heterodyne and homodyne detection over the same channel to assess the increased spectral efficiency that might be realized with optimum quantum reception.

  16. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  17. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngchang; Cunningham, Mark A.; Mire, Joseph; Tesar, Christine; Sacchettini, James; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The specter of a return to an era in which infectious disease looms as a significant threat to human health is not just hyperbole; there are serious concerns about the widespread overuse and misuse of antibiotics contributing to increased antibiotic resistance in pathogens. The recent discovery of a new enzyme, first identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a patient from New Delhi and denoted as NDM-1, represents an example of extreme promiscuity: It hydrolyzes and inactivates nearly all known β-lactam-based antibiotics with startling efficiency. NDM-1 can utilize different metal cofactors and seems to exploit an alternative mechanism based on the reaction conditions. Here we report the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study that examines the substrate, metal binding, and catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. We utilize structures obtained through X-ray crystallography, biochemical assays, and numerical simulation to construct a model of the enzyme catalytic pathway. The NDM-1 enzyme interacts with the substrate solely through zinc, or other metals, bound in the active site, explaining the observed lack of specificity against a broad range of β-lactam antibiotic agents. The zinc ions also serve to activate a water molecule that hydrolyzes the β-lactam ring through a proton shuttle.—Kim, Y., Cunningham, M. A.; Mire, J., Tesar, C., Sacchettini, J., Joachimiak, A. NDM-1, the ultimate promiscuous enzyme: substrate recognition and catalytic mechanism. PMID:23363572

  18. Effect of Load Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengths of three continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/CAS-II, SiC/MAS-5 and SiC/SiC, were determined as a function of test rate in air at 1100 to 1200 C. All three composite materials exhibited a strong dependency of strength on test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress-rate) to another (constant stress loading) suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics. It was further found that constant stress-rate testing could be used as an alternative to life prediction test methodology even for composite materials, at least for short range of lifetimes and when ultimate strength is used as the failure criterion.

  19. COLLECTIVE VORTEX BEHAVIORS: DIVERSITY, PROXIMATE, AND ULTIMATE CAUSES OF CIRCULAR ANIMAL GROUP MOVEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, Johann; Bode, Nikolai W F; Denoël, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    Ant mill, caterpillar circle, bat doughnut, amphibian vortex, duck swirl, and fish torus are different names for rotating circular animal formations, where individuals turn around a common center. These "collective vortex behaviors" occur at different group sizes from pairs to several million individuals and have been reported in a large number of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, including humans. However, to date, no comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on vortex behaviors has been conducted. Here, we review the state of the art of the proximate and ultimate causes of vortex behaviors. The ubiquity of this behavioral phenomenon could suggest common causes or fundamental underlying principles across contexts. However, we find that a variety of proximate mechanisms give rise to vortex behaviors. We highlight the potential benefits of collective vortex behaviors to individuals involved in them. For example, in some species, vortices increase feeding efficiency and could give protection against predators. It has also been argued that vortices could improve collective decision-making and information transfer. We highlight gaps in our understanding of these ubiquitous behavioral phenomena and discuss future directions for research in vortex studies. PMID:27192777

  20. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology: Closer to the ultimate toolkit for targeted genome editing.

    PubMed

    Quétier, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The first period of plant genome editing was based on Agrobacterium; chemical mutagenesis by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) and ionizing radiations; each of these technologies led to randomly distributed genome modifications. The second period is associated with the discoveries of homing and meganuclease enzymes during the 80s and 90s, which were then engineered to provide efficient tools for targeted editing. From 2006 to 2012, a few crop plants were successfully and precisely modified using zinc-finger nucleases. A third wave of improvement in genome editing, which led to a dramatic decrease in off-target events, was achieved in 2009-2011 with the TALEN technology. The latest revolution surfaced in 2013 with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, whose high efficiency and technical ease of use is really impressive; scientists can use in-house kits or commercially available kits; the only two requirements are to carefully choose the location of the DNA double strand breaks to be induced and then to order an oligonucleotide. While this close-to- ultimate toolkit for targeted editing of genomes represents dramatic scientific progress which allows the development of more complex useful agronomic traits through synthetic biology, the social acceptance of genome editing remains regularly questioned by anti-GMO citizens and organizations. PMID:26566825

  1. Ultimate modulation bandwidth of 850 nm oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, M. A.; Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Blokhin, A. A.; Zadiranov, Yu M.; Troshkov, S. I.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    Complex influence of photon lifetime (controlled by the mirror loss) and aperture size on the performance of 850 nm InGaAlAs oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with fully doped AlGaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) was investigated. We find a tradeoff between photon lifetime and gain nonlinearity for maximizing the optical bandwidth, leading to the optimum aperture size close to 4-6 μm. In spite of the reduced photon lifetime (from 4 ps to 1 ps), the excess damping caused by the current-induced self-heating limits the ultimate modulation bandwidth for the given VCSELs design at 24-25 GHz. Further improvement in high frequency characteristics can be facilitated by decrease of the heat generation and improvement of the heat removal from the active region as well as by proper engineering of the scattering loss at the oxide aperture while keeping the low capacitance optimizing design of the oxide aperture.

  2. Near-infrared grating-assisted SPR optical fiber sensors: design rules for ultimate refractometric sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Caucheteur, Christophe; Voisin, Valérie; Albert, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Plasmonic optical fiber sensors are continuously developed for (bio)chemical sensing purposes. Recently, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) generation was achieved in gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs). These sensors probe the surrounding medium with near-infrared narrowband resonances, which enhances both the penetration depth of the evanescent field in the external medium and the wavelength resolution of the interrogation. They constitute a unique configuration to probe all the fiber cladding modes individually. We use them to analyze the modal distribution of gold-coated telecommunication-grade optical fibers immersed in aqueous solutions. Theoretical investigations with a finite-difference complex mode solver are confirmed by experimental data obtained on TFBGs. We show that the refractometric sensitivity varies with the mode order and that the global SPR envelope shift in response to surrounding refractive index (SRI) changes higher than 1e-2 RIU (refractive index unit) can be ~25% bigger than the local SPR mode shift arising from SRI changes limited to 1e-4 RIU. We bring clear evidence that the optimum gold thickness for SPR generation lies in the range between 50 and 70 nm while a cladding diameter decrease from 125 µm to 80 µm enhances the refractometric sensitivity by ~20%. Finally, we demonstrate that the ultimate refractometric sensitivity of cladding modes is ~550 nm/RIU when they are probed by gold-coated TFBGs. PMID:25836153

  3. Moisture absorption early postmortem predicts ultimate drip loss in fresh pork.

    PubMed

    Kapper, C; Walukonis, C J; Scheffler, T L; Scheffler, J M; Don, C; Morgan, M T; Forrest, J C; Gerrard, D E

    2014-02-01

    Water-holding capacity is the ability of meat to hold moisture and is subject to postmortem metabolism. The objective of this study was to characterize the loss of moisture from muscle postmortem and investigate whether these losses are useful in predicting the ultimate drip loss of fresh pork. Cotton-rayon absorptive-based devices were inserted in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pork carcasses (n = 51) postmortem and removed at various intervals for 24h. Greatest moisture absorption was observed at 105 min post exsanguination. Drip loss varied (0.6-15.3%) across carcasses. Individual absorption at 75 min correlated (r = 0.33) with final drip loss. Correlations improved using individual absorption values at 90 min (r = 0.48) and accumulated absorption values at 150 min (r = 0.41). Results show that significant moisture is lost from muscle tissue early postmortem and suggest that capture of this moisture may be useful in predicting final drip loss of fresh meat. PMID:24225387

  4. Ultimate tensile strength of dentin: Evidence for a damage mechanics approach to dentin failure.

    PubMed

    Staninec, Michal; Marshall, Grayson W; Hilton, Joan F; Pashley, David H; Gansky, Stuart A; Marshall, Sally J; Kinney, John H

    2002-01-01

    Dentin structure and properties are known to vary with orientation and location. The present study explored the variation in the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of dentin with location in the tooth. Hourglass specimens were prepared from dentin located in the center, under cusps, and in the cervical regions of human molar teeth. These were tested in tension at various distances from the pulp. Median tensile strengths ranged from 44.4 MPa in the inner dentin near the pulp, to 97.8 MPa near the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ). This increase in the median UTS with distance from the pulp to the DEJ was statistically significant (P <.001). Of particular importance was the observation that the UTS measurements followed a Weibull probability distribution, with a Weibull modulus of about 4.5. The Weibull behavior of the UTS data strongly suggests that the large variances in fracture strength data result from a distribution of preexisting defects in the dentin. These findings justify a damage-mechanics approach to studies of dentin failure. PMID:12115767

  5. Ultimate pressure capacity analysis of a post-tensioned reinforced concrete nuclear reactor containment building

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, W.T.; Macek, R.W.; Sadik, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a three dimensional nonlinear structural analysis of a post-tensioned reinforced concrete nuclear reactor containment building. The objective of the analysis was to develop and demonstrate modeling techniques appropriate for determining the global ultimate internal pressure capacity of this type of containment. The structural model developed for the ADINA computer code employed nonlinear material models with truss, shell and three dimensional continuum elements to represent the major structural members (tendons, rebars, ties, concrete and liner). In addition a special uniaxial elastic plastic shell material model was developed to facilitate representation of the dome tendon lacing pattern. Effective use of symmetry permitted all three dimensional effects to be represented in a 30/sup 0/ (0.52 rad) segment of the structure. The analysis suggested that gross failure of the structure at a quasistatic internal pressure of 99 psi (0.68 MPa) may have been precipitated by the nonaxisymmetric three dimensional nature of the stress field in the concrete near the tendon anchorages.

  6. The ultimate question of origins: God and the beginning of the Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, W. L.

    Both cosmology and philosophy trace their roots to the wonder felt by the ancient Greeks as they contemplated the Universe. The ultimate question remains why the Universe exists rather than nothing. This question led Leibniz to postulate the existence of a metaphysically necessary being, which he identified as God. Leibniz's critics, however, disputed this identification, claiming that the space-time universe itself may be the metaphysically necessary being. The discovery during this century that the Universe began to exist, however, calls into question the Universe's status as metaphysically necessary, since any necessary being must be eternal in its existence. Although various cosmogonic models claiming to avert the beginning of the Universe predicted by the standard model have been and continue to be offered, no model involving an eternal universe has proved as plausible as the standard model. Unless we are to assert that the Universe simply sprang into being uncaused out of nothing, we are thus led to Leibniz's conclusion. Several objections to inferring a supernatural cause of the origin of the Universe are considered and found to be unsound.

  7. The Ultimate Question of Origins: God and the Beginning of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, William Lane

    1999-12-01

    Both cosmology and philosophy trace their roots to the wonder felt by the ancient Greeks as they contemplated the universe. The ultimate question remains why the universe exists rather than nothing. This question led Leibniz to postulate the existence of a metaphysically necessary being, which he identified as God. Leibniz's critics, however, disputed this identification, claiming that the space-time universe itself may be the metaphysically necessary being. The discovery during this century that the universe began to exist, however, calls into question the universe's status as metaphysically necessary, since any necessary being must be eternal in its existence. Although various cosmogonic models claiming to avert the beginning of the universe predicted by the standard model have been and continue to be offered, no model involving an eternal universe has proved as plausible as the standard model. Unless we are to assert that the universe simply sprang into being uncaused out of nothing, we are thus led to Leibniz's conclusion. Several objections to inferring a supernatural cause of the origin of the universe are considered and found to be unsound.

  8. Compact programmable photonic variable delay devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Optical variable delay devices for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. A ladder-structured variable delay device comprises multiple basic building blocks stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic building block has two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array arranged to form a trihedron; Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes a beam passing through the array element either going up to a basic building block above it or reflect back towards a block below it. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. An index-switched optical variable delay device comprises of many birefringent crystal segments connected with one another, with a polarization rotator array sandwiched between any two adjacent crystal segments. An array element in the polarization rotator array controls the polarization state of a beam passing through the element, causing the beam experience different refractive indices or path delays in the following crystal segment. By independently control each element in each polarization rotator array, variable optical path delays of each beam can be achieved. Finally, an index-switched variable delay device and a ladder-structured variable device are cascaded to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. The device is inherently two dimensional and has a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm.sup.2. The delay resolution of the device is on the order of a femtosecond (one micron in space) and the total delay exceeds 10 nanosecond. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

  9. Delays in the human heartbeat dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Echeverría, Juan Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores the possibility of applying statistical nonlinear physics methods to elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling the heart rate. In particular, the presence of delays in RR interval dynamics is studied by using a lagged detrended fluctuation analysis. The results indicate that patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have a prolonged time delay in the baroreflex response. Some implications of large delays for the functioning of autonomic control in subjects with CHF are discussed.

  10. Influence of age on delayed surgical treatment of proximal femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Lisiane Pinto; do Nascimento, Leandra Delfim; Campos, Tulio Vinicius de Oliveira; Paiva, Edson Barreto; de Andrade, Marco Antonio Percope; Guimarães, Henrique Cerqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To investigate the influence of patients' age on the delay between diagnosis and surgical treatment of proximal femoral fractures METHODS : This is a retrospective study, con-ducted at a tertiary university hospital, including all patients admitted with proximal femoral fractures between March 2013 and March 2014. The participants were categorized into four groups according to age levels. The groups were compared according to demographics, comorbidities, fracture type, trau-ma circumstances, and time between diagnosis and surgical procedure RESULTS : One hundred and sixty one patients were included, 37 adults and 124 elderly. Among adults, the mean delay between diagnosis and surgical procedure was 6.4±5.3 days; among elderly the delay was 9.5±7.6 days. There was a progressive increase in the delay from the young-adults group through the elderly individuals (Kruskal-Wallis: 13.7; p=0.003) CONCLUSION : In spite of being the patients most susceptible to complications due to surgical delay, the elderly individuals pre-sented the longest delays from admission to surgical treatment. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Study. PMID:27057145

  11. Ultimate ceramic veneer: a laboratory-guided preparation technique for minimally invasive laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    De Andrade, Oswaldo Scopin; Hirata, Ronaldo; Celestrino, Marcos; Seto, Marcio; Siqueira, Sérgio; Nahas, Rodrigo

    2012-06-01

    Clinical success of ceramic laminate veneers depends on material selection, bonding procedures, controlled laboratory steps, and enamel preservation. Enamel preservation is the most critical because excessive tooth preparation can expose dentin reducing bond strength, which is a factor that can cause a decrease in long-term clinical success. The proposed technique based on carefully treatment planning developed between clinician and dental technician helps to maximize enamel preservation, which is an important element for clinical success. PMID:22856034

  12. Comparing Simultaneous Prompting and Constant Time Delay to Teach Leisure Skills to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Jannike; Schuster, John W.; Ault, Melinda Jones; Collins, Belva C.; Hall, Meada

    2014-01-01

    We compared the effects of simultaneous prompting and constant time delay in teaching two solitaire card games to five high school students with moderate intellectual disability. An adapted alternating treatments within a multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the procedures. Both procedures were effective…

  13. Identification of Printed Nonsense Words for an Individual with Autism: A Comparison of Constant Time Delay and Stimulus Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redhair, Emily I.; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Zucker, Stanley H.; Mathur, Sarup R.; Caterino, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a stimulus fading (SF) procedure with a constant time delay (CTD) procedure for identification of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonsense words for a participant with autism. An alternating treatments design was utilized through a computer-based format. Receptive identification of target words was evaluated using a computer…

  14. Time delay plots of unflavoured baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.; Khemchandani, K. P.; Jain, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    We explore the usefulness of the existing relations between the S-matrix and time delay in characterizing baryon resonances in pion-nucleon scattering. We draw attention to the fact that the existence of a positive maximum in time delay is a necessary criterion for the existence of a resonance and should be used as a constraint in conventional analyses which locate resonances from poles of the S-matrix and Argand diagrams. The usefulness of the time delay plots of resonances is demonstrated through a detailed analysis of the time delay in several partial waves of πN elastic scattering.

  15. Computation of signal delays in RC networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Narendran, Paliath; Chaiken, Seth

    1993-01-01

    A model for signal delay computation in RC networks is presented. The strength of the paradigm is its generality and simplicity. The definition of delay is applicable to RC meshes with potential resistive attenuating paths to ground. The algorithms can also be applied to undriven circuits (static charge sharing) and circuits with initial charge. To compute the delays, each node in the network is explored locally to derive a system of sparse linear equations. The solutions of the system are delay values based on the Elmore time constant at each point in the circuit.

  16. Oscillation onset in neural delayed feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Longtin, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studies dynamical aspects of neural systems with delayed negative feedback modelled by nonlinear delay-differential equations. These systems undergo a Hopf bifurcation from a stable fixed point to a limit cycle oscillation as certain parameters are varied. We show that their frequency of oscillation is robust to parameter variations and noisy fluctuations, a property that makes these systems good candidates for pacemakers. The onset of oscillation is postponed by both additive and parametric noise in the sense that the state variable spends more time near the fixed point. Finally, we show that a distributed delay (rather than a fixed delay) also stabilizes the fixed point solution. 40 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Second order Kerr-Newman time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, G.; Lin, W.

    2016-01-01

    The explicit form for the post-Newtonian gravitational time delay of light signals propagating on the equatorial plane of a Kerr-Newman black hole is derived. Based on the null geodesic in Kerr-Newman spacetime, we adopt the iterative method to calculate the time delay. Our result reduces to the previous formulation for the Kerr black hole if we drop the contribution from the electrical charge. Our time-delay formula for the Reissner-Nordström geometry is different from the previous publication [Phys. Rev. D 69, 023002 (2004)], in which the largest second order contribution to the time delay is missing.

  18. Computation of signal delays in RC networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Narendran, Paliath; Chaiken, Seth

    A model for signal delay computation in RC networks is presented. The strength of the paradigm is its generality and simplicity. The definition of delay is applicable to RC meshes with potential resistive attenuating paths to ground. The algorithms can also be applied to undriven circuits (static charge sharing) and circuits with initial charge. To compute the delays, each node in the network is explored locally to derive a system of sparse linear equations. The solutions of the system are delay values based on the Elmore time constant at each point in the circuit.

  19. Literacy Activities for Developmentally Delayed Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerard; D'Alonzo, Bruno J.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews six models of prereading programs for developmentally delayed adults: readinglike behavior, picture reading, global features of books, print in the environment, labeling, and rebus symbols. (SK)

  20. Intron Delays and Transcriptional Timing during Development

    PubMed Central

    Swinburne, Ian A.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2010-01-01

    The time taken to transcribe most metazoan genes is significant because of the substantial length of introns. Developmentally regulated gene networks, where timing and dynamic patterns of expression are critical, may be particularly sensitive to intron delays. We revisit and comment on a perspective last presented by Thummel 16 years ago: transcriptional delays may contribute to timing mechanisms during development. We discuss the presence of intron delays in genetic networks. We consider how delays can impact particular moments during development, which mechanistic attributes of transcription can influence them, how they can be modeled, and how they can be studied using recent technological advances as well as classical genetics. PMID:18331713

  1. Experience with early anastomosis after the Hartmann procedure.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, J G; Rosenberg, I L

    1991-03-01

    From January 1980 to December 1989, 108 Hartmann procedures were performed and 55 of these patients subsequently had colorectal continuity re-established. Thirty-eight patients had colorectal anastomosis after an average interval of 6.5 months and 17 had early anastomosis performed within 1 month of the primary procedure. On the basis of the experience reported here, it would seem that early colorectal anastomosis does not increase the risk to the patient and may be an easier procedure to perform than the delayed operation. For selected patients, we recommend early colorectal anastomosis after a Hartmann procedure, thus sparing them the problems of life with a temporary colostomy. PMID:2018324

  2. IMPROVING PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCING OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCIES WITH THE ULTIMATE AIM OF INCORPORATING THESE TECHNIQUES INTO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A REGIONAL CURRICULAR MATERIALS CENTER FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JENSEN, ARTHUR K.

    THE INVESTIGATION RESULTED IN THE PRODUCTION OF 88 LOW-COST OVERHEAD PROJECTION TRANSPARENCIES ON THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF POWER TRANSMISSION IN AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY. DEVELOPING TECHNIQUES FOR OFFSET PRINTING ON PLASTIC REQUIRED OVERCOMING PROBLEMS OF STATIC ELECTRICITY, INK ADHESION, OFFSETTING, AND DRYING. MACHINERY, ENVIRONMENT, AND INK WERE…

  3. Exponential stability analysis of linear systems with multiple successive delay components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Pi; Fong, I.-Kong

    2013-06-01

    A general class of linear systems with multiple successive delay components is considered in this article. The delays are assumed to vary in intervals, and delay-dependent exponential stability conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. To reduce conservativeness, a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is designed to contain more complete state information, so that a derivation procedure with time-varying delays treated as uncertain parameters can be adopted. Usage of slack variables and inequalities are refrained as much as possible when bounds on the Lyapunov derivative are sought. The stability criteria are tested by two popular numerical examples, with less conservative results obtained in all the checked cases. Besides, a practical application of the derived conditions is illustrated.

  4. Improved delay-dependent stability criteria for neutral-type systems with time-varying delays: a delayed decomposition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pin-Lin

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the neutral system with time-varying delay. Firstly, by developing a delayed decomposition approach and introducing integral inequality approach, the information of the delayed plant states can be taken into full consideration, and new delay-dependent sufficient stability criteria are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Then, based on the Lyapunov method, delay-dependent stability criteria are devised by taking the relationship between the terms in the Leibniz-Newton formula into account. The criteria are derived in terms of LMIs, which can be easily solved by using various convex optimization algorithms. Three illustrative numerical examples are given to show the less conservatism of our obtained results and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Development of adaptive seismic isolators for ultimate seismic protection of civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchun; Li, Yancheng; Li, Weihua; Samali, Bijan

    2013-04-01

    Base isolation is the most popular seismic protection technique for civil engineering structures. However, research has revealed that the traditional base isolation system due to its passive nature is vulnerable to two kinds of earthquakes, i.e. the near-fault and far-fault earthquakes. A great deal of effort has been dedicated to improve the performance of the traditional base isolation system for these two types of earthquakes. This paper presents a recent research breakthrough on the development of a novel adaptive seismic isolation system as the quest for ultimate protection for civil structures, utilizing the field-dependent property of the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). A novel adaptive seismic isolator was developed as the key element to form smart seismic isolation system. The novel isolator contains unique laminated structure of steel and MR elastomer layers, which enable its large-scale civil engineering applications, and a solenoid to provide sufficient and uniform magnetic field for energizing the field-dependent property of MR elastomers. With the controllable shear modulus/damping of the MR elastomer, the developed adaptive seismic isolator possesses a controllable lateral stiffness while maintaining adequate vertical loading capacity. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the development of the adaptive seismic isolator is present including designs, analysis and testing of two prototypical adaptive seismic isolators utilizing two different MRE materials. Experimental results show that the first prototypical MRE seismic isolator can provide stiffness increase up to 37.49%, while the second prototypical MRE seismic isolator provides amazing increase of lateral stiffness up to1630%. Such range of increase of the controllable stiffness of the seismic isolator makes it highly practical for developing new adaptive base isolation system utilizing either semi-active or smart passive controls.

  6. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    PubMed

    Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Orell, Markku; Vatka, Emma; Rytkönen, Seppo; Broggi, Juli

    2016-01-01

    Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony). Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis) can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence), in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major) and the willow tit (Poecile montanus) by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider subsequent

  7. Proximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Zahra; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Troccaz, Olivier; Baudry, Jacques; Pinay, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    Direct and indirect effects from human activity have dramatically increased nutrient loading to aquatic inland and estuarine ecosystems. Despite an abundance of studies investigating the impact of agricultural activity on water quality, our understanding of what determines the capacity of a watershed to remove or retain nutrients remains limited. The goal of this study was to identify proximate and ultimate controls on dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics in small agricultural catchments by investigating the relationship between catchment characteristics, stream discharge, and water chemistry. We analyzed a 5-year, high-frequency water chemistry data set from three catchments in western France ranging from 2.3 to 10.8 km2. The relationship between hydrology and solute concentrations differed between the three catchments and was associated with hedgerow density, agricultural activity, and geology. The catchment with thicker soil and higher surface roughness had relatively invariant carbon and nutrient chemistry across hydrologic conditions, indicating high resilience to human disturbance. Conversely, the catchments with smoother, thinner soils responded to both intra- and interannual hydrologic variation with high concentrations of phosphate (PO43-) and ammonium (NH4+) in streams during low flow conditions and strong increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sediment, and particulate organic matter during high flows. Despite contrasting agricultural activity between catchments, the physical context (geology, topography, and land-use configuration) appeared to be the most important determinant of catchment solute dynamics based on principle components analysis. The influence of geology and accompanying topographic and geomorphological factors on water quality was both direct and indirect because the distribution of agricultural activity in these catchments is largely a consequence of the geologic and topographic context. This link between inherent

  8. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM.

    SciTech Connect

    DEGRASSI,G.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,C.; SUZUKI,K.; NAMITA,Y.

    2003-08-17

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper.

  9. Proximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Z.; Abbott, B. W.; Troccaz, O.; Baudry, J.; Pinay, G.

    2015-09-01

    Direct and indirect effects from agriculture, urbanization, and resource extraction have dramatically increased nutrient loading to aquatic inland and estuarine ecosystems. The capacity of a watershed to remove or retain nutrients is a function of biotic and abiotic conditions across the terrestrial-aquatic gradient including soil, groundwater, riparian zone, and surface water. The goal of this study was to identify proximate and ultimate controls on dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics in small agricultural catchments. We analysed a five-year, high frequency water chemistry dataset from 3 catchments ranging from 2.3 to 10.8 km2 in northwestern France. Catchments differed in the relationship between hydrology and solute concentrations, associated with catchment characteristics such as hedgerow density, agricultural activity, and geology. The catchment with thicker soil and higher surface roughness appeared to have greater transient storage and residence time, buffering the catchment to fluctuations in water chemistry, reflected in relatively invariant carbon and nutrient chemistry across hydrologic conditions. Conversely, the catchments with smoother, thinner soils responded to both intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variation with high concentrations of PO43- and NH4+ during low flow conditions and strong increases in DOC, sediment, and particulate organic matter during high flows. Despite contrasting agricultural activity between catchments, the physical context (geology, topography, and land use) appeared to be the most important determinant of catchment solute dynamics based on principle components analysis. The influence of geology and accompanying topographic and geomorphological factors on elemental fluxes is both direct and indirect because the distribution of agricultural activity in these catchments is largely a consequence of the geologic and topographic context. This link between inherent catchment buffering capacity and probability of human

  10. The Effects of Fading, Modeling, Prompting, and Direct Instruction on Letter Legibility for Two Preschool Students with Physical and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Christine; Weber, Kimberly P.; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the model, lead, and test procedure, as well as a fading procedure with prompts and Direct Instruction with two preschool developmentally delayed students. These procedures were implemented to teach a class of preschoolers to write their names in preparation for their kindergarten…

  11. Spike phase synchronization in delayed-coupled neural networks: Uniform vs. non-uniform transmission delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated phase synchronization in delayed dynamical networks. Non-identical spiking Hindmarsh-Rose neurons were considered as individual dynamical systems and coupled through a number of network structures such as scale-free, Erdős-Rényi, and modular. The individual neurons were coupled through excitatory chemical synapses with uniform or distributed time delays. The profile of spike phase synchrony was different when the delay was uniform across the edges as compared to the case when it was distributed, i.e., different delays for the edges. When an identical transmission delay was considered, a quasi-periodic pattern was observed in the spike phase synchrony. There were specific values of delay where the phase synchronization reached to its peaks. The behavior of the phase synchronization in the networks with non-uniform delays was different with the former case, where the phase synchrony decreased as distributed delays introduced to the networks.

  12. The atmospheric information content of GPS Slant Total Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zus, Florian; Dick, Galina; Wickert, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Radio signals which are transmitted by GPS satellites and received by a ground-based station allow the estimation of the Zenith Total Delay (ZTD). Clearly, the ZTD is of limited value in weather forecasting because it does not contain information about horizontal (and vertical) atmospheric gradients. In this work we show that the estimated Slant Total Delays (STDs), i.e. the atmospheric induced signal travel time delays between the GPS satellites in view and the station, contain the desired additional information. To do so, we first determine artificial STDs in a Numerical Weather Model (NWM) by point-to-point raytracing and retrieve NWM refractivity gradients through a non-linear least square analysis. Then, we repeat this exercise but use real STDs instead to retrieve GPS refractivity gradients. This procedure is done station-by-station for ~200 stations in Germany and maps of NWM and GPS horizontal refractity gradients are generated. The remarkable close agreement between the maps (inspection by eye) leads to the conclusion that STDs carry the signature of the atmospheric asymmetry. The statistics supports this finding and since STDs are available in near-real time as well they are considered a valuable new data source for weather forecasting.

  13. A within-subject analysis of d-amphetamine exposure on delay discounting in rats.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Krebs, Christopher A; Anderson, Karen G

    2012-10-01

    Studies concerning the relation between stimulant drug exposure and subsequent delay discounting (impulsive choice) have resulted in mixed findings that could be related to the type of stimulant drug exposure or the use of between-subject comparisons. The purpose of the present study was to examine effects of prior D-amphetamine exposure on subsequent delay discounting using a within-subject assessment. Two groups of rats were trained under a discrete-trials choice procedure until delay discounting was stable. One group of rats then received repeated administration of 3.0 mg/kg D-amphetamine in their home cage for 14 consecutive days, while the other group received saline. After a three-week drug-free period, delay discounting was reassessed. No significant differences in area under the curve within (before or after drug exposure) or between (saline or D-amphetamine) groups were found. Thus, delay discounting was not systematically affected following termination of repeated 3.0 mg/kg D-amphetamine exposure in the present experimental arrangement. The current results, coupled with past research, indicate that there may be a distinction between cocaine exposure and D-amphetamine exposure on subsequent delay discounting; however, within-subject comparisons of cocaine exposure on delay discounting are warranted. PMID:22750554

  14. Signal-Detection Analyses of Conditional Discrimination and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of stimulus control and reinforcer control in conditional discriminations and delayed matching-to-sample procedures often encounter a problem; it is not clear how to analyze data when subjects have not made errors. The present article examines two common methods for overcoming this problem. Monte Carlo simulations of…

  15. 76 FR 54690 - Statutory Delays of Notifications and Prohibitions of Disclosure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... 16, Code of Federal Regulations, as follows: PART 2--NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES 0 1. The authority... A--Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes 0 2. Add Sec. 2.17 to read as follows: Sec. 2.17... CFR Part 2 Statutory Delays of Notifications and Prohibitions of Disclosure AGENCY: Federal...

  16. Effects of Methylphenidate and Morphine on Delay-Discount Functions Obtained within Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Raymond C.; McKinney, A. Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Four rats responded under a "self-control" procedure designed to obtain delay- discount functions within sessions. Each session consisted of seven blocks, with seven trials within each block. Each block consisted of two initial forced- choice trials followed by five free-choice trials. On choice trials, the rats could press either of two…

  17. Contextual Specificity of Extinction of Delay but Not Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grillon, Christian; Alvarez, Ruben P.; Johnson, Linda; Chavis, Chanen

    2008-01-01

    Renewal of an extinguished conditioned response has been demonstrated in humans and in animals using various types of procedures, except renewal of motor learning such as eyeblink conditioning. We tested renewal of delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in a virtual environment in an ABA design. Following acquisition in one context (A, e.g., an…

  18. Using Constant Time Delay To Teach Preventative Safety Skills to Preschoolers with Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Sarah; Tso, Marion

    This final report describes a study to investigate the effects of an intervention procedure that included time delay, praise, and other cues on the acquisition of safety skills in preschool children with disabilities. Twelve preschool-aged children with disabilities from six different classrooms participated. Preventive safety skills consisted of…

  19. Teaching Memorized Spelling with a Microcomputer: Time Delay and Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Kay B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction program was used to teach spelling words to 5 learning-disabled or educable mentally handicapped students (ages 11-12) using a time delay procedure; manage content presentation based on individual student responding; and collect performance data. Four students learned the words, though maintenance varied.…

  20. New delay dependent stability criteria for recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiongfen; Ren, Quanhong; Xie, Xuemei

    2014-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the delay dependent stability criteria for a class of static recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay. By choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing a delay partitioning method, the less conservative condition is obtained. Furthermore, the LMIs-based condition depend on the lower and upper bounds of time delay. Finally, a numerical example is also designated to verify the reduced conservatism of developed criteria. PMID:24908560