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Sample records for delgada azores portugal

  1. Hydrogeology framework of the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. V.; Coutinho, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands located in the North Atlantic Ocean, spread along a 600 km-long NW-SE strip, approximately 1600 km from Portugal mainland. All the islands are of volcanic origin and only in Santa Maria, the eastern most island of the Azores, are there sedimentary units interbedded in the volcanic succession of basic nature. Groundwater resources in the Azores are essential both as drinking water source and for ecosystem support. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, with an average annual precipitation at the Azores equal to 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration (581 mm). From October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered, which also influences recharge distribution along the year. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, with the highest values been observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is thin, and the groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Despite differences in the volcanic successions observed in the several islands, resulting from volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be generally described in terms of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in the volcanic edifices slopes. Specific well capacity ranges between 1.40x10-2 L/sm and 266.67 L/sm, with a median of 32.29 L/sm (Cruz 2001a, 2004). The values exhibit marked variability among the wells from the different islands. The highest specific capacity is observed on Pico and Graciosa, with wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured with frequently interbedded clincker levels. Transmissivity values also

  2. Historical tsunami in the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Borges, P.; Freitas, M. C.

    2006-08-01

    Because of its exposed northern mid-Atlantic location, morphology and plate-tectonics setting, the Azores Archipelago is highly vulnerable to tsunami hazards associated with landslides and seismic or volcanic triggers, local or distal. Critical examination of available data - written accounts and geologic evidence - indicates that, since the settlement of the archipelago in the 15th century, at least 23 tsunami have struck Azorean coastal zones. Most of the recorded tsunami are generated by earthquakes. The highest known run-up (11-15 m) was recorded on 1 November 1755 at Terceira Island, corresponding to an event of intensity VII-VIII (damaging-heavily damaging) on the Papadopolous-Imamura scale. To date, eruptive activity, while relatively frequent in the Azores, does not appear to have generated destructive tsunami. However, this apparent paucity of volcanogenic tsunami in the historical record may be misleading because of limited instrumental and documentary data, and small source-volumes released during historical eruptions. The latter are in contrast with the geological record of massive pyroclastic flows and caldera explosions with potential to generate high-magnitude tsunami, predating settlement. In addition, limited evidence suggests that submarine landslides from unstable volcano flanks may have also triggered some damaging tsunamigenic floods that perhaps were erroneously attributed to intense storms. The lack of destructive tsunami since the mid-18th century has led to governmental complacency and public disinterest in the Azores, as demonstrated by the fact that existing emergency regulations concerning seismic events in the Azores Autonomous Region make no mention of tsunami and their attendant hazards. We suspect that the coastal fringe of the Azores may well preserve a sedimentary record of some past tsunamigenic flooding events. Geological field studies must be accelerated to expand the existing database to include prehistoric events

  3. Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.

    2009-04-01

    The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands of volcanic origin located in the North Atlantic Ocean, with an area of 2333 km2 and approximately 237500 inhabitants, which are 98% dependant from groundwater sources for their water consumption. Therefore, groundwater is a resource that plays a vital role as drinking water source and as ecosystem support matrix. Nevertheless, besides the environmental, social and economical value of groundwater, this resource is subject to an increase pressure and in several islands water quality deterioration is shown by monitoring data. This pressure is also shown by the 42.7% increase expected for domestic use until the year 2020 at the Azores, with higher groundwater abstraction. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, which is reflected by the low thermal amplitude and high precipitation. A well-established difference between a dry season and a colder and wet season occurs, as from October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered. The average annual precipitation at the Azores is 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration, which is 581 mm. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, and the highest values are observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is sparse. Groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Values above the recharge median, equal to 101.3x106 m3/yr. were estimated for the São Miguel, São Jorge, Terceira and Flores islands. Despite differences in the islands growth, as a result of successive volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be described in function of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in

  4. Fluoride content in drinking water supply in São Miguel volcanic island (Azores, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, S; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V

    2012-08-15

    High fluoride contents in the water supply of the city of Ponta Delgada, located in the volcanic island of São Miguel (Azores, Portugal) have been reported. Dental fluorosis in São Miguel has been identified and described in several medical surveys. The water supply in Ponta Delgada consists entirely of groundwater. A study was carried out in order to characterize the natural F-pollution of a group of springs (30) and wells (3), that are associated to active central volcanoes of a trachytic nature. Two springs known for their high content in fluoride were sampled, both located in the central volcano of Furnas. The sampled waters are cold, ranging from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (pH range 6.53-7.60), exhibiting a low electrical conductivity (springs range 87-502 μS/cm; wells range 237-1761 μS/cm), and are mainly from the Na-HCO(3), Na-HCO(3)-Cl and Na-Cl-HCO(3) water types. Results suggest two main trends of geochemical evolution: silicate weathering, enhanced by CO(2) dilution, and seawater spraying. Fluoride contents range between 0.17 mg/L and 2 mg/L, and no seasonal variations were detected. Results in the sources of the water supply system are lower than those of the Furnas volcano, which reach 5.09 mgF/L, demonstrating the effect of F-rich gaseous emanations in this area. Instead, the higher fluoride contents in the water supply are mainly due to silicate weathering in aquifers made of more evolved volcanic rocks. PMID:22705903

  5. Viticultural zoning of Graciosa island of the Azores archipelago - Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, João; Reis, Francisco; Felipe, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The management and sustainability of the traditional vineyards of the Azores settled on lava field terrains is strongly affected by practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of the vineyards. In a recent macrozoning approach study Madruga et al (2015) showed that besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the Azores islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics indicate a potential for the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed viticultural zoning at the level of the small mapscale (smaller than 1:25,000), for the island of Graciosa where, besides the traditional lava field terroir, there are also some localized experiences of grapevine production over normal soils, offering thus some comparative information on this type of production conditions. The zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate and topography which was then combined with the soil mapping units fulfilling the suitable criteria concerning the soil properties taken as the most relevant for viticulture, being the result a map of homogeneous environmental units. The climatic zoning examined the direct quantitative variables (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) in relation to climate index, bioclimatic and viticultural specific values. Topography (elevation, slope, aspect, orientation) was analyzed based on the tridimensional models of the islands in GIS to include the best slopes for the mechanization of the vineyard cultural operations (0-15%). Soils were analyzed based on data and soil map units as defined in the soil surveys of the Azores archipelago. The soil properties taken for the analysis and definition of the potential vineyard areas were drainage, water holding capacity

  6. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  7. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  8. Tracking the evolution of the G1/RHDVb recombinant strains introduced from the Iberian Peninsula to the Azores islands, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tereza; Lopes, Ana M; Magalhães, Maria J; Neves, Fabiana; Pinheiro, Ana; Gonçalves, David; Leitão, Manuel; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana

    2015-08-01

    Previous genetic characterization of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) from Azores, Portugal, revealed the presence of genogroup 3-5 (G3-G5) like strains. These strains differed from the genogroup 1 (G1) strains circulating in mainland Portugal, suggesting an independent evolution of RHDV in Azores. More recently, the new variant RHDV (RHDVb) was detected in Azores. In mainland Portugal, current circulating strains resulted from recombination events between RHDVb and non-pathogenic or pathogenic G1 strains. To characterize the RHDVb strains from Azores, a ∼2.5 kb fragment of the RHDV genome (nucleotide positions 4873-7323), including the complete sequence of the capsid gene VP60 (nucleotide positions 5305-7044), was amplified and sequenced. Samples were obtained from rabbits found dead in the field between December 2014 and March 2015 in the Azorean islands Flores, Graciosa, São Jorge, Terceira, Faial, Pico, São Miguel and Santa Maria. For VP60, the highest homology was found with Iberian RHDVb strains, while the upstream fragment revealed high similarity (∼95%) with Iberian G1 strains. Phylogenetic reconstruction based either on VP60 or VP10 grouped the Azorean strains with Iberian RHDVb strains. For the fragment upstream of VP60, the Azorean strains grouped with G1. Our results show that the RHDVb strains circulating in Azores are G1/RHDVb recombinants and we hypothesize that such strains had their origin in Iberian strains. The geographic isolation of Azores suggests that arrival of RHDVb was man-mediated. A network analysis further allowed us to trace virus dispersion in Azores: from an initial outbreak in Graciosa, RHDVb spread to São Jorge and Faial, to Terceira, Flores and Santa Maria, and finally to Pico; dispersion to São Miguel occurred later from Terceira. As the consequences of the presence of G1/RHDVb strains in Azores are unpredictable, we suggest a continued monitoring and characterization of RHD outbreaks. PMID:26165506

  9. Natural background groundwater composition in the Azores archipelago (Portugal): a hydrogeochemical study and threshold value determination.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J V; Andrade, C

    2015-07-01

    Groundwater discharges were sampled in selected springs from São Miguel (Furnas and Fogo trachytic central volcanoes) and Santa Maria islands (Azores, Portugal), in order to characterize natural background levels (NBLs) and proceed to the determination of threshold values (TVs). Besides being a key issue in order to fully assess the anthropogenic pressures, NBLs are also instrumental to derive TVs, therefore complying with requirements from the European Union Groundwater Directive. The composition of groundwater corresponds mainly to low mineralized Na-HCO3 to Na-Cl water types, the latter dominant in Santa Maria island, with a decreasing order of Na>Ca>Mg>K and Cl>HCO3>SO4>NO3 for cations and anion respectively. The majority of the samples are slightly acid to slightly alkaline (pH range of 5.45-7.43), and the electrical conductivity range between 180 and 1458 μS/cm. Groundwater composition is controlled by two major drivers, addition of sea salts and dissolution of silicate minerals. Results shown that TVs established along the present study are in general in the lower rank when compared to the range of values proposed by the several EU member states, with the main exception of NO3, reflecting the impact of agriculture activities over water quality in the Azores, and lower than the national ones. The comparison between the estimated NBL and TV with values derived with another dataset from the Azores, usually higher, depicts the effect of a larger and diverse number of groundwater sources over calculations. On the other hand, all samples which show a contribution from volcanic/hydrothermal systems were excluded from the dataset, which explains why the derived NBLs and TVs are lower comparing to other active volcanic areas, which is also a conservative approach on a subject that has regulatory implications. PMID:25813965

  10. Molybdenum and Uranium from Remote Continental Origin at Pico Summit, Pico Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Carmo Freitas, Maria do; Pacheco, Adriano M. G.; Tuncel, Guerdal

    2008-08-07

    The present study looks into aerosols collected by a land-based, seven-wavelength Aethalometer, from the lower-free troposphere close to the summit of the Pico mountain (top height: 2351 m; sampling height: 2225 m), in Pico island, Azores, Portugal. Following suitable handling and preparation procedures, all samples were put through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k{sub 0}-variant) for elemental assessment. Archival data have been used as an input to the HYSPLIT model (courtesy of NOAA ARL READY Website) for computing isentropic, backward trajectories of air masses reaching the Pico atmosphere. The results point to significant enrichments of molybdenum and uranium in high-altitude aerosols, especially in the summer samples. A local origin for either element is most unlikely though: Pico is a rural island, and there are no comparable records from low-altitude stations in the Azores at large. On the contrary, long-range transport from remote sources in continental areas--Europe and North-Central America--is rather compatible with the synoptic, elemental pathways converging over the Pico observatory for the period under study.

  11. Molybdenum and Uranium from Remote Continental Origin at Pico Summit, Pico Island, Azores, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Pacheco, Adriano M. G.; Tuncel, Gürdal

    2008-08-01

    The present study looks into aerosols collected by a land-based, seven-wavelength Aethalometer, from the lower-free troposphere close to the summit of the Pico mountain (top height: 2351 m; sampling height: 2225 m), in Pico island, Azores, Portugal. Following suitable handling and preparation procedures, all samples were put through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k0-variant) for elemental assessment. Archival data have been used as an input to the HYSPLIT model (courtesy of NOAA ARL READY Website) for computing isentropic, backward trajectories of air masses reaching the Pico atmosphere. The results point to significant enrichments of molybdenum and uranium in high-altitude aerosols, especially in the summer samples. A local origin for either element is most unlikely though: Pico is a rural island, and there are no comparable records from low-altitude stations in the Azores at large. On the contrary, long-range transport from remote sources in continental areas—Europe and North-Central America—is rather compatible with the synoptic, elemental pathways converging over the Pico observatory for the period under study.

  12. Mineral water discharges at the Azores archipelago (Portugal): hydrogeological setting, chemical composition and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, P.; Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Costa, A.; Antunes, P.

    2009-04-01

    The geological setting of the Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic ocean, about 1500 km form Portugal mainland and made of 9 islands of volcanic origin, enhances the multiplicity of surface hydrothermal manifestations. Therefore, a field survey made possible to identify 101 mineral water discharges in the Azores, mainly of CO2-rich cold waters and thermal waters, spread along São Miguel (75%), Terceira (6%), Graciosa (7%), Pico (2%), Faial (3%), São Jorge (5%) and Flores ( 2%) islands, as well as fumarolic grounds. Furnas and Fogo central volcanoes, two of the three composite active volcanoes that dominates the geology of São Miguel, the largest island of the archipelago, represent respectively about 41% and 24% of the discharges from the Azores. Discharges are mainly from fissured aquifers, made of basaltic or trachitic lava flows. Instead, discharges from porous aquifers, made of pyroclastic deposits, mainly of pumice type, are less common, and are more frequent at São Miguel island. The studied discharges correspond mainly to springs (75), and also to boiling pools (10), at fumarolic grounds, 14 drilled wells and 2 large-diameter wells. The boiling pools are only observable at São Miguel island, while drilled wells were made at São Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa. Groundwater at Azores occurs in two major aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) in perched-water bodies. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. From the 14 drilled wells only two are in perched-water bodies. Considering mineral springs, the majority discharge from perched-water bodies (77%), while all the boiling pools also discharge in altitude, also from perched -water bodies. During the field survey an extensive campaign of sample collection was made in all islands, in order to characterize the chemical composition of these waters

  13. Near-surface wave velocity structure of Faial (Azores - Portugal) Island for site effect studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, José; Neves, Samuel; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Carvalho, João; Carvalho, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Throughout history, the life of the Azorean people has been marked by earthquakes that have had different effects depending on their proximity and magnitude. This seismic activity, which may have volcanic or tectonic origins, has affected the population of these islands by destroying infrastructure and claiming lives. The social and economic impacts of these phenomena are enormous. The last significant event affecting the Azores (Portugal) was the July 1998 Mw=6.2 earthquake causing major destruction affecting more than 5000 people, causing 8 deaths, 150 persons injured and 1500 homeless. Ground motion simulations are mainly based on source characteristics and are heavily dependent on the medium, which is still poorly understood. Subsurface soil condition can amplify the seismic waves, so, for seismic response analysis, it is necessary to know the shallow soil properties and its spatial variability. For this purpose, we applied P and S-wave refraction, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to characterize shear wave velocity at different sites in the Faial Island, in particular, in sites where already occurred amplification. Ambient vibrations can also be used to estimate physical properties of the shallower geological formations. With this goal, the obtained velocity models were confirmed by comparison between real H/V curves with synthetic ones. We concluded that the anomalous intensities observed in some sites are strongly related to thick layers of soft sediments of pyroclastic deposits produced by old volcanic eruptions occurred in the Faial Island.

  14. Chemical monitoring of river water bodies in an EU outermost region: examples from the Azores archipelago (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cruz, José Virgílio; Pacheco, Dina; Coutinho, Rui; Cymbron, Raquel; Mendes, Sandra; Antunes, Paulo; Fontiela, João; Freire, Pedro

    2010-12-01

    Chemical monitoring of water quality on a total of 16 rivers in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), since 2003, made it possible to identify the major pressures and spatial geochemical variations along main course of the rivers. River water pollution is to a large extent associated to point sources, namely domestic wastewater discharges, especially in urban areas, and diffuse sources, associated with pasture land, and explain the high values on BOD(5) and nutrients (P and N). Heavy metals and metalloids, as well as hydrocarbons and pesticides, are generally under the detection limits of the analytical methods. Generally, river water reflects pollution loads according to a simple model, derived from land use in the watershed: in the upper part conditions are pristine, in the intermediate portion of the basin pasture land dominates and near the coast urban discharges are increasingly important. Results stress the role that an approach based on the watershed scale, coupled with land use management measures, are crucial to water management procedures and a successful WFD implementation in small river basin districts like the Azores. The paper also shows the need for full compliance regarding EU directives on urban wastewater and nitrate pollution due to agriculture. PMID:21076769

  15. APPLICATION OF AUDIO-MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS ON SAO MIGUEL ISLAND, AZORES PORTUGAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Donald; Rodrigues Da Silva, A.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Amaral, Roberto

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal exploration and development has been under way on Sao Miguel Island, Azores since 1975. This work had been restricted to the Fogo volcano, one of three dormant silicic volcanic centers on the island. The USGS in 1982 and 1983 conducted reconnaissance natural-source audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys of all three silicic centers to evaluate the potential for geothermal systems at each and to demonstrate the utility of the method in areas of difficult terrain. Results on Fogo showed a low resistivity trend extending from the present production area upslope to the caldera boundary. The upper part of this trend is the upwelling zone of a thermal plume which supplies the production area. Further exploration and drilling are now planned for this area.

  16. Intertidal rocky shore seaweed communities subject to the influence of shallow water hydrothermal activity in São Miguel (Azores, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallenstein, Francisco M.; Couto, Ruben P.; Torrão, Daniel F.; Neto, Ana I.; Rodrigues, Armindo S.; Wilkinson, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The volcanic origin of the Azores archipelago (Portugal) gives rise to active deep sea and shallow water hydrothermal activity that affects benthic communities. Intertidal seaweed surveys were conducted at two shores affected by intense shallow water hydrothermal vents. Water temperature, acidity and salinity were monitored. Seaweed communities were found to be species poor and have a disproportionally larger number of filamentous early successional species on shores that are subject to the effect of hot and acidic freshwater of volcanic origin. There is an ecological resemblance between hydrothermally affected seaweed communities in the Azores and those affected by acid mine drainage in the UK, thus indicating that hydrothermalism can be a useful scenario for pollution studies under conditions of ocean warming and acidification.

  17. Portugal.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  18. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal) and its implications for the NAO signal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesús Rubio, Maria; Sanchez, Guiomar; Saez, Alberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Francus, Pierre; Hernández, Armand; Margalef, Olga; Buchaca, Teresa; Pla, Sergi; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Azores archipelago lies in the southern area of the dipole that defines the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the negative phase of the NAO, the Azores high pressure is displaced southwards allowing the storms to cross the islands increasing the precipitation in this area and also in southern Europe. This fact makes them excellent key places to perform accurate high-resolution climate reconstructions. Lake Azul (37o 52' 21"N - 37o52'21"W) is a monomictic lake infilling the volcanic complex of Sete Cidades which is located in São Miguel island. This monomictic and eutrophic lake was formed around 22000 cal. years B.P. by consecutive collapses of the underneath volcanic caldera. The last eruption of the Sete Cidades crater complex was radiocarbon-dated at 500-650 cal years B.P. At present, macrophytes are restricted to the lake shore and consist mainly of Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea alba, and, Chara fragilis. Moreover, this crater complex has steep borders mainly covered by exotic plant species, such Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum. Antropogenic changes in the catchment have occurred in the last centuries including deforestation, permanent pastures (around 31%), production forest (57%) and the human settlements. In September 2011, fourteen sediment cores, up to 2.5 m long, were collected using a gravity corer from a UWITEC raft. A multiproxy characterization of these cores was carried out including smear slides, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, magnetic properties, diatom content, and bulk organic matter (d13C, d15N, TN, TOC). The chronological model was obtained by plant remains and pollen concentrates radiocarbon-dating. From base to top, three lithological units have been established from the retrieved cores: volcaniclastic rocks (lapilli), light grey laminated mud, and poor laminated light brown mud with frequent dark layers rich in plant debris. The

  19. 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the temporal evolution of Graciosa Island, Azores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrea, Patricia; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Galé, Carlos; Ubide, Teresa; Lago, Marceliano; França, Zilda; Widom, Elisabeth

    2014-02-01

    Lava flows spanning the eruptive record of Graciosa Island (Azores archipelago) and a gabbro xenolith were dated by 40Ar/39Ar in order to constrain the Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic evolution of the island. The results range from 1.05 Ma to 3.9 ka, whereas prior published K-Ar and 14C ages range from 620 to 2 ka. The formation of the Serra das Fontes shield volcano started at minimum 1.05 Ma, and the magmatic system was active for ca. 600 ky, as suggested by the formation of the gabbro xenolith by magmatic differentiation. Evolved magmas making up the Serra das Fontes-Serra Branca composite volcano were generated at ca. 450 ka. After a period of ca. 110 ky of volcanic inactivity and erosion of volcanic edifices, volcanism was reactivated with the formation of the Vitória Unit NW platform. Later, the development of the Vulcão Central Unit started with the formation of monogenetic cones located to the south of the Serra das Fontes-Serra Branca-Vitória Unit. This volcanism became progressively more evolved and was concentrated in a main eruptive center, forming the Vulcão Central stratovolcano with an age older than 50 ka. The caldera related to this stratovolcano is older than 47 ka and was followed by effusion of basaltic magmas into the caldera, resulting in the formation of a lava lake, which ultimately spilled over the caldera rim at ca. 11 ka. The most recent eruptions on Graciosa formed two small pyroclastic cones within the caldera and the Pico do Timão cone within the Vitória Unit at ca 3.9 ka.

  20. Analysis and definition of potential new areas for viticulture in the Azores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, J.; Azevedo, E. B.; Sampaio, J. F.; Fernandes, F.; Reis, F.; Pinheiro, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vineyards in the Azores have been traditionally settled on lava field terroirs but the practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of these vineyards contradict the sustainability of these areas for wine production, except under government policies of heavy financial support. Besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of an assessment, with a view to the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The landscape zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate, topography and soils. Three thermal intervals referred to climate maturity groups were defined and combined with a single slope interval of 0-15 % to exclude the landscape units above this limit. Over this resulting composite grid, the soils were then selectively cartographed through the exclusion of the soil units not fulfilling the suitability criteria. The results show that the thermal interval of warmer conditions, well represented in the traditional terroir of Pico island, has practically no expression in the other islands. However, for the intermediate and the cooler classes, we could map areas of 5611 and 18 115 ha respectively, fulfilling the defined soils and slope criteria, indicating thus the existence of some landscapes in the studied islands revealing adequate potential for future development of viticulture, although certainly demanding a good judgment on the better grape varieties to be adapted to those climatic conditions.

  1. Volcanic history and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C geochronology of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, A.T.; Moore, R.B.; McGeehin, J.P.; Rodrigues da Silva, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Seven new 40Ar/39Ar and 23 new radiocarbon ages of eruptive units, in support of new geologic mapping, improve the known chronology of Middle to Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic activity on the island of Terceira, Azores and define an east-to-west progression in stratovolcano growth. The argon ages indicate that Cinco Picos Volcano, the oldest on Terceira, completed its main subaerial cone building activity by about 370-380??ka. Collapse of the upper part of the stratovolcanic edifice to form a 7 ?? 9??km caldera occurred some time after 370??ka. Postcaldera eruptions of basalt from cinder cones on and near the caldera floor and trachytic pyroclastic flow and pumice fall deposits from younger volcanoes west of Cinco Picos have refilled much of the caldera. The southern portion of Guilherme Moniz Volcano, in the central part of the island, began erupting prior to 270??ka and produced trachyte domes, flows, and minor pyroclastic deposits until at least 111??ka. The northern part of Guilherme Moniz Caldera is less well exposed than the southern part, but reflects a similar age range. The northwest portion of the caldera was formed sometime after 44??ka. Several well-studied ignimbrites that blanket much of the island likely erupted from Guilherme Moniz Volcano. The Pico Alto Volcanic Center, a tightly spaced cluster of trachyte domes and short flows, is a younger part of Guilherme Moniz Volcano. Stratigraphic studies and our new radiocarbon ages suggest that most of the Pico Alto eruptions occurred during the period from about 9000 to 1000??years BP. Santa Barbara Volcano is the youngest stratovolcano on Terceira, began erupting prior to 29??ka, and has been active historically. ?? 2006.

  2. Analysis and definition of potential new areas for viticulture in the Azores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, J.; Azevedo, E. B.; Sampaio, J. F.; Reis, F.; Pinheiro, J.

    2014-12-01

    Vineyards in the Azores have been traditionally settled on lava field "terroirs" but the practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of these vineyards contradict the sustainability of these areas for wine production, except under government policies of heavy financial support. Besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be object of an assessment, with a view to the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for a better management and sustainability. The landscape zoning approach for the present study was based in a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate, topography and soils. Three thermal intervals referred to climate maturity groups were defined and combined with a single slope interval of 0-15% to exclude the landscape units above this limit. Over this resulting composite grid, the soils were than selectively cartographed thru the exclusion of the soil units not fulfilling the suitability criteria. The results show that the thermal interval of warmer conditions, well represented in the traditional "terroir" of Pico island, has practically no expression in the other islands. However, for the intermediate and the cooler classes, we could map areas of 3739 and 19 395 ha respectively, fulfilling the defined soils and slope criteria, indicating thus the existence of some landscapes in the studied islands revealing adequate potential for future development of viticulture, although certainly demanding a good judgment on the better grape varieties to be adapted to those climatic conditions.

  3. Water composition in the unsaturated zone at Sete Cidades central volcano (S. Miguel, Azores, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J.; Silva, M.; Mendonça, J.; Dias, I.; Prudêncio, I.

    2009-04-01

    A field study was developed at Sete Cidades, the westernmost of the three active composite volcanoes that dominate the geology of São Miguel, the largest of the nine islands from the Azores archipelago. Research methodology comprehends the characterization of soil-water composition at several depths, sampled by means of ceramic suction cups. Previously to their installation, cups were all submitted to several stages of washing, first in the laboratory with supra pure water, until aliquot conductivity stabilizes, and after in the field. This study was planned in order to study the water pollution due to agriculture, one of the main economic activities in the Azores, as shown by the gross value added to regional product. The negative effects of groundwater pollution due to agriculture have been reported in the majority of the nine islands, reflected by high contents of nitrogen species, derived from the inadequate use of synthetic and organic fertilizers, as well as from animal wastes leaching, or also by microbiology parameters. The relation between water pollution and agriculture results in some cases in the failure to comply regarding EU and national water quality regulations, through quality deterioration and compromising groundwater as strategic natural resource in the Azores. The studied area corresponds to Sete Cidades volcano caldera, a 5 km-diameter circular shaped depression, contoured by steep walls from 30 m high up to 400 m. In order to characterize unsaturated water composition in the caldera floor, five pasture locations were selected and monitored, as well as one site with the same physical conditions, but without agricultural activity. From the 5 pasture lands we discuss further results obtained in the so-called Pavão I (Pa I), which corresponds to the most extensive data set. On this site, 6 suction cups were installed, at depths 0.35 m, 0.7 m, 1 m, 1.3 m, 1.6 m and 1.9 m. In the site without agricultural activity, in the vicinity of Sete Cidades

  4. Impact of effusive eruptions from the Eguas-Carvão fissure system, São Miguel Island, Azores Archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Cappello, Annalisa; Zanon, Vittorio; Del Negro, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    The hazard and risk posed by future effusive eruptions from the Éguas-Carvão fissure system in São Miguel Island (Azores Archipelago) are assessed. This fissure system, located ~ 13 km from the town of Ponta Delgada and its international airport, was the only site in the whole island to be characterized by recurrent basaltic eruptions over the past 5000 yr. Here we report on the stratigraphic record of these Holocene eruptions, with special mention to both areas and volumes of deposits, and eruptive styles and recurrence. These basic data then are used to constrain numerical simulations of lava flow paths using the MAGFLOW model, after which hazard zones of possible future events are proposed. The lava flow risk is evaluated by combining the hazard with the exposed value, referred to the population, infrastructures and land use. These results are shown in two distinct maps, where the areas most prone to lava flow inundation and the extent of damages in case of a future effusive eruption are identified. We find that lava flows issuing from the Éguas-Carvão fissure system may be a threat to the villages of Feteiras, Capelas and Santo Antonio. Although this study was conducted on the Éguas-Carvão fissure system, the approach used can be applied to the whole São Miguel Island.

  5. Chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution and DNA damage in Furnas Volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal) inhabitants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhares, Diana; Garcia, Patricia; Silva, Catarina; Ferreira, Teresa; Barroso, Joana; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2015-04-01

    Many studies in volcanic air pollution only have in consideration the acute toxic effects of gas or ash releases however the impact of chronic exposure to ground gas emissions in human health is yet poorly known. In the Azores archipelago (Portugal), São Miguel island has one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes: Furnas Volcano. Highly active fumarolic fields, hot springs and soil diffuse degassing phenomena are the main secondary volcanic phenomena that can be seen at the volcano surroundings. One of the main gases released in these diffuse degassing areas is radon (222Rn), which decay results in solid particles that readily settle within the airways. These decay particles emit alpha radiation that is capable of causing severe DNA damage that cumulatively can eventually cause cancer. Previous studies have established that chronic exposure to chromosome-damaging agents can lead to the formation of nuclear anomalies, such as micronuclei that is used for monitoring DNA damage in human populations. The present study was designed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution, associated to 222Rn, might result in DNA damage in human oral epithelial cells. A cross sectional study was performed in a study group of 142 individuals inhabiting an area where volcanic activity is marked by active fumarolic fields and soil degassing (hydrothermal area), and a reference group of 368 individuals inhabiting an area without these secondary manifestations of volcanism (non-hydrothermal area). For each individual, 1000 buccal epithelial cells were analyzed for the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNc) and the frequency of cells with other nuclear anomalies (ONA: pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis), by using the micronucleus assay. Information on lifestyle factors and an informed consent were obtained from each participant. Assessment of indoor radon was performed with the use of radon detectors. Data were analyzed with logistic regression models, adjusted

  6. Berry trials in the Azores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Direcção de Serviços de Agricultura e Pecuária, Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal, began a collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository at Corvallis, Oregon, and The Ohio State University, Department...

  7. Definition of a methodology for the management of geological heritage. An application to the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Eva; Nunes, João; Brilha, José; Calado, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the geological heritage requires the support of appropriate policies, which should be the result of the integration of nature conservation, environmental and land-use planning, and environmental education perspectives. There are several papers about inventory methodologies for geological heritage and its scientific, educational and tourism uses (e.g. Cendrero, 2000, Lago et al., 2000; Brilha, 2005; Carcavilla et al., 2007). However, management methodologies for geological heritage are still poorly developed. They should be included in environmental and land-use planning and nature conservation policies, in order to support a holistic approach to natural heritage. This gap is explained by the fact that geoconservation is a new geoscience still needed of more basic scientific research, like any other geoscience (Henriques et al., 2011). It is necessary to establish protocols and mechanisms for the conservation and management of geological heritage. This is a complex type of management because it needs to address not only the fragile natural features to preserve but also legal, economic, cultural, educational and recreational aspects. In addition, a management methodology should ensure the geosites conservation, the local development and the dissemination of the geological heritage (Carcavilla et al., 2007). This work is part of a PhD project aiming to contribute to fill this gap that exists in the geoconservation domain, specifically in terms of establishing an appropriate methodology for the management of geological heritage, taking into account the natural diversity of geosites and the variety of natural and anthropic threats. The proposed methodology will be applied to the geological heritage of the Azores archipelago, which management acquires particular importance and urgency after the decision of the Regional Government to create the Azores Geopark and its application to the European and Global Geoparks Networks. Acknowledgment This work is

  8. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidation (amoA) and Nitrogen Fixation (nifH) Genes in Lava Caves of Terceira, Azores, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Jennifer J. Marshall; Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Dapkevicius, Maria De Lurdes N. E.; Northup, Diana E.

    2015-01-01

    Lava caves are an understudied ecosystem in the subterranean world, particularly in regard to nitrogen cycling. The diversity of ammonia oxidation (amoA) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) genes in bacterial mats collected from lava cave walls on the island of Terceira (Azores, Portugal) was investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 55 samples were collected from 11 lava caves that were selected with regard to surface land use. Land use types above the lava caves were categorized into pasture, forested, and sea/urban, and used to determine if land use influenced the ammonia oxidizing and nitrogen fixing bacterial communities within the lava caves. The soil and water samples from each lava cave were analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate, to determine if land use influences either the nutrient content entering the lava cave or the nitrogen cycling bacteria present within the cave. Nitrosospira-like sequences dominated the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community, and the majority of the diversity was found in lava caves under forested land. The nitrogen fixation community was dominated by Klebsiella pneumoniae-like sequences, and diversity was evenly distributed between pasture and forested land, but very little overlap in diversity was observed. The results suggest that land use is impacting both the AOB and the nitrogen fixing bacterial communities. PMID:26778867

  9. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  10. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters--Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-12-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  11. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Neto, Ana Isabel; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  12. Human Leptospirosis: Seroreactivity and Genetic Susceptibility in the Population of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Lisa M.; Bulhões, Sara M.; Branco, Claudia C.; Mota, Francisco M.; Paiva, Clara; Cabral, Rita; Vieira, Maria Luisa; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic and recognized neglected infectious disease. It has been observed that only a proportion of individuals exposed to pathogenic species of Leptospira become infected and develop clinically evident disease. Moreover, little information is available in subsequent reinfections. In the present study, we determine if a first infection with leptospirosis protects against subsequent reinfection, and investigate which of the host genetic factors are involved in the susceptibility and resistance to leptospirosis. Methodology and Findings We conducted, in 2011, a retrospective hospital-based case-control study in the São Miguel Island population (Azores archipelago). In order to determine the seropositivity against pathogenic Leptospira after the first episode of leptospirosis, we performed a serological evaluation in 97 unrelated participants diagnosed with leptospirosis between 1992 and 2011. The results revealed that 46.4% of the 97 participants have circulating anti-Leptospira antibodies, and from these participants 35.6% maintained the seroprevalence for the same serogroup. Moreover, three of them were reinfected with unrelated Leptospira serovars. The genetic study was carried out by adding a control group composed of 470 unrelated healthy blood donors, also from São Miguel Island. Twenty five SNPs among twelve innate immune genes – IL1α, IL1β, IL6, IL10, IL12RB1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, CD14, CISH, LTA and TNF – were genotyped, as well as HLA class I (–A and –B) genes. Association analysis indicates that genotypes -511GG (OR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.01-2.56, p = 0.04) in IL1β, +1196CG (OR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.26-3.27, p = 0.003) in IL12RB1, -292TA (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.06–2.1, p = 0.03) and +3415CG (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.08–3.08, p = 0.02), both in CISH confer susceptibility to pathogenic Leptospira. Conclusion The present study suggests some degree of long-term protection against leptospires with an

  13. Hydrogeochemical, Stable Isotopes and Hydrology of Fogo Volcano Perched Aquifers: São Miguel Island, Azores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, P. C.; Boutt, D. F.; Martini, A. M.; Ferstad, J.; Rodrigues, F. C.

    2012-12-01

    Fogo Volcano is located at central part of São Miguel Island and corresponds to a polygenetic volcano with a caldera made by an intercalated accumulation of volcaniclastic deposits and lava flows. São Miguel Island is one of the nine volcanic islands that form the Azores Archipelago. The volcano is 950 meters high, with a caldera diameter of 3.2 Km, which holds a lake inside. The last eruption occurred in 1563-1564, as one of a group of seven traquitic eruptions occurring within the last 5000 years. The volcanic activity is related to hydrothermal activity in a geothermal field located in the volcanoes North flank. The hydrology of Fogo Volcano is characterized by a series of perched-water bodies drained by a large number of springs grouped at different altitudes on the volcano flanks. It is possible to identify three types of water (1) Fresh water, cold temperature (12 - 17 C) with low dissolved solids contents (average conductivity of 179 μS/cm), pH range between 6.60 and 7.82, dominated by the major ions Na, K, HCO3, and Cl, and correspond mainly to sodium bicarbonate type water. (2) Mineral water, cold temperature (12.5 - 19.4 C) with low dissolved solids contents (average conductivity of 261 μS/cm), acid pH range between 4.62 and 6.79, and correspond mainly to sodium bicarbonate type water. (3) Thermal water, with temperature of 32 C, high dissolved solids content (4.62 mS/cm), with a pH around 4.50 and belongs to sodium sulfate type water. South Fogo volcano have only fresh water springs and at high elevation, springs drained from pumice fall deposits near 700 m of altitude. Water dissolved solids contents increased slightly with springs at lower altitude due to water-rock interaction. Springs sampled around 700 m high have a conductivity average of 85 μS/cm, at 520 m an average of 129 μS/cm, at 430 m an average of 182 μS/cm, at 200 m an average of 192 μS/cm and at 12 m high sea level and average of 472 μS/cm. This trend is observed at North Fogo

  14. The evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation for the last 700 years inferred from D/H isotopes in the sedimentary record of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio de Ingles, Maria Jesus; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Sáez, Alberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Gonçalves, Vitor M.; Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo; Sánchez López, Guiomar; Francus, Pierre; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    The δD plant leaf wax variations provide insights on precipitation and evaporation evolution through time. This proxy has been used to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climate mode since this mode rules most of the climate variability in the central North Atlantic area. A total lipid extraction preparation and the correspondent analyses in the IRMS have been done for 100 samples from the uppermost 1.5 m of the sedimentary infill of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal). According to the chronological model, established by 210Pb profile and 4 AMS 14C dates, this record contains the environmental history of the last 730 years. The reconstructed precipitation variations obtained from D/H isotope values, suggest that this area has suffered significant changes in its distribution and intensity rainfall patterns through time. The end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 1100- 1300 AD) is characterized by a progressive enrichmentof D/H isotope values which meant decreasing arid conditions. These rainfalls' increase might be interpreted by a shift from positive to negative dominance of the NAO. The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300 - 1850 AD) was characterized by two humid periods (1300- 1550 AD and 1650 - 1850 AD) separated by a relatively dry period. These precipitation oscillations are clearly visible by marked changes in the D/H isotope values. The LIA was followed by the persistence of the positive NAO mode, exhibited by the depletion of the D/H isotope signal, which indicated an overall decrease of the precipitation in the central North Atlantic area. Surprisingly, the D/H of the last 100 years, characterized by the present global warming and a persistent positive NAO mode, display large fluctuations most possibly linked to an enhancement of the storminess which is in concordance with the data fluctuations observed in the instrumental record for the last 80 years in the archipelago. This climatic evolution is in accordance with

  15. Understanding differences between phylogenetic and pedigree-derived mtDNA mutation rate: a model using families from the Azores Islands (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristina; Montiel, Rafael; Sierra, Blanca; Bettencourt, Conceição; Fernandez, Elisabet; Alvarez, Luis; Lima, Manuela; Abade, Augusto; Aluja, M Pilar

    2005-06-01

    We analyzed the control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from maternally related individuals originating from the Azores Islands (Portugal) in order to estimate the mutation rate of mtDNA and to gain insights into the process by which a new mutation arises and segregates into heteroplasmy. Length and/or point heteroplasmies were found at least in one individual of 72% of the studied families. Eleven new point substitutions were found, all of them in heteroplasmy, from which five appear to be somatic mutations and six can be considered germinal, evidencing the high frequency of somatic mutations in mtDNA in healthy young individuals. Different values of the mutation rate according to different assumptions were estimated. When considering all the germinal mutations, the value of the mutation rate obtained is one of the highest reported so far in family studies. However, when corrected for gender (assuming that the mutations present in men have the same evolutionary weight of somatic mutations because they will inevitably be lost) and for the probability of intraindividual fixation, the value for the mutation rate obtained for HVRI and HVRII (0.2415 mutations/site/Myr) was in the upper end of the values provided by phylogenetic estimations. These results indicate that the discrepancy, that has been reported previously, between the human mtDNA mutation rates observed along evolutionary timescales and the estimations obtained using family pedigrees can be minimized when corrections for gender proportions in newborn individuals and for the probability of intraindividual fixation are introduced. The analyses performed support the hypothesis that (1) in a constant, tight bottleneck genetic drift alone can explain different patterns of heteroplasmy segregation and (2) in neutral conditions, the destiny of a new mutation is strictly related to the initial proportion of the new variant. Another important point arising from the data obtained is that, even in the absence

  16. Exploring the new long-term (150 years) precipitation dataset in Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Kutiel, Haim; Valente, Maria A.; Sigró, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Within the scope of the two major international projects of long-term reanalysis for the 20th century coordinated by NOAA (Compo et al. 2011) and ECMWF (Hersbach et al. 2013) the IDL Institute from the University of Lisbon has digitized a large number of long-term stations records from Portugal and former Portuguese Colonies (Stickler et al. 2014). Recently we have finished the digitization of all precipitation values from Ponta Delgada (capital of the Azores archipelago) obtaining an uninterrupted precipitation monthly time series since 1864 and additionally an almost complete corresponding daily precipitation series, with the exception of some years (1864/1872; 1878/1879; 1888/1905; 1931; 1936 and 1938) for which only monthly values are available. Here, we present an annually, seasonally and daily resolution study of the rainfall regime in Ponta Delgada for the last 150 years and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influence over this precipitation regime. The distribution of precipitation presents an evident seasonal pattern, with a strong difference between the 'rainy season' (November/March) and the 'dry season' (June/August) with very little rainfall. April/May and September/October correspond to the transitional seasons. The mean annual rainfall in Ponta Delgada is approximately 910 mm and is accumulated (on average) in about 120 rainy days. The precipitation regime in Azores archipelago reveals large inter-annual and intra-annual variability and both have increased considerably in the last decades. The entire studied period (1865-2012) shows an increase in the rainfall conditions between a drier earlier period (1865-1938) and a wetter recent period (1939-2012). At daily resolution, we have used an approach based on different characteristics of rain spells (consecutive days with rainfall accumulation) that has been proved to be satisfactory for the analysis of the different parameters related to the rainfall regime (Kutiel and Trigo, 2014). This approach

  17. A multiproxy reconstruction of NAO evolution in the Azores archipelago since 1350 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armand; Doolittle, Sara; Bao, Roberto; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Rubio-Inglés, Maria J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Marques, Helena S.; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the main atmospheric circulation pattern affecting climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere, having a major impact on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Instrumental records of the NAO are relatively short, and therefore paleoenvironmental multiproxy approaches become fundamental to better understand its behaviour for longer scale periods. The NAO is often defined as a large-scale meridional oscillation dipole of air pressure between the Azores High and the Iceland Low. Some of the NAO definitions include the use of sea level pressure from Ponta Delgada station in Azores, and thus any NAO reconstruction would gain in robustness if it includes paleoenvironmental information from this archipelago located at the southern end of the meridional dipole that characterizes the NAO pattern. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few historical and long-term reconstructions have been conducted in the Azores Islands. We present a ca. 600-year-long multiproxy reconstruction of the NAO evolution based on facies analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning, elemental and isotope geochemistry on bulk organic matter and the preliminary study of diatom and chironomid content from the sedimentary record of Lake Empadadas (37° 49' N - 25° 44' W, Azores Archipelago, Portugal). The precipitation regime in Azores Archipelago (i.e. intra and inter-annual variability) is clearly influenced by the NAO index, thus periods with dominant positive NAO index values (NAO+) are usually characterized by low winter precipitation in the Azores. Conversely, negative NAO phases (NAO-) induce high winter precipitation in the archipelago. These patterns suggest that past (winter) precipitation changes on the Azores may be partially used as a proxy for NAO changes, and thus a proxy for more large-scale changes in the North Atlantic region. According to this multiproxy characterization of the Lake Empadadas sediments

  18. Maintaining a way of life for São Miguel Island (the Azores archipelago, Portugal): an assessment of coastal processes and protection.

    PubMed

    Ng, K; Phillips, M R; Borges, P; Thomas, T; August, P; Calado, H; Veloso-Gomes, F

    2014-05-15

    Traditional hard engineering structures and recently emerging soft engineering alternatives have been employed to protect vulnerable coastlines. Despite negative publicity, they have ensured community survival where socio-economic benefits outweigh adverse impacts. This is especially true for Small Islands (SI) where increasing sea levels and storm intensities threaten already limited land availability. This paper presents coastal vulnerability in São Miguel Island (the Azores SI archipelago) and considers SI issues with regard to coastal land loss. Regional wave statistics using 1998 to 2011 wind record showed: periods ranging from 7 to 13s (circa 83%); wave heights between 1 and 3m (circa 60%); and increasing trends in westerly (p=0.473), easterly (p=0.632) and southeasterly (p=0.932) waves. Sea level analyses between 1978 and 2007 indicated a statistically significant rising trend (2.5 ± 0.4 mm yr(-1); p=0.000), while between 1996 and 2007 it was 3.3 ± 1.5 mm yr(-1) (p=0.025), agreeing with other global sea level studies. Based on 2001 and 2008 population data and using zonal statistics, circa 60% of the Island's population was found to reside within 1 km of the sea and the percentage of total population was linearly correlated with distance from the shoreline (r(2)=99%). Three case studies show hard coastal engineering solutions preserved Azorean coastal lifestyle and had little or no observed negative impacts on their environs. Although hard engineering is likely to remain a valuable and feasible coastal protection option, an inventory of São Miguel's population distribution, surf breaks, bathymetry and coastal erosion rates showed the potential of using multifunctional artificial reefs as a soft engineering solution. These offshore submerged breakwaters offer coastal protection while providing additional benefits such as surfing amenity and beach widening. Consequently, findings of this work can inform other SI communities. PMID:24594743

  19. Calibrating the pTRM and charcoal reflectance (Ro%) methods to determine the emplacement temperature of ignimbrites: Fogo A sequence, São Miguel, Azores, Portugal, as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pensa, Alessandra; Porreca, Massimiliano; Corrado, Sveva; Giordano, Guido; Cas, Raymond

    2015-03-01

    The emplacement temperatures of three ignimbrites belonging to the 4.6-ka Fogo A plinian eruption sequence in São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal) were determined using partial thermal remanent magnetization (pTRM) of lithic clasts and reflectance (Ro%) of charcoal fragments embedded within the deposits and collected at the same localities close to each other. The Fogo A sequence is characterised by a complex stratigraphy consisting of a thick plinian deposit interbedded with two intraplinian ignimbrites (here named "pink" and "black" intraplinian ignimbrite, respectively) and capped by a final ignimbrite (here named "dark brown" ignimbrite). A total of 140 oriented lithic clasts from the three ignimbrites were collected from 15 localities distributed along the northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The pTRM analyses show different paleomagnetic behaviours, which correspond to different emplacement temperatures of the ignimbrites. The emplacement temperatures of the pink and black intraplinian ignimbrites inferred from pTRM analysis were respectively ≥400 and ≥600 °C; the temperatures of the dark brown ignimbrite are lower, estimated between 300 and 350 °C. Thermal estimations of three key sites were compared with the results of the analysis of reflectance (Ro%) measured on eight specimens derived from charcoal fragments collected from the pink intraplinian ignimbrite and the dark brown ignimbrite. Results indicate Ro% values between 1.61 and 1.37 for the pink intraplinian ignimbrite, whereas fragments collected from the dark brown ignimbrite show Ro% values between 0.85 and 0.50. No charred wood was found in the black intraplinian ignimbrite. Ro% values indicate that charcoal fragments in the pink intraplinian ignimbrite reached temperatures of 380-460 °C, whereas the Ro% values of the dark brown ignimbrite indicate slightly lower temperatures of 330-350 °C. TRM and Ro% results are comparable and validate the use of both methods. Greatest accuracy

  20. Genetic structure of the Azores Islands: a study using 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Lima, Manuela

    2009-12-01

    The Azores archipelago (Portugal), located in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,500 km from the European mainland, is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin. The relative position of these islands allows the definition of three geographical groups: Eastern, Central and Western. Previous studies of the Azores using Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) have highlighted differences in the frequencies of several loci, when compared to Mainland Portugal or Madleira Island. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium (LD), described for Azorean samples has been tentatively explained as reflecting the presence of genetic sub-structuring in the archipelago. To provide information concerning the genetic profile of the Azores Islands and to evaluate the presence of substructuring we have determined the allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci, using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler Kit, in representative samples from the Azorean Islands. Either considering the Azores as a whole, or analysing by island all the loci were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Average gene diversity ranged from 0.7669 in Corvo to 0.7972 in Terceira Island. Allelic independence between loci, tested for the global sample, detected significant LD (after correction for multiple tests) for pairs D21S11/D7S820 and D3S1358/D5S818. The exact test of population differentiation, combining the information of the 15 markers analysed, revealed significant differences between the three groups of islands, and between islands. Inter-island analysis reinforces the previous data that suggested the existence of sub-structuring in the Azores archipelago. Moreover, the data generated by this study can be used in a future forensic genetic database of the Azores after the appropriate enlacement of sample size by island, preventing, in that way, misinterpretations caused by population substructuring and small sample sizes. PMID:20102040

  1. Trophodynamic studies on the Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, North Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaço, A.; Giacomello, E.; Porteiro, F.; Menezes, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Compared to the surrounding ocean waters, seamounts are commonly considered habitats where biological productivity is higher and consumers proliferate. Despite their high productivity, studies of seamount trophic webs are still scarce and fragmentary, and little is known about the connections between the different compartments. What are the trophic interactions of seamount fauna? How do the pelagic and benthic environment couple? In order to answer these questions, stable isotopes δ15N and δ13C were measured in the organisms collected during the course of numerous campaigns at the Condor seamount in the North Atlantic. The Condor seamount food chain is composed of five trophic levels. Mesopelagic organisms are the link between the epipelagic environment and the benthic and benthopelagic organisms, bridging the gap between primary consumers and the 4th and 5th trophic chain levels. Our results demonstrate, through stable isotope analysis, the important role of mesopelagic organisms in the transfer of energy within the seamount food web, as modeling/theoretical studies have previously suggested.

  2. Abundance of litter on Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, Northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, C. K.; Gomes-Pereira, J. N.; Isidro, E. J.; Santos, R. S.; Morato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Marine litter is an emerging problem for the world's ocean health but little is known on its distribution and abundance on seamounts and how it affects deep-sea ecosystems. The scientific underwater laboratory set up on Condor seamount offered an ideal case study for the first documentation of litter distribution on a shallow seamount with historical fishing. A total of 48 video transects deployed on the summit (n=45) and the northern flank (n=3) covered an area of 0.031 and 0.025km2, respectively, revealing 55 litter items. Litter density on the summit was 1439 litter items km-2, whilst on the deeper northern flank, estimates indicate densities of 397 litter items km-2. Lost fishing line was the dominant litter item encountered on both areas (73% of total litter on the summit and 50% on northern flank), all being entirely or partly entangled in the locally abundant gorgonians Dentomuricea cf. meteor and Viminella flagellum. Other items included lost weights, anchors and glass bottles. The predominance of lost fishing gear identifies the source of litter on Condor seamount as exclusively ocean-based and related to fishing activities. Abundance of litter on the Condor seamount was much lower than that reported from other locations closer to populated areas.

  3. Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the Azores: lessons after 2 yr of monitoring in the Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Borges, Paulo A V; Guerreiro, Orlando; Ferreira, Maria T; Borges, Annabella; Ferreira, Filomena; Bicudo, Nuno; Nunes, Lina; Marcos, Rita S; Arroz, Ana M; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Myles, Timothy G

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal flights of West Indian drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) were surveyed in the major cities of Azores. The sampling device used to estimate termite density consisted of a yellow adhesive trap (size 45 by 24 cm), placed with an artificial or natural light source in a dark attic environment. In addition, data from two other projects were used to improve the knowledge about the geographical distribution of the species. The level of infestation in the two main Azorean towns differed, with high levels in the houses of Angra do Heroísmo, whereas in Ponta Delgada, there are fewer houses with high levels of infestation. The infestation in Ponta Delgada shows a pattern of spreading from the center outward to the city's periphery, whereas in Angra do Heroísmo, there was a pattern of spreading outward from several foci. The heavy infestation observed in Angra do Heroísmo and the clear increase of infestation levels observed from 2010 to 2011 is a reason for concern and calls for an urgent application of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) control strategy. PMID:25368085

  4. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  5. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  6. Seismic vulnerability of dwellings at Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, A.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the settlement of S. Miguel Island (Azores), in the XV century, several earthquakes caused important human losses and severe damages on the island. Sete Cidades Volcano area, located in the westernmost part of the island, was attained by strong seismic crises of tectonic and volcanic origin and major events reached a maximum historical intensity of IX (European Macroseismic Scale 1998) in this zone. Aiming to evaluate the impact of a future major earthquakes, a field survey was carried out in ten parishes of Ponta Delgada County, located on the flanks of Sete Cidades volcano and inside it is caldera. A total of 7019 buildings were identified, being 4351 recognized as dwellings. The total number of inhabitants in the studied area is 11429. In this work, dwellings were classified according to their vulnerability to earthquakes (Classes A to F), using the structure types table of the EMS-98, adapted to the types of constructions made in the Azores. It was concluded that 76% (3306) of the houses belong to Class A, and 17% (740) to Class B, which are the classes of higher vulnerability. If the area is affected by a seismic event with intensity IX it is estimated, that 57% (2480) to 77% (3350) of the dwellings will partially or totally collapse and 15% (652) to 25% (1088) will need to be rehabilitated. In this scenario, considering the average of inhabitants per house for each parish, 82% (9372) to 92% (10515) of the population will be affected. The number of deaths, injured and dislodged people will pose severe problems to the civil protection authorities and will cause social and economic disruption in the entire archipelago.

  7. Evidence for a Thinned Mantle Transition Zone beneath the Azores Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutt, D. L.; Solomon, S. C.; Burkett, P. G.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the Coordinated Seismic Experiment in the Azores (COSEA) - a cooperative project being carried out by the Centro de Geofisica da Universidade de Lisboa; the Universidade dos Acores; the Instituto de Meteorologia, Portugal; the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich; the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP); and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington - DTM has operated broadband portable seismic stations on five of the islands in the Azores archipelago for the past two years. One of the goals of COSEA is to understand the mantle structure beneath the Azores hotspot. Several other oceanic hotspots that have been the focus of seismic imaging experiments (Iceland, Hawaii, Galapagos, Society) have mantle transition zones resolvably thinner than the global average. Because the top and bottom of the transition zones are defined by discontinuities associated with phase transformations having positive and negative Clapeyron slopes, respectively, this thinning has been attributed to anomalously high temperatures, consistent with penetration of a plume of hot upwelling material from the lower mantle. We present a preliminary assessment of transition zone structure beneath the Azores Islands and Platform from the differential times of the converted phases P410s and P660s, determined from radial receiver functions. Using data from the DTM stations, as well as from the GSN station CMLA, we stack low-pass filtered receiver functions corrected for moveout. Stacking is an essential step, because wave-induced noise is substantial in this locale and affects the number of events that can be used. The converted phases can be identified in the stacked receiver functions, and the differential P660s - P410s time is 2-3 s less than predicted by the iasp91 global Earth model. The transition zone is therefore thinner than that in the average radial Earth by more than 20 km, a degree of thinning comparable to

  8. Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973

  9. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  10. The oceanic islands - Azores. [geological, geophysical and geochemical features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Watkins, N. D.; Macfarlane, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    A presentation is made of the known geological, geophysical, and geochemical data on the Azores. The regional setting of the islands is described; under the geological heading, surface geology and petrochemistry are discussed; and paleomagnetism, marine magnetic surveys, gravity, seismology, and heat flow are treated in the geophysics category. A model for the origin of the Azores is constructed on the basis of these observations.

  11. Vertical Profile of Aerosol Properties at Pico Mountain, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Hueber, J.; China, S.; Sharma, N.

    2013-12-01

    Pico Mountain (2325m asl) is a dormant volcano in the archipelago of the Azores1500 km west of Lisbon, Portugal in the North Atlantic. It differs from typical mountain ranges such as the Alps or the Rockies, which are large and present a complex orography. Pico Mountain has a simple cone-like structure with only one main peak and is thousands of kilometers away from any other significant mountain range. In summer months, it is typical for air masses to move around the mountain rather than traveling up its face. This implies that often the peak of the mountain lies above the marine boundary layer in the free troposphere, while the lower part of the mountain is affected by marine clouds and marine air-masses. An atmospheric monitoring station, the Pico Mountain Observatory was established in 2001 in the summit caldera of the volcano at 2225m above sea level. The observatory is far from large populations or pollution sources, which makes the station ideal to study atmospheric gases and aerosols transported over long-ranges in the free troposphere. The station is reachable only by foot following a steep and strenuous hiking trail. In the summer of 2013 we began to collect vertical profiles of aerosol by carrying an instrumented backpack up to the summit of the mountain, with the goal of studying the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols from the marine boundary layer to the free troposphere. The backpack was carried from the base of trail at 1200m asl. The backpack was equipped with the following instruments: 1. Nephelometer to measure light scattering from aerosol 2. 2-size optical particle counter (300-500 nm) 3. Portable micro-aethalometer to measure absorbing aerosols 4. SEM/TEM sampler to collect particles for off-line electron microscopy analysis 5. Battery powered data logger to measure relative humidity, temperature and pressure 6. GPS tracking device We provide a preliminary analysis of data collected in 2013 to gain insight on the vertical distribution

  12. Quasi-synoptic transport, budgets and water mass transformation in the Azores-Gibraltar Strait region during summer 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo Segade, Lidia Isabel; Gilcoto, Miguel; Mercier, Herlé; Pérez, Fiz Fernández

    2015-01-01

    We describe the circulation patterns in the Azores-Gibraltar Strait region (North-Eastern Atlantic) during the 2009 CAIBOX cruise on the basis of hydrographic and direct current velocity measurements. This study offers new data for a region where importation of central waters (subpolar and subtropical modes of Eastern North Atlantic Central Water) and exports of Mediterranean Water are strongly related to large-scale dynamics in the North Atlantic Ocean (Azores Current-Mediterranean Water system). The description is backed up quantitatively by the results of a box inverse model, which was used to obtain absolute water mass transport values consistent with thermal wind equations and with conservation of volume, salt and heat. The contributions of water masses were determined in an extended Optimum Multiparameter Analysis from a quasi-synoptic point of view, providing detail in addition to volume, salt and heat transport. The surface-subsurface large-scale current system in the region consists of the Azores Current (13.1 ± 2.5 Sverdrup [Sv], 1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), the Azores Counter-Current (5.2 ± 2.1 Sv), the Portugal Current (4.5 ± 1.4 Sv) and the Canary Current (7.1 ± 1.1 Sv). Broadly speaking, central waters are imported into the CAIBOX region at a rate of 1.6 ± 0.9 Sv, and Mediterranean Water is exported at a rate of 1.5 ± 0.4 Sv. The downwelling of central waters west of Gibraltar Strait was quantified at 1.1 Sv. Not all this volume participates in MW formation, but 0.8 Sv of entrained central waters; of which 0.5 Sv are from central waters of subpolar origin and 0.3 Sv from subtropical central waters. Of the 4.9 Sv of subtropical central waters advected by the Azores Current, about 0.7 Sv would reach the Gulf of Cadiz region either to take part in central water entrainment or to flow across the Gibraltar Strait as part of the Atlantic inflow to the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Lithium Isotope Systematics in Azores Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Widom, E.; Qiu, L.; Rudnick, R.; Gelinas, A.; Franca, Z.

    2009-05-01

    Basalts from the Azores archipelago and MORB from the nearby Azores Platform exhibit extreme chemical and isotopic variations attributed to the influence of a heterogeneous mantle plume, with compositions ranging from depleted mantle (DMM) to strong HIMU, EMI and EMII signatures. In order to assess the utility of Li isotopes as a mantle source tracer and to better constrain the origin of heterogeneous mantle beneath the Azores, we have analyzed Li isotopes in a suite of young, fresh, MgO-rich basalts from São Miguel and three Central Group islands including Pico, Faial and Terceira. Despite large variations in radiogenic isotope signatures (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 19.3 to 20.1), δ7Li varies only slightly (3.1-4.7‰), and is within the range for global and North Atlantic MORB [1, 2]. More extreme δ7Li values such as those reported previously for some EMII, EMI and HIMU ocean island basalts (-17‰ to +10‰; [3-5]) were not observed. Nevertheless, basalts from the Central Group islands with EMI-type signatures are, on average, slightly heavier in δ7Li than the São Miguel samples, and they exhibit positive correlations with 87Sr/86Sr and negative correlations with 206Pb/204Pb, Nd, and Hf isotopes. Li isotopes do not correlate with indices of fractionation such as MgO, suggesting that the δ7Li correlations with radiogenic isotopes may represent subtle variations in mantle source signatures. Positive and negative correlations of δ7Li with 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, and relatively unradiogenic Os (187Os/188Os = 0.1244-0.1269), may reflect old, slab-fluid metasomatized mantle beneath the Central Group islands. In contrast, δ7Li signatures in the São Miguel basalts do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. Rather, δ7Li is essentially constant despite extremely high 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb and low ΔɛHf signatures that have been attributed to 3.5 Ga recycled E-MORB or evolved oceanic crust [6; 7]. This suggests either that the São Miguel source

  14. Comparing the nature of the western and eastern Azores mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Felix S.; Beier, Christoph; Stracke, Andreas; Turner, Simon P.; Pearson, Norman J.; Hauff, Folkmar; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Haase, Karsten M.

    2016-01-01

    The Azores islands in the central North-Atlantic originate from a regional melting anomaly, probably created by melting hot, unusually hydrous and geochemically enriched mantle. Here, we present Hf, Pb and Os isotopic data in geochemically well-characterised primitive lavas from the islands Flores and Corvo that are located west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), as well as submarine samples from a subsided island west of Flores and from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes drilled in the western part of the Azores platform and beyond. These are compared to existing data from the Azores islands east of the MAR. The geodynamic origin of the two islands west of the ridge axis and furthest from the inferred plume centre in the central part of the plateau is enigmatic. The new data constrain the source compositions of the Flores and Corvo lavas and show that the western and eastern Azores mantle is isotopically similar, with the exception of an enriched component found exclusively on eastern São Miguel. Trace element ratios involving high field strength elements (HFSE) are distinctly different in the western islands (e.g. twofold higher Nb/Zr) compared to any of the islands east of the MAR. A similar signature is observed in MAR basalts to the south of the Azores platform and inferred to originate from (auto-) metasomatic enrichment of the sub-ridge mantle (Gale et al., 2011, 2013). In a similar fashion, low degree melts from an enriched source component may metasomatise the ambient plume mantle underneath the western Azores islands. Melting such a modified plume mantle can explain the chemical differences between lavas from the western and eastern Azores islands without the need for additional plume components. Recent re-enrichment and intra melting column modification of the upwelling mantle can cause local to regional scale geochemical differences in mantle-derived melts.

  15. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Príncipe.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Tamira; Brehm, António; Fernandes, Ana Teresa

    2006-12-01

    There is evidence that the CCR5-delta32 mutation confers protection against HIV-1 infection to homozygous individuals. It is believed that this mutation spread through Europe with the Vikings and that it has been subjected to positive selection, leading to a high frequency in Europe (approximately 10%). We carried out the present study to determine the 32-bp deletion allele and genotype frequencies of the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Principe. These Atlantic archipelagos were all colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries, but the latter two received most of their settlers from the West African coast. The frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation varies between 0% in São Tomé e Príncipe and 16.5% in the Azores. The Azores Islands have one of the highest frequencies of homozygotes found in Europe (4.8%). There are significant differences (P < 0.05) between some of these populations, for example, between São Tomé e Príncipe and Cabo Verde, and even within populations (e.g., Portugal, Madeira, and the Azores). PMID:17564248

  16. Hydrogeology study of Faial Island, the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, R. M.; Cruz, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    Azores Archipelago is a Portuguese territory formed by nine islands divided into three groups (eastern, central and western) located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The islands stretch along a NW-SE direction near the so called Azores triple junction, where the North American Plate, the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate meet. Faial Island is the westernmost island of the central group, located between 38°30'56'' to 38°38'40'' N latitude and 28°35'55'' to 28°50'06'' W longitude. Faial is affected by important tectonic features with a WNW-ESE general trend. These features combined with faults with NNW-SSE to NW-SE and NE-SW directions may have conditioned the emplacement of the central volcano with caldera on the central part of the island. In what concerns the geomorphology, besides the central volcano with caldera, one should refer to the graben on the eastern sector, to the scoria cones alignment on the W and to the flattened sector SE of the central volcano. The drainage network is markedly controlled by tectonics and the drainage density is higher on the northern and southern flanks of the central volcano. The origin of the island started more than 800000 years ago with the emplacement of a composite volcano on the NE of the island (Ribeirinha Complex) consisting of a series of lava flows of basaltic to benmoreitic composition and undifferentiated pyroclasts. The complex (Cedros Complex) which followed is about 580000 years old and corresponds to the central volcano formed by suites of basaltic to trachitic lava flows, pyroclasts and domes. Approximately 50000 ago an important fissural activity took place on the eastern part of the island and originated Almoxarife Formation consisting of basaltic to benmoreitic lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones. The Caldeira Formation (~16000 years) comprises benmoreitic to trachytic materials emitted from the central volcano, whose explosive phases generated ten members formed mainly by pumice fall deposits and

  17. Base and precious metal occurrences along the San Andreas Fault, Point Delgada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Heropoulos, Chris

    1979-01-01

    Previously unrecognized veins containing lead, zinc, and copper sulfide minerals at Point Delgada, Calif., are associated with late Mesozoic(?) and Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan assemblage. Sulfide minerals include pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and minor chalcopyrite, and galena-rich samples contain substantial amounts of silver. These minerals occur in a quartz-carbonate gangue along northeast-trending faults and fractures that exhibit (left?) lateral and vertical slip. The sense of fault movement and the northeasterly strike are consistent with predicted conjugate fault sets of the present San Andreas fault system. The sulfide mineralization is younger than the Franciscan rocks of Point Delgada and King Range, and it may have accompanied or postdated the inception of San Andreas faulting. Mineralization largely preceded uplift, the formation of a marine terrace, and the emplacement of landslide-related debris-flow breccias that overlie the mineralized rocks and truncate the sulfide veins. These field relations indicate that the sulfide mineralization and inception of San Andreas faulting were clearly more recent than the early Miocene and that the mineralization could be younger than about 1.2 m.y. The sulfide veins at Point Delgada may be of economic significance. However, prior to any exploitation of the occurrence, economic and environmental conflicts of interest involving private land ownership, the Shelter Cove home development, and proximity of the coast must be resolved.

  18. Assessment of diffuse radiation models in Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarreiro, Clarisse; Brito, Miguel; Soares, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Measured irradiance databases usually consist of global solar radiation data with limited spatial coverage. Hence, solar radiation models have been developed to estimate the diffuse fraction from the measured global irradiation. This information is critical for the assessment of the potential of solar energy technologies; for example, the decision to use photovoltaic systems with tracking system. The different solar radiation models for this purpose differ on the parameters used as input. The simplest, and most common, are models which use global radiation information only. More sophisticated models require meteorological parameters such as information from clouds, atmospheric turbidity, temperature or precipitable water content. Most of these models comprise correlations with the clearness index, kt (portion of horizontal extra-terrestrial radiation reaching the Earth's surface) to obtain the diffuse fraction kd (portion of diffuse component from global radiation). The applicability of these different models is related to the local atmospheric conditions and its climatic characteristics. The models are not of general validity and can only be applicable to locations where the albedo of the surrounding terrain and the atmospheric contamination by dust are not significantly different from those where the corresponding methods were developed. Thus, models of diffuse fraction exhibit a relevant degree of location dependence: e.g. models developed considering data acquired in Europe are mainly linked to Northern, Central or, more recently, Mediterranean areas. The Azores Archipelago, with its particular climate and cloud cover characteristics, different from mainland Europe, has not yet been considered for the development of testing of such models. The Azorean climate reveals large amounts of cloud cover in its annual cycle, with spatial and temporal variabilities more complex than the common Summer/Winter pattern. This study explores the applicability of different

  19. Imaging hydrothermal systems at Furnas caldera (Azores, Portugal): Insights from Audio-Magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Rath, Volker; Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Silva, Catarina; Viveiros, Maria FB; Ferreira, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The Furnas volcano is the eastern-most of the three active central volcanoes of Sao Miguel Island. The main caldera formed about 30 ka BP, followed by a younger eruption at 10-12 ka BP, which forms the steep topography of more than 200 m in the measuring area. It contains several very young eruptive centers, and a shallow caldera lake. Tectonic features of varying directions have been identified in the Caldera and its vicinity. In the northern part of the caldera, containing the fumarole field of Caldeiras das Furnas, a detailed map of surface CO2 emissions was recently made available. In 2015, a pilot survey of 13 AudioMagnetoTelluric soundings (AMT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data were collected along two profiles in the eastern part of Furnas caldera in order to image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. The data quality achieved by both techniques is extraordinary and first results indicate a general correlation between regions of elevated conductivity and the mapped surface CO2 emissions, suggesting that they may both be caused by the presence hydrothermal fluids. Tensor decomposition analysis using the Groom-Bailey approach produce a generalised geo-electric strike direction, 72deg East of North, for the AMT data compared to the surface geological strike derived from the major mapped fault crossing the profiles of 105deg. An analysis of the real induction arrows at certain frequencies (at depths greater than 350 m) infer that an extended conductor at depth does not exactly correspond to the degassing structures at the surface and extends outside the area of investigation. The geometry of the most conductive regions with electrical conductivities less then1 Ώm found at various depths differ from what was expected from earlier geologic and tectonic studies and possibly may not be directly related to the mapped fault systems at the surface. On the eastern profile, which seemed to be more appropriate for 2-D modelling with 72deg strike angle, a deep structure starting north of the major mapped fault crossing this profile can be found. It extends far to the south, with a top of approximately 150 m below the surface at the northern limit. A deeper conductive structure (top at about 300 m) is emerging at the southern end of the profile, though not fully resolved by the existing data. This work will focus on the processing, analysis and preliminary modelling results of the AMT data. A joint interpretation of the AMT results together with the ERT data covering the shallow regime with much higher resolution will be presented.

  20. Resistivity structure of the Furnas hydrothermal system (Azores archipelago, Portugal) from AMT and ERT imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Rath, Volker; Silva, Catarina; Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Viveiros, Fatima; Eleuterio, Joana; Gresse, Marceau

    2016-04-01

    The Furnas volcanic complex is located in the eastern part of the São Miguel Island and comprises a 5 km × 8 km summit depression filled by two nested calderas with several craters and a lake. Present-day volcanic activity of Furnas volcano is mostly located in the northern part of the caldera, within the Furnas village and north to Furnas Lake, where hydrothermal manifestations are mainly fumarolic fields, steam vents, thermal springs, and intense soil diffuse degassing. Considering the Furnas volcano as a whole, the total integrated CO2 efflux is extremely high, with a total amount of CO2 close to 1000 ton per day (Viveiros et al., 2009). We present the first results of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), combined with audio-magneto-telluric (AMT) measurements aligned along two profiles inside the caldera. The purpose of this survey is to delimit the extent, the geometry, and the depth of the hydrothermal system and to correlate the deep resistivity structure with high resolution cartography of diffuse CO2 flux (Viveiros et al, 2015). The ERT and AMT methods are complementary in terms of resolution and penetration depth: ERT can image the structural details of shallow hydrothermal system (down to 100 m in our study) while AMT can image at lower resolution deeper structures at the roots of a volcano (down to 4 km in our study). Our first independent 2D inversions of the ERT-AMT data show a good agreement between the surficial and deeper features. Below the main fumarole area we observe a low resistivity body (less than 1 Ohmm) which corresponds well to the high CO2 flux at the surface and is associated with an extended conductive body at larger depth. These results strongly suggest the presence of hydrothermal waters at depth or/and the presence of altered clay-rich material. On a larger scale however, the geometry of the conducting zones differs slightly from what was expected from earlier surface studies, and may not be directly related to fault zones mapped at the surface. These slight, but measurable discrepancies might have different origins but they stress the necessity of 3D modelling and the importance of the joint inversion of the data which we consider as a next step in our work.

  1. Lessons from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Vickie; Mechling, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has long been touted as a popular destination for savvy travelers, but now educators are touting it as something else--a professional development (PD) powerhouse for inquiry-based science! This article describes Portugal's ongoing efforts to reform its country's elementary science education program through a project known as the…

  2. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  3. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Sigwart, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species. PMID:23825446

  4. Birds from the Azores: An updated list with some comments on species distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Pedro R; Bried, Joël; Mendonça, Enésima P; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo Alexandre Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background An updated checklist of the Birds of the Azores is presented based on information compiled from Rodrigues et al. (2010) and from the websites, Azores Bird Club. (2014), Aves dos Açores (2014) Azores Bird Sightings (2014) and Vittery (2014), since 2010. New information The checklist has a total of 414 species, including 38 new species. Almost half of the species and subspecies that occur in the Azores have a Palearctic origin, the remaining ones being essentialy Nearctic and Holarctic species. São Miguel is the island with the highest number of bird species, followed by Terceira, Corvo and Flores islands. PMID:26696765

  5. New gravity and magnetics map of eastern part of Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Azores are of volcanic origin and the volcanic activities are still occurs in the area. The main tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores are the Gloria Fault (GF) and São Miguel volcanic Island. The GF is an E-W strike-slip fault and can be traced by bathymetry. In the past decade many geological and geophysical investigations were dedicated to the study of tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores. Two of these cruises were organized by the Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Germany, in the years 2009 and 2012. In 2009 during the Meteor cruise M79-2 a total of 5500 km new Gravity and 2000 km new magnetic data were collected along some 60 Profiles. During the Poseidon cruise in the year 2012 some 2000 km new gravity and magnetic data were collected along two E-W profiles in the eastern part of Azores. The new gravity data were recorded with the modern Air-Sea-Gravimeter of Bodenseewerk KSS 31M and the new magnetic date with the Gradiometer SeaSpy. All new potential date were combined with the available data of the data base GEODAS and the new gravity anomaly maps (Free-Air and Bouguer) and the new magnetic anomaly map were produced. The maps show clearly the tectonic features in the area. The GF can be traced very well on both gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. Most of the small hills around the São Miguel Island are shown up in the magnetic anomaly map as strong magnetic anomaly. The new gravity and magnetic maps and the interpretation of them will be presented. The results of some 2-D modeling along some interesting profiles will be also presented and discussed.

  6. New gravity and magnetics map of eastern part of Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The Azores are of volcanic origin and the volcanic activities are still occurs in the area. The main tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores are the Gloria Fault (GF) and São Miguel volcanic Island. The GF is an E-W strike-slip fault and can be traced by bathymetry. In the past decade many geological and geophysical investigations were dedicated to the study of tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores. Two of these cruises were organized by the Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Germany, in the years 2009 and 2012. In 2009 during the Meteor cruise M79-2 a total of 5500 km new Gravity and 2000 km new magnetic data were collected along some 60 Profiles. During the Poseidon cruise in the year 2012 some 2000 km new gravity and magnetic data were collected along two E-W profiles in the eastern part of Azores. The new gravity data were recorded with the modern Air-Sea-Gravimeter of Bodenseewerk KSS 31M and the new magnetic date with the Gradiometer SeaSpy. All new potential date were combined with the available data of the data base GEODAS and the new gravity anomaly maps (Free-Air and Bouguer) and the new magnetic anomaly map were produced. The maps show clearly the tectonic features in the area. The GF can be traced very well on both gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. Most of the small hills around the São Miguel Island are shown up in the magnetic anomaly map as strong magnetic anomaly. The new gravity and magnetic maps and the interpretation of them will be presented. The results of some 2-D modeling along some interesting profiles will be also presented and discussed.

  7. Discovering Volcanoes in the Azores - A Field Trip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Susana; Fernandes, Fátima

    2013-04-01

    The Azores islands are located in the North Atlantic Ocean near a triple junction, between the African, Eurasian and North American plates, at about 1500 km from the European continent and 3900 km from the North America east coast. It is formed by nine volcanic islands and a few islets dispersed along a 600 km NW-SE direction axis. The complex geological and geodynamic setting of the Azores explains its significant seismic and volcanic activity, including eruptions and degassing processes. Important landslides triggered either by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, extreme meteorological conditions and/or coastal erosion processes frequently affect the islands, and tsunamis related with earthquakes and landslides were reported to have occurred in the past. The national curriculum for the school subject of Biology and Geology sees the Azores as a laboratory for the earth sciences and many topics revolve around it. For these reasons, we organised a field trip to the island of São Miguel, with pupils of the 11th grade who live in the Portuguese mainland, in a region that is geologically very different. During the six days of this trip, we attended training sessions in the Centre for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment (CVARG) of the Azores University. This multidisciplinary research unit organises activities around the prediction and prevention of disasters and natural hazards in the fields of volcanology and correlated phenomena, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, volcanic fumes, air pollution and water contaminants, landslides, floods and tsunamis, among others. The pupils explored volcanic calderas, lava caves, fumaroles and hot springs. They also collected and analysed extremophile bacteria that live in local hot springs.

  8. Analysis of gravimetric anomalies in Furnas caldera (São Miguel, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, F. G.; Camacho, A. G.; Vieira, R.

    1999-09-01

    Furnas Volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores) is a steep-sided caldera complex resulting from several collapses. In this paper, we analyse and interpret the gravity survey carried out by the Instituto de Astronomı´a y Geodesia (Spain) and the gravity data published by the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica (Portugal). The resulting Bouguer anomaly reveals the presence of a regional trend, several local features and a component of noise. In separating the regional trend we use a robust polynomial fitting. Further, a covariance analysis and a least squares prediction are applied to filter the noise and to model the local anomaly. A first signal map represents the main local anomaly, while the secondary signal map shows superficial anomalies. This distribution reveals a local main minimum close to the 1630 A.D. and Gaspar craters. Several possible alignments are shown that lead to a model, mainly with SW-NE and SE-NW orientations, of the negative anomaly, with the pattern of the low density zones showing a relationship with the volcanic features. Applying a stabilized linear method of gravimetric inversion, we obtain a density contrast distribution of the sources of the filtered local Bouguer anomaly, considering as unknowns the anomalous densities of a fixed discrete distribution of rectangular prisms which represents the subsoil volume. A mixed minimization criteria for the weighted residuals and the weighted density contrast allow us to obtain a solution as a discrete three-dimensional density contrast model. The obtained anomalous densities model shows a clear relation with the structure of the caldera complex and tectonic trends, with the principal body of negative contrast density being associated with the subsurface structure of the caldera.

  9. Submarine Volcanic Cones in the São Miguel Region/Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Wolf, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    São Miguel, the main island of the Azores Archipelago, is located in an area ~1500 km west of Portugal where the American, African and Eurasian plates converge. Just as well as the other eight Azorian islands, it is of volcanic origin and therefore volcanic processes also play an important role for the evolution of its submarine domain. Around 300 submarine volcanic cones have been mapped in the vicinity of São Miguel Island with multi-beam data during RV Meteor cruise M79/2 . They are distributed in depth down to 3000 m. They exhibit an average diameter of 600 m, an average slope of 22° and heights mainly between 50 and 200 m, slightly decreasing with increasing water depth. Even if their morphological appearances show no segregation, the volcanic setting can be classified in three different categories. A numerous amount of cones are located on the submarine flank of Sete Cidades Volcano in the west of São Miguel considered as parasitic structures, whereas in the very east they build up an own superstructure possibly reflecting an early submarine stadium of a posterior subaerial stratovolcano like Sete Cidades. The third class is controlled by and orientated along faults, most of them in a graben system southwest of the Island. High-resolution multichannel seismic data depicts that the graben cones extinguished synchronously in the past most likely accompanying with the end of graben formation. Backscatter data reveal a rough surface possibly caused by currents removing the fine grain-size fraction over time. However, a young cone investigated in detail is characterized by a smooth surface, a distal increasing stratification and concave shaped flanks. Other few exhibit craters, all together indicating rather a phreatomagmatic than an effusive evolution of these structures. Very similar in size and shape to cinder cones on-shore São Miguel Island, they appear to be their submarine equivalent.

  10. Prevalence and clonality of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the Atlantic Azores islands: predominance of SCCmec types IV, V and VI.

    PubMed

    Conceição, T; Tavares, A; Miragaia, M; Hyde, K; Aires-de-Sousa, M; de Lencastre, H

    2010-05-01

    In order to obtain insights into the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) population structure in the Azores archipelago, 106 MRSA isolates were collected from patients attending an Azorean central hospital between January 2007 and February 2008. Antimicrobial resistance was determined for all isolates. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The majority of the isolates (87%, n = 92) belonged to the EMRSA-15 clone (ST22, SCCmec-IVh), followed by the Pediatric clone (ST5-VI/IVc) (11%, n = 12). The Berlin clone (ST45-IVa) and a new clone (spa type t1839, ST1339 and SCCmec V variant) were represented by single isolates. All of the isolates carried SCCmec types IV, V or VI and a non-multiresistant antibiotic profile, resembling the currently emerging community MRSA. Moreover, PVL was described for the first time to be associated with the Pediatric clone carrying SCCmec type VI. We provided the first description of the population structure of MRSA in the Azores islands, which seems to be shaped by genetic events occurring locally, as well as by the regular population exchange between the islands, continental Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. PMID:20229224

  11. Responses to, and the short and long-term impacts of, the 1957/1958 Capelinhos volcanic eruption and associated earthquake activity on Faial, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, Rui; Chester, David K.; Wallenstein, Nicolau; Duncan, Angus M.

    2010-10-01

    The 1957/58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial Island in the Azores is well known for being an excellent example of Surtseyan hydromagmatic volcanic activity. Less well known are the responses of the Portuguese authorities to the eruption and subsequent earthquake in May 1958, and the ways in which well-thought-out and generally effective recovery programmes were put in place. At the time Portugal was ruled by a dictatorship, the Estado Novo (New State). Only superficially similar to other fascist governments in Southern Europe, the Estado Novo collected huge amounts of data on the responses of the authorities to the disaster and their programmes of recovery, but never encouraged academic evaluation of policy, although it ensured that the scientific aspects of the eruption and earthquake were meticulously recorded and published. In this paper we remedy this situation by discussing the details of the immediate response to the emergency and the ways in which the island recovered in its aftermath. The study is based not only on archival sources and demographic and economic data, but also on detailed interviews with survivors some of whom were also decision makers. We argue that response, recovery and rehabilitation were generally highly successful and assess the lessons of the 1957/58 emergency which are relevant to future geophysical disasters in Faial and the wider Azores. Since the 1974 revolution Portugal has been a democratic state. We conclude that both the legislation and the civil defence infrastructure, necessary to achieve a similarly strong and successful response, are in place today.

  12. Interactions between regional tectonics and volcanic deformations in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, J.; Sigmundsson, F.; Ofeigsson, B.; Rodrigues, R.; Ferreira, T.

    2012-04-01

    The Azores archipelago is located in the plate triple junction of Eurasia, Nubia, and North American. With this geologically peculiar location on the earth it represents intense seismic activities and active volcanisms. Space geodesy techniques such as GNSS, DORIS, SLR, and VLBI enable direct measurements of the current tectonic plate motions besides detecting local crustal deformation episodes in the volcanic fields. In this study, we report the recent new results of continuous GPS measurements in the Azores Triple Junction region. In the scope of monitoring both tectonic and volcanic activities, CVARG (Center for Volcanology and Geological Risk Assessment, University of Azores) has been operating 11 continuous GPS stations. All available data sets including the Azores government GNSS network and IGS (International GNSS Service) permanent network have been simultaneously processed using Bernese software v5.0. The site velocities are determined in ITRF2005 geodetic reference frame from the time series analysis for the period of 2008-2010. Estimated velocities are compared with tectonic plate motion models. Our results roughly agree with the previous geodetic studies by showing the following evidences; (1) the different opening velocities at MAR result in differential shear along Terceira Ridge, (2) south and western side of Pico and southwest and central part of S. Miguel Islands mimic stable Nubia plate motion. The pattern of the residual velocities in S. Miguel changes between Fogo and Furnas volcanoes. In this area, significant earthquake swarm episodes (e.g. in 1989 and in 2005) have been repeated at least during last few decades and some minor seismic swarms have been still ongoing. Our GPS station has captured an episodic crustal deformation that was accompanied with seismic jumps between NE flank of Fogo and Furnas and was followed by intense swarm activities in the area on late 2008. This seismic and deformation significances can be interpreted by mutual

  13. A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Melo, Carlos; Silva, Luís; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Quartau, Rui; Hipólito, Ana; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Rebelo, Ana Cristina; Madeira, Patrícia; Rovere, Alessio; Hearty, Paul J.; Henriques, Diamantino; Silva, Carlos Marques da; Martins, António M. de Frias; Zazo, Caridad

    2015-04-01

    group of 21 thermophilic species was directly affected by the lower sea surface temperature, whereas a group of four sand-associated species was indirectly but similarly affected by the lowering of the sea level. Both groups have locally disappeared from the Azores. However, none of the extant endemic species found on the studied MIS 5e outcrops was apparently affected by the lowering SST. In contrast to the biogeographical relationships of the recent Azorean shallow marine molluscs, which are predominantly with the Mediterranean Region, Portugal and with the Madeira and Canary Islands archipelagos, the palaeobiogeographical relationships of the MIS 5e Azorean marine molluscs are mainly with Canaries and West Africa. Despite the general low similarity of the biogeographical relationships between the Azores and Cape Verde Archipelago, on both the recent and the MIS 5e analysis, this similarity is nevertheless higher for the MIS 5e mollusc assemblages, emphasizing the role of Cape Verde as an important source of warm-water species during the Last Interglacial.

  14. Submarine Sedimentation Transport Processes in the South-Eastern Terceira Rift / São Miguel Region (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The south-eastern Terceira Rift comprises a rift basin, igneous ridges, seamounts and São Miguel, the main island of the volcanic Azores Archipelago. It is located ~1500 km west of continental Portugal within the convergence zone of the American, African and Eurasian plate. Due to submarine and subaerial volcanism, the sedimentation rate is higher than usually assumed in such a segregated submarine region. Multi-beam and high-resolution multi-channel seismic data reveal a wide variety of sediment transport processes. Volcanic fall-out sediments are abundant in the entire area. Along the northern slope of Sao Miguel terrestrial volcanic sediments are drained by rain water gullies which connect to submarine channels. Turbidity currents created some 10 km long erosional channels which transported the sediments more than 40 km downslope. Several regional accumulations of talus and/or pyroclastic material get instable resulting in gravitational gliding, creeping or slide events. Volcanic ridges partly collapse due to tectonic stress and/or gravity spreading. Oceanic currents remobilize sediments and form drift deposits. Infilling drifts developed on top of hangingwall blocks of step faults. Therefore, the São Miguel region is a good example of a sedimentary system with strong time-variant and locally defined sediment support. Sedimentation is controlled by volcanism and tectonics, since these processes affect sedimentation pathways and oceanographic conditions.

  15. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  16. Reconstruction of the North Atlantic tropical cyclones in Azores for the last 800 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Ingles, Maria Jesus; Sánchez, Guiomar; Trigo, Ricardo; Francus, Pierre; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro; Freitas, Conceiçao; Borges, Paolo; Hernández, Armand; Bao, Roberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Andrade, Cesar; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    The variability of North Atlantic tropical storms has been the focus of several studies. Duration and seasonality has been attributed to a number of climate patterns and processes such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode, African easterly waves, and atmospheric Rossby waves, but their tracks have been widely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Several authors have pointed out an increase and track shifting of North Atlantic tropical cyclones since 1995 with increased probability of these turning north far away from the North American continent. However, this cannot be regarded as an infrequent phenomenon as most proxy records from the Atlantic North have shown the existence of similar patterns in the past. Sao Miguel Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal) is settled in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. This location makes this island an excellent natural laboratory to record shifts on North Atlantic tropical storms tracks that can reach the archipelago as low intensity hurricanes (e.g. Nadine in 2012) or downgraded to tropical storm (e.g. Grace in 2009). In the present work, lake sediment records have been used as a proxy sensor of tropical storms. Lagoa Azul is located inside Sete Cidades volcanic caldera and its catchment is characterized by stepped and forested caldera walls. Tropical storms and heavy rainfalls produce a flashy and substantial enhancement in the erosion of the catchment, increasing the sediments reaching the lake by rockfalls deposits (in littoral zones) and flood events deposits (in offshore zones). These flood events can be recognized in the sedimentary record as lobe deposits dominated by terrestrial components. It can be found in the sedimentary record and the bathymetry. Instrumental meteorological data and historical records have been compiled to reconstruct the most recent history of the North Atlantic tropical storms that have landed or affected the Sao Miguel Island (Andrade et al., 2008). In addition, a 1

  17. The 2007 Azores earthquakes: A case of trigering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buforn, E.; Borges, J.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Caldeira, B.

    2009-04-01

    THE 2007 AZORES EARTHQUAKES: A CASE OF TRIGERING? E. Buforn1 F. Borges2, M. Bezzeghoud2 1. Departamento de Geofísica y Meteorología, Fac. CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain), ebufornp@fis.ucm.es 2.Departamento de Física e Centro de Geofísica de Évora, University of Évora, Colégio Luis Verney, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59, 7002-554 Évora, jborges@uevora.pt On 5 April (Mw=6.3) and 7 April 2007 (Mw=6.1 ) two earthquakes occur at the Formigas Islets (Azores Islands), both with same epicenter and felt (I=V/VI MSK) in S. Miguel Island. The rupture process of these earthquakes has been studied from body wave inversion of broad band data at telesesimic distances. Results obtained shown normal faulting for both shocks, with planes oriented in NW-SE direction, with focus at shallow depth (10 km and 6 km respectively). The slip distribution over the fault plane (152/44/-88) shows for the 05-04-07 event, the rupture propagating downward and a duration of 12s for the source time function. For the 07-04-07 event, the slip distribution over the fault plane (125/52/-81) shows de rupture propagating downward and duration of 10s for the STF. From these results we have estimated the static Coulomb stress change. We find that the static stress change caused by the 5 April event is higher, about 2 bar at epicenter the location of the second event (April 7), triggering the second rupture. Locations of aftershocks do not agree well with areas of increased Coulomb failure stress, which can be explained by the complexities of the rupture process oy by uncertainties at the hypocerter location

  18. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  19. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) outbreak in Azores: Disclosure of common genetic markers and phylogenetic segregation within the European strains.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida; Carvalho, Carina; Bernardo, Susana; Barros, Sílvia Vanessa; Benevides, Sandra; Flor, Lídia; Monteiro, Madalena; Marques, Isabel; Henriques, Margarida; Barros, Sílvia C; Fagulha, Teresa; Ramos, Fernanda; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) is widespread in several countries of Western Europe, but it has not been introduced to other continents. However, between late 2014 and early 2015, the presence of RHDV2 was confirmed outside of the European continent, in the Azores, initially in the islands of Graciosa, Flores, S. Jorge and Terceira. In this study we report the subsequent detection of RHDV2 in wild rabbits from the islands of Faial, St. Maria and S. Miguel, and display the necropsy and microscopic examination data obtained, which showed lesions similar to those induced by classical strains of RHDV, with severe affection of lungs and liver. We also disclose the result of a genetic investigation carried out with RHDV2 positive samples from wild rabbits found dead in the seven islands. Partial vp60 sequences were amplified from 27 tissue samples. Nucleotide analysis showed that the Azorean strains are closely related to each other, sharing a high genetic identity (>99.15%). None of the obtained sequences were identical to any RHDV2 sequence publically known, hampering a clue for the source of the outbreaks. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses disclosed that Azorean strains are more closely related to a few strains from Southern Portugal than with any others presently known. In the analysed region comprising the terminal 942 nucleotides of the vp60 gene, four new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified. Based on the present data, these four SNPs, which are unique in the strains from Azores, may constitute putative molecular geographic markers for Azorean RHDV2 strains, if they persist in the future. One of these variations is a non-synonymous substitution that involves the replacement of one amino acid in a hypervariable region of the capsid protein. PMID:26247721

  20. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  1. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Xiquan

    2014-05-05

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  2. Severe leaching of trachytic glass without devitrification, Terceira, Azores

    SciTech Connect

    Mungall, J.E.; Martin, R.F. )

    1994-01-01

    Pumice produced during the subplinian phase of eruption of a peralkaline trachyte lava on the island of Terceira, Azores, has undergone extensive leaching at ambient conditions by groundwater, while remaining in a glassy state. Over 25% of F, Na, K, Si, Fe, Ti, and Mn originally present has been removed, whereas U, Al, Nb, Ca, Y, and Rb show smaller but significant losses. Thorium , Zr, Hf, Ta, and Lu have remained immobile. Water content (measured as LOI) has increased up to tenfold, whereas the Sr content has risen by up to 80%. The absence of devitrification requires that leached elements escaped by diffusing through the glass; a coefficient of chemical diffusion D[sub Na] between 1.8 X 10[sup [minus]19] cm[sup 2] s[sup [minus]1] and 6.1 X 10[sup [minus]19] cm[sup 2] s[sup [minus]1] has been calculated, in excellent agreement with previously published experimentally derived values for comparably low temperatures. Water has not replaced the leached cations on a charge-equivalent basis, a finding that requires an explanation other than simple binary interdiffusion. The authors suggest that a simultaneous influx of molecular water and cation exchange between Na[sup +] in the glass and H[sup +] in the groundwater opens the glass structure and frees cations, which can diffuse outward by hydrolysis of bridging oxygen atoms. Reported mobilities have important implications for such diverse fields as igneous petrology, nuclear waste management, and agriculture.

  3. The role of the Azores Archipelago in capturing and retaining incoming particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Iria; Harrison, Cheryl S.; Caldeira, Rui M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The capacity of the Azores Archipelago to capture and retain incoming particles and organisms that are drifting with the oceanic currents was the main focus of this study. Using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model coupled with the Connectivity Modeling System (an offline Lagrangian tool) a series of experiments were conducted to determine: i) the origin of the particles that reach the archipelago, ii) the capacity of each island sub-group to retain incoming particles and organisms, as well as the iii) oceanographic phenomena that lead to their transport and retention. The Gulf Stream (GS) and the westward propagating eddy corridors were identified as the main transport pathways affecting the Azores region. Eddy Kinetic Energy from altimetry data and Lyapunov exponent analysis suggest that eddies and filaments are the main delivery mechanisms. In the upper mixed layer, the GS and its associated eddies are a predominant regional oceanographic feature injecting particles from the north and west boundaries toward the Azores. The capacity to capture particles of each island sub-group was directly proportional to their size, while the retention time within the Azores region increased with depth, associated with the decrease in velocity of the intermediate water currents. This study opens new prospects to understand transport in the Mid-Atlantic (Azores) region and the islands' role in marine colonization, dispersal, fisheries recruitment and speciation.

  4. Site effects inferred from HVSR methodology in Praia da Vitória city (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontiela, João; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Rosset, Philippe; Rodrigues, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Terceira island (Azores) have experienced several strong earthquakes, especially on the eastern and south-eastern part of the island with maximum MM intensity of VIII in 1800, 1801 and 1912 and IX in 1614 and 1841. Seismicity of the eastern part of the island is largely dominated by the tectonic of the NW-SE Lajes graben where are located Praia da Vitória and other setlements. Praia da Vitória is settled partially over pyroclastic material(pumice and ignimbrite) deposited around 20'000 years ago and forming part of the UpperTerceira Group. Its thickness is 15m on the north but in Praia da Vitoria has less than one meter.. It is sited on by basaltic flow of the upper Basaltic Terceira Group (2,000y BP) and a thick andesitic lava flow. A narrow band with sand dunes and beach crossed this deposits along Praia da Vitória and behind it appear a flat area with 7-10m of round cobbles that is interpreted as an old boulders'beach. Thickness of these different deposits are tricky to estimate in urban areas since very few outcrops are present. In order to assess site amplification of seismic waves due to the soil conditions, we perform horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method from broad band ambient noise measurements in 51 different sites within Praia da Vitoria. The first results show that the frequencies of the study area are variable, lying between 0.6-12 Hz. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: João Fontiela is supported by grant M3.1.2/F/060/2011 provided by the Regional Science Fund of the Azores Regional Government. This study was partially funded by the Institute of Earth Sciences, Portugal, under the contract with the FCT, ICT-UID/GEO/04683/2013 (Portugal).

  5. Contrasting styles of explosive eruption at Sete Cidades, São Miguel, Azores, in the last 5000 years: Hazard implications from modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, P. D.; Pacheco, J. M.; Gunasekera, R.; Queiroz, G.; Gonçalves, P.; Gaspar, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    The deposits of three eruptions in the last 5000 years are described in detail in order to constrain eruptive parameters and allow a quantitative assessment of the hazard from a range of explosive eruption types at Sete Cidades volcano, São Miguel, Azores. These deposits include: the Caldeira Seca eruption (P17) which occurred around 600 yr BP, which was the last explosive event from inside the Sete Cidades caldera, the P11 eruption, dated at 2220 ± 70 yr BP, and the undated P8 eruption (< 3000 yr BP). These deposits were chosen to represent the range of likely explosive activity from the caldera. Our studies reveal that the Caldeira Seca eruption (P17) produced ash-rich deposits, probably as the result of hydromagmatic eruptions, and several lapilli fall layers dispersed in different directions. The lapilli fall layers were derived from eruption columns up to10 km high. Evidence indicates pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) only moved outside of the caldera on to the western flank. The P11 deposit represents one of the largest eruptions at Sete Cidades in the last 5000 years. The deposits are composed of two units, the main lower one is a lapilli fall deposit inferred to be derived from an eruption column 18 km high. Evidence for PDCs outside of the caldera occurs to the southeast and northwest. The P8 deposits are composed of numerous alternating lapilli and ash layers representing a highly pulsatory eruption almost all of which are of a fallout origin. The lapilli are inferred to be derived from eruption columns up to 8 km in height. Using the eruptive parameters derived from these deposits we use HAZMAP ([Macedonio, G., Costa, A., Longo, A., 2005. A computer model for volcanic ash fallout and assessment of subsequent hazard, Comput. Geosci. 31, 837-845]) to constrain the probability of fallout of different loads and thicknesses. Two end-member scenarios were used with HAZMAP one representing a P17 eruption and another representing a P11 eruption. Both

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Eastern North Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, Azores

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wood, Robert

    From May 2009 through December 2010, the ARM Mobile Facility obtained data from a location near the airport on Graciosa Island to support the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) field campaign. The campaign was led by principal investigator Robert Wood. Results from this campaign confirmed that the Azores have the ideal mix of conditions to study how clouds, aerosols, and precipitation interact. This new observation site will have significant enhancements to instruments previously deployed to the Azores, including a Ka-/W-band scanning cloud radar, precipitation radar, and Doppler lidar. It has the full support of the Azorean government and collaborators at the University of the Azores. Los Alamos National Laboratory will operate the site for the ARM Facility.

  7. Hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope geochemistry of geothermal fluids discharged from volcanoes in São Miguel (Azores, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitischek, J.; Dietzel, M.; Cruz, J. V.; Inguaggiato, S.; Boettcher, M. E.; Leis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrochemical and isotopic composition of hydrothermal fluids discharged from 3 different volcanic areas of São Miguel has been analysed to create a conceptual model for the evolution of a geothermal system in a basaltic ocean island with still pronounced volcanic activities. Besides the fluids, associated solid-phase precipitates and local volcanic rocks were collected for geochemical investigations. Thermal discharges were divided into springs (up to 75 °C) and boiling pools. Major classification based on dominant dissolved ions divided fluids in Na-SO4, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl types. Temperatures estimated from water hydrochemistry (e.g. Na-K, Na-K-Ca cationic geothermometers) let us assume that the in-situ solutions with discharging temperatures exceeding 32°C were close to thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to local rocks. The aqueous solutions have their origin in meteoric water with a δ18O(H2O) value of -3 ±1 ‰ (V-SMOW) and a δD(H2O) value of -13 ±7 ‰ (V-SMOW). Only the δ18O and δD values of Ferraria reveal mixing of meteoric with sea water. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is chemically evolved by the uptake of volcanic carbon with δ13C(DIC) = -5 ±3 ‰ (V-PDB). The isotopic composition of sulphate with δ34S(SO4) = 0.4 ± 0.3‰ (V-CDT) is close to typical igneous rock values. The extent of basaltic rock leaching depends on the availability of volcanic CO2 and on temperature. The molar Mg/Ca ratio (0.8) of all thermal discharges reflects leaching of the local basalt. In Furnas, at higher temperatures, the concentrations of dissolved Si(OH)4, K+ and Sr2+ increased due to intensive leaching of basaltic rocks, whereas in contrast Al3+ and ΣFe decreased due to the precipitation of e.g. alunite. Annual supply of dissolved CO2 in Furnas springs was calculated to be about 61 t. In Fogo the Na-SO4 type dominated and at higher altitude in particular CO2 rich (up to 23 mmol L-1) water at T ≈ 20 °C occurs. It is further suggested that the isotope signature and hydrochemistry of the fluids can be used to estimate the distance to the magma sources and as a general indicator of volcanic activity.

  8. A re-evaluation of Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Cisneros, K.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R.; Neto, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    The genus Scinaia in the Azores is re-evaluated based on historical and recent collections. A combination of morphological and anatomical diagnostic characters was used for species segregation, and a key for Azorean species determination is presented. Anatomical information associated to the hair development is described for the first time for the genus. The occurrence of S. furcellata and S. interrupta is confirmed for the archipelago. The presence of S. acuta is reported for the first time in the Azores, representing a spread from Australia to the N-Atlantic and specifically into the Macaronesian region. Its occurrence in the archipelago and the Canaries is discussed as a possible introduction.

  9. Early Childhood Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa

    This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…

  10. Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the

  11. Women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M

    1981-01-01

    Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy

  12. And Yet They Come: Portuguese Immigration from the Azores to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jerry R.

    This book is about the Portuguese who immigrated from the Azores Islands to the United States during the years 1800-1870, 1870-1920, and 1957-1982. The earliest Portuguese immigrants were employed in the whaling industry, and settled in New England and California. Another major concentration can be found in the Hawaiian Islands, where they were…

  13. Empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zêzere, José Luis; Vaz, Teresa; Pereira, Susana; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Marques, Rui; Garcia, Ricardo A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is the most important physical process responsible for the landslide triggering in Portugal. Following the work of Zêzere et al. (2014), we present the state of the art concerning the proposition of empirical rainfall thresholds in Portugal for different types of landslides observed in different zones of the country: the Lisbon region, the Douro Valley and the NW Mountains, and the Povoação Municipality in São Miguel Island (Azores). The empirical thresholds applied in Portugal are based on the identification of 120 landslide events and include (i) the computation of antecedent rainfall threshold defined by linear regression, (ii) the normalization of rainfall by the mean annual precipitation, (iii) the definition of combined rainfall thresholds, which integrates the rainfall event and the antecedent rainfall for different time periods, and (iv) the definition of lower limit and upper limit rainfall thresholds. The intensity-duration (ID) threshold is the empirical rainfall threshold more used worldwide. In mainland Portugal, the highest ID rainfall threshold is registered in the NW Mountains, which is the rainiest zone of the country. The Lisbon Region typically receives less rain per year and the corresponding ID threshold is lower than that obtained in the north part of the country. The Povoação study area evidence a contrasting situation, which is associated to the highest value of the negative exponential of the threshold (-0.66). As a consequence, for short duration (< 10 h) this threshold is only exceeded in the NW Mountains, while for long durations (>1,000 h) it is below the remaining thresholds. The normalization of the ID threshold by the mean annual precipitation (MAP) has showed that, in relative terms: (i) the ID threshold is highest in Lisbon Region for duration less than 50 h; (ii) in the north of the country, the ID threshold is more exigent in the Douro Valley than in the NW Mountains and (iii) the ID threshold in Povoa

  14. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, São Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard B.

    1990-01-01

    Six volcanic zones comprise São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. From west to east the zones are (1) the trachyte stratovolcano of Sete Cidades, (2) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte, (3) the trachyte stratovolcano of Agua de Pau, (4) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte and tristanite, (5) the trachyte stratovolcano of Furnas, and (6) the Nordeste shield, which includes the Povoação caldera and consists of alkali basalt, tristanite, and trachyte. New radiocarbon and K-Ar ages augment stratigraphic data obtained during recent geologic mapping of the entire island and provide improved data to interpret eruption frequency. Average dormant intervals for the past approximately 3000 years in the areas active during that time are about 400 years for Sete Cidades, 145 for zone 2, 1150 for Agua de Pau, and 370 for Furnas. However, the average dormant interval at Sete Cidades increased from 400 to about 680 years before each of the past two eruptions, and the interval at Furnas decreased from 370 to about 195 years before each of the past four eruptions. Eruptions in zone 4 occurred about once every 1000 years during latest Pleistocene and early Holocene time; none has occurred for about 3000 years. The Povoação caldera truncates part of the Nordeste shield and probably formed during the middle to late Pleistocene. Calderas formed during latest Pleistocene time at the three younger stratovolcanoes in the sequence: outer Agua de Pau (between 46 and 26.5 ka), Sete Cidades (about 22 ka), inner Agua de Pau (15.2 ka), and Furnas (about 12 ka). Normal faults are common, but many are buried by Holocene trachyte pumice. Most faults trend northwest or west-northwest and are related to the Terceira rift, whose most active segment on São Miguel passes through Sete Cidades and zone 2. A major normal fault displaces Nordeste

  15. Equity in health care financing in Portugal: findings from the Household Budget Survey 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Quintal, Carlota; Lopes, José

    2016-07-01

    Equity in health care financing is recognised as a main goal in health policy. It implies that payments should be linked to capacity to pay and that households should be protected against catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). The risk of CHE is inversely related to the share of out-of-pocket payments (OOP) in total health expenditure. In Portugal, OOP represented 26% of total health expenditure in 2010 [one of the highest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries]. This study aims to identify the proportion of households with CHE in Portugal and the household factors associated with this outcome. Additionally, progressivity indices are calculated for OOP and private health insurance. Data were taken from the Portuguese Household Budget Survey 2010/2011. The prevalence of CHE is 2.1%, which is high for a developed country with a universal National Health Service. The main factor associated with CHE is the presence of at least one elderly person in households (when the risk quadruples). Payments are particularly regressive for medicines. Regarding the results by regions, the Kakwani index for total OOP is larger (negative) for the Centre and lower, not significant, for the Azores. Payments for voluntary health insurance are progressive. PMID:26573411

  16. Ten Years of Black Carbon Measurements in the North Atlantic at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Azores (2225m asl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Fialho, P. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Olsen, S. C.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Dziobak, M.; Kramer, L. J.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Pico Mountain Observatory is located in the summit caldera of the Pico mountain, an inactive volcano on the Pico Island in the Azores, Portugal (38.47°N, 28.40°W, Altitude 2225m asl). The Azores are often impacted by polluted outflows from the North American continent and local sources have been shown to have a negligible influence at the observatory. The value of the station stems from the fact that this is the only permanent mountaintop monitoring station in the North Atlantic that is typically located above the marine boundary layer (average MBL heights are below 1200 m and rarely exceed 1300 m) and often receives air characteristic of the lower free troposphere. Measurements of black carbon (BC) mass have been carried out at the station since 2001, mostly in the summer seasons. Here we discuss the BC decadal dataset (2001-2011) collected at the site by using a seven-wavelength AE31 Magee Aethalometer. Measured BC mass and computed Angstrom exponent (AE) values were analysed to study seasonal and diurnal variations. There was a large day-to-day variability in the BC values due to varied meteorological conditions that resulted in different diurnal patterns for different months. The daily mean BC at this location ranged between 0 and ~430 ngm-3, with the most frequently occurring value in the range 0-100 ngm-3. The overall mean for the 10 year period is ~24 ngm-3, with a coefficient of variation of 150%. The BC values exhibited a consistent annual trend being low in winter months and high in summer months, barring year to year variations. To differentiate between BC and other absorbing particles, we analyzed the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption coefficient and determined a best-fit exponent i.e., the Ångström exponent, for the whole dataset. Visible Ångström exponent (AE: 470-520-590-660 nm) values ranged between 0 and 3.5, with most frequently occurring values in the range 0.85 to 1.25. By making use of the aethalometer light attenuation

  17. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos

    2016-04-01

    The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos case was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential impact information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk assessment was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the assessment of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the assessment of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall

  18. Spring geochemistry in an active volcanic environment (São Miguel, Azores): source and fluxes of inorganic solutes.

    PubMed

    Freire, P; Andrade, C; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V

    2014-01-01

    Mineral waters were monthly sampled in selected springs from Furnas and Fogo trachytic central volcanoes (São Miguel, Azores, Portugal). Water temperatures between 15.1 °C and 90.2 °C, characterize poorly mineralized waters of Na-HCO₃ and Na-HCO₃-Cl types. According to the spring location, two watersheds were selected in each volcano to evaluate solute fluxes and chemical weathering rates (Fogo volcano: Ribeira Grande river - RRG; Furnas volcano: Ribeira Quente river - RRQ). Na, Mg, K and Ca fluxes in groundwater represented 43%, 60%, 46% and 57% of the total (subsurface plus surface fluxes) in RRG, and respectively 43%, 53%, 46% and 49% in RRQ. Average HCO₃ flux is ten times higher in RRQ (130.1 × 10(6) mol/yr) compared to RRG (13.8 × 10(6) mol/yr), reflecting the volcano degassing and the lower ratio between groundwater and river water fluxes. Based on these values, total CO₂-consumption by weathering ranged from 1.5 × 10(6)mol/km(2)/yr (RRG) to 4 × 10(6)mol/km(2)/yr (RRQ). TDS load varied between 3772 t/yr (RRG) and 15388 t/yr (RRQ), and the ratio between values in groundwater and in surface water is respectively equal to 0.72 and 2.04. The associated chemical weathering rates in groundwater were 206 t/km(2)/yr (RRG) and 399 t/km(2)/yr (RRQ). Coupled to river water, these values indicate that total chemical weathering rates are respectively equal to 493 t/km(2)/yr and 594 t/km(2)/yr. A similar approach developed for the entire archipelago showed that the chemical weathering rates due to groundwater are in the range from 33 to 321 t/km(2)/yr, being partially controlled by the age of the islands. Results of the present study point out to the need to consider groundwater solute fluxes due to weathering when establishing geochemical budgets. PMID:23933431

  19. Textiles and Training in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrez, Jaime Serrao; Dias, Mario Caldeira

    Analyzing the role of vocational training in an economic sector that is declining in Portugal, this document consists of five chapters, a bibliography, and a list of training organizations. An introduction tells why the study is important and explains that the major obstacles to development of the Portuguese textile and clothing sector are the…

  20. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  1. Spatial variation of the scaling structure of short-term rainfall over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2009-04-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of rain, which typically exhibits extreme variability, is a core issue in studies that span a variety of research areas, e.g. hydrology, hydraulics, environment, energy, economics, society. The interest in rain can demand its study and characterization at a variety of space- and time-scales. Different tools and methodologies are used for this purpose, which are usually complementary. Mainland Portugal is located in the transitional region between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the sub-polar depression zones. The spatial distribution of precipitation over the territory and its seasonal variability are due to the characteristics of the global circulation. One specific feature is the Atlantic origin of many synoptic disturbances, e.g. seasonal movements of the Azores high pressure system, in the context of the regional geography (e.g. latitude, orography, oceanic and continental influences). Although the variation in climate factors is fairly small, it is sufficient to justify significant variations in precipitation. Compared with the northern region of Portugal, the southern region is warmer and drier; there the climate is semi-arid, and the region is well-known for its vulnerability to climate variability. Two storm types dominate the occurrence of rainfall in mainland Portugal: convective storms and frontal storms. Convective storms are typical during the summer and in early and mid autumn, and are more frequent in the southern regions; frontal storms occur principally in the winter season, and affect the northern regions more. In this work we discuss results of scale-invariant analyses of the temporal structure of rain from several locations in mainland Portugal. The aim was to investigate the statistical signature of rain events of different origins, resulting from the large number of mechanisms and factors affecting the rainfall climate over Portugal. The study uses hourly rainfall time series covering periods of about 30

  2. Sex education in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  3. Beach debris in the Azores (NE Atlantic): Faial Island as a first case study.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Catharina; Ventura, Maria A; Martins, Ana; Cunha, Regina T

    2015-12-30

    Marine debris is widely recognised as a global environmental problem. This study assesses density, type, and temporal trends of marine debris in two sandy beaches of Faial Island (Azores, NE-Atlantic). During seven months (six days per month) the beaches were surveyed by performing 10 random transects at each site. Recorded items within the range 2-30 cm were organised into seven categories. Densities of total debris varied from 0 to 1.940 items m(-2), with plastics dominating both areas. Both beaches, presented the highest debris abundance in February, most probably related to prevailing winds and swell. Location and/or time of year also seemed to influence the type of debris present. These findings provide new insights into debris accumulation rates in the Azores, where no previous studies were made. It also confirms the global trend of increased plastics accumulation on shorelines, highlighting the need for further research in remote islands. PMID:26515994

  4. LUSO: Portugal's new 6000 m rated R.O.V. for deep sea research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, A.; Lourenco, N.; Madureira, P.; Costa, R.; Abreu, M.; Team, E.

    2008-12-01

    Portugal has now the capability to explore the deep ocean with a 6000 meter rated ROV. The ROV, named LUSO, was acquired by the Portuguese Task Group for the Extension of the Continental Shelf (EMEPC). LUSO is a work class Bathyssaurus XL, developed by ARGUS Remote Systems AS and has entered in operation in September 2008. Its main application will be focused on both fundamental and applied research in deep waters. This new ROV is equipped with a variety of multidisciplinary marine research equipment such as: cameras for capturing high definition digital images, two manipulators, one rosette system, a biologic sampler, a mini- drill, a CH4 and CO2 sensor, push corers, CTD and a Doppler velocity logger and two parallel green laser scaling devices. The equipment will be upgraded in 2009 with an inertial movement unit (IMU) and possibly a swath bathymetry system. A first cruise with LUSO will be held on board the Portuguese oceanic class vessel the "NRP Almirante Gago Coutinho" from September to November 2008. This mission will comprise five legs with the total of four study areas: 1. Azores Platform (including the most recent Serreta submarine eruption and a series of dives along the Terceira axis); 2. southern Azores seamounts (Great Meteor group); 3. the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 36ºN and 38ºN and 4. the Josephine seamount (Eu-Nub plate boundary). A multidisciplinary team of researchers from several national universities and public institutions, covering a wide spectrum of marine research topics: Geology, Geophysics, Oceanography, Macro and micro-biology will conduct the research. In dive area 1 the architecture of hiper-slow oceanic crust, as exposed on the Terceira axis walls and the temporal and spatial variability of constructional processes which have been creating the Azores Volcanic Platform, will be investigated. In dive area 3, previous investigations of hydrothermal occurrences at the Lucky Strike segment will be complemented. This presentation will be

  5. New and rare coastal fishes in the Azores islands: occasional events or tropicalization process?

    PubMed

    Afonso, P; Porteiro, F M; Fontes, J; Tempera, F; Morato, T; Cardigos, F; Santos, R S

    2013-08-01

    Seven coastal fish species are newly reported for the remote north Atlantic archipelago of the Azores: Mediterranean sand eel Gymnammodytes cicerelus, bar jack Caranx ruber, two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris, bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus, unicorn leatherjacket filefish Aluterus scriptus and longspined porcupinefish Diodon holacanthus. The occurrence is also confirmed for 19 species that had been hitherto cited occasionally for the region, totalling a list of two elasmobranchs and 23 teleosts. Diplodus vulgaris, which appears to have recently colonized the islands, as well as roughtail stingray Dasyatis centroura and golden grey mullet Liza aurata, re-cited based on new records, are frequent or common coastal species in the Azores. The remaining 22 species, exceptional or rare in the region, are of tropical or subtropical affinity and find their northernmost distribution limit within the central and north-east Atlantic Ocean precisely in the Azores. This biogeographical pattern contrasts with that of the Azorean coastal fish community and suggests a tropicalization process in the region in line with previous findings of similar patterns across the north-east Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. These novel data from the most isolated archipelago of the North Atlantic Ocean, located in a biogeographic boundary area where colonization opportunities are reduced, reinforce the need for long-term monitoring programmes of coastal fish communities and, in particular, of indicator species groups to improve understanding of the effects of climate change on marine communities. PMID:23902306

  6. The importance of deep-sea vulnerable marine ecosystems for demersal fish in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Christopher K.; Vandeperre, Frederic; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Isidro, Eduardo; Morato, Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Cold-water corals and sponges aggregations are important features of the deep sea, recently classified as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). VMEs increase habitat complexity, believed to act as feeding, reproductive, nursery and refuge areas for a high number of invertebrates and fish species. In the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic), VMEs are prevalent but their ecological role has not received much attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of VMEs in influencing the distribution of demersal fish in the Azores. With data collected during experimental longline surveys , we modeled the catch of six demersal fish species of commercial value (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pagellus bogaraveo, Mora moro, Conger conger, Phycis phycis, Pontinus kuhlii) in relation to the presence of VMEs and other environmental factors using General Additive Models (GAMs). Our study demonstrated that total fish catch was higher inside VMEs but the relationship between fish and VMEs varied among fish species. Species specific models showed that catch was strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly depth, whilst the presence of VMEs was only important for two rockfish species; juvenile and adult P. kuhlii and juvenile H. dactylopterus. Although the association between deep-sea demersal fish and VMEs may be an exception to the rule, we suggest that VMEs act as an important habitat for two commercially important species in the Azores.

  7. [Demography and employment in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Barata, O S

    1981-01-01

    The population of Portugal showed a period of slow growth between 1950-60; however, in the 1970s, the return of large numbers of former residents in African territories along with a reduction in emigration changed the trend so that the 1981 census showed a significant increase. The Portuguese economy, on the other hand, is in a state of crisis which has resulted in large numbers of unemployed. The growth of the population along with these hard times has made it more difficult to reduce the rate of unemployment. It is also more difficult for those leaving school to find jobs. The better educated generations are seeking jobs in industry and in other services that Portugal will find difficult to offer in sufficient numbers in the immediate future. At present, the Portuguese economy has a large component of agricultural labor. In any case, the means of economic and social intervention to fight unemployment have limited potential. Therefore, many of those unable to find jobs in Portugal will attempt to emigrate. Many Portuguese are already working in Germany, France, and in other Western European countries but migration today is much more difficult. In addition, these countries cannot be expected to recive many more migrant workers in the future. In fact, those better educated workers from Portugal will not be very interested in the low paying jobs which can be found more easily by foreign workers in Western Euorpe. Many will therefore attempt to find jobs in non-European countries. There has been a recent increase of migration to Canada and the US. A renewal of interest in jobs in Brazil and other South Amerian countries is also to be expected. There may also be a future increase in the number of experts, technicians, and other qualified personnel emigrating to Portuguese speaking African countries if there is adequate security and if these countries find the way to expand economic growth. (author's modified) PMID:12339773

  8. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  9. Portugal to Accede to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The Republic of Portugal will become the ninth member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago and the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , in the presence of other high officials from Portugal and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 05/00 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Portuguese Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Portugal will formally join this organisation on January 1, 2001. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 16/00 ESO PR Photo 16/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 405 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 809 pix - 408k] Caption : Signing of the Portugal-ESO Agreement on June 27, 2000, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago . In his speech, the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago , stated that "the accession of Portugal to ESO is the result of a joint effort by ESO and Portugal during the last ten years. It was made possible by the rapid Portuguese scientific development and by the growth and internationalisation of its scientific community." He continued: "Portugal is fully committed to European scientific and technological development. We will devote our best efforts to the success of ESO". Catherine Cesarsky , ESO Director General since 1999, warmly welcomed the Portuguese intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Portuguese astronomers will have great opportunities for working on research programmes at the frontiers of modern astrophysics." "This is indeed a good time to join ESO", she added. "The four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes with their many first-class instruments are nearly ready, and the VLT

  10. Morphology and growth history of Delgada Fan: implications for the Neogene evolution of Point Arena Basin and the Mendocino Triple Junction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.; Gardner, J.V.; McCulloch, D.S.; Masson, D.

    1989-01-01

    Long-range side scan (GLORIA) sonographs and seismic reflection data acquired during a survey of the western US Exclusive Economic Zone in 1984, coupled with information from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites, provide new insights into the growth and evolution of the Delgada Fan. Construction of the fan commenced in the latest Miocene (~6 Ma) following the filling of the Neogene Point Arena Basin. The large size of the fan is incompatible with the small present-day supply of sediment to the canyon system. The GLORIA data show the Delgada Fan to be a hybrid-type fan, exhibiting characteristics of both elongate and radial fans. The morphology and volume of the fan, along with evidence for a decline in accumulation rates on the lower fan during the Quaternary period, suggest that the fan experienced an early growth phase (latest Miocene and Pliocene) characterized by relatively rapid progradation of elongate fan lobes followed by a period (Quaternary) of slower growth that has featured a shift of depocenters to sites closer to the canyons and a transition to distributary channels bordered by less prominent levees and overbank deposits. We examine the growth of Delgada Fan in relation to the Neogene evolution of the North American-Pacific plate boundary using a series of paleogeographic reconstructions based on recently published time displacement histories of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ), the San Andreas fault (SAF), and the Pacific plate, upon which the fan rests. The time displacement curves for the SAF and the MTJ suggest that the MTJ and Mendocino Fracture Zone overtook and passed Point Arena Basin at about 10 Ma when the basin lay immediately southwest of the present San Francisco Bay area. We suggest that the MTJ joined the SAF at approximately that time and location, thus making the SAF the master fault in the transform system. -from Authors

  11. Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago: Volcanic terrain instability and human vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malheiro, A.

    2006-08-01

    The islands of the Azores archipelago are geologically young and located in a tectonically and volcanically active region. Not surprisingly, the islands are subject to many geological hazards, including earthquakes, landslides, and coastal erosion; some selected examples are discussed in this paper. As demonstrated by two recent earthquakes (1980, Terceira; 1998, Faial), the principal damage was related to one or more of these factors: (1) unsafe location of structures near faults; (2) unstable foundation soils; (3) poor quality of building materials and construction methods; (4) disregard of building codes; and (5) lack of building maintenance. Major landsliding events in the Azores (e.g., Ponta da Fajã, Ribeira Quente, and Fajã dos Cubres) typically are triggered by intense, long-duration precipitation and (or) earthquake-induced ground shaking. The loose, unconsolidated nature of the rocks and soils of these volcanic islands is another significant contributing factor, sometimes aggravated by ground instability caused by human activity. Coastal erosion is prevalent on the north coast of São Miguel and the south coast of Faial, mostly resulting from natural circumstances (e.g., steepness of cliffs, differential erosion, intense wave action during storms) and also from human activity (e.g., poorly engineered drainage works on cliff faces). Where severe, coastal erosion can pose a risk to populations and societal infrastructures situated near the tops of the seacliffs. To mitigate the risk of these and other geological hazards in the Azores, it is necessary to (1) prepare hazards and risks maps of the affected areas; (2) adopt prudent land-use planning that considers the hazards; (3) upgrade the building codes in the hazardous areas; (4) initiate slope-stabilization programs; (5) preserve the natural environmental integrity of the regions; and (6) educate the affected populace and governmental officials about the possibilities and consequences of hazardous

  12. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  13. Lithium isotope systematics of the Azores Platform: Insights into Li variability of mantle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, K. K.; Langmuir, C. L.; Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, N. G.

    2008-12-01

    Azores Platform lavas (FAZAR) comprise a well characterized dataset with published values for major and trace elements, radiogenic isotopes, volatiles and δ18O. We have measured δ7Li on 12 of these glasses in order to investigate whether local variability in Li isotopes reflects mixing of different mantle sources, or high-T diffusion. Long wavelength enrichments in incompatible trace elements and isotopes associated with the Azores hotspot extend from the Kurchatov (41°N) to the Hayes Fracture Zones (33°N) along the MAR. Superimposed on this gradient are local enrichment spikes, the most prominent one occurring north of the Oceanographer Fracture Zone (NOFZ). The long wavelength enrichment can be generated by mixing a depleted mantle end-member with an Azores hotspot enriched end-member with isotopic characteristics similar to the mantle component 'C' (1). In contrast NOFZ lavas are most likely generated by a adding another enriched component with EM1-like characteristics. These glasses show δ7Li of +3.2 to +5.7, which spans the global MORB range. There are no correlations between δ7Li and Li content or MgO (wt%). More significantly, there are trends of δ7Li along axis showing positive correlations with 87Sr/86Sr and K/Ti, and negative correlations with H2O/Ce and 143Nd/144Nd, that are well beyond our analytical 2σ uncertainty of ±0.4‰. Using radiogenic isotopes and trace element ratios to define mantle end- members, we estimate δ7Li = +3.4 ±0.2‰ for the depleted mantle component in the North Atlantic asthenosphere (similar to 2), +4.4 ± 0.4‰ for the enriched Azores 'C'-like component, and a minimum of +5.7‰ for the EM1-like component. This new value for EM1 is much heavier than previous estimates (<-17‰, 3), and is similar to estimates for HIMU (>+7‰,4) and EM2 (>+11‰, 2,5). We thus conclude that the correlations of δ7Li with other tracers along the MAR, similar to trends observed on the EPR at 11°20'N (6) are more likely tied to mantle

  14. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at Azores: Preliminary 3D Cloud Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Giangrande, S.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Mead, J.

    2010-03-15

    The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers a prelude for the type of 3D cloud observations that ARM will have the capability to provide at all the ARM Climate Research Facility sites by the end of 2010. The primary objective of the deployment of Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) at the ARM Facility sites is to map continuously (operationally) the 3D structure of clouds and shallow precipitation and to provide 3D microphysical and dynamical retrievals for cloud life cycle and cloud-scale process studies. This is a challenging task, never attempted before, and requires significant research and development efforts in order to understand the radar's capabilities and limitations. At the same time, we need to look beyond the radar meteorology aspects of the challenge and ensure that the hardware and software capabilities of the new systems are utilized for the development of 3D data products that address the scientific needs of the new Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. The SWACR observations at Azores provide a first look at such observations and the challenges associated with their analysis and interpretation. The set of scan strategies applied during the SWACR deployment and their merit is discussed. The scan strategies were adjusted for the detection of marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus that were frequently observed at the Azores deployment. Quality control procedures for the radar reflectivity and Doppler products are presented. Finally, preliminary 3D-Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Locations (3D-ARSCL) products on a regular grid will be presented, and the challenges associated with their development discussed. In addition to data from the Azores deployment, limited data from the follow-up deployment of the SWACR at the ARM SGP site will be presented. This effort provides a blueprint for the effort required for the

  15. Climate change projections for precipitation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Santos, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The strong irregularity of precipitation in Portugal, which may e.g. trigger severe/extreme droughts and floods, results in a high vulnerability of the country to precipitation inter-annual variability and to its extremes. Furthermore, dryer future climates are projected for Portugal, though there has also been some growing evidence for a strengthening of precipitation extremes. Due to the central role played byprecipitation on many socio-economic sectors and environmental systems, regional climate change assessments for precipitation in Portugal are necessary. This study is focused on analyzing climate change projections for seasonal (3-month) precipitation totals and their corresponding extremes over mainland Portugal. Taking into account the strong seasonality of the precipitation regimes in Portugal, winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) are considered separately. Precipitation datasets generated by a 16-member ensemble of regional climate model experiments from the ENSEMBLES project are used. Percentile-based indices of precipitation are computed and analyzed for a recent past period (1961-2000) and for a near future period (2041-2070). Results for the R5p, R50p and R95p indices highlight significant projected changes in precipitation, with a clear distinction between northwestern Portugal and the rest of the country in both seasons. Overall, precipitation is projected to decrease in both seasons, particularly over northwestern Portugal in winter, despite some significant regional differences. Although precipitation is projected to decrease in most cases, extremely high seasonal precipitations (above the 95th percentile)areexpected to increase in winter.

  16. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    PubMed

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  17. 15 Years of Oceanography in the Azores: From Oceanographic Cruises to an Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliano, M. F.; Alves, M.; Simões, A.; Rodeia, J.

    2006-07-01

    Oceanographic research in the Azores has only started 15 years ago. Nevertheless, it has been possible to evolve from the typical "research cruise approach" to a more versatile and integrated approach, that has proofed to be further rewarding and adequate for the size and resources of the group. The Azorean Oceanographers have participated and conducted several research cruises since 1990, and anticipating the importance of correlating in situ data with satellite data has lead us to plan the last of these, so that there was a coincidence of transects, moorings and satellite ground tracks. On the other hand, the group has invested in data processing and merging hydrological historical data with the results from the above mentioned oceanographic cruises, creating a hydrological database for the whole Atlantic Ocean. Also, through the application of a novel methodology and approach, the group has contributed to a new vision of the currents systems in the South Atlantic Ocean, namely with the newly found St. Helena Current, the congener of the Azores Current. As a result of this continued shift in methodology, the group is now using an integrated approach where field data, model output and processed altimeter data are merged to produce operational oceanography products, such as sea state charts and daily oceanic current charts.

  18. Investigating recent trends in the rainfall structure: an overview across Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.; Carvalho, S. C. P.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2009-09-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of rain, which typically exhibits extreme variability, is a core issue in studies that span a number of research areas, e.g. hydrology, hydraulics, environment, energy, economics, society. The interest in this process demands its comprehensive study and characterization at a variety of space- and time-scales. Local studies of the rainfall climate can play an important role as they may contribute to characterizing rainfall. In this work the study area is mainland Portugal. Mainland Portugal is located in the transitional region between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the sub-polar depression zones. The characteristics of global circulation (specifically the Atlantic origin of many synoptic disturbances such as seasonal movements of the Azores high pressure system) in the context of regional geography (e.g. latitude, orography, oceanic and continental influences) greatly influence the spatial distribution of precipitation over the territory. The climatic variables exhibit strong north-south and west-east gradients, and precipitation also exhibits strong seasonal variability. The dominant climate in mainland Portugal is mild Mediterranean with a warm, dry summer period. These characteristics are more pronounced in the south, where the climate is sometimes classified as semi-arid. These regions are also well known for their vulnerability to climate variability. Several studies have reported increased rainfall variability in recent years, largely on the basis of annual and monthly point rainfall data, and for different geographical locations across the Iberian Peninsula, including Portugal. The main aim of this work, which complements those trend studies, is to contribute to identifying and clarifying recent changes in rain variability in Portugal by analysing trends in the small-scale temporal behaviour and statistics of this process. Thus the analyses reported here concentrate on the statistics of short-term rainfall events. The

  19. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  20. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  1. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  2. Trends and variability of precipitation: analyses of historical time series from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, S. C. P.; de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.

    2009-04-01

    The impact of climate change on precipitation is one of the major concerns in many scientific research studies. To predict changes in the other hydrological processes it is crucial to understand the recent changes in precipitation patterns as part of the long term behaviour of this process. Quite often the limiting factor is the short length of many existing precipitation records. The statistical analyses of historical time series, if they are available, can shed more light on our understanding of the dynamics of precipitation and, therefore, on the evaluation of recent changes in this process. The purpose of this work is to investigate trends in the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in Portugal by studying historical time series. The dataset comprises records of annual and monthly precipitation dating from the 19th century, from 13 meteorological stations scattered all over Mainland Portugal and in the Portuguese North Atlantic Islands of Madeira and Azores. The longest records date back from 1863. Different statistics methods were used in this study. As a preliminary step in the analyses, the data were statistically tested for serial correlation. Then, the homogeneity of the data was investigated; the methods used were: Standard Normal Homogeneity Test, Pettitt Test, von Neumann Ratio and Buishand Range Test. Finally, trends in the historical precipitation time series were examined using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test and the Sen's nonparametric method. The non-monotonic character of the trends observed in the data, and to deal with partial trends, the method by Tomé and Miranda (2004) was applied to the data. This recently developed methodology is able to locate the times of significant change in the precipitation series. This study complements previous investigations of precipitation trends in Portugal. It highlights the fact that the uncertainties of the trend projections came from the extreme variability in the precipitation

  3. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A large phytoplankton bloom off of the coast of Portugal can be seen in this true-color image taken on April 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The bloom is roughly half the size of Portugal and forms a bluish-green cloud in the water. The red spots in northwest Spain denote what are likely small agricultural fires. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. Basic Needs and Education in Portugal. The Portugal Project. Document No. XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmie, Thord

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the socio-economic factors that can be expected to influence the education system in Portugal, where urbanization has been very slow. The report examines basic needs in Portugal's 18 districts and makes recommendations about resource allocation to planners of adult education programs. Extensive…

  5. Genetic Relationships within Heritage Apple and Pear Cultivars in the Azores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Açores cooperative initiative program (ACIP) scientists from the US Department of Agriculture and Serviço de Desenvolvimento Agario da Terceira are collaborating to identify heritage apples and pears collected from locations throughout Terceira, Açores, Portugal. Nine apple microsatel...

  6. A study of cloud and drizzle properties in the Azores using Doppler Radar spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, E.; Remillard, J.; Kollias, P.

    2010-03-15

    Understanding the onset of coalescence in warm clouds is key in our effort to improve cloud representation in numerical models. Coalescence acts at small scales, and its study requires detailed high-resolution dynamical and microphysical measurements from a comprehensive suite of instruments over a wide range of environmental conditions (e.g., aerosol loading). The first AMF is currently in its second year of a two-year deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores, offering the opportunity to collect a long data set from a stable land-based platform in a marine stratocumulus regime. In this study, recorded WACR Doppler spectra are used to characterize the properties of Doppler spectra from warm clouds with and without drizzle, and from drizzle only, in an effort to observe the transition (onset) to precipitation in clouds. A retrieval technique that decomposes observed Doppler spectra into their cloud and/or drizzle components is applied in order to quantify drizzle growth.

  7. Bottom characterization of Lagoa das Furnas on São Miguel, Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Tommy; Hermelin, Otto; Skelton, Alasdair; Jakobsson, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Lagoa das Furnas is a crater lake located in an area exposed to geohazards from earthquakes and volcanic activity on the island of São Miguel in the Azores Archipelago. Geophysical mapping of Lagoa das Furnas reveals a previously undiscovered volcanic dome. This dome is comprised largely of subaquatic pyroclastic debris of trachytic composition. Sedimentological, petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies of pyroclastic deposits from the dome link it to the historically documented "Furnas 1630" eruption. The chemistry of glass and crystal fragments sampled from the dome suggests that it is comprised of more evolved magma than that of the main Furnas 1630 dome located 1400 m away. This suggests that the dome was formed during a final phase of the 1630 eruption in the Lagoa das Furnas area.

  8. Proto-historic and Historical Atlantic Navigation: Archaeological Evidence from the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Nuno; Joaquinito, Anabela; Pimenta, Fernando; Sauren, Herbert; Rodrigues, António Félix; Costa, Antonieta; Pereira, António Sérgio; Juliano, Maria de Fraga; Fernandes, Joaquim; Freitas, Ricardo; Ventura, Ricardo; Tirapicos, Luís

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents unpublished data on archaeological sites located in the Azores Islands that suggests the possibility of sailing in ancient times in the Atlantic, namely in the Proto-historic and Roman periods. Several structures, identified as hypogea, are reminiscent of Phoenician sanctuaries and, in their architecture, seem to represent the goddess Tanit. In addition, results of the epigraphic analysis of an inscribed stone, are presented wherein the "god of the Dacians" is mentioned, suggesting their presence in the islands during the Roman period. Overall, these preliminary finds raise new questions regarding the pre-Portuguese occupation of the archipelago as well as pre-compass navigation in the Atlantic, possibly using the stars.

  9. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

  10. New alien barnacles in the Azores and some remarks on the invasive potential of Balanidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Paulo; Costa, Ana Cristina; Dionísio, Maria Ana

    2012-12-01

    Global homogenization of biota is underway through worldwide introduction and establishment of non-indigenous (exotic) species. Organisms fouling ship hulls are continually in transit and can affect communities through biodiversity loss and serious damage to economy and public health. In the Azores, for the first time, underwater alien species prospection was conducted in marinas and recreational harbours, at São Miguel Island. Populations of three locally previously unknown barnacle species were found: Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus eburneus and Perforatus perforatus. These species account for the more than 50% of alien barnacles worldwide that belong to Balanidae family. Hence, some considerations about morphology and life cycle of this family are advanced, discussed and related to their invasive potential.

  11. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

  12. Magma flow pattern in dykes of the Azores revealed by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, M. A.; Geoffroy, L.; Pozzi, J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The localization of magma melting areas at the lithosphere bottom in extensional volcanic domains is poorly understood. Large polygenetic volcanoes of long duration and their associated magma chambers suggest that melting at depth may be focused at specific points within the mantle. To validate the hypothesis that the magma feeding a mafic crust, comes from permanent localized crustal reservoirs, it is necessary to map the fossilized magma flow within the crustal planar intrusions. Using the AMS, we obtain magmatic flow vectors from 34 alkaline basaltic dykes from São Jorge, São Miguel and Santa Maria islands in the Azores Archipelago, a hot-spot related triple junction. The dykes contain titanomagnetite showing a wide spectrum of solid solution ranging from Ti-rich to Ti-poor compositions with vestiges of maghemitization. Most of the dykes exhibit a normal magnetic fabric. The orientation of the magnetic lineation k1 axis is more variable than that of the k3 axis, which is generally well grouped. The dykes of São Jorge and São Miguel show a predominance of subhorizontal magmatic flows. In Santa Maria the deduced flow pattern is less systematic changing from subhorizontal in the southern part of the island to oblique in north. These results suggest that the ascent of magma beneath the islands of Azores is predominantly over localized melting sources and then collected within shallow magma chambers. According to this concept, dykes in the upper levels of the crust propagate laterally away from these magma chambers thus feeding the lava flows observed at the surface.

  13. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1ppm vs. 14.5ppm, respectively; p=0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. PMID:26318689

  14. Dendritic lava flows, landslides and terraces around the central Azores islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempera, F.; Mitchell, N. C.; Schmitt, T.; Isidro, E.; Cardigos, F.; Figueiredo, J.; Nunes, J.

    2004-12-01

    Surveying around volcanic ocean islands with sonars has recovered important information on giant landslides, faults and primary volcanic features, but efforts so far have largely been unable to image shallow water coastal areas because of vessel safety. Here we report surveying with a Reson 8160 multibeam sonar aboard a shallow draft research vessel, R/V Arquipelago, which enabled us to survey to less than 10 m water depth around the coasts of Faial, Pico and Sao Jorge islands of the Azores. The data cover coasts that have been growing volcanically, some during historical times. Where the coast has a finite abrasion shelf, the new data show that lava reaching the shore can breach the surf zone and develop a variety of submarine lava structures on the shelf. Many are dendritic in plan-view and some with transverse ribbing similar to pahoehoe flows on land but much larger scale. A variety of divergent flow paths are clearly indicated in the data. Some flows cross the shelf and descend the upper slope beyond the shelf break, providing evidence that a component of growth of the submarine island can include subaerially-originating lava as inferred from sulphur contents in submarine lava dredged from around Hawai'i. Where the abrasion shelf is very narrow or absent, the upper slope of the island contains abundant shallow landslides in the new unstable and steep volcanic material. The data show a variety of other interesting features, such as terraces, volcanic cones, collapse structures, tumuli, faults associated with the Azores plate boundary and sedimentary bedforms produced by interaction of oceanic currents with the island topography and from turbidity currents descending island slopes.

  15. Sete Cidades and Furnas lake eutrophication (São Miguel, Azores): analysis of long-term monitoring data and remediation measures.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J Virgílio; Pacheco, Dina; Porteiro, João; Cymbron, Raquel; Mendes, Sandra; Malcata, Andrea; Andrade, César

    2015-07-01

    Eutrophication of lakes in the Azores archipelago (Portugal) has been described since the 80s, and due to water quality deterioration several remediation methodologies were applied. Long-term monitoring data on water quality from Sete Cidades and Furnas lakes (São Miguel island) were analyzed in order to address that the success of the ongoing policy reverses their eutrophic status. Sete Cidades lake (4.46 km2), made by two branches (so-called Green and Blue lakes), has a water volume equal to 58×10(6) m3 and a depth in the range between 24 and 28.5m. Furnas lake (1.87 km2) has a volume equal to 14×10(6) m3 and a maximum depth of 15m. In Sete Cidades lake mean water temperature and pH range respectively between 13.4°C to 17.7°C and 7.04 to 8.06. Instead, mean temperature in Lake Furnas ranges between 16.6°C and 17.2°C, with a pH between 7.36 and 7.84. Mean water conductivity shows that both lakes correspond to very diluted waters, with values between 98.1 and 136.5 μS/cm. Water chemistry is influenced by the monomictic character of the lakes, as anoxic environment in the hypolimnion due to O2 consumption during the summer, when stratification prevents mixing along the water column, explains sharp increase in TP, TN, N-ammoniacal, Mn and Fe. Major-ion content is rather constant along time, with some seasonal fluctuations, despite a decrease in SO4 observed in Sete Cidades lake which is suggested to be a result of runoff diversion, a result also shown by the decrease of the molal ratio TN/TP in both studied lakes. Nevertheless, the application of the trophic state index (TSITP) does not suggest an improvement in what concerns trophic status, which is explained by the internal P-loading, a source that have to be managed by environmental authorities in the near future in order to revert eutrophication. PMID:25813970

  16. Transition from steady to unsteady Plinian eruption column: the VEI 5, 4.6 ka Fogo A Plinian eruption, São Miguel, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pensa, Alessandra; Cas, Raymond; Giordano, Guido; Porreca, Massimiliano; Wallenstein, Nicolau

    2015-10-01

    The 4.6 ka Fogo A trachytic Plinian eruption on São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal, is composed by four main phases: 1) Initial phreatomagmatic activity which emplaced thin surge deposits with accretionary lapilli; 2) fully buoyant steady Plinian activity which generated a prominent trachytic basal fall-out deposit; 3) partial collapsing activity, which led to the emplacement of two trachytic-trachydacitic intra-plinian ignimbrites (pink and black ignimbrites) and associated surge deposits, inter-stratified within two fall-out deposits; 4) vent widening and fully collapsing activity which caused the emplacement of the climactic brown trachydacitic ignimbrite. The deposits of these four main phases have been organised into three members FGA1, FGA2 and FGA3, sub-divided into 15 stratigraphic or emplacement units. The fluctuations from a steady to unsteady Plinian eruption column parallel the change in composition of the magma from trachytic to trachydacitic. Although minimal, the change in composition resulted in a marked change in colour of the juvenile clasts from white at the base (first phase) to pink and light-dark grey banded and black (second and third phases) and to dark brown (fourth phase). Density analysis of juvenile clasts revealed that the change in composition did not significantly affect the density of the juvenile pumice pyroclasts, the vesicularity of which increases from 70% to 85% up through the sequence. The pink and the black intra-plinian ignimbrites were emplaced only, within the narrow paleo-valleys of the southern flank with maximum thicknesses of 9 m and 5 m respectively, transitioning onto adjacent topographic highs where thin veneer surge layers were deposited. The fall-out deposits inter-bedded between the ignimbrites lack basal reverse grading, indicating that the eruption column continued to be sustained during the partial collapses generating the intra-plinian ignimbrites. The climactic dark brown ignimbrite was emplaced radially

  17. Ecole et communaute au Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Alberto

    1980-09-01

    Since 1974 Portugal has experienced some dramatic changes in educational practices at the local level. The school has been opened to the community and the community to the school. Teacher education now includes community studies, designed to prepare teachers for an active role in this process and for the better understanding of the social background of pupils. One new practice is the publication of local newspapers or news-sheets to enhance the understanding of the community by teachers and pupils. The development of a school garden for the cultivation of flowers and vegetables serves as another bridge between school and community. Other examples of community action are adult literacy classes, the creation of voluntary organisations for women, the running of youth clubs, the formation of co-operatives, and local projects like the purchase of an old tram-car to be converted into a library. The introduction of `Civic and Polytechnic Education' for 13-16 year olds was an important innovation. One half-day a week was to be devoted to the integration of the school with the locality, young people's participation in society as agents of change, the linking of study and productive work, and the involvement of young people in the solution of national problems, working from a concrete knowledge of local and regional life. However, since 1976 there has been a more conservative approach, and only in places with a strong consensus amongst teachers has the new relationship between school and community been maintained.

  18. Major and minor element geochemistry of deep-sea sediments in the Azores Platform and southern seamount region.

    PubMed

    Palma, Carla; Oliveira, Anabela; Valença, Manuela; Cascalho, João; Pereira, Eduarda; Lillebø, Ana I; Duarte, Armando C; Pinto de Abreu, Manuel

    2013-10-15

    The Azores Platform and the Irving and Great Meteor seamounts south of the archipelago (38°N-29°N) have rarely been studied geochemically, a fact which is surprising given that they represent the south-eastern limit of region V outlined in the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention). The main aim of the present work was therefore to characterise the spatial variability of major and minor elements in deep-sea sediment cores from these two regions. XRD and geochemical analyses revealed that whereas the Azores Platform sediments are composed of a mixture of biogenic and detrital volcanic material, those at the seamounts are characterised by carbonated biogenic remains. The latter sediments were found to contain very low amounts of volcanic or hydrothermal detrital material, being almost entirely comprised of CaCO3 (more than 80%). PMID:23896401

  19. Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 (Bryozoa), a new occurrence in the archipelago of the Azores (North-Eastern Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Amat, Jaen Nieto; Tempera, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    The new occurrence of the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 is herein recorded in multiple places throughout Azores archipelago. Where introduced, this species has caused important ecological and economical damage and therefore is regarded as invasive. In the Azores, no detrimental effects have yet been noted. The species is so far restricted to marinas (Horta, Faial Island; Vila Franca do Campo, São Miguel Island) and a natural coastal pool located near a secondary harbour (Lajes do Pico, Pico Island). A total of 29 colonies were counted during a specific survey conducted in August 2008 in the marina of Horta. The distribution of the species throughout the eastern and central island groups denotes a wide dispersion area and offers control or eradication measures a low probability of success together with the lack of harbour management practices that could effectively prevent the arrival, settlement and dispersal of non-native species transported by human-assisted means. PMID:19303606

  20. The Nature of Plume-Ridge Interaction on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, A.; Laubier, M.; Escrig, S.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    Classical work in the 1970s established a gradient in ridge depth and chemical composition southwards from the Azores hot spot. Proximal basalts were enriched in highly incompatible elements and 87Sr/86Sr, and this enrichment decreased southwards until depleted MORB were encountered south of the Hayes fracture zone. This was explained through mantle source mixing, with the proportion of plume mantle decreasing with distance from the plume. Detailed maps of ocean ridges, however, show that ocean ridges consist of a series of segments that are shallow in their centers and deeper at their ends, so the "regional gradient" in depth actually consists of a series of undulations at various scales. The question then arises how the regional gradient in geochemistry is influenced by this segmentation. Detailed major element, trace element (TE) and isotopic study of over 200 samples from four segments south of the Azores platform allows a better assessment of the detailed characteristics of the geochemical gradient, with implications for plume-ridge interaction. All basalts from the KP-5 ("Menez Gwen"), PO-1 ("Lucky Strike"), PO-2 and PO-3 ("FAMOUS") segments (in order from north to south) are enriched relative to depleted MORB. While this enrichment is related to the Azores plume, as confirmed by the trends in isotope diagrams, there is much complexity in detail regarding how the enriched signature is imparted to the lavas. The KP-5 and PO-1 segments contain two groups of chemically distinct basalts. Moderately enriched basalts are found throughout the segments. At the segment centers highly enriched basalts with high concentrations of incompatible elements and an enriched isotopic signature predominate. Remarkably, incompatible element ratios (e.g. Ba/La, Nb/Zr) of these basalts are higher than basalts from the center of the Azores platform, while their isotopic values are less enriched. This dichotomy between TE ratios and isotopes of the highly enriched samples can be

  1. Model for origin and evolution of water at volcanoes in São Miguel, Azores (Portugal), based on geochemical and isotopic data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitischek, Julia; Dietzel, Martin; Virgílio Cruz, J.; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Leis, Albrecht; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2016-04-01

    A conceptual model is presented to better constrain the origin and evolution of discharges at Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas Volcano, using geochemical and isotopic analyses of rock and water as well as recalculated gas composition. The evolution of thermal water clearly reveals that Na-HCO3 and Na-SO4 type of springs have their origin in meteoric water as isotope data are close to the local meteoric water line (δ 18OH2O =-3 ± 1 ‰ V-SMOW; δ DH2O= -13 ± 7 ‰ V-SMOW) with exception of a Na-Cl spring named Ferraria, Sete Cidades area (δ 18OH2O = 0.45 ‰ V-SMOW ; δ DH2O= 4.18 ‰ V-SMOW). Analysed solutions are chemical evolved by evaporation, uptake of volcanic gas, leaching of local basaltic rocks, precipitation of solids, partly admixture of sea water and/or biological activity. Following the individual concentrations supports this model e.g.: HCO3 concentration and the recalculated isotopic composition of gaseous CO2 (δ 13CCO_2 = -4 ± 2.5 ‰ V-PDB) reflect evolved magmatic CO2 uptake and the subsequent leaching progress; High SO42- concentration of up to 16.5 mmol L-1 with δ 34SSO4 = 0.35 ± 0.3 ‰ (V-CDT) reflects magmatic origin which mainly control water chemistry of boiling pools of both Fogo and Furnas lake; δ 18OSO4 = 10.5 ‰ (V-SMOW) suggests organic origin and fits together with the observation of stromatolitic structures in the related precipitates; Molar Mg/Caratio (≈ 0.77) of all thermal discharges reflects leaching of analysed local basalt (Mg/Ca≈ 0.78). Furthermore, shallow and evolved outgassing effects can be distinguished. Equilibrium temperatures for various minerals given in SI vs. T plots and further geothermometers (e.g. Na-K, Na-K-Ca geothermometers) were discussed to estimate temperatures of reservoirs.

  2. Attraction of alates of Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) to different light wavelengths in South Florida and the Azores.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M T; Borges, P A V; Scheffrahn, R H

    2012-12-01

    The termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) is an urban pest that causes much damage to wood structures. Little has been done concerning the use of control methods for alates. C. brevis is known to have phototropic behavior during the dispersal flights, and this knowledge has been applied for preventative control in the Azores where this species is a serious urban pest. We were interested in determining whether there was a light wavelength preference by the alates of C. brevis to optimize light traps against this species. Six light wavelengths were tested: 395 nm (UV), 460-555 nm (white), 470 nm (blue), 525 nm (green), 590 nm (yellow), and 625 nm (red) in choice chambers, with dark chambers as controls. Two populations were tested, one population in Florida and one population in the Azores (Terceira Island). We found consistent results for both populations, with a preference for the light wavelengths in the white, blue, and green spectrum (460-550 nm). This information can be used to build more effective light traps that can be used by home owners in the Azores to help control this pest. PMID:23356089

  3. Aerosol properties and their influences on marine boundary layer cloud condensation nuclei at the ARM mobile facility over the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Timothy; Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan

    2014-04-01

    A multiplatform data set from the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) Graciosa, Azores, 2009-2010 field campaign was used to investigate how continental aerosols can influence MBL cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN). The seasonal variations of aerosol properties have shown that the winter and early spring months had the highest mean surface wind speed (> 5 m s-1) and greatest contribution of sea salt to aerosol optical depth (AOD), while continental fine mode aerosols were the main contributors to AOD during the warm season months (May-September). Five aerosol events consisting of mineral dust, pollution, biomass smoke, and volcanic ash particles were selected as case studies using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) mobile facility measurements. The aerosols in Case I were found to primarily consist of coarse mode, Saharan mineral dust. For Case II, the aerosols were also coarse mode but consisted of volcanic ash. Case III had fine mode biomass smoke and pollution aerosol influences while Cases IV and V consisted of mixtures of North American pollution and Saharan dust that was advected by an extratropical cyclone to the Azores. Cases I, IV, and V exhibited weak correlations between aerosol loading and NCCN due to mineral dust influences, while Cases II and III had a strong relationship with NCCN likely due to the sulfate content in the volcanic ash and pollution particles. The permanent Eastern North Atlantic ARM facility over the Azores will aid in a future long-term study of aerosol effects on NCCN.

  4. New Geochemical and Isotopic Data on São Jorge Island Submarine Lavas (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, L. P.; França, Z.; Madureira, P.

    2012-12-01

    Dredging operations performed on the Azores Archipelago, during LEG 1 of cruise EMEPC/Açores/G3/2007 (Lourenço et al., 2008), recovered the first lava samples on São Jorge Island south flank, at approximately 1200m depth. Subsequent EMEPC cruises in 2008 and 2009, EMEPC/Açores/LUSO/G3/2008 (Calado et al., 2008) and EMEPC/Açores/LUSO/G3/2009 respectively, using the Luso ROV, carried out four successful geological surveys along São Jorge south flank, at depths between 800 and 1000m, recovering more lava samples. New geochemical and isotopic data on the lavas recovered in the 2008 and 2009 cruises is reported and will be compared with the existing data from the 2007 cruise and the onshore lavas (Ribeiro, 2011). The island of São Jorge is located in the Central Island Group of the Azores Archipelago, exhibiting an elongated shape, 55km long and 6.75km wide, which extends along the main regional tectonic direction (N120°). The imposing geomorphology of the island, which formed mainly by fissural volcanic activity, continues on its submarine flanks, along abrupt cliffs, rooting the island in the Azores Plateau. The lavas from the 2007 cruise, which dredge the southeast end of the island, are alkaline basaltic pillow lavas, with MgO>7.5% and with a geochemical and isotopic signature similar to the composition of the onshore lavas located immediately north of this locations (Ribeiro, 2011). The 2008 ROV survey collected samples closer to the western side of São Jorge, on a site south of Rosais Village, while the 2009 ROV survey covered the central part of São Jorge south flank, on a site south of Urzelina Village, a site south of Manadas Village and a site south of Fajã da Fragueira. These lavas are alkaline basalts and hawaiites with enrichment in LREE and in incompatible trace elements. The basalts have MgO between 6.8 and 6.2%, and average (La/Sm)n ratios of 2.1 and (La/Yb)n ratios ranging between 6.3 and 9.6. The hawaiites, which reveal some degree of magma

  5. The emergence and evolution of Santa Maria Island (Azores) - the conundrum of uplifting islands revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, R. S.; Helffrich, G. R.; Madeira, J.; Cosca, M. A.; Quartau, R.; Thomas, C.; Hipólito, A.; Ávila, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The growth and decay of ocean island volcanoes is intrinsically linked to vertical movements; whilst mechanisms for subsidence are well understood, uplift mechanisms are still very enigmatic. Santa Maria Island in the Azores is an ocean island volcano with a complex evolutionary history with subsidence followed by uplift. The island emerged by surtseyan activity at approximately 6 Ma, entailing in the formation of a subaerial shield volcano that was fully developed by ~5.6 Ma. The edifice then experienced a period of intense erosion and subsidence, during which it was partially or completely truncated to a shallow submarine bank. Around 5 Ma, volcanism resumed on the eastern side of the edifice, with occasional submarine/surtseyan activity synchronous with marine deposition. By ~4.3 Ma, volcanism grew in intensity forming a new edifice centred on the eastern flank of the underlying edifice. This new volcanic edifice started as submarine and then, as it gradually grew upwards and outpaced subsidence, breached sea level and formed a new island. The new edifice kept growing eastwards and northwards until ~3.5 Ma, when volcanic activity waned. At 3.5-3.2 Ma, however, subsidence reversed to an uplift trend that extended throughout the Upper Pleistocene into the present. This uplift trend is responsible for the generation of a staircase of shore platforms on the windward side of the island, which extends up to ~230 m in elevation. The fact that an island located in very young lithosphere experienced such a pronounced uplift trend is remarkable and raises important questions concerning possible uplift mechanisms. The loading of the neighbouring island of São Miguel may account for part of the uplift, but not the majority. Vertical tectonics along the nearby Gloria Fault is not completely implausible but unlikely to be a source of significant uplift due to its dominant strike-slip character. Thus, other mechanisms need to be considered, most notably intrusions at the base

  6. Volcanic deformation sources associated with Fogo 2011-2012 unrest, Azores - The first modelling result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Jun; Araújo, João; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Lorenzo, Maria; Ferreira, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic deformation is often observed at many active volcanoes in the world by using space geodesy techniques, namely GNSS and InSAR. More difficulties in judgement if eruptions are imminent or not arise when such phenomenon occurs at dormant volcanoes due to the lack of eruption experiences with monitoring data. The eruption triggering mechanism is still controversial at many cases, but many attempts to image deformation sources beneath volcanoes have been made using geophysical inversion techniques. In this study, we show the case study of Fogo (Água de Pau) volcano, S. Miguel Island, Azores which represents over 450 years of eruption dormancy since 1563-1564. In the recent decades Fogo has exhibited three prominent unrest episodes (1989, 2003-2006, and 2011-2012). The lack of geochemical and hydrothermal evidences for a magmatic intrusion during those episodes does not encourage discussions on resuming volcanic activity of Fogo. However, the inflation/uplift are evident on the edifices at least for the last two unrest episodes based on GPS data by Trota et al. (2009) and Okada et al. (2015), respectively. The preliminary deformation modelling based on repeated GPS campaign data suggested a shallow expanding spheroid (Trota et al. 2009) or a single Mogi sources beneath the summit caldera. We performed a more integrated inversion for the 2011-2012 episode using a genetic algorithm optimizing the source parameters. The best fit model agrees well with the regional/local tectonic lineament suggesting the close relation between the volcanic sources and the regional/local tectonics. The regional extensional stress (between Eurasia and Nubia plates) may play important roles for the ascent of volcanic fluids at Fogo volcano. We do not discard the possibility that Fogo may have been preparing for eruptions by intermittent ascents of magma at shallow crust (i.e. experiencing "failed eruptions") during the apparent dormant period. As a local monitoring agency, CIVISA

  7. Ponding Conditions and Degassing Dynamics of Mafic Magmas Beneath the Azores Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metrich, N.; Zanon, V.; D'Oriano, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Azores archipelago is located at the triple junction between the North American, African and Eurasian plates, in an area dominated by transtensive tectonic. The magmatism is concentrated along elongated volcanic ridges, generally orthogonal to the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where central volcanoes alternate with fissure zones. In order to better understand the relationships between the regional and local tectonics and the magmatism, we carried out a systematic study of basaltic pyroclasts from monogenic Strombolian cones built up on both fissure zones and central volcanoes, on five Azores Islands. We combined the major and trace element geochemistry of bulk rocks, melt inclusions and minerals with microthermometric data of coexisting CO2-rich fluid inclusions. These latter, trapped in Fo88-82 olivines, reveal pressure decrease from west to east for each ridge, but the highest pressures are recorded by fluids trapped in mineral assemblage forming ultramafic cumulates (dunites, harzburgites and wehrlites). All these results fully confirm variable depths of the Moho Transition Zone (MTZ), which marks the upper limit for underplating and correspond to the magma ponding zones where the main processes of magmatic evolution occur. The MTZ is located at 25 km beneath Flores Island, on the North American plate, and 29.5 km beneath the island of São Miguel, 380 km eastward. It reaches a minimum (18.5 km depth) under Faial at ~120 km east of the MAR. In these pressure conditions, the volatile composition is XH2O =0.1 and XCO2=0.9, at 1155-1175 °C, under QFM redox conditions. The maximum dissolved volatile content achieves 1.8-1.9 wt% of H2O and 0.4-0.5 wt% of CO2 in the central archipelago, and 2.3-2.6 wt% of H2O and 0.8-1.0 wt% of CO2 at São Miguel. However, the total pressures (PCO2+PH2O) and the dissolved H2O content recorded by melt inclusions are commonly underestimated. The initial H2O content of the basaltic magmas characteristic of each volcanic system was re

  8. Tectonic structures revealed by CO2 soil diffuse degassing anomalies at Faial Island (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, C.; Ferreira, T.; Gaspar, J. L.; Sousa, F.

    2003-04-01

    The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and its geological setting is dominated by the existence of a mantle plume in the area where the American, African and Eurasian lithospheric plates meet. The main tectonic features in the region are the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which crosses the Submarine Azores Plateau between the islands of Faial and Flores with a general N-S trend, and the so-called Terceira Rift (s.l), a WNW-ESE to NW-SE transtensional structure that behaves as the boundary between Eurasian and African plates. Faial Island is situated in the westernmost segment of the Terceira Rift (s.l.). Its nucleus is composed by a central active polygenetic volcano with a summit caldera in which NW flank rises a prominent WNW-ESE basaltic ridge where two historical eruptions took place (Cabeço do Fogo in 1672 and Capelinhos in 1957-58). Older volcanic systems in the island include a basaltic platform at SE and the dissected Ribeirinha stratovolcano at NE. The WNW-ESE Pedro Miguel graben is the most impressive tectonic structure observed in the island, being composed by two families of faults dipping NE and SW, respectively. Conjugated NNW-SSE structures were also mapped (Madeira, 1998). The existence of NE-SW faults is less clear and was put in evidence by some of the authors following the 9th July 1998 Faial earthquake (Gaspar et al., 1999). A survey based on measurements of CO2 soil concentration in the entire island was carried out in 2001 and 2002, aimed to define the relation between soil diffuse degassing and the known volcano-tectonic structures. The obtained CO2 soil concentration values ranged from 0 to 13.5 % vol., being quite low when compared to other Azorean islands. The main geochemical anomaly coincides with the active central volcano and can be related with the degassing of its magma chamber. This anomaly presents external sharp limits at N, S and E that are considered to be due to a barrier effect related with the existence of deep WNW

  9. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  10. Functional biogeography of oceanic islands and the scaling of functional diversity in the Azores.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Robert J; Rigal, François; Borges, Paulo A V; Cardoso, Pedro; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Casanoves, Fernando; Pla, Laura; Guilhaumon, François; Ladle, Richard J; Triantis, Kostas A

    2014-09-23

    Analyses of species-diversity patterns of remote islands have been crucial to the development of biogeographic theory, yet little is known about corresponding patterns in functional traits on islands and how, for example, they may be affected by the introduction of exotic species. We collated trait data for spiders and beetles and used a functional diversity index (FRic) to test for nonrandomness in the contribution of endemic, other native (also combined as indigenous), and exotic species to functional-trait space across the nine islands of the Azores. In general, for both taxa and for each distributional category, functional diversity increases with species richness, which, in turn scales with island area. Null simulations support the hypothesis that each distributional group contributes to functional diversity in proportion to their species richness. Exotic spiders have added novel trait space to a greater degree than have exotic beetles, likely indicating greater impact of the reduction of immigration filters and/or differential historical losses of indigenous species. Analyses of species occurring in native-forest remnants provide limited indications of the operation of habitat filtering of exotics for three islands, but only for beetles. Although the general linear (not saturating) pattern of trait-space increase with richness of exotics suggests an ongoing process of functional enrichment and accommodation, further work is urgently needed to determine how estimates of extinction debt of indigenous species should be adjusted in the light of these findings. PMID:25225395

  11. Water column characterisation on the Azores platform and at the sea mounts south of the archipelago.

    PubMed

    Palma, Carla; Lillebø, Ana I; Borges, Carlos; Souto, Miguel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C; de Abreu, Manuel Pinto

    2012-09-01

    This study provides data concerning the hydrography and water chemistry of the Atlantic region between 29-38° N and 27-31° W, and establishes background values for dissolved Cu, Cd, Pb and As. Three water masses were identified: the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW), the Mediterranean Water (MW) and the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The ENACW exhibits a clear meridional gradient of temperature and salinity, with comparatively high values at the southern sites and lower values on the Azores platform. The ENACW, which includes the euphotic zone, also had comparatively high concentrations of oxygen and lower concentrations of nutrients and metals. The Cu, Cd and Pb results suggest that new background concentrations for OSPAR Region V (the Wider Atlantic) should be established as follows: 0.15-13 nM for Cu, 0.05-1.4 nM for Cd and 0.03-5 nM for Pb. The background concentrations of As for OSPAR Region V should be 7-28 nM. PMID:22770531

  12. Phytoplankton variability and oceanographic conditions at Condor seamount, Azores (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Moita, M. T.; Bashmachnikov, I.; Menezes, G. M.; Carmo, V.; Loureiro, C. M.; Mendonça, A.; Silva, A. F.; Martins, A.

    2013-12-01

    The variability of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a as a proxy of biomass) and community structure was evaluated over and around the Condor seamount SW of Faial Island in the Azores Archipelago using data provided from five cruises (July and November 2009, and March, July and October 2010). Phytoplankton cell abundance, taxonomy and chlorophyll a concentration were related to both the physical-chemical conditions and to the main circulation patterns observed, bringing new insights into the temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton. Only microphytoplankton and large nanophytoplankton were identified. Higher phytoplankton abundances were observed during 2010 with a maximum in October (1.3×105 cells.L-1), and higher biomasses were reported at sub-surface in March (0.43 mg Chl-a.m-3). Diatoms were the dominant group (e.g., Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Chaetoceros spp.) except in November 2009 when coccolithophores dominated (e.g., Ophiaster spp.). Significant differences were found between seasons but not in space, and salinity appears to be an important factor contributing for this seasonal variation. The present study also provides, for the first time, a list of phytoplankton species for this seamount.

  13. He and Ne isotopic ratios along the Terceira Rift: implications for the Azores mantle source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, P.; Moreira, M. A.; Nunes, J.; Lourenco, N.; Carvalho, M.; Mata, J.; Pinto de Abreu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Noble gas data (He and Ne) on olivine phenocrysts obtained from Azores’ lavas sampled along the Terceira Rift will be presented in this work. The Terceira Rift is considered as one of the slowest spreading system in the world (Vogt & Jung, 2004). Lava samples were collected inland at S. Miguel, Terceira, Graciosa, Pico and Faial Islands as well at sea at D. João de Castro Bank and south Hirondelle basin, the latter being sampled by the ROV cruises in 2008 and 2009. Noble gas data were analyzed in the Noblesse mass spectrometer housed at the IPGP. The most primitive He isotopic ratios were obtained from Pico, Terceira and Hirondelle olivines. Most Ne isotopic ratios are similar to the present-day atmosphere, but distinct 20Ne/22Ne ratios were found for the majority of submarine samples and also Pico and Faial Islands, defining mixing lines with the atmospheric end-member with slopes greater than that defined from MORB lavas. The He-Ne systematics shows that most of the new noble gas data fit in a mixing model between a dominant MORB-type mantle source and a relatively primitive mantle source related with the regional Azores component. However, data from the D. João de Castro Bank argue for the presence of a radiogenic He end-member distinct from MORB. References: Vogt, P. & Jung W. (2004). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 218: 77 90.

  14. Cone morphologies associated with shallow marine eruptions: east Pico Island, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Neil C.; Stretch, Rachelle; Oppenheimer, Clive; Kay, Daniel; Beier, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    Eruptions in shallow water typically produce cones of volcaniclastic material. In order to identify any systematic effects of water depth and other environmental parameters on cone morphology, we have measured the heights and widths of cones in multibeam echo-sounder data from a submarine ridge extending southeast from Pico Island, Azores. XRF analyses of dredged samples show that lavas here vary compositionally from alkali basalt to trachybasalt and trachyandesite. Cones in deeper water are generally steep-sided with upper flanks close to 30°, the dip of talus at the angle of repose. However, height/width ratios of cones vary more in shallow water (200-400-m summit depth) with extreme values below 0.1; while some shallow-water cones are steep-sided as in deep water, others are much flatter. Three such cones lie on a bench at 300-m depth immediately east of Pico Island and have flank slopes of only 10-20°. We speculate that exceptionally shallow cone slopes here were produced by forced spreading of the erupting columns on reaching the water-air density barrier.

  15. Intensive surveys of the Azores Front: 2. Inferring the geostrophic and vertical velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.

    1996-07-01

    The geostrophic and vertical velocity fields are inferred using density and horizontal velocity data from three SeaSoar/acoustic Doppler current profiler surveys of the Azores Front. The analysis is a two-step procedure consisting of (1) objective analyses to reflect the observed length scales and (2) dynamical adjustments so that the density field is statically stable and the velocity field is in geostrophic balance. The vertical velocity is inferred using a version of the quasi-geostrophic omega equation in which the stratification is allowed to vary in the horizontal. The resulting vertical velocity peaks at 2 × 10-4 m s-1 at 200-300 m. There is a tendency for the denser water to the north of the front to be downwelled, while the warmer water to the south is upwelled. The implied heat flux exceeds 10 W m-2 near 100-m depth, so the upper 100 m is warmed while the lower water column is cooled, tending to stratify the upper ocean. Ageostrophic horizontal flow is toward the dense side of the front at the surface. The dominant terms in the density balance are time rate of change and horizontal advection. The inferred circulation cells may be an important mechanism of subduction in the upper ocean.

  16. Establishment of a coastal fish in the Azores: recent colonisation or sudden expansion of an ancient relict population?

    PubMed

    Stefanni, S; Castilho, R; Sala-Bozano, M; Robalo, J I; Francisco, S M; Santos, R S; Marques, N; Brito, A; Almada, V C; Mariani, S

    2015-12-01

    The processes and timescales associated with ocean-wide changes in the distribution of marine species have intrigued biologists since Darwin's earliest insights into biogeography. The Azores, a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago located >1000 km off the European continental shelf, offers ideal opportunities to investigate phylogeographic colonisation scenarios. The benthopelagic sparid fish known as the common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris) is now relatively common along the coastline of the Azores archipelago, but was virtually absent before the 1990 s. We employed a multiple genetic marker approach to test whether the successful establishment of the Azorean population derives from a recent colonisation from western continental/island populations or from the demographic explosion of an ancient relict population. Results from nuclear and mtDNA sequences show that all Atlantic and Mediterranean populations belong to the same phylogroup, though microsatellite data indicate significant genetic divergence between the Azorean sample and all other locations, as well as among Macaronesian, western Iberian and Mediterranean regions. The results from Approximate Bayesian Computation indicate that D. vulgaris has likely inhabited the Azores for ∼ 40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.5-83.6) to 52 (95% CI: 6.32-89.0) generations, corresponding to roughly 80-150 years, suggesting near-contemporary colonisation, followed by a more recent demographic expansion that could have been facilitated by changing climate conditions. Moreover, the lack of previous records of this species over the past century, together with the absence of lineage separation and the presence of relatively few private alleles, do not exclude the possibility of an even more recent colonisation event. PMID:26174025

  17. Establishment of a coastal fish in the Azores: recent colonisation or sudden expansion of an ancient relict population?

    PubMed Central

    Stefanni, S; Castilho, R; Sala-Bozano, M; Robalo, J I; Francisco, S M; Santos, R S; Marques, N; Brito, A; Almada, V C; Mariani, S

    2015-01-01

    The processes and timescales associated with ocean-wide changes in the distribution of marine species have intrigued biologists since Darwin's earliest insights into biogeography. The Azores, a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago located >1000 km off the European continental shelf, offers ideal opportunities to investigate phylogeographic colonisation scenarios. The benthopelagic sparid fish known as the common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris) is now relatively common along the coastline of the Azores archipelago, but was virtually absent before the 1990s. We employed a multiple genetic marker approach to test whether the successful establishment of the Azorean population derives from a recent colonisation from western continental/island populations or from the demographic explosion of an ancient relict population. Results from nuclear and mtDNA sequences show that all Atlantic and Mediterranean populations belong to the same phylogroup, though microsatellite data indicate significant genetic divergence between the Azorean sample and all other locations, as well as among Macaronesian, western Iberian and Mediterranean regions. The results from Approximate Bayesian Computation indicate that D. vulgaris has likely inhabited the Azores for ∼40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.5–83.6) to 52 (95% CI: 6.32–89.0) generations, corresponding to roughly 80–150 years, suggesting near-contemporary colonisation, followed by a more recent demographic expansion that could have been facilitated by changing climate conditions. Moreover, the lack of previous records of this species over the past century, together with the absence of lineage separation and the presence of relatively few private alleles, do not exclude the possibility of an even more recent colonisation event. PMID:26174025

  18. Effects of ridge geometry on mantle dynamics in an oceanic triple junction region: Implications for the Azores Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgen, Jennifer E.; Sankar, Ravi D.

    2010-09-01

    Plate boundary geometry can affect the nature of magmatism along a mid-ocean ridge. The Azores Plateau is located in a complex geological setting that includes a triple junction (TJ), an oblique and recently-formed ultra-slow-spreading ridge, a zone of diffuse seafloor deformation, a major fracture zone, and a postulated hotspot. The precise character of the hotspot is somewhat debated, as some lines of evidence indicate it may not be a classic deep-seated plume. However, seismic and gravity data suggest plateau crustal thicknesses of ˜ 8 km or more, implying some mechanism for excess melting. To assess the role of ridge geometry in creating the Azores Plateau, this study uses a finite element numerical model to isolate the effects of selected aspects of plate boundary configuration on mantle flow and melt production in a TJ kinematically similar to the Azores TJ. The model focuses on the slowest-spreading ridge in the TJ, analogous to the Terceira Rift. The effect of the varying ridge obliquity observed along the Terceira Rift is also assessed using an independent 1-D melting model. In general, relatively little melt production is predicted along the Terceira Rift analogue, except for regions closest to the TJ where the proximity of a faster-spreading ridge increases temperatures within the melting zone. In the 1-D melting model with mantle temperatures of 1350 °C, melt thicknesses of ˜ 2 km are calculated for the least oblique segments, while more oblique segments produce little to no melt. The presence of a long discontinuity (simulating the Gloria FZ) has little effect on mantle dynamics for axial distances < 350 km from the TJ, although crustal production is predicted to diminish to zero within ˜ 150 km of the discontinuity. When several ridge geometrical effects are combined (i.e., a TJ, time-limited spreading, a ridge discontinuity, and depressed spreading rates within ˜ 100 km of the TJ point), ˜ 2.5 km of variability in melt thickness can be produced

  19. Human vulnerability in volcanic environments: the case of Furnas, São Miguel, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibben, Christopher; Chester, David K.

    1999-09-01

    The need to examine the vulnerability of people to natural hazards, in addition to the long-established requirement to study extreme events of nature, is being increasingly recognised within disaster research. Following a discussion of the nature of human vulnerability, we propose a framework for its analysis within the context of volcanic activity and we exemplify our approach by a detailed study of Furnas, a village located at the centre of a volcano with the same name on the island of São Miguel in the Azores. The methods used included in-depth interviews with permanent residents ( n=50), analysis of census records and an examination of the socio-economic history of the town. The vulnerability of an individual to volcanic hazards involves a complex interaction of elements which, in addition to the usual factors taken into account in programmes of hazard reduction (e.g., the nature of the physical threat, location and economic situation), also comprises his or her social context and a number of physiological and psychological considerations. It is argued, further, that both generally and in the case of Furnas, the root causes of vulnerability lie in the history and development of society. Individual decision making is fundamental but takes place within and cannot be separated from this social context. Vulnerability analysis allows the identification of points where intervention may be successful in reducing the likelihood of suffering in a society. It avoids the problem of people's unexpected reactions to invention leading to a changing or even increasing level of vulnerability, by studying society rather than just one aspect of volcanic hazard in isolation.

  20. Organic matter composition and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Ravara, Ascensão; Parretti, Paola; Santos, Ricardo S.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Amaro, Teresa; Cunha, Marina R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years increasing knowledge has been accumulated on seamounts ecology; however their sedimentary environments and associated biological communities remain largely understudied. In this study we investigated quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores). In order to test the effect of the seamount on organic matter distribution, sediment samples were collected in 6 areas: the summit, the northern and southern flanks and bases, and in an external far field site. Macrofauna abundance and diversity were investigated on the summit, the southern flank and in the far field site. The organic matter distribution reflected the complex hydrodynamic conditions occurring on the Condor. Concentrations of organic matter compounds were generally lower on the whole seamount than in the far field site and on the seamount summit compared to flanks and bases. A clear difference was also evident between the northern and southern slopes of the Condor, suggesting a role of the seamount in conditioning sedimentation processes and distribution of food resources for benthic consumers. Macrofauna assemblages changed significantly among the three sampling sites. High abundance and dominance, accompanied by low biodiversity, characterized the macrofauna community on the Condor summit, while low dominance and high biodiversity were observed at the flank. Our results, although limited to five samples on the seamount and two off the seamount, do not necessarily support the paradigm that seamounts are more biodiverse than the surrounding seafloor. However, the abundance (and biomass), functional diversity and taxonomical distinctiveness of the macrofaunal assemblages from the Condor Seamount suggest that seamounts habitats may play a relevant role in adding to the regional biodiversity.

  1. Propagation of uncertainties for an evaluation of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone tsunamigenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoshchenkova, Ekaterina; Imbert, David; Richet, Yann; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent; Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess evaluation the tsunamigenic potential of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ). This work is part of the French project TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling; www-tandem.cea.fr), special attention is paid to French Atlantic coasts. Structurally, the AGFZ region is complex and not well understood. However, a lot of its faults produce earthquakes with significant vertical slip, of a type that can result in tsunami. We use the major tsunami event of the AGFZ on purpose to have a regional estimation of the tsunamigenic potential of this zone. The major reported event for this zone is the 1755 Lisbon event. There are large uncertainties concerning source location and focal mechanism of this earthquake. Hence, simple deterministic approach is not sufficient to cover on the one side the whole AGFZ with its geological complexity and on the other side the lack of information concerning the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. A parametric modeling environment Promethée (promethee.irsn.org/doku.php) was coupled to tsunami simulation software based on shallow water equations with the aim of propagation of uncertainties. Such a statistic point of view allows us to work with multiple hypotheses simultaneously. In our work we introduce the seismic source parameters in a form of distributions, thus giving a data base of thousands of tsunami scenarios and tsunami wave height distributions. Exploring our tsunami scenarios data base we present preliminary results for France. Tsunami wave heights (within one standard deviation of the mean) can be about 0.5 m - 1 m for the Atlantic coast and approaching 0.3 m for the English Channel.

  2. The Colonization History of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae) in the Azores Islands

    PubMed Central

    Rumeu, Beatriz; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Nogales, Manuel; Elias, Rui B.; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago. Methodology/Principal Findings The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid) diversity suggest that: (1) a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2) genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma); (3) the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4) the high number of haplotypes observed (16), and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization. Conclusions/Significance Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones), together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present. PMID:22110727

  3. Seasonal and interannual variations in coccolithophore abundance off Terceira Island, Azores (Central North Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narciso, Áurea; Gallo, Francesca; Valente, André; Cachão, Mário; Cros, Lluïsa; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; e Ramos, Joana Barcelos

    2016-04-01

    In order to characterize the natural coccolithophore community occurring offshore Azores and to determine their annual and interannual patterns, monthly samples were collected, from September 2010 to December 2014, in the photic zone off Terceira Island. The present study revealed a clear seasonal distribution and a considerable interannual variability of the living coccolithophore community. The highest coccolithophore abundances were observed during spring and winter months, especially due to the smaller species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa ericsonii. In fact, the highest biomass period was registered during April 2011, associated with enhanced abundance of the overcalcified morphotype of E. huxleyi, which was possibly influenced by subpolar waters and subsequent upwelling conditions. The highest abundances of Gephyrocapsa muellerae were recorded during June 2011 and 2014, indicating that this species characterizes the transition between the period of maximum productivity and the subsequent smoother environmental conditions, the first and the later stages of the phytoplankton succession described by Margalef, respectively. During summer to early fall, a gradual decrease of the overall coccolithophore abundance was observed, while the species richness (Margalef diversity index) increased. A subtropical coccolithophore assemblage mainly composed by Umbellosphaera tenuis, Syracosphaera spp., Discosphaera tubifera, Rhabdosphaera clavigera and Coronosphaera mediterranea indicated the presence of surface warmer waters accompanied by reduced mixing and low nutrients concentration. During late fall to winter, the coccolithophore abundance increased again with a concomitant reduction in species diversity. This is potentially linked to low sea surface temperatures, moderate nutrients concentration and surface mixed layer deepening. During 2011, colder and productive waters led to an increase in the total coccolithophore abundances. On contrary, during 2012

  4. Diagenetic history of lower Pliocene rhodoliths of the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic): Application of cathodoluminescence techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, A C; Meireles, R P; Barbin, V; Neto, A I; Melo, C; Ávila, S P

    2016-01-01

    The diagenetic history of calcareous fossils is required for their application as palaeoenvironmental indicators. In this study, cathodoluminescence-microscopy (CL microscopy) and back scatter electron image-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (BSE-EDS microscopy) were applied to Pliocene rhodoliths from the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic) in order to gain additional insight regarding the trace element content distribution throughout the algae thalli, and to ascertain palaeoenvironmental interpretations. Two types of luminescence were obtained: (1) high and (2) low luminescence. Rhodoliths with high luminescence are related with high concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater and low luminescence rhodoliths are related with low concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater. When the rhodoliths were deposited at about 4.0-4.5 Ma, the shoreline configuration of Santa Maria Island was much different than today. The influence of volcanic activity due to the extrusion of lavas and associated products and/or the presence of active shallow-water hydrothermal vents, was reflected in the sea water chemistry, with penecontemporaneous palaeoshores of the island featuring a high sea water concentration of Mn(2+), which mirrored on the rhodolith Mn(2+) high concentration. By contrast, rhodoliths located about 2.8 and 2.9 km from the shore, in areas with low seawater Mn(2+) concentration, had low luminescence, reflecting the low Mn(2+) concentration in seawater. Rhodoliths chemical data and the geological history of the island proved to be congruent with the palaeogeographical reconstruction of Santa Maria Island at the time of the formation of the rhodoliths. PMID:26520255

  5. Large-scale Sector Collapses in the Evolution of Santa Maria Island, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Sibrant, A.; Hildenbrand, A.; Costa, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Oceanic volcanic islands typically evolve through large-scale short-term events, either constructing or destructing the volcanic edifice. This tug of war between construction and catastrophic destruction should be recorded within a volcanic island, but old collapse events are sometimes hard to recognize because a number of processes modify the associated structures; therefore, recognition of the testimony of such events onshore, without recourse to offshore high-resolution bathymetry, is challenging and comprises our main objective. Additionally, no large-scale catastrophic sector collapses have ever been reported in the Azores, which makes Santa Maria Island a particularly interesting target. In Santa Maria, lava flows of the two main sub-aerial volcanic complexes dip gently to the west, they are separated by a volcano-sedimentary complex lying on an unconformity dipping gently to the east, and the ages decrease to the east. From this geometry and geochronology, we infer that: (1) more than half of the early shield volcano is missing (absence of all eastern flank, summit and part of the western flank), which we interpret as a large-scale sector collapse whose scar is in part the east-dipping unconformity covered with sediments ca. 4.2 Ma old; (2) the scar was filled by a younger shield volcano that grew very rapidly (ca. 4.0-3.6 Ma); (3) a second large-scale sector collapse followed, which again spared only part of the western flank of the younger shield volcano; (4) new volcanism made of dykes and volcanic cones aligned with the arcuate collapse scar indicate that the slide may have occurred ca. 3.6 Ma ago. We conclude that Santa Maria records onshore evidence of two large-scale sector collapses.

  6. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  7. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  8. Population diversity of Theileria annulata in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Pinto, João; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Weir, William

    2016-08-01

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes tropical theileriosis, a severe disease of cattle that occurs across the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East and Southern Asia. In the Mediterranean region, the disease has long been perceived as being a constraint to livestock production in North Africa and Turkey but was believed to have minimal impact in Southern European countries. It has recently been demonstrated that in Southern Portugal the prevalence of T. annulata is approximately 30%. While the population genetics of the parasite and the multiplicity of infection in the bovine host have been studied in a number of countries, no information is currently available on the composition of the parasite population in Southern Europe or its relationship to populations in bordering regions. A parasite genotyping system, based on micro- and mini-satellite amplification, was used to perform genetic analysis of T. annulata populations from T. annulata infected cattle in twelve farms in Southern Portugal. A diversity of genotypes and a high multiplicity of infection were found, suggesting that the parasite possesses a panmictic population in this region. In comparison with genotypes found in Tunisia and Turkey, parasites from Portugal form a genetically distinct group and show lower genetic diversity. PMID:27109468

  9. Spatio-temporal variation in the diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores archipelago, northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Verónica; Nolf, Dirk; Clarke, Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    The diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores was studied in four islands of the archipelago over four breeding seasons, using stomach flushings from 959 birds. Fish were identified from flesh, otoliths and vertebrae and cephalopods from flesh and lower beaks. The frequency of occurrence of prey taxa, and the numerical frequency of fish and cephalopods, showed marked variations both spatially, across the breeding cycle and between years. Overall, cephalopods from 37 species representing 17 families and fish from 33 species representing 18 families were identified, representing over 70 prey species and trebling what was previously known. Histioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae and Cranchiidae were the only cephalopod families present every year and represented two thirds of the cephalopods' consumption by number. Blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus was the most abundant prey species present in 1998 and 2002 but was absent in 1999 and 2000, representing on average 57.2% of prey by number in the years it occurred. Apart from blue jack mackerel, most fish species were present in very low numbers with the exception of Cubiceps gracilis, Scomberesox saurus and Maurolicus muellerii. Diaphus adenomus, was recorded for the first time for the Azores archipelago.

  10. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  11. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  12. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: Analysis of Results from the ARM Mobile Facility Deployment to the Azores (2009/2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert

    2013-05-31

    The project focuses upon dataset analysis and synthesis of datasets from the AMF deployment entitled “Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL)” at Graciosa Island in the Azores. Wood is serving a PI for this AMF deployment.

  13. Pre-School Education in Portugal = Educacao Pre-Escolar em Portugal. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    This report, containing both English and Portuguese text, describes the historical background and current state of preschool education systems in Portugal, and presents recommendations on guideline consolidation in the implementation of a common preschool education policy. Part 1 of the report, "Historical Background," discusses the social,…

  14. Estimation of the CO2 flux from Furnas volcanic Lake (São Miguel, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, César; Viveiros, Fátima; Cruz, J. Virgílio; Coutinho, Rui; Silva, Catarina

    2016-04-01

    A study on diffuse CO2 degassing was undertaken at Furnas lake (São Miguel island, Azores) in order to estimate the total diffuse CO2 output and identify anomalous degassing areas over the lake. Furnas lake is located in Furnas Volcano, the easternmost of the three active central volcanoes of the São Miguel island. The lake has an area of 1.87 km2 and a maximum length and width equal to 2025 and 1600 m, respectively. The maximum depth of the water column is 15 m and the estimated water storage is 14 × 106 m3. Lake water temperature is cold, with temperature values between 13 °C and 15 °C in the winter period and 18.9 °C to 19.3 °C in early autumn, and the variation along the water column suggests a monomictic character. The major-ion relative composition is in decreasing order Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2 + for cations and HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- for anions, and conductivity and pH measurements, respectively in the range of 152 to 165 μS cm- 1 and 5.3 to 8.7, suggests that Furnas has neutral-diluted waters and can be classified as a non-active lake. Diffuse CO2 flux measurements were made using the accumulation chamber method with a total of 1537 and 2577 measurements performed in two different sampling campaigns. The total amount of diffuse CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated between 28 and 321 t km- 2 d- 1, respectively, in the second and first sampling campaigns, corresponding to ~ 52 and ~ 600 t d- 1. The main anomalous degassing area identified over the Furnas lake during both surveys is probably associated to a WNW-ESE trending tectonic structure. Other secondary areas are also suggested to be tectonically influenced. Identified anomalous areas showed similarities to the ones observed during previous soil CO2 degassing studies.

  15. Gas geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids of the S. Miguel and Terceira Islands, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliro, Stefano; Viveiros, Fátima; Chiodini, Giovanni; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    We present here for the first time a complete dataset of the chemical and isotopic compositions of fumarolic fluids collected on the S. Miguel (Fogo and Furnas volcanoes) and Terceira (Pico Alto volcano) Islands. The data are analyzed and discussed, to provide both a comprehensive picture of the thermodynamic conditions of the hydrothermal systems on these two islands, and to give new insight into the origins of these fluids, for a better understanding of the geodynamic context of the Azores archipelago. For S. Miguel Island, the gas equilibria in the H2-CO2-CO-CH4-H2O system suggest temperatures of the hydrothermal system reservoirs from 190 °C to 280 °C for the Fogo volcano fumaroles, which are 30-35 °C higher than those measured for geothermal wells. The equilibrium temperatures estimated for the Furnas volcano hydrothermal system are from 200 °C to 275 °C. Equilibrium vapor at a temperature of ∼190 °C is inferred for the fumarolic fluids discharged on Terceira Island. The He isotopic composition of ∼9.6 R/Ra measured in the fumaroles of Terceira suggests that a plume-like source, presumably from the lower mantle, feeds this hydrothermal system. The relatively low 3He/4He ratios (from 5.21 to 5.35 R/Ra) and higher CO2/3He ratios of S. Miguel fluids suggest an addition of ∼45% of radiogenic He and ∼30% of crustal CO2 to a plume-like composition as at Terceira. A mainly meteoric origin is inferred for the fumarolic water, whereas the unreactive gas species (He, Ar, N2) arise from mixing processes between an atmospheric-like component and a magmatic component. On S. Miguel Island, the estimated magmatic fluid composition in terms of the ratios of N2/40Ar (62 ± 6) suggests a plume-like mantle source. Deep derived N2 isotope compositions characterized by very negative δ15N values (δ15N ⩽ -14‰) are inferred for the fluids of the Terceira Island. Also S. Miguel fluids are compatible with the same source with a possible involvement of crustal

  16. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. PMID:12293809

  17. Shear-wave polarization analysis of the seismic swarm following the July 9th 1998 Faial (Azores) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, N. A.; Matias, L.; Tellez, J.; Senos, L.; Gaspar, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    The Azores Islands, located at a tectonic triple Junction, geodynamically are a highly active place. The seismicity in this region occurs mainly in the form of two types of seismic swarms with tectonic and/or volcanic origins, lasting from hours to years. In some cases the swarm follows a main stronger shock, while in others the more energetic event occurs sometime after the beginning of the swarm. In order to understand the complex phenomena of this region, a multidisciplinary approach is needed, involving geophysical, geological and geochemical studies such as the one being carried under the MASHA project (POCTI/CTA/39158/2001), On July 9th 1998 an Mw=6.2 earthquake stroked the island of Faial, in the central group of the Azores archipelago, followed by a seismic swarm still active today. We will present some preliminary results of the shear-wave polarization analysis of a selected dataset of events of this swarm. These correspond to the 112 best- constrained events, record during the first 2 weeks by the seismic network deployed on the 3 islands surrounding the area of the main shock. The objective was to analyse the behaviour of the S wave polarization and the eventual relationship with the presence of seismic anisotropy under the seismic stations, and to correlate this with the regional structure and origin of the Azores plateau. Two main tectonic features are observable on the islands, one primarily orientated SE-NW and the other crossing it roughly with the WNW-ESE direction. The polarization direction observed in the majority of the seismic stations is not stable, varying from SE-NW to WSW-ENE, and showing also the presence in same cases of shear-wave splitting, indicating the presence of anisotropy. Part of the polarization seems to be coherent with the direction of the local tectonic features, but its instability suggest a more complex seismic anisotropy than that proposed by the model EDA of Crampin. Furthermore, the dataset revealed some limitations to

  18. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  19. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse. PMID:22618354

  20. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  1. A permanent free tropospheric observatory at Pico summit in the Azores Islands? Past measurements (2001-2005) and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honrath, R. E.; Fialho, P.; Helmig, D.; Val Martin, M.; Owen, R. C.; Kleissl, J.; Strane, J. M.; Dziobak, M. P.; Tanner, D. M.; Barata, F.

    2005-12-01

    Pico mountain in the Azores Islands provides a base for continuous, free tropospheric measurements that is unique in the central North Atlantic region. The PICO-NARE station was installed there in 2001 as a temporary observatory. However, the location proved ideal for studies of aged emissions from anthropogenic (N. American) and boreal fire (N. American and Russian) emissions, as well as for less frequent interception of European and African plumes. As a result, station operation was continued through summer 2005, and we are planning for continuing operation and conversion into a permanent Portuguese GAW station in the future. This poster will provide an overview of the station, the measurements made there, typical transport pathways to the station and interannual variability in transport, and an overview of the full suite of multi-season observations and key findings from measurements to date. In addition, data availability and near-term and long-term plans for the station's future will be discussed.

  2. Echinoderms from Azores islands: an unexpected source of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Catarina; Silva, Nuno; Pombo, Sofia; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Micael, Joana; Rodrigues, Pedro; Costa, Ana Cristina; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-04-15

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the implicated mechanisms of resistance were evaluated in Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli, isolated from a total of 250 faecal samples of echinoderms collected from Azorean waters (Portugal). A total of 144 enterococci (120 Enterococcus faecium, 14 E. hirae, 8 E. faecalis, 2 E. gallinarum) and 10 E. coli were recovered. High percentages of resistance in enterococci were found for erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracyclin and ciprofloxacin. The erm(A) or erm(B), tet(M) and/or tet(L), vat(D), aac(6')-aph(2″) and aph(3')-IIIa genes were found in isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, high-level gentamicin and high-level kanamycin, respectively. Resistance in E. coli isolates was detected for streptomycin, amikacin, tetracycline and tobramycin. The aadA gene was found in streptomycin-resistant isolates and tet(A)+tet(B) genes in tetracycline-resistant isolates. The data recovered are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through marine ecosystems and the possible implications involved in transferring these resistances either to other animals or to humans. PMID:23419753

  3. Serreta Submarine Eruption 1998-2001, Azores: a new compositional end-member?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipa Marques, Ana; Hamelin, Cédric; Madureira, Pedro; Rosa, Carlos; Silva, Pedro; Relvas, Jorge; Lourenço, Nuno; Conceição, Patrícia; Barriga, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The Azores platform, where the Eurasian, Nubian and American plates meet, comprises nine volcanic islands extending to both sides of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). East of the MAR, the plate boundary between Eurasian and Nubian plates is defined by the Terceira Rift, interpreted as an intra-oceanic spreading system where the Islands of S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa emerge as well and the submarine D.João de Castro Bank, separated by deep avolcanic zones [1, 2]. Submarine and subaerial lavas from the Terceira Rift are characterized by small-scale elemental and isotopic variations, and several distinct compositional end-members have been identified [2,3] supporting the concept of significant mantle source heterogeneity. A recent submarine eruption (1998-2001) occurred ~4-5 NM WNW of Terceira Island, at the Serreta Ridge where lava balloons were observed floating at the surface [4]. In 2008, an oceanographic cruise was conducted to the Serreta ridge to investigate the site of the 1998-2001 eruption, map the seafloor, identify vent location, and characterize possible products of eruption [5]. An ROV from the EMEPC (Task Group for the Extension of the Continental Shelf) was used in this survey providing high-definition video footage and fresh lava samples. Three survey ROV dives (D15, D16, D17) were made on the Serreta ridge. D15 and D17 dives were located on the southern wall of the crater, whereas D16 explored the central and northern areas of the crater floor. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of representative samples from the Serreta submarine ridge are presented for the first time. On the 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram Serreta samples plot on a linear array with the remaining Terceira rift samples. However, these results show that Serreta submarine volcanics lay on the most depleted end of the Terceira Rift array. Radiogenic isotopes also show that samples from the central and northern wall of the crater are distinct from the younger southern wall sector

  4. Ground motion and tectonics in the Terceira Island: Tectonomagmatic interactions in an oceanic rift (Terceira Rift, Azores Triple Junction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Catalão, J.; Hildenbrand, A.; Madureira, P.

    2015-05-01

    The interpretation of high-resolution topography/bathymetry, GPS and InSAR data, and detailed structural geology indicate that: (1) Terceira developed at the intersection of two major volcano-tectonic lineaments: WNW-ESE (local TR's direction) and NNW-SSE (submarine chain of volcanoes, here firstly recognised and coined Terceira Seamount Chain). (2) Terceira is affected by four main fault systems: the ca. N165° (normal faults dipping to east and west, mostly across the middle of the island), the N140° (normal faults mostly making up the Lajes Graben), the N110° (faults with oblique striations - normal dextral, making up the main volcanic lineament), and the more subtle N70° (the transform direction related to the Nubia/Eurasia plate boundary). Seismicity, GPS data and faults displacing the topography indicate that all systems are active. (3) The whole island is subsiding at a rate of ca. 5 mm/yr, as attested by both GPS and InSAR data, which is exceptionally high for the Azores islands. Common explanations like thermal contraction, or bending of the lithosphere, or magmatic processes, or collapse of the island under its own weight likely cannot justify the observed subsidence rate. The estimated average of TR's subsidence rate is also not enough, therefore we conclude that the measured 5 mm/yr can be a peak. (4) The fault geometry and kinematics are consistent with the current direction of maximum extension in the Azores (ca. N65°), and the rotation of Nubia relative to Eurasia. (5) Given that the NE shoulder of the Lajes Graben is moving upwards at 5 mm/yr and sits directly on the TR's NE shoulder, we conclude that the TR's shoulder is moving up, most likely as a result of the elastic rebound associated with rifting. The elastic rebound in both NE and SW TR's shoulders is most likely responsible for the observed ridge morphology all along the TR.

  5. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined. PMID:11586752

  6. The determinants of lottery sales in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kaizeler, Maria João; Faustino, Horácio C; Marques, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In sum, this paper examines the core determinants of lottery sales in Portugal. With panel data analysis covering 18 Portuguese districts and 5 years, this study explains the variations in a district's per-capita lottery sales in terms of key theoretical hypotheses such as per capita district income, age, education index, gender and religion. This paper concludes that the richer Portuguese districts spend more than the poorer districts and there is an inverted-U relationship between lottery sales and per capita income. The paper also concludes that married Catholic citizens spend more on lottery products than others and that the level of education returns a negative effect on lottery spending. PMID:23760689

  7. KLIMHIST: A Project on Historical Climatology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    Climatic variability from the beginning of regular meteorological observations is now acknowledged. However, climate change prior to 1900 is far from being well known in Portugal, except for the 1675-1800 period in Southern Portugal. An interdisciplinary team is working in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", since May 2012. The main objectives of the project are: (i) to contribute to the creation of a long-term history of climate in Portugal by producing databases of documentary evidence and of instrumental data since 1645, a period of natural climate variability that includes the Maunder Minimum and the Dalton Minimum; (ii) to search systematically for the first simultaneous documentary and instrumental data in order to calibrate the series; (iii) to analyse simulated multi-decadal trends over Portugal generated by climate models; (iv) to compare results with those obtained from dendroclimatology and from geothermal studies regarding Portugal and (v) to study extreme events of the past, their impacts and the vulnerability of societies to weather during the last 350 years, and compare them with current analogues. With these tasks, we expect to help completing the spatial coverage of past European climate, as the data gap over SW Europe is often mentioned. As the team members come from four different Universities in Portugal (Évora, Lisbon, Oporto and UTAD), we expect to obtain a good spatial representation of documentary evidence. Teams are now progressing in data search activities in archives. An Access database frame was constructed. Some 18th century extreme events have been and are being studied (Barbara storm, Dec.1739, among others). The first workshop took place in Lisbon (October 2012): Prof Brázdil and Dr. Domínguez-Castro (two of our consultants) were keynote speakers. Key-words: Climate reconstruction, Documentary

  8. Diversity, distribution and spatial structure of the cold-water coral fauna of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga-Henriques, A.; Porteiro, F. M.; Ribeiro, P. A.; de Matos, V.; Sampaio, Í.; Ocaña, O.; Santos, R. S.

    2013-06-01

    Cold-water corals are widely considered as important structural components of benthic habitats, potentially enhancing local abundance in a variety of fish and invertebrate species. Yet, current knowledge of the taxonomic diversity and distribution patterns of these vulnerable, slow-growing organisms is scarce and fragmented, limiting the effectiveness of spatial management and conservation measures. We have conducted an exhaustive compilation of records of alcyonaceans, antipatharians, scleractinians and stylasterids available through present day to assess the diversity, distribution and spatial structure of coral assemblages in the Azores exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The resulting database comprises 2501 entries concerning historical oceanographic expeditions and other published sources, as well as unpublished data from bottom longline by-catch. Our taxonomic inventory appears to be fairly complete for the explored habitats, accounting for 164 species (79 alcyonaceans, 58 scleractinians, 18 antipatharians and 9 stylasterids), nine of which were documented for the first time. The Azores EEZ harbours a mixed coral fauna with several zoogeographic origins, showing the closest affinity with the Lusitanian-Mediterranean region. Very few apparent endemics were found (14%), and only in part supported by consistent sampling. Coral diversity is particularly high between 300 and 900 m depths, in areas recognized as traditional fishing grounds or exploitable fish habitat within the 100-mile limit of the EEZ. The composition of coral assemblages shows significant geographical structure among longitudinal sections of the study area at comparable depths (100-1500 m). There is no evidence of a possible role of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge or latitudinal effects underlying this pattern, which suggests that it may instead reflect assemblage variability among features. Stronger changes in species composition were found along the bathymetric gradient. Notwithstanding the mix of

  9. Diversity, distribution and spatial structure of the cold-water coral fauna of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga-Henriques, A.; Porteiro, F. M.; Ribeiro, P. A.; de Matos, V.; Sampaio, Í.; Ocaña, O.; Santos, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Cold-water corals are widely considered as important structural components of benthic habitats, potentially enhancing local abundance in a variety of fish and invertebrate species. Yet, current knowledge of the taxonomic diversity and distribution patterns of these vulnerable, slow-growing organisms is scarce and fragmented, limiting the effectiveness of spatial management and conservation measures. We have conducted an exhaustive compilation of records of alcyonaceans, antipatharians, scleractinians and stylasterids available until the present day to assess the diversity, distribution, and spatial structure of coral assemblages in the Azores Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The resulting database comprises 2501 entries concerning historical oceanographic expeditions and other published sources, as well as recent data from longline bycatch. Our taxonomic inventory appears to be fairly complete for the explored habitats, accounting for 164 species (79 alcyonaceans, 58 scleractinians, 18 antipatharians and 9 stylasterids), nine of which were new records. The Azores EEZ harbours a mixed coral fauna with several zoogeographic origins, showing the closest affinity with the Lusitanian-Mediterranean region. Very few apparent endemics were found (14%), and only in part supported by consistent sampling. Coral diversity is particularly high between 300 and 900 m depths, in areas recognized as traditional fishing grounds or exploitable fish habitat within the 100-mile limit of the EEZ. The composition of coral assemblages shows significant geographical structure among longitudinal sections of the study area at comparable depths (100-1500 m). There is no evidence of a possible role of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge or latitudinal effects underlying this pattern, which suggests that it may instead reflect assemblage variability among features. Stronger changes in species composition were found along the bathymetric gradient. Notwithstanding the mix of partially overlapping steno- and

  10. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  11. [Approach and Registry of Anaphylaxis in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Mota, Inês; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Celso; Tomaz, Elza; Ferreira, Manuel Branco; Sabino, Filipa; Coelho, Anabela; Santos, Anabela; Martins, Henrique; Morais-Almeida, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis has a growing incidence, especially in children. It represents a medical emergency and its successful therapy depends on early and proper intervention. Intramuscular epinephrine, with dose adjustment according to weight and age, is the drug of choice for anaphylaxis treatment. After resolution of the acute reaction, the patient should be kept under clinical surveillance for 6 to 24 hours, due to possible biphasic reactions. Prescription of an epinephrine auto injectable device should be considered in all patients with diagnosed or suspected anaphylaxis; additionally these patients should always be referred to an Immunoallergy consultation, to perform adequate investigation and management in order to reduce future risk. All anaphylaxis episodes must be recorded in The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions (Catálogo Português de Alergias e outras Reações Adversas, CPARA), which represents a fundamental tool to share clinical information within the Health System. The present manuscript intends to disclose the most recent Portuguese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis, making its clinical approach more effective and homogeneous, and to promote the use of The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions as an essential tool to register and share information on anaphylaxis in Portugal. PMID:26849768

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of droughts in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, JoãO. Filipe; Pulido-Calvo, Inmaculada; Portela, Maria Manuela

    2010-03-01

    An analysis of droughts in mainland Portugal based on monthly precipitation data, from September 1910 to October 2004, in 144 rain gages distributed uniformly over the country is presented. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to different time scales (1, 6, and 12 consecutive months and 6 months from April to September and 12 months from October to September). To assess spatial and temporal patterns of droughts, a principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering (KMC) were applied to the SPI series. In this way, three different and spatially well-defined regions with different temporal evolution of droughts were identified (north, central, and south regions of Portugal). A spectral analysis of the SPI patterns obtained with principal component analysis and clusters analysis, using the fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT), showed that there is a manifest 3.6-year cycle in the SPI pattern in the south of Portugal and evident 2.4-year and 13.4-year cycles in the north of Portugal. The observation of the drought periods supports the occurrence of more frequent cycles of dry events in the south (droughts from moderate to extreme approximately every 3.6 years) than in the north (droughts from severe to extreme approximately every 13.4 years). These results suggest a much stronger immediate influence of the NAO in the south than in the north of Portugal, although these relations remain a challenging task.

  13. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from invasive species of the Azores, Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Jorge R; Campos, Lurdes B; Mendonça, Susana C; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2003-09-01

    The compositions of the essential oils from the leaves and flowers of Hedychium gardnerianum and from the leaves of Pittosporum undulatum growing on San Miguel Island (Azores) were investigated, and the compounds were identified by GC-MS analyses. The oils in the leaves and flowers of H. gardnerianum were rich in alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and alpha-cadinol, whereas that from P. undulatum was found to contain monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and alkanes, of which the sesquiterpenes, calamenene (41.4%), farnesol (10.9%), spathulenol (5.6%) and beta-selinene (5.2%) and the diterpene (8beta,13beta)-kaur-16-ene (10.7%) were the major components. Their potential antimicrobial activities were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and those with the highest activities against S. aureus and S. epidermis were from H. gardnerianum; none had activity against P. aeruginosa. Additionally, the essential oils from Pittosporum undulatum had good antithrombin activity whereas that from H. gardnerianum did not. PMID:12943775

  14. Microtremor Survey On PovoaÇA~o County (s. Miguel Island, Azores): Data Analysis And Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teves-Costa, P.; Riedel, C.; Vales, D.; Wallenstein, N.; Borges, A.; Senos, M. L.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.

    The seismic activity of the Azores Islands is known since the beginning of their settlement in the middle of the XV century. About 30 earthquakes produced social and economical important damages. The analysis of the damage distribution, for several earthquakes, shows systematically the existence of site effects. In order to understand the initial cause of these effects, three different zones were selected, with different geological and geomorphological characteristics, in the Povoação County, to perform a microtremor survey. Seismic data were recorded on a grid of 50 m in the three regions, using a 3-component Lennartz 1 Hz seismometer, with a sampling rate of 8 ms. The stations were deployed for 5 minutes or more to record microtremor imposed on the topmost layers by natural and anthropogenic sources. The data were processed using two different subroutine packages, in order to estimate the H/V ratio, defined according to the Nakamura methodology. However, the two processing routines gave different results, which forced us to revise all the procedures and to identify the main factors that caused it. Three portable seismic stations were installed in three fixed points, for about three months, aiming to record some earthquakes. Several small magnitude earthquakes (m < 3.0) were recorded and these data were processed in the same way as the noise data, obtaining reference H/V ratios. The interpretation of the dominant frequencies, for noise and small magnitude earthquakes, was performed taking into consideration not only the geological characteristics, but also the structural geomorphology.

  15. Moytirra: Discovery of the first known deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, A. J.; Murton, B.; Copley, J.; Lim, A.; Carlsson, J.; Collins, P.; Dorschel, B.; Green, D.; Judge, M.; Nye, V.; Benzie, J.; Antoniacomi, A.; Coughlan, M.; Morris, K.

    2013-10-01

    Geological, biological, morphological, and hydrochemical data are presented for the newly discovered Moytirra vent field at 45oN. This is the only high temperature hydrothermal vent known between the Azores and Iceland, in the North Atlantic and is located on a slow to ultraslow-spreading mid-ocean ridge uniquely situated on the 300 m high fault scarp of the eastern axial wall, 3.5 km from the axial volcanic ridge crest. Furthermore, the Moytirra vent field is, unusually for tectonically controlled hydrothermal vents systems, basalt hosted and perched midway up on the median valley wall and presumably heated by an off-axis magma chamber. The Moytirra vent field consists of an alignment of four sites of venting, three actively emitting "black smoke," producing a complex of chimneys and beehive diffusers. The largest chimney is 18 m tall and vigorously venting. The vent fauna described here are the only ones documented for the North Atlantic (Azores to Reykjanes Ridge) and significantly expands our knowledge of North Atlantic biodiversity. The surfaces of the vent chimneys are occupied by aggregations of gastropods (Peltospira sp.) and populations of alvinocaridid shrimp (Mirocaris sp. with Rimicaris sp. also present). Other fauna present include bythograeid crabs (Segonzacia sp.) and zoarcid fish (Pachycara sp.), but bathymodiolin mussels and actinostolid anemones were not observed in the vent field. The discovery of the Moytirra vent field therefore expands the known latitudinal distributions of several vent-endemic genera in the north Atlantic, and reveals faunal affinities with vents south of the Azores rather than north of Iceland.

  16. Understanding the geodynamic setting of São Miguel, Azores: A peculiar bit of mantle in the Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M.; Houlie, N.; Khan, A.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Azores Plateau and Archipelago in the Central Atlantic Ocean has traditionally been considered as the surface expression of a deep mantle plume or hotspot that has interacted with a mid-ocean ridge. It is geodynamically associated with the triple junction between the North American, African and Eurasian plates. (Yang et al., 2006) used finite frequency seismic tomography to demonstrate the presence of a zone of low P-wave velocities (peak magnitude -1.5%) in the uppermost 200km of the mantle beneath the plateau. The tomographic model is consistent with SW deflection of a mantle plume by regional upper mantle shear flow driven by absolute plate motions. The volcanic island of Sao Miguel is located within the Terceira Rift, believed to represent the boundary between the African and Eurasian plates; magmatic activity has been characterised by abundant basaltic eruptions in the past 30,000 years. The basalts are distinctive within the spectrum of global ocean island basalts for their wide range in isotopic composition, particularly in 87Sr/86Sr. Their Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions show systematic variations from west to east across the island which can be interpreted in terms of melting of a two-component mantle source. The low melting point (enriched) component in the source has been attributed to recycled ancient (~3 Ga) oceanic crust(Elliott et al., 2007). Using the thermo-barometry approach of (Lee et al., 2009) we demonstrate that the pressure and temperature of magma generation below Sao Miguel increase from west (2 GPa, 1425 °C) to east (3.8 GPa, 1575 °C), consistent with partial melting along a mantle geotherm with a potential temperature of ~ 1500 °C. This is consistent with the magnitude of the thermal anomaly beneath the Azores Plateau (ΔT ~ 150-200 °C) inferred on the basis of the seismic tomography study. The site of primary magma generation extends from the base of the local lithosphere (~ 50 km) to ~ 125 km depth. To understand the geodynamic

  17. Lethal lesions and amputation caused by plastic debris and fishing gear on the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). Three case reports from Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Barreiros, João P; Raykov, Violin S

    2014-09-15

    In this note we report and discuss three cases involving two serious injuries and one death on three specimens of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta, found in Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic). Plastic debris and lost/discarded fishing gear caused these accidents. In fact, these types of marine litter are known to cause several accidents all over the world involving many taxa. However, we think that this issue has probably a much wider impact and detected cases such as those reported here are but just a small sample of the whole unknown dimension of this serious marine pollution problem. PMID:25066455

  18. Periodic behavior of soil CO2 emissions in diffuse degassing areas of the Azores archipelago: Application to seismovolcanic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveiros, Fátima; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Ferreira, Teresa; Silva, Catarina; Cruz, José V.

    2014-10-01

    Time series of soil CO2 efflux recorded in the Azores archipelago volcanic-hydrothermal areas feature daily and seasonal variations. The recorded CO2 efflux values were lower during summer than in the winter season. The diurnal CO2 efflux values were higher at dawn and lower in the early afternoon, contrary to that observed in biogenic environments. CO2 efflux cycles correlated well with the environmental variables, such as air temperature, wind speed, and barometric pressure, which also showed low- and high-frequency periodicities. Several simulations were performed here using the Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat 2 (TOUGH2) geothermal simulator to complement the study of Rinaldi et al. (2012). The effects of the water table depth, air temperature perturbation amplitude, and soil thermal gradient contributed to an explanation of the contrasts observed in the diurnal (S1) and semidiurnal (S2) soil CO2 efflux peaks for the different monitoring sites and seasons. Filtering techniques (multivariate regression analysis and fast Fourier transform filters) were also applied to the recorded time series to remove effects of external variables on the soil CO2 efflux. The resulting time series (the residuals) correspond to the best approach to the deep-seated (volcanic/hydrothermal) CO2 emissions and thus should be used in seismovolcanic monitoring programs. Even if no evident correlation can be established yet between the soil CO2 residuals and seismicity over the monitored time, a seismic swarm that occurred around the end of 2008 might have triggered some deviations from the observed daily cycles.

  19. Deformation in a hyperslow oceanic rift: Insights from the tectonics of the São Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; Boulesteix, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J.

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of hyperslow oceanic rifts, like the Terceira Rift (TR) in the Azores, is still poorly understood. Here we examine the distribution of strain and magmatism in the portion of the TR making up the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary. We use São Miguel Island because it stretches most of the TR width, which allows to investigate the TR's architecture and shedding light on TR's age and mode of deformation. From topography and structural analysis, and new measurements of 380 faults and dikes, we show that (1) São Miguel has two main structural directions, N150 and N110, mostly concentrated in the eastern part of the island as an onshore continuation of the faults observed offshore in the NE (N110 faults) and SW (N140) TR walls; (2) a new N50-N80 fault system is identified in São Miguel; (3) fault and dike geometries indicate that eastern São Miguel comprises the TR's northern boundary, and the lack of major faults in central and western São Miguel indicates that rifting is mostly concentrated at master faults bounding the TR. Based on TR's geometry, structural observations and plate kinematics, we estimate that the TR initiated between 1.4 and 2.7 Ma ago and that there is no appreciable seafloor spreading associated with rifting. Based on plate kinematics, on the new structural data, and on São Miguel's structural and volcanic trends, we propose that the eastern two thirds of São Miguel lie along a main TR-related transform fault striking N70-N80, which connects two widely separated N130-N150 TR-trending segments.

  20. Volcano-tectonic framework of a linear volcanic ridge (Faial-Pico ridge, Azores Archipelago) assessed by paleomagnetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pedro; Henry, Bernard; Lopes, Ana; Marques, Fernando; Madureira, Pedro; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Madeira, José; Nunes, João; Roxerová, Zuzana

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of volcanic oceanic islands results from the alternation between constructive and destructive episodes. In this study directional analyses obtained from paleomagnetic studies are used as a tool to achieve relative rotations related with destructive processes intra the Pico-Faial linear volcanic ridge (Azores archipelago; North Atlantic). A total of 45 lava flows and one dyke were sampled preferable along lava piles though to record volcano-tectonic movements. The respective paleomagnetic results are able to show important rotations within the two islands that resemble the onshore signature of this ridge. Paleomagnetic directions retrieved here mostly show elliptical distribution of ChRM's sub-perpendicular to volcanic ridge. Such distribution agrees with the development of listric faults plunging towards the axis of the volcanic ridge at Faial Island and towards offshore at the Topo complex of Pico Island. In Faial Island, the "collapse" related to the magma chamber decompression was accommodated by brittle deformation with listric faults plunging toward the core of the formed graben. On Pico Island, this collapse was probably of less importance and simply accommodated by a local tilting. Listric faults then should have been developed, in the opposite direction (compared to Faial Island case) relatively to the collapsed area, to compensate a relative local uplift. Accordingly paleomagnetic studies appear as key data to retrieve intra-islands deformations due to the volcano-tectonic balance responsible for the construction and destruction of such unstable buildings. This important tool to address georisks and natural hazards remains poorly explored and need to be strongly developed. The author wish to acknowledge MEGAHAZARDS (PTDC/CTE-GIX/108149/2008) and REGENA (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3648/2012) projects for its major contribution without which this work wouldn't be possible. Publication supported by project FCT UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz.

  1. Citreicella manganoxidans sp. nov., a novel manganese oxidizing bacterium isolated from a shallow water hydrothermal vent in Espalamaca (Azores).

    PubMed

    Rajasabapathy, Raju; Mohandass, Chellandi; Dastager, Syed Gulam; Liu, Qing; Li, Wen-Jun; Colaço, Ana

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, aerobic and rod or narrow lemon-shaped bacterial strain, VSW210(T), was isolated from surface seawater in a shallow water hydrothermal vent region in Espalamaca (Azores). Strain VSW210(T) was found to grow optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and in the presence of 2-6 % (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain VSW210(T) clusters with the type strain Citreicella marina CK-I3-6(T) (sequence similarity value of 99.6 %), but DNA-DNA hybridization showed DNA-DNA relatedness between the strain VSW210(T) and C. marina CK-I3-6(T) to be 55.8 ± 3.2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain VSW210(T) was determined to be 67.4 mol%. The cellular fatty acid profiles of strain VSW210(T) was found to contain C18:1 ω7c (80.1 %) and C16:0 (9.2 %). The major polar lipids in strain VSW210(T) were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. Strain VSW210(T) was found to be able to oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble MnO2, which was confirmed with LBB staining. Differential phenotypic properties and genetic uniqueness revealed that this strain VSW210(T) is distinguishable from other species of the genus Citreicella. On the basis of the data presented, strain VSW210(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Citreicella, for which the name Citreicella manganoxidans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VSW210(T) (=KCTC 32497(T) = MCC 2286(T)). PMID:26404429

  2. The ˜1000-years BP explosive eruption of Caldeira Volcano (Faial, Azores): the first stage of incremental caldera formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Adriano; Pacheco, José; Self, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    The ˜1000-years BP eruption of Caldeira Volcano (Faial Island) was one of the last major explosive events recorded in the Azores. It produced a complex succession of pyroclastic deposits, known as the C11, divided into three members. At the base is the Brejo Member, a sequence of fine- to coarse-grained parallel-bedded ash layers found in the NW sector of the island. The middle part corresponds to the Inverno Member, a coarse-grained massive pumice fall deposit, restricted to the north flank of Caldeira Volcano. The top is dominated by the Cedros Member which includes massive to diffuse-stratified lapilli-ash and lithic breccias, exposed along the north and east flanks of the volcano. A minimum bulk volume of at least 0.22 km3 (>0.1 km3 dense rock equivalent (DRE)) is estimated for the C11 eruption, although a large portion may have been deposited offshore. The juvenile products are trachytic (59 wt% SiO2) with a homogenous whole-rock composition and mineral assemblage throughout the pyroclastic succession. However, petrographic and groundmass glass analyses indicate magma mingling/mixing processes between two trachytic batches. The C11 eruption history is divided into three phases (following the member division) with distinct eruptive styles: (1) an initial phreatomagmatic phase caused by rising magma (˜950 °C) encountering a crater pond or aquifer, (2) a fall-dominated phase which established a sub-Plinian column up to 14 km high (mass eruption rate (MER) of 1.2 × 107 kg/s) and (3) prolonged pyroclastic fountaining and sustained quasi-steady pyroclastic density current generation followed by summit collapse. The C11 eruption is interpreted as the first stage in the formation of an incremental caldera. This study provides valuable insights for a better understanding of small but complex explosive eruptions and their impact on ocean islands.

  3. Open Plan Schools in Portugal: Failure or Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinho, Miguel; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Open plan schools have been largely contested in Portugal; many teachers, administrators and even parents consider this model of schooling inappropriate and therefore a failure. Recently however the Escola da Ponte, one of the open plan schools that has survived, was recognised as one of the country's most innovative educational facilities.…

  4. Research Management in Portugal: A Quest for Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Margarida; Agostinho, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Research managers at science-intensive institutions appear as a continuously evolving group of professionals whose identity is somewhat fragmented, even to themselves. In Portugal, specialized research manager roles have rapidly emerged over the last years alongside the development of a small but consolidated scientific system. In order to get an…

  5. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  6. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  7. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  8. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  9. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  10. Making Sense of TV for Children: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Empowering children for a critical and judicious use and consumption of media is a main objective of media literacy. This paper aims to examine the range of television programs available for children in Portugal through a comparative analysis of the programming for children broadcast by the four Portuguese terrestrial channels (RTP1, RTP2, SIC and…

  11. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  12. School Psychology in Portugal: Practitioners' Characteristics and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Sofia A.; Abreu-Lima, Isabel; Almeida, Leandro S.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on the professional characteristics and practices of school psychologists in Portugal. This study surveyed a total of 477 Portuguese school psychologists employed in public (80%) and private schools (20%). Portuguese school psychologists are described with regard to demographic, professional, and educational…

  13. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  14. Emerging Models of Teacher Training: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando; Ferreira, Manuela; Miranda, Branca

    2004-01-01

    The structural reforms of geography teacher training in Portugal have been justified by the global evolution of the educational system and took into account: (1) the political will to extend the period of compulsory schooling, which now covers the whole of lower secondary education, but will soon cover upper secondary education as well; (2) the…

  15. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  16. School Closures and Community Revitalisation: The Case of Obidos, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godinho, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities in many countries are faced with the need to restructure their school networks and close some smaller facilities. Obidos, a town in western Portugal, provides a case study of how to meet these challenges by creating new school complexes that offer improved educational opportunities to the teaching staff, students and local…

  17. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  18. Catastrophic flank collapses and slumping in Pico Island during the last 130 kyr (Pico-Faial ridge, Azores Triple Junction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A. C. G.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Sibrant, A. L. R.; Santos de Campos, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Pico Island constitutes the easternmost sub-aerial domain of a steep WNW-ESE volcanic ridge, which has developed within the Nubia-Eurasia diffuse plate boundary (Azores Triple Junction). The island comprises three volcanic systems, from older to younger: the Topo Volcano, the Fissural System, and the Pico Stratovolcano. From a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (10 m), and new bathymetric, stratigraphic, structural, and high-precision K-Ar data, we reconstruct the main successive stages of growth and partial destruction of the island over the last 200 kyr. We especially concentrate on the central sector of the island, which has recorded gradual movements through slumping and catastrophic flank collapses since ca. 130 kyr. The remmants of the Topo Volcano are partly exposed on Pico's SE flank, and are here dated between 186 ± 5 and 115 ± 4 ka. Topo was significantly destroyed by N- and S-directed large-scale flank collapses between ca. 125 and 70 ka. On Pico's N flank, collapse seems to have removed all the unstable material, but in the S the collapse structure is composite, including a major flank collapse and a remnant slump complex that is still active. A first episode of deformation occurred between ca. 125 and 115 ka along the master fault of the slump. Between ca. 115 and 69 ka, most of the unstable material was removed by a major flank collapse, leaving behind a still considerable volume of unstable material that comprises the active slump. This first collapse was catastrophic and generated a large debris deposit recognized on the high-resolution bathymetry, with a minimum run-out of ca. 17 km. The scar was partially filled by volcanic products erupted from volcanic cones developed within the slump depression, and possibly also from the early WNW-ESE Fissural System. Subsequent deformation in the slump area affected in part the filling units, leading to the individualization of secondary curved faults. Younger volcanic products have gradually

  19. Construction and destruction of a volcanic island developed inside an oceanic rift: Graciosa Island, Terceira Rift, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.

    2014-09-01

    There is a great lack of knowledge regarding the evolution of islands inside active oceanic rifts, in particular the meaning of the different evolutionary steps. Therefore, we conducted an investigation in Graciosa Island, which lies at the northwestern end of the Terceira Rift in the Azores Triple Junction, with the objective of constraining the evolution of the island in terms of volcanic growth and mass wasting, in particular the meaning and age of the destruction events. From digital elevation model (DEM) analysis, stratigraphic and tectonic observations, K/Ar dating on key samples, and available bathymetry and gravity data, we propose that Graciosa comprises five main volcanic complexes separated by major unconformities related to large scale mass wasting: (1) The older volcanic edifice (Serra das Fontes Complex) grew until ca. 700 ka, and was affected by a major flank collapse towards the southwest, which removed the whole SW flank, the summit and a part of the NE flank. (2) The Baía do Filipe Complex developed between at least 472 ka and 433 ka in two different ways: in the SW (presently offshore) as a main volcano, and in the NE unconformably over the sub-aerial remnants of the Serra das Fontes Complex, as secondary volcanic edifices. (3) The Baía do Filipe Complex was affected by a major flank collapse towards the SW, again removing most of the edifice. (4) The remnants of the Baía do Filipe Complex were covered in unconformity by the Serra Dormida Complex between ca. 330 and 300 ka, which in turn was unconformably covered by the younger Basaltic Cover Complex between ca. 300 ka and 214 ka. These two units were affected by a third major sector collapse that removed the whole western flank, the summit and part of the eastern flank of the Serra Dormida and Basaltic Cover complexes. (5) Despite the relatively young age of Graciosa, the collapse scars are not well preserved, and not active anymore. (6) A central-type volcano has been growing since at least

  20. Temporal evolution of a post-caldera, mildly peralkaline magmatic system: Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, A. J.; Gertisser, R.; O'Driscoll, B.; Pacheco, J. M.; Whitley, S.; Pimentel, A.; Self, S.

    2016-05-01

    Furnas is one of three active central volcanoes on São Miguel Island, Azores, and is considered to be one of the most hazardous in the archipelago. In this study, the pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 10 young (<5 ka), intra-caldera, sub-Plinian, trachytic eruptions of the Upper Furnas Group (UFG) is investigated via whole rock major and trace element geochemistry, mineral chemistry, thermobarometry, and petrogenetic modelling. The main aim of this work is to elucidate the petrogenesis of the Furnas trachytes, constrain the P-T-fO2 conditions under which they evolve, and investigate the temporal evolution of the magma plumbing system. Results indicate that the trachytes are derived predominantly from extended fractional crystallisation of alkali basalt parental magmas, at depths between ~3 and 4 km. This is considered to take place in a density-stratified reservoir, with alkali basalt magmas at the base and hydrous trachytes forming an upper cap or cupola. The presence of this reservoir at shallow crustal depths beneath the caldera likely inhibits the ascent and subsequent eruption of mafic magmas, generating a compositional Daly Gap. Rare syenitic ejecta represent in situ crystallisation of trachytic magmas in the thermal boundary zone at the top of the reservoir. Trachytic enclaves within these syenites, in addition to banded pumices and ubiquitous clinopyroxene antecrysts in the UFG pumice falls, provide evidence for mingling/mixing processes within the magmatic system. Despite relatively uniform major element compositions, systematic trace element variations within individual eruptions highlight the importance of fractional crystallisation during late-stage evolution of the trachytes. This is facilitated by the accumulation of water and the development of mild peralkalinity, which contribute to low pre-eruptive melt viscosities and efficient crystal settling. Compositional zoning patterns between individual eruptions cannot be accounted for by periodic

  1. Morpho-structural evolution of a volcanic island developed inside an active oceanic rift: S. Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Weiss, B.; Boulesteix, T.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of volcanic islands is generally marked by fast construction phases alternating with destruction by a variety of mass-wasting processes. More specifically, volcanic islands located in areas of intense regional deformation can be particularly prone to gravitational destabilisation. The island of S. Miguel (Azores) has developed during the last 1 Myr inside the active Terceira Rift, a major tectonic structure materializing the present boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian lithospheric plates. In this work, we depict the evolution of the island, based on high-resolution DEM data, stratigraphic and structural analyses, high-precision K-Ar dating on separated mineral phases, and offshore data (bathymetry and seismic profiles). The new results indicate that: (1) the oldest volcanic complex (Nordeste), composing the easternmost part of the island, was dominantly active between ca. 850 and 750 ka, and was subsequently affected by a major south-directed flank collapse. (2) Between at least 500 ka and 250 ka, the landslide depression was massively filled by a thick lava succession erupted from volcanic cones and domes distributed along the main E-W collapse scar. (3) Since 250 kyr, the western part of this succession (Furnas area) was affected by multiple vertical collapses; associated plinian eruptions produced large pyroclastic deposits, here dated at ca. 60 ka and less than 25 ka. (4) During the same period, the eastern part of the landslide scar was enlarged by retrogressive erosion, producing the large Povoação valley, which was gradually filled by sediments and young volcanic products. (5) The Fogo volcano, in the middle of S. Miguel, is here dated between ca. 270 and 17 ka, and was affected by, at least, one southwards flank collapse. (6) The Sete Cidades volcano, in the western end of the island, is here dated between ca. 91 and 13 ka, and experienced mutliple caldera collapses; a landslide to the North is also suspected from the presence of a

  2. Developing Atmospheric Science Tools for Teachers Based on Research at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Pico Island, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, L.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric science and climate change are becoming increasingly important, especially in education, as the Next Generation Science Standards now include climate change. A collaborating team of research scientists and students are studying the free troposphere, specifically the aerosol composition and properties, on the island of Pico in the Azores Archipelago. The research station sits in the caldera of Mount Pico, 2225 meters above sea level. At this elevation, the station is above the marine boundary layer, thus placing it in the free troposphere. In this work, collaboration between a high school Earth Science teacher and university researchers was formed with the goal of developing classroom and outreach materials regarding atmospheric science. Among the materials, a video was created containing: site and project background, explanation of some of the instruments used and candid conversations regarding science and research. The video serves several purposes, such as informing students and the general public about what is happening in the atmosphere and informing students about the importance of science and research. The video could also be used to educate the local island community and tourists. Other materials designed include data directly obtained from the project, such as measurements of aerosol particles in electron microscopy photos (which were imaged for particle morphology and size), and composition of the aerosol particles. Students can use this evidence, as well as other data, to gain a better understanding of aerosols and the overall effect they have on the climate. Students will discover this evidence as they work through a series of experiments and activities. Using the strategy of Claim-Evidence-Reasoning as a way to answer scientific questions, students will use the evidence they gathered to explain their ideas. One such question could be, 'How do aerosols affect the climate?' and the student's 'claim' is their answer to that question. In the

  3. Human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Portugal, summer 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, Líbia; Proença, Paula; Osório, Hugo C; Gomes, Salomé; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Fevereiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in the Algarve region, Portugal, in the first week of September 2015. WNV is known to circulate in Portugal, with occasional reports in horses and birds (2004 to 2011) and very sporadically human cases (in 2004 and in 2010). Here we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease reported in Portugal. PMID:26535915

  4. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health. PMID:26486944

  5. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks. PMID:26273814

  6. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  7. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zé-Zé, L.; Prata, M.B.; Teixeira, T.; Marques, N.; Mondragão, A.; Fernandes, R.; Saraiva da Cunha, J.; Alves, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  8. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians. PMID:25215422

  9. Asthma in an Urban Population in Portugal: A prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and incidence of asthma are believed to be increasing but research on the true incidence, prevalence and mortality from asthma has met methodological obstacles since it has been difficult to define and diagnose asthma in epidemiological terms. New and widely accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma present opportunities for progress in this field. Studies conducted in Portugal have estimated the disease prevalence between 3% and 15%. Available epidemiological data present a significant variability due to methodological obstacles. Aim To estimate the true prevalence of asthma by gender and age groups in the population of the area covered by one urban Health Centre in Portugal. Method An observational study was conducted between February and July 2009 at the Horizonte Family Health Unit in Matosinhos, Portugal. A random sample of 590 patients, stratified by age and gender was obtained from the practice database of registered patients. Data was collected using a patient questionnaire based on respiratory symptoms and the physician's best knowledge of the patient's asthma status. The prevalence of asthma was calculated by age and gender. Results Data were obtained from 576 patients (97.6% response rate). The mean age for patients with asthma was 27.0 years (95% CI: 20.95 to 33.16). This was lower than the mean age for non-asthmatics but the difference was not statistically significant. Asthma was diagnosed in 59 persons giving a prevalence of 10.24% (95% CI: 8.16 to 12.32). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of asthma by gender. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma found in the present study was higher than that found in some studies, though lower than that found in other studies. Further studies in other regions of Portugal are required to confirm these findings. PMID:21595928

  10. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications. PMID:26581424

  11. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. PMID:26899014

  12. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  13. Seismicity And Accretion Processes Along The Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Azores using data from the MARCHE Autonomous Hydrophone Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Julie; Cevatoglu, Melis; Cannat, Mathilde; Escartin, Javier; Maia, Marcia; Tisseau, Chantal; Dziak, Robert; Goslin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    The seismicity of the South Atlantic Ocean has been recorded by the MARCHE network of 4 autonomous underwater hydrophones (AUH) moored within the SOFAR channel on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The instruments were deployed south of the Azores Plateau between 32° and 39°N from July 2005 to August 2008. The low attenuation properties of the SOFAR channel for earthquake T-wave propagation result in a detection threshold reduction from a magnitude completeness level (Mc) of ~4.3 for MAR events recorded by the land-based seismic networks to Mc=2.1 using this hydrophone array. A spatio-temporal analysis has been performed among the 5600 events recorded inside the MARCHE array. Most events are distributed along the ridge between lat. 39°N on the Azores Platform and the Rainbow (36°N) segment. In the hydrophone catalogue, acoustic magnitude (Source Level, SL) is used as a measure of earthquake size. The source level above which the data set is complete is SLc=205 dB. We look for seismic swarms using the cluster software of the SEISAN package. The criterion used are a minimum SL of 210 to detect a possible mainshock, and a radius of 30 km and a time window of 40 days after this mainshock (Cevatoglu, 2010, Goslin et al., 2012). 7 swarms with more than 15 events are identified using this approach between 32°et 39°N of latitude. The maximum number of earthquake in a swarm is 57 events. This result differs from the study of Simao et al. (2010) as we processed a further year of data and selected sequences with fewer events. Looking at the distribution of the SL as a function of time after the mainshock, we discuss the possible mechanism of these earthquakes : tectonic events with a "mainshock-aftershock" distribution fitting a modified Omori law or volcanic events showing more constant SL values. We also present the geophysical setting of these 7 swarms, using gravity, bathymetry, and available local geological data. This study illustrates the potential of

  14. Faults, Post-1720 Explosion Craters, and the Remains of a Lava Lake at Castro Bank Seamount (E Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderman, R.; Barriga, F. J.; Nishimura, C.; Pacheco, J. M.; Vogt, P. R.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Santos, R.

    2003-12-01

    During 25-28 July 2003 the US Navy submarine NR-1 dove on the seamount D. Joao de Castro Bank, compiling reconnaissance sonar and visual data. Castro Bank sits along strike and between the eastern Azorian islands of Terceira and S. Miguel, occupying a seismically active region ˜60 km from each of these islands and apparently controlled by the same underlying tectonics as other islands found along the Azores' northern margin. Castro Bank's last recorded eruptions built a ˜1 km diameter ephemeral island in the 1720s. The bathimetry of the uppermost 40 m or so of the Bank is rather well known via single beam sonar, scuba diving and AUV surveys (IH, DOP/UA and ISR/IST, unpublished work). Our dives compiled data in concentric rings along contours, collecting side- and forward-looking sonar along an overall track length of ˜20 km, with the deepest ring approaching ˜200 m depth. To document key features we came near the sea floor and took videos in water with typical visibility of ˜10-15 m. This is the first progress report on our work, which found the edifice morphologically complex and irregular. We noted that the seamount was often covered by aerially extensive yellow-brown hyaloclastic tuffs that were presumably products of the 1720s eruption, but also cut by faults and fissures (with offsets of ten's of meters) exposing abundant areas of older edifice. The faults typically lacked sediment cover, and in one case a very fresh, sediment-free fault trended along the base of a steep cliff. This suggested the faults were much younger than the 1720 eruption, an observation in accord with intense seismicity recorded in this area. The faults provided exposures of older rocks, which included abundant breccia and lesser clearly identified pillows or thick lava flows. The NW quadrant contains two small, shallow, elliptical craters. These lie side-by-side and crosscut inferred 1720s-age tuffs. One crater held a lava lake, the body of which apparently withdrew or subsided

  15. On the potential of an RST-based analysis of the MODIS-derived chl-a product over Condor seamount and surrounding areas (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancia, Emanuele; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Mendonça, Ana; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria; Tramutoli, Valerio; Martins, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Oceanographic cruises have been conducted on the Condor seamount (SW Faial Island, Azores archipelago, NE Atlantic) since 2009 to collect in situ data and understand potential seamount effects on local biodiversity. Satellite data have been concurrently collected to infer the space-time upper-ocean optical property variability and the associated physical processes. The main limitation of this analysis is the persistent and significant cloud coverage above the region that, especially in some seasons, can significantly hinder satellite data availability. This study was meant to test the robust satellite technique (RST) over the Condor seamount, assess its capability to estimate multiyear trends and identify space-time anomalies. To this aim, 11-year MODIS/AQUA level 2-derived chlorophyll-a (chl-a) data were used. Results achieved for October 2010 show, within a large-scale analysis, the presence of well-defined areas of near-surface chl-a anomalies, highlighting the occurrence of a trapping effect due to flow-topography interaction processes. Regarding the Condor area, the chl-a anomalies detected along the eastern side of the seamount were linked to a strong vertical mixing that provided sufficient inorganic nutrients requested for productivity. The achieved results, whose accuracy was also tested through a comparison with in situ data, are consistent with those independently obtained by other authors who described the phytoplankton variability around the Condor seamount. This study shows the high potential of the RST approach to assess the chl-a variability in the space-time domain in oligotrophic regions such as the Azores, allowing the identification of the most important areas to be preserved and/or managed.

  16. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates in wild birds from the Azores Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Rodrigues, Pedro; Rodrigues, Tiago; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Felgar, Ana Carolina; Pacheco, Rui; Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Regina; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-10-01

    To study the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-containing Escherichia coli isolates, and the mechanisms of resistance implicated, 220 faecal samples from wild birds were collected between 2006 and 2010 in the Azores Archipelago. Samples were spread on Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/l vancomycin and on Levine agar plates supplemented with 2 mg/l cefotaxime for VRE and ESBL-containing E. coli isolation, respectively. vanA-containing enterococcal isolates (four Enterococcus faecium and two Enterococcus durans) and vanC-1 Enterococcus gallinarum isolates were detected in six and seven faecal samples, respectively. VRE isolates showed ampicillin (n=11), ciprofloxacin (n=9), tetracycline (n=6), erythromycin (n=5), quinupristin/dalfopristin (n=3) and high-level kanamycin resistance (n=1). The tet(L) and/or tet(M) gene was found in all tetracycline-resistant isolates and the erm(B) gene in all erythromycin-resistant isolates. Three vanA-containing E. faecium and two E. gallinarum presented specific sequences of the Tn5397 transposon. Four VRE isolates harboured the ace virulence gene. One faecal sample revealed one ESBL-containing E. coli isolate that belongs to the A phylogenetic group, showed a phenotype of resistance to β-lactams and tetracycline, and harboured the bla (CTX-M-14), bla (SHV-12) and the tet(A) genes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on defining the prevalence of VRE and/or ESBL-containing E. coli strains in wild birds from the Azores. The data recovered are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through wild ecosystems and their possible implications by transferring these resistances to other animals or to humans. PMID:21834624

  17. Training in the Retail Trade in Portugal. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Maria Conceicao; And Others

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Portugal. Employment, work, and training patterns in Portugal's retail sector were researched, and case studies of two firms in the supermarket/hypermarket group, one firm in the stationary/cigarette shop sector, and one clothing manufacturer/retailer were conducted. Teams of researchers interviewed…

  18. Developmental Dyslexia: Perspectives on Teacher Training and Learning Disabilities in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalhais, Lenia; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to explore primary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward their training experiences, instructional practices, and supports received in their schools toward working with students with dyslexia in Portugal. Primary school teachers from the centre of Portugal, working with children between the first and fourth grades,…

  19. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no general popu...

  20. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  1. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Portugal. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeno, Luis Gomes; Sarmento, Ana Leonor

    The financing of vocational education and training (VET) in Portugal was examined. The examination focused on the following topics: (1) the economic, political, legal, and administrative contexts of funding; (2) the funding framework for VET in Portugal; (3) initial vocational training (IVT); (4) continuing vocational training (CVT); and (5)…

  2. Weather types and the regime of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    An objective classification scheme, as developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), was applied to classify the daily atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal between 1980 and 2007 into a set of 10 basic weather types (WTs). The classification scheme relies on a set of atmospheric circulation indices, namely southerly flow (SF), westerly flow (WF), total flow (F), southerly shear vorticity (ZS), westerly shear vorticity (ZW) and total vorticity (Z). The weather-typing approach, together with surfacemeteorological variables (e.g. intensity and direction of geostrophic wind, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation) were then associated to wildfire events as recorded in the official Portuguese fire database consisting of information on each fire occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal within the same period (>450.000 events). The objective of this study is to explore the dependence of wildfire activity on weather and climate and then evaluate the potential of WTs to discriminate among recorded wildfires on what respects to their occurrence and development. Results show that days characterised by surface flow with an eastern component (i.e. NE, E and SE) account for a high percentage of daily burnt area, as opposed to surface westerly flow (NW, W and SW), which represents about a quarter of the total number of days but only accounts for a very low percentage of active fires and of burnt area. Meteorological variables such as minimum and maximum temperatures, that are closely associated to surface wind intensity and direction, also present a good ability to discriminate between the different types of fire events.. Trigo R.M., DaCamara C. (2000) "Circulation Weather Types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int J of Climatology, 20, 1559-1581.

  3. Holocene estuary development in the Algarve Region (Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Heike; Höfer, Dana; Trog, Carmen; Hempel, Rita; Daut, Gerhard; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Former coastal estuaries in the Algarve region of South Portugal are used for reconstruction coastal evolution since first marine transgression processes at about 8.000 years before. The sediments of these archives allow high resolution analyses of geochemical and palynological signals. Drillings in different lagoons of the Algarve region contain the sequences from the fluvial sediments during the early Holocene, marine transgression facies during the middle Holocene and the marine/fluvial sediment deposits until present. The results of the sedimentological, geochemical and palynological analyses show that each estuary developed differently, depending on the morphology of the paleovalley, environmental conditions and especially the influence of the sea and the formation of barrier systems. The estuaries were flooded between 7500 and 5500 cal a BP by sea level rise and were almost completely filled by sediment by the beginning of the Roman occupation (226 y BC / 2176 cal a BP). A clear change in sedimentological processes is evident in the estuaries between 5500 and 3000 cal a BP and is interpreted as a result of high energy events such as storms or tsunamis (Schneider et al. 2009, Hilbich et al. 2008 ). Palynological as well as archaeological investigations show distinct anthropogenic influences since 3500 cal. BP by increasing values in maquies, cereals and open land communities. References Hilbich, C., Mügler, I., Daut, G., Frenzel, P., van der Borg, K., Mäusbacher, R. (2008): Reconstruction of the depositional history of the former coastal lagoon of Vilamoura (Algarve, Portugal): A sedimentological, microfaunal and geophysical approach.- Journal of Coastal Research 24(2B), 83-91. Schneider, H., Höfer, D., Trog, C., Busch, S., Schneider, M., Baade, J., Daut, G. & R. Mäusbacher (2009): Holocene estuary development in the Algarve Region (Southern Portugal) - A reconstruction of sedimentological and ecological evolution. - Quaternary International (In Press

  4. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor. PMID:26754741

  5. Drought and vegetation stress monitoring in Portugal using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Remote sensed information on vegetation and soil moisture, namely the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Water Index (SWI), is employed to monitor the spatial extent, severity and persistence of drought episodes over Continental Portugal, from 1999 to 2006. The severity of a given drought episode is assessed by evaluating the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation. Special attention is given to the drought episodes that have occurred in the last decade, i.e., 1999, 2002 and particularly the major event of 2005. During both the 1999 and 2005 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI are observed over large sectors of Southern Portugal for up to nine months (out of eleven) of the vegetative cycle. On the contrary, the 2002 event was characterized by negative anomalies in the northern half of Portugal and for a shorter period (eight out of eleven months). The impact of soil moisture on vegetation dynamics is evaluated by analyzing monthly anomalies of SWI and by studying the annual cycle of SWI vs. NDVI. While in the case of the drought episode of 1999 the scarcity of water in the soil persisted until spring, in the recent episode of 2005 the deficit in greenness was already apparent at the end of summer. The impact of dry periods on vegetation is clearly observed in both arable land and forest, and it is found that arable land presents a higher sensitivity. From an operational point of view, obtained results reveal the possibility of using the developed methodology to monitor, in quasi real-time, vegetation stress and droughts in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  6. Evolution of upwelling fronts off the coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll in the Atlantic Ocean off the Portugal coast using satellite imagery from 1979 to 1986 in conjunction with wind data. The spatial patterns in the imagery show the typical inshore-offshore and east-west gradients, while the temporal patterns show seasonal high winter values and low summer values. In the satellite imagery for the period 1979-1986, stable mesoscale and large scale patterns recurred despite interannual differences in absolute satellite-derived pigment concentrations.

  7. [Fever and dry cough in a construction worker from Portugal].

    PubMed

    Wiesli, P; Flepp, M; Greminger, P

    1997-07-30

    A 33-year-old Portugese worker presented with a one-week history of nonproductive cough and fever. A presumptive diagnosis "viral infection of the respiratory tract" was made. However, because of persisting cough and fever further investigations were necessary, and finally Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood cultures. Three months before admission to the hospital the man was dressing the carcasses of a goat in Portugal and consumpted fresh goats milk cheese. Antibiotic therapy with Rifampicin and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazol over 6 weeks improved the signs and symptoms of the infection. PMID:9340710

  8. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Sofia C.; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat) and biological fluids (blood, urine) is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations. PMID:22069635

  9. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  10. Ditched enclosures in Southern Portugal: an Archaeoastronomical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, A J.; Valera, A. Carlos; Castaño, J. Gómez; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.; Becker, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Since the very first ages, human beings have attempted to understand and manage their environment in order to survive. This is the case regarding wildlife, weather cycles and gathering periods. This is also reflected in the areas surrounding sites where individuals live; they changed the landscape with different aims. This type of archaeology has risen very recently - in the last few years - and is usually called Landscape Archaeology. Traditional landscape archaeology has dealt with earth and location related studies; the relationship of ancient peoples with the sky has been disregarded. The archaeoastronomical studies have mitigated this fact. Archaeoastronomy has revealed an important number of archaeological sites; many of them reveal a clear intention of astronomically designed buildings or structures. This implies a planned detailed design and obviously a deep understanding of astronomical knowledge. As examples of these sites a number of megalithic ditched enclosures sited in Portugal will be shown which were studied inside the project "Ditched enclosures plants and Neolithic cosmologies: A landscape, archaeoastronomical and geophysical perspective". The ideological and astronomical aspects inside the architecture of these types of sites will be explained. In this paper we present a new methodology applied in the archaeoastronomical calculations for southern Portugal sites. It includes GIS techniques and the development of an archaeoastronomical layer that can be used to display the computations over cartographic information from the archaeological sites. A Spatial Data Infrastructure is also created in order to expose the results.

  11. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  12. Portugal's contribution to navigation and discovery of the New World.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M L

    1993-01-01

    Even before the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator (1394) Portugal had displayed a maritime calling due to its 500-mile shore line and numerous natural bays. Inspired by the riches of India he saw during the Portuguese exploration along the coast of West Africa, Prince Henry set out methodically to collect information by bringing together Jews and Moors with geographical knowledge to found his School of Navigation. From 1415 until his death in 1460 he attracted to his school the foremost contemporary scholars in mathematics, astronomy, and cartography along with experts in knowledge of the compass, astrolabe, water currents, and the winds. This concentration of talent yielded the invention of the caravel, the most important navigational advancement of the time, crucial for long voyages across the high seas. Although the rest of Europe busied itself in political and religious wars, for 70 years (1415-1492) Portugal alone pursued the discovery of the Atlantic. "No nation in the 15th century exhibited so great a spirit of maritime enterprise as the Portuguese." PMID:8354483

  13. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives. The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  14. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks. PMID:25934252

  15. The 23 April 1909 Benavente earthquake (Portugal): macroseismic field revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teves-Costa, Paula; Batlló, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The 23 April 1909 earthquake, with epicentre near Benavente (Portugal), was the largest crustal earthquake in the Iberian Peninsula during the twentieth century ( M w = 6.0). Due to its importance, several studies were developed soon after its occurrence, in Portugal and in Spain. A perusal of the different studies on the macroseismic field of this earthquake showed some discrepancies, in particular on the abnormal patterns of the isoseismal curves in Spain. Besides, a complete list of intensity data points for the event is unavailable at present. Seismic moment, focal mechanism and other earthquake parameters obtained from the instrumental records have been recently reviewed and recalculated. Revision of the macroseismic field of this earthquake poses a unique opportunity to study macroseismic propagation and local effects in central Iberian Peninsula. For this reasons, a search to collect new macroseismic data for this earthquake has been carried out, and a re-evaluation of the whole set has been performed and it is presented here. Special attention is paid to the observed low attenuation of the macroseismic effects, heterogeneous propagation and the distortion introduced by local amplifications. Results of this study indicate, in general, an overestimation of the intensity degrees previously assigned to this earthquake in Spain; also it illustrates how difficult it is to assign an intensity degree to a large town, where local effects play an important role, and confirms the low attenuation of seismic propagation inside the Iberian Peninsula from west and southwest to east and northeast.

  16. Air Liquide builds H{sub 2} plant in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-19

    Air Liquide will spend $18 million to build a naphtha steam reforming unit in Estarreja, Portugal that will produce 3,700 cu meters/hour of hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The new plant will raise Air Liquide`s H{sub 2} capacity at the site to 8,000 cu meters/hour. The company supplies Anilina de Portugal with H{sub 2}. In addition, Air Liquide supplies Dow Chemical with carbon monoxide used in its methylene di-para-phenylene isocyanate plant at the site. Anilina is spending Esc1.8 billion ($11.3 million) to expand aniline capacity from 60,000 m.t./year to 95,000 m.t./year by the end of 1997 and nitrobenzene from 100,000 m.t./year to 170,000 m.t./year. This year Dow will buy more than 50,000 m.t./year of aniline from the Portuguese firm for its MDI production.

  17. Comparison of marine boundary layer cloud properties from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF measurements at the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2014-08-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility at the Azores (AMF-Azores) site from June 2009 through December 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1 h interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30 km × 30 km grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar-observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R2 = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud top comparisons agree better than the cloud base comparisons, because the CM cloud base temperatures and heights are secondary products determined from cloud top temperatures and heights. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of MBL cloud microphysical properties reveal that when averaged over a 30 km × 30 km area, the CM-retrieved cloud droplet effective radius (re) at 3.7 µm is 1.3 µm larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 µm), while the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm-2 less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm-2) due to its small optical depth (9.6 versus 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50% when the CM averages are computed

  18. Comparison of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Properties from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF Measurements at the Azores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility at the Azores (AMF-Azores) site from June 2009 through December 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1 h interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30 km×30 km grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar-observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R(sup 2) = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud top comparisons agree better than the cloud base comparisons, because the CM cloud base temperatures and heights are secondary products determined from cloud top temperatures and heights. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of MBL cloud microphysical properties reveal that when averaged over a 30 km× 30 km area, the CM-retrieved cloud droplet effective radius (re) at 3.7 micrometers is 1.3 micrometers larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 micrometers), while the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm( exp -2) less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm( exp-2) due to its small optical depth (9.6 versus 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50

  19. Comparison of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Properties From CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF Measurements at the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2014-12-01

    Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) cloud properties derived for the NASA CERES Project using Terra and Aqua MODIS data are compared with observations taken at DOE ARM Mobile Facility at the Azores site from Jun. 2009 to Dec. 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1-hour interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30×30 km2 grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud-top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud-top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary-layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R2=0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud-top comparisons agree better than cloud-base comparisons because the CM Tbase and Hbase are secondary product determined from Ttop and Htop. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of microphysical properties reveal that, when averaged over a 30x30 km2 area, the CM-retrieved cloud-droplet effective radius (re) is 1.3 µm larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 µm). While the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm-2 less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm-2) due to its small optical depth (τ, 9.6 vs. 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50% when the CM averages are computed only using the MODIS pixel nearest the AMF site. Using effective radius retrieved at 2.1-µm channel to calculate LWP can reduce the difference between the CM and ARM from -13.7 to 2.1 gm-2. The 10% differences between the ARM and CM LWP and re

  20. A new approach for assessing integrated potential conditions of soil and climate for the cultivation of vines in the Azores Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Reis, Francisco; Sampaio, João; Pinheiro, Jorge; Madeira, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Being fairly common belief that the particular soil conditions are of great importance in defining the characteristics and qualities of the wine as the final product, it is also recognized the difficulty of establishing and interpreting this relationship clearly. The geological diversity seems to correlate with the characteristics defined in accordance with the classification system employed in France Appellation d' Origine Contrôlée (AOC), suggesting that, in addition to the variety and climate, geology and soil play an important role the properties and characteristics of the grapes produced in a given geographical location. Moreover, although it is known that the vine is tailored to a wide diversity of soil types, it appears also that many of the world's most famous vineyards are installed in poor and rocky terrain where no other crop would be grown in favorable conditions. Such is the case almost extreme implanted in the land of "cracker " and " Lagido " which are the traditional names in the archipelago of the Azores to the cracked surfaces of basaltic lava fields of heterogeneous size ranging from gravel to blocks of Azorean vineyards, whose vines manage to substrate cracks survival and production, albeit in modest yields. Apart from this traditional model of Azorean "terroir" of recognized cultural and landscape value where some interesting wines have been produced and quality recognized, there are significant areas in the islands whose soil and climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of careful assessment, with a view to a possible study of integrated experimental basis. We refer specifically to landscape units of the lower area of some islands, in many cases presently devoted to pasture during the summer where productivity tends to be marginal, because strongly affected by water stress. Such areas preferably South exposed and of gentle slopes providing moderate exposure to the

  1. Anisotropic Tomography of Portugal (West Iberia) from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Graça; Stutzmann, Éléonore; Schimmel, Martin; Dias, Nuno; Kiselev, Sergey; Custódio, Susana; Dundar, Suleyman

    2016-04-01

    Located on the western Iberian Peninsula, Portugal constitutes a key area for accretionary terrane and basin research, providing the best opportunity to probe a crustal formation shaped by the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny followed by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic extensions. The geology of Portugal documents a protracted history from Paleozoic basement formation to the Mesozoic opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The inheritance of such complex geologic history is yet to be fully determined, playing an important role in the current geodynamic framework influencing, for example, the observed regional seismicity. The physical properties of its crust have largely remained undetermined so far, with unevenly distributed knowledge on the spatial distributions of a detailed crustal structure. Also, the deep seismic reflection/refraction surveys conducted in Western Iberia do not provide a clear picture of the regional characteristics of the crust. Using Seismic Broad Band observations from a dense temporary deployment, conducted between 2010 and 2012 in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire Portuguese mainland, we computed a 3D anisotropic model from ambient seismic noise. The dispersion measurements were computed for each station pair using empirical Green's functions generated by cross-correlating one-day-length seismic ambient-noise records. After dispersion analysis, group velocity measurements were regionalized to obtain 2D anisotropic tomographic images. Afterwards, the dispersion curves, extracted from each cell of the 2D group velocity maps, were inverted as a function of depth to obtain a 3D shear wave anisotropic model, using a bayesian approach. A simulated annealing method, in which the number of splines that describes the model, is adapted within the inversion. The models are jointly interpreted with the models gathered from Ps receiver functions as well as with the regional seismicity, enabling to obtain a more detailed picture of the crustal

  2. Integration of care systems in Portugal: anatomy of recent reforms

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Szczygiel, Nina; Redondo, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated care is increasingly present in the agenda of policy-makers, health professionals and researchers as a way to improve care services in relation to access, quality, user satisfaction and efficiency. These are overarching objectives of most sectoral reforms. However, health care and social care services and systems are more and more dependent on the performance of each other, imposing the logic of network. Demographic, epidemiologic and cultural changes result in pressure to increase efficiency and efficacy of services and organisations in both sectors and that is why integrated care has become so relevant in the last years. Methods We first used concept maps to organise and systematise information that we had gathered through deep literature review in order to set a framework where to base the subsequent work. Then, we interviewed informants at several levels of the health and social care systems and we built a list of major recent reforms addressing integrated care in Portugal. In a third step, we conducted two independent focus groups where those reforms were discussed and evaluated within the context of the concepts and frameworks identified from the literature. Results were confronted and reconciled, giving place to a list of requisites and guidelines that oriented further search for documentation on those reforms. Results Several important health reforms are in course in primary and hospital care in Portugal, while a so-called third level of care has been introduced with the launch of the National Network of Long-Term Integrated Care (RNCCI – Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados). The social care sector has itself been a subject of alternative models springing from opposite political orientations. All these changes are having repercussions on the way the systems work with each other as they are leading to ongoing and ill-evaluated reformulations on the way they are governed, financed, structured and operated. Conclusions Care

  3. The Ançã limestones, Coimbra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinta-Ferreira, Mário; Gil Catarino, Lídia; Delgado Rodrigues, José

    2016-04-01

    Ançã is located in the Lusitanian Basin (western Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin), in the municipality of Cantanhede, close to Coimbra, Portugal. This constitutes the northernmost Dogger (Bajocian) limestone sequence in Portugal. The use of the Ançã limestones is documented since the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. It was used for the construction of houses, palaces, churches, fine sculptures, carving, paving and for the production of lime. These limestones vary from white and very soft varieties, with very high porosity used for sculpture and carving to white and hard varieties used for masonry and as aggregates and to white to bluish with low porosity and high strength varieties, mainly used for paving. The softer and whiter variety is worldwide known as Ançã Stone (Pedra de Ançã) exhibiting a porosity of 26-29 %. It became famous after being largely used by Coimbra most famous Renaissance sculptors like João de Ruão and Nicolau de Chanterenne. The Pedra de Ançã was used mainly in the region of Coimbra, but also in several other places in Portugal, in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Brazil. Some examples of heritage in Coimbra using the Pedra de Ançã are the renaissance portal of the Saint Cross Church, the tombs of the first two Portuguese kings located in this church, the altar of the Saint Cross Church or of the Old Cathedral, or in sculptures at the University of Coimbra. It is quite prone to deteriorate when exposed to atmospheric agents and to soluble salts, mainly due to its high porosity. Deteriorated surfaces needing treatment constitute difficult conservation problems, especially when consolidation and protection treatments are required. The less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones (< 20 % porosity) were mainly used for masonry, paving and production of lime. The royal Palace of Buçaco is a remarkable masonry building constructed at the end of the XIX century with the less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones

  4. Multivariate cluster analysis of forest fire events in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mario; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Parente, Joana

    2015-04-01

    Portugal is one of the major fire-prone European countries, mainly due to its favourable climatic, topographic and vegetation conditions. Compared to the other Mediterranean countries, the number of events registered here from 1980 up to nowadays is the highest one; likewise, with respect to the burnt area, Portugal is the third most affected country. Portuguese mapped burnt areas are available from the website of the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests (ICNF). This official geodatabase is the result of satellite measurements starting from the year 1990. The spatial information, delivered in shapefile format, provides a detailed description of the shape and the size of area burnt by each fire, while the date/time information relate to the ignition fire is restricted to the year of occurrence. In terms of a statistical formalism wildfires can be associated to a stochastic point process, where events are analysed as a set of geographical coordinates corresponding, for example, to the centroid of each burnt area. The spatio/temporal pattern of stochastic point processes, including the cluster analysis, is a basic procedure to discover predisposing factorsas well as for prevention and forecasting purposes. These kinds of studies are primarily focused on investigating the spatial cluster behaviour of environmental data sequences and/or mapping their distribution at different times. To include both the two dimensions (space and time) a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis is needful. In the present study authors attempt to verify if, in the case of wildfires in Portugal, space and time act independently or if, conversely, neighbouring events are also closer in time. We present an application of the spatio-temporal K-function to a long dataset (1990-2012) of mapped burnt areas. Moreover, the multivariate K-function allowed checking for an eventual different distribution between small and large fires. The final objective is to elaborate a 3D

  5. Cooperation between public administration and scientific research in raising awareness on the role of urban planning in responding to climate change in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Campos, V.; Oliveira, S.; Andrade, H.; Festas, M. J.

    2009-09-01

    Following the IPCC predictions of climate change, even considering one of the "best” scenarios (B1), temperature will rise circa 2°C by 2100. In southern Europe, predictions also indicate a greater precipitation variability, that is the increase in drought frequency, together with an increment of flood risk, with detrimental impacts on water availability and quality, summer tourism and crop productivity, among others. Urban areas create their own local climate, resulting in higher temperatures (UHI), modified wind patterns and lower air quality, among several other consequences. Therefore, as a result of both global and urban induced changes, the climate of cities has suffered several modifications over time, particularly in sprawling urban areas. In November 2007, the ministers responsible for spatial planning and territorial cohesion of the European Union, gathered at the Azores Informal Ministerial on Territorial Cohesion during the Portuguese Presidency, considered climate change to be one of the most important territorial challenges Europe is facing and stated that "our cities and regions need to become more resilient in the context of climate change”. They also agreed that spatial and urban planning is a suitable tool to define cost-effective adaptation measures. Furthermore, the Ministers committed themselves to put mitigation and adaptation issues of climate change into the mainstream of spatial and urban development policy at national, regional and local level. These decisions have lead to different actions in the Member States. In Portugal, the new Policy for the Cities POLIS XXI has selected the relationship between climate change and urban development as one of the key issues to be addressed by projects initiated by local authorities and submitted for co-financing through the OP "Territorial Enhancement” of the NSRF. This paper presents one of the actions taken by the Portuguese Directorate General for Spatial Planning and Urban Development

  6. Will new gender policies stop the decrease of women physicists in Portugal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Carla Carmelo; Peña, Maria Teresa; Saavedra, Luisa; Providência, Constança

    2013-03-01

    The present context of women physicists in Portugal is discussed, updating our report for the 2002 IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, in which the 30 years prior to 2000 were analyzed.

  7. Elemental composition of four farmed fish produced in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Helena M; Afonso, Cláudia; Anacleto, Patrícia; Martins, Maria F; Nunes, Maria L; Lino, Ana R

    2012-11-01

    Farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and turbot (Psetta maxima) produced in Portugal were analysed in order to characterize their elemental composition. Atomic absorption (flame and cold vapour) and molecular absorption spectrometry techniques were used to determine all the studied elements. Similar patterns of macro, trace and ultra trace elements were observed for all fish species. The main elements were potassium (K), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca), followed by zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni). Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) concentrations, obtained in this study, allow concluding that these species do not present a hazard for human consumption. In addition, they contain almost all essential elements at concentrations sufficient to suit the dietary reference intake. Nevertheless, P. maxima nutritious trace element content is relatively low compared with the other three species. PMID:22574998

  8. Comparing Consumer Resistance to Mobile Banking in Finland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukkanen, Tommi; Cruz, Pedro

    This study compares two distinct European countries namely Finland and Portugal in terms of consumer resistance to mobile banking services. We explored how the five adoption barriers namely usage, value, risk, tradition and image, derived from the earlier literature, differ between these two countries. Using an Internet questionnaire a total of 3.597 usable responses was collected. A confirmatory factor analysis was implemented with SEM to build the constructs’ latent score levels. Using non-parametric difference tests we concluded that the resistance is significantly lower among the Portuguese online bank customers in terms of four out of the five barriers. The results can be used for a better understanding and enhancement of adoption of this specific case of mobile communication.

  9. Holocene morphologic changes offshore the Quarteira region, Algarve, south Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiva, João.; Duarte, Henrique; Terrinha, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    A 160 km long SPARKER single channel seismic reflection survey was acquired in November 2008 on the shallow continental shelf of south Portugal to investigate the recent tectonics of the S.Marcos - Quarteira Fault (SMQF) and of the Carcavai Fault. The NW-SE trending S.Marcos - Quarteira Fault (SMQF) can be traced on the onshore-offshore region of south Portugal for an extension of 160 km. It is a Variscan (Hercynian) orogenic thrust that was inverted as an extensional fault during the Mesozoic rifting in south Portugal, during which it played a major role in the segmentation of the Algarve Basin. The SMQF was re-inverted as a transpressive fault during the Paleogene-Miocene compression and folding and thrusting of Pleistocene terrigenous strata attest for its present day tectonic activity. The Carcavai fault trends NE-SW, intersects the SMQF. The Carcavai fault also played the role of rift fault during the Mesozoic and was inverted as a thrust during the Cenozoic compression. The mapping of both SMQ and Carcavai Faults offshore south Portugal attests for a complex interaction between the two in what concerns the Holocene and tectonics and paleogeography. The Carcavai Fault accommodates most of the Pliocene-Quaternary compression on its hanging-wall, whilst the SMQF takes up the deformation on the foot-wall of the Carcavai Fault. In what refers the early Holocene paleogeography, the interpretation of the seismic profiles shows the existence of two sedimentary bodies of possible Holocene age separated by a peninsula that consists of Pliocene-Pleistocene prograding clastics that make up the present day coastal cliff. This peninsula is parallel to the present day coastline, which is also parallel to the SMQF. The two bodies have different seismic facies. The offshore Holocene displays fairly continuous reflections, whilst the internal Holocene is made up of more discontinuous reflections. The isobaths map of the base of the external Holocene unit shows a smooth gently

  10. Conservation and sustainability in freshwater ecosystems in Tavira (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Esmeralda; Fonseca, José; Lopes, Luís; João Costa, Maria; Cunha, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    This interdisciplinary project carried out with 8th and 9th grade students involved five teachers from three different subjects (Physics and Chemistry, Natural Science and Geography). Framed in the Water Framework Directive, it aimed at verifying the ecological quality of water in two rivers in the municipality of Tavira (South Portugal). The development of this project has been structured in accordance with the following objectives: evaluate the quality of freshwater ecosystems through the existence of certain living organisms; present proposals on ways to preserve water resources in a sustainable perspective; sensitize students to the importance of their participation in collective action by volunteering for ecological protection. This is an innovative educational experience that allowed students an integrated approach to content and procedures applied to real problems in their local environment.

  11. Assessing fire risk in Portugal during the summer fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacamara, C. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1998, Instituto de Meteorologia, the Portuguese Weather Service has relied on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System (van Wagner, 1987) to produce daily forecasts of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behavior. The first three components, i.e. the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC) and the Drought Code (DC) respectively rate the average moisture content of surface litter, decomposing litter, and organic (humus) layers of the soil. Wind effects are then added to FFMC leading to the Initial Spread Index (ISI) that rates fire spread. The remaining two fuel moisture codes (DMC and DC) are in turn combined to produce the Buildup Index (BUI) that is a rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion. BUI is finally combined with ISI to produce the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that represents the rate of fire intensity. Classes of fire danger and levels of preparedness are commonly defined on an empirical way for a given region by calibrating the FWI System against wildfire activity as defined by the recorded number of events and by the observed burned area over a given period of time (Bovio and Camia, 1998). It is also a well established fact that distributions of burned areas are heavily skewed to the right and tend to follow distributions of the exponential-type (Cumming, 2001). Based on the described context, a new procedure is presented for calibrating the FWI System during the summer fire season in Portugal. Two datasets were used covering a 28-year period (1980-2007); i) the official Portuguese wildfire database which contains detailed information on fire events occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal and ii) daily values of the six components of the FWI System as derived from reanalyses (Uppala et al., 2005) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Calibration of the FWI System is then performed in two

  12. Age and growth of two deep-water fish species in the Azores Archipelago: Mora moro (Risso, 1810) and Epigonus telescopus (Risso, 1810)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Ana Rita; Figueiredo, Ivone; Figueiredo, Cátia; Menezes, Gui M.

    2013-12-01

    Age and growth of Mora moro and Epigonus telescopus were studied using 634 and 232 otoliths, respectively, from specimens caught in the Azores between 1999 and 2009. Otoliths of both species were sectioned through the nucleus, a preparation method that improved the age assignment. Marginal increment analysis showed that, for both species, growth increments (consisting of as single set of translucent and opaque growth increments) were formed annually. M. moro specimens ranged from 22 to 76cm fork length, were aged from 8 to 59 years, and showed a sexual dimorphism in growth. E. telescopus specimens ranged from 32 to 70cm fork length which corresponds to ages between 12 and 39 years. No differences in growth between sexes were observed. Growth behaviour of M. moro was better explained by the three parameter von Bertalanffy model. The five parameter model provided a better fit to the E. telescopus data. Under this model a change in growth at 26 years for females and 25 years for males may be related to the onset of sexual reproduction.

  13. Summer to Early Fall O3\\ and CO Measurements in the North Atlantic Ocean at a Mountaintop Site in the Azores Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlin, C. L.; Honrath, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    A system for the continuous ground-based measurement of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) was recently installed at a mountaintop site in the Portuguese Azores Islands in the central north Atlantic Ocean{}. The main objective of this site will be the determination of the frequency and impact of transport events bringing O3\\ and O3\\ precursors from North America and Europe to the central north Atlantic Ocean region. These measurements are a part of the PICO-NARE study (Pico International atmospheric Chemistry Observatory - North Atlantic Research Experiment). The measurement site is located on the top of Pico mountain at an altitude of 2225 meters, allowing frequent sampling of free tropospheric air. Frequency and magnitude of long-range pollution events to the north Atlantic from continental sources are determined through analysis of correlation between O3\\ and CO and the use of back-trajectory data. Data obtained from July to October, 2001 will be presented here. The measurements will be analyzed to assess ambient levels of O3\\ and CO in the remote central north Atlantic region. Additionally, these measurements will be utilized to identify and quantify O3\\ import and en route production associated with polluted air masses transported to the north Atlantic region. Meteorological data will also be analyzed and presented, to begin characterization of the PICO-NARE site for determination of the frequency of the free tropospheric observations at the site.

  14. Low haemosporidian diversity and one key-host species in a bird malaria community on a mid-Atlantic island (São Miguel, Azores).

    PubMed

    Hellgren, Olof; Križanauskienė, Asta; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2011-10-01

    When host species colonize new areas, the parasite assemblage infecting the hosts might change, with some parasite species being lost and others newly acquired. These changes would likely lead to novel selective forces on both host and its parasites. We investigated the avian blood parasites in the passerine bird community on the mid-Atlantic island of São Miguel, Azores, a bird community originating from continental Europe. The presence of haemosporidian blood parasites belonging to the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon was assessed using polymerase chain reaction. We found two Plasmodium lineages and two Leucocytozoon lineages in 11 bird species (84% of all breeding passerine species) on the island. These lineages were unevenly distributed across bird species. The Eurasian Blackbird (Turdus merula) was the key-host species (total parasite prevalence of 57%), harboring the main proportion of parasite infections. Except for Eurasian Blackbirds, all bird species had significantly lower prevalence and parasite diversity compared to their continental populations. We propose that in evolutionary novel bird communities, single species may act as key hosts by harboring the main part of the parasite fauna from which parasites "leak" into the other species. This would create very different host-parasite associations in areas recently colonized by hosts as compared to in their source populations. PMID:22102655

  15. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection. PMID:23719370

  16. Suicides in the Centre of Portugal: seven years analysis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel; Mendonça, M Cristina; Real, Francisco Corte; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-01-01

    As one of the more specific and distinctive problems of human beings, suicide has been investigated with increasing attention all over the world. Several risk factors have been described as well as limitations arising from their study. The World Health Organization estimates that this scourge affects one million people annually, which corresponds to one death every 40s worldwide. According to recent studies, Portugal, despite the good rates (10 suicide deaths per 100,000 inhabitants), had shown an increasing trend among younger people. This work aims to characterize the evolution of the suicidal profile autopsied at the Forensic Pathology Department of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal, analyzing several variables: age, gender, marital status, employment status, suicidal methodology, toxicological analysis and some conditions/behaviors regarding personal history (alcoholism, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, physical illness, psychiatric disorder). All the autopsies from the 1 January, 2003 to 31 December, 2009 were analyzed. The suicide profile achieved corresponded to a man (77%), aged between 65 and 74 years old (20.4%), married (54.5%), employed, who committed suicide by hanging, in September, May or February. Clinical records include an organic health problem or psychiatric one, in addition to risk behaviors such as alcoholism, suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts. The number of suicides autopsied at the Centre Branch has increased, resembling the profile to the result of many other authors. However, new medical and social developments place hanging as the favorite suicide method in our study. Many barriers remain to overthrow but several prevention programs begin to be designed and implemented. Future evaluations and interventions at the social and medical level, including the death certification process, will be fundamental to a better realistic understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:24378298

  17. Prevalence of asthma in Portugal - The Portuguese National Asthma Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a frequent chronic respiratory disease in both children and adults. However, few data on asthma prevalence are available in Portugal. The Portuguese National Asthma Survey is the first nationwide study that uses standardized methods. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in the Portuguese population and to assess the association between ‘Current asthma’ and comorbidities such as upper airways disease. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based, telephone interview survey including all municipalities of Portugal was undertaken. Participants were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire based on the Portuguese version of the GA2LEN survey. ‘Current asthma’ was defined as self-reported lifetime asthma and at least one of 3 symptoms in the last 12 months: wheezing, waking with breathlessness or having an asthma attack. Results Data were obtained for 6 003 respondents, with mean age of 38.9 (95%CI 38.2-39.6) years and 57.3% females. In the Portuguese population, the prevalence of ‘Current asthma’ was 6.8% (95%CI 6.0-7.7) and of ‘Lifetime asthma’ was 10.5% (95%CI 9.5-11.6) Using GA2LEN definition for asthma, our prevalence estimate was 7.8% (95%CI 7.0-8.8). Rhinitis had a strong association with asthma (Adjusted OR 3.87, 95%CI 2.90-5.18) and the association between upper airway diseases and asthma was stronger in patients with both rhinitis and sinusitis (Adjusted OR 13.93, 95%CI 6.60-29.44). Conclusions Current asthma affects 695 000 Portuguese, with a prevalence of 6.8%. People who reported both rhinitis and sinusitis had the highest risk of having asthma. PMID:22931550

  18. [Epidemiological study of lung cancer in Portugal (2000/2002)].

    PubMed

    Parente, Bárbara; Queiroga, H; Teixeira, E; Sotto-Mayor, R; Barata, F; Sousa, A; Melo, M J; João, F; Neveda, R; Cunha, J; Fernandes, A; Manuel, M; Cardoso, T; Ferreira, L; Nogueira, F; Duarte, J; Semedo, E; Brito, U; Pimentel, F; Barros, S; Costa, F; Almodôvar, T; Araújo, A

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common form of cancer death in the world. Five-year survival is about 15%, without any change to this picture envisaged. It is the 3rd most prevalent type of cancer in Portugal and the primary cause of cancer death. 85% of lung cancer cases are attributable to smoking. One study performed in Portugal for 3 years (2000/2002) by the Lung Oncology Work Committee of the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology in 22 Hospitals showed that of a total of 4396 patients with lung cancer, 81.8% were male and 18.2% were female, with a mean age of 64.49 +/- 11.28 years. About 70% of patients were smokers or former smokers, with 50.3% of patients presenting with performance status (Zubrod) 1. Histologically, 37.5% were adenocarcinoma, followed by squamous carcinoma in 30.5% of cases, and small cell lung cancer in 12.5%; neuroendocrine carcinoma presented in 1.4% of cases; non small cell lung cancer in 10.5%; mixed carcinoma in 0.7%; large cell carcinoma in 2.3%; and others/not specified in 4.6% of cases. Staging (known in 4097 patients), showed 113 patients in stage IA (2.8%)and 250 patients in stage IB (6.1%); only 0.8% in stage IIA and 4.5% in stage IIB; 9.1% in stage IIIA and 29.9% in stage IIIB; 46.9% were already in stage IV by the time of diagnosis. The first therapeutic option was known in 3855 patients. Surgery was performed in 8.2% and 21.8% of cases were treated with combined therapies (surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy); chemotherapy alone was first choice in 43.7% of patients and in 20.3% only best support therapy was chosen. PMID:17571453

  19. Influence of meteorological conditions on RSV infection in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira-Santos, M.; Santos, J. A.; Soares, J.; Dias, A.; Quaresma, M.

    2016-04-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent. The present study assesses relationships between atmospheric factors and RSV infections in under 3-year-old patients admitted to the Inpatient Paediatric Service of Vila Real (North of Portugal). For this purpose, (1) clinical files of children admitted with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis from September 2005 to December 2015 (>10 years) were scrutinised and (2) local daily temperature/precipitation series, as well as six weather types controlling meteorological conditions in Portugal, were used. Fifty-five percent of all 770 admitted children were effectively infected with a given virus, whilst 48 % (367) were RSV+, i.e. 87 % of virus-infected children were RSV+. The bulk of incidence is verified in the first year of age (82 %, 302), slightly higher in males. RSV outbreaks are typically from December to March, but important inter-annual variability is found in both magnitude and shape. Although no clear connections were found between monthly temperatures/precipitation and RSV outbreaks apart from seasonality, a linkage to wintertime cold spells is apparent on a daily basis. Anomalously low minimum temperatures from the day of admittance back to 10 days before are observed. This relationship is supported by anomalously high occurrences of the E and AA weather types over the same period, which usually trigger dry and cold weather. These findings highlight some predictability in the RSV occurrences, revealing potential for modelling and risk assessments.

  20. Tsunami flooding along Tagus estuary, Portugal, the 1531 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Batlo, J.; Ferreira, H.

    2012-04-01

    TSUNAMI FLOODING ALONG TAGUS ESTUARY (PORTUGAL), THE 1531 EVENT The city of Lisbon one of the main towns in Europe between the XVI and XVIII centuries was severely damaged by two strong earthquakes: 1531-01-26 and 1755-11-01 and the companion tsunamis. In this study we present a re-evaluation of the data available for this event. The 26 January 1531 earthquake occurred between 4 and 5 am and was felt mainly in Lisbon and surroundings dwellings along the Tagus river estuary. The shock heavily destroyed Lisbon downtown causing approximately 1000 casualties Two foreshocks preceded the event: on the 2nd and the 7th January 1531, respectively. The maximum MSK intensity is IX, making it one of the most disastrous earthquakes in the recent history of Portugal. The historical descriptions clearly describe the observation of high waves and the ships touching the riverbed. Although, the difference between tsunamis and storms is sometimes unclear in some historical documents, in this case, the occurrence of the of the earthquake definitively states clearly excludes the hypothesis of a storm. Moreover, the king's chronicle clearly states the observation of high waves and the lack of wind. Other reports consistent with the occurrence of a tsunami are the observation of strong fluxes and refluxes in the river the division of islands into smaller ones and the observation of the riverbed. In this study we present a re-appraisal of the historical information available, a new isoseismal map and the relocation of the epicentre. Finally, we present a tsunami simulation and propagation along a section of 70 km along Tagus estuary compatible with the earthquake data and the historical accounts.

  1. Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.

  2. Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Nñnez, A. Rodríguez; Fonte, M.; Faustino, E.V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. Objective To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Material and methods Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. Results A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P = .01), jugular vein central catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .03), and sepsis (P < .001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P < .001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P = .02), femoral vein catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P = .006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P < .001). Conclusions Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. PMID:24907863

  3. Linguistic isolates in Portugal: insights from the mitochondrial DNA pattern.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Quim; Santos, Cristina; Silva, Marina; Marques, Sofia L; Ramos, Amanda; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Amorim, Antonio; Prata, Maria João; Alvarez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Miranda do Douro, located in the northeastern region of Portugal, has notable characteristics not only from a geographic or naturalistic point of view, but also from a cultural perspective. A remarkable one is the coexistence of two different languages: Portuguese and Mirandese, the second being an Astur-Leonese dialect. The current persistence of the Astur-Leonese dialect in this population falls on the singularity of the region: relative isolation, implying difficulties to communicate with other Portuguese regions, while the same location facilitated the establishment of social and commercial relationships with adjacent Spanish territories, origin of the Astur-Leonese language. The objective of this study was to characterize the population from Miranda through the analysis of maternal lineages in order to evaluate whether its mitochondrial DNA diversity fitted the patterns previously reported for other populations from the Iberian Peninsula. Viewing that, the entire control region of mitochondrial DNA from 121 individuals was examined. Miranda showed a haplogroup composition usual for a Western European population, in the sense that as high as 63.6% of sequences belonged to macro-haplogroup R0. Lineages ascribed to have an African (L2a and L1b) origin, were detected, but reaching an amount commonly found in Portugal. Miranda also presented a few haplogroups typically found in Jewish populations, while rarely observed in other Iberian populations. The finding can be explained by gene flow with crypto-Jew communities that since long are known to be established in the region where Miranda is located. In Miranda, both genetic and nucleotide diversities presented low values (0.9292 ± 0.0180 and 0.01101 ± 0.00614 respectively) when compared to populations from its micro-geographical framework, which constitute a sign of population isolation that certainly provided conditions for the survival of the Astur-Leonese dialect in the region. PMID:24041913

  4. Shallow landslide stability computation using a distributed transient response model for susceptibility assessment and validation. A case study from Ribeira Quente valley (S. Miguel island, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, P.; Marques, R.; Zêzere, J. L.; Marques, F.; Queiroz, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the last 15 years, several heavy rainstorms have occurred in Povoação County (S. Miguel Island, Azores), namely in the Ribeira Quente Valley. These rainfall events have triggered hundreds of shallow landslides that killed tens of people and have been responsible for direct and indirect damages amounting to tens of millions of Euros. On the 6th March 2005 an intense rainfall episode, up to 160 mm of rain in less than 24 h, triggered several shallow landslides that caused 3 victims and damaged/blocked roads. The Ribeira Quente Valley has an area of about 9.5 km2 and is mainly constituted by pyroclastic materials (pumice ash and lapilli), that were produced by the Furnas Volcano explosive eruptions. To provide an assessment of slope-failure conditions for the 6th March 2005 rainfall event, it was applied a distributed transient response model for slope stability analysis. The adopted methodology is a modified version of Iversońs (2000) transient response model, which couple an infinite slope stability analysis with an analytic solution of the Richard's equation for vertical water infiltration in quasi-saturated soil. The validation was made on two different scales: (1) at a slope scale, using two distinct test sites where landslides were triggered; and (2) at the basin scale, using the entire landslide database and generalizing the modeling input parameters for the regional spatialization of results. At the slope scale, the obtained results were very accurate, and it was possible to predict the precise time of the slope failures. At the basin scale, the obtained results were very conservative, even though the model predicted all the observed landslide locations, in the 23.7% of the area classified as untable at the time of the slope failures. This methodology revealed to be a reasonable tool for landslide forecast for both temporal and spatial distributions, on both slope and regional scales. In the future, the model components will be integrated into a GIS

  5. Volcanic Unrest of Fogo Volcano in 2011-2012, S.Miguel Island, Azores, Observed by Continuous and Campaign GPS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Jun; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Ferreira, Teresa; Gaspar, Joao; Lorenzo, Maria; Araujo, Joao; Rodriques, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions can occur after long time of dormancy as has been seen from the recent examples: Mount St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991, Unzen 1991, Soufrière Hills volcano 1995, Chaitén 2008, and Eyjafjallajökull 2010. By utilizing space geodesy techniques, namely GNSS and InSAR, it has been reported that the inflation-deflation processes exist at several dormant volcanoes in the world, but the mechanism responsible for this phenomena is still controversial. Fundamental questions such as magma vs. hydrothermal fluids and volcanic vs. tectonic process remain unanswered in many cases. In this study, we analyze both continuous and campaign GPS data from Fogo volcano, S. Miguel Island, Azores. Although no geochemical and hydrothermal evidences for a magmatic intrusion were reported during the past seismic swarm episodes (1989, 2003-2006, and 2011-2012), geophysical data, both seismic and ground deformation, indicate possible volcanic sources. GPS time series spanned 2008-2013 period characterize tectonic plate divergence between Eurasian and Nubian, and reveal two different types of ground deformation associated with the 2011-2012 volcanic unrest of Fogo. One is the permanent edifice-scale inflation centered at NE summit which corresponds to the increase of volcano-tectonic events. Another is the subsequent minor-scale inflation-deflation reversals between Congro, a trachyte maar, east of Fogo and Furnas volcano. Calculated strain rates and GPS campaign results indicate that the 2011-2012 deformation is one order smaller than the previous unrest episode. A strong similarity exists to Matsushiro earthquake swarm (1965-1966) and Campi Flegrei volcanic unrests (1969-1972 and 1982-1984), which is the coexistence of an edifice-scale main inflation associated with intense volcano-tectonic earthquakes with inflation to deflation reversal that coincided with a sharp drop of seismicity. High recovery rate of inflation-deflation may be an indicator for the existence of

  6. Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Portugal = A Educacao Pre-Escolar e os Cuidados para a Infancia em Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    Based on the view that the rapid expansion and development of preschool education requires careful scrutiny of both educational policy and practices, this book presents information on current early childhood education and care policy in Portugal. Section 1 of the book provides a historical framework for the development of early childhood education…

  7. Importance of N2-Fixation on the Productivity at the North-Western Azores Current/Front System, and the Abundance of Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Virginie; Fonseca-Batista, Debany; Roukaerts, Arnout; Biegala, Isabelle C.; Prakya, Shree Ram; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Santos, Mariana; Muniz-Piniella, Angel E.; Schmiing, Mara; Elskens, Marc; Brion, Natacha; Martins, M. Ana; Dehairs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    To understand the impact of the northwestern Azores Current Front (NW-AzC/AzF) system on HCO3−-and N2-fixation activities and unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN) distribution, we combined geochemical and biological approaches from the oligotrophic surface to upper mesopelagic waters. N2-fixation was observed to sustain 45–85% of the HCO3−-fixation in the picoplanktonic fraction performing 47% of the total C-fixation at the deep chlorophyll maximum north and south of the AzF. N2-fixation rates as high as 10.9 μmol N m-3 d-1 and surface nitrate δ15N as low as 2.7‰ were found in the warm (18–24°C), most saline (36.5–37.0) and least productive waters south of the AzF, where UCYN were the least abundant. However, picoplanktonic UCYN abundances up to 55 cells mL-1 were found at 45–200m depths in the coolest nutrient-rich waters north of the AzF. In this area, N2-fixation rates up to 4.5 μmol N m-3 d-1 were detected, associated with depth-integrated H13CO3−-fixation rates at least 50% higher than observed south of the AzF. The numerous eddies generated at the NW-AzC/AzF seem to enhance exchanges of plankton between water masses, as well as vertical and horizontal diapycnal diffusion of nutrients, whose increase probably enhances the growth of diazotrophs and the productivity of C-fixers. PMID:26958844

  8. Importance of N2-Fixation on the Productivity at the North-Western Azores Current/Front System, and the Abundance of Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Riou, Virginie; Fonseca-Batista, Debany; Roukaerts, Arnout; Biegala, Isabelle C; Prakya, Shree Ram; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Santos, Mariana; Muniz-Piniella, Angel E; Schmiing, Mara; Elskens, Marc; Brion, Natacha; Martins, M Ana; Dehairs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    To understand the impact of the northwestern Azores Current Front (NW-AzC/AzF) system on HCO3--and N2-fixation activities and unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN) distribution, we combined geochemical and biological approaches from the oligotrophic surface to upper mesopelagic waters. N2-fixation was observed to sustain 45-85% of the HCO3--fixation in the picoplanktonic fraction performing 47% of the total C-fixation at the deep chlorophyll maximum north and south of the AzF. N2-fixation rates as high as 10.9 μmol N m-3 d-1 and surface nitrate δ15N as low as 2.7‰ were found in the warm (18-24°C), most saline (36.5-37.0) and least productive waters south of the AzF, where UCYN were the least abundant. However, picoplanktonic UCYN abundances up to 55 cells mL-1 were found at 45-200m depths in the coolest nutrient-rich waters north of the AzF. In this area, N2-fixation rates up to 4.5 μmol N m-3 d-1 were detected, associated with depth-integrated H13CO3--fixation rates at least 50% higher than observed south of the AzF. The numerous eddies generated at the NW-AzC/AzF seem to enhance exchanges of plankton between water masses, as well as vertical and horizontal diapycnal diffusion of nutrients, whose increase probably enhances the growth of diazotrophs and the productivity of C-fixers. PMID:26958844

  9. The tsunami effects of a volcanic island flank collapse on a semi-enclosed basin: The Pico-São Jorge channel in the Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartau, R.; Omira, R.; Ramalho, I.; Baptista, M. A.; Mitchell, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Azores archipelago is a set of nine volcanic islands in the middle of the North Atlantic, close to the triple junction between the North American, Eurasian and African plates. Due to their location, the islands are seismic and volcanically active, which makes them especially vulnerable to these types of hazards that could eventually trigger flank collapses, capable of generating destructive tsunamis. However, solid evidence of large-scale flank collapses has only been found recently in Pico Island (Costa et al., 2014; Quartau et al., 2015). This study investigates for the first time the tsunami effects of a flank collapse of the northeastern subaerial slope of Pico Island that occurred more than 70 ka ago. We first reconstructed the pre-event sub-aerial morphology of the island, and then numerically model the flank failure involving an estimated volume of ~8 km3, its flow toward and under the sea of ~14 km, and the subsequent tsunami generation and propagation. The modelling suggests that the collapse of Pico created a mega-tsunami that significantly impacted the coast of adjacent São Jorge Island only after 7 minutes after generation, with wave run-up reaching a maximum of 50 m at some coastlines. Most of the tsunami energy became trapped in the semi-enclosed basin between Pico and São Jorge Islands, with only relatively little energy escaping to neighboring islands. Acknowledgments The author wishes to acknowledge the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe)" for its major contribution for the success of this study. Publication supported by project FCT UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz. The author also acknowledges Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento for supporting the participation in the meeting.

  10. A strategic approach for Water Safety Plans implementation in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jose M P

    2011-03-01

    Effective risk assessment and risk management approaches in public drinking water systems can benefit from a systematic process for hazards identification and effective management control based on the Water Safety Plan (WSP) concept. Good results from WSP development and implementation in a small number of Portuguese water utilities have shown that a more ambitious nationwide strategic approach to disseminate this methodology is needed. However, the establishment of strategic frameworks for systematic and organic scaling-up of WSP implementation at a national level requires major constraints to be overcome: lack of legislation and policies and the need for appropriate monitoring tools. This study presents a framework to inform future policy making by understanding the key constraints and needs related to institutional, organizational and research issues for WSP development and implementation in Portugal. This methodological contribution for WSP implementation can be replicated at a global scale. National health authorities and the Regulator may promote changes in legislation and policies. Independent global monitoring and benchmarking are adequate tools for measuring the progress over time and for comparing the performance of water utilities. Water utilities self-assessment must include performance improvement, operational monitoring and verification. Research and education and resources dissemination ensure knowledge acquisition and transfer. PMID:21301119

  11. Salt Fluxes in a Complex River Mouth System of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months. PMID:23071793

  12. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems. PMID:20498131

  13. Female independence in Portugal: effect on suicide rates.

    PubMed

    de Castro, E F; Pimenta, F; Martins, I

    1988-08-01

    The greater incidence of suicide among males could be ascribed to the distinct roles still attributed to each sex. Progress towards female independence could reduce this different incidence. We analysed the following in Portugal: male and female suicide rates; profiles; and male/female suicide ratio before (1955-1969) and after the development of a movement for women's independence (1970-85). Concomitant with progress towards female independence there is a significant rise in female suicide and a decrease in male/female suicide ratio. The highest rates are among professional/technical women living in urban areas. In professional groups there is significant correlation between deaths caused by suicide and by liver cirrhosis. It is concluded that alcoholism often leads to suicide; in women, taboos about alcoholism and suicide explain a higher incidence of suicide among culturally freer professional groups; female independence will catalyse a rise in alcoholism, which together with other factors resulting from that independence will lead to a predictable increase of suicide among Portuguese women and a reduced difference in rates of suicide between the sexes. PMID:3265573

  14. Granite geomorphology and its geological controls, Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoń, Piotr; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-12-01

    Serra da Estrela is an elevated granite massif in central Portugal, characterized by extensive plateau surfaces incised by deep valleys affected by Quaternary glaciation, bounded by steep fault-generated escarpments. The presence of seven major textural variants of granite provides an opportunity to study the relationships between lithology and relief, whereas DEM analysis helped to show the relationships between lithology and topography objectively. The higher ground is associated with fine- to medium-grained granites and is typified by planar surfaces of low gradient, with occasional angular tors and rock pedestals. Block fields built by angular material are common in the parts that were not previously glaciated. Less elevated parts of the plateau are supported by medium- to coarse-grained granites and show more varied topography, with an abundance of tors, boulder piles, and depressions. Lithological boundaries locally coincide with slope breaks but this is not the rule. In the northern part of the massif a deep topographic basin has evolved in biotite granite, whereas deeply incised valleys follow major fault lines. Geological controls show a hierarchy, in that gross relief reflects the pattern of tectonic uplift and subsidence, whereas lithology and then fracture patterns become more and more important if one focuses on smaller and smaller landforms.

  15. Hereditary anaemias in Portugal: epidemiology, public health significance, and control.

    PubMed Central

    Martins, M C; Olim, G; Melo, J; Magalhães, H A; Rodrigues, M O

    1993-01-01

    A countrywide prospective study aimed at establishing the prevalence of the haemoglobinopathy genes in the Portuguese population was carried out by screening 15,208 randomly selected blood samples from young males. This male based survey provided the opportunity of assessing simultaneously the prevalence of the red cell enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, thus giving a picture of these important hereditary anaemias in Portugal. The results showed a low average frequency of beta thalassaemia (0.45%) and haemoglobin S (0.32%) carriers as well as G6PD deficiency (0.51%). However, these disorders are unevenly distributed throughout the country with a higher prevalence in some areas, mainly in the south. The relationship of this pattern of haemoglobinopathies to the known haplotypes linked to beta thalassaemia and sickle cell disease, relevant historical events, and local selective pressure was investigated. Hb D and Hb J are the commonest other structural variants. The implemented programme for control of these hereditary anaemias is described. PMID:8474108

  16. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  17. Isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from infected cattle in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cortes, H C E; Reis, Y; Waap, H; Vidal, R; Soares, H; Marques, I; Pereira da Fonseca, I; Fazendeiro, I; Ferreira, M L; Caeiro, V; Shkap, V; Hemphill, A; Leitão, A

    2006-11-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite belonging to the phylum apicomplexa, is the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis. Besnoitiosis is responsible for significant losses in the cattle industry of Africa and Mediterranean countries due to the high morbidity rate, abortion and infertility in males. The acute stage of disease is associated with the proliferative forms (tachyzoites) and is characterized by fever, whimpery, general weakness and swelling of the superficial lymph nodes. During the following chronic stage, a huge number of cysts are formed mainly in the subcutaneous tissues. This process is non-reversible, and chronic besnoitiosis is characterized by hyper-sclerodermia, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and, in bulls, atrophy, sclerosis and focal necrosis that cause irreversible lesions in the testis. In this paper we report on the identification of large cysts in the skin of a cow and a bull in Portugal, which presented loss of hair and enlargement and pachydermis all over the body. The observation of a two-layered cyst wall within the host cell, the encapsulation of the host cell by a large outer cyst wall, and the subcutaneous localization of the cysts within the host, were characteristic for B. besnoiti. The parasites were isolated from the infected animals and successfully propagated in Vero cells without prior passages in laboratory animals. Morphological characterization of B. besnoiti tachyzoites and the amplification of the 149 bp segment from the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), aided with specific primers, confirmed the identification of B. besnoiti. PMID:16822614

  18. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  19. Evaluation of compliance with national legislation on emissions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João F P

    2005-04-01

    More than 13 years after publication of the first air quality laws in Portugal and more than 10 years after the publication of the respective emission limits, it seems appropriate to analyze the degree of compliance by the Portuguese manufacturing industry. Using the data from emission measurements made regularly by the Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, the only officially accredited laboratory according to standard ISO 17025, I analyzed a set of approximately 400 sources in terms of compliance with the emission limits regarding total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. I evaluated compliance through a nondimensional parameter and plotted it versus the emission flow rate to derive conclusions: the results indicate that emission limits are generally met regarding sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but not for the other pollutants considered in this study. However, noncompliance occurs mainly for very low emission flow rates, which suggests some alterations in the emission limits, which are being revised at the moment. These alterations will include the exemption of measurements in minor sources. PMID:15887892

  20. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality. PMID:25583679

  1. Practice of biopsychosocial medicine in Portugal: perspectives of professionals involved.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Graça; Fachada, Alfonso Alonso; Smith, Thomas Edward

    2009-05-01

    Although, recently, the biopsychosocial approach has been emphasized in the practice of family medicine, how psychologists and physicians interact in collaborative family health care practice is still emerging in Portugal. This article describes a qualitative study that focused on the understanding of psychologists and family physicians' perceptions of their role and the collaborative approach in health care. A questionnaire gathered information regarding collaboration, referral, training and the practice of biopsychosocial medicine. A content analysis on respondents' discourse was performed. Results show that both physicians and psychologists agree on the importance of the biopsychosocial model and interdisciplinary collaboration. However, they also mentioned several difficulties that have to do with the lack of psychologists working full time in health care centers, lack of communication and different expectancies regarding each other roles in health care delivery. Both physicians and psychologists acknowledge the lack of academic training and consider the need for multidisciplinary teams in their training and practice to improve collaboration and integrative care. Implications for future research and for the practice of biopsychosocial medicine are addressed. PMID:19476234

  2. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  3. Exploratory study of air quality in elementary schools, Coimbra, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria Conceição; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the air quality in elementary schools and their structural and functional conditions. METHODS Air quality in 51 elementary schools (81 classrooms) in the city of Coimbra, Portugal, both inside and outside of the rooms was evaluated during the four seasons, from 2010 to 2011. Temperature (T°), relative humidity (Hr), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), compounds were evaluated, as were volatile organics (VOC), formaldehyde and particulate matter (PM10), from November 2010 to February 2011 (autumn/winter) and March 2011 to June 2011 (spring/summer). A grid characterizing the structural and functional conditions of the schools was created. The statistical Student t test for paired samples and the Wilcoxon t test were applied. RESULTS In 47 schools, the average CO2concentrations were above the maximum reference concentration (984 ppm) mentioned in Portuguese legislation. The maximum concentration values found inside the rooms were critical, especially in the fall/winter (5,320 ppm). In some schools the average concentrations of VOC and PM10within the maximum concentration exceeded the reference legislated. The values (risk) of CO, formaldehyde, NO2, SO2and O3detected were not relevant. CONCLUSIONS There was a higher concentration of pollutants inside the rooms compared with outside. Inadequate ventilation is associated with high CO2concentration in the classroom. PMID:24626544

  4. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  5. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations. PMID:26200371

  6. New insights into the reconstructed temperature in Portugal over the last 400 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Correia, A.; Alcoforado, M. J.; Zorita, E.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.

    2015-06-01

    The consistency of an existing reconstructed annual (December-November) temperature series for the Lisbon region (Portugal) from 1600 onwards, based on a European-wide reconstruction, with (1) five local borehole temperature-depth profiles; (2) synthetic temperature-depth profiles, generated from both reconstructed temperatures and two regional paleoclimate simulations in Portugal; (3) instrumental data sources over the twentieth century; and (4) temperature indices from documentary sources during the late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715) is assessed. The low-frequency variability in the reconstructed temperature in Portugal is not entirely consistent with local borehole temperature-depth profiles and with the simulated response of temperature in two regional paleoclimate simulations driven by reconstructions of various climate forcings. Therefore, the existing reconstructed series is calibrated by adjusting its low-frequency variability to the simulations (first-stage adjustment). The annual reconstructed series is then calibrated in its location and scale parameters, using the instrumental series and a linear regression between them (second-stage adjustment). This calibrated series shows clear footprints of the Maunder and Dalton minima, commonly related to changes in solar activity and explosive volcanic eruptions, and a strong recent-past warming, commonly related to human-driven forcing. Lastly, it is also in overall agreement with annual temperature indices over the late Maunder Minimum in Portugal. The series resulting from this post-reconstruction adjustment can be of foremost relevance to improve the current understanding of the driving mechanisms of climate variability in Portugal.

  7. The Eclipse, the Astronomer and His Audience: Frederico Oom and the Total Solar Eclipse of 28 May 1900 in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel; Simoes, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study offers a detailed analysis of an episode of the popularization of astronomy which took place in Portugal, a peripheral country of Europe, and occurring in the early twentieth century. The episode was driven by the 28 May 1900 total solar eclipse which was seen on the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). Instead of focusing on one of…

  8. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  9. Optical fiber sensors: a route from University of Kent to Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, José L.; Lobo Ribeiro, António B.

    2011-06-01

    In this work the authors first summarily describe the main topics that were the subject of their post-graduate activity in fiber sensing at the Applied Optics Group of University of Kent in the late 1980s and early 1990s. After their return to Porto, Portugal, the know-how acquired during their stay at Kent and the collaboration paths that followed between the University of Porto and University of Kent were instrumental in the start-up and progress of optical fiber sensing activity in Portugal. The main topics addressed in this field, the description of some of the relevant developments achieved in recent years, the present situation and the guidelines for the future research and development activity in Portugal in fiber sensing will be the core of this work.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant B/G subtypes circulating in Coimbra, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Duque, V; Holguín, A; Silvestre, M; González-Lahoz, J; Soriano, V

    2003-05-01

    An increasing prevalence of HIV-1 non-B variants is being noticed in several European regions, particularly in countries such as Portugal, which have closer contacts with African endemic areas, where multiple HIV subtypes cocirculate. HIV-1 subtyping by phylogenetic analyses of reverse transcriptase, protease and env (C2-V3) genomic regions was carried out in plasma collected from 18 HIV-1-infected subjects living in Coimbra, Portugal, and suspected to be infected with non-B variants. Three (16.7%) subjects carried recombinant B/G viruses (BV3/BRT/Gpro; GV3/URT/Bpro; AV3/GRT/Bpro), whereas all the remaining individuals were infected with HIV-1 subtype B. This is the first report of recombinant B/G subtypes in Portugal. PMID:12848757

  11. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal. PMID:26305815

  12. Mathematics diagnostic testing in engineering: an international comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Fhloinn, E. Ní

    2015-09-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into engineering education, such as projects or real-world problems. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) and the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra (Portugal), a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students. A comparison showed some potentially interesting differences between these students. In September 2013, a project was undertaken to compare mathematical competencies of incoming engineering students in both countries. A modified diagnostic test was devised and the results were then compared to ascertain if there are common areas of difficulty between students in Ireland and Portugal, or evidence of one group significantly outperforming the other in a particular area.

  13. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. PMID:23410618

  14. Eucisia schist a natural stone from Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Silvia; Carvalho, Cristina; Noronha, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    : CS 53 Mpa, FS 16.3 MPa, AD 25220 kg/m3 , OP 9.3%, WA 1,2 % AR 26.0mm and RTS resistant. For settling the recommended applications, European standards for natural stone products were considered. Considering the technical specifications that exist in some European countries, "Eucisia schist" can be applied on rustic masonary units, on colums, on paving (low traffic, mainly indoors) and on cladding (mainly indoors). This work was performed under the project PTDC/CTE-GIN/70704/2006, "SCHISTRESOURCE funded by FCT (Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation). SFRH/BD/86641/2012 a FCT grant financially supports Silvia Aires. [1] A.Ribeiro, E. Pereira and R. Dias, in Pre-Mesozoic Geology of Iberia edited by R.D. Dallmeyer and E. Martinez-Garcia, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. (1990). [2] E. Pereira, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006) [3] E. Pereira, A. Ribeiro, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006).

  15. Surveillance of imported hospital requiring malaria in Portugal: can it be improved?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Glória; Simões Dias, Sara; Baptista, João Luís; Torgal, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Although eradicated in Portugal, malaria keeps taking its toll on travellers and migrants from endemic countries. Completeness of hospital requiring malaria notification in Portugal 2000-11 was estimated, using two-source capture-recapture method. Data sources were: national surveillance database of notifiable diseases and the national database of the Diagnosis-Related Groups resulting from National Health Service (NHS) hospital episodes. The completeness of notification was 21,2% for all malaria cases and 26,5% for malaria deaths, indicating significant underreporting and urging for complementary data source in surveillance, for disease burden estimates and retrospective monitoring, namely hospital episodes statistics. PMID:27069002

  16. Feasibility Studies and Design of High-Speed Railway (TGV) Projects in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Ricardo; Abreu, Rui

    Portugal is starting a large program of high-speed train routes connecting the main cities in the country and these cities to central Europe throughout Spain. The country has a very wide range of lithological types and the main routes cross some important hilly zones. These facts, together with the severe geometric restrictions associated with the High-Speed Trains, attach an important role to Engineering Geology both at the Feasibility stage and at the Design stage of the projects. The paper illustrates this important role with examples of studies currently under way in Portugal.

  17. Modeling fecal contamination in the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André Bustorff; Menaia, José; David, Luís Mesquita; Cravo, Alexandra

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at understanding the fecal contamination behavior in a small coastal stream (Aljezur, Portugal), which has significant economic and ecological values. Like in most small coastal systems, circulation and water renewal in the Aljezur stream exhibit a strong variability due to their dependence on tides, waves, intermittent river flows, and a highly variable morphology. Hence, the problem was approached through a combination of field surveys and the development and application of a hard-coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and fecal contamination model. Salinity and temperature results have shown that mixing and transport in the stream are very sensitive to the river flow and wind forcing. The model is able to represent the main patterns and trends observed in Escherichia coli and fecal enterococcus concentrations along the stream, for different environmental and contamination conditions, suggesting die-off rates on the order of 0.50-0.55 day-1. Die-off rate and the representation of the sediment-associated processes were identified as the major remaining sources of uncertainty in the model. Results show that, owing to the processes that occur along the stream, fecal bacteria reach the beaches water in numbers that comply with the European Bathing Waters Directive, even during the summer periods when the upstream concentrations are larger. In particular, results suggest a direct relation between the tidal propagation upstream and the reduction of the fecal bacteria concentrations along the stream that can be relevant for the development of a strategy for the management of the system's water safety.

  18. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça

    2013-02-15

    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  19. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  20. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  1. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  2. Deep-Sea Observatory EMSO-Azores (Lucky Strike, 37º17'N MAR): Impact of Fluid Circulation Pathway on Chemical Hydrothermal Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavagnac, V.; Leleu, T.; Boulart, C.; Barreyre, T.; Castillo, A.; Menjot, L.; Cannat, M.; Escartin, J.; Sarradin, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The operational EMSO-Azores deep-sea observatory provides a unique opportunity combining yearly hydrothermal fluid sampling along with continuous monitoring of physical parameters (temperature, seismicity, pressure,…) to better constrain hydrothermal fluid flow dynamics both in time and space at the Lucky Strike vent field. Repeated sampling at this field since its discovery in the mid 90's shows persistent inter-site differences the end-member hot fluid compositions, revealing 4 groups of sites that possibly reflect various processes, such as phase separation, conductive cooling, tidal pumping, or magmatic activity. Three groups are at the main field, and a fourth one (Capelinhos) is 1,5 km to the E. We also identify a period of high CO2 content of hydrothermal fluids (up to 120 mmol/l), clearly showing replenishment of the magmatic chamber in 2008 and 2010. The Si-Cl geothermobarometer of the most vapor-dominated fluid (270 mmol/l, Capelinhos) gives a pressure of 370 bars and a temperature of ˜435ºC in the reaction zone. If hydrothermal cells operate in a cold hydrostatic pressure gradient, the transition between the reaction and upflow zones is located at about 2400 mbsf, with a magma lens at ˜3400 mbsf. Si-based geothermobarometry and empirical Fe/Mn geothermometry argue for P and T conditions close to seawater critical point at 300 bars (i.e. ˜1300mbsf) for Capelinhos. In contrast, the 3 other groups exhibit temperatures much lower than 380ºC, as well as reduced end-member Fe and Mn concentrations compared to those of Capelinhos. These physico-chemical features reflect the effects of conductive cooling along the upflow zone. Conductive cooling can vary spatially owing to variable substratum permeability across the hydrothermal field, a requisite to induce along-axis oriented hydrothermal cell. The end-member chemical features of the 4 groups suggest that local variations in tectonism and volcanism exert a strong control on heat, mass and chemical fluxes.

  3. Stress-induced comenditic trachyte effusion triggered by trachybasalt intrusion: multidisciplinary study of the AD 1761 eruption at Terceira Island (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, A.; Zanon, V.; de Groot, L. V.; Hipólito, A.; Di Chiara, A.; Self, S.

    2016-03-01

    The AD 1761 eruption on Terceira was the only historical subaerial event on the island and one of the last recorded in the Azores. The eruption occurred along the fissure zone that crosses the island and produced a trachybasalt lava flow and scoria cones. Small comenditic trachyte lava domes (known as Mistérios Negros) were also thought by some to have formed simultaneously on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano. Following a multidisciplinary approach, we combined geological mapping, paleomagnetic, petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical and structural analyses to study this eruption. The paleomagnetic dating method compared geomagnetic vectors (directions and intensities) recorded by both the AD 1761 lava flow and Mistérios Negros domes and revealed that the two events were indeed coeval. Based on new data and interpretation of historical records, we have accordingly reconstructed the AD 1761 eruptive dynamics and distinguished three phases: (1) a precursory phase characterized by decreased degassing in the fumarolic field of Pico Alto Volcano and a gradual increase of seismic activity, which marked the intrusion of trachybasalt magma; (2) a first eruptive phase that started with phreatic explosions on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano, followed by the inconspicuous effusion of comenditic trachyte (66 wt% SiO2), forming a WNW-ESE-oriented chain of lava domes; and (3) a second eruptive phase on the central part of the fissure zone, where a Hawaiian to Strombolian-style eruption formed small scoria cones (E-W to ENE-WSW-oriented) and a trachybasalt lava flow (50 wt% SiO2) which buried 27 houses in Biscoitos village. Petrological analyses show that the two batches of magma were emitted independently without evidence of interaction. We envisage that the dome-forming event was triggered by local stress changes induced by intrusion of the trachybasalt dyke along the fissure zone, which created tensile stress conditions that promoted ascent

  4. Employment and Training by Sector in Greece, Spain and Portugal. CEDEFOP Flash 9/89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEDEFOP Flash, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This publication of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) describes a project investigating employment and training in Greece, Spain, and Portugal. An introduction tells why CEDEFOP has given priority to those countries. The second section reports the project's examination of the textiles and ready-to-wear…

  5. Seroprevalence of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and parasite-specific antibodies in dogs from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Schnyder, Manuela; Schaper, Roland; Meireles, José; Belo, Silvana; Deplazes, Peter; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira

    2016-07-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that lives in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of domestic dogs and wild canids. It is increasingly being reported in several European countries and North America. This parasite induces inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. In some instances, coagulopathies, neurological signs and even death may occur. Scant data are available regarding the occurrence of A. vasorum in Portugal. Therefore, sera of 906 shelter dogs from North to South mainland Portugal were collected. ELISAs to detect A. vasorum circulating antigen and specific antibodies against this parasite were performed. A total of six dogs [0.66 %, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.24-1.43] were positive for both A. vasorum antigen and antibody detection, indicating an active infection, and 12 dogs (1.32 %, CI 0.68-2.30) were A. vasorum antibody-positive only. Regions with antigen- and antibody-positive animals overlapped and were distributed over nearly all sampled areas in the country. This is the first large-scale ELISA-based serological survey for A. vasorum in dogs from Portugal. The endemic occurrence of A. vasorum in dogs from different geographical areas of Portugal is therefore confirmed. PMID:27000086

  6. Comparing Higher Education Reforms in Finland and Portugal: Different Contexts, Same Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauko, Jaakko; Diogo, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of recent governance reforms in both Finnish and Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs), following the OECD's recent reviews of both countries' tertiary education systems. While in the case of Finland the major problem was identified as being a lack of entrepreneurialism, Portugal was…

  7. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  8. Employability, Skills and Training in Portugal (1988-2000): Evidence from Official Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of employability in Portugal. Design/methodology/approach: Calculations were made using official data for 1991, 1994 and 1997 on education, skills and tenure, and on 1990, 1991, 1996 and 1997 regarding training. Findings: High skills, high levels of education and high levels of…

  9. Construction and Modification of the Autonomy of School Mathematical Knowledge in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the discipline of secondary mathematics was gradually built in Portugal and certified teachers, textbooks, programs, special teaching techniques emerge. This consolidation process ends with the emergency of school subjects that develop some kind of autonomy as Chervel…

  10. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Portugal Vs. Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Mainar, I.; Montuenga-Gomez, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the returns to education in two Southern EU countries, Portugal and Spain, both characterized by a relatively high self-employment rate. The impact of education on both wage earners and the self-employed is analyzed by using a comparable data set coming from the European Community Household Panel during the period…

  11. Lessons Learnt from a Secondary School Sex Education Program in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Ana Paula; Soares, Isabel; Vilar, Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Based on a developmental framework, a study was conducted in Portugal in two groups of youth in terms of relevant aspects related to adolescent psychosexual development: one group participated in an Experimental Project of Sex Education and Health Promotion during high school, whereas the other did not receive any formal sex education in school.…

  12. Mathematics Diagnostic Testing in Engineering: An International Comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Ní Fhloinn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into…

  13. Research in Foreign Language Education in Portugal (2006-2011): Its Transformative Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Flávia; Moreira, Maria Alfredo; Peralta, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a selective corpus of empirical and theoretical texts on foreign language pedagogy and teacher education, produced in Portugal between 2006 and 2011. A descriptive and interpretative approach is adopted to inquire into the transformative potential of research, with a focus on its scope, purposes, conceptual and methodological…

  14. Waves of (Dis)Satisfaction: Effects of the "Numerus Clausus" System in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Madalena; Dias, Diana; Sá, Carla; Amaral, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Access to higher education in Portugal is governed by a quota system (numerus clausus). The purpose of this article is to answer two questions: First, how does the "numerus clausus" system shape the demand for medical studies? Second, how do non-enrolled medical candidates influence the global allocation system and generate waves of…

  15. Child and Partner Abuse: Self-Reported Prevalence and Attitudes in the North of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Carla; Goncalves, Miguel; Matos, Marlene; Dias, Ana Rita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the self-reported prevalence of child and partner physical and emotional abuse in the north of Portugal and to investigate attitudes about these forms of family violence. Methods: Data were collected by questionnaire from a representative sample of parents in two-parent families with children under the age of 18 years. A…

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  17. The Role of the Company in Generating Skills. The Learning Effects of Work Organization. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria Joao; Lopes, Helena

    The impact of changes in work organization on development of Portugese workers' skills was examined. At the macro level, a national study was conducted to identify current and possible future relationships among initial training, continuing training, the labor market, and industrial relations in Portugal. At the micro level, cases studies of three…

  18. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  19. Translating University-Industry Relations: The Development of a Knowledge Link in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    INESC was created in 1980 in Portugal to link universities with industry. Starting within a university as the initiative of three young academics, the organization soon became a pivotal player in the modernization of the country through the development of applied research in science and technology to enhance the competitiveness of Portuguese…

  20. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  1. Teaching Writing to Middle School Students in Portugal and in Brazil: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida; Malpique, Anabela Abreu; Frison, Lourdes Maria Bragagnolo; Marques, André

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to write is a challenging process, typically developed in schools. Teachers' practices in teaching writing, however, have been under researched. The aim of this study was to survey a sample of teachers from Portugal (n = 96) and Brazil (n = 99) about their practices for and perceptions about writing instruction. Teachers reported on…

  2. Emergy analysis of a silvo-pastoral system, a case study in southern Portugal

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mediterranean silvo-pastoral system known as Montado, in Portugal, is a complex land use system composed of an open tree stratum in various densities and an herbaceous layer, used for livestock grazing. Livestock also profit from the acorns, and the grazing contributes to avo...

  3. Early Childhood Intervention in Portugal: An Overview Based on the Developmental Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Grande, Catarina; Aguiar, Cecilia; de Almeida, Isabel Chaves; Felgueiras, Isabel; Pimentel, Julia Serpa; Serrano, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Leonor; Brandao, Maria Teresa; Boavida, Tania; Santos, Paula; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Research studies on early childhood intervention (ECI) in Portugal are diffuse regarding both program components and the geographical area under scrutiny. Since the 1990s, a growing body of knowledge and evidence in ECI is being gathered, based on postgraduate teaching, in-service training, and research. This article draws on the systems theory…

  4. The Induction and Mentoring of New Teachers in Portugal: Contradictions, Needs and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assuncao; Ferreira, Fernando Ilidio

    2009-01-01

    In this article, policy and research on teacher induction in Portugal are examined. The lack of a formal induction system (despite recognition of its relevance in legal policy documents) and the mismatch between national regulations and practice are also discussed. The authors argue the need for a coherent and sustained induction and support…

  5. Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal--State of the Art and Current Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Abrar; Laaser, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on a recent report given to the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education on "Reforming Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal" (Hasan et. al. 2009). The report was grounded on on-site visits of leading Portuguese Universities, Polytechnics and Business Schools as well as on written statements of…

  6. European Social Fund in Portugal: A Complex Question for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the application of the funds awarded by the European Social Fund (ESF) to Portugal, since 1986, from a human resource development (HRD) perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Several variables are analyzed: investment, absorption, people, impact of investment, evolution of skills, main programs, supply and…

  7. Education and Gender Wage Differentials in Portugal: What Can We Learn from an Age Cohort Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Pilar; Santos, Luis Delfim; Santos, Maria Clementina

    2009-01-01

    Important changes characterize the recent evolution of the schooling of workers in Portugal. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consequences of those changes in the gender wage gap. In particular, we analyze and compare the way that this process has evolved in the groups of young workers and older workers. Our findings suggest that…

  8. Learning Transfer--Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Bates, Reid; Holton, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construct validity of learning transfer system inventory (LTSI) for use in Portugal. Furthermore, it also aims to analyze whether LTSI dimensions differ across individual variables such as gender, age, educational level and job tenure. Design/methodology/approach: After a rigorous translation…

  9. Unprotected Girls and Teacher Training in Portugal in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogarro, Maria Joao; Martinez, Silvia Alicia

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the second half of the nineteenth century, the cultural panorama in Portugal was largely dominated by education issues. The awareness of the weaknesses of the Portuguese education system was now based on a growing interest in statistics, which allowed the reinforcement of arguments regarding the country's backwardness and the need to…

  10. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  11. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Portugal 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Isabel Susana

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Portugal's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education (ME) is fundamentally responsible for establishing aims to develop the cultural and creative aspects of education, in accordance with the following aims defined for the whole curriculum. At the level of compulsory education, the Portuguese education system,…

  12. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women from the North of Portugal in their childbearing years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors were investigated in 401 women of childbearing age from the North of Portugal. Among the 98 (24.4%) seropositive women, 92 (93.9%) were detected as positive only for imunoglobulin (Ig) G, two women (2.0%) were positive only fo...

  13. Reinterpreting Lifelong Learning: Meanings of Adult Education Policy in Portugal, 1999-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Portugal's adult education policy between 1999 and 2010. Our empirical material consists of Portuguese as well as supranational policy documents. We use a theoretical framework which distinguishes three models of public policy, with different views on the roles of public policy and of education: (1) participative…

  14. Teacher Professionalisation and Professionalism in Portugal and Brazil: What Do the Policy Documents Tell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assuncao; Shiroma, Enida

    2003-01-01

    Examines teacher education policy in Portugal and Brazil over the past decade, discussing implications for teacher professionalization and professionalism; identifying the emergence of competing discourses arising from policy texts and other formal documents; and asserting that the intertwined concepts of professionalization and professionalism,…

  15. The Democratisation of Access and Success in Higher Education: The Case of Portugal and Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Diana; Marinho-Araujo, Claisy; Almeida, Leandro; Amaral, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Given that higher education systems everywhere have opened to the masses, this paper analyses to what extent this phenomenon has really been accompanied by an effective democratisation of access and success in Portugal and Brazil. It looks at the expansion of higher education and discusses how the political system and higher education institutions…

  16. Educational Journals and Worldwide Circulation of Pedagogical Knowledge: Brazil and Portugal (1921?1935)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Jaime; Cordeiro, Parreira; Carvalho, Luis Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the circulation of educational models between Portugal and Brazil (from 1920 to 1935), within a broader context of an intensive international transfer of "ways of thinking" about education. It describes and analyses the results from research on two educational journals, one Portuguese (Revista Escolar) the other from the…

  17. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  18. 62 FR 61036 - Changes in Disease Status of Belgium, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-11-14

    ... specified conditions, based on the regions' disease status (see 62 FR 56000-56033, October 28, 1997, Dockets..., Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...-mouth disease; Greece free of rinderpest; France, Greece, Luxembourg, and Spain free of exotic...

  19. Homogenisation of minimum and maximum air temperature in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, L.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Mendes, L.; Amorim, L.; Nunes, L.

    2012-04-01

    Homogenization of minimum and maximum air temperature has been carried out for northern Portugal for the period 1941-2010. The database corresponds to the values of the monthly arithmetic averages calculated from daily values observed at stations within the network of stations managed by the national Institute of Meteorology (IM). Some of the weather stations of IM's network are collecting data for more than a century; however, during the entire observing period, some factors have affected the climate series and have to be considered such as, changes in the station surroundings and changes related to replacement of manually operated instruments. Besides these typical changes, it is of particular interest the station relocation to rural areas or to the urban-rural interface and the installation of automatic weather stations in the vicinity of the principal or synoptic stations with the aim of replacing them. The information from these relocated and new stations was merged to produce just one but representative time series of that site. This process starts at the end 90's and the information of the time series fusion process constitutes the set of metadata used. Two basic procedures were performed: (i) preliminary statistical and quality control analysis; and, (ii) detection and correction of problems of homogeneity. In the first case, was developed and used software for quality control, specifically dedicated for the detection of outliers, based on the quartile values of the time series itself. The analysis of homogeneity was performed using the MASH (Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenisation) and HOMER, which is a software application developed and recently made available within the COST Action ES0601 (COST-ES0601, 2012). Both methods provide a fast quality control of the original data and were developed for automatic processing, analyzing, homogeneity testing and adjusting of climatological data, but manual usage is also possible. Obtained results with both

  20. Assessment of post forest fire reclamation in Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rita; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos; Martins, Fernando; Zdruli, Pandi; Ladisa, Gaetano

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes and it plays a crucial role in its transformations, making the determination of its impact on the ecosystem essential for land management. During summer of 2012, a wildfire took place in Algarve, Portugal, on an area mainly covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (39.44%, 10080ha), broad-leaved forest (20.80%, 5300ha), agriculture land with significant areas of natural vegetation (17.40%, 4400ha) and transitional woodlands-shrubs (16.17%, 4100ha). The objective of the study was to determine fire severity in order to plan post-fire treatments and to aid vegetation recovery and land reclamation. Satellite imagery was used to estimate burn severity by detecting physical and ecological changes in the landscape caused by fire. Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (DNBR) was used to measure burn severity with pre and post fire data of four Landsat images acquired in October 2011, February and August 2012 and April 2013. The initial and extended differenced normalized burn ratio (DiNBR and DeNBR) were calculated. The calculated burned area of 24291 ha was 552ha lower than the map data determined with field reports. The 19.5% of that area was burned with high severity, 45% with moderate severity and 28.3% with low severity. Comparing fire severity and regrowth with land use, it is shown in DiNBR that the most severely burned areas were predominantly sclerophyllous vegetation (37.6%) and broad-leaved forests (31.1%). From the DeNRB it was found that the reestablishment of vegetation was slower in mixed forests and higher in sclerophyllous vegetation and in land with significant areas of natural vegetation. Faster recovery was calculated for the land uses of sclerophyllous vegetation (46.7%) and significant regrowth in areas of natural vegetation and lands occupied by agriculture (25.4%). Next steps of the study are field validation and crossing with erosion risk maps before to take land reclamation decisions.

  1. Gravity and magnetic modeling of granitic bodies in Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Pereira, Alcides

    2015-04-01

    A better understanding of the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in Central Portugal is the main goal of this work. The results are also relevant for the assessment of the geothermal potential of the same region. The study area is located in the Central Iberian Zone where the Beiras granite batholith outcrops. These variscan granitoids were emplaced into the "Complexo Xisto-Grauváquico" (CXG), a thick and monotonous megasequences of metapelites and metagreywackes. This metasedimentary sequence is affected by the Variscan deformation phases and a late Proterozoic to Cambrian age has been generally assumed for this rocks. The granitoids in the region are attributed to the magmatic activity associated to the post-collisional stages of the Variscan orogeny during the D3 stage. The granitic bodies in the study area are considered syn-D3 and late to post-D3. To achieve the goal of the research, magnetic and gravimetric surveys where performed in order to obtain the Bouguer and magnetic anomalies. All the standard corrections were applied to the gravimetric and magnetic data. Considering and integrating all the available geological data and physical proprieties (density and magnetic susceptibility) the mentioned potential fields were simultaneously modeled. In this way it was possible to characterize the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in the studied region. The modeling results show that the regional tectonic setting controls the geometry of the granitic bodies as well as the structure of the host CXG metasedimentary sequence. Through the modeling of the potential field the overall geometry, average and maximum depths of the granitic bodies in the study area was obtained. Some late to post-D3 plutons outcrop in spatial continuity and as they have similar ages, a common feeding zone is assumed as the most likely scenario. The sin-D3 pluton is more abrupt and vertical, suggesting the presence of a fault contact with the late-D3 pluton. According to the

  2. Ground Penetrating Radar technique for railway track characterization in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Chiara, Francesca; Fontul, Simona; Fortunato, Eduardo; D'Andrea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance actions are significant for transport infrastructures but, today, costs have to be necessary limited. A proper quality control since the construction phase is a key factor for a long life cycle and for a good economy policy. For this reason, suitable techniques have to be chosen and non-destructive tests represent an efficient solution, as they allow to evaluate infrastructure characteristics in a continuous or quasi-continuous way, saving time and costs, enabling to make changes if tests results do not comply with the project requirements. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry and they cannot be detected by the common monitoring procedures, namely the measurements of track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. Therefore, it represents a reliable technique to assess track geometry problems and consequently to improve maintenance planning. In Portugal, rail inspection is performed with Plasser & Theurer EM120 equipment and recently 400 MHz IDS antennas were installed on it. GPR tests were performed on the Portuguese rail network and, as case study in this paper, a renewed track was

  3. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  4. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal. PMID:26186469

  5. Sulfide and silicate melt inclusions in the D. João de Castro Volcanic Seamount, a hydrothermally active area on the Terceira Rift, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. F. A.; Scott, S. D.; Madureira, P.; Rosa, C. J. P.; Lourenço, N.; Conceição, P.; TerRiftic Team

    2012-04-01

    The Azores plateau is a bathymetric high located in the North Atlantic encompassing a triple junction where the American, Eurasia and African plates meet. The Terceira Rift (TR), within the plateau, defines the Eurasia/African plate boundary and corresponds to a 550 Km long, ESE trending line of volcanic islands and seamounts (e.g. D. João de Castro - DJC) alternating with deep basins (e.g. Hirondelle - HIR) [1, 2]. Fresh basalts from the TR, in particular the DJC and HIR areas, were sampled from 2007 to 2009 [EMEPC 2007/2008/2009 cruises]. The team is now studying their melt inclusions [MI] in order to understand processes of magma evolution and mixing as well as the behavior of trace metals and volatiles in the pre-erupted magmas. Petrographic observations indicate that in DJC and HIR, basalts are porphyritic, vesicular, with a microcrystalline groundmass composed mostly of plagioclase laths ± olivine ± clinopyroxene ± skeletal Fe-Ti oxides ± glass. Phenocrysts are subhedral to euhedral with corroded rims. Clinopyroxene (aluminian diopside) is the main phenocryst phase, followed by olivine (Fo83 - DJC; Fo80 - HIR) and minor plagioclase (often as microphenocrysts). Incompatible trace elements in groundmass, glass, and exposed MI in clinopyroxene depict enriched patterns above the OIB field. REE patterns are similar in the groundmass and glass from DJC and HIR. Exposed MI from HIR depicts less enriched REE patterns than the groundmass, whilst DJC MI show similar REE patterns to the groundmass. MI were found in most mineral phases studied. They are distributed randomly (azonal) and appear glassy, partially devitrified or completely opaque with one or more vapor bubbles. Glassy to devitrified MI may show interpenetrating arrays of mineral phases, skeletal Fe-Ti oxides, and included euhedral Cr-spinel. Sulfide globules are common in clinopyroxene-hosted MI and are dispersed within the groundmass. Globules are small, less than 10 μm, and contain distinct mineral

  6. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Disaggregation Analysis for the South of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, I.; Sousa, M.; Teves-Costa, P.

    2010-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis was performed and seismic scenarios were identified for Southern Mainland Portugal. This region’s seismicity is characterized by small and moderate magnitude events and by the sporadic occurrence of large earthquakes (e.g. the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). Thus, the Portuguese Civil Protection Agency (ANPC) sponsored a collaborative research project for the study of the seismic and tsunami risks in the Algarve (project ERSTA). In the framework of this project, a series of new developments were obtained, namely the revision of the seismic catalogue (IM, 2008), the delineation of new seismogenic zones affecting the Algarve region, which reflects the growing knowledge of this region's seismotectonic context, the derivation of new spectral attenuation laws (Carvalho and Campos Costa, 2008) and the revision of the probabilistic seismic hazard (Sousa et al. 2008). Seismic hazard was disaggregated considering different spaces of random variables, namely, bivariate conditional hazard distributions of X-Y (seismic source latitude and longitude) and multivariate 4D conditional hazard distributions of M-(X-Y)-ɛ (ɛ - deviation of ground motion to the median value predicted by an attenuation model). These procedures were performed for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and for the 5% damped 1.0 and 2.5 Hz spectral acceleration levels of three return periods: 95, 475 and 975 years. The seismic scenarios controlling the hazard of a given ground motion level, were identified as the modal values of the 4D disaggregation analysis for each of the 84 parishes of the Algarve region. Those scenarios, based on a probabilistic analysis, are meant to be used in the emergency planning as a complement to the historical scenarios that severely affected this region. Seismic scenarios share a few number of geographical locations for all return periods. Moreover, seismic hazard of most Algarve’s parishes is dominated by the seismicity located

  7. Bedforms and sediment distribution in the Minho estuary (Northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Henrique

    2010-05-01

    Here are presented preliminary results of the MINHO09 cruise, carried out within the scope of the paleoclimatic research task of the MINHO project (PROYECTO 0234_NATURA_MIÑO_MINHO). Bed features and sediment distribution were mapped in the Minho estuary (Northern Portugal) using a dual frequency sidescan sonar mosaic (EdgeTech 4200-MP), and bottom sediment texture data from 71 sites sampled with a winch operated sediment grab (Van Veen type). The survey was done within 5 days, in low flow energy conditions of summer dry weather and neap tides, close to optimal conditions for correlating the acoustic imagery with the bottom sediment data. A DGPS (Omnistar 8200HP) was used to determine the horizontal position of the acoustic imagery and the sediment sample sites with sub-meter accuracy. Uncorrected water depths were determined with a depth echo-sounder (Odom HYDROTRAC echo sounder), and the water depths referred to the local datum was later determined using data from a tidal gauge (Valeport model 740) deployed specifically for this survey. Overall the sampled sediments were mostly poorly calibrated, with grain sizes ranging from gravel to mud coexisting in the same sample, probably reflecting the great seasonal contrast in flow conditions in the Minho River. The predominantly muddy sediments were observed along the river margins (frequently charged with gas) and, locally, along relatively deeper portions of the channel bed. The bedforms observed in the sidescan sonar data are dominated by 2D and 3D dunes and ripples. There are several locations were the bedforms suddenly change from larger dunes (wave lengths greater than 5m) to smaller ripples (wave lengths smaller than 1m). These changes may be related to the occurrence of supercritical flow conditions (Froude number > 1): hydraulic jumps in places were there is a sudden change in depth without any change in channel width, or chutes and pools in places were there is a sudden change in channel width; future work is

  8. An overview of the RAIDEN project: a study of lightning in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; Leite, Solange; Sousa, João; Correia, Sandra; Reis, Margarida; Santos, João Andrade

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric lightning is an important atmospheric hazard, as cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) can affect people, can lead to severe damages in buildings, equipment, and can trigger forest fires. The potential damages directly linked to CGD have been increasing as society develops (e.g. due to greater use of electronic equipment). However, an adequate risk assessment requires an analysis in depth of the CGD spatial-temporal distributions. Further, the climate change impacts on the lightning activity still present many uncertainties. Nevertheless, there is a wide agreement in the scientific community that climate change in Europe is likely to impact on frequency, severity and location of extreme events. The Portuguese meteorological office (IPMA) maintains a lightning detection network (LDN) over mainland Portugal since June 2002. Due to the recent and short time period of available data, there are only few studies using this dataset. The RAIDEN project (contract number PTDC/CTE-ATM/101931/2008) - Lightning activity in Portugal: variability patterns and socioeconomic impacts - aims (1) to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of the lightning activity over mainland Portugal and (2) to assess its corresponding risks and socioeconomic impacts. This study is based on data provided by the Portuguese LDN and follows a multidisciplinary approach. As such, the project is focused on a 7-year period (2003-2009) of CGD data and the research program started studying the main climatological aspects of lightning activity, regarding the spatial patterns of the CGD occurrences, as well as their temporal variability at different time scales (inter-annual, seasonal and daily variability). The spatial patterns of the CGD occurrences over Portugal have also been categorized taking into account their spatial spread and strength using a clustering methodology. Furthermore, the dynamical mechanisms underlying the CGD occurrences, including the identification of the main lightning

  9. Disastrous floods and landslides in Portugal in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresma, Ivânia; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructive natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. The basic information on past floods and landslides that occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete, and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures, particularly when it is expectable an increase of frequency, magnitude, dimension and complexity of the hydro-geomorphologic phenomena resulting from climate change. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal during the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 937 hydro-geomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focus on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. In addition, data shows that disastrous hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena were more

  10. Testing continuous earthquake detection and location in Alentejo (South Portugal) by waveform coherency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Custódio, Susana

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered Portugal. This extraordinary network coverage enables now the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which in turn will shed light on the seismotectonics of Portugal. The large data volumes available cannot be analyzed by traditional time-consuming manual location procedures. In this presentation we show first results on the automatic detection and location of earthquakes occurred in a selected region in the south of Portugal Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e., lowering the detection threshold). We present a modified version of the automatic seismic event location by waveform coherency analysis developed by Grigoli et al. (2013, 2014), designed to perform earthquake detections and locations in continuous data. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace, while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event detection and location is obtained by performing waveform coherence analysis scanning different hypocentral coordinates. We apply this technique to earthquakes in the Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage from a small aperture seismic network installed in the south of Portugal for two years (2010 - 2011) during the DOCTAR experiment. In addition to the good network coverage, the Alentejo region was chosen for its simple tectonic setting and also because the relationship between seismicity, tectonics and local lithospheric structure is intriguing and still poorly understood. Inside

  11. Uranium accumulation by aquatic plants from uranium-contaminated water in Central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pratas, João; Favas, Paulo J C; Paulo, Carlos; Rodrigues, Nelson; Prasad, M N V

    2012-03-01

    Several species of plants have developed a tolerance to metal that enables them to survive in metal contaminated and polluted sites. Some of these aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate significant amounts of specific trace elements and are, therefore, useful for phytofiltration. This work focuses the potential of aquatic plants for the phytofiltration of uranium (U) from contaminated water. We observed that Callitriche stagnalis, Lemna minor, and Fontinalis antipyretica, which grow in the uraniferous geochemical province of Central Portugal, have been able to accumulate significant amounts of U. The highest concentration of U was found in Callitriche stagnalis (1948.41 mg/kg DW), Fontinalis antipyretica (234.79 mg/kg DW), and Lemna minor (52.98 mg/kg DW). These results indicate their potential for the phytofiltration of U through constructed treatment wetlands or by introducing these plants into natural water bodies in the uraniferous province of Central Portugal. PMID:22567707

  12. A transnational perspective on psychosurgery: beyond Portugal and the United States.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brianne M; Stam, Henderikus J

    2014-01-01

    The history of psychosurgery is most often recounted as a narrative wherein Portuguese and American physicians play the leading role. It is a traditional narrative in which the United States and, at times, Portugal are central in the development and spread of psychosurgery. Here we largely abandon the archetypal narrative and provide one of the first transnational accounts of psychosurgery to demonstrate the existence of a global psychosurgical community in which more than 40 countries participated, bolstered, critiqued, modified and heralded the treatment. From its inception in 1935 until its decline in the mid-1960s, psychosurgery was performed on almost all continents. Rather than being a phenomenon isolated to the United States and Portugal, it became a truly transnational movement. PMID:25116422

  13. Reed warblers migrating through Portugal: climatic influence on stopover ecology over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Pedro M; da Silva, Luís P; Paiva, Vitor H; Ramos, Jaime A

    2016-06-01

    The arrival and breeding dates of small migrant birds have advanced throughout Europe. This study evaluates the hypothesis of a faster migration along the migratory route, which should lead to a decrease in stopover duration in staging areas over the last decades. Several climatic predictors were analysed as proxies to understand the stopover ecology of reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus migrating through Central Portugal. The minimum stopover duration of migratory reed warblers decreased significantly over the last decade during both the spring and autumn migrations. Warmer conditions en route should increase food availability, increasing the body condition of departing birds and the quality of departing sites en route to Portugal, such that migrants will reduce the stopover duration at Portuguese reedbeds. PMID:26948014

  14. Evaluating macroinvertebrate biological metrics for ecological assessment of streams in northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varandas, Simone G; Cortes, Rui Manuel Vitor

    2010-07-01

    A procedure to select the most relevant metrics for assessing the ecological condition of the Douro basin (north Portugal) was developed based upon a set of 184 benthic community metrics. They were grouped into 16 biological categories selected from literature using data collected over 2 years from 54 sites along 31 rivers covering the whole perceived range of human disturbance. Multivariate analyses were carried out to identify the main trends in the macroinvertebrate data, to select reference versus impaired sites, to avoid multicolinearity between metrics, and to identify those that were clearly independent from natural stream typology. Structural metrics, adaptation metrics, and tolerance measures most effectively responded across a range of human influence. We find these attributes to be ecologically sound for monitoring Portugal's lotic ecosystems and providing information relevant to the Water Framework Directive, which asserts that the definition of water quality depends on its "ecological status", independent of the actual or potential uses of those waters. PMID:19488735

  15. An overview about the medical use of antifungals in Portugal in the last years.

    PubMed

    Manuel da S Azevedo, Maria; Cruz, Luisa; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Gonçalves-Rodrigues, Acácio

    2016-05-01

    Despite the introduction of new antifungal agents, the frequency of invasive and mucocutaneous fungal infections as well as resistance to antifungal drugs continues to increase. Over 300 million persons are infected annually with fungi. Resistance to antimicrobials is one of today's major health threats. Can the possible causes of fungal antimicrobial resistance be understood and prevented to minimize risks to public health. We provide an overview of antifungal drug use in European countries, particularly Portugal. We reviewed prescriptions for and over-the-counter sales (OTC) of azoles in Portuguese pharmacies and in alternative shops. We conclude that in Portugal, azole antifungal sales, as well as medical prescribed azoles are very high. The Portuguese population consumes more antifungal drugs per capita than others in Europe. PMID:26865319

  16. Decrease in rate of multiple sclerosis-related hospitalizations in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marta; Lambrelli, Dimitra; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate the rate of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related hospitalizations in Portugal and assess whether there have been temporal changes as described in other countries. Using data from the Portuguese National Discharge Registry, we observed that between 2008 and 2013 the rate of MS-related hospitalizations decreased by 44%, from 15.9/100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI: 14.9-16.9) in 2008 to 8.9/100 person-years (95% CI: 8.2-9.6) in 2013. The change in hospitalization rates is in accordance with what has been observed in other countries, and coincides with the release of new therapies for MS in Portugal.

  17. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population's health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal. PMID:25642793

  18. Climate change and pollutant emissions impacts on air quality in 2050 over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, E.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J.; Marta-Almeida, M.; Rocha, A.; Carvalho, A.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.

    2016-04-01

    Changes in climate and air pollutant emissions will affect future air quality from global to urban scale. In this study, regional air quality simulations for historical and future periods are conducted, with CAMx version 6.0, to investigate the impacts of future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over Portugal and the Porto metropolitan area in 2050. The climate and the emission projections were derived from the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP8.5) scenario. Modelling results show that climate change will impact NO2, PM10 and O3 concentrations over Portugal. The NO2 and PM10 annual means will increase in Portugal and in the Porto municipality, and the maximum 8-hr daily O3 value will increase in the Porto suburban areas (approximately 5%) and decrease in the urban area (approximately 2%). When considering climate change and projected anthropogenic emissions, the NO2 annual mean decreases (approximately 50%); PM10 annual mean will increase in Portugal and decrease in Porto municipality (approximately 13%); however PM10 and O3 levels increase and extremes occur more often, surpassing the currently legislated annual limits and displaying a higher frequency of daily exceedances. This air quality degradation is likely to be related with the trends found for the 2046-2065 climate, which implies warmer and dryer conditions, and with the increase of background concentrations of ozone and particulate matter. The results demonstrate the need for Portuguese authorities and policy-makers to design and implement air quality management strategies that take climate change impacts into account.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the First NDM-1-Producing Providencia stuartii Strain Isolated in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Manageiro, Vera; Sampaio, Daniel A.; Pereira, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Paulo; Vieira, Luís; Palos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the first NDM-1-producing Providencia stuartii strain isolated in Portugal. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an incompatibility group A/C2 (IncA/C2) plasmid and of diverse acquired genes conferring resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, macrolides, chloramphenicol, and sulfonamides. This sequence contributes to the evaluation of the spread of NDM-1 producers. PMID:26404603

  20. Forecasting Portugal's Wind Power Production by a Fuzzy-PCA Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Lio; Salgado, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    The increased integration of wind power into the electric grid, as nowadays occurs in Portugal, poses new challenges due to its intermittency and volatility. Wind power prediction plays a key role in tackling these challenges. The contribution of this paper is to propose a new approach, combining fuzzy clustering and PCA, that uses historical data and wind speed data to get estimates of power curves that are very accurate.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the First NDM-1-Producing Providencia stuartii Strain Isolated in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Manageiro, Vera; Sampaio, Daniel A; Pereira, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Paulo; Vieira, Luís; Palos, Carlos; Caniça, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the first NDM-1-producing Providencia stuartii strain isolated in Portugal. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an incompatibility group A/C2 (IncA/C2) plasmid and of diverse acquired genes conferring resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, macrolides, chloramphenicol, and sulfonamides. This sequence contributes to the evaluation of the spread of NDM-1 producers. PMID:26404603

  2. Acute Q fever in Portugal. Epidemiological and clinical features of 32 hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Palmela, Carolina; Badura, Robert; Valadas, Emília

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. The main characteristic of acute Q fever is its clinical polymorphism, usually presenting as a febrile illness with varying degrees of hepatitis and/or pneumonia. Q fever is endemic in Portugal, and it is an obligatory notifiable disease since 1999. However, its epidemiological and clinical characteristics are still incompletely described. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 32 cases admitted in the Infectious Diseases Department, Santa Maria’s University Hospital, from January 2001 to December 2010, in whom acute Q fever was diagnosed by the presence of antibodies to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigens associated with a compatible clinical syndrome. Results Out of the 32 cases recorded, 29 (91%) were male, with a male:female ratio of 9.7:1. Individuals at productive age were mainly affected (88%, n=28, with ages between 25 and 64 years). Clinically, the most common manifestation of acute Q fever was hepatic involvement (84%, n=27), which occurred isolated in 53% (n=17) of the cases. Hepatitis was more severe, presenting with higher values of liver function tests, in patients presenting both pulmonary and hepatic involvement. Additionally, we report one case of myocarditis and another one with neurological involvement. Empiric but appropriate antibiotic therapy was given in 66% (n=21) of the cases. There was a complete recovery in 94% (n=30) of the patients, and one death. We confirmed the sub-notification of this disease in Portugal, with only 47% (n=15) of the cases notified. Conclusion In Portugal further studies are needed to confirm our results. From the 32 cases studied, acute Q fever presented more frequently as a febrile disease with hepatic involvement affecting mainly young male individuals. Furthermore, acute Q fever is clearly underdiagnosed and underreported in Portugal, which suggests that an increased awareness of the disease is needed, together with a broader use

  3. Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. However, very few studies have been conducted that assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality in urban areas in Portugal. Methods In this paper time-series analysis was used to model the relationship between mean apparent temperature and daily mortality during the warm season (April to September) in the two largest urban areas in Portugal: Lisbon and Oporto. We used generalized additive Poisson regression models, adjusted for day of week and season. Results Our results show that in Lisbon, a 1°C increase in mean apparent temperature is associated with a 2.1% (95%CI: 1.6, 2.5), 2.4% (95%CI: 1.7, 3.1) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.1, 3.4) increase in all-causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In Oporto the increase was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.0, 1.9), 2.1% (95%CI: 1.3, 2.9) and 2.7% (95%CI: 1.2, 4.3) respectively. In both cities, this increase was greater for the group >65 years. Conclusion Even without extremes in apparent temperature, we observed an association between temperature and daily mortality in Portugal. Additional research is needed to allow for better assessment of vulnerability within populations in Portugal in order to develop more effective heat-related morbidity and mortality public health programs. PMID:20219128

  4. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  5. High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2011-05-01

    We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:21104273

  6. [APF. Open letter to the political parties, on the abortion situation in Portugal].

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    On the eve of legislative elections on September 21, 1995, the Portuguese Family Planning Association published an open letter to the political parties about the situation of abortion in Portugal. This was part of the activities of the Working Group on the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy which has been carrying out relevant work about abortion in Portugal since 1991. This group unites diverse nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) of women, trade unions, and professionals. The open letter was approved by 19 NGOs and scores of personalities. Clandestine abortion continues to be one of the most severe health problems for women in reproductive age in Portugal and the primary cause of maternal death. The law of 6/84 on abortion, which allows for exceptions to the voluntary interruption of pregnancy for certain causes, has been considered inadequate by numerous civic and professional organizations. Only a small proportion of abortions are carried out in medical establishments out of the 16,000 abortions estimated to occur every year in Portugal. It is known that in many instances fetal malformations are diagnosed after 16 weeks of gestation, which is the limit for legal abortion stipulated in this law. Furthermore, the law has not been applied in flagrant cases, such as drug-addicted pregnant women and/or women infected with HIV. There was an attempt to revise the Penal Code with regard to this matter; however, its submission for debate to the National Assembly has been blocked. This shows that the question of illegal abortion continues to be a taboo topic for many politicians instead of a serious public health concern. The reasons why women undergo abortion are: contraceptive failure or method unreliability, and socioeconomic as well as emotional factors. The political parties are exhorted to exhibit the courage to amend the existing law and solve this problem. PMID:12179259

  7. New insights into the reconstructed temperature in Portugal over the last 400 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Correia, A.; Alcoforado, M. J.; Zorita, E.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of an existing reconstructed annual (December-November) temperature series for the Lisbon region (Portugal) from 1600 onwards is assessed in the present study. The consistency of this series with: (1) five local borehole temperature-depth profiles; (2) synthetic temperature-depth profiles generated from both reconstructed temperatures and paleoclimate simulations in Portugal; (3) instrumental data sources over the twentieth century; and (4) temperature indices from documentary sources during the late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715) is assessed. It is found that reconstructed annual mean temperature series in Portugal, after European-wide reconstructions, is not consistent with both borehole profiles and paleoclimate simulations in their long-term variability and trends. Hence, the non-linear trend in the paleoclimate simulations is estimated and added to the reconstructed series (first-stage calibration). The annual reconstructed series is then calibrated in its location and scale parameters, using the instrumental series and a linear regression between them (second-stage calibration). The resulting calibrated series is then in clear accordance with the low-frequency variability of both borehole temperature-depth profiles and paleoclimate simulations. This calibrated series shows clear footprints of the Maunder and Dalton minima, mainly attributed to changes in solar activity and explosive volcanic eruptions, and a strong recent-past warming, attributed to human-driven forcing. Lastly, it is also in overall agreement with independently-derived annual temperature indices for the late Maunder Minimum. Thus, the series resulting of this re-calibration process for Lisbon can be of foremost relevance to improve the current understanding of the driving mechanisms of climate variability in Portugal.

  8. Estimation of the Crustal Bulk Properties Beneath Mainland Portugal from P-Wave Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Süleyman; Dias, Nuno A.; Silveira, Graça; Kind, Rainer; Vinnik, Lev; Matias, Luís; Bianchi, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present results from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) obtained in Portugal, Western Iberia. A dense seismic station deployment conducted between 2010 and 2012, in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire country, allowed the most spatially extensive probing on the bulk crustal seismic properties of Portugal up to date. The application of the H-κ stacking algorithm to the PRFs enabled us to estimate the crustal thickness (H) and the average crustal ratio of the P- and S-waves velocities V p/V s (κ) for the region. Observations of Moho conversions indicate that this interface is relatively smooth with the crustal thickness ranging between 24 and 34 km, with an average of 30 km. The highest V p/V s values are found on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic crust beneath the western and southern coastal domain of Portugal, whereas the lowest values correspond to Palaeozoic crust underlying the remaining part of the subject area. An average V p/V s is found to be 1.72, ranging 1.63-1.86 across the study area, indicating a predominantly felsic composition. Overall, we systematically observe a decrease of V p/V s with increasing crustal thickness. Taken as a whole, our results indicate a clear distinction between the geological zones of the Variscan Iberian Massif in Portugal, the overall shape of the anomalies conditioned by the shape of the Ibero-Armorican Arc, and associated Late Paleozoic suture zones, and the Meso-Cenozoic basin associated with Atlantic rifting stages. Thickened crust (30-34 km) across the studied region may be inherited from continental collision during the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny. An anomalous crustal thinning to around 28 km is observed beneath the central part of the Central Iberian Zone and the eastern part of South Portuguese Zone.

  9. Estimation of the Crustal Bulk Properties Beneath Mainland Portugal from P-Wave Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Süleyman; Dias, Nuno A.; Silveira, Graça; Kind, Rainer; Vinnik, Lev; Matias, Luís; Bianchi, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present results from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) obtained in Portugal, Western Iberia. A dense seismic station deployment conducted between 2010 and 2012, in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire country, allowed the most spatially extensive probing on the bulk crustal seismic properties of Portugal up to date. The application of the H- κ stacking algorithm to the PRFs enabled us to estimate the crustal thickness ( H) and the average crustal ratio of the P- and S-waves velocities V p/ V s ( κ) for the region. Observations of Moho conversions indicate that this interface is relatively smooth with the crustal thickness ranging between 24 and 34 km, with an average of 30 km. The highest V p/ V s values are found on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic crust beneath the western and southern coastal domain of Portugal, whereas the lowest values correspond to Palaeozoic crust underlying the remaining part of the subject area. An average V p/ V s is found to be 1.72, ranging 1.63-1.86 across the study area, indicating a predominantly felsic composition. Overall, we systematically observe a decrease of V p/ V s with increasing crustal thickness. Taken as a whole, our results indicate a clear distinction between the geological zones of the Variscan Iberian Massif in Portugal, the overall shape of the anomalies conditioned by the shape of the Ibero-Armorican Arc, and associated Late Paleozoic suture zones, and the Meso-Cenozoic basin associated with Atlantic rifting stages. Thickened crust (30-34 km) across the studied region may be inherited from continental collision during the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny. An anomalous crustal thinning to around 28 km is observed beneath the central part of the Central Iberian Zone and the eastern part of South Portuguese Zone.

  10. Genotyping Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Swine from the North of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Ana Patrícia; VILARES, Anabela; NETO, Francisco; RODRIGUES, Alcina; MARTINS, Tânia; FERREIRA, Idalina; GARGATÉ, Maria João; RODRIGUES, Manuela; CARDOSO, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological investigations on Toxoplasma gondii infection have found a significant association between human toxoplasmosis and consumption of raw or undercooked meat. The present study aimed to characterize genotypes of T. gondii in 20 cattle, 40 sheep, 15 goats and 16 pigs from the North of Portugal. Methods: Nested PCR amplified the surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene. Sequencing analysis was performed in order to assess the prevalence of SAG2 type strains (I, II and III). Results: Three and 4 strains of SAG2 type II were identified in heart samples of cattle and sheep, respectively. Three SAG2 type II strains were detected in brain, diaphragm and heart of 3 pigs. Three strains detected in heart samples of 3 goats belonged to SAG2 types I or II; with the same result being observed in heart samples from 2 sheep and in 2 brain and 1 heart samples from 3 pigs. Conclusion: SAG2 type II has been shown for the first time to infect cattle in North of Portugal. In addition, SAG2 type II has also been confirmed as the predominant strain in sheep and pigs in the same region. This is the first molecular report of T. gondii in goats from Portugal. PMID:26622302

  11. Seroprevalence of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in feline and canine hosts from central and northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L; Silvestre-Ferreira, A C; Fontes-Sousa, A P; Balreira, A C; Morchón, R; Carretón, E; Vilhena, H; Simón, F; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2015-09-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is endemic in Portugal. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease, although no previous studies on feline infections have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of D. immitis in cats and dogs from central and northern Portugal. Blood samples from 434 cats were tested for circulating anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibodies. Furthermore, 386 dogs were tested for circulating D. immitis antigens. Overall feline seroprevalence was 15%, while canine prevalence was 2.1%. The highest feline seroprevalences of 18.7% and 17.6% were found in Aveiro and Viseu, respectively, while the highest canine prevalences of 8.8% and 6.8% were found in Coimbra and Aveiro, respectively. Cats and dogs showing respiratory signs presented higher prevalences of 24.4% and 17%, respectively, while 50% of cats with gastrointestinal signs were seropositive. The present study confirms the seropositivity of D. immitis in the feline population in central and northern Portugal, and suggests the importance of including heartworm disease in the list of differential diagnoses of cats and dogs showing clinical signs compatible with the disease. PMID:24824176

  12. Phylogenetic status and matrilineal structure of the biting midge, Culicoides imicola, in Portugal, Rhodes and Israel.

    PubMed

    Dallas, J F; Cruickshank, R H; Linton, Y-M; Nolan, D V; Patakakis, M; Braverman, Y; Capela, R; Capela, M; Pena, I; Meiswinkel, R; Ortega, M D; Baylis, M; Mellor, P S; Mordue Luntz, A J

    2003-12-01

    The biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the most important Old World vector of African horse sickness (AHS) and bluetongue (BT). Recent increases of BT incidence in the Mediterranean basin are attributed to its increased abundance and distribution. The phylogenetic status and genetic structure of C. imicola in this region are unknown, despite the importance of these aspects for BT epidemiology in the North American BT vector. In this study, analyses of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 50 C. imicola from Portugal, Rhodes, Israel, and South Africa and four other species of the Imicola Complex from southern Africa, and to estimate levels of matrilineal subdivision in C. imicola between Portugal and Israel. Eleven haplotypes were detected in C. imicola, and these formed one well-supported clade in maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees implying that the C. imicola samples comprise one phylogenetic species. Molecular variance was distributed mainly between Portugal and Israel, with no haplotypes shared between these countries, suggesting that female-mediated gene flow at this scale has been either limited or non-existent. Our results provide phylogenetic evidence that C. imicola in the study areas are potentially competent AHS and BT vectors. The geographical structure of the C. imicola COI haplotypes was concordant with that of BT virus serotypes in recent BT outbreaks in the Mediterranean basin, suggesting that population subdivision in its vector can impose spatial constraints on BT virus transmission. PMID:14651651

  13. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Delatorre, Edson; Guimarães, Monick L; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called G(CV-PT)). The G(CV-PT) clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the G(CV-PT) clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the G(CV-PT) clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the G(CV-PT )and CRF14_BG clades. PMID:25993094

  14. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Monick L.; Morgado, Mariza G.; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called GCV-PT). The GCV-PT clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the GCV-PT clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the GCV-PT clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the GCV-PT and CRF14_BG clades. PMID:25993094

  15. Trends of cross-border mobility of physicians and nurses between Portugal and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Health workforce cross-border mobility has an impact not only on individual health workers, but also on how health services are organized, planned, and delivered. This paper presents the results of a study of current mobility trends of health professionals along the borders between Portugal and Spain. The objective was to describe the profile of mobile physicians and nurses; to elicit the opinions of employers on mobility factors; to describe incentive policies to retain or attract health professionals; and to collect and analyse employers’ opinions on the impact of this mobility on their health services. Methods Phone interviews of key informants were used to collect relevant data. The interviews were conducted during December 2010 and January 2011 in health organizations along the border of the two countries. In Portugal and Spain, four and 13 organizations were selected, respectively. Interviews were obtained in all the Portuguese organizations and in four of the Spanish organizations. Results Findings suggest that cross-border mobility between the two countries has decreased. From Spain to Portugal, mobility trends are mainly of physicians who seek professional development in the form of specialization, the availability of positions, better salaries, and the perceived good living conditions. The mobility of nurses lasted until 2008, when reforms improved working conditions in Spain and contributed to reversing the flow. Since then, there has been an increase of Portuguese nurses going to Spain seeking better working conditions or simply a job. Portuguese nurses as well as Spanish physicians are well considered in terms of professionalism and qualifications by their Spanish and Portuguese hosts, respectively. Conclusions There is a deficit of valid data on the health workforce in general. The present study allowed further exploration of the reality of the mobility trends between Portugal and Spain. At present, the mobility trends are mainly of Spanish

  16. The Afrotropical Miomantiscaffra Saussure 1871 and Miomantispaykullii Stal 1871: first records of alien mantid species in Portugal and Europe, with an updated checklist of Mantodea in Portugal (Insecta: Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Marabuto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The recent growing interest on the Mantodea fauna of southern Europe and Portugal in particular, has enabled the discovery of two geographically separated populations of hitherto unknown species in Europe. Analysis of specimens shows that they belong to two Afrotropical mantids: Miomantiscaffra Saussure, 1871 and Miomantispaykullii Stal, 1871, thus raising the number of known species in Europe to 39 and in Portugal to 11. While these are remarkable findings, they also represent the first alien mantis species recorded from this continent. As yet, these species appear to be confined to artificial humanised gardened areas but call for more attention to the problem of biological invasions and the need for better bio-security measures for the conservation of natural ecosystems. In the absence of recent revisionary work on the Mantodea of Portugal and given the need to provide an accessible identification tool, both a checklist and a key to species are provided for all species in the country. PMID:25425938

  17. The Afrotropical Miomantis caffra Saussure 1871 and Miomantis paykullii Stal 1871: first records of alien mantid species in Portugal and Europe, with an updated checklist of Mantodea in Portugal (Insecta: Mantodea)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The recent growing interest on the Mantodea fauna of southern Europe and Portugal in particular, has enabled the discovery of two geographically separated populations of hitherto unknown species in Europe. Analysis of specimens shows that they belong to two Afrotropical mantids: Miomantis caffra Saussure, 1871 and Miomantis paykullii Stal, 1871, thus raising the number of known species in Europe to 39 and in Portugal to 11. While these are remarkable findings, they also represent the first alien mantis species recorded from this continent. As yet, these species appear to be confined to artificial humanised gardened areas but call for more attention to the problem of biological invasions and the need for better bio-security measures for the conservation of natural ecosystems. In the absence of recent revisionary work on the Mantodea of Portugal and given the need to provide an accessible identification tool, both a checklist and a key to species are provided for all species in the country. PMID:25425938

  18. "Houses and Fields and Vineyards Shall Yet Again Be Bought in This Land": The Story of Ana, a Public Kindergarten Teacher in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa Maria Sena

    This study examined the teaching style and methods of Ana, a kindergarten teacher in Portugal, chosen because she is considered a master teacher by colleagues and parents and because she grew up in Portugal before democracy. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What are the commitments and competencies that distinguish Ana as a master…

  19. First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown. In this study, a first survey of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and a...

  20. sup 40 Ar- sup 39 Ar dating of the Beja gabbro: Timing of the accretion of southern Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffet, G. )

    1990-11-01

    The {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar dating of the amphibole from the Beja gabbro (Southern Portugal) yields a plateau age at 336.4 {plus minus} 0.8 Ma (2{sigma} level). The corresponding calculated isotopic closure temperature is around 800C. The comparison of this temperature with the magnetic blocking temperature ({approximately}570C) allows an estimation of a probable thermoremanent acquisition age for the characteristic magnetization component of the Beja gabbro between 335Ma and 315Ma, assuming cooling rates between 10C/Ma and 100C/Ma. These results, combined wtih paleomagnetic results from the Beja gabbro and Late Paleozoic rocks from Southern Portugal (Perroud et al., 1985), suggest that the southermost part of Spain and Portugal was separated from Northern Iberia in Early Carboniferous times and was accreted to Europe during the Late Carboniferous.

  1. Retrospective and prospective analysis of policy incentives for wind power in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Cabra, Ivonne A.

    Concerns over climate change impacts, goals to increase environmental sustainability, and questions about the reliability of fuel supply have led several countries to pursue the goal of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in their electricity grid. Portugal is one of the leading countries for wind electricity generation. Wind diffusion in Portugal started in the early 2000's and in 2013 wind electricity generation accounted for more than 24% (REN 2013b). The large share of wind in Portuguese electricity production is a consequence of European Union (E.U.) mandates and national policies, mainly feed-in tariffs. Discussions on the appropriate policy design and level of incentive to promote renewable energy adoption and meet further renewable capacity goals are ongoing in Portugal, namely in what concerns the level and duration of feed-in tariffs that should be provided to independent power producers. This, in turn, raises the question of whether the past feed-in tariff levels were well designed to achieve the goals of a larger penetration of renewables in the Portuguese grid. The policies to induce wind adoption have led to a growth in wind installed capacity and share of electricity generated by wind in Portugal from less than 1% in 2000 to approximately 24% in 2013, but questions arise on their cost-effectiveness and whether alternative policy designs would have led to the same goal. The Portuguese wind feed-in tariffs are a guaranteed incentive which has varied between 85- 180/MWh over the last 20 years (ERSE 2011), and remained approximately constant since 2001 at $101/MWh. They are currently guaranteed for 20 years of production or 44GWh of electricity generation per MW installed (Diario da Republica 2013) - the longest period among countries with high wind electricity share. They do not incorporate any digression rate besides inflation, and are guaranteed for every unit of electricity fed to the grid. There are no power plants that have already

  2. Hydro-geomorphologic disasters in Portugal: mortality trends in the past 150 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Zêzere, José L.; Quaresma, Ivânia; Santos, Pedro P.; Santos, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    For the first time in Portugal, an extensive analysis of the mortality caused by hydro-geomorphological hazards was made, for a long period (1865-2010) using the DISASTER database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database was built under the assumption that social consequences (including fatalities) of floods and landslides are relevant enough to be reported by newspapers, which were the source for data collection. This database counts 1902 hydro-geomorphologic cases that caused 1248 fatalities, 14 191 evacuated persons and 41 844 homeless persons. Floods correspond to the majority of cases (85.2%) that caused 1012 fatalities. Landslides correspond to 14.8 % of the total hydro-geomorphologic cases and caused 236 fatalities. The exploitation of the DISASTER database allowed: (i) to analyze the frequency and the temporal evolution of fatal floods and landslides; (ii) to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of fatalities; (iii) to identify the most deadly flood and landslide types; and (iv) to evaluate the individual and societal risk. The obtained results demonstrate the absence of any exponential growth with time of hydro-geomorphologic cases and associated fatalities in Portugal. The highest flood and landslide cases as well as the associated mortality were registered in the period 1935-1969. After this period, flood and landslide mortality decreased, although landslide fatalities remained higher than the registered in the period 1865-1934. These features do not account the exceptional flash flood event occurred in the Lisbon region in November 1967. This outlier event was responsible for 522 fatalities, which corresponds to more than half of the total mortality generated by floods in Portugal in the complete time series (1865 - 2010). Moreover, the 1967 flash flood event was the deadliest natural disaster registered in Portugal after the Lisbon earthquake occurred in 1755, not accounting heat waves. Flood fatalities occurred widespread in the country, with an

  3. Evolution of elastic properties and acoustic emission, during uniaxial loading of rocks, from the Fogo Volcano in the island of Sao Miguel, Azores; Preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, M.; Wallenstein, N.

    2012-04-01

    , and important hysteresis for axial pressure above that level. The associated AE events show a characteristic Kaiser effect pattern. Cores from sample #4 undergo the same continuous increasing stress process, but failure is attained at a considerable lower pressure of 20-25 MPa. The stress-strain curves show an almost linear relation, but approaching the stress level of failure, the YM decreases. The AE events are constant but with a reduced rate until the decrease of the YM, when a significant rise in the AE occurs, achieving emission rates greater that 200 s-1. The fracture shows a characteristic shear pattern. Differences in stress-strain behavior, fracture mode and AE rates are associated with the very different structure of the rocks, once the basaltic sample is very fine grained with some very scattered and almost spherical vesicles or voids, while the benmoreitic core shows high values of porosity in a structure with vesicles and voids with very irregular shapes. Work supported by FCT, Portugal, projet FreeRock, PTDC/CTE-GIX/100687/2008

  4. Dominance of Serotype Ia among Group B Streptococci Causing Invasive Infections in Nonpregnant Adults in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Martins, E. R.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2012-01-01

    The population of group B streptococci (GBS) associated with invasive infections in nonpregnant adults from 2001 to 2008 was analyzed in isolates submitted from 24 hospital laboratories in Portugal (n = 225). The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and surface protein gene profiling. GBS invasive cases were found more frequently among men in all age groups. In addition, serotype Ia was the most frequent in our collection, whereas serotype V is dominant elsewhere. Serotype Ia was represented mainly by a single PFGE cluster defined by sequence type 23 (ST23) and surface protein gene eps and by ST24 and bca, similarly to neonatal invasive infections in Portugal, indicating that the same genetic lineages can be responsible for both vaginal colonization and invasive disease in all age groups. In contrast, the hypervirulent serotype III/ST17 neonatal lineage was responsible for a minority of infections. Serotype V isolates were distributed into two genetic lineages, one defined by ST1 and surface protein gene alp3 and macrolide resistant, and another presenting with ST2 and eps and fully susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The erm(TR) gene was the most frequently found among erythromycin-resistant isolates, while the bovine-associated tet(O) gene was found in a minority of tetracycline-resistant isolates. Our data emphasize the importance of local identification of the genetic lineages responsible for GBS invasive infections in nonpregnant adults. The dominance of serotype Ia in invasive disease in Portugal highlights the importance of this serotype in GBS pathogenesis. PMID:22219307

  5. The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

  6. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene. PMID:25973508

  7. A 19-Month Climatology of Marine Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Properties Derived From DOE ARM AMF Deployment at the Azores: Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-Layered MBL Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Minnis, Patrick; Wood, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 19-month record of total, and single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high (> 6 km) cloud fractions (CFs), and the single-layered marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties has been generated from ground-based measurements taken at the ARM Azores site between June 2009 and December 2010. It documents the most comprehensive and longest dataset on marine cloud fraction and MBL cloud properties to date. The annual means of total CF, and single-layered low, middle, and high CFs derived from ARM radar-lidar observations are 0.702, 0.271, 0.01 and 0.106, respectively. More total and single-layered high CFs occurred during winter, while single-layered low CFs were greatest during summer. The diurnal cycles for both total and low CFs are stronger during summer than during winter. The CFs are bimodally distributed in the vertical with a lower peak at approx. 1 km and higher one between 8 and 11 km during all seasons, except summer, when only the low peak occurs. The persistent high pressure and dry conditions produce more single-layered MBL clouds and fewer total clouds during summer, while the low pressure and moist air masses during winter generate more total and multilayered-clouds, and deep frontal clouds associated with midlatitude cyclones.

  8. Predominance of KPC-3 in a Survey for Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Manageiro, Vera; Ferreira, Eugénia; Almeida, Joana; Barbosa, Stephanie; Simões, Constança; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Among the 2,105 Enterobacteriaceae tested in a survey done in Portugal, 165 were nonsusceptible to carbapenems, from which 35 (26 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 Escherichia coli, 2 Enterobacter aerogenes, and 3 Enterobacter cloacae isolates and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate) were confirmed to be carbapenemase producers by the presence of 30 Tn4401d-blaKPC-3, 4 intI3-blaGES-5, and one intI1-blaVIM-2 gene, alone or in combination with other bla genes. The dissemination of blaKPC-3 gene carried by an IncF plasmid suggests lateral gene transfer as a major mechanism of dissemination. PMID:25779587

  9. Notes on Archaeoastronomy in Portugal: From First Light to Dark Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Cândido Marciano da

    2015-05-01

    These notes review the concepts and analyses that were developed over the years, regarding the region of Central Alentejo, in Portugal, following the report in 1971 of the Almendres Cromlech discovery. Field work on menhirs and enclosures, initially targeted at the identification of standstill orientations, would show that some lines seemed to suggest possible equinoctial orientations. However, it appears that it was the orientation pattern of the dolmens that would prevail over equinoctial directions and led to the concepts of the Spring Full Moon and of the rising Sun and Moon crossovers presently under debate.

  10. NUVEM - New methods to Use gnss water Vapor Estimates for Meteorology of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Viterbo, P.; Bos, M. S.; Martins, J. P.; Sá, A. G.; Valentim, H.; Jones, J.

    2014-12-01

    NUVEM (New methods to Use gnss water Vapor Estimates for Meteorology of Portugal) is a collaborative project funded by the Portuguese National Science Foundation (FCT) aiming to implement a multi-disciplinary approach in order to operationalize the inclusion of GNSS-PWV estimates for nowcasting in Portugal, namely for the preparation of warnings of severe weather. To achieve such goal, the NUVEM project is divided in two major components: a) Development and implementation of methods to compute accurate estimates of PWV (Precipitable Water Vapor) in NRT (Near Real-Time); b) Integration of such estimates in nowcasting procedures in use at IPMA (Portuguese Meteorological Service). Methodologies will be optimized at SEGAL to passive and actively access to the data; the PWV estimations will be computed using PPP (Precise Point Positioning), which permits the estimation of each individual station separately; solutions will be validated using internal and external values; and computed solutions will be transferred timely to the IPMA Operational Center. Validation of derived estimations using robust statistics is an important component of the project. The need for sending computed values as soon as possible to IPMA requires fast but reliable internal (e.g., noise estimation) and external (e.g., feedback from IPMA using other sensors like radiosondes) assessment of the quality of the PWV estimates. At IPMA, the goal is to implement the operational use of GNSS-PWV to assist weather nowcasting in Portugal. This will be done with the assistance of the Meteo group of IDL. Maps of GNSS-PWV will be automatically created and compared with solutions provided by other operational systems in order to help IPMA to detect suspicious patterns at near real time. This will be the first step towards the assimilation of GNSS-PWV estimates at IPMA nowcasting models. The NUVEM (EXPL/GEO-MET/0413/2013) project will also contribute to the active participation of Portugal at the COST Action ES

  11. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing. PMID:17632802

  12. Analysis of Rainfall Changes in Transnational Basins in Portugal and Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, S. B.; Kilsby, C. G.; Serinaldi, F.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate regime variability on the hydrology and water resources of the major transnational basins in Iberia (Portugal and Spain) is being studied. Spain is the source of the three major rivers that flow through Portugal, leaving this country in a vulnerable position. There is a strong interannual precipitation variability in Iberia, with very wet and very dry years occurring frequently. Situations of water scarcity are already frequent in the south of Portugal and Spain, so in the future, a critical problem of water availability for Iberia might arise. An analysis of changes in rainfall records covering the three major transnational basins was performed, using data from Spain and Portugal which are normally considered separately. This study area, defined by basins instead of countries, is more coherent for water resources analysis. Change point and trend analysis was performed on rainfall records in the transnational basins of rivers Douro, Tagus and Guadiana for the period 1961 to 2009. Non-parametric tests (Pettitt test, cusum test and Mann-Kendall test) were used in order not to have to assume a specific distribution for the data. Field significance was taken into account when calculating trends and change points. The importance of spatial correlation when calculating field significance was demonstrated. As well as finding changes in rainfall which have great significance for water resources, some important issues are raised as to the nature of changes in rainfall to be expected. Significant decreases in rainfall were found for the month of February and, to a lesser extent, March. Significant increases in rainfall were found for October in the Spanish side of Douro and Tagus catchments. The NAO index was considered as a possible explanation for the changes detected. It was also demonstrated that changes in rainfall cannot always be interpreted as trends or change points because the pattern of change can be more complex than these two simplistic

  13. A Taxonomic Catalogue of the Nemerteans (Phylum Nemertea) of Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Bachiller, Alfonso; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Ángel; Junoy, Juan

    2015-12-01

    A literature-based taxonomic catalogue of nemerteans (phylum Nemertea) from Spain and Portugal is provided, listing 75 species (12 Palaeonemertea, 24 Pilidiophora, and 39 Hoplonemertea) belonging to 34 genera. This is a low species number compared with the approximately 400 species listed in Europe. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to the low number of researchers interested in the phylum and the well-known taxonomic difficulties of its study. Geographic records are indicated for each species, and for some, comments are included on certain biological and taxonomic aspects. PMID:26654034

  14. Accumulation of mercury by Artemia populations of different salinas of Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Boia, C.M.; Duarte, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    The total mercury content in samples of the brine shrimp Artemia, sediments, water, suspended matter and, when available, algae, from nine salines of Portugal, was evaluated, to find out how mercury present in its natural habitat accumulates in Artemia. This study, carried out between 1990 and 1993, was part of a larger research project aiming to contribute to the knowledge on mercury accumulation and its effects on Artemia. This crustacean is used worldwide for marine species feeding in aquafarms, including in Portugal. The following sampling sites were chosen: some salinas of the lagoon of Aveiro, situated in the northern region of Portugal and partially contaminated with mercury-, the salt-mines of Rio Maior, in the interior of the central region of the country, where there are no sediments (the floor is cemented); and salt-marshes in the Algarve, in the south of Portugal. Mercury was determined by cold vapor absorption espectrofotometry after digestion of samples with sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate, and reference materials have been used to control the analytical performance. The concentrations of total Hg varied from 0.014 to 0.36 mg/Kg in the sediments, 0 to 0.30 {micro}g/g in the Artemia, 0.17 to 0.84 {micro}g/l in the suspended matter and 0.09 to 0.56 {micro}g/l in the water. The content of mercury in the artemias was strongly related to the concentration in the sediments, except when the algae were present, because they also accumulate a significantly percentage of the mercury. No relationships could be established with the Hg in water or in suspended matter (in mass of Hg/volume of filtered water), because their, content in Hg varied a lot with time and weather conditions, such as the wind strength. The presence of Hg in the sediments was due either to significant containing Hg discharges or to the composition of the sediments, being more important in the case of clays.

  15. Suicide in Portugal: Spatial determinants in a context of economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula; Costa, Cláudia; Cardoso, Graça; Loureiro, Adriana; Ferrão, João

    2015-09-01

    This study compares the existing statistical association between suicide mortality and the characteristics of places of residence (municipalities), before and during the current economic crisis, in Portugal. We found that (1) the traditional culture-based North/South pattern of suicidal behaviour has faded away, while the socioeconomic urban/rural divide has become more pronounced; (2) suicide is associated with higher levels of rurality and material deprivation; and (3) recent shifts in suicidal trends may result from the current period of crisis. Strategies targeting rural areas combined with public policies that address area deprivation may have important implications for tackling suicide. PMID:26277771

  16. Neisseria meningitidis C:2b:P1.2,5 with Intermediate Resistance to Penicillin, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ricardo; Ferreira, Eugénia

    2004-01-01

    For 1 year, serogroup, serotype, serosubtype, and penicillin susceptibility of meningococci circulating in various regions in Portugal were evaluated. Most frequent phenotypes were B:4:P1.15 (13.4%) and C:2b:P1.2,5 (75.9%), which are also common in Spain. Overall, 27.5% of C:2b:P1.2,5 strains showed intermediate resistance to penicillin. Laboratory-based surveillance of meningococcal infection in Portugal provides important information to assess the adequacy of public health measures. PMID:15109429

  17. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma marginale in Rhipicephalus bursa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferrolho, Joana; Antunes, Sandra; Santos, Ana S; Velez, Rita; Padre, Ludovina; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Domingos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropod (Acari:Ixodida) ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals as well as humans. The incidence of tick-borne diseases is rising worldwide, challenging our approach toward diagnosis, treatment and control options. Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877, a two-host tick widely distributed in the Palearctic Mediterranean region, is considered a multi-host tick that can be commonly found on sheep, goats and cattle, and occasionally on horses, dogs, deer and humans. R. bursa is a species involved in the transmission of several tick-borne pathogens with a known impact on animal health and production. The aim of this study was to estimate R. bursa prevalence in Portugal Mainland and circulating pathogens in order to contribute to a better knowledge of the impact of this tick species. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria spp. were detected and classified using phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of Theileria annulata and Theileria equi detection in R. bursa ticks feeding on cattle and horses, respectively, in Portugal. This study contributes toward the identification of currently circulating pathogens in this tick species as a prerequisite for developing future effective anti-tick control measures. PMID:26797395

  18. Polar marine biology science in Portugal and Spain: Recent advances and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, José C.; Barbosa, Andrés; Agustí, Susana; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Alvito, Pedro; Ameneiro, Julia; Ávila, Conxita; Baeta, Alexandra; Canário, João; Carmona, Raquel; Catry, Paulo; Ceia, Filipe; Clark, Melody S.; Cristobo, Francisco J.; Cruz, Bruno; Duarte, Carlos M.; Figuerola, Blanca; Gili, Josep-Maria; Gonçalves, Ana R.; Gordillo, Francisco J. L.; Granadeiro, José P.; Guerreiro, Miguel; Isla, Enrique; Jiménez, Carlos; López-González, Pablo J.; Lourenço, Sílvia; Marques, João C.; Moreira, Elena; Mota, Ana M.; Nogueira, Marta; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Orejas, Covadonga; Paiva, Vitor H.; Palanques, Albert; Pearson, Gareth A.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Power, Deborah M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Rossi, Sergi; Seco, José; Sañé, Elisabet; Serrão, Ester A.; Taboada, Sergi; Tavares, Sílvia; Teixidó, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Valente, Tiago; Vázquez, Elsa; Vieira, Rui P.; Viñegla, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Polar marine ecosystems have global ecological and economic importance because of their unique biodiversity and their major role in climate processes and commercial fisheries, among others. Portugal and Spain have been highly active in a wide range of disciplines in marine biology of the Antarctic and the Arctic. The main aim of this paper is to provide a synopsis of some of the results and initiatives undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish polar teams within the field of marine sciences, particularly on benthic and pelagic biodiversity (species diversity and abundance, including microbial, molecular, physiological and chemical mechanisms in polar organisms), conservation and ecology of top predators (particularly penguins, albatrosses and seals), and pollutants and evolution of marine organisms associated with major issues such as climate change, ocean acidification and UV radiation effects. Both countries have focused their polar research more in the Antarctic than in the Arctic. Portugal and Spain should encourage research groups to continue increasing their collaborations with other countries and develop multi-disciplinary research projects, as well as to maintain highly active memberships within major organizations, such as the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the International Arctic Science Council (IASC) and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), and in international research projects.

  19. Changes in the characteristics of facial fractures in children and adolescents in Portugal 1993-2012.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro; Barbosa, Joselina; Amarante, José; Insua-Pereira, Inês; Soares, Carlos; Silva, Álvaro

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the changes in the characteristics of facial fractures in children and adolescents during a 20-year period in Portugal to try to find out how to prevent such fractures in future. We reviewed the clinical records of patients aged 0-18 years old who had facial fractures treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery, São João Hospital, Porto, during the 20-year period 1993-2012. The patients were divided into two 10-year periods: January 1993 to December 2002, and January 2003 to December 2012, and these were compared and analysed. A total of 1416 patients with 2071 fractures were diagnosed. There was a significant reduction (p<0.001) in the number of patients treated during the two decades. In both groups the number of patients increased with increasing age (p<0.001), and there was a male preponderance in all age groups. Motor vehicle collisions were the main cause of the fractures, and the mandible was the most common site (49.7%). Other injuries were recorded in 1015 patients (71.7%), and the head and neck was the most common site in both decades. Facial fractures in children are usually associated with severe trauma, and their characteristics can be influenced by social and economic factors. Although the number of children injured has decreased significantly during the last decade, facial fractures remain common in Portugal. PMID:25560325

  20. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  1. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test - IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  2. Distribution of HLA alleles in Portugal and Cabo Verde. Relationships with the slave trade route.

    PubMed

    Spínola, H; Brehm, A; Williams, F; Jesus, J; Middleton, D

    2002-07-01

    HLA-A, -B, and -DR frequencies were analysed in populations from Portugal and the Madeira and Cabo Verde Archipelagos, aiming to characterize their genetic composition. Portuguese settlers colonized both Archipelagos in the 15th and 16th centuries. Madeira received many sub-Saharan slaves to work in the sugar plantations, and Cabo Verde served as a pivotal market in the Atlantic slave trade and was populated by individuals coming from the Senegambia region of the West African coast. The population of Madeira shows the highest genetic diversity and the presence of alleles and haplotypes usually linked to sub-Saharan populations, the haplotypes accounting for 3.5% of the total. Cabo Verde presents typical markers acknowledged to be of European or Ibero-Mediterranean origin, thus revealing the admixture of European settlers with Sub-Saharan slaves. Altogether the number of European haplotypes reaches 15% of the total. The Portuguese population shows a perceivable and significant heterogeneity both in allele and haplotype frequencies, unveiling a differential input of peoples from different origins. A PCA of the populations studied, plus other relevant ones, clearly shows gene heterogeneity in mainland Portugal as well as the differences and relationships between these populations and Madeira and Cabo Verde. PMID:12418969

  3. Cloud-to-ground lightning in Portugal: patterns and dynamical forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Reis, M. A.; Sousa, J.; Leite, S. M.; Correia, S.; Janeira, M.; Fragoso, M.

    2012-03-01

    An analysis of the cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) over Portugal is carried out using data collected by a network of sensors maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute for 2003-2009 (7 yr). Only cloud-to-ground flashes are considered and negative polarity CGD are largely dominant. The total number of discharges reveals a considerable interannual variability and a large irregularity in their distribution throughout the year. However, it is shown that a large number of discharges occur in the May-September period (71%), with a bimodal distribution that peaks in May and September, with most of the lightning activity recorded in the afternoon (from 16:00 to 18:00 UTC). In spring and autumn the lightning activity tends to be scattered throughout the country, whereas in summer it tends to be more concentrated over northeastern Portugal. Winter generally presents low lightning activity. Furthermore, two significant couplings between the monthly number of days with discharges and the large-scale atmospheric circulation are isolated: a regional forcing, predominantly in summer, and a remote forcing. In fact, the identification of daily lightning regimes revealed three important atmospheric conditions for triggering lightning activity: regional cut-off lows, cold troughs induced by remote low pressure systems and summertime regional low pressures at low-tropospheric levels combined with a mid-tropospheric cold trough.

  4. Cross-border healthcare directive: Assessing stakeholders' perspectives in Poland and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Helena, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Within the context of the EU, a succession of rulings from the European Court of Justice addressed the gap of specific healthcare legislation. These rulings shook the member states assumption of health provision autonomy and led the European Commission to produce a specific directive concerning cross-border healthcare. In spite of different viewpoints of member states, including Poland and Portugal, the directive was approved and expected to be implemented by October 2013. The objective of this study was to analyse stakeholders' perspective towards the directive, unveiling the factors that supported a different viewpoint, and to identify challenges and assess the expected impact associated with the directive implementation on Poland and Portugal, using the WHO health systems conceptual framework. Information was collected through a literature review, identifying potential stakeholders. Primary qualitative analysis was conducted through the dissemination of open-ended questionnaires. Content and critical analysis was performed considering the available literature intertwined with the WHO health systems conceptual framework. The directive appears to be positive regarding patient rights, increased transparency, and potential to set new information technologies and healthcare networks. However, it also seems to potentially generate access inequalities between home and foreign patients, and increase healthcare costs due to the short-term investments needed. PMID:26948704

  5. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antioxidant activities of "água-mel" from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria G; Faleiro, Leonor; Antunes, Maria D; Aazza, Smail; Duarte, Joana; Silvério, Ana R

    2013-06-01

    "Água-mel" is a honey-based product produced in Portugal for ancient times. Several attributes have been reported to "água-mel" particularly in the alleviation of simple symptoms of upper respiratory tract. Samples of "água-mel" from diverse beekeepers from different regions of Portugal were studied in what concerns antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiviral properties. The amounts of phenol and brown pigment were also evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant activities. A great variability on the levels of these compounds was found among samples which were responsible for the variability detected also on the antioxidant activities, independent on the method used. Generally, antioxidant activity correlated better with brown pigments' amount than with phenols' content. The antimicrobial activity found for "água-mel" samples confirm the virtues reported by popular findings. In addition, this work also reveals the antiviral properties of "água-mel" evidenced by a decrease on the infectivity of the Qβ bacteriophage. PMID:23422034

  6. Aerosols over Continental Portugal (1978-1993): their sources and an impact on the regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, A. L.; Mironova, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of aerosol sources which affect climate is an important problem open in front of scientists as well as policymakers. The role of aerosols in local climate variability depends on a~balance between aerosol absorbing and scattering particles as well as on variability of environmental conditions. In this paper we investigate variability of aerosol content (both absorbing and scattering UV radiation) over Continental Portugal in dependence on aerosol sources (volcanic eruptions, dust events, wildfires and anthropogenic pollution). The effect of the aerosol on the climate is studied analyzing their contribution to variations of temperature, sunshine duration and precipitation over Portuguese regions. The present analysis is based on a developed modern multiple regression technique allowing us to build the statistical correlation models to determine both the main local aerosol sources and aerosol's influence on the climate of the Continental Portugal during 1978-1993 time period. The analysis allows us to conclude that the main sources driving the variations of the aerosol content over studied locations are wildfires, mineral dust intrusions and anthropogenic pollution. The relations between the aerosol content variations and the atmospheric parameters depend on the level of urbanization of the studied region, the type of aerosol and the season. The most significant finding is the decrease of the daily temperature (and diurnal temperature range) related to the decrease of sunshine duration observed during the summer periods of increased content of the absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere.

  7. High prevalence of LRRK2 mutations in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim J; Guedes, Leonor Correia; Rosa, Mário Miguel; Coelho, Miguel; van Doeselaar, Marina; Schweiger, Dorothea; Di Fonzo, Alessio; Oostra, Ben A; Sampaio, Cristina; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    2007-06-15

    Mutations in the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most frequent known cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), but their prevalence varies markedly between populations. Here we studied the frequency and associated phenotype of four recurrent LRRK2 mutations (R1441C, R1441G, R1441H, and G2019S) in familial and sporadic PD from a single referral center in Lisbon, Portugal. Among 138 unrelated PD probands, we identified 9 heterozygous G2019S carriers (6.52%) and 1 heterozygous R1441H carrier (0.72%). The G2019S mutation was present in 4 of the 107 sporadic (3.74%) and in 5 of the 31 familial probands (16.1%). Mutations were not found among 101 Portuguese controls. The G2019S mutation was present on a single haplotype and displayed reduced penetrance. Heterozygous parkin gene mutations were also found in 2 G2019S-positive probands, but their pathogenic role is unclear. The clinical phenotype in patients with LRRK2 mutations was indistinguishable from that of typical PD, including impaired sense of smell. The G2019S mutation is a very common genetic determinant among the Portuguese patients with PD, and the R1441H mutation is also present in this population. These data have important implications for the diagnostic work-up and genetic counseling of patients with this disease in Portugal. PMID:17469194

  8. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV. PMID:26507313

  9. Fascist labscapes: geneticists, wheat, and the landscapes of Fascism in Italy and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Tiago

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of scientists in the building of fascist regimes in Italy and Portugal by focusing on plant geneticists' participation in the Italian and Portuguese wheat wars for bread self-sufficiency. It looks closely at the work undertaken by Nazareno Strampelli at the National Institute of Genetics for Grain Cultivation (Italy) and by António Sousa da Câmara at the National Agronomic Experiment Station (Portugal), both of whom took wheat as their prime experimental object of genetics research. The main argument is that the production of standardized organisms—the breeder's elite seeds—in laboratory spaces is deeply entangled with their circulation through extended distribution networks that allowed for their massive presence in Italian and Portuguese landscapes such as the Po Valley and the Alentejo. The narrative pays particular attention to the historical development of fascist regimes in the two countries, advancing the argument that breeders' artifacts were key components of the institutionalization of the new political regimes. PMID:20957828

  10. Survey of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in road-killed wild carnivores in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Loureiro, Filipa; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Matos, Manuela; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

    2014-12-01

    A survey to determine the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in wild carnivores in Portugal was conducted by testing samples from road-killed animals between 2009 and 2012. Postmortem examinations were performed and tissues were collected from wild carnivores representing four families and six different species, with a total of 74 animals analyzed. Cultures were performed by using Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 solid media and acid-fast isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mycobactin dependency characteristics. Tissues were also screened for MAP by directly extracting DNA and testing for the MAP-specific sequences. The occurrence of infected animals (an animal had at least one tissue that was positive for culture or direct PCR) was 27.0% (n = 20). MAP was isolated from culture of 25 tissue samples (3.8%) and was detected by direct PCR in 40 (6.0%) samples. Infection was recorded in 5/6 studied species: 7/49 (14.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 3/3 (100%) beech martens (Martes foina), 2/4 (50.0%) Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 7/15 (46.7%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and 1/1 (100%) European badger (Meles meles). These species represent three different taxonomic families: Canidae (14.3% were positive), Mustelidae (75.0% were positive), and Herpestidae (46.7% were positive). The results of this study confirm the presence of MAP infection in wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:25632662

  11. Distribution of trace metals in moss biomonitors and assessment of contamination sources in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Figueira, R; Sérgio, C; Sousa, A J

    2002-01-01

    A biomonitoring survey using the moss species [Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. and Scelopodium touretii (Brid.) L. Kock] was performed in the whole territory of Portugal, in order to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of the following elements: Cd. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The concentrations of the same elements were also obtained in two types of soil samples, collected under the moss and in nearby plots without any plant coverage, and relationships between moss and soil concentrations was investigated using the multivariate statistical method of Co-inertia Analysis. Also, relationships between concentrations in moss and several anthropogenic, geologic, pedologic and environmental parameters were screened using the same method of Co-inertia Analysis. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were found in areas of higher population density, with higher gasoline consumption, while higher values of Fe and Cr occur in the driest region, with lower plant coverage, indicating strong contamination by resuspended soil particles. Results also show good agreement between moss and soil contents, even for elements with high contribution of anthropogenic sources. The spatial pattern in Portugal of element contents in mosses were also detected and discussed in relation to local contamination sources. PMID:11996378

  12. Homoaffective parentage--specifically, a matter of medically assisted reproduction: a parallel between Brazil and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Marianna

    2011-09-01

    In the field of homosexuality an issue still excessively polemical is the one concerning the possibility of paternity or maternity (biological or adoptive) as a right to be exercised by homosexuals. An even more controversial issue is that of homosexuals' access to assisted reproductive techniques. Carrying out an analysis of two countries, Brazil and Portugal face this with opposite approaches in legislation and legal doctrine. In Brazil, the issue is not legislatively regulated. In Portugal, there is regulatory law. The question that arises is: what is better an extremely reductive and discriminatory law or a true legal vacuum? Several questions may be raised in this context. The first one is: is there indeed a right to parenthood? What to say about surrogacy? In these cases is the commandment of the child's best interest being heeded, which is the vector for any decision relating to an infant or teenager? Differences of understanding will always exist, especially in such a sensitive field as Family Law. But one fact must be accepted: any resolution and legislation in this context must be based on the principle of the best interests of the - born or unborn - child and other constitutional principles as equality, freedom, non-discrimination and human dignity, forgetting the prejudice rooted in society and the unfounded conjectures of homophobic judgments. PMID:22191329

  13. Cheese-related listeriosis outbreak, Portugal, March 2009 to February 2012.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, R; Almeida, G; Ferreira, V; Santos, I; Silva, J; Mendes, M M; Pita, J; Mariano, G; Mancio, I; Sousa, M M; Farber, J; Pagotto, F; Teixeira, P

    2015-01-01

    In Portugal, listeriosis has been notifiable since April 2014, but there is no active surveillance programme for the disease. A retrospective study involving 25 national hospitals led to the detection of an outbreak that occurred between March 2009 and February 2012. The amount of time between the start of the outbreak and its detection was 16 months. Of the 30 cases of listeriosis reported, 27 were in the Lisbon and Vale do Tejo region. Two cases were maternal/neonatal infections and one resulted in fetal loss. The mean age of the non-maternal/neonatal cases was 59 years (standard deviation: 17); 13 cases were more than 65 years old. The case fatality rate was 36.7%. All cases were caused by molecular serogroup IVb isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotype profiles. Collaborative investigations with the national health and food safety authorities identified cheese as the probable source of infection, traced to a processing plant. The magnitude of this outbreak, the first reported food-borne listeriosis outbreak in Portugal, highlights the importance of having an effective listeriosis surveillance system in place for early detection and resolution of outbreaks, as well as the need for a process for the prompt submission of Listeria monocytogenes isolates for routine laboratory typing. PMID:25955775

  14. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of bee venom collected in Northeast Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Filipa; Sampaio, Andreia; Falcão, Soraia; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Bee venom (BV) or apitoxin is a complex mixture of substances with reported biological activity. In the present work, five bee venom samples obtained from Apis mellifera iberiensis from the Northeast Portugal (two different apiaries) were chemically characterized and evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties. The LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) analysis of the samples showed that melittin was the most abundant compound, followed by phospholipase A2 and apamin. All the samples revealed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity but without a direct relation with any of the individual chemical components identified. The results highlight that there are specific concentrations (present in BV5) in which these compounds are more active. The BV samples showed similar cytotoxicity for all the tested tumour cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2), being MCF-7 and HeLa the most susceptible ones. Nevertheless, the studied samples seem to be suitable to treat breast, hepatocellular and cervical carcinoma because at the active concentrations, the samples were not toxic for non-tumour cells (PLP2). Regarding the non-small cell lung carcinoma, BV should be used under the toxic concentration for non-tumour cells. Overall, the present study corroborates the enormous bioactive potential of BV being the first report on samples from Portugal. PMID:27288930

  15. [The construction of sexology as a profession in Portugal: composition professional group and types of sexologists].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-02-01

    This study sets out to discuss the emergence of the profession of sexologist in Portugal, comparing its development with international trends. This research also seeks to understand the self-identification of sexologists and the significances they attribute to it. The empirical information presented derives from a survey conducted with 91 Portuguese sexologists identified through the leading professional associations and from 44 in-depth interviews with experts selected by intentional sampling to ensure the diversity of Portuguese sexologists. The results of the survey indicate that the Portuguese sexologist is on average 43 years old, mainly female, non-physician, and has training in sexology. Considering the qualifications of the interviewees, their professional trajectories and the activities they develop in the field, and the discourses related to their ideals of the profession, a typology was found with five types: sexologists by vocation, sexologist by clinical practice, sexologists by certification, social scientist-sexologists and sexologists by media coverage. The survey identified an interesting diversity of practices and professional conceptions in the field of sexology in Portugal. Being a sexologist appears to be more associated with the ideals of the profession than the time devoted to same. PMID:26910170

  16. Estimated BVDV-prevalence, -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Pereira, Adelaide; Souza, João; Madeira, Helena; Barbosa, Abigaíl; Afonso, Carla

    2005-11-15

    A study to evaluate BVDV-prevalence, recent -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in the "Entre Douro e Minho" (EDM) region in North Portugal was carried out in 124 dairy herds in 2003. Herds were visited to ascertain BVDV-vaccine use and to collect a bulk tank milk (BTM) sample and serum from 1268 cattle to analyse BVDV-antibodies using an NS2-3 ELISA. Fifty-three percent of farmers used inactivated BVDV-vaccines whilst the remaining farmers were not presently using BVDV-vaccines. BMT-antibody results included 35% positives, 25% negative and 39% inconclusive, and were similar in vaccinated and non-vaccinated herds (p>0.05) and allowed estimating a 10% BVDV herd-prevalence from prior knowledge of the relationship between BMT-antibody results and probability of PI cattle in the herd. Overall individual seroprevalence was 27% and was 23% in non-vaccinated and 36% in vaccinated cattle (p<0.05). Contact of the herd with BVDV was assessed according to seroprevalence in young and adult cattle in the herd and it was estimated that 35% of herds were infected or had recent contact with BVDV, 40% were not infected and did not have recent contact with BVDV and the BVDV-infection and -contact status of remaining herds was undetermined. The results from this study indicate BVDV is endemic and BVDV-vaccines are widespread in the dairy-cattle population in EDM region in Portugal. PMID:16216353

  17. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (4.0%) horses were seropositive with DAT titres of 200 (n = 5), 800 (n = 1) and ≥ 1600 (n = 1). Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 23 (13.3%) horses were seropositive with MAT titres of 20 (n = 13), 40 (n = 5), 80 (n = 3) and ≥ 160 (n = 2). No statistical differences were found among equine categories of gender (female, male and gelding), age (1.5–6, 7–12 and 13–30 years), type of housing (indoors and mixed/outdoors), ability (recreation, farming and sports) and clinical status (apparently healthy and sick) for both agents. Conclusions Horses are exposed to and may be infected with L. infantum and T. gondii in the north of Portugal. PMID:23773870

  18. Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

  19. Aerosols over continental Portugal (1978-1993): their sources and an impact on the regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, A. L.; Mironova, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding of aerosol sources that affect climate is an ongoing problem facing scientists as well as policymakers. The role of aerosols in local climate variability depends on a balance between light absorbing and scattering particles as well as on variability of environmental conditions. In this paper we investigate variability of aerosol content (both absorbing and scattering ultraviolet radiation) over continental Portugal in connection with aerosol sources (volcanic eruptions, dust events, wildfires and anthropogenic pollution). The effect of the aerosol on the climate is studied analyzing their contribution to variations of temperature, pressure, sunshine duration and precipitation over Portuguese regions. The present analysis is based on a developed modern multiple regression technique allowing us to build the statistical correlation models to determine both the main local aerosol sources and aerosol's influence on the climate of continental Portugal during 1978-1993. The analysis allows us to conclude that the main sources driving the variations of the aerosol content over studied locations are wildfires, mineral dust intrusions and anthropogenic pollution. The relations between the aerosol content variations and the atmospheric parameters depend on the level of urbanization of the studied region, the type of aerosol and the season. The most significant finding is the decrease of the daily maximum temperature (and diurnal temperature range) related to the decrease of sunshine duration observed during the summer periods of increased content of the absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere.

  20. Associations between forest characteristics and socio-economic development: a case study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sónia Carvalho; Lovett, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    The integration of socio-economic and environmental objectives is a major challenge in developing strategies for sustainable landscapes. We investigated associations between socio-economic variables, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition in the context of Portugal. The main goals of the study were to 1) investigate relationships between forest conditions and measures of socio-economic development at national and regional scales, 2) test the hypothesis that a systematic variation in forest landscape metrics occurs according to the stage of socio-economic development and, 3) assess the extent to which landscape metrics can inform strategies to enhance forest sustainability. A ranking approach and statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis were used to achieve these objectives. Relationships between socio-economic characteristics, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition were only significant in the regional analysis of municipalities in Northern Portugal. Landscape metrics for different tree species displayed significant variations across socio-economic groups of municipalities and these differences were consistent with changes in characteristics suggested by the forest transition model. The use of metrics also helped inform place-specific strategies to improve forest management, though it was also apparent that further work was required to better incorporate differences in forest functions into sustainability planning. PMID:18848746

  1. Forest Intervention Areas (ZIF): a new approach for forest management in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, S.; Coelho, C.; Soares, J.

    2012-04-01

    Portugal is the EU eighth country with more forest and other wooded area cover by surface area. However, it is also at the top of the EU countries most affected by forest fires. Several factors have been launched as possible causes, namely arson and negligence, which has been combined with harsh climate, steep slopes and a weakened rural context, characterized by depopulation and ageing, forest mismanagement, farmland abandonment and absence of an effective spatial planning. Forest fires of 2003 and 2005, which were particularly severe and intense, highlighted the need to restructure the legal and institutional setting of forest management in Portugal. These events proved to be very harmful, not only for the socio-economic context, but also in terms of desertification, soil erosion, loss of water supply and losses on soil organic matter. The EU funded DESIRE project (1) aimed to established promising sustainable land management (SLM) conservation strategies in several areas throughout the world affected by desertification, promoting joint work between scientists and local stakeholders. Forest fires are one of the major causes of desertification in Portugal and Mação and Góis municipalities were selected as DESIRE study sites. The decision support methodology developed under DESIRE was based on the notion that stakeholder participation in decision-making will develop more legitimate, effective and successful decisions. The reduction of burned area was the goal defined in the Portuguese stakeholder workshops and the Forest Intervention Area (ZIF) was selected as the needed approach towards SLM. The aim of this communication is to present the outline and context of ZIF approach in Portugal and to explore the social perception over the success or failure of this approach at Mação municipality. ZIF is a territorial unit where the main land use is forestry. This approach assembles and organizes small forest holders and defines a joint intervention for forest

  2. Geoconservation education: the leading role of the University of Minho (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilha, J.; Pereira, D.; Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    The University of Minho (with two campuses in Braga and Guimarães, northern Portugal) is a middle-size university created in 1973 and today with around 18,000 students and 1,100 academic staff members. The first works concerning geoconservation were developed in 1996 in the Earth Sciences Department. The research was related with the inventory of geological heritage in Alvão Natural Park, under the scope of a master thesis on Environmental Sciences. But it was only in 2005 that a major step was taken by this university with the creation of the master course on Geological Heritage and Geoconservation. Since that time, around 70 students were enrolled with an average of 10 new students each year. This 2-years course (120 ECTS) is the only post-graduation degree totally dedicated to this domain. During the first year, students have to complete several multidisciplinary modules like: Geodiversity; GIS and computers applied to geoconservation; Inventorying, conservation and interpretation of geological heritage; Environmental legislation; Geotourism; Education for sustainable development; and Mining heritage. The second year is dedicated to the preparation of a dissertation or project. This experience on geoconservation education has been motivating internationalisation with other universities with the support of different grant programmes like Erasmus and AlBan (both from the European Union) and Gulbenkian (Portugal): Students exchange (to Brazil and Greece; from Argentina, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Mozambique, and Thailand) and staff exchange (to/from Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States of America). After finishing their master degree, students are finding jobs as geoconservationist experts in geoparks, protected areas, natural history museums, and also as teachers in secondary schools and universities. The University of Minho is also engaged with geoconservation at the PhD level. Several theses have been produced focused of themes

  3. Vocational Profiles and Training Requirements of Foremen and Overseers in the Textile/Clothing Sector in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Licinio Chainho; And Others

    A study examined the current needs of middle management in the textile and clothing industry in Portugal. Focus was on Level 3--foremen, overseers, and team leaders. Eight of 400 enterprises responded to the first questionnaire; 370 of 1,000 responded to the revised questionnaire. The following data were collected: number of employees according to…

  4. Effects of National Policies on Teachers' Sense of Professionalism: Findings from an Empirical Study in Portugal and in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Christopher; Flores, Maria Assuncao; Viana, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on research aimed at investigating the ways in which teachers in Portugal and in England are experiencing recent changes in the policy environment which have affected their sense of professionalism and their professional identity. Data were collected through questionnaires and focus group interviews. Findings suggest the…

  5. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

  6. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage.

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Ajzenberg, D; Rivera-Sanchez, A; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2015-06-01

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. By PCR-RFLP typing, 7 isolates from Portugal chickens were identified as type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3), 4 were type III (ToxoDB #2) and the remaining 4 isolates have unique genotype pattern were designated as ToxoDB #254. One mouse virulent isolate from a bovine fetus (Bos taurus) in Portugal was type I (ToxoDB #10) at all loci and designated as TgCowPr1. All 67 isolates from Austria and 7 from Israel were type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3). By MS typing, many additional genetic variations were revealed among the type II and type III isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates from the same geographical locations tend to cluster together, and there is little overlapping of genotypes among different locations. This study demonstrated that the MS markers can provide higher discriminatory power to reveal association of genotypes with geographical locations. Future studies of the type II strains in Europe by these MS markers will be useful to reveal transmission patterns of the parasite. PMID:25677825

  7. Why Do Student Teachers Enrol for a Teaching Degree? A Study of Teacher Recruitment in Portugal and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assunção; Niklasson, Laila

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an exploratory study carried out in Portugal and Sweden, concerning student teacher recruitment to Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programmes. It addresses issues such as the motivations and expectations of the student teachers regarding the teaching profession. Drawing upon existing related literature, a…

  8. A Practice-Oriented Professional Development Programme to Support the Introduction of a New Mathematics Curriculum in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Ponte, Joao Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the extended workshop, a national professional development programme that was used in the preparatory stages of the introduction of a new mathematics curriculum for basic education (grades 1-9) in Portugal. These workshops are based on five major ideas-orientation towards practice, focus on students' learning, collaboration,…

  9. The Implementation of a New Policy on Teacher Appraisal in Portugal: How Do Teachers Experience It at School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assuncao

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws upon a broader piece of research aimed at investigating the implementation process of a recent policy on teacher appraisal in Portugal. Two case studies were carried out and a combination of methods for data collection was used. Findings suggest that teachers' perceptions are marked by uncertainty and scepticism. Amongst the most…

  10. Crossing the Bridge: Foreign Language Students' Reciprocal Images in (Inter)Cultural Mediation between Portugal and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basílio, Daniel; Araújo e Sá, Maria Helena; Simões, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to highlight the role that Foreign Language Education (FLE), particularly in the Higher Education context, can play so as to contribute to the rapprochement of two distant and still mutually unknown countries such as Portugal and Turkey. In this sense, it ultimately aims at supporting the training of intercultural speakers,…

  11. Seeding Change through International University Partnerships: The MIT-Portugal Program as a Driver of Internationalization, Networking, and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.; Jacobs, Joshua S.; Pertuze, Julio A.; Newman, Dava J.; Roos, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education systems around the globe are experimenting with different strategies to foster internationalization and networking, achieve critical research mass, and strengthen innovation and labour market integration. This paper discusses how Portugal, since 2006, has pursued a distinctive international collaborative strategy to induce…

  12. Preparation for Life in a Democratic Society in Five Countries in Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuente, Carmen

    The aim of this report is to identify and explain the relevant experiences that are being undertaken in some Southern European schools to prepare young people for living in a democracy. To prepare the report, the authors visited schools in five countries: Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, and Spain. They also obtained information from ad hoc reports…

  13. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT) Proceedings (Porto, Portugal, April 4-6, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pracana, Clara, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    We are delighted to welcome you to the International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends 2014, taking place in Porto, Portugal, from 4 to 6 of April. Psychology, in our time, offers a large range of scientific fields where it can be applied. The goal of understanding individuals and groups (mental functions and behavioral…

  14. Master's in Autonomous Systems: An Overview of the Robotics Curriculum and Outcomes at ISEP, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, E.; Almeida, J.; Martins, A.; Baptista, J. P.; Campos Neves, B.

    2013-01-01

    Robotics research in Portugal is increasing every year, but few students embrace it as one of their first choices for study. Until recently, job offers for engineers were plentiful, and those looking for a degree in science and technology would avoid areas considered to be demanding, like robotics. At the undergraduate level, robotics programs are…

  15. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population. PMID:21875447

  16. Detection of Marteilia refringens infecting the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis and the dwarf oyster Ostrea stentina in southern Portugal and Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Sanmartín, Monserrat; Batista, Frederico M; del Carmen Marín, María; Garrido, Inmaculada; Quintero, David; Grade, Ana; Ruano, Francisco; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navas, José I

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, Marteilia sp. was detected by histological examination and in situ hybridisation in Ostrea edulis and Ostrea stentina collected in southern Iberian Peninsula. Marteilia refringens DNA was detected by PCR in O. edulis (collected in southern Portugal) and O. stentina (collected in southern Spain and Portugal). Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of M. refringens type O in O. edulis, and type O and M in O. stentina. This is the first confirmed detection of M. refringens in Portugal and the first report on the occurrence of M. refringens infecting O. stentina in Europe. PMID:26149820

  17. Can small earthquakes help understand lithospheric deformation in slowly deforming regions? A case study from Portugal, western Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando; Gongóra, Eva; Marreiros, Célia; Rio, Inês; Silveira, Graça; Arroucau, Pierre; Dias, Nuno

    2015-04-01

    Portugal lies on the south-westernmost tip of Europe, next to the boundary between Eurasia and Africa. The slow oblique convergence between Iberia and Nubia is accommodated along a broad region of diffuse deformation rather than along a single plate boundary. Individual faults have low loading rates, which results in long time intervals between earthquakes. Mainland Portugal lays on stable continental crust, however it has been repeatedly affected by moderate to high magnitude earthquakes in historical times, including some of the largest earthquakes in stable continental crust on the European historical catalog. The adjacent offshore also presents interesting seismicity, being the source region of the largest European historical earthquake (the 1755 Lisbon earthquake), and with a number of earthquakes occurring on old and cold lithospheric mantle, down to ˜60 km. The seismicity of mainland Portugal and its adjacent offshore has been repeatedly classified as diffuse. In this paper we show that although the plate boundary south of Portugal is diffuse, in that deformation is accommodated along several faults rather than along one long linear plate boundary, the seismicity itself is not diffuse, just grossly mislocated in current catalogs. When carefully re-located, earthquakes collapse into well-defined clusters and alignments. This work presents a contribution to understanding the Portuguese seismo-tectonics by analyzing the location of small earthquakes occurred between 1961 and 2013 in mainland Portugal and adjacent offshore. Earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012 were recorded by a dense broadband seismic deployment, and their locations show a significant improvement with respect to previous locations. New maps of seismicity show clustering and alignments, both onshore and offshore, which allow for a new interpretation of the regional seismo-tectonics. We conclude that the study of small earthquakes using dense seismic deployments is one of the few powerful

  18. Population structure of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in Portugal over a 19-year period (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Tavares, A; Faria, N A; de Lencastre, H; Miragaia, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite their clinical relevance, few studies have addressed the epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). In particular, it is not clear how MSSA population structure has evolved over time and how it might have been shaped by the emergence of MRSA in the community (CA-MRSA). In the present study we have evaluated the MSSA population structure over time, its geographical distribution and relatedness with MRSA in Portugal. A total of 465 MSSA from infection and colonization, collected over a 19-year period (1992-2011) in the northern, central and southern regions of Portugal were analyzed. Isolates were characterized by spa typing and multilocus-sequence typing (MLST). Isolates with predominant spa types were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates relatedness was analyzed by eBURST and BURP. The 172 spa types found among the 465 MSSA were grouped into 18 spa-CC (clonal complexes). Ten clonal types were more prevalent (40 %): one major clone (ST30-t012) was present in the entire study period and all over the country and the other nine were intermittently detected over time (ST5-t002, ST8-t008, ST15-t084, ST34-t166, ST72-t148, ST1-t127, ST7-t091, ST398-t571 and ST34-t136). Interestingly, three MSSA clonal types observed only after 1996 were closely related with CA-MRSA epidemic strains (ST8-t008, ST72-t148 and ST1-t127) found currently in Portugal. The MSSA population in Portugal is genetically diverse; however, some dominant clonal types have been established and widely disseminated for almost two decades. We identified MSSA isolates that were related with emergent CA-MRSA clones found in Portugal. PMID:24057140

  19. Thermal state and implications for eruptive styles of the intra-Plinian and climactic ignimbrites of the 4.6 ka Fogo A eruption sequence, São Miguel, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pensa, A.; Giordano, G.; Cas, R. A. F.; Porreca, M.

    2015-11-01

    The 4.6 ka Fogo A Plinian eruption was a caldera-forming volcanic event on São Miguel Island, Azores. The deposit succession is very complex, composed of a thick trachytic Plinian fallout deposit interstratified with two intra-Plinian ignimbrites (named "pink ignimbrite" and "black ignimbrite" sequentially). The succession ends with a main ignimbrite (named "dark brown ignimbrite"), which represents the deposit of complete collapse of the eruption column and the end of the eruption. In this work, emplacement temperatures of the three ignimbrites are estimated by study of partial thermal remanent magnetization (pTRM) of lithic clasts. A total of 140 oriented lithic clasts were collected from 15 localities distributed along the northern and southern flanks of Fogo volcano. The paleomagnetic data reveal different emplacement temperatures and thermal histories that were experienced by each ignimbrite. The results indicate the presence of five different paleomagnetic behaviours that suggest emplacement temperatures of 350-400 °C for the first (pink) intra-Plinian ignimbrite, temperatures higher than 580-600 °C for the second (black) intra-Plinian ignimbrite and 250-370 °C for the last (dark brown) climactic ignimbrite. The thermal history experienced by each pyroclastic flow and its ignimbrite deposit was also assessed by the use of the magnetite-ilmenite geothermometer to determine the pre-eruptive magma temperature (estimated to be around 900 °C). We interpret the different emplacement temperatures of the Fogo A ignimbrites as being due to a combination of factors. These include (i) collapse from different heights of the eruption column and the resultant different amounts of air entrainment into the gas-particle mixture, (ii) variable content of lithic clasts and (iii) different types of juvenile clasts in the ignimbrites.

  20. A new look on anomalous thermal gradient values obtained in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, M. R.; Malico, I.

    2012-04-01

    A NEW LOOK ON THE ANOMALOUS THERMAL GRADIENT VALUES OBTAINED IN SOUTH PORTUGAL Duque, M. R. and Malico, I. M. Physics Department, University of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59,7000-671, Évora, Portugal It is well known that soil temperatures can be altered by water circulation. In this paper, we study numerically this effect by simulating some aquifers occurring in South Portugal. At this location, the thermal gradient values obtained in boreholes with depths less than 200 m, range between 22 and 30 °C km-1. However, there, it is easy to find places where temperatures are around 30 °C, at depths of 100 m. The obtained thermal gradient values show an increase one day after raining and a decrease during the dry season. Additionally, the curve of temperature as function of depth showed no hot water inlet in the hole. The region studied shows a smooth topography due to intensive erosion, but it was affected by alpine and hercinian orogenies. As a result, a high topography in depth, with folds and wrinkles is present. The space between adjacent folds is now filled by small sedimentary basins. Aquifers existing in this region can reach considerable depths and return to depths near the surface, but hot springs in the area are scarce. Water temperature rises in depth, and when the speed is high enough high temperatures near the surface, due to water circulation, can be found. The ability of the fluid to flow through the system depends on topography relief, rock permeability and basal heat flow. In this study, the steady-state fluid flow and heat transfer by conduction and advection are modeled. Fractures in the medium are simulated by an equivalent porous medium saturated with liquid. Thermal conductivity values for the water and the rocks can vary in space .Porosities used have high values in the region of the aquifer, low values in the lower region of the model and intermediate values in the upper regions. The results obtained show that temperature anomaly values

  1. Health information technology implementation - impacts and policy considerations: a comparison between Israel and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Catan, Gabriel; Espanha, Rita; Mendes, Rita Veloso; Toren, Orly; Chinitz, David

    2015-01-01

    The use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in health systems is increasing worldwide. While it is assumed that ICT holds great potential to make health services more efficient and grant patients more empowerment, research on these trends is at an early stage. Building on a study of the impact of ICT on physicians and patients in Israel, a Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM) sponsored by COST Net in conjunction with CIES/ISCTE IUL (Portugal) facilitated a comparison of ICT in health in Israel and Portugal. The comparison focused on patient empowerment, physician behavior and the role of government in implementing ICT. The research in both countries was qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews with the Ministry of Health (MOH), the private sector, patients associations, health plans and researchers were used to collect data. Purposeful sampling was used to select respondents, and secondary sources were used for triangulation. The findings indicate that respondents in both countries feel that patient empowerment has indeed been furthered by introduction of ICT. Regarding physicians, in both countries ICT is seen as providing more information that can be used in medical decision making. Increased access of patients to web-based medical information can strengthen the role of patients in decision making and improve the physician-patient relationship, but also shift the latter in ways that may require adjustments in physician orientation. Physician uptake of ICT in both countries involves overcoming certain barriers, such as resistance to change. At the national level, important differences were found between the two countries. While in Israel, ICT was promoted and adopted by the meso level of the health system, in particular the health plans and government intervention can be found in a later stage, in Portugal the government was the main developer and national strategies were built from the beginning. These two approaches present different advantages

  2. An assessment of landscape changes in Mediterranean region. A case study of Algarve, southern Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Helena; Martins, Fernando; Valín, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Ângela; Pedras, Celestina

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the application of remote sensing techniques is a key factor for the planning and land management to ensure a sustainable development of the regions. Algarve, the most southern region of Portugal is characterized by its Mediterranean climate. This climate is described by irregular precipitation throughout the year with drought during summer months. The regional climate has a profound influence on its particular vegetation and wildlife turning it in a unique habitat for many species. Since the 1970s, increases in tourism have greatly affected the coastal region. This has led to great landscape pressure and urban growth, resulting in population increases due to local economic prosperity. Across Algarve, in recent decades, lawns areas have grown dramatically. Landscape water use has increased mainly because homeowners seldom pay the 'true' cost of water. Continued expansion of water supply is not, therefore, a viable management option in the future, particularly given the anticipated increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in Portugal. There's a need to change the perception of landscape relative to water consumption. Algarve needs a sustainable, 'demand-led' approach to water resource management, focusing on conserving water and using it more efficiently. The water resources available in the Algarve are limited, and decisions regarding sustainability must consider the environment. The aim of this study is to apply the remote sensing techniques to analyse the landscape changes in three municipalities of Algarve (Portugal): Albufeira, Loulé and Faro. The three Landsat images, from April 9th 1973 (Landsat1), March 23th 1989 (Landsat5) and April 26th 2013 (Landsat8) were used. The images were classified based on the radiometric information and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). These range of dates of the Landsat images used allowed for the differentiation between classes of the landscape. Land use and water resources are closely

  3. Oral soft tissue biopsies in Oporto, Portugal: An eight year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Manuel-Moreira; Albuquerque, Rui; Monteiro, Marta; Lopes, Carlos-Alberto; do Amaral, José-Barbas; Pacheco, José-Júlio

    2015-01-01

    Background The diseases that affect the oral cavity are wide and diverse, comprising a broad spectrum of either benign or malignant lesions. However, few histological-based studies were performed for the evaluation of oral cavity lesions, and very few directed to oral soft tissue pathology. The aim of this study was to carry out pioneering research, within a Portuguese population, to determine the frequency and characteristics of oral malignancies, potential malignant disorders, and soft benign tissues pathologies submitted for biopsy in a north Portugal (Oporto) hospital population. Material and Methods We performed a retrospective study of soft tissue, oral cavity biopsies, in a hospital north of Portugal (Oporto) between 1999 and 2006. We analysed information on gender, age, location of the lesion, and the histopathological diagnosis. Results A total of 1042 oral biopsies were observed, 557(53.5%) in females and 485 (46.5%) in males, with a mean age of 51.7 years (S.D. ±17.6). The topographic location most frequently affected was labial mucosa (n=306). Considering the nature of the lesions, 700 (67.2%) corresponded to non-neoplasic lesions, 45 (4.3%) to potentially malignant disorders, and 297 (28.5%) to neoplasms (93 benign and 204 malignant). Non-neoplasic lesions were more prevalent in female gender (59.9%) when compared with potentially malignant disorders (46.7%) and neoplasms (39.4%) (P< 0.001). Non-neoplasic lesions presented the lower mean age (49.2±17.6) and potentially malignant disorders the highest mean age (60.5±14.5) (P< 0.001). The most common lesion of entire sample was fibro-epithelial hyperplasia (n=186; 17.9%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n=158; 15.1%). Conclusions Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, was the most common pathologies. This pioneering study provided, for the first time, data about the proportion of squamous cell carcinoma when compared with benign conditions in a Portuguese hospital

  4. Runoff and inter-rill soil erosion following wildfire and terracing in north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Machado, Ana Isabel; Serpa, Dalila; Prats, Sergio; Faria, Silvia; Eufemia Varela, María; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    In Portugal, wildfires occur frequently and affect large areas, on average some 100.000 ha per year but in extreme years such as 2003 and 2005 over 300.000 ha. Wildfires can lead to considerable changes in geomorphologic and hydrological processes, as evidenced by the strong and sometimes extreme responses in post-fire runoff and erosion reported from various parts of the world, including Portugal. Besides wildfire itself, also post-fire forestry practices can strongly influence the hydrological and erosion response in recently burnt areas. In north-central Portugal, for example, rip ploughing in down-slope direction was found to be far more damaging in terms of soil loss than fire. Whilst rip ploughing in down-slope direction has now by and large been abandoned in the region, the construction of terraces in preparation of new tree and especially eucalypt plantations has become increasingly common. Although terraces are traditionally viewed as a technique for soil conservation, the authors have measured high splash erosion rates on recent terraces and have frequently observed small-scale erosion features and, on one occasion, gully formation over the full hill slope length. Runoff and sediment losses, however, have hardly ever been quantified for recently terraced plantations. In this study, we compared runoff and erosion, at the micro-plot scale, before and after terracing, during the first seven months after a wildfire and during the subsequent 17 months. This was done at two contrasting hill slopes, designated here as eucalypt and pine site. The former was, at the time of the wildfire, covered by eucalypt and then terraced and re-planted with eucalypt over its full extent; the latter was initially covered with pine and then partially terraced and planted with eucalypt and partially left to regenerate spontaneously. Total rainfall was rather similar for the pre- and post-terracing period (1205 and 1437 mm), in spite of their different, above-mentioned durations

  5. Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p = 0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than by histopathological examination (23.4%) in paired bone marrow samples from the same 47 foxes. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of H. canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was

  6. Assessing the outstanding 2003 fire events in Portugal with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Jerez, Sonia; Camara, Carlos; Montávez, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The heatwave that struck western Iberia in the early days of August 2003 was characterized by record high values of both maximum (47.3°C) and minimum (30.6°c) temperatures in Portugal, associated with extremely low humidity levels and relatively intense wind speed (Trigo et al., 2006). These conditions triggered the most devastating sequence of large fires ever registered in Portugal. The estimated total burnt area was about 450.000 ha, including 280.000 ha of forest (Pereira et al., 2011). The outstanding total burnt area value corresponds to roughly 5% of the Portuguese territory, and represents approximately twice the previous maximum observed in 1998 (~220.000 ha), and about four times the long-term average observed between 1980 and 2004. Here we characterise this unusual episode using meteorological fields obtained from both observations and a regional climate model. In this work we use the longest (49-years) high-resolution regional climate simulation available driven by reanalysis data spanning from 1959 to 2007 and covering the entire Iberian Peninsula. This long run was obtained using the MM5 model with a spatial resolution of 10 km. Using this high spatial and temporal resolution we have computed the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System to produce hourly values of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behaviour (van Wagner, 1987). We show the temporal evolution of high resolution patterns for several fire related variables during the most important days for triggering new fires (the first week of August 2003). Besides the absolute value of Tmax, Tmin, wind (speed and direction), relative humidity and FWI we also evaluate the corresponding anomalies of these fields, obtained after removing the long-term smoothed daily climatology. Pereira M.G., Malamude B.D., Trigo R.M., Alves P.I. (2011) "The History and Characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese Rural Fire Database

  7. GPR Surveys for Archaeological Investigation in a Bronze Age site from NW Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, L.; Sampaio, H. A.; Bettencourt, A. M. S.; Alves, M. I. C.

    2012-04-01

    This work describes the use of Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys in the identification and mapping of subtle cultural remains, from Pego Late Bronze Age settlement, located near the city of Braga, in NW Portugal. Bronze Age settlements from NW Portugal are characterized by the presence archaeological structures such as storage pits, postholes and trenches. These subtle structures have a very low dielectric contrast, making them quite difficult to detect in GPR surveys. In the case of Pego Site, previous investigations using conventional archaeological techniques, during a rescue excavation, partially revealed a residential area, a necropolis, and a stockade foundation trench that encircle the whole settlement. Different GPR prospection approaches were performed using GSSI Sir 3000 System, with 400 MHz antennae, with the objective of identify and define the borders between the different areas of human occupation inside the settlement. For the GPR survey, a grid-based approach with closely spaced parallels transects was defined, covering different areas inside the site. A first survey was conducted with a pseudo-3D methodology, with 50 cm profile separation, followed by a second survey with a dense data acquisition methodology, with 10 cm profile separation. Processed two-dimensional GPR profiles and constructed amplituded-slice maps were produced and analysed. Wave velocities were determined by reflected wave methods and by Hyperbola-Fitting method. The background analysis of the archaeological and geological features of the site, integrated with the preliminary interpretation of GPR data (profiles and amplitude slice-maps) suggest the presence of flat graves, in the west part of the site, and storage pits, post holes and some small trenches, in the centre and north area of the settlement. This interpretation indicates that the settlement is individualized in two different areas, a necropolis and a residential area, such as the first archaeological study

  8. Changes in Physical and Chemical Soil Properties on Burnt Shrub Areas in Mediterranean Mountains, Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Felícia; de Figueiredo, Tomás; Leite, Micaela

    2014-05-01

    Human induced fire in scrublands to obtain better pastures for cattle is a relatively common practice in North Portugal. During burning, plant cover and litter layers are consumed, and the mineral soil is heated, resulting in changes to physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties. Aiming at evaluating the effect of this kind of fires on a set of physical and chemical soil properties, two study areas were selected in contrasting mountain environments: Edroso, Vinhais municipality, NE Portugal, with typical Mediterranean climate, and Revelhe, Fafe, NW Portugal, with a strong ocean-influenced climate. In both, sampling was carried out in contiguous areas burnt and not burnt, covered by shrub vegetation, predominantly Cytisus multiflorus and Ulex europeus. In each study area (Edroso and Revelhe) 16 locations were selected for soil sampling (8 in the burned area and 8 in the not burnt area), six months after fire occurrence. Disturbed soil samples were collected in the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm depth, for assessing organic matter, N, P and K concentration, cation exchange capacity and related determinations, soil pH, electrical conductivity and soil texture. Undisturbed samples were collected, in 100 cm3 cylinders, to determine bulk density in the same above mentioned layers, and permeability in the 0-5 cm layer. Compared results of burnt and not burnt areas in Edroso and Revelhe study sites, show that coarse elements content and permeability decreased and bulk density slightly increased with the fire effect. Chemical properties in both sites changed with after fire, as organic matter content, exchangeable Al and cation exchange capacity increased, the opposite trend being found for phosphorus, sum of exchangeable bases and electrical conductivity. Potassium, total nitrogen and exchangeable acidity showed different soil responses to fire in the two study areas. Results stress the clear effects of fire on fertility related soil

  9. Incidence of hypertension in a prospective cohort study of adults from Porto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past 30 years, Portugal has been described as one of the countries with highest median blood pressure levels in Europe, but the incidence of hypertension is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of hypertension, according to socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyles. Methods A population-based cohort of randomly selected dwellers from Porto, Portugal, aged ≥18 years, was assembled in 1999–2003 (EPIPorto study) and 796 hypertension-free individuals (62.6% women) were reassessed after a median of 3.8 years. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression. Results The overall incidence rate was 47.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 40.5-55.5] per 1000 person-years. Among women, the incidence was 43.4 (35.6-53.1) and among men 52.7 (41.3-68.0) per 1000 person-years. The incidence was lower in women up to 60 years and much higher among women above 60 (110.0 vs. 64.4 per 1000 person-years among men, p for age-sex interaction=0.032). Participants with higher education had a lower risk of becoming hypertensive (≥13 years vs. ≤4 years: RR=0.70, 95% CI, 0.46-1.08, p for linear trend <0.001), independently of age and sex. Overweight and obesity were associated with a 1.67-fold and 2.44-fold increased risk of hypertension, respectively, independently of age, sex and education. Conclusions In this urban Portuguese population the incidence rate of hypertension was high, with new cases occurring predominantly among older subjects, the less educated and those with overweight-obesity. Despite recent progresses in blood pressure related outcomes, the risk of hypertension remains higher in Portugal than in other developed countries. PMID:23190867

  10. WILAS Project: First Results from a Dense Broadband Deployment in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, N. A.; Custodio, S.; Madureira, G.; Carrilho, F.; Haberland, C. A.; Brazio, A.; Corela, C.; Alves, P.; Gongora, E.; Marreiros, C.; Narciso, J.; Caldeira, B.; Lima, V.; Villasenor, A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last years several projects targeted the lithospheric structure and its correlation with the surface topography, e.g. EarthSCOPE/USArray or TOPO-EUROPE. Two projects focused on the Iberian Peninsula, one giving particular attention to the southern collision margin (TOPO-MED) and the other to the central cratonic Massif (TOPO-IBERIA/IBERArray). Some of these projects, like TOPO-IBERIA or EarthScope, deployed dense seismic broadband (BB) networks with an average inter-station spacing of 50-km. Within the scope of project WILAS - West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure, a 3-year project funded by the Portuguese Science & Technology Foundation (FCT), we deployed a temporary network of 30 BB stations in Portugal between 2010 and 2012. The WILAS temporary stations, along with the permanent and TOPO-IBERIA stations, provided a full and dense coverage of the Iberian Peninsula. In this presentation we will show the first results obtained from the data recorded during the 1st year of operation of the WILAS stations. We will present a first evaluation of the background noise level, based on the probability density functions (PDF) of the power spectral densities (PSD). Our analysis shows a clear difference between the noise level of permanent and temporary stations. Daily and seasonal variations of the noise level are also visible on specific frequency bands. Most permanent stations in Portugal are located in the south of the country, in result of the active tectonic convergence between Iberia and Africa. Therefore, the majority of temporary stations were deployed in the north of Portugal. These temporary stations allowed an improvement of the earthquake detection threshold, with lower magnitudes events detected and included in the catalog. The detection of seismic events was based on the analysis of daily spectrograms of the entire network. Focal mechanisms will also be presented for chosen events, obtained both from first motion polarity methods (for

  11. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND) in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8%) vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%), with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50) in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76) in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4%) and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%), the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3) as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0). Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7%) then depression (18.4%) or any other aetiology. Conclusions

  12. Automatic Earthquake Detection and Location by Waveform coherency in Alentejo (South Portugal) Using CatchPy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Matos, C.; Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Heimann, S.; Rio, I.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic data processing is currently undergoing a step change, benefitting from high-volume datasets and advanced computer power. In the last decade, a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered mainland Portugal. This outstanding regional coverage currently enables the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which contributes to fitting together the pieces of the regional seismo-tectonic puzzle. Although traditional manual inspections are valuable to refine automatic results they are impracticable with the big data volumes now available. When conducted alone they are also less objective since the criteria is defined by the analyst. In this work we present CatchPy, a scanning algorithm to detect earthquakes in continuous datasets. Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e. lowering the detection threshold). CatchPY is designed to produce an event database that could be easily located using existing location codes (e.g.: Grigoli et al. 2013, 2014). We use CatchPy to perform automatic detection and location of earthquakes that occurred in Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage of a dense seismic network deployed in the region for two years during the DOCTAR experiment. Results show that our automatic procedure is particularly suitable for small aperture networks. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event location is performed by waveform coherence analysis, scanning different hypocentral coordinates

  13. Chewing lice in Azorean Blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla ): a contribution to parasite island syndromes.

    PubMed

    Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich; Resendes, Roberto; Rodrígues, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Focusing upon chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) parasitizing blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla ) in the Azores (Portugal), we found a lower number of louse species in the Azores compared to mainland Europe. Only chewing lice host specific to blackcaps were found in the Azores. Louse prevalences were much higher in blackcaps from the Azores compared to those of various mainland populations. Chewing lice are permanent parasites of birds, and for such parasites the parasite island syndrome could be characterized by higher parasite prevalence on the islands compared to the mainland. PMID:25279583

  14. Leadership and performance in higher education: a comparative analysis in Portugal and Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda Suarez, Luis Manuel; Hernandez, Wilmar

    2012-12-01

    In the last decade, many changes have taken place in the field of university education. Professional practice demands that future graduates design and market products, preserve the interests of their clients, take responsibilities in public administration or participate in politics. Universities must educate professionals so that they become social leaders, consultants, advisers, entrepreneurs; in short, people with the capacity to solve problems. Professors recognise this situation; however, they do not always apply participatory teaching styles to develop these capacities in the students. This paper offers a tool to evaluate the implementation of a transformational teaching style in the classroom, developing joint work between professors and students. Its main contribution is that it assessed several teaching techniques based on this transformational style. This research was carried out in Portugal and Spain.

  15. Development of an online nursing management course: successful experience between Brazil and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Alavarce, Débora Cristina; Prata, Ana Paula; Santos, Margarida Reis; Aroldi, Juscilynne Barros da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Objective To describe the experience of planning and developing online refresher courses in nursing management for nurses in the contexts of Brazil and Portugal. Method The instructional design was based on meaningful learning theory, andragogy, and dialectical methodology, so it valued interaction between the actors, emphasizing the scenarios of practice and applying the concepts covered. The course structure is divided into nine theoretical units, four case studies, and an essay exam. Results The course was positively evaluated by the participants, who reported opportunities for acquisition of new knowledge, interaction and exchange of experiences, motivation to study the topics, and self-learning. Conclusion It is expected that description of this experience will stimulate proposals for new courses and programs in distance education modalities, improving the processes of teaching and learning so as to give support to future analyses of their impact on the development and enhancement of management skills in nursing. PMID:26959169

  16. Later Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Almonda Karstic system, Torres Novas, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Marks, Anthony E; Brugal, Jean Philip; Bailey, Shara E; Rink, W Jack; Richter, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    Later Middle Pleistocene archeological deposits of the Galeria Pesada (Gruta da Aroeira), Almonda Karstic System, Torres Novas, Portugal, yielded two archaic human teeth, a mandibular canine and a maxillary third molar. The C(1)presents moderate and asymmetrical shoveling with a stout root. The slightly worn M(3)exhibits at least four cusps with a large hypocone, three roots with large radicular plates, and an absence of taurodontism. They are moderately large for later Middle Pleistocene humans in their buccolingual crown diameters, although the M(3)mesiodistal diameter is modest. The C(1)exhibits labial calculus and multiple linear hypoplastic defects, but the M(3)is lesion free. Both teeth are morphologically similar to those of other Middle Pleistocene European humans and reinforce a pattern of dental hypertrophy among these archaic Homo. PMID:14580591

  17. The impact of gentrification on ethnic neighbourhoods in Toronto: a case study of little Portugal.

    PubMed

    Murdie, Robert; Teixeira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on the nature and impact of gentrification, there has been little consideration of the effects of gentrification on ethnic neighbourhoods. This study evaluates the negative and positive effects of gentrification on the Portuguese in west central Toronto. Details concerning the settlement patterns of the Portuguese, the characteristics of Portuguese residents and patterns of gentrification in inner-city Toronto were obtained from census data. Evaluations of neighbourhood change and attitudes of the residents towards gentrification were obtained from key informant and focus group interviews. The results suggest considerable ambivalence among the respondents, but most agreed that the long-term viability of Little Portugal as an immigrant reception area with a good supply of low-cost housing is in doubt. PMID:21174893

  18. Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Monhysteridae), a parasite of Talorchestia brito (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Duarte, Daniella; Santos, Maria João

    2010-01-01

    Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Monhysterida: Monhysteridae) is described from the body-cavity and under the dorsal plates of the sandy beach amphipod Talorchestia brito Stebbing (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal. The new species differs from previously described members of the genus by a combination of the following characters: four medium-sized cephalic setae; base of stoma with three blunt denticles; posterior dilated portion of stoma absent; amphids small, with width less than quarter of corresponding body width; amphids located less than two labial widths from anterior extremity; uterine eggs elliptical and unembryonated; gubernaculum lacks caudal process; and male tail with two separated pairs of postcloacal papillae and a single subterminal seta-like papilla. This is the first representative of the family Monhysteridae parasitic in the body-cavity of crustaceans. Approximately 48% of the amphipods examined contained various stages of H. parasitica. PMID:20012518

  19. Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ricardo; Castanhinha, Rui; Martins, Rui M S; Mateus, Octávio; Hendrickx, Christophe; Beckmann, F; Schell, N; Alves, L C

    2013-01-01

    The non-avian saurischians that have associated eggshells and embryos are represented only by the sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Coelurosauria (derived theropods), thus missing the basal theropod representatives. We report a dinosaur clutch containing several crushed eggs and embryonic material ascribed to the megalosaurid theropod Torvosaurus. It represents the first associated eggshells and embryos of megalosauroids, thus filling an important phylogenetic gap between two distantly related groups of saurischians. These fossils represent the only unequivocal basal theropod embryos found to date. The assemblage was found in early Tithonian fluvial overbank deposits of the Lourinhã Formation in West Portugal. The morphological, microstructural and chemical characterization results of the eggshell fragments indicate very mild diagenesis. Furthermore, these fossils allow unambiguous association of basal theropod osteology with a specific and unique new eggshell morphology. PMID:23722524

  20. Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Ricardo; Castanhinha, Rui; Martins, Rui M. S.; Mateus, Octávio; Hendrickx, Christophe; Beckmann, F.; Schell, N.; Alves, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    The non-avian saurischians that have associated eggshells and embryos are represented only by the sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Coelurosauria (derived theropods), thus missing the basal theropod representatives. We report a dinosaur clutch containing several crushed eggs and embryonic material ascribed to the megalosaurid theropod Torvosaurus. It represents the first associated eggshells and embryos of megalosauroids, thus filling an important phylogenetic gap between two distantly related groups of saurischians. These fossils represent the only unequivocal basal theropod embryos found to date. The assemblage was found in early Tithonian fluvial overbank deposits of the Lourinhã Formation in West Portugal. The morphological, microstructural and chemical characterization results of the eggshell fragments indicate very mild diagenesis. Furthermore, these fossils allow unambiguous association of basal theropod osteology with a specific and unique new eggshell morphology. PMID:23722524

  1. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta Da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Willman, John C; Maki, Julia; Bayle, Priscilla; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2012-09-01

    Additional Middle Paleolithic human remains from layers 17, 18, and 22 of the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal consist of a proximal manual phalanx 2 (Oliveira 5), a partial postcanine tooth (Oliveira 6), a humeral diaphysis (Oliveira 7), a distal mandibular molar (Oliveira 8), and a mandibular premolar (P(3) ) (Oliveira 9). Oliveira 5, 6, and 8 are unremarkable for Late Pleistocene humans. The Oliveira 7 right humerus is moderately robust or the individual had the stocky body proportions of other European (including Iberian) Neandertals. The Oliveira 9 P(3) has a large and symmetrical crown and lacks a distal accessory ridge and accessory lingual cusps, overlapping both Neandertal and recent human ranges of variation. It contrasts with at least recent human P(3) s in having relatively thin enamel. These join the Oliveira 1 to 4 remains in further documenting early MIS 3 Neandertal morphology in western Iberia. PMID:22610966

  2. Persistent organic pollutants and inorganic elements in the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus wintering off Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, R A; Torres, J; Vingada, J V; Eira, C

    2016-07-15

    This study presents the first data on trace element and organic pollutant concentrations in the Critically Endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus collected in 2010 and 2011 in Portugal. Trace element levels were below the threshold levels for adverse effects on birds, despite the Hg concentrations in feathers (4.35μg·g-1ww). No significant differences were detected between individuals from 2010 and 2011 except for Se concentrations in liver, feathers and muscle (higher in 2010) and Ag in liver and muscle (higher in 2011). No significant differences were detected in total concentrations of organochlorine compounds in Balearic shearwaters between years, although PCB congeners -101 and -180 presented higher concentrations in individuals from 2010. The PCB congeners -138, -153 and -180, and 4.4-DDE were detected in all individuals. This study on toxic elements and organic pollutants in wintering Balearic shearwaters provides baseline data from which deviations can be detected in the future. PMID:27113022

  3. Dom Pedro I of Brazil and IV of Portugal: epilepsy and peculiar behavior.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota; Chalub, Miguel

    2007-09-01

    We present medical issues related to Dom Pedro de Alcântara Bragança e Bourbon (1798-1834), first Emperor of Brazil. This is made by means of narrative revision on historical facts starting from primary and secondary sources. Dom Pedro presented familiar incidence of epilepsy. His seizures were relatively benign and scattered, supposedly started at the age of 13: idiophatic epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only or juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. He also had behavioral disorder characterized by hypersexuality, agitation and impulsiveness. It could have facilitated his opportunistic behavior necessary for daring to transgress the conservatism of the Portuguese crown, to create the constitutional monarchism in Brazil and in Portugal. PMID:17876421

  4. Popular press and forensic genetics in Portugal: expectations and disappointments regarding two cases of missing children.

    PubMed

    Machado, Helena; Santos, Filipe

    2011-05-01

    Two cases of missing children in Portugal (Joana and Maddie) have recently highlighted the dilemmas and contingencies associated with the technology of "genetic fingerprinting" for forensic purposes in the context of criminal investigations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the popular press's discourses and representations around forensic genetics in the context of those two highly mediatized criminal investigation cases. The symbolical construction and representation of forensic genetics by the media presents a form of public exposure to beliefs on forensic genetics' characteristics and potential. These are blended with popular cultural contexts that are constructed with reference to images of a super-science which may carry consequences in the public understanding of forensic science. The media coverage of both cases and their actual disclosure resembles the patterns ofa CSI effect, insofar as real science's capabilities and limitations are placed against fictionalized representations of forensic science. PMID:21796881

  5. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-18

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. PMID:24951550

  6. The looming tide of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Portugal and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Costa, Daniela; Alarico, Susana; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Empadinhas, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely disseminated in the environment and an emerging cause of infectious diseases worldwide. Their remarkable natural resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics and an ability to survive under low-nutrient conditions allows NTM to colonize and persist in man-made environments such as household and hospital water distribution systems. This overlap between human and NTM environments afforded new opportunities for human exposure, and for expression of their often neglected and underestimated pathogenic potential. Some risk factors predisposing to NTM disease have been identified and are mainly associated with immune fragilities of the human host. However, infections in apparently immunocompetent persons are also increasingly reported. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to this emerging health problem in Portugal and Brazil and to emphasize the urgent need for increased surveillance and more comprehensive epidemiological data in both countries, where such information is scarce and seriously thwarts the adoption of proper preventive strategies and therapeutic options. PMID:26560840

  7. Past analogs of recent climate anomalies and impacts in Portugal. Droughts, storms and heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Nunes, M. F.

    2009-09-01

    An indexed reconstruction of precipitation variability, based on documentary and instrumental data, has been done for southern Portugal starting in 1675. The descriptions of the extreme events in the documentary sources have also supplied information about their impacts. We will compare past and recent extreme weather events in Portugal, their causes and their impacts on society. We have selected periods of winter droughts, of storms that triggered great floods and of heat waves. There are a number of documentary sources dating from 1693-94 indicating that that there was no rainfall from December 1693 to at least November 1694 with the exception of light showers in June. Several pro-pluvia rogations ceremonies took place all over the country, even in the Northwest that is generally rainy. There are numerous descriptions of the impact of droughts on agriculture, of shortage of cereals, of escalating prices and the subsequent generalised famine. An analogy will be made for the 20th century using the 1980-81 winter drought that lasted roughly the same time and which also had severe social and economic impacts. The decrease in production of hydroelectric energy (50% below average) between January and July 1981 is also pointed out. In both cases, the lack of rainfall was partly due to a ridge that stayed over the Eastern Atlantic and kept Iberia in aerologic shelter. Apart from urban flash floods there are two types of floods in Portugal: (i) floods from the big river basins (Tagus, Mondego and Douro) that are due to the frequent passage of westerly frontal depressions during days or weeks; and (ii) floods of the small river basins due to convective depressions that affect small areas. The December 1739 flood, caused by the overflow of the great rivers, will be compared with the ones that occurred in February 1978. Both were caused by intensive precipitation all over the country at a time when the soil was already saturated with water from previous rainfall. The damages

  8. Suspended sediment transport patterns in the inner shelf - S. Pedro de Moel (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ana Isabel; Oliveira, Anabela; Zacarias, Nuno; Pinto, José P.; Ribeiro, Mónica

    2014-10-01

    In order to quantify the physical forcing processes associated to sediment transport in the inner shelf, sequential moorings were placed in the three access cable routes connecting the Renewable Energy Experimental Zone (offshore S. Pedro Moel - W Portugal) to the shore. ADCP and LISST data were collected to quantify and establish suspended sediment transport patterns in two different seasonal conditions: September and December 2011. ADCP relative acoustic backscatter was calibrated using LISST suspended sediment concentration and grain size, allowing the integration of current, sediment and wave data. In most cases suspended sediment signatures in all three mooring sites respond mainly to locally induced wave resuspension. More complex dynamic interplay was found in the central mooring site where different finer and coarser sediment signatures were identified, most likely associated with the effect of the Lis River runoff and upwelling fluxes.

  9. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S; Cabral, M; da Cruz, N F; Simões, P; Marques, R C

    2014-09-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called "Baseline" scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called "Incineration" scenario) or to landfill ("Landfill" scenario). Overall, the results show that the "Baseline" scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios. PMID:24910140

  10. Moisture Sources and Large-Scale Dynamics Associated with a Flash Flood Event in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Trigo, Isabel F.; María Durán-Quesada, Ana; Nieto, Raquel; Gimeno, Luis

    2013-04-01

    On 18-19 November 1983, the region of Lisbon, in Portugal, was affected by a heavy precipitation event, soon followed by flash flooding, urban inundations and a burst of landslides around Lisbon [Zêzere et al., 2005] causing considerable infrastructure damage and human fatalities. With a total of 95.6 mm in 24 h observed at the longest serving station in Portugal (Lisbon's Dom Luiz Observatory), this was the rainiest day during the twentieth century and one of the rainiest registered since 1864. We found that this event was triggered by the transport of tropical and subtropical moisture associated with an extratropical cyclone. The low favored a large stream of (sub) tropical air that extended over more than 10° of latitude and across the North Atlantic Ocean, carrying a large amount of moisture originally from lower latitudes, a so-called atmospheric river. The stationary position of the jet stream along the East Atlantic Ocean through Iberia caused a strong enhancement of the precipitation associated with the moist air. A Lagrangian analysis of the transport of moisture in the Euro-Atlantic sector was performed based on the methodology developed by Stohl and James [2004, 2005], using the FLEXPART model. This Lagrangian methodology was employed to show that the evaporative sources for the precipitation falling over the area of Lisbon were distributed over large sectors of the tropical-subtropical North Atlantic Ocean and included a significant contribution from the (sub) tropics. This study [Liberato et al., 2012] aims to provide an example of the application of distinct Lagrangian techniques to achieve a better understanding of the relation between extratropical cyclones and the occurrence of a heavy precipitation event on the Iberian Peninsula. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) Programme and by national funds

  11. Antibacterial Potential of Northeastern Portugal Wild Plant Extracts and Respective Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds. PMID:24804249

  12. Acessibility in collective housing for the elderly: a case study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Marie Monique Bruère; Villarouco, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Physical spaces need to be adjusted to suit the changes of a physical, cognitive and emotional order occasioned by the natural aging of people. Ergonomics of the built environment contributes to improving the interaction of the user and physical environment, with a view to their comfort and safety. By thinking through the influence that environments have on the quality of life of the elderly, this article presents an assessment of accessibility in private units--bedrooms and bathrooms--of a Long-Stay Institution for the Elderly (ILPI in Portuguese) in Portugal. The analysis of the physical and spatial conditioning factors by means of the Ergonomics Methodology for the Built Environment (EMBE), proposed by VILLAROUCO (2008), gave evidence of the need for interventions to suitably adapt physical infrastructure, with the objective of promoting the physical well-being of the elderly, and thus, enhancing the autonomy and independence of a wider range of users. PMID:22317362

  13. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives. PMID:27598015

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Santos, H; Neto, F; Rodrigues, M; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Cardoso, L

    2011-06-01

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1 : 20 as cutoff for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%) and females (41.8%) and between pure-breed (42.1%) and mixed-breed dogs (35.2%) were not statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age above 12 mo (odds ratio [OR]  =  4.0), chance of eating birds or small mammals (OR  =  4.0), housing exclusively outdoors (OR  =  1.5), home-cooked meals (OR  =  3.0), and eating raw meat or viscera (OR  =  7.7) as risk factors for the canine T. gondii infection. Some control measures are suggested based on these findings. PMID:21506866

  15. Towards a Real Estate Registry 3d Model in Portugal: Some Illustrative Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, J.-P.; Ellul, C.; Rodrigues-de-Carvalho, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    The 3D concept emerged as a key concept within geoinformation science. 3D geoinformation has been proved to be feasible and its added value over 2D geoinformation is widely acknowledged by researchers from various fields. Even so, 3D concept merits still need to be exploited further and more specific applications and associate products are needed - such as within real estate cadastre, our ultimate field of interest. The growing densification of urban land use is consequently increasing situations of vertical stratification of ownership rights. Traditional 2D cadastral models are not able to fully handle spatial information on those rights in the third dimension. Thus, 3D cadastre has been attracting researchers to better register and spatially represent real world overlapping situations. A centralised distributed cadastral management system, implementing a 2D cadastral model, has been conceived by the national cadastral agency in Portugal: the so-called SiNErGIC. The authors seek to show with this paper that there is room though for further investigation on the suitability of a 3D modelling approach instead, which should not be confined only to topologicalgeometric representations but should also be extended in order to be able to incorporate the legal/administrative component. This paper intends to be the first step towards the design of a prototype of a 3D cadastral model capable of handling the overall multipurpose cadastral reality in Portugal; it focuses primarily on the clear identification of some case studies that may illustrate the pertinence of such an approach in the context of this country.

  16. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state. PMID:26990177

  17. Former Diversity of Ephedra (Gnetales): Evidence from Early Cretaceous Seeds from Portugal and North America

    PubMed Central

    RYDIN, CATARINA; PEDERSEN, KAJ RAUNSGAARD; CRANE, PETER R.; FRIIS, ELSE MARIE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The extant species of the seed plant group Gnetales (Ephedra, Gnetum and Welwitschia) have been considered a remnant of a much greater, now extinct, diversity due to the pronounced differences in form and ecology among the genera. Until recently, this hypothesis has not been supported by evidence from the fossil record. This paper adds to the expanding information on Gnetales from the Early Cretaceous and describes coalified seeds from Barremian-Albian localities in Portugal and USA. • Methods The fossils were extracted from sediment samples by sieving in water. Adhering mineral matrix was removed by chemical treatment. Seeds were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Morphology and anatomy of the seeds were documented and compared with those of extant species. • Key Results The fossils share characters with extant Ephedra, for example papillae on the inner surface of the seed envelope and in situ polyplicate pollen grains that shed the exine during germination. They differ from extant Ephedra seeds in morphological and anatomical details as well as in their smaller size. Two new species of Ephedra are described together with one species assigned to a new genus of Gnetales. Other Ephedra-like seeds, for which pollen and critical morphological details are currently unknown, are also present in the samples. • Conclusions These Cretaceous seeds document that key reproductive characters and pollen germination processes have remained unchanged within Ephedra for about 120 million years or more. There is sufficient variety in details of morphology to suggest that a diversity of Ephedra and Ephedra-like species were present in the Early Cretaceous flora. Their presence in Portugal and eastern North America indicates that they were widespread on the Laurasian continent. The fossil seeds are similar to seeds of Erdtmanithecales and this supports the previously suggested relationship between Erdtmanithecales and Gnetales

  18. Changes in Streptococcus pyogenes causing invasive disease in Portugal: evidence for superantigen gene loss and acquisition.

    PubMed

    Friães, Ana; Lopes, Joana P; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mario

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of highly virulent and successful Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci - GAS) clones has been attributed to the exchange of virulence factors by lateral gene transfer mechanisms, which strongly contribute to genomic diversity. We characterized a collection of 191 GAS isolates recovered from normally sterile sites in Portugal during 2006-2009 and compared them to invasive isolates obtained during 2000-2005. Antimicrobial resistance rates did not change significantly between the two periods and were generally low. In 2006-2009, emm1, emm89, emm3, and emm6 represented 60% of the isolates. The chromosomally encoded superantigen (SAg) genes speG and smeZ were present in the majority (>90%) of the isolates, while speJ was found in only 45%. The phage encoded SAgs varied greatly in prevalence (2-53%). The distribution of emm types, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling (PFGE) clusters, and SAg profiles changed significantly between the periods, although there were no statistically supported changes in the prevalence of individual types. While the macrolide susceptible clone emm1-T1-ST28 remained dominant (28%), there was a significant decrease in clonal diversity as indicated by both PFGE profiling and emm typing. This was accompanied by intra-clonal divergence of SAg profiles, which was statistically confirmed for isolates representing emm1, emm28, and emm44. This diversification was associated with the loss and acquisition of SAg genes, carried by phages and of chromosomal origin. These data suggest an ongoing genomic diversification of GAS invasive isolates in Portugal that may contribute to the persistence of clones with improved fitness or virulence. PMID:23932912

  19. Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Duarte, A A L S; Bentes, I

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:23685370

  20. Emergence of Thelazia callipaeda Infection in Dogs and Cats from East-Central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, C; Catarino, A L; Almeida, B; Ramos, C; Campino, L; Cardoso, L

    2016-08-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) infects domestic animals, wildlife and human beings, and is considered an emerging pathogen in Europe. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and risk factors of T. callipaeda infection in dogs and cats from east-central Portugal, a region where the parasite was previously detected in two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Thelazia callipaeda was found in 22 (3.8%) of 586 dogs and in four (23.5%) of 17 cats. A total of 178 adult worms (71.9% of females and 28.1% of males) were collected from the conjunctiva of the infected dogs. The number of worms collected per dog ranged from 1 to 35 (average ± standard deviation: 8.08 ± 9.49), with four dogs (18.2%) harbouring only a single parasite. Worms were gathered from dogs throughout all months of the year. A total of 17 adult worms (64.7% of females and 35.3% of males) were obtained from cats. The number of worms per cat ranged from 1 to 14 (4.3 ± 6.5), with three cats (75.0%) having a single parasite. Eyewor