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Sample records for delgada azores portugal

  1. Hydrogeology framework of the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. V.; Coutinho, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands located in the North Atlantic Ocean, spread along a 600 km-long NW-SE strip, approximately 1600 km from Portugal mainland. All the islands are of volcanic origin and only in Santa Maria, the eastern most island of the Azores, are there sedimentary units interbedded in the volcanic succession of basic nature. Groundwater resources in the Azores are essential both as drinking water source and for ecosystem support. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, with an average annual precipitation at the Azores equal to 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration (581 mm). From October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered, which also influences recharge distribution along the year. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, with the highest values been observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is thin, and the groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Despite differences in the volcanic successions observed in the several islands, resulting from volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be generally described in terms of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in the volcanic edifices slopes. Specific well capacity ranges between 1.40x10-2 L/sm and 266.67 L/sm, with a median of 32.29 L/sm (Cruz 2001a, 2004). The values exhibit marked variability among the wells from the different islands. The highest specific capacity is observed on Pico and Graciosa, with wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured with frequently interbedded clincker levels. Transmissivity values also

  2. Historical tsunami in the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Borges, P.; Freitas, M. C.

    2006-08-01

    Because of its exposed northern mid-Atlantic location, morphology and plate-tectonics setting, the Azores Archipelago is highly vulnerable to tsunami hazards associated with landslides and seismic or volcanic triggers, local or distal. Critical examination of available data - written accounts and geologic evidence - indicates that, since the settlement of the archipelago in the 15th century, at least 23 tsunami have struck Azorean coastal zones. Most of the recorded tsunami are generated by earthquakes. The highest known run-up (11-15 m) was recorded on 1 November 1755 at Terceira Island, corresponding to an event of intensity VII-VIII (damaging-heavily damaging) on the Papadopolous-Imamura scale. To date, eruptive activity, while relatively frequent in the Azores, does not appear to have generated destructive tsunami. However, this apparent paucity of volcanogenic tsunami in the historical record may be misleading because of limited instrumental and documentary data, and small source-volumes released during historical eruptions. The latter are in contrast with the geological record of massive pyroclastic flows and caldera explosions with potential to generate high-magnitude tsunami, predating settlement. In addition, limited evidence suggests that submarine landslides from unstable volcano flanks may have also triggered some damaging tsunamigenic floods that perhaps were erroneously attributed to intense storms. The lack of destructive tsunami since the mid-18th century has led to governmental complacency and public disinterest in the Azores, as demonstrated by the fact that existing emergency regulations concerning seismic events in the Azores Autonomous Region make no mention of tsunami and their attendant hazards. We suspect that the coastal fringe of the Azores may well preserve a sedimentary record of some past tsunamigenic flooding events. Geological field studies must be accelerated to expand the existing database to include prehistoric events

  3. Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.

    2009-04-01

    The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands of volcanic origin located in the North Atlantic Ocean, with an area of 2333 km2 and approximately 237500 inhabitants, which are 98% dependant from groundwater sources for their water consumption. Therefore, groundwater is a resource that plays a vital role as drinking water source and as ecosystem support matrix. Nevertheless, besides the environmental, social and economical value of groundwater, this resource is subject to an increase pressure and in several islands water quality deterioration is shown by monitoring data. This pressure is also shown by the 42.7% increase expected for domestic use until the year 2020 at the Azores, with higher groundwater abstraction. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, which is reflected by the low thermal amplitude and high precipitation. A well-established difference between a dry season and a colder and wet season occurs, as from October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered. The average annual precipitation at the Azores is 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration, which is 581 mm. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, and the highest values are observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is sparse. Groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Values above the recharge median, equal to 101.3x106 m3/yr. were estimated for the São Miguel, São Jorge, Terceira and Flores islands. Despite differences in the islands growth, as a result of successive volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be described in function of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in

  4. Fluoride content in drinking water supply in São Miguel volcanic island (Azores, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, S; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V

    2012-08-15

    High fluoride contents in the water supply of the city of Ponta Delgada, located in the volcanic island of São Miguel (Azores, Portugal) have been reported. Dental fluorosis in São Miguel has been identified and described in several medical surveys. The water supply in Ponta Delgada consists entirely of groundwater. A study was carried out in order to characterize the natural F-pollution of a group of springs (30) and wells (3), that are associated to active central volcanoes of a trachytic nature. Two springs known for their high content in fluoride were sampled, both located in the central volcano of Furnas. The sampled waters are cold, ranging from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (pH range 6.53-7.60), exhibiting a low electrical conductivity (springs range 87-502 μS/cm; wells range 237-1761 μS/cm), and are mainly from the Na-HCO(3), Na-HCO(3)-Cl and Na-Cl-HCO(3) water types. Results suggest two main trends of geochemical evolution: silicate weathering, enhanced by CO(2) dilution, and seawater spraying. Fluoride contents range between 0.17 mg/L and 2 mg/L, and no seasonal variations were detected. Results in the sources of the water supply system are lower than those of the Furnas volcano, which reach 5.09 mgF/L, demonstrating the effect of F-rich gaseous emanations in this area. Instead, the higher fluoride contents in the water supply are mainly due to silicate weathering in aquifers made of more evolved volcanic rocks. PMID:22705903

  5. Viticultural zoning of Graciosa island of the Azores archipelago - Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, João; Reis, Francisco; Felipe, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The management and sustainability of the traditional vineyards of the Azores settled on lava field terrains is strongly affected by practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of the vineyards. In a recent macrozoning approach study Madruga et al (2015) showed that besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the Azores islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics indicate a potential for the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed viticultural zoning at the level of the small mapscale (smaller than 1:25,000), for the island of Graciosa where, besides the traditional lava field terroir, there are also some localized experiences of grapevine production over normal soils, offering thus some comparative information on this type of production conditions. The zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate and topography which was then combined with the soil mapping units fulfilling the suitable criteria concerning the soil properties taken as the most relevant for viticulture, being the result a map of homogeneous environmental units. The climatic zoning examined the direct quantitative variables (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) in relation to climate index, bioclimatic and viticultural specific values. Topography (elevation, slope, aspect, orientation) was analyzed based on the tridimensional models of the islands in GIS to include the best slopes for the mechanization of the vineyard cultural operations (0-15%). Soils were analyzed based on data and soil map units as defined in the soil surveys of the Azores archipelago. The soil properties taken for the analysis and definition of the potential vineyard areas were drainage, water holding capacity

  6. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  7. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  8. Tracking the evolution of the G1/RHDVb recombinant strains introduced from the Iberian Peninsula to the Azores islands, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tereza; Lopes, Ana M; Magalhães, Maria J; Neves, Fabiana; Pinheiro, Ana; Gonçalves, David; Leitão, Manuel; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana

    2015-08-01

    Previous genetic characterization of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) from Azores, Portugal, revealed the presence of genogroup 3-5 (G3-G5) like strains. These strains differed from the genogroup 1 (G1) strains circulating in mainland Portugal, suggesting an independent evolution of RHDV in Azores. More recently, the new variant RHDV (RHDVb) was detected in Azores. In mainland Portugal, current circulating strains resulted from recombination events between RHDVb and non-pathogenic or pathogenic G1 strains. To characterize the RHDVb strains from Azores, a ∼2.5 kb fragment of the RHDV genome (nucleotide positions 4873-7323), including the complete sequence of the capsid gene VP60 (nucleotide positions 5305-7044), was amplified and sequenced. Samples were obtained from rabbits found dead in the field between December 2014 and March 2015 in the Azorean islands Flores, Graciosa, São Jorge, Terceira, Faial, Pico, São Miguel and Santa Maria. For VP60, the highest homology was found with Iberian RHDVb strains, while the upstream fragment revealed high similarity (∼95%) with Iberian G1 strains. Phylogenetic reconstruction based either on VP60 or VP10 grouped the Azorean strains with Iberian RHDVb strains. For the fragment upstream of VP60, the Azorean strains grouped with G1. Our results show that the RHDVb strains circulating in Azores are G1/RHDVb recombinants and we hypothesize that such strains had their origin in Iberian strains. The geographic isolation of Azores suggests that arrival of RHDVb was man-mediated. A network analysis further allowed us to trace virus dispersion in Azores: from an initial outbreak in Graciosa, RHDVb spread to São Jorge and Faial, to Terceira, Flores and Santa Maria, and finally to Pico; dispersion to São Miguel occurred later from Terceira. As the consequences of the presence of G1/RHDVb strains in Azores are unpredictable, we suggest a continued monitoring and characterization of RHD outbreaks. PMID:26165506

  9. Natural background groundwater composition in the Azores archipelago (Portugal): a hydrogeochemical study and threshold value determination.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J V; Andrade, C

    2015-07-01

    Groundwater discharges were sampled in selected springs from São Miguel (Furnas and Fogo trachytic central volcanoes) and Santa Maria islands (Azores, Portugal), in order to characterize natural background levels (NBLs) and proceed to the determination of threshold values (TVs). Besides being a key issue in order to fully assess the anthropogenic pressures, NBLs are also instrumental to derive TVs, therefore complying with requirements from the European Union Groundwater Directive. The composition of groundwater corresponds mainly to low mineralized Na-HCO3 to Na-Cl water types, the latter dominant in Santa Maria island, with a decreasing order of Na>Ca>Mg>K and Cl>HCO3>SO4>NO3 for cations and anion respectively. The majority of the samples are slightly acid to slightly alkaline (pH range of 5.45-7.43), and the electrical conductivity range between 180 and 1458 μS/cm. Groundwater composition is controlled by two major drivers, addition of sea salts and dissolution of silicate minerals. Results shown that TVs established along the present study are in general in the lower rank when compared to the range of values proposed by the several EU member states, with the main exception of NO3, reflecting the impact of agriculture activities over water quality in the Azores, and lower than the national ones. The comparison between the estimated NBL and TV with values derived with another dataset from the Azores, usually higher, depicts the effect of a larger and diverse number of groundwater sources over calculations. On the other hand, all samples which show a contribution from volcanic/hydrothermal systems were excluded from the dataset, which explains why the derived NBLs and TVs are lower comparing to other active volcanic areas, which is also a conservative approach on a subject that has regulatory implications. PMID:25813965

  10. Molybdenum and Uranium from Remote Continental Origin at Pico Summit, Pico Island, Azores, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Pacheco, Adriano M. G.; Tuncel, Gürdal

    2008-08-01

    The present study looks into aerosols collected by a land-based, seven-wavelength Aethalometer, from the lower-free troposphere close to the summit of the Pico mountain (top height: 2351 m; sampling height: 2225 m), in Pico island, Azores, Portugal. Following suitable handling and preparation procedures, all samples were put through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k0-variant) for elemental assessment. Archival data have been used as an input to the HYSPLIT model (courtesy of NOAA ARL READY Website) for computing isentropic, backward trajectories of air masses reaching the Pico atmosphere. The results point to significant enrichments of molybdenum and uranium in high-altitude aerosols, especially in the summer samples. A local origin for either element is most unlikely though: Pico is a rural island, and there are no comparable records from low-altitude stations in the Azores at large. On the contrary, long-range transport from remote sources in continental areas—Europe and North-Central America—is rather compatible with the synoptic, elemental pathways converging over the Pico observatory for the period under study.

  11. Molybdenum and Uranium from Remote Continental Origin at Pico Summit, Pico Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Carmo Freitas, Maria do; Pacheco, Adriano M. G.; Tuncel, Guerdal

    2008-08-07

    The present study looks into aerosols collected by a land-based, seven-wavelength Aethalometer, from the lower-free troposphere close to the summit of the Pico mountain (top height: 2351 m; sampling height: 2225 m), in Pico island, Azores, Portugal. Following suitable handling and preparation procedures, all samples were put through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k{sub 0}-variant) for elemental assessment. Archival data have been used as an input to the HYSPLIT model (courtesy of NOAA ARL READY Website) for computing isentropic, backward trajectories of air masses reaching the Pico atmosphere. The results point to significant enrichments of molybdenum and uranium in high-altitude aerosols, especially in the summer samples. A local origin for either element is most unlikely though: Pico is a rural island, and there are no comparable records from low-altitude stations in the Azores at large. On the contrary, long-range transport from remote sources in continental areas--Europe and North-Central America--is rather compatible with the synoptic, elemental pathways converging over the Pico observatory for the period under study.

  12. Mineral water discharges at the Azores archipelago (Portugal): hydrogeological setting, chemical composition and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, P.; Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Costa, A.; Antunes, P.

    2009-04-01

    The geological setting of the Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic ocean, about 1500 km form Portugal mainland and made of 9 islands of volcanic origin, enhances the multiplicity of surface hydrothermal manifestations. Therefore, a field survey made possible to identify 101 mineral water discharges in the Azores, mainly of CO2-rich cold waters and thermal waters, spread along São Miguel (75%), Terceira (6%), Graciosa (7%), Pico (2%), Faial (3%), São Jorge (5%) and Flores ( 2%) islands, as well as fumarolic grounds. Furnas and Fogo central volcanoes, two of the three composite active volcanoes that dominates the geology of São Miguel, the largest island of the archipelago, represent respectively about 41% and 24% of the discharges from the Azores. Discharges are mainly from fissured aquifers, made of basaltic or trachitic lava flows. Instead, discharges from porous aquifers, made of pyroclastic deposits, mainly of pumice type, are less common, and are more frequent at São Miguel island. The studied discharges correspond mainly to springs (75), and also to boiling pools (10), at fumarolic grounds, 14 drilled wells and 2 large-diameter wells. The boiling pools are only observable at São Miguel island, while drilled wells were made at São Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa. Groundwater at Azores occurs in two major aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) in perched-water bodies. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. From the 14 drilled wells only two are in perched-water bodies. Considering mineral springs, the majority discharge from perched-water bodies (77%), while all the boiling pools also discharge in altitude, also from perched -water bodies. During the field survey an extensive campaign of sample collection was made in all islands, in order to characterize the chemical composition of these waters

  13. Near-surface wave velocity structure of Faial (Azores - Portugal) Island for site effect studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, José; Neves, Samuel; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Carvalho, João; Carvalho, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Throughout history, the life of the Azorean people has been marked by earthquakes that have had different effects depending on their proximity and magnitude. This seismic activity, which may have volcanic or tectonic origins, has affected the population of these islands by destroying infrastructure and claiming lives. The social and economic impacts of these phenomena are enormous. The last significant event affecting the Azores (Portugal) was the July 1998 Mw=6.2 earthquake causing major destruction affecting more than 5000 people, causing 8 deaths, 150 persons injured and 1500 homeless. Ground motion simulations are mainly based on source characteristics and are heavily dependent on the medium, which is still poorly understood. Subsurface soil condition can amplify the seismic waves, so, for seismic response analysis, it is necessary to know the shallow soil properties and its spatial variability. For this purpose, we applied P and S-wave refraction, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to characterize shear wave velocity at different sites in the Faial Island, in particular, in sites where already occurred amplification. Ambient vibrations can also be used to estimate physical properties of the shallower geological formations. With this goal, the obtained velocity models were confirmed by comparison between real H/V curves with synthetic ones. We concluded that the anomalous intensities observed in some sites are strongly related to thick layers of soft sediments of pyroclastic deposits produced by old volcanic eruptions occurred in the Faial Island.

  14. Chemical monitoring of river water bodies in an EU outermost region: examples from the Azores archipelago (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cruz, José Virgílio; Pacheco, Dina; Coutinho, Rui; Cymbron, Raquel; Mendes, Sandra; Antunes, Paulo; Fontiela, João; Freire, Pedro

    2010-12-01

    Chemical monitoring of water quality on a total of 16 rivers in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), since 2003, made it possible to identify the major pressures and spatial geochemical variations along main course of the rivers. River water pollution is to a large extent associated to point sources, namely domestic wastewater discharges, especially in urban areas, and diffuse sources, associated with pasture land, and explain the high values on BOD(5) and nutrients (P and N). Heavy metals and metalloids, as well as hydrocarbons and pesticides, are generally under the detection limits of the analytical methods. Generally, river water reflects pollution loads according to a simple model, derived from land use in the watershed: in the upper part conditions are pristine, in the intermediate portion of the basin pasture land dominates and near the coast urban discharges are increasingly important. Results stress the role that an approach based on the watershed scale, coupled with land use management measures, are crucial to water management procedures and a successful WFD implementation in small river basin districts like the Azores. The paper also shows the need for full compliance regarding EU directives on urban wastewater and nitrate pollution due to agriculture. PMID:21076769

  15. APPLICATION OF AUDIO-MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS ON SAO MIGUEL ISLAND, AZORES PORTUGAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Donald; Rodrigues Da Silva, A.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Amaral, Roberto

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal exploration and development has been under way on Sao Miguel Island, Azores since 1975. This work had been restricted to the Fogo volcano, one of three dormant silicic volcanic centers on the island. The USGS in 1982 and 1983 conducted reconnaissance natural-source audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys of all three silicic centers to evaluate the potential for geothermal systems at each and to demonstrate the utility of the method in areas of difficult terrain. Results on Fogo showed a low resistivity trend extending from the present production area upslope to the caldera boundary. The upper part of this trend is the upwelling zone of a thermal plume which supplies the production area. Further exploration and drilling are now planned for this area.

  16. Intertidal rocky shore seaweed communities subject to the influence of shallow water hydrothermal activity in São Miguel (Azores, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallenstein, Francisco M.; Couto, Ruben P.; Torrão, Daniel F.; Neto, Ana I.; Rodrigues, Armindo S.; Wilkinson, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The volcanic origin of the Azores archipelago (Portugal) gives rise to active deep sea and shallow water hydrothermal activity that affects benthic communities. Intertidal seaweed surveys were conducted at two shores affected by intense shallow water hydrothermal vents. Water temperature, acidity and salinity were monitored. Seaweed communities were found to be species poor and have a disproportionally larger number of filamentous early successional species on shores that are subject to the effect of hot and acidic freshwater of volcanic origin. There is an ecological resemblance between hydrothermally affected seaweed communities in the Azores and those affected by acid mine drainage in the UK, thus indicating that hydrothermalism can be a useful scenario for pollution studies under conditions of ocean warming and acidification.

  17. Portugal.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  18. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal) and its implications for the NAO signal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesús Rubio, Maria; Sanchez, Guiomar; Saez, Alberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Francus, Pierre; Hernández, Armand; Margalef, Olga; Buchaca, Teresa; Pla, Sergi; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Azores archipelago lies in the southern area of the dipole that defines the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the negative phase of the NAO, the Azores high pressure is displaced southwards allowing the storms to cross the islands increasing the precipitation in this area and also in southern Europe. This fact makes them excellent key places to perform accurate high-resolution climate reconstructions. Lake Azul (37o 52' 21"N - 37o52'21"W) is a monomictic lake infilling the volcanic complex of Sete Cidades which is located in São Miguel island. This monomictic and eutrophic lake was formed around 22000 cal. years B.P. by consecutive collapses of the underneath volcanic caldera. The last eruption of the Sete Cidades crater complex was radiocarbon-dated at 500-650 cal years B.P. At present, macrophytes are restricted to the lake shore and consist mainly of Potamogeton spp., Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphaea alba, and, Chara fragilis. Moreover, this crater complex has steep borders mainly covered by exotic plant species, such Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum. Antropogenic changes in the catchment have occurred in the last centuries including deforestation, permanent pastures (around 31%), production forest (57%) and the human settlements. In September 2011, fourteen sediment cores, up to 2.5 m long, were collected using a gravity corer from a UWITEC raft. A multiproxy characterization of these cores was carried out including smear slides, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray diffraction, magnetic properties, diatom content, and bulk organic matter (d13C, d15N, TN, TOC). The chronological model was obtained by plant remains and pollen concentrates radiocarbon-dating. From base to top, three lithological units have been established from the retrieved cores: volcaniclastic rocks (lapilli), light grey laminated mud, and poor laminated light brown mud with frequent dark layers rich in plant debris. The

  19. Analysis and definition of potential new areas for viticulture in the Azores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, J.; Azevedo, E. B.; Sampaio, J. F.; Fernandes, F.; Reis, F.; Pinheiro, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vineyards in the Azores have been traditionally settled on lava field terroirs but the practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of these vineyards contradict the sustainability of these areas for wine production, except under government policies of heavy financial support. Besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of an assessment, with a view to the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The landscape zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate, topography and soils. Three thermal intervals referred to climate maturity groups were defined and combined with a single slope interval of 0-15 % to exclude the landscape units above this limit. Over this resulting composite grid, the soils were then selectively cartographed through the exclusion of the soil units not fulfilling the suitability criteria. The results show that the thermal interval of warmer conditions, well represented in the traditional terroir of Pico island, has practically no expression in the other islands. However, for the intermediate and the cooler classes, we could map areas of 5611 and 18 115 ha respectively, fulfilling the defined soils and slope criteria, indicating thus the existence of some landscapes in the studied islands revealing adequate potential for future development of viticulture, although certainly demanding a good judgment on the better grape varieties to be adapted to those climatic conditions.

  20. Volcanic history and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C geochronology of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, A.T.; Moore, R.B.; McGeehin, J.P.; Rodrigues da Silva, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Seven new 40Ar/39Ar and 23 new radiocarbon ages of eruptive units, in support of new geologic mapping, improve the known chronology of Middle to Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic activity on the island of Terceira, Azores and define an east-to-west progression in stratovolcano growth. The argon ages indicate that Cinco Picos Volcano, the oldest on Terceira, completed its main subaerial cone building activity by about 370-380??ka. Collapse of the upper part of the stratovolcanic edifice to form a 7 ?? 9??km caldera occurred some time after 370??ka. Postcaldera eruptions of basalt from cinder cones on and near the caldera floor and trachytic pyroclastic flow and pumice fall deposits from younger volcanoes west of Cinco Picos have refilled much of the caldera. The southern portion of Guilherme Moniz Volcano, in the central part of the island, began erupting prior to 270??ka and produced trachyte domes, flows, and minor pyroclastic deposits until at least 111??ka. The northern part of Guilherme Moniz Caldera is less well exposed than the southern part, but reflects a similar age range. The northwest portion of the caldera was formed sometime after 44??ka. Several well-studied ignimbrites that blanket much of the island likely erupted from Guilherme Moniz Volcano. The Pico Alto Volcanic Center, a tightly spaced cluster of trachyte domes and short flows, is a younger part of Guilherme Moniz Volcano. Stratigraphic studies and our new radiocarbon ages suggest that most of the Pico Alto eruptions occurred during the period from about 9000 to 1000??years BP. Santa Barbara Volcano is the youngest stratovolcano on Terceira, began erupting prior to 29??ka, and has been active historically. ?? 2006.

  1. 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the temporal evolution of Graciosa Island, Azores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrea, Patricia; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Galé, Carlos; Ubide, Teresa; Lago, Marceliano; França, Zilda; Widom, Elisabeth

    2014-02-01

    Lava flows spanning the eruptive record of Graciosa Island (Azores archipelago) and a gabbro xenolith were dated by 40Ar/39Ar in order to constrain the Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic evolution of the island. The results range from 1.05 Ma to 3.9 ka, whereas prior published K-Ar and 14C ages range from 620 to 2 ka. The formation of the Serra das Fontes shield volcano started at minimum 1.05 Ma, and the magmatic system was active for ca. 600 ky, as suggested by the formation of the gabbro xenolith by magmatic differentiation. Evolved magmas making up the Serra das Fontes-Serra Branca composite volcano were generated at ca. 450 ka. After a period of ca. 110 ky of volcanic inactivity and erosion of volcanic edifices, volcanism was reactivated with the formation of the Vitória Unit NW platform. Later, the development of the Vulcão Central Unit started with the formation of monogenetic cones located to the south of the Serra das Fontes-Serra Branca-Vitória Unit. This volcanism became progressively more evolved and was concentrated in a main eruptive center, forming the Vulcão Central stratovolcano with an age older than 50 ka. The caldera related to this stratovolcano is older than 47 ka and was followed by effusion of basaltic magmas into the caldera, resulting in the formation of a lava lake, which ultimately spilled over the caldera rim at ca. 11 ka. The most recent eruptions on Graciosa formed two small pyroclastic cones within the caldera and the Pico do Timão cone within the Vitória Unit at ca 3.9 ka.

  2. Analysis and definition of potential new areas for viticulture in the Azores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, J.; Azevedo, E. B.; Sampaio, J. F.; Reis, F.; Pinheiro, J.

    2014-12-01

    Vineyards in the Azores have been traditionally settled on lava field "terroirs" but the practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of these vineyards contradict the sustainability of these areas for wine production, except under government policies of heavy financial support. Besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be object of an assessment, with a view to the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for a better management and sustainability. The landscape zoning approach for the present study was based in a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate, topography and soils. Three thermal intervals referred to climate maturity groups were defined and combined with a single slope interval of 0-15% to exclude the landscape units above this limit. Over this resulting composite grid, the soils were than selectively cartographed thru the exclusion of the soil units not fulfilling the suitability criteria. The results show that the thermal interval of warmer conditions, well represented in the traditional "terroir" of Pico island, has practically no expression in the other islands. However, for the intermediate and the cooler classes, we could map areas of 3739 and 19 395 ha respectively, fulfilling the defined soils and slope criteria, indicating thus the existence of some landscapes in the studied islands revealing adequate potential for future development of viticulture, although certainly demanding a good judgment on the better grape varieties to be adapted to those climatic conditions.

  3. Water composition in the unsaturated zone at Sete Cidades central volcano (S. Miguel, Azores, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J.; Silva, M.; Mendonça, J.; Dias, I.; Prudêncio, I.

    2009-04-01

    A field study was developed at Sete Cidades, the westernmost of the three active composite volcanoes that dominate the geology of São Miguel, the largest of the nine islands from the Azores archipelago. Research methodology comprehends the characterization of soil-water composition at several depths, sampled by means of ceramic suction cups. Previously to their installation, cups were all submitted to several stages of washing, first in the laboratory with supra pure water, until aliquot conductivity stabilizes, and after in the field. This study was planned in order to study the water pollution due to agriculture, one of the main economic activities in the Azores, as shown by the gross value added to regional product. The negative effects of groundwater pollution due to agriculture have been reported in the majority of the nine islands, reflected by high contents of nitrogen species, derived from the inadequate use of synthetic and organic fertilizers, as well as from animal wastes leaching, or also by microbiology parameters. The relation between water pollution and agriculture results in some cases in the failure to comply regarding EU and national water quality regulations, through quality deterioration and compromising groundwater as strategic natural resource in the Azores. The studied area corresponds to Sete Cidades volcano caldera, a 5 km-diameter circular shaped depression, contoured by steep walls from 30 m high up to 400 m. In order to characterize unsaturated water composition in the caldera floor, five pasture locations were selected and monitored, as well as one site with the same physical conditions, but without agricultural activity. From the 5 pasture lands we discuss further results obtained in the so-called Pavão I (Pa I), which corresponds to the most extensive data set. On this site, 6 suction cups were installed, at depths 0.35 m, 0.7 m, 1 m, 1.3 m, 1.6 m and 1.9 m. In the site without agricultural activity, in the vicinity of Sete Cidades

  4. Impact of effusive eruptions from the Eguas-Carvão fissure system, São Miguel Island, Azores Archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Cappello, Annalisa; Zanon, Vittorio; Del Negro, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    The hazard and risk posed by future effusive eruptions from the Éguas-Carvão fissure system in São Miguel Island (Azores Archipelago) are assessed. This fissure system, located ~ 13 km from the town of Ponta Delgada and its international airport, was the only site in the whole island to be characterized by recurrent basaltic eruptions over the past 5000 yr. Here we report on the stratigraphic record of these Holocene eruptions, with special mention to both areas and volumes of deposits, and eruptive styles and recurrence. These basic data then are used to constrain numerical simulations of lava flow paths using the MAGFLOW model, after which hazard zones of possible future events are proposed. The lava flow risk is evaluated by combining the hazard with the exposed value, referred to the population, infrastructures and land use. These results are shown in two distinct maps, where the areas most prone to lava flow inundation and the extent of damages in case of a future effusive eruption are identified. We find that lava flows issuing from the Éguas-Carvão fissure system may be a threat to the villages of Feteiras, Capelas and Santo Antonio. Although this study was conducted on the Éguas-Carvão fissure system, the approach used can be applied to the whole São Miguel Island.

  5. Chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution and DNA damage in Furnas Volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal) inhabitants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhares, Diana; Garcia, Patricia; Silva, Catarina; Ferreira, Teresa; Barroso, Joana; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2015-04-01

    Many studies in volcanic air pollution only have in consideration the acute toxic effects of gas or ash releases however the impact of chronic exposure to ground gas emissions in human health is yet poorly known. In the Azores archipelago (Portugal), São Miguel island has one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes: Furnas Volcano. Highly active fumarolic fields, hot springs and soil diffuse degassing phenomena are the main secondary volcanic phenomena that can be seen at the volcano surroundings. One of the main gases released in these diffuse degassing areas is radon (222Rn), which decay results in solid particles that readily settle within the airways. These decay particles emit alpha radiation that is capable of causing severe DNA damage that cumulatively can eventually cause cancer. Previous studies have established that chronic exposure to chromosome-damaging agents can lead to the formation of nuclear anomalies, such as micronuclei that is used for monitoring DNA damage in human populations. The present study was designed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution, associated to 222Rn, might result in DNA damage in human oral epithelial cells. A cross sectional study was performed in a study group of 142 individuals inhabiting an area where volcanic activity is marked by active fumarolic fields and soil degassing (hydrothermal area), and a reference group of 368 individuals inhabiting an area without these secondary manifestations of volcanism (non-hydrothermal area). For each individual, 1000 buccal epithelial cells were analyzed for the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNc) and the frequency of cells with other nuclear anomalies (ONA: pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis), by using the micronucleus assay. Information on lifestyle factors and an informed consent were obtained from each participant. Assessment of indoor radon was performed with the use of radon detectors. Data were analyzed with logistic regression models, adjusted

  6. Berry trials in the Azores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Direcção de Serviços de Agricultura e Pecuária, Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal, began a collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository at Corvallis, Oregon, and The Ohio State University, Department...

  7. Definition of a methodology for the management of geological heritage. An application to the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Eva; Nunes, João; Brilha, José; Calado, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the geological heritage requires the support of appropriate policies, which should be the result of the integration of nature conservation, environmental and land-use planning, and environmental education perspectives. There are several papers about inventory methodologies for geological heritage and its scientific, educational and tourism uses (e.g. Cendrero, 2000, Lago et al., 2000; Brilha, 2005; Carcavilla et al., 2007). However, management methodologies for geological heritage are still poorly developed. They should be included in environmental and land-use planning and nature conservation policies, in order to support a holistic approach to natural heritage. This gap is explained by the fact that geoconservation is a new geoscience still needed of more basic scientific research, like any other geoscience (Henriques et al., 2011). It is necessary to establish protocols and mechanisms for the conservation and management of geological heritage. This is a complex type of management because it needs to address not only the fragile natural features to preserve but also legal, economic, cultural, educational and recreational aspects. In addition, a management methodology should ensure the geosites conservation, the local development and the dissemination of the geological heritage (Carcavilla et al., 2007). This work is part of a PhD project aiming to contribute to fill this gap that exists in the geoconservation domain, specifically in terms of establishing an appropriate methodology for the management of geological heritage, taking into account the natural diversity of geosites and the variety of natural and anthropic threats. The proposed methodology will be applied to the geological heritage of the Azores archipelago, which management acquires particular importance and urgency after the decision of the Regional Government to create the Azores Geopark and its application to the European and Global Geoparks Networks. Acknowledgment This work is

  8. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  9. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidation (amoA) and Nitrogen Fixation (nifH) Genes in Lava Caves of Terceira, Azores, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Jennifer J. Marshall; Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Dapkevicius, Maria De Lurdes N. E.; Northup, Diana E.

    2015-01-01

    Lava caves are an understudied ecosystem in the subterranean world, particularly in regard to nitrogen cycling. The diversity of ammonia oxidation (amoA) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) genes in bacterial mats collected from lava cave walls on the island of Terceira (Azores, Portugal) was investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 55 samples were collected from 11 lava caves that were selected with regard to surface land use. Land use types above the lava caves were categorized into pasture, forested, and sea/urban, and used to determine if land use influenced the ammonia oxidizing and nitrogen fixing bacterial communities within the lava caves. The soil and water samples from each lava cave were analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate, to determine if land use influences either the nutrient content entering the lava cave or the nitrogen cycling bacteria present within the cave. Nitrosospira-like sequences dominated the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community, and the majority of the diversity was found in lava caves under forested land. The nitrogen fixation community was dominated by Klebsiella pneumoniae-like sequences, and diversity was evenly distributed between pasture and forested land, but very little overlap in diversity was observed. The results suggest that land use is impacting both the AOB and the nitrogen fixing bacterial communities. PMID:26778867

  10. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Neto, Ana Isabel; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  11. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters--Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-12-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  12. Human Leptospirosis: Seroreactivity and Genetic Susceptibility in the Population of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Lisa M.; Bulhões, Sara M.; Branco, Claudia C.; Mota, Francisco M.; Paiva, Clara; Cabral, Rita; Vieira, Maria Luisa; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic and recognized neglected infectious disease. It has been observed that only a proportion of individuals exposed to pathogenic species of Leptospira become infected and develop clinically evident disease. Moreover, little information is available in subsequent reinfections. In the present study, we determine if a first infection with leptospirosis protects against subsequent reinfection, and investigate which of the host genetic factors are involved in the susceptibility and resistance to leptospirosis. Methodology and Findings We conducted, in 2011, a retrospective hospital-based case-control study in the São Miguel Island population (Azores archipelago). In order to determine the seropositivity against pathogenic Leptospira after the first episode of leptospirosis, we performed a serological evaluation in 97 unrelated participants diagnosed with leptospirosis between 1992 and 2011. The results revealed that 46.4% of the 97 participants have circulating anti-Leptospira antibodies, and from these participants 35.6% maintained the seroprevalence for the same serogroup. Moreover, three of them were reinfected with unrelated Leptospira serovars. The genetic study was carried out by adding a control group composed of 470 unrelated healthy blood donors, also from São Miguel Island. Twenty five SNPs among twelve innate immune genes – IL1α, IL1β, IL6, IL10, IL12RB1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, CD14, CISH, LTA and TNF – were genotyped, as well as HLA class I (–A and –B) genes. Association analysis indicates that genotypes -511GG (OR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.01-2.56, p = 0.04) in IL1β, +1196CG (OR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.26-3.27, p = 0.003) in IL12RB1, -292TA (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.06–2.1, p = 0.03) and +3415CG (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.08–3.08, p = 0.02), both in CISH confer susceptibility to pathogenic Leptospira. Conclusion The present study suggests some degree of long-term protection against leptospires with an

  13. Hydrogeochemical, Stable Isotopes and Hydrology of Fogo Volcano Perched Aquifers: São Miguel Island, Azores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, P. C.; Boutt, D. F.; Martini, A. M.; Ferstad, J.; Rodrigues, F. C.

    2012-12-01

    Fogo Volcano is located at central part of São Miguel Island and corresponds to a polygenetic volcano with a caldera made by an intercalated accumulation of volcaniclastic deposits and lava flows. São Miguel Island is one of the nine volcanic islands that form the Azores Archipelago. The volcano is 950 meters high, with a caldera diameter of 3.2 Km, which holds a lake inside. The last eruption occurred in 1563-1564, as one of a group of seven traquitic eruptions occurring within the last 5000 years. The volcanic activity is related to hydrothermal activity in a geothermal field located in the volcanoes North flank. The hydrology of Fogo Volcano is characterized by a series of perched-water bodies drained by a large number of springs grouped at different altitudes on the volcano flanks. It is possible to identify three types of water (1) Fresh water, cold temperature (12 - 17 C) with low dissolved solids contents (average conductivity of 179 μS/cm), pH range between 6.60 and 7.82, dominated by the major ions Na, K, HCO3, and Cl, and correspond mainly to sodium bicarbonate type water. (2) Mineral water, cold temperature (12.5 - 19.4 C) with low dissolved solids contents (average conductivity of 261 μS/cm), acid pH range between 4.62 and 6.79, and correspond mainly to sodium bicarbonate type water. (3) Thermal water, with temperature of 32 C, high dissolved solids content (4.62 mS/cm), with a pH around 4.50 and belongs to sodium sulfate type water. South Fogo volcano have only fresh water springs and at high elevation, springs drained from pumice fall deposits near 700 m of altitude. Water dissolved solids contents increased slightly with springs at lower altitude due to water-rock interaction. Springs sampled around 700 m high have a conductivity average of 85 μS/cm, at 520 m an average of 129 μS/cm, at 430 m an average of 182 μS/cm, at 200 m an average of 192 μS/cm and at 12 m high sea level and average of 472 μS/cm. This trend is observed at North Fogo

  14. Understanding differences between phylogenetic and pedigree-derived mtDNA mutation rate: a model using families from the Azores Islands (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristina; Montiel, Rafael; Sierra, Blanca; Bettencourt, Conceição; Fernandez, Elisabet; Alvarez, Luis; Lima, Manuela; Abade, Augusto; Aluja, M Pilar

    2005-06-01

    We analyzed the control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from maternally related individuals originating from the Azores Islands (Portugal) in order to estimate the mutation rate of mtDNA and to gain insights into the process by which a new mutation arises and segregates into heteroplasmy. Length and/or point heteroplasmies were found at least in one individual of 72% of the studied families. Eleven new point substitutions were found, all of them in heteroplasmy, from which five appear to be somatic mutations and six can be considered germinal, evidencing the high frequency of somatic mutations in mtDNA in healthy young individuals. Different values of the mutation rate according to different assumptions were estimated. When considering all the germinal mutations, the value of the mutation rate obtained is one of the highest reported so far in family studies. However, when corrected for gender (assuming that the mutations present in men have the same evolutionary weight of somatic mutations because they will inevitably be lost) and for the probability of intraindividual fixation, the value for the mutation rate obtained for HVRI and HVRII (0.2415 mutations/site/Myr) was in the upper end of the values provided by phylogenetic estimations. These results indicate that the discrepancy, that has been reported previously, between the human mtDNA mutation rates observed along evolutionary timescales and the estimations obtained using family pedigrees can be minimized when corrections for gender proportions in newborn individuals and for the probability of intraindividual fixation are introduced. The analyses performed support the hypothesis that (1) in a constant, tight bottleneck genetic drift alone can explain different patterns of heteroplasmy segregation and (2) in neutral conditions, the destiny of a new mutation is strictly related to the initial proportion of the new variant. Another important point arising from the data obtained is that, even in the absence

  15. The evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation for the last 700 years inferred from D/H isotopes in the sedimentary record of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio de Ingles, Maria Jesus; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Sáez, Alberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Gonçalves, Vitor M.; Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo; Sánchez López, Guiomar; Francus, Pierre; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    The δD plant leaf wax variations provide insights on precipitation and evaporation evolution through time. This proxy has been used to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climate mode since this mode rules most of the climate variability in the central North Atlantic area. A total lipid extraction preparation and the correspondent analyses in the IRMS have been done for 100 samples from the uppermost 1.5 m of the sedimentary infill of Lake Azul (Azores archipelago, Portugal). According to the chronological model, established by 210Pb profile and 4 AMS 14C dates, this record contains the environmental history of the last 730 years. The reconstructed precipitation variations obtained from D/H isotope values, suggest that this area has suffered significant changes in its distribution and intensity rainfall patterns through time. The end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 1100- 1300 AD) is characterized by a progressive enrichmentof D/H isotope values which meant decreasing arid conditions. These rainfalls' increase might be interpreted by a shift from positive to negative dominance of the NAO. The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300 - 1850 AD) was characterized by two humid periods (1300- 1550 AD and 1650 - 1850 AD) separated by a relatively dry period. These precipitation oscillations are clearly visible by marked changes in the D/H isotope values. The LIA was followed by the persistence of the positive NAO mode, exhibited by the depletion of the D/H isotope signal, which indicated an overall decrease of the precipitation in the central North Atlantic area. Surprisingly, the D/H of the last 100 years, characterized by the present global warming and a persistent positive NAO mode, display large fluctuations most possibly linked to an enhancement of the storminess which is in concordance with the data fluctuations observed in the instrumental record for the last 80 years in the archipelago. This climatic evolution is in accordance with

  16. Exploring the new long-term (150 years) precipitation dataset in Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Kutiel, Haim; Valente, Maria A.; Sigró, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Within the scope of the two major international projects of long-term reanalysis for the 20th century coordinated by NOAA (Compo et al. 2011) and ECMWF (Hersbach et al. 2013) the IDL Institute from the University of Lisbon has digitized a large number of long-term stations records from Portugal and former Portuguese Colonies (Stickler et al. 2014). Recently we have finished the digitization of all precipitation values from Ponta Delgada (capital of the Azores archipelago) obtaining an uninterrupted precipitation monthly time series since 1864 and additionally an almost complete corresponding daily precipitation series, with the exception of some years (1864/1872; 1878/1879; 1888/1905; 1931; 1936 and 1938) for which only monthly values are available. Here, we present an annually, seasonally and daily resolution study of the rainfall regime in Ponta Delgada for the last 150 years and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influence over this precipitation regime. The distribution of precipitation presents an evident seasonal pattern, with a strong difference between the 'rainy season' (November/March) and the 'dry season' (June/August) with very little rainfall. April/May and September/October correspond to the transitional seasons. The mean annual rainfall in Ponta Delgada is approximately 910 mm and is accumulated (on average) in about 120 rainy days. The precipitation regime in Azores archipelago reveals large inter-annual and intra-annual variability and both have increased considerably in the last decades. The entire studied period (1865-2012) shows an increase in the rainfall conditions between a drier earlier period (1865-1938) and a wetter recent period (1939-2012). At daily resolution, we have used an approach based on different characteristics of rain spells (consecutive days with rainfall accumulation) that has been proved to be satisfactory for the analysis of the different parameters related to the rainfall regime (Kutiel and Trigo, 2014). This approach

  17. A multiproxy reconstruction of NAO evolution in the Azores archipelago since 1350 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armand; Doolittle, Sara; Bao, Roberto; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Rubio-Inglés, Maria J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Marques, Helena S.; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the main atmospheric circulation pattern affecting climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere, having a major impact on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Instrumental records of the NAO are relatively short, and therefore paleoenvironmental multiproxy approaches become fundamental to better understand its behaviour for longer scale periods. The NAO is often defined as a large-scale meridional oscillation dipole of air pressure between the Azores High and the Iceland Low. Some of the NAO definitions include the use of sea level pressure from Ponta Delgada station in Azores, and thus any NAO reconstruction would gain in robustness if it includes paleoenvironmental information from this archipelago located at the southern end of the meridional dipole that characterizes the NAO pattern. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few historical and long-term reconstructions have been conducted in the Azores Islands. We present a ca. 600-year-long multiproxy reconstruction of the NAO evolution based on facies analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning, elemental and isotope geochemistry on bulk organic matter and the preliminary study of diatom and chironomid content from the sedimentary record of Lake Empadadas (37° 49' N - 25° 44' W, Azores Archipelago, Portugal). The precipitation regime in Azores Archipelago (i.e. intra and inter-annual variability) is clearly influenced by the NAO index, thus periods with dominant positive NAO index values (NAO+) are usually characterized by low winter precipitation in the Azores. Conversely, negative NAO phases (NAO-) induce high winter precipitation in the archipelago. These patterns suggest that past (winter) precipitation changes on the Azores may be partially used as a proxy for NAO changes, and thus a proxy for more large-scale changes in the North Atlantic region. According to this multiproxy characterization of the Lake Empadadas sediments

  18. Maintaining a way of life for São Miguel Island (the Azores archipelago, Portugal): an assessment of coastal processes and protection.

    PubMed

    Ng, K; Phillips, M R; Borges, P; Thomas, T; August, P; Calado, H; Veloso-Gomes, F

    2014-05-15

    Traditional hard engineering structures and recently emerging soft engineering alternatives have been employed to protect vulnerable coastlines. Despite negative publicity, they have ensured community survival where socio-economic benefits outweigh adverse impacts. This is especially true for Small Islands (SI) where increasing sea levels and storm intensities threaten already limited land availability. This paper presents coastal vulnerability in São Miguel Island (the Azores SI archipelago) and considers SI issues with regard to coastal land loss. Regional wave statistics using 1998 to 2011 wind record showed: periods ranging from 7 to 13s (circa 83%); wave heights between 1 and 3m (circa 60%); and increasing trends in westerly (p=0.473), easterly (p=0.632) and southeasterly (p=0.932) waves. Sea level analyses between 1978 and 2007 indicated a statistically significant rising trend (2.5 ± 0.4 mm yr(-1); p=0.000), while between 1996 and 2007 it was 3.3 ± 1.5 mm yr(-1) (p=0.025), agreeing with other global sea level studies. Based on 2001 and 2008 population data and using zonal statistics, circa 60% of the Island's population was found to reside within 1 km of the sea and the percentage of total population was linearly correlated with distance from the shoreline (r(2)=99%). Three case studies show hard coastal engineering solutions preserved Azorean coastal lifestyle and had little or no observed negative impacts on their environs. Although hard engineering is likely to remain a valuable and feasible coastal protection option, an inventory of São Miguel's population distribution, surf breaks, bathymetry and coastal erosion rates showed the potential of using multifunctional artificial reefs as a soft engineering solution. These offshore submerged breakwaters offer coastal protection while providing additional benefits such as surfing amenity and beach widening. Consequently, findings of this work can inform other SI communities. PMID:24594743

  19. Calibrating the pTRM and charcoal reflectance (Ro%) methods to determine the emplacement temperature of ignimbrites: Fogo A sequence, São Miguel, Azores, Portugal, as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pensa, Alessandra; Porreca, Massimiliano; Corrado, Sveva; Giordano, Guido; Cas, Raymond

    2015-03-01

    The emplacement temperatures of three ignimbrites belonging to the 4.6-ka Fogo A plinian eruption sequence in São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal) were determined using partial thermal remanent magnetization (pTRM) of lithic clasts and reflectance (Ro%) of charcoal fragments embedded within the deposits and collected at the same localities close to each other. The Fogo A sequence is characterised by a complex stratigraphy consisting of a thick plinian deposit interbedded with two intraplinian ignimbrites (here named "pink" and "black" intraplinian ignimbrite, respectively) and capped by a final ignimbrite (here named "dark brown" ignimbrite). A total of 140 oriented lithic clasts from the three ignimbrites were collected from 15 localities distributed along the northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The pTRM analyses show different paleomagnetic behaviours, which correspond to different emplacement temperatures of the ignimbrites. The emplacement temperatures of the pink and black intraplinian ignimbrites inferred from pTRM analysis were respectively ≥400 and ≥600 °C; the temperatures of the dark brown ignimbrite are lower, estimated between 300 and 350 °C. Thermal estimations of three key sites were compared with the results of the analysis of reflectance (Ro%) measured on eight specimens derived from charcoal fragments collected from the pink intraplinian ignimbrite and the dark brown ignimbrite. Results indicate Ro% values between 1.61 and 1.37 for the pink intraplinian ignimbrite, whereas fragments collected from the dark brown ignimbrite show Ro% values between 0.85 and 0.50. No charred wood was found in the black intraplinian ignimbrite. Ro% values indicate that charcoal fragments in the pink intraplinian ignimbrite reached temperatures of 380-460 °C, whereas the Ro% values of the dark brown ignimbrite indicate slightly lower temperatures of 330-350 °C. TRM and Ro% results are comparable and validate the use of both methods. Greatest accuracy

  20. Genetic structure of the Azores Islands: a study using 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Lima, Manuela

    2009-12-01

    The Azores archipelago (Portugal), located in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,500 km from the European mainland, is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin. The relative position of these islands allows the definition of three geographical groups: Eastern, Central and Western. Previous studies of the Azores using Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) have highlighted differences in the frequencies of several loci, when compared to Mainland Portugal or Madleira Island. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium (LD), described for Azorean samples has been tentatively explained as reflecting the presence of genetic sub-structuring in the archipelago. To provide information concerning the genetic profile of the Azores Islands and to evaluate the presence of substructuring we have determined the allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci, using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler Kit, in representative samples from the Azorean Islands. Either considering the Azores as a whole, or analysing by island all the loci were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Average gene diversity ranged from 0.7669 in Corvo to 0.7972 in Terceira Island. Allelic independence between loci, tested for the global sample, detected significant LD (after correction for multiple tests) for pairs D21S11/D7S820 and D3S1358/D5S818. The exact test of population differentiation, combining the information of the 15 markers analysed, revealed significant differences between the three groups of islands, and between islands. Inter-island analysis reinforces the previous data that suggested the existence of sub-structuring in the Azores archipelago. Moreover, the data generated by this study can be used in a future forensic genetic database of the Azores after the appropriate enlacement of sample size by island, preventing, in that way, misinterpretations caused by population substructuring and small sample sizes. PMID:20102040

  1. Abundance of litter on Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, Northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, C. K.; Gomes-Pereira, J. N.; Isidro, E. J.; Santos, R. S.; Morato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Marine litter is an emerging problem for the world's ocean health but little is known on its distribution and abundance on seamounts and how it affects deep-sea ecosystems. The scientific underwater laboratory set up on Condor seamount offered an ideal case study for the first documentation of litter distribution on a shallow seamount with historical fishing. A total of 48 video transects deployed on the summit (n=45) and the northern flank (n=3) covered an area of 0.031 and 0.025km2, respectively, revealing 55 litter items. Litter density on the summit was 1439 litter items km-2, whilst on the deeper northern flank, estimates indicate densities of 397 litter items km-2. Lost fishing line was the dominant litter item encountered on both areas (73% of total litter on the summit and 50% on northern flank), all being entirely or partly entangled in the locally abundant gorgonians Dentomuricea cf. meteor and Viminella flagellum. Other items included lost weights, anchors and glass bottles. The predominance of lost fishing gear identifies the source of litter on Condor seamount as exclusively ocean-based and related to fishing activities. Abundance of litter on the Condor seamount was much lower than that reported from other locations closer to populated areas.

  2. Trophodynamic studies on the Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, North Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaço, A.; Giacomello, E.; Porteiro, F.; Menezes, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Compared to the surrounding ocean waters, seamounts are commonly considered habitats where biological productivity is higher and consumers proliferate. Despite their high productivity, studies of seamount trophic webs are still scarce and fragmentary, and little is known about the connections between the different compartments. What are the trophic interactions of seamount fauna? How do the pelagic and benthic environment couple? In order to answer these questions, stable isotopes δ15N and δ13C were measured in the organisms collected during the course of numerous campaigns at the Condor seamount in the North Atlantic. The Condor seamount food chain is composed of five trophic levels. Mesopelagic organisms are the link between the epipelagic environment and the benthic and benthopelagic organisms, bridging the gap between primary consumers and the 4th and 5th trophic chain levels. Our results demonstrate, through stable isotope analysis, the important role of mesopelagic organisms in the transfer of energy within the seamount food web, as modeling/theoretical studies have previously suggested.

  3. Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the Azores: lessons after 2 yr of monitoring in the Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Borges, Paulo A V; Guerreiro, Orlando; Ferreira, Maria T; Borges, Annabella; Ferreira, Filomena; Bicudo, Nuno; Nunes, Lina; Marcos, Rita S; Arroz, Ana M; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Myles, Timothy G

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal flights of West Indian drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) were surveyed in the major cities of Azores. The sampling device used to estimate termite density consisted of a yellow adhesive trap (size 45 by 24 cm), placed with an artificial or natural light source in a dark attic environment. In addition, data from two other projects were used to improve the knowledge about the geographical distribution of the species. The level of infestation in the two main Azorean towns differed, with high levels in the houses of Angra do Heroísmo, whereas in Ponta Delgada, there are fewer houses with high levels of infestation. The infestation in Ponta Delgada shows a pattern of spreading from the center outward to the city's periphery, whereas in Angra do Heroísmo, there was a pattern of spreading outward from several foci. The heavy infestation observed in Angra do Heroísmo and the clear increase of infestation levels observed from 2010 to 2011 is a reason for concern and calls for an urgent application of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) control strategy. PMID:25368085

  4. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  5. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  6. Seismic vulnerability of dwellings at Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, A.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the settlement of S. Miguel Island (Azores), in the XV century, several earthquakes caused important human losses and severe damages on the island. Sete Cidades Volcano area, located in the westernmost part of the island, was attained by strong seismic crises of tectonic and volcanic origin and major events reached a maximum historical intensity of IX (European Macroseismic Scale 1998) in this zone. Aiming to evaluate the impact of a future major earthquakes, a field survey was carried out in ten parishes of Ponta Delgada County, located on the flanks of Sete Cidades volcano and inside it is caldera. A total of 7019 buildings were identified, being 4351 recognized as dwellings. The total number of inhabitants in the studied area is 11429. In this work, dwellings were classified according to their vulnerability to earthquakes (Classes A to F), using the structure types table of the EMS-98, adapted to the types of constructions made in the Azores. It was concluded that 76% (3306) of the houses belong to Class A, and 17% (740) to Class B, which are the classes of higher vulnerability. If the area is affected by a seismic event with intensity IX it is estimated, that 57% (2480) to 77% (3350) of the dwellings will partially or totally collapse and 15% (652) to 25% (1088) will need to be rehabilitated. In this scenario, considering the average of inhabitants per house for each parish, 82% (9372) to 92% (10515) of the population will be affected. The number of deaths, injured and dislodged people will pose severe problems to the civil protection authorities and will cause social and economic disruption in the entire archipelago.

  7. Evidence for a Thinned Mantle Transition Zone beneath the Azores Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutt, D. L.; Solomon, S. C.; Burkett, P. G.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the Coordinated Seismic Experiment in the Azores (COSEA) - a cooperative project being carried out by the Centro de Geofisica da Universidade de Lisboa; the Universidade dos Acores; the Instituto de Meteorologia, Portugal; the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich; the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP); and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington - DTM has operated broadband portable seismic stations on five of the islands in the Azores archipelago for the past two years. One of the goals of COSEA is to understand the mantle structure beneath the Azores hotspot. Several other oceanic hotspots that have been the focus of seismic imaging experiments (Iceland, Hawaii, Galapagos, Society) have mantle transition zones resolvably thinner than the global average. Because the top and bottom of the transition zones are defined by discontinuities associated with phase transformations having positive and negative Clapeyron slopes, respectively, this thinning has been attributed to anomalously high temperatures, consistent with penetration of a plume of hot upwelling material from the lower mantle. We present a preliminary assessment of transition zone structure beneath the Azores Islands and Platform from the differential times of the converted phases P410s and P660s, determined from radial receiver functions. Using data from the DTM stations, as well as from the GSN station CMLA, we stack low-pass filtered receiver functions corrected for moveout. Stacking is an essential step, because wave-induced noise is substantial in this locale and affects the number of events that can be used. The converted phases can be identified in the stacked receiver functions, and the differential P660s - P410s time is 2-3 s less than predicted by the iasp91 global Earth model. The transition zone is therefore thinner than that in the average radial Earth by more than 20 km, a degree of thinning comparable to

  8. Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973

  9. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  10. The oceanic islands - Azores. [geological, geophysical and geochemical features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Watkins, N. D.; Macfarlane, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    A presentation is made of the known geological, geophysical, and geochemical data on the Azores. The regional setting of the islands is described; under the geological heading, surface geology and petrochemistry are discussed; and paleomagnetism, marine magnetic surveys, gravity, seismology, and heat flow are treated in the geophysics category. A model for the origin of the Azores is constructed on the basis of these observations.

  11. Vertical Profile of Aerosol Properties at Pico Mountain, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Hueber, J.; China, S.; Sharma, N.

    2013-12-01

    Pico Mountain (2325m asl) is a dormant volcano in the archipelago of the Azores1500 km west of Lisbon, Portugal in the North Atlantic. It differs from typical mountain ranges such as the Alps or the Rockies, which are large and present a complex orography. Pico Mountain has a simple cone-like structure with only one main peak and is thousands of kilometers away from any other significant mountain range. In summer months, it is typical for air masses to move around the mountain rather than traveling up its face. This implies that often the peak of the mountain lies above the marine boundary layer in the free troposphere, while the lower part of the mountain is affected by marine clouds and marine air-masses. An atmospheric monitoring station, the Pico Mountain Observatory was established in 2001 in the summit caldera of the volcano at 2225m above sea level. The observatory is far from large populations or pollution sources, which makes the station ideal to study atmospheric gases and aerosols transported over long-ranges in the free troposphere. The station is reachable only by foot following a steep and strenuous hiking trail. In the summer of 2013 we began to collect vertical profiles of aerosol by carrying an instrumented backpack up to the summit of the mountain, with the goal of studying the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols from the marine boundary layer to the free troposphere. The backpack was carried from the base of trail at 1200m asl. The backpack was equipped with the following instruments: 1. Nephelometer to measure light scattering from aerosol 2. 2-size optical particle counter (300-500 nm) 3. Portable micro-aethalometer to measure absorbing aerosols 4. SEM/TEM sampler to collect particles for off-line electron microscopy analysis 5. Battery powered data logger to measure relative humidity, temperature and pressure 6. GPS tracking device We provide a preliminary analysis of data collected in 2013 to gain insight on the vertical distribution

  12. Quasi-synoptic transport, budgets and water mass transformation in the Azores-Gibraltar Strait region during summer 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo Segade, Lidia Isabel; Gilcoto, Miguel; Mercier, Herlé; Pérez, Fiz Fernández

    2015-01-01

    We describe the circulation patterns in the Azores-Gibraltar Strait region (North-Eastern Atlantic) during the 2009 CAIBOX cruise on the basis of hydrographic and direct current velocity measurements. This study offers new data for a region where importation of central waters (subpolar and subtropical modes of Eastern North Atlantic Central Water) and exports of Mediterranean Water are strongly related to large-scale dynamics in the North Atlantic Ocean (Azores Current-Mediterranean Water system). The description is backed up quantitatively by the results of a box inverse model, which was used to obtain absolute water mass transport values consistent with thermal wind equations and with conservation of volume, salt and heat. The contributions of water masses were determined in an extended Optimum Multiparameter Analysis from a quasi-synoptic point of view, providing detail in addition to volume, salt and heat transport. The surface-subsurface large-scale current system in the region consists of the Azores Current (13.1 ± 2.5 Sverdrup [Sv], 1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), the Azores Counter-Current (5.2 ± 2.1 Sv), the Portugal Current (4.5 ± 1.4 Sv) and the Canary Current (7.1 ± 1.1 Sv). Broadly speaking, central waters are imported into the CAIBOX region at a rate of 1.6 ± 0.9 Sv, and Mediterranean Water is exported at a rate of 1.5 ± 0.4 Sv. The downwelling of central waters west of Gibraltar Strait was quantified at 1.1 Sv. Not all this volume participates in MW formation, but 0.8 Sv of entrained central waters; of which 0.5 Sv are from central waters of subpolar origin and 0.3 Sv from subtropical central waters. Of the 4.9 Sv of subtropical central waters advected by the Azores Current, about 0.7 Sv would reach the Gulf of Cadiz region either to take part in central water entrainment or to flow across the Gibraltar Strait as part of the Atlantic inflow to the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Lithium Isotope Systematics in Azores Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Widom, E.; Qiu, L.; Rudnick, R.; Gelinas, A.; Franca, Z.

    2009-05-01

    Basalts from the Azores archipelago and MORB from the nearby Azores Platform exhibit extreme chemical and isotopic variations attributed to the influence of a heterogeneous mantle plume, with compositions ranging from depleted mantle (DMM) to strong HIMU, EMI and EMII signatures. In order to assess the utility of Li isotopes as a mantle source tracer and to better constrain the origin of heterogeneous mantle beneath the Azores, we have analyzed Li isotopes in a suite of young, fresh, MgO-rich basalts from São Miguel and three Central Group islands including Pico, Faial and Terceira. Despite large variations in radiogenic isotope signatures (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 19.3 to 20.1), δ7Li varies only slightly (3.1-4.7‰), and is within the range for global and North Atlantic MORB [1, 2]. More extreme δ7Li values such as those reported previously for some EMII, EMI and HIMU ocean island basalts (-17‰ to +10‰; [3-5]) were not observed. Nevertheless, basalts from the Central Group islands with EMI-type signatures are, on average, slightly heavier in δ7Li than the São Miguel samples, and they exhibit positive correlations with 87Sr/86Sr and negative correlations with 206Pb/204Pb, Nd, and Hf isotopes. Li isotopes do not correlate with indices of fractionation such as MgO, suggesting that the δ7Li correlations with radiogenic isotopes may represent subtle variations in mantle source signatures. Positive and negative correlations of δ7Li with 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, and relatively unradiogenic Os (187Os/188Os = 0.1244-0.1269), may reflect old, slab-fluid metasomatized mantle beneath the Central Group islands. In contrast, δ7Li signatures in the São Miguel basalts do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. Rather, δ7Li is essentially constant despite extremely high 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb and low ΔɛHf signatures that have been attributed to 3.5 Ga recycled E-MORB or evolved oceanic crust [6; 7]. This suggests either that the São Miguel source

  14. Comparing the nature of the western and eastern Azores mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Felix S.; Beier, Christoph; Stracke, Andreas; Turner, Simon P.; Pearson, Norman J.; Hauff, Folkmar; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Haase, Karsten M.

    2016-01-01

    The Azores islands in the central North-Atlantic originate from a regional melting anomaly, probably created by melting hot, unusually hydrous and geochemically enriched mantle. Here, we present Hf, Pb and Os isotopic data in geochemically well-characterised primitive lavas from the islands Flores and Corvo that are located west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), as well as submarine samples from a subsided island west of Flores and from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes drilled in the western part of the Azores platform and beyond. These are compared to existing data from the Azores islands east of the MAR. The geodynamic origin of the two islands west of the ridge axis and furthest from the inferred plume centre in the central part of the plateau is enigmatic. The new data constrain the source compositions of the Flores and Corvo lavas and show that the western and eastern Azores mantle is isotopically similar, with the exception of an enriched component found exclusively on eastern São Miguel. Trace element ratios involving high field strength elements (HFSE) are distinctly different in the western islands (e.g. twofold higher Nb/Zr) compared to any of the islands east of the MAR. A similar signature is observed in MAR basalts to the south of the Azores platform and inferred to originate from (auto-) metasomatic enrichment of the sub-ridge mantle (Gale et al., 2011, 2013). In a similar fashion, low degree melts from an enriched source component may metasomatise the ambient plume mantle underneath the western Azores islands. Melting such a modified plume mantle can explain the chemical differences between lavas from the western and eastern Azores islands without the need for additional plume components. Recent re-enrichment and intra melting column modification of the upwelling mantle can cause local to regional scale geochemical differences in mantle-derived melts.

  15. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Príncipe.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Tamira; Brehm, António; Fernandes, Ana Teresa

    2006-12-01

    There is evidence that the CCR5-delta32 mutation confers protection against HIV-1 infection to homozygous individuals. It is believed that this mutation spread through Europe with the Vikings and that it has been subjected to positive selection, leading to a high frequency in Europe (approximately 10%). We carried out the present study to determine the 32-bp deletion allele and genotype frequencies of the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Principe. These Atlantic archipelagos were all colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries, but the latter two received most of their settlers from the West African coast. The frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation varies between 0% in São Tomé e Príncipe and 16.5% in the Azores. The Azores Islands have one of the highest frequencies of homozygotes found in Europe (4.8%). There are significant differences (P < 0.05) between some of these populations, for example, between São Tomé e Príncipe and Cabo Verde, and even within populations (e.g., Portugal, Madeira, and the Azores). PMID:17564248

  16. Hydrogeology study of Faial Island, the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, R. M.; Cruz, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    Azores Archipelago is a Portuguese territory formed by nine islands divided into three groups (eastern, central and western) located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The islands stretch along a NW-SE direction near the so called Azores triple junction, where the North American Plate, the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate meet. Faial Island is the westernmost island of the central group, located between 38°30'56'' to 38°38'40'' N latitude and 28°35'55'' to 28°50'06'' W longitude. Faial is affected by important tectonic features with a WNW-ESE general trend. These features combined with faults with NNW-SSE to NW-SE and NE-SW directions may have conditioned the emplacement of the central volcano with caldera on the central part of the island. In what concerns the geomorphology, besides the central volcano with caldera, one should refer to the graben on the eastern sector, to the scoria cones alignment on the W and to the flattened sector SE of the central volcano. The drainage network is markedly controlled by tectonics and the drainage density is higher on the northern and southern flanks of the central volcano. The origin of the island started more than 800000 years ago with the emplacement of a composite volcano on the NE of the island (Ribeirinha Complex) consisting of a series of lava flows of basaltic to benmoreitic composition and undifferentiated pyroclasts. The complex (Cedros Complex) which followed is about 580000 years old and corresponds to the central volcano formed by suites of basaltic to trachitic lava flows, pyroclasts and domes. Approximately 50000 ago an important fissural activity took place on the eastern part of the island and originated Almoxarife Formation consisting of basaltic to benmoreitic lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones. The Caldeira Formation (~16000 years) comprises benmoreitic to trachytic materials emitted from the central volcano, whose explosive phases generated ten members formed mainly by pumice fall deposits and

  17. Base and precious metal occurrences along the San Andreas Fault, Point Delgada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Heropoulos, Chris

    1979-01-01

    Previously unrecognized veins containing lead, zinc, and copper sulfide minerals at Point Delgada, Calif., are associated with late Mesozoic(?) and Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan assemblage. Sulfide minerals include pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and minor chalcopyrite, and galena-rich samples contain substantial amounts of silver. These minerals occur in a quartz-carbonate gangue along northeast-trending faults and fractures that exhibit (left?) lateral and vertical slip. The sense of fault movement and the northeasterly strike are consistent with predicted conjugate fault sets of the present San Andreas fault system. The sulfide mineralization is younger than the Franciscan rocks of Point Delgada and King Range, and it may have accompanied or postdated the inception of San Andreas faulting. Mineralization largely preceded uplift, the formation of a marine terrace, and the emplacement of landslide-related debris-flow breccias that overlie the mineralized rocks and truncate the sulfide veins. These field relations indicate that the sulfide mineralization and inception of San Andreas faulting were clearly more recent than the early Miocene and that the mineralization could be younger than about 1.2 m.y. The sulfide veins at Point Delgada may be of economic significance. However, prior to any exploitation of the occurrence, economic and environmental conflicts of interest involving private land ownership, the Shelter Cove home development, and proximity of the coast must be resolved.

  18. Assessment of diffuse radiation models in Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarreiro, Clarisse; Brito, Miguel; Soares, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Measured irradiance databases usually consist of global solar radiation data with limited spatial coverage. Hence, solar radiation models have been developed to estimate the diffuse fraction from the measured global irradiation. This information is critical for the assessment of the potential of solar energy technologies; for example, the decision to use photovoltaic systems with tracking system. The different solar radiation models for this purpose differ on the parameters used as input. The simplest, and most common, are models which use global radiation information only. More sophisticated models require meteorological parameters such as information from clouds, atmospheric turbidity, temperature or precipitable water content. Most of these models comprise correlations with the clearness index, kt (portion of horizontal extra-terrestrial radiation reaching the Earth's surface) to obtain the diffuse fraction kd (portion of diffuse component from global radiation). The applicability of these different models is related to the local atmospheric conditions and its climatic characteristics. The models are not of general validity and can only be applicable to locations where the albedo of the surrounding terrain and the atmospheric contamination by dust are not significantly different from those where the corresponding methods were developed. Thus, models of diffuse fraction exhibit a relevant degree of location dependence: e.g. models developed considering data acquired in Europe are mainly linked to Northern, Central or, more recently, Mediterranean areas. The Azores Archipelago, with its particular climate and cloud cover characteristics, different from mainland Europe, has not yet been considered for the development of testing of such models. The Azorean climate reveals large amounts of cloud cover in its annual cycle, with spatial and temporal variabilities more complex than the common Summer/Winter pattern. This study explores the applicability of different

  19. Resistivity structure of the Furnas hydrothermal system (Azores archipelago, Portugal) from AMT and ERT imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Rath, Volker; Silva, Catarina; Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Viveiros, Fatima; Eleuterio, Joana; Gresse, Marceau

    2016-04-01

    The Furnas volcanic complex is located in the eastern part of the São Miguel Island and comprises a 5 km × 8 km summit depression filled by two nested calderas with several craters and a lake. Present-day volcanic activity of Furnas volcano is mostly located in the northern part of the caldera, within the Furnas village and north to Furnas Lake, where hydrothermal manifestations are mainly fumarolic fields, steam vents, thermal springs, and intense soil diffuse degassing. Considering the Furnas volcano as a whole, the total integrated CO2 efflux is extremely high, with a total amount of CO2 close to 1000 ton per day (Viveiros et al., 2009). We present the first results of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), combined with audio-magneto-telluric (AMT) measurements aligned along two profiles inside the caldera. The purpose of this survey is to delimit the extent, the geometry, and the depth of the hydrothermal system and to correlate the deep resistivity structure with high resolution cartography of diffuse CO2 flux (Viveiros et al, 2015). The ERT and AMT methods are complementary in terms of resolution and penetration depth: ERT can image the structural details of shallow hydrothermal system (down to 100 m in our study) while AMT can image at lower resolution deeper structures at the roots of a volcano (down to 4 km in our study). Our first independent 2D inversions of the ERT-AMT data show a good agreement between the surficial and deeper features. Below the main fumarole area we observe a low resistivity body (less than 1 Ohmm) which corresponds well to the high CO2 flux at the surface and is associated with an extended conductive body at larger depth. These results strongly suggest the presence of hydrothermal waters at depth or/and the presence of altered clay-rich material. On a larger scale however, the geometry of the conducting zones differs slightly from what was expected from earlier surface studies, and may not be directly related to fault zones mapped at the surface. These slight, but measurable discrepancies might have different origins but they stress the necessity of 3D modelling and the importance of the joint inversion of the data which we consider as a next step in our work.

  20. Imaging hydrothermal systems at Furnas caldera (Azores, Portugal): Insights from Audio-Magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Rath, Volker; Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Silva, Catarina; Viveiros, Maria FB; Ferreira, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The Furnas volcano is the eastern-most of the three active central volcanoes of Sao Miguel Island. The main caldera formed about 30 ka BP, followed by a younger eruption at 10-12 ka BP, which forms the steep topography of more than 200 m in the measuring area. It contains several very young eruptive centers, and a shallow caldera lake. Tectonic features of varying directions have been identified in the Caldera and its vicinity. In the northern part of the caldera, containing the fumarole field of Caldeiras das Furnas, a detailed map of surface CO2 emissions was recently made available. In 2015, a pilot survey of 13 AudioMagnetoTelluric soundings (AMT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data were collected along two profiles in the eastern part of Furnas caldera in order to image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. The data quality achieved by both techniques is extraordinary and first results indicate a general correlation between regions of elevated conductivity and the mapped surface CO2 emissions, suggesting that they may both be caused by the presence hydrothermal fluids. Tensor decomposition analysis using the Groom-Bailey approach produce a generalised geo-electric strike direction, 72deg East of North, for the AMT data compared to the surface geological strike derived from the major mapped fault crossing the profiles of 105deg. An analysis of the real induction arrows at certain frequencies (at depths greater than 350 m) infer that an extended conductor at depth does not exactly correspond to the degassing structures at the surface and extends outside the area of investigation. The geometry of the most conductive regions with electrical conductivities less then1 Ώm found at various depths differ from what was expected from earlier geologic and tectonic studies and possibly may not be directly related to the mapped fault systems at the surface. On the eastern profile, which seemed to be more appropriate for 2-D modelling with 72deg strike angle, a deep structure starting north of the major mapped fault crossing this profile can be found. It extends far to the south, with a top of approximately 150 m below the surface at the northern limit. A deeper conductive structure (top at about 300 m) is emerging at the southern end of the profile, though not fully resolved by the existing data. This work will focus on the processing, analysis and preliminary modelling results of the AMT data. A joint interpretation of the AMT results together with the ERT data covering the shallow regime with much higher resolution will be presented.

  1. Lessons from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Vickie; Mechling, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has long been touted as a popular destination for savvy travelers, but now educators are touting it as something else--a professional development (PD) powerhouse for inquiry-based science! This article describes Portugal's ongoing efforts to reform its country's elementary science education program through a project known as the…

  2. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  3. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Sigwart, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species. PMID:23825446

  4. Birds from the Azores: An updated list with some comments on species distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Pedro R; Bried, Joël; Mendonça, Enésima P; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo Alexandre Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background An updated checklist of the Birds of the Azores is presented based on information compiled from Rodrigues et al. (2010) and from the websites, Azores Bird Club. (2014), Aves dos Açores (2014) Azores Bird Sightings (2014) and Vittery (2014), since 2010. New information The checklist has a total of 414 species, including 38 new species. Almost half of the species and subspecies that occur in the Azores have a Palearctic origin, the remaining ones being essentialy Nearctic and Holarctic species. São Miguel is the island with the highest number of bird species, followed by Terceira, Corvo and Flores islands. PMID:26696765

  5. New gravity and magnetics map of eastern part of Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Azores are of volcanic origin and the volcanic activities are still occurs in the area. The main tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores are the Gloria Fault (GF) and São Miguel volcanic Island. The GF is an E-W strike-slip fault and can be traced by bathymetry. In the past decade many geological and geophysical investigations were dedicated to the study of tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores. Two of these cruises were organized by the Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Germany, in the years 2009 and 2012. In 2009 during the Meteor cruise M79-2 a total of 5500 km new Gravity and 2000 km new magnetic data were collected along some 60 Profiles. During the Poseidon cruise in the year 2012 some 2000 km new gravity and magnetic data were collected along two E-W profiles in the eastern part of Azores. The new gravity data were recorded with the modern Air-Sea-Gravimeter of Bodenseewerk KSS 31M and the new magnetic date with the Gradiometer SeaSpy. All new potential date were combined with the available data of the data base GEODAS and the new gravity anomaly maps (Free-Air and Bouguer) and the new magnetic anomaly map were produced. The maps show clearly the tectonic features in the area. The GF can be traced very well on both gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. Most of the small hills around the São Miguel Island are shown up in the magnetic anomaly map as strong magnetic anomaly. The new gravity and magnetic maps and the interpretation of them will be presented. The results of some 2-D modeling along some interesting profiles will be also presented and discussed.

  6. New gravity and magnetics map of eastern part of Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The Azores are of volcanic origin and the volcanic activities are still occurs in the area. The main tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores are the Gloria Fault (GF) and São Miguel volcanic Island. The GF is an E-W strike-slip fault and can be traced by bathymetry. In the past decade many geological and geophysical investigations were dedicated to the study of tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores. Two of these cruises were organized by the Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Germany, in the years 2009 and 2012. In 2009 during the Meteor cruise M79-2 a total of 5500 km new Gravity and 2000 km new magnetic data were collected along some 60 Profiles. During the Poseidon cruise in the year 2012 some 2000 km new gravity and magnetic data were collected along two E-W profiles in the eastern part of Azores. The new gravity data were recorded with the modern Air-Sea-Gravimeter of Bodenseewerk KSS 31M and the new magnetic date with the Gradiometer SeaSpy. All new potential date were combined with the available data of the data base GEODAS and the new gravity anomaly maps (Free-Air and Bouguer) and the new magnetic anomaly map were produced. The maps show clearly the tectonic features in the area. The GF can be traced very well on both gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. Most of the small hills around the São Miguel Island are shown up in the magnetic anomaly map as strong magnetic anomaly. The new gravity and magnetic maps and the interpretation of them will be presented. The results of some 2-D modeling along some interesting profiles will be also presented and discussed.

  7. Discovering Volcanoes in the Azores - A Field Trip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Susana; Fernandes, Fátima

    2013-04-01

    The Azores islands are located in the North Atlantic Ocean near a triple junction, between the African, Eurasian and North American plates, at about 1500 km from the European continent and 3900 km from the North America east coast. It is formed by nine volcanic islands and a few islets dispersed along a 600 km NW-SE direction axis. The complex geological and geodynamic setting of the Azores explains its significant seismic and volcanic activity, including eruptions and degassing processes. Important landslides triggered either by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, extreme meteorological conditions and/or coastal erosion processes frequently affect the islands, and tsunamis related with earthquakes and landslides were reported to have occurred in the past. The national curriculum for the school subject of Biology and Geology sees the Azores as a laboratory for the earth sciences and many topics revolve around it. For these reasons, we organised a field trip to the island of São Miguel, with pupils of the 11th grade who live in the Portuguese mainland, in a region that is geologically very different. During the six days of this trip, we attended training sessions in the Centre for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment (CVARG) of the Azores University. This multidisciplinary research unit organises activities around the prediction and prevention of disasters and natural hazards in the fields of volcanology and correlated phenomena, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, volcanic fumes, air pollution and water contaminants, landslides, floods and tsunamis, among others. The pupils explored volcanic calderas, lava caves, fumaroles and hot springs. They also collected and analysed extremophile bacteria that live in local hot springs.

  8. Submarine Volcanic Cones in the São Miguel Region/Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Wolf, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    São Miguel, the main island of the Azores Archipelago, is located in an area ~1500 km west of Portugal where the American, African and Eurasian plates converge. Just as well as the other eight Azorian islands, it is of volcanic origin and therefore volcanic processes also play an important role for the evolution of its submarine domain. Around 300 submarine volcanic cones have been mapped in the vicinity of São Miguel Island with multi-beam data during RV Meteor cruise M79/2 . They are distributed in depth down to 3000 m. They exhibit an average diameter of 600 m, an average slope of 22° and heights mainly between 50 and 200 m, slightly decreasing with increasing water depth. Even if their morphological appearances show no segregation, the volcanic setting can be classified in three different categories. A numerous amount of cones are located on the submarine flank of Sete Cidades Volcano in the west of São Miguel considered as parasitic structures, whereas in the very east they build up an own superstructure possibly reflecting an early submarine stadium of a posterior subaerial stratovolcano like Sete Cidades. The third class is controlled by and orientated along faults, most of them in a graben system southwest of the Island. High-resolution multichannel seismic data depicts that the graben cones extinguished synchronously in the past most likely accompanying with the end of graben formation. Backscatter data reveal a rough surface possibly caused by currents removing the fine grain-size fraction over time. However, a young cone investigated in detail is characterized by a smooth surface, a distal increasing stratification and concave shaped flanks. Other few exhibit craters, all together indicating rather a phreatomagmatic than an effusive evolution of these structures. Very similar in size and shape to cinder cones on-shore São Miguel Island, they appear to be their submarine equivalent.

  9. Analysis of gravimetric anomalies in Furnas caldera (São Miguel, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, F. G.; Camacho, A. G.; Vieira, R.

    1999-09-01

    Furnas Volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores) is a steep-sided caldera complex resulting from several collapses. In this paper, we analyse and interpret the gravity survey carried out by the Instituto de Astronomı´a y Geodesia (Spain) and the gravity data published by the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica (Portugal). The resulting Bouguer anomaly reveals the presence of a regional trend, several local features and a component of noise. In separating the regional trend we use a robust polynomial fitting. Further, a covariance analysis and a least squares prediction are applied to filter the noise and to model the local anomaly. A first signal map represents the main local anomaly, while the secondary signal map shows superficial anomalies. This distribution reveals a local main minimum close to the 1630 A.D. and Gaspar craters. Several possible alignments are shown that lead to a model, mainly with SW-NE and SE-NW orientations, of the negative anomaly, with the pattern of the low density zones showing a relationship with the volcanic features. Applying a stabilized linear method of gravimetric inversion, we obtain a density contrast distribution of the sources of the filtered local Bouguer anomaly, considering as unknowns the anomalous densities of a fixed discrete distribution of rectangular prisms which represents the subsoil volume. A mixed minimization criteria for the weighted residuals and the weighted density contrast allow us to obtain a solution as a discrete three-dimensional density contrast model. The obtained anomalous densities model shows a clear relation with the structure of the caldera complex and tectonic trends, with the principal body of negative contrast density being associated with the subsurface structure of the caldera.

  10. Prevalence and clonality of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the Atlantic Azores islands: predominance of SCCmec types IV, V and VI.

    PubMed

    Conceição, T; Tavares, A; Miragaia, M; Hyde, K; Aires-de-Sousa, M; de Lencastre, H

    2010-05-01

    In order to obtain insights into the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) population structure in the Azores archipelago, 106 MRSA isolates were collected from patients attending an Azorean central hospital between January 2007 and February 2008. Antimicrobial resistance was determined for all isolates. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The majority of the isolates (87%, n = 92) belonged to the EMRSA-15 clone (ST22, SCCmec-IVh), followed by the Pediatric clone (ST5-VI/IVc) (11%, n = 12). The Berlin clone (ST45-IVa) and a new clone (spa type t1839, ST1339 and SCCmec V variant) were represented by single isolates. All of the isolates carried SCCmec types IV, V or VI and a non-multiresistant antibiotic profile, resembling the currently emerging community MRSA. Moreover, PVL was described for the first time to be associated with the Pediatric clone carrying SCCmec type VI. We provided the first description of the population structure of MRSA in the Azores islands, which seems to be shaped by genetic events occurring locally, as well as by the regular population exchange between the islands, continental Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. PMID:20229224

  11. Responses to, and the short and long-term impacts of, the 1957/1958 Capelinhos volcanic eruption and associated earthquake activity on Faial, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, Rui; Chester, David K.; Wallenstein, Nicolau; Duncan, Angus M.

    2010-10-01

    The 1957/58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial Island in the Azores is well known for being an excellent example of Surtseyan hydromagmatic volcanic activity. Less well known are the responses of the Portuguese authorities to the eruption and subsequent earthquake in May 1958, and the ways in which well-thought-out and generally effective recovery programmes were put in place. At the time Portugal was ruled by a dictatorship, the Estado Novo (New State). Only superficially similar to other fascist governments in Southern Europe, the Estado Novo collected huge amounts of data on the responses of the authorities to the disaster and their programmes of recovery, but never encouraged academic evaluation of policy, although it ensured that the scientific aspects of the eruption and earthquake were meticulously recorded and published. In this paper we remedy this situation by discussing the details of the immediate response to the emergency and the ways in which the island recovered in its aftermath. The study is based not only on archival sources and demographic and economic data, but also on detailed interviews with survivors some of whom were also decision makers. We argue that response, recovery and rehabilitation were generally highly successful and assess the lessons of the 1957/58 emergency which are relevant to future geophysical disasters in Faial and the wider Azores. Since the 1974 revolution Portugal has been a democratic state. We conclude that both the legislation and the civil defence infrastructure, necessary to achieve a similarly strong and successful response, are in place today.

  12. Interactions between regional tectonics and volcanic deformations in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, J.; Sigmundsson, F.; Ofeigsson, B.; Rodrigues, R.; Ferreira, T.

    2012-04-01

    The Azores archipelago is located in the plate triple junction of Eurasia, Nubia, and North American. With this geologically peculiar location on the earth it represents intense seismic activities and active volcanisms. Space geodesy techniques such as GNSS, DORIS, SLR, and VLBI enable direct measurements of the current tectonic plate motions besides detecting local crustal deformation episodes in the volcanic fields. In this study, we report the recent new results of continuous GPS measurements in the Azores Triple Junction region. In the scope of monitoring both tectonic and volcanic activities, CVARG (Center for Volcanology and Geological Risk Assessment, University of Azores) has been operating 11 continuous GPS stations. All available data sets including the Azores government GNSS network and IGS (International GNSS Service) permanent network have been simultaneously processed using Bernese software v5.0. The site velocities are determined in ITRF2005 geodetic reference frame from the time series analysis for the period of 2008-2010. Estimated velocities are compared with tectonic plate motion models. Our results roughly agree with the previous geodetic studies by showing the following evidences; (1) the different opening velocities at MAR result in differential shear along Terceira Ridge, (2) south and western side of Pico and southwest and central part of S. Miguel Islands mimic stable Nubia plate motion. The pattern of the residual velocities in S. Miguel changes between Fogo and Furnas volcanoes. In this area, significant earthquake swarm episodes (e.g. in 1989 and in 2005) have been repeated at least during last few decades and some minor seismic swarms have been still ongoing. Our GPS station has captured an episodic crustal deformation that was accompanied with seismic jumps between NE flank of Fogo and Furnas and was followed by intense swarm activities in the area on late 2008. This seismic and deformation significances can be interpreted by mutual

  13. A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Melo, Carlos; Silva, Luís; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Quartau, Rui; Hipólito, Ana; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Rebelo, Ana Cristina; Madeira, Patrícia; Rovere, Alessio; Hearty, Paul J.; Henriques, Diamantino; Silva, Carlos Marques da; Martins, António M. de Frias; Zazo, Caridad

    2015-04-01

    group of 21 thermophilic species was directly affected by the lower sea surface temperature, whereas a group of four sand-associated species was indirectly but similarly affected by the lowering of the sea level. Both groups have locally disappeared from the Azores. However, none of the extant endemic species found on the studied MIS 5e outcrops was apparently affected by the lowering SST. In contrast to the biogeographical relationships of the recent Azorean shallow marine molluscs, which are predominantly with the Mediterranean Region, Portugal and with the Madeira and Canary Islands archipelagos, the palaeobiogeographical relationships of the MIS 5e Azorean marine molluscs are mainly with Canaries and West Africa. Despite the general low similarity of the biogeographical relationships between the Azores and Cape Verde Archipelago, on both the recent and the MIS 5e analysis, this similarity is nevertheless higher for the MIS 5e mollusc assemblages, emphasizing the role of Cape Verde as an important source of warm-water species during the Last Interglacial.

  14. Submarine Sedimentation Transport Processes in the South-Eastern Terceira Rift / São Miguel Region (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The south-eastern Terceira Rift comprises a rift basin, igneous ridges, seamounts and São Miguel, the main island of the volcanic Azores Archipelago. It is located ~1500 km west of continental Portugal within the convergence zone of the American, African and Eurasian plate. Due to submarine and subaerial volcanism, the sedimentation rate is higher than usually assumed in such a segregated submarine region. Multi-beam and high-resolution multi-channel seismic data reveal a wide variety of sediment transport processes. Volcanic fall-out sediments are abundant in the entire area. Along the northern slope of Sao Miguel terrestrial volcanic sediments are drained by rain water gullies which connect to submarine channels. Turbidity currents created some 10 km long erosional channels which transported the sediments more than 40 km downslope. Several regional accumulations of talus and/or pyroclastic material get instable resulting in gravitational gliding, creeping or slide events. Volcanic ridges partly collapse due to tectonic stress and/or gravity spreading. Oceanic currents remobilize sediments and form drift deposits. Infilling drifts developed on top of hangingwall blocks of step faults. Therefore, the São Miguel region is a good example of a sedimentary system with strong time-variant and locally defined sediment support. Sedimentation is controlled by volcanism and tectonics, since these processes affect sedimentation pathways and oceanographic conditions.

  15. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  16. Reconstruction of the North Atlantic tropical cyclones in Azores for the last 800 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Ingles, Maria Jesus; Sánchez, Guiomar; Trigo, Ricardo; Francus, Pierre; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro; Freitas, Conceiçao; Borges, Paolo; Hernández, Armand; Bao, Roberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Andrade, Cesar; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    The variability of North Atlantic tropical storms has been the focus of several studies. Duration and seasonality has been attributed to a number of climate patterns and processes such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode, African easterly waves, and atmospheric Rossby waves, but their tracks have been widely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Several authors have pointed out an increase and track shifting of North Atlantic tropical cyclones since 1995 with increased probability of these turning north far away from the North American continent. However, this cannot be regarded as an infrequent phenomenon as most proxy records from the Atlantic North have shown the existence of similar patterns in the past. Sao Miguel Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal) is settled in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. This location makes this island an excellent natural laboratory to record shifts on North Atlantic tropical storms tracks that can reach the archipelago as low intensity hurricanes (e.g. Nadine in 2012) or downgraded to tropical storm (e.g. Grace in 2009). In the present work, lake sediment records have been used as a proxy sensor of tropical storms. Lagoa Azul is located inside Sete Cidades volcanic caldera and its catchment is characterized by stepped and forested caldera walls. Tropical storms and heavy rainfalls produce a flashy and substantial enhancement in the erosion of the catchment, increasing the sediments reaching the lake by rockfalls deposits (in littoral zones) and flood events deposits (in offshore zones). These flood events can be recognized in the sedimentary record as lobe deposits dominated by terrestrial components. It can be found in the sedimentary record and the bathymetry. Instrumental meteorological data and historical records have been compiled to reconstruct the most recent history of the North Atlantic tropical storms that have landed or affected the Sao Miguel Island (Andrade et al., 2008). In addition, a 1

  17. The 2007 Azores earthquakes: A case of trigering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buforn, E.; Borges, J.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Caldeira, B.

    2009-04-01

    THE 2007 AZORES EARTHQUAKES: A CASE OF TRIGERING? E. Buforn1 F. Borges2, M. Bezzeghoud2 1. Departamento de Geofísica y Meteorología, Fac. CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain), ebufornp@fis.ucm.es 2.Departamento de Física e Centro de Geofísica de Évora, University of Évora, Colégio Luis Verney, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59, 7002-554 Évora, jborges@uevora.pt On 5 April (Mw=6.3) and 7 April 2007 (Mw=6.1 ) two earthquakes occur at the Formigas Islets (Azores Islands), both with same epicenter and felt (I=V/VI MSK) in S. Miguel Island. The rupture process of these earthquakes has been studied from body wave inversion of broad band data at telesesimic distances. Results obtained shown normal faulting for both shocks, with planes oriented in NW-SE direction, with focus at shallow depth (10 km and 6 km respectively). The slip distribution over the fault plane (152/44/-88) shows for the 05-04-07 event, the rupture propagating downward and a duration of 12s for the source time function. For the 07-04-07 event, the slip distribution over the fault plane (125/52/-81) shows de rupture propagating downward and duration of 10s for the STF. From these results we have estimated the static Coulomb stress change. We find that the static stress change caused by the 5 April event is higher, about 2 bar at epicenter the location of the second event (April 7), triggering the second rupture. Locations of aftershocks do not agree well with areas of increased Coulomb failure stress, which can be explained by the complexities of the rupture process oy by uncertainties at the hypocerter location

  18. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) outbreak in Azores: Disclosure of common genetic markers and phylogenetic segregation within the European strains.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida; Carvalho, Carina; Bernardo, Susana; Barros, Sílvia Vanessa; Benevides, Sandra; Flor, Lídia; Monteiro, Madalena; Marques, Isabel; Henriques, Margarida; Barros, Sílvia C; Fagulha, Teresa; Ramos, Fernanda; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) is widespread in several countries of Western Europe, but it has not been introduced to other continents. However, between late 2014 and early 2015, the presence of RHDV2 was confirmed outside of the European continent, in the Azores, initially in the islands of Graciosa, Flores, S. Jorge and Terceira. In this study we report the subsequent detection of RHDV2 in wild rabbits from the islands of Faial, St. Maria and S. Miguel, and display the necropsy and microscopic examination data obtained, which showed lesions similar to those induced by classical strains of RHDV, with severe affection of lungs and liver. We also disclose the result of a genetic investigation carried out with RHDV2 positive samples from wild rabbits found dead in the seven islands. Partial vp60 sequences were amplified from 27 tissue samples. Nucleotide analysis showed that the Azorean strains are closely related to each other, sharing a high genetic identity (>99.15%). None of the obtained sequences were identical to any RHDV2 sequence publically known, hampering a clue for the source of the outbreaks. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses disclosed that Azorean strains are more closely related to a few strains from Southern Portugal than with any others presently known. In the analysed region comprising the terminal 942 nucleotides of the vp60 gene, four new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified. Based on the present data, these four SNPs, which are unique in the strains from Azores, may constitute putative molecular geographic markers for Azorean RHDV2 strains, if they persist in the future. One of these variations is a non-synonymous substitution that involves the replacement of one amino acid in a hypervariable region of the capsid protein. PMID:26247721

  19. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  20. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  1. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Xiquan

    2014-05-05

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  2. Severe leaching of trachytic glass without devitrification, Terceira, Azores

    SciTech Connect

    Mungall, J.E.; Martin, R.F. )

    1994-01-01

    Pumice produced during the subplinian phase of eruption of a peralkaline trachyte lava on the island of Terceira, Azores, has undergone extensive leaching at ambient conditions by groundwater, while remaining in a glassy state. Over 25% of F, Na, K, Si, Fe, Ti, and Mn originally present has been removed, whereas U, Al, Nb, Ca, Y, and Rb show smaller but significant losses. Thorium , Zr, Hf, Ta, and Lu have remained immobile. Water content (measured as LOI) has increased up to tenfold, whereas the Sr content has risen by up to 80%. The absence of devitrification requires that leached elements escaped by diffusing through the glass; a coefficient of chemical diffusion D[sub Na] between 1.8 X 10[sup [minus]19] cm[sup 2] s[sup [minus]1] and 6.1 X 10[sup [minus]19] cm[sup 2] s[sup [minus]1] has been calculated, in excellent agreement with previously published experimentally derived values for comparably low temperatures. Water has not replaced the leached cations on a charge-equivalent basis, a finding that requires an explanation other than simple binary interdiffusion. The authors suggest that a simultaneous influx of molecular water and cation exchange between Na[sup +] in the glass and H[sup +] in the groundwater opens the glass structure and frees cations, which can diffuse outward by hydrolysis of bridging oxygen atoms. Reported mobilities have important implications for such diverse fields as igneous petrology, nuclear waste management, and agriculture.

  3. The role of the Azores Archipelago in capturing and retaining incoming particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Iria; Harrison, Cheryl S.; Caldeira, Rui M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The capacity of the Azores Archipelago to capture and retain incoming particles and organisms that are drifting with the oceanic currents was the main focus of this study. Using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model coupled with the Connectivity Modeling System (an offline Lagrangian tool) a series of experiments were conducted to determine: i) the origin of the particles that reach the archipelago, ii) the capacity of each island sub-group to retain incoming particles and organisms, as well as the iii) oceanographic phenomena that lead to their transport and retention. The Gulf Stream (GS) and the westward propagating eddy corridors were identified as the main transport pathways affecting the Azores region. Eddy Kinetic Energy from altimetry data and Lyapunov exponent analysis suggest that eddies and filaments are the main delivery mechanisms. In the upper mixed layer, the GS and its associated eddies are a predominant regional oceanographic feature injecting particles from the north and west boundaries toward the Azores. The capacity to capture particles of each island sub-group was directly proportional to their size, while the retention time within the Azores region increased with depth, associated with the decrease in velocity of the intermediate water currents. This study opens new prospects to understand transport in the Mid-Atlantic (Azores) region and the islands' role in marine colonization, dispersal, fisheries recruitment and speciation.

  4. Site effects inferred from HVSR methodology in Praia da Vitória city (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontiela, João; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Rosset, Philippe; Rodrigues, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Terceira island (Azores) have experienced several strong earthquakes, especially on the eastern and south-eastern part of the island with maximum MM intensity of VIII in 1800, 1801 and 1912 and IX in 1614 and 1841. Seismicity of the eastern part of the island is largely dominated by the tectonic of the NW-SE Lajes graben where are located Praia da Vitória and other setlements. Praia da Vitória is settled partially over pyroclastic material(pumice and ignimbrite) deposited around 20'000 years ago and forming part of the UpperTerceira Group. Its thickness is 15m on the north but in Praia da Vitoria has less than one meter.. It is sited on by basaltic flow of the upper Basaltic Terceira Group (2,000y BP) and a thick andesitic lava flow. A narrow band with sand dunes and beach crossed this deposits along Praia da Vitória and behind it appear a flat area with 7-10m of round cobbles that is interpreted as an old boulders'beach. Thickness of these different deposits are tricky to estimate in urban areas since very few outcrops are present. In order to assess site amplification of seismic waves due to the soil conditions, we perform horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method from broad band ambient noise measurements in 51 different sites within Praia da Vitoria. The first results show that the frequencies of the study area are variable, lying between 0.6-12 Hz. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: João Fontiela is supported by grant M3.1.2/F/060/2011 provided by the Regional Science Fund of the Azores Regional Government. This study was partially funded by the Institute of Earth Sciences, Portugal, under the contract with the FCT, ICT-UID/GEO/04683/2013 (Portugal).

  5. Contrasting styles of explosive eruption at Sete Cidades, São Miguel, Azores, in the last 5000 years: Hazard implications from modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, P. D.; Pacheco, J. M.; Gunasekera, R.; Queiroz, G.; Gonçalves, P.; Gaspar, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    The deposits of three eruptions in the last 5000 years are described in detail in order to constrain eruptive parameters and allow a quantitative assessment of the hazard from a range of explosive eruption types at Sete Cidades volcano, São Miguel, Azores. These deposits include: the Caldeira Seca eruption (P17) which occurred around 600 yr BP, which was the last explosive event from inside the Sete Cidades caldera, the P11 eruption, dated at 2220 ± 70 yr BP, and the undated P8 eruption (< 3000 yr BP). These deposits were chosen to represent the range of likely explosive activity from the caldera. Our studies reveal that the Caldeira Seca eruption (P17) produced ash-rich deposits, probably as the result of hydromagmatic eruptions, and several lapilli fall layers dispersed in different directions. The lapilli fall layers were derived from eruption columns up to10 km high. Evidence indicates pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) only moved outside of the caldera on to the western flank. The P11 deposit represents one of the largest eruptions at Sete Cidades in the last 5000 years. The deposits are composed of two units, the main lower one is a lapilli fall deposit inferred to be derived from an eruption column 18 km high. Evidence for PDCs outside of the caldera occurs to the southeast and northwest. The P8 deposits are composed of numerous alternating lapilli and ash layers representing a highly pulsatory eruption almost all of which are of a fallout origin. The lapilli are inferred to be derived from eruption columns up to 8 km in height. Using the eruptive parameters derived from these deposits we use HAZMAP ([Macedonio, G., Costa, A., Longo, A., 2005. A computer model for volcanic ash fallout and assessment of subsequent hazard, Comput. Geosci. 31, 837-845]) to constrain the probability of fallout of different loads and thicknesses. Two end-member scenarios were used with HAZMAP one representing a P17 eruption and another representing a P11 eruption. Both

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Eastern North Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, Azores

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wood, Robert

    From May 2009 through December 2010, the ARM Mobile Facility obtained data from a location near the airport on Graciosa Island to support the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) field campaign. The campaign was led by principal investigator Robert Wood. Results from this campaign confirmed that the Azores have the ideal mix of conditions to study how clouds, aerosols, and precipitation interact. This new observation site will have significant enhancements to instruments previously deployed to the Azores, including a Ka-/W-band scanning cloud radar, precipitation radar, and Doppler lidar. It has the full support of the Azorean government and collaborators at the University of the Azores. Los Alamos National Laboratory will operate the site for the ARM Facility.

  7. Hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope geochemistry of geothermal fluids discharged from volcanoes in São Miguel (Azores, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitischek, J.; Dietzel, M.; Cruz, J. V.; Inguaggiato, S.; Boettcher, M. E.; Leis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrochemical and isotopic composition of hydrothermal fluids discharged from 3 different volcanic areas of São Miguel has been analysed to create a conceptual model for the evolution of a geothermal system in a basaltic ocean island with still pronounced volcanic activities. Besides the fluids, associated solid-phase precipitates and local volcanic rocks were collected for geochemical investigations. Thermal discharges were divided into springs (up to 75 °C) and boiling pools. Major classification based on dominant dissolved ions divided fluids in Na-SO4, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl types. Temperatures estimated from water hydrochemistry (e.g. Na-K, Na-K-Ca cationic geothermometers) let us assume that the in-situ solutions with discharging temperatures exceeding 32°C were close to thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to local rocks. The aqueous solutions have their origin in meteoric water with a δ18O(H2O) value of -3 ±1 ‰ (V-SMOW) and a δD(H2O) value of -13 ±7 ‰ (V-SMOW). Only the δ18O and δD values of Ferraria reveal mixing of meteoric with sea water. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is chemically evolved by the uptake of volcanic carbon with δ13C(DIC) = -5 ±3 ‰ (V-PDB). The isotopic composition of sulphate with δ34S(SO4) = 0.4 ± 0.3‰ (V-CDT) is close to typical igneous rock values. The extent of basaltic rock leaching depends on the availability of volcanic CO2 and on temperature. The molar Mg/Ca ratio (0.8) of all thermal discharges reflects leaching of the local basalt. In Furnas, at higher temperatures, the concentrations of dissolved Si(OH)4, K+ and Sr2+ increased due to intensive leaching of basaltic rocks, whereas in contrast Al3+ and ΣFe decreased due to the precipitation of e.g. alunite. Annual supply of dissolved CO2 in Furnas springs was calculated to be about 61 t. In Fogo the Na-SO4 type dominated and at higher altitude in particular CO2 rich (up to 23 mmol L-1) water at T ≈ 20 °C occurs. It is further suggested that the isotope signature and hydrochemistry of the fluids can be used to estimate the distance to the magma sources and as a general indicator of volcanic activity.

  8. Early Childhood Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa

    This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…

  9. A re-evaluation of Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Cisneros, K.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R.; Neto, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    The genus Scinaia in the Azores is re-evaluated based on historical and recent collections. A combination of morphological and anatomical diagnostic characters was used for species segregation, and a key for Azorean species determination is presented. Anatomical information associated to the hair development is described for the first time for the genus. The occurrence of S. furcellata and S. interrupta is confirmed for the archipelago. The presence of S. acuta is reported for the first time in the Azores, representing a spread from Australia to the N-Atlantic and specifically into the Macaronesian region. Its occurrence in the archipelago and the Canaries is discussed as a possible introduction.

  10. Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the

  11. Women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M

    1981-01-01

    Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy

  12. Empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zêzere, José Luis; Vaz, Teresa; Pereira, Susana; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Marques, Rui; Garcia, Ricardo A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is the most important physical process responsible for the landslide triggering in Portugal. Following the work of Zêzere et al. (2014), we present the state of the art concerning the proposition of empirical rainfall thresholds in Portugal for different types of landslides observed in different zones of the country: the Lisbon region, the Douro Valley and the NW Mountains, and the Povoação Municipality in São Miguel Island (Azores). The empirical thresholds applied in Portugal are based on the identification of 120 landslide events and include (i) the computation of antecedent rainfall threshold defined by linear regression, (ii) the normalization of rainfall by the mean annual precipitation, (iii) the definition of combined rainfall thresholds, which integrates the rainfall event and the antecedent rainfall for different time periods, and (iv) the definition of lower limit and upper limit rainfall thresholds. The intensity-duration (ID) threshold is the empirical rainfall threshold more used worldwide. In mainland Portugal, the highest ID rainfall threshold is registered in the NW Mountains, which is the rainiest zone of the country. The Lisbon Region typically receives less rain per year and the corresponding ID threshold is lower than that obtained in the north part of the country. The Povoação study area evidence a contrasting situation, which is associated to the highest value of the negative exponential of the threshold (-0.66). As a consequence, for short duration (< 10 h) this threshold is only exceeded in the NW Mountains, while for long durations (>1,000 h) it is below the remaining thresholds. The normalization of the ID threshold by the mean annual precipitation (MAP) has showed that, in relative terms: (i) the ID threshold is highest in Lisbon Region for duration less than 50 h; (ii) in the north of the country, the ID threshold is more exigent in the Douro Valley than in the NW Mountains and (iii) the ID threshold in Povoa

  13. And Yet They Come: Portuguese Immigration from the Azores to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jerry R.

    This book is about the Portuguese who immigrated from the Azores Islands to the United States during the years 1800-1870, 1870-1920, and 1957-1982. The earliest Portuguese immigrants were employed in the whaling industry, and settled in New England and California. Another major concentration can be found in the Hawaiian Islands, where they were…

  14. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, São Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard B.

    1990-01-01

    Six volcanic zones comprise São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. From west to east the zones are (1) the trachyte stratovolcano of Sete Cidades, (2) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte, (3) the trachyte stratovolcano of Agua de Pau, (4) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte and tristanite, (5) the trachyte stratovolcano of Furnas, and (6) the Nordeste shield, which includes the Povoação caldera and consists of alkali basalt, tristanite, and trachyte. New radiocarbon and K-Ar ages augment stratigraphic data obtained during recent geologic mapping of the entire island and provide improved data to interpret eruption frequency. Average dormant intervals for the past approximately 3000 years in the areas active during that time are about 400 years for Sete Cidades, 145 for zone 2, 1150 for Agua de Pau, and 370 for Furnas. However, the average dormant interval at Sete Cidades increased from 400 to about 680 years before each of the past two eruptions, and the interval at Furnas decreased from 370 to about 195 years before each of the past four eruptions. Eruptions in zone 4 occurred about once every 1000 years during latest Pleistocene and early Holocene time; none has occurred for about 3000 years. The Povoação caldera truncates part of the Nordeste shield and probably formed during the middle to late Pleistocene. Calderas formed during latest Pleistocene time at the three younger stratovolcanoes in the sequence: outer Agua de Pau (between 46 and 26.5 ka), Sete Cidades (about 22 ka), inner Agua de Pau (15.2 ka), and Furnas (about 12 ka). Normal faults are common, but many are buried by Holocene trachyte pumice. Most faults trend northwest or west-northwest and are related to the Terceira rift, whose most active segment on São Miguel passes through Sete Cidades and zone 2. A major normal fault displaces Nordeste

  15. Equity in health care financing in Portugal: findings from the Household Budget Survey 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Quintal, Carlota; Lopes, José

    2016-07-01

    Equity in health care financing is recognised as a main goal in health policy. It implies that payments should be linked to capacity to pay and that households should be protected against catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). The risk of CHE is inversely related to the share of out-of-pocket payments (OOP) in total health expenditure. In Portugal, OOP represented 26% of total health expenditure in 2010 [one of the highest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries]. This study aims to identify the proportion of households with CHE in Portugal and the household factors associated with this outcome. Additionally, progressivity indices are calculated for OOP and private health insurance. Data were taken from the Portuguese Household Budget Survey 2010/2011. The prevalence of CHE is 2.1%, which is high for a developed country with a universal National Health Service. The main factor associated with CHE is the presence of at least one elderly person in households (when the risk quadruples). Payments are particularly regressive for medicines. Regarding the results by regions, the Kakwani index for total OOP is larger (negative) for the Centre and lower, not significant, for the Azores. Payments for voluntary health insurance are progressive. PMID:26573411

  16. Ten Years of Black Carbon Measurements in the North Atlantic at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Azores (2225m asl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Fialho, P. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Olsen, S. C.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Dziobak, M.; Kramer, L. J.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Pico Mountain Observatory is located in the summit caldera of the Pico mountain, an inactive volcano on the Pico Island in the Azores, Portugal (38.47°N, 28.40°W, Altitude 2225m asl). The Azores are often impacted by polluted outflows from the North American continent and local sources have been shown to have a negligible influence at the observatory. The value of the station stems from the fact that this is the only permanent mountaintop monitoring station in the North Atlantic that is typically located above the marine boundary layer (average MBL heights are below 1200 m and rarely exceed 1300 m) and often receives air characteristic of the lower free troposphere. Measurements of black carbon (BC) mass have been carried out at the station since 2001, mostly in the summer seasons. Here we discuss the BC decadal dataset (2001-2011) collected at the site by using a seven-wavelength AE31 Magee Aethalometer. Measured BC mass and computed Angstrom exponent (AE) values were analysed to study seasonal and diurnal variations. There was a large day-to-day variability in the BC values due to varied meteorological conditions that resulted in different diurnal patterns for different months. The daily mean BC at this location ranged between 0 and ~430 ngm-3, with the most frequently occurring value in the range 0-100 ngm-3. The overall mean for the 10 year period is ~24 ngm-3, with a coefficient of variation of 150%. The BC values exhibited a consistent annual trend being low in winter months and high in summer months, barring year to year variations. To differentiate between BC and other absorbing particles, we analyzed the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption coefficient and determined a best-fit exponent i.e., the Ångström exponent, for the whole dataset. Visible Ångström exponent (AE: 470-520-590-660 nm) values ranged between 0 and 3.5, with most frequently occurring values in the range 0.85 to 1.25. By making use of the aethalometer light attenuation

  17. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos

    2016-04-01

    The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos case was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential impact information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk assessment was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the assessment of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the assessment of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall

  18. Spring geochemistry in an active volcanic environment (São Miguel, Azores): source and fluxes of inorganic solutes.

    PubMed

    Freire, P; Andrade, C; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V

    2014-01-01

    Mineral waters were monthly sampled in selected springs from Furnas and Fogo trachytic central volcanoes (São Miguel, Azores, Portugal). Water temperatures between 15.1 °C and 90.2 °C, characterize poorly mineralized waters of Na-HCO₃ and Na-HCO₃-Cl types. According to the spring location, two watersheds were selected in each volcano to evaluate solute fluxes and chemical weathering rates (Fogo volcano: Ribeira Grande river - RRG; Furnas volcano: Ribeira Quente river - RRQ). Na, Mg, K and Ca fluxes in groundwater represented 43%, 60%, 46% and 57% of the total (subsurface plus surface fluxes) in RRG, and respectively 43%, 53%, 46% and 49% in RRQ. Average HCO₃ flux is ten times higher in RRQ (130.1 × 10(6) mol/yr) compared to RRG (13.8 × 10(6) mol/yr), reflecting the volcano degassing and the lower ratio between groundwater and river water fluxes. Based on these values, total CO₂-consumption by weathering ranged from 1.5 × 10(6)mol/km(2)/yr (RRG) to 4 × 10(6)mol/km(2)/yr (RRQ). TDS load varied between 3772 t/yr (RRG) and 15388 t/yr (RRQ), and the ratio between values in groundwater and in surface water is respectively equal to 0.72 and 2.04. The associated chemical weathering rates in groundwater were 206 t/km(2)/yr (RRG) and 399 t/km(2)/yr (RRQ). Coupled to river water, these values indicate that total chemical weathering rates are respectively equal to 493 t/km(2)/yr and 594 t/km(2)/yr. A similar approach developed for the entire archipelago showed that the chemical weathering rates due to groundwater are in the range from 33 to 321 t/km(2)/yr, being partially controlled by the age of the islands. Results of the present study point out to the need to consider groundwater solute fluxes due to weathering when establishing geochemical budgets. PMID:23933431

  19. Textiles and Training in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrez, Jaime Serrao; Dias, Mario Caldeira

    Analyzing the role of vocational training in an economic sector that is declining in Portugal, this document consists of five chapters, a bibliography, and a list of training organizations. An introduction tells why the study is important and explains that the major obstacles to development of the Portuguese textile and clothing sector are the…

  20. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  1. Sex education in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  2. Spatial variation of the scaling structure of short-term rainfall over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2009-04-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of rain, which typically exhibits extreme variability, is a core issue in studies that span a variety of research areas, e.g. hydrology, hydraulics, environment, energy, economics, society. The interest in rain can demand its study and characterization at a variety of space- and time-scales. Different tools and methodologies are used for this purpose, which are usually complementary. Mainland Portugal is located in the transitional region between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the sub-polar depression zones. The spatial distribution of precipitation over the territory and its seasonal variability are due to the characteristics of the global circulation. One specific feature is the Atlantic origin of many synoptic disturbances, e.g. seasonal movements of the Azores high pressure system, in the context of the regional geography (e.g. latitude, orography, oceanic and continental influences). Although the variation in climate factors is fairly small, it is sufficient to justify significant variations in precipitation. Compared with the northern region of Portugal, the southern region is warmer and drier; there the climate is semi-arid, and the region is well-known for its vulnerability to climate variability. Two storm types dominate the occurrence of rainfall in mainland Portugal: convective storms and frontal storms. Convective storms are typical during the summer and in early and mid autumn, and are more frequent in the southern regions; frontal storms occur principally in the winter season, and affect the northern regions more. In this work we discuss results of scale-invariant analyses of the temporal structure of rain from several locations in mainland Portugal. The aim was to investigate the statistical signature of rain events of different origins, resulting from the large number of mechanisms and factors affecting the rainfall climate over Portugal. The study uses hourly rainfall time series covering periods of about 30

  3. Beach debris in the Azores (NE Atlantic): Faial Island as a first case study.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Catharina; Ventura, Maria A; Martins, Ana; Cunha, Regina T

    2015-12-30

    Marine debris is widely recognised as a global environmental problem. This study assesses density, type, and temporal trends of marine debris in two sandy beaches of Faial Island (Azores, NE-Atlantic). During seven months (six days per month) the beaches were surveyed by performing 10 random transects at each site. Recorded items within the range 2-30 cm were organised into seven categories. Densities of total debris varied from 0 to 1.940 items m(-2), with plastics dominating both areas. Both beaches, presented the highest debris abundance in February, most probably related to prevailing winds and swell. Location and/or time of year also seemed to influence the type of debris present. These findings provide new insights into debris accumulation rates in the Azores, where no previous studies were made. It also confirms the global trend of increased plastics accumulation on shorelines, highlighting the need for further research in remote islands. PMID:26515994

  4. LUSO: Portugal's new 6000 m rated R.O.V. for deep sea research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, A.; Lourenco, N.; Madureira, P.; Costa, R.; Abreu, M.; Team, E.

    2008-12-01

    Portugal has now the capability to explore the deep ocean with a 6000 meter rated ROV. The ROV, named LUSO, was acquired by the Portuguese Task Group for the Extension of the Continental Shelf (EMEPC). LUSO is a work class Bathyssaurus XL, developed by ARGUS Remote Systems AS and has entered in operation in September 2008. Its main application will be focused on both fundamental and applied research in deep waters. This new ROV is equipped with a variety of multidisciplinary marine research equipment such as: cameras for capturing high definition digital images, two manipulators, one rosette system, a biologic sampler, a mini- drill, a CH4 and CO2 sensor, push corers, CTD and a Doppler velocity logger and two parallel green laser scaling devices. The equipment will be upgraded in 2009 with an inertial movement unit (IMU) and possibly a swath bathymetry system. A first cruise with LUSO will be held on board the Portuguese oceanic class vessel the "NRP Almirante Gago Coutinho" from September to November 2008. This mission will comprise five legs with the total of four study areas: 1. Azores Platform (including the most recent Serreta submarine eruption and a series of dives along the Terceira axis); 2. southern Azores seamounts (Great Meteor group); 3. the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 36ºN and 38ºN and 4. the Josephine seamount (Eu-Nub plate boundary). A multidisciplinary team of researchers from several national universities and public institutions, covering a wide spectrum of marine research topics: Geology, Geophysics, Oceanography, Macro and micro-biology will conduct the research. In dive area 1 the architecture of hiper-slow oceanic crust, as exposed on the Terceira axis walls and the temporal and spatial variability of constructional processes which have been creating the Azores Volcanic Platform, will be investigated. In dive area 3, previous investigations of hydrothermal occurrences at the Lucky Strike segment will be complemented. This presentation will be

  5. New and rare coastal fishes in the Azores islands: occasional events or tropicalization process?

    PubMed

    Afonso, P; Porteiro, F M; Fontes, J; Tempera, F; Morato, T; Cardigos, F; Santos, R S

    2013-08-01

    Seven coastal fish species are newly reported for the remote north Atlantic archipelago of the Azores: Mediterranean sand eel Gymnammodytes cicerelus, bar jack Caranx ruber, two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris, bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus, unicorn leatherjacket filefish Aluterus scriptus and longspined porcupinefish Diodon holacanthus. The occurrence is also confirmed for 19 species that had been hitherto cited occasionally for the region, totalling a list of two elasmobranchs and 23 teleosts. Diplodus vulgaris, which appears to have recently colonized the islands, as well as roughtail stingray Dasyatis centroura and golden grey mullet Liza aurata, re-cited based on new records, are frequent or common coastal species in the Azores. The remaining 22 species, exceptional or rare in the region, are of tropical or subtropical affinity and find their northernmost distribution limit within the central and north-east Atlantic Ocean precisely in the Azores. This biogeographical pattern contrasts with that of the Azorean coastal fish community and suggests a tropicalization process in the region in line with previous findings of similar patterns across the north-east Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. These novel data from the most isolated archipelago of the North Atlantic Ocean, located in a biogeographic boundary area where colonization opportunities are reduced, reinforce the need for long-term monitoring programmes of coastal fish communities and, in particular, of indicator species groups to improve understanding of the effects of climate change on marine communities. PMID:23902306

  6. The importance of deep-sea vulnerable marine ecosystems for demersal fish in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Christopher K.; Vandeperre, Frederic; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Isidro, Eduardo; Morato, Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Cold-water corals and sponges aggregations are important features of the deep sea, recently classified as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). VMEs increase habitat complexity, believed to act as feeding, reproductive, nursery and refuge areas for a high number of invertebrates and fish species. In the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic), VMEs are prevalent but their ecological role has not received much attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of VMEs in influencing the distribution of demersal fish in the Azores. With data collected during experimental longline surveys , we modeled the catch of six demersal fish species of commercial value (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pagellus bogaraveo, Mora moro, Conger conger, Phycis phycis, Pontinus kuhlii) in relation to the presence of VMEs and other environmental factors using General Additive Models (GAMs). Our study demonstrated that total fish catch was higher inside VMEs but the relationship between fish and VMEs varied among fish species. Species specific models showed that catch was strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly depth, whilst the presence of VMEs was only important for two rockfish species; juvenile and adult P. kuhlii and juvenile H. dactylopterus. Although the association between deep-sea demersal fish and VMEs may be an exception to the rule, we suggest that VMEs act as an important habitat for two commercially important species in the Azores.

  7. [Demography and employment in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Barata, O S

    1981-01-01

    The population of Portugal showed a period of slow growth between 1950-60; however, in the 1970s, the return of large numbers of former residents in African territories along with a reduction in emigration changed the trend so that the 1981 census showed a significant increase. The Portuguese economy, on the other hand, is in a state of crisis which has resulted in large numbers of unemployed. The growth of the population along with these hard times has made it more difficult to reduce the rate of unemployment. It is also more difficult for those leaving school to find jobs. The better educated generations are seeking jobs in industry and in other services that Portugal will find difficult to offer in sufficient numbers in the immediate future. At present, the Portuguese economy has a large component of agricultural labor. In any case, the means of economic and social intervention to fight unemployment have limited potential. Therefore, many of those unable to find jobs in Portugal will attempt to emigrate. Many Portuguese are already working in Germany, France, and in other Western European countries but migration today is much more difficult. In addition, these countries cannot be expected to recive many more migrant workers in the future. In fact, those better educated workers from Portugal will not be very interested in the low paying jobs which can be found more easily by foreign workers in Western Euorpe. Many will therefore attempt to find jobs in non-European countries. There has been a recent increase of migration to Canada and the US. A renewal of interest in jobs in Brazil and other South Amerian countries is also to be expected. There may also be a future increase in the number of experts, technicians, and other qualified personnel emigrating to Portuguese speaking African countries if there is adequate security and if these countries find the way to expand economic growth. (author's modified) PMID:12339773

  8. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  9. Portugal to Accede to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The Republic of Portugal will become the ninth member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago and the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , in the presence of other high officials from Portugal and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 05/00 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Portuguese Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Portugal will formally join this organisation on January 1, 2001. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 16/00 ESO PR Photo 16/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 405 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 809 pix - 408k] Caption : Signing of the Portugal-ESO Agreement on June 27, 2000, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago . In his speech, the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago , stated that "the accession of Portugal to ESO is the result of a joint effort by ESO and Portugal during the last ten years. It was made possible by the rapid Portuguese scientific development and by the growth and internationalisation of its scientific community." He continued: "Portugal is fully committed to European scientific and technological development. We will devote our best efforts to the success of ESO". Catherine Cesarsky , ESO Director General since 1999, warmly welcomed the Portuguese intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Portuguese astronomers will have great opportunities for working on research programmes at the frontiers of modern astrophysics." "This is indeed a good time to join ESO", she added. "The four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes with their many first-class instruments are nearly ready, and the VLT

  10. Morphology and growth history of Delgada Fan: implications for the Neogene evolution of Point Arena Basin and the Mendocino Triple Junction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.; Gardner, J.V.; McCulloch, D.S.; Masson, D.

    1989-01-01

    Long-range side scan (GLORIA) sonographs and seismic reflection data acquired during a survey of the western US Exclusive Economic Zone in 1984, coupled with information from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites, provide new insights into the growth and evolution of the Delgada Fan. Construction of the fan commenced in the latest Miocene (~6 Ma) following the filling of the Neogene Point Arena Basin. The large size of the fan is incompatible with the small present-day supply of sediment to the canyon system. The GLORIA data show the Delgada Fan to be a hybrid-type fan, exhibiting characteristics of both elongate and radial fans. The morphology and volume of the fan, along with evidence for a decline in accumulation rates on the lower fan during the Quaternary period, suggest that the fan experienced an early growth phase (latest Miocene and Pliocene) characterized by relatively rapid progradation of elongate fan lobes followed by a period (Quaternary) of slower growth that has featured a shift of depocenters to sites closer to the canyons and a transition to distributary channels bordered by less prominent levees and overbank deposits. We examine the growth of Delgada Fan in relation to the Neogene evolution of the North American-Pacific plate boundary using a series of paleogeographic reconstructions based on recently published time displacement histories of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ), the San Andreas fault (SAF), and the Pacific plate, upon which the fan rests. The time displacement curves for the SAF and the MTJ suggest that the MTJ and Mendocino Fracture Zone overtook and passed Point Arena Basin at about 10 Ma when the basin lay immediately southwest of the present San Francisco Bay area. We suggest that the MTJ joined the SAF at approximately that time and location, thus making the SAF the master fault in the transform system. -from Authors

  11. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  12. Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago: Volcanic terrain instability and human vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malheiro, A.

    2006-08-01

    The islands of the Azores archipelago are geologically young and located in a tectonically and volcanically active region. Not surprisingly, the islands are subject to many geological hazards, including earthquakes, landslides, and coastal erosion; some selected examples are discussed in this paper. As demonstrated by two recent earthquakes (1980, Terceira; 1998, Faial), the principal damage was related to one or more of these factors: (1) unsafe location of structures near faults; (2) unstable foundation soils; (3) poor quality of building materials and construction methods; (4) disregard of building codes; and (5) lack of building maintenance. Major landsliding events in the Azores (e.g., Ponta da Fajã, Ribeira Quente, and Fajã dos Cubres) typically are triggered by intense, long-duration precipitation and (or) earthquake-induced ground shaking. The loose, unconsolidated nature of the rocks and soils of these volcanic islands is another significant contributing factor, sometimes aggravated by ground instability caused by human activity. Coastal erosion is prevalent on the north coast of São Miguel and the south coast of Faial, mostly resulting from natural circumstances (e.g., steepness of cliffs, differential erosion, intense wave action during storms) and also from human activity (e.g., poorly engineered drainage works on cliff faces). Where severe, coastal erosion can pose a risk to populations and societal infrastructures situated near the tops of the seacliffs. To mitigate the risk of these and other geological hazards in the Azores, it is necessary to (1) prepare hazards and risks maps of the affected areas; (2) adopt prudent land-use planning that considers the hazards; (3) upgrade the building codes in the hazardous areas; (4) initiate slope-stabilization programs; (5) preserve the natural environmental integrity of the regions; and (6) educate the affected populace and governmental officials about the possibilities and consequences of hazardous

  13. Lithium isotope systematics of the Azores Platform: Insights into Li variability of mantle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, K. K.; Langmuir, C. L.; Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, N. G.

    2008-12-01

    Azores Platform lavas (FAZAR) comprise a well characterized dataset with published values for major and trace elements, radiogenic isotopes, volatiles and δ18O. We have measured δ7Li on 12 of these glasses in order to investigate whether local variability in Li isotopes reflects mixing of different mantle sources, or high-T diffusion. Long wavelength enrichments in incompatible trace elements and isotopes associated with the Azores hotspot extend from the Kurchatov (41°N) to the Hayes Fracture Zones (33°N) along the MAR. Superimposed on this gradient are local enrichment spikes, the most prominent one occurring north of the Oceanographer Fracture Zone (NOFZ). The long wavelength enrichment can be generated by mixing a depleted mantle end-member with an Azores hotspot enriched end-member with isotopic characteristics similar to the mantle component 'C' (1). In contrast NOFZ lavas are most likely generated by a adding another enriched component with EM1-like characteristics. These glasses show δ7Li of +3.2 to +5.7, which spans the global MORB range. There are no correlations between δ7Li and Li content or MgO (wt%). More significantly, there are trends of δ7Li along axis showing positive correlations with 87Sr/86Sr and K/Ti, and negative correlations with H2O/Ce and 143Nd/144Nd, that are well beyond our analytical 2σ uncertainty of ±0.4‰. Using radiogenic isotopes and trace element ratios to define mantle end- members, we estimate δ7Li = +3.4 ±0.2‰ for the depleted mantle component in the North Atlantic asthenosphere (similar to 2), +4.4 ± 0.4‰ for the enriched Azores 'C'-like component, and a minimum of +5.7‰ for the EM1-like component. This new value for EM1 is much heavier than previous estimates (<-17‰, 3), and is similar to estimates for HIMU (>+7‰,4) and EM2 (>+11‰, 2,5). We thus conclude that the correlations of δ7Li with other tracers along the MAR, similar to trends observed on the EPR at 11°20'N (6) are more likely tied to mantle

  14. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at Azores: Preliminary 3D Cloud Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Giangrande, S.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Mead, J.

    2010-03-15

    The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers a prelude for the type of 3D cloud observations that ARM will have the capability to provide at all the ARM Climate Research Facility sites by the end of 2010. The primary objective of the deployment of Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) at the ARM Facility sites is to map continuously (operationally) the 3D structure of clouds and shallow precipitation and to provide 3D microphysical and dynamical retrievals for cloud life cycle and cloud-scale process studies. This is a challenging task, never attempted before, and requires significant research and development efforts in order to understand the radar's capabilities and limitations. At the same time, we need to look beyond the radar meteorology aspects of the challenge and ensure that the hardware and software capabilities of the new systems are utilized for the development of 3D data products that address the scientific needs of the new Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. The SWACR observations at Azores provide a first look at such observations and the challenges associated with their analysis and interpretation. The set of scan strategies applied during the SWACR deployment and their merit is discussed. The scan strategies were adjusted for the detection of marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus that were frequently observed at the Azores deployment. Quality control procedures for the radar reflectivity and Doppler products are presented. Finally, preliminary 3D-Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Locations (3D-ARSCL) products on a regular grid will be presented, and the challenges associated with their development discussed. In addition to data from the Azores deployment, limited data from the follow-up deployment of the SWACR at the ARM SGP site will be presented. This effort provides a blueprint for the effort required for the

  15. Climate change projections for precipitation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Santos, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The strong irregularity of precipitation in Portugal, which may e.g. trigger severe/extreme droughts and floods, results in a high vulnerability of the country to precipitation inter-annual variability and to its extremes. Furthermore, dryer future climates are projected for Portugal, though there has also been some growing evidence for a strengthening of precipitation extremes. Due to the central role played byprecipitation on many socio-economic sectors and environmental systems, regional climate change assessments for precipitation in Portugal are necessary. This study is focused on analyzing climate change projections for seasonal (3-month) precipitation totals and their corresponding extremes over mainland Portugal. Taking into account the strong seasonality of the precipitation regimes in Portugal, winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) are considered separately. Precipitation datasets generated by a 16-member ensemble of regional climate model experiments from the ENSEMBLES project are used. Percentile-based indices of precipitation are computed and analyzed for a recent past period (1961-2000) and for a near future period (2041-2070). Results for the R5p, R50p and R95p indices highlight significant projected changes in precipitation, with a clear distinction between northwestern Portugal and the rest of the country in both seasons. Overall, precipitation is projected to decrease in both seasons, particularly over northwestern Portugal in winter, despite some significant regional differences. Although precipitation is projected to decrease in most cases, extremely high seasonal precipitations (above the 95th percentile)areexpected to increase in winter.

  16. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    PubMed

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  17. 15 Years of Oceanography in the Azores: From Oceanographic Cruises to an Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliano, M. F.; Alves, M.; Simões, A.; Rodeia, J.

    2006-07-01

    Oceanographic research in the Azores has only started 15 years ago. Nevertheless, it has been possible to evolve from the typical "research cruise approach" to a more versatile and integrated approach, that has proofed to be further rewarding and adequate for the size and resources of the group. The Azorean Oceanographers have participated and conducted several research cruises since 1990, and anticipating the importance of correlating in situ data with satellite data has lead us to plan the last of these, so that there was a coincidence of transects, moorings and satellite ground tracks. On the other hand, the group has invested in data processing and merging hydrological historical data with the results from the above mentioned oceanographic cruises, creating a hydrological database for the whole Atlantic Ocean. Also, through the application of a novel methodology and approach, the group has contributed to a new vision of the currents systems in the South Atlantic Ocean, namely with the newly found St. Helena Current, the congener of the Azores Current. As a result of this continued shift in methodology, the group is now using an integrated approach where field data, model output and processed altimeter data are merged to produce operational oceanography products, such as sea state charts and daily oceanic current charts.

  18. Investigating recent trends in the rainfall structure: an overview across Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.; Carvalho, S. C. P.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2009-09-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of rain, which typically exhibits extreme variability, is a core issue in studies that span a number of research areas, e.g. hydrology, hydraulics, environment, energy, economics, society. The interest in this process demands its comprehensive study and characterization at a variety of space- and time-scales. Local studies of the rainfall climate can play an important role as they may contribute to characterizing rainfall. In this work the study area is mainland Portugal. Mainland Portugal is located in the transitional region between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the sub-polar depression zones. The characteristics of global circulation (specifically the Atlantic origin of many synoptic disturbances such as seasonal movements of the Azores high pressure system) in the context of regional geography (e.g. latitude, orography, oceanic and continental influences) greatly influence the spatial distribution of precipitation over the territory. The climatic variables exhibit strong north-south and west-east gradients, and precipitation also exhibits strong seasonal variability. The dominant climate in mainland Portugal is mild Mediterranean with a warm, dry summer period. These characteristics are more pronounced in the south, where the climate is sometimes classified as semi-arid. These regions are also well known for their vulnerability to climate variability. Several studies have reported increased rainfall variability in recent years, largely on the basis of annual and monthly point rainfall data, and for different geographical locations across the Iberian Peninsula, including Portugal. The main aim of this work, which complements those trend studies, is to contribute to identifying and clarifying recent changes in rain variability in Portugal by analysing trends in the small-scale temporal behaviour and statistics of this process. Thus the analyses reported here concentrate on the statistics of short-term rainfall events. The

  19. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  20. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  1. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  2. Trends and variability of precipitation: analyses of historical time series from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, S. C. P.; de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.

    2009-04-01

    The impact of climate change on precipitation is one of the major concerns in many scientific research studies. To predict changes in the other hydrological processes it is crucial to understand the recent changes in precipitation patterns as part of the long term behaviour of this process. Quite often the limiting factor is the short length of many existing precipitation records. The statistical analyses of historical time series, if they are available, can shed more light on our understanding of the dynamics of precipitation and, therefore, on the evaluation of recent changes in this process. The purpose of this work is to investigate trends in the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in Portugal by studying historical time series. The dataset comprises records of annual and monthly precipitation dating from the 19th century, from 13 meteorological stations scattered all over Mainland Portugal and in the Portuguese North Atlantic Islands of Madeira and Azores. The longest records date back from 1863. Different statistics methods were used in this study. As a preliminary step in the analyses, the data were statistically tested for serial correlation. Then, the homogeneity of the data was investigated; the methods used were: Standard Normal Homogeneity Test, Pettitt Test, von Neumann Ratio and Buishand Range Test. Finally, trends in the historical precipitation time series were examined using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test and the Sen's nonparametric method. The non-monotonic character of the trends observed in the data, and to deal with partial trends, the method by Tomé and Miranda (2004) was applied to the data. This recently developed methodology is able to locate the times of significant change in the precipitation series. This study complements previous investigations of precipitation trends in Portugal. It highlights the fact that the uncertainties of the trend projections came from the extreme variability in the precipitation

  3. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A large phytoplankton bloom off of the coast of Portugal can be seen in this true-color image taken on April 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The bloom is roughly half the size of Portugal and forms a bluish-green cloud in the water. The red spots in northwest Spain denote what are likely small agricultural fires. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. Basic Needs and Education in Portugal. The Portugal Project. Document No. XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmie, Thord

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the socio-economic factors that can be expected to influence the education system in Portugal, where urbanization has been very slow. The report examines basic needs in Portugal's 18 districts and makes recommendations about resource allocation to planners of adult education programs. Extensive…

  5. Genetic Relationships within Heritage Apple and Pear Cultivars in the Azores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Açores cooperative initiative program (ACIP) scientists from the US Department of Agriculture and Serviço de Desenvolvimento Agario da Terceira are collaborating to identify heritage apples and pears collected from locations throughout Terceira, Açores, Portugal. Nine apple microsatel...

  6. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

  7. A study of cloud and drizzle properties in the Azores using Doppler Radar spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, E.; Remillard, J.; Kollias, P.

    2010-03-15

    Understanding the onset of coalescence in warm clouds is key in our effort to improve cloud representation in numerical models. Coalescence acts at small scales, and its study requires detailed high-resolution dynamical and microphysical measurements from a comprehensive suite of instruments over a wide range of environmental conditions (e.g., aerosol loading). The first AMF is currently in its second year of a two-year deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores, offering the opportunity to collect a long data set from a stable land-based platform in a marine stratocumulus regime. In this study, recorded WACR Doppler spectra are used to characterize the properties of Doppler spectra from warm clouds with and without drizzle, and from drizzle only, in an effort to observe the transition (onset) to precipitation in clouds. A retrieval technique that decomposes observed Doppler spectra into their cloud and/or drizzle components is applied in order to quantify drizzle growth.

  8. Bottom characterization of Lagoa das Furnas on São Miguel, Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Tommy; Hermelin, Otto; Skelton, Alasdair; Jakobsson, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Lagoa das Furnas is a crater lake located in an area exposed to geohazards from earthquakes and volcanic activity on the island of São Miguel in the Azores Archipelago. Geophysical mapping of Lagoa das Furnas reveals a previously undiscovered volcanic dome. This dome is comprised largely of subaquatic pyroclastic debris of trachytic composition. Sedimentological, petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies of pyroclastic deposits from the dome link it to the historically documented "Furnas 1630" eruption. The chemistry of glass and crystal fragments sampled from the dome suggests that it is comprised of more evolved magma than that of the main Furnas 1630 dome located 1400 m away. This suggests that the dome was formed during a final phase of the 1630 eruption in the Lagoa das Furnas area.

  9. New alien barnacles in the Azores and some remarks on the invasive potential of Balanidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Paulo; Costa, Ana Cristina; Dionísio, Maria Ana

    2012-12-01

    Global homogenization of biota is underway through worldwide introduction and establishment of non-indigenous (exotic) species. Organisms fouling ship hulls are continually in transit and can affect communities through biodiversity loss and serious damage to economy and public health. In the Azores, for the first time, underwater alien species prospection was conducted in marinas and recreational harbours, at São Miguel Island. Populations of three locally previously unknown barnacle species were found: Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus eburneus and Perforatus perforatus. These species account for the more than 50% of alien barnacles worldwide that belong to Balanidae family. Hence, some considerations about morphology and life cycle of this family are advanced, discussed and related to their invasive potential.

  10. Proto-historic and Historical Atlantic Navigation: Archaeological Evidence from the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Nuno; Joaquinito, Anabela; Pimenta, Fernando; Sauren, Herbert; Rodrigues, António Félix; Costa, Antonieta; Pereira, António Sérgio; Juliano, Maria de Fraga; Fernandes, Joaquim; Freitas, Ricardo; Ventura, Ricardo; Tirapicos, Luís

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents unpublished data on archaeological sites located in the Azores Islands that suggests the possibility of sailing in ancient times in the Atlantic, namely in the Proto-historic and Roman periods. Several structures, identified as hypogea, are reminiscent of Phoenician sanctuaries and, in their architecture, seem to represent the goddess Tanit. In addition, results of the epigraphic analysis of an inscribed stone, are presented wherein the "god of the Dacians" is mentioned, suggesting their presence in the islands during the Roman period. Overall, these preliminary finds raise new questions regarding the pre-Portuguese occupation of the archipelago as well as pre-compass navigation in the Atlantic, possibly using the stars.

  11. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1ppm vs. 14.5ppm, respectively; p=0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. PMID:26318689

  12. Dendritic lava flows, landslides and terraces around the central Azores islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempera, F.; Mitchell, N. C.; Schmitt, T.; Isidro, E.; Cardigos, F.; Figueiredo, J.; Nunes, J.

    2004-12-01

    Surveying around volcanic ocean islands with sonars has recovered important information on giant landslides, faults and primary volcanic features, but efforts so far have largely been unable to image shallow water coastal areas because of vessel safety. Here we report surveying with a Reson 8160 multibeam sonar aboard a shallow draft research vessel, R/V Arquipelago, which enabled us to survey to less than 10 m water depth around the coasts of Faial, Pico and Sao Jorge islands of the Azores. The data cover coasts that have been growing volcanically, some during historical times. Where the coast has a finite abrasion shelf, the new data show that lava reaching the shore can breach the surf zone and develop a variety of submarine lava structures on the shelf. Many are dendritic in plan-view and some with transverse ribbing similar to pahoehoe flows on land but much larger scale. A variety of divergent flow paths are clearly indicated in the data. Some flows cross the shelf and descend the upper slope beyond the shelf break, providing evidence that a component of growth of the submarine island can include subaerially-originating lava as inferred from sulphur contents in submarine lava dredged from around Hawai'i. Where the abrasion shelf is very narrow or absent, the upper slope of the island contains abundant shallow landslides in the new unstable and steep volcanic material. The data show a variety of other interesting features, such as terraces, volcanic cones, collapse structures, tumuli, faults associated with the Azores plate boundary and sedimentary bedforms produced by interaction of oceanic currents with the island topography and from turbidity currents descending island slopes.

  13. Magma flow pattern in dykes of the Azores revealed by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, M. A.; Geoffroy, L.; Pozzi, J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The localization of magma melting areas at the lithosphere bottom in extensional volcanic domains is poorly understood. Large polygenetic volcanoes of long duration and their associated magma chambers suggest that melting at depth may be focused at specific points within the mantle. To validate the hypothesis that the magma feeding a mafic crust, comes from permanent localized crustal reservoirs, it is necessary to map the fossilized magma flow within the crustal planar intrusions. Using the AMS, we obtain magmatic flow vectors from 34 alkaline basaltic dykes from São Jorge, São Miguel and Santa Maria islands in the Azores Archipelago, a hot-spot related triple junction. The dykes contain titanomagnetite showing a wide spectrum of solid solution ranging from Ti-rich to Ti-poor compositions with vestiges of maghemitization. Most of the dykes exhibit a normal magnetic fabric. The orientation of the magnetic lineation k1 axis is more variable than that of the k3 axis, which is generally well grouped. The dykes of São Jorge and São Miguel show a predominance of subhorizontal magmatic flows. In Santa Maria the deduced flow pattern is less systematic changing from subhorizontal in the southern part of the island to oblique in north. These results suggest that the ascent of magma beneath the islands of Azores is predominantly over localized melting sources and then collected within shallow magma chambers. According to this concept, dykes in the upper levels of the crust propagate laterally away from these magma chambers thus feeding the lava flows observed at the surface.

  14. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

  15. Transition from steady to unsteady Plinian eruption column: the VEI 5, 4.6 ka Fogo A Plinian eruption, São Miguel, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pensa, Alessandra; Cas, Raymond; Giordano, Guido; Porreca, Massimiliano; Wallenstein, Nicolau

    2015-10-01

    The 4.6 ka Fogo A trachytic Plinian eruption on São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal, is composed by four main phases: 1) Initial phreatomagmatic activity which emplaced thin surge deposits with accretionary lapilli; 2) fully buoyant steady Plinian activity which generated a prominent trachytic basal fall-out deposit; 3) partial collapsing activity, which led to the emplacement of two trachytic-trachydacitic intra-plinian ignimbrites (pink and black ignimbrites) and associated surge deposits, inter-stratified within two fall-out deposits; 4) vent widening and fully collapsing activity which caused the emplacement of the climactic brown trachydacitic ignimbrite. The deposits of these four main phases have been organised into three members FGA1, FGA2 and FGA3, sub-divided into 15 stratigraphic or emplacement units. The fluctuations from a steady to unsteady Plinian eruption column parallel the change in composition of the magma from trachytic to trachydacitic. Although minimal, the change in composition resulted in a marked change in colour of the juvenile clasts from white at the base (first phase) to pink and light-dark grey banded and black (second and third phases) and to dark brown (fourth phase). Density analysis of juvenile clasts revealed that the change in composition did not significantly affect the density of the juvenile pumice pyroclasts, the vesicularity of which increases from 70% to 85% up through the sequence. The pink and the black intra-plinian ignimbrites were emplaced only, within the narrow paleo-valleys of the southern flank with maximum thicknesses of 9 m and 5 m respectively, transitioning onto adjacent topographic highs where thin veneer surge layers were deposited. The fall-out deposits inter-bedded between the ignimbrites lack basal reverse grading, indicating that the eruption column continued to be sustained during the partial collapses generating the intra-plinian ignimbrites. The climactic dark brown ignimbrite was emplaced radially

  16. Sete Cidades and Furnas lake eutrophication (São Miguel, Azores): analysis of long-term monitoring data and remediation measures.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J Virgílio; Pacheco, Dina; Porteiro, João; Cymbron, Raquel; Mendes, Sandra; Malcata, Andrea; Andrade, César

    2015-07-01

    Eutrophication of lakes in the Azores archipelago (Portugal) has been described since the 80s, and due to water quality deterioration several remediation methodologies were applied. Long-term monitoring data on water quality from Sete Cidades and Furnas lakes (São Miguel island) were analyzed in order to address that the success of the ongoing policy reverses their eutrophic status. Sete Cidades lake (4.46 km2), made by two branches (so-called Green and Blue lakes), has a water volume equal to 58×10(6) m3 and a depth in the range between 24 and 28.5m. Furnas lake (1.87 km2) has a volume equal to 14×10(6) m3 and a maximum depth of 15m. In Sete Cidades lake mean water temperature and pH range respectively between 13.4°C to 17.7°C and 7.04 to 8.06. Instead, mean temperature in Lake Furnas ranges between 16.6°C and 17.2°C, with a pH between 7.36 and 7.84. Mean water conductivity shows that both lakes correspond to very diluted waters, with values between 98.1 and 136.5 μS/cm. Water chemistry is influenced by the monomictic character of the lakes, as anoxic environment in the hypolimnion due to O2 consumption during the summer, when stratification prevents mixing along the water column, explains sharp increase in TP, TN, N-ammoniacal, Mn and Fe. Major-ion content is rather constant along time, with some seasonal fluctuations, despite a decrease in SO4 observed in Sete Cidades lake which is suggested to be a result of runoff diversion, a result also shown by the decrease of the molal ratio TN/TP in both studied lakes. Nevertheless, the application of the trophic state index (TSITP) does not suggest an improvement in what concerns trophic status, which is explained by the internal P-loading, a source that have to be managed by environmental authorities in the near future in order to revert eutrophication. PMID:25813970

  17. Ecole et communaute au Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Alberto

    1980-09-01

    Since 1974 Portugal has experienced some dramatic changes in educational practices at the local level. The school has been opened to the community and the community to the school. Teacher education now includes community studies, designed to prepare teachers for an active role in this process and for the better understanding of the social background of pupils. One new practice is the publication of local newspapers or news-sheets to enhance the understanding of the community by teachers and pupils. The development of a school garden for the cultivation of flowers and vegetables serves as another bridge between school and community. Other examples of community action are adult literacy classes, the creation of voluntary organisations for women, the running of youth clubs, the formation of co-operatives, and local projects like the purchase of an old tram-car to be converted into a library. The introduction of `Civic and Polytechnic Education' for 13-16 year olds was an important innovation. One half-day a week was to be devoted to the integration of the school with the locality, young people's participation in society as agents of change, the linking of study and productive work, and the involvement of young people in the solution of national problems, working from a concrete knowledge of local and regional life. However, since 1976 there has been a more conservative approach, and only in places with a strong consensus amongst teachers has the new relationship between school and community been maintained.

  18. Major and minor element geochemistry of deep-sea sediments in the Azores Platform and southern seamount region.

    PubMed

    Palma, Carla; Oliveira, Anabela; Valença, Manuela; Cascalho, João; Pereira, Eduarda; Lillebø, Ana I; Duarte, Armando C; Pinto de Abreu, Manuel

    2013-10-15

    The Azores Platform and the Irving and Great Meteor seamounts south of the archipelago (38°N-29°N) have rarely been studied geochemically, a fact which is surprising given that they represent the south-eastern limit of region V outlined in the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention). The main aim of the present work was therefore to characterise the spatial variability of major and minor elements in deep-sea sediment cores from these two regions. XRD and geochemical analyses revealed that whereas the Azores Platform sediments are composed of a mixture of biogenic and detrital volcanic material, those at the seamounts are characterised by carbonated biogenic remains. The latter sediments were found to contain very low amounts of volcanic or hydrothermal detrital material, being almost entirely comprised of CaCO3 (more than 80%). PMID:23896401

  19. The Nature of Plume-Ridge Interaction on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, A.; Laubier, M.; Escrig, S.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    Classical work in the 1970s established a gradient in ridge depth and chemical composition southwards from the Azores hot spot. Proximal basalts were enriched in highly incompatible elements and 87Sr/86Sr, and this enrichment decreased southwards until depleted MORB were encountered south of the Hayes fracture zone. This was explained through mantle source mixing, with the proportion of plume mantle decreasing with distance from the plume. Detailed maps of ocean ridges, however, show that ocean ridges consist of a series of segments that are shallow in their centers and deeper at their ends, so the "regional gradient" in depth actually consists of a series of undulations at various scales. The question then arises how the regional gradient in geochemistry is influenced by this segmentation. Detailed major element, trace element (TE) and isotopic study of over 200 samples from four segments south of the Azores platform allows a better assessment of the detailed characteristics of the geochemical gradient, with implications for plume-ridge interaction. All basalts from the KP-5 ("Menez Gwen"), PO-1 ("Lucky Strike"), PO-2 and PO-3 ("FAMOUS") segments (in order from north to south) are enriched relative to depleted MORB. While this enrichment is related to the Azores plume, as confirmed by the trends in isotope diagrams, there is much complexity in detail regarding how the enriched signature is imparted to the lavas. The KP-5 and PO-1 segments contain two groups of chemically distinct basalts. Moderately enriched basalts are found throughout the segments. At the segment centers highly enriched basalts with high concentrations of incompatible elements and an enriched isotopic signature predominate. Remarkably, incompatible element ratios (e.g. Ba/La, Nb/Zr) of these basalts are higher than basalts from the center of the Azores platform, while their isotopic values are less enriched. This dichotomy between TE ratios and isotopes of the highly enriched samples can be

  20. Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 (Bryozoa), a new occurrence in the archipelago of the Azores (North-Eastern Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Amat, Jaen Nieto; Tempera, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    The new occurrence of the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 is herein recorded in multiple places throughout Azores archipelago. Where introduced, this species has caused important ecological and economical damage and therefore is regarded as invasive. In the Azores, no detrimental effects have yet been noted. The species is so far restricted to marinas (Horta, Faial Island; Vila Franca do Campo, São Miguel Island) and a natural coastal pool located near a secondary harbour (Lajes do Pico, Pico Island). A total of 29 colonies were counted during a specific survey conducted in August 2008 in the marina of Horta. The distribution of the species throughout the eastern and central island groups denotes a wide dispersion area and offers control or eradication measures a low probability of success together with the lack of harbour management practices that could effectively prevent the arrival, settlement and dispersal of non-native species transported by human-assisted means. PMID:19303606

  1. Model for origin and evolution of water at volcanoes in São Miguel, Azores (Portugal), based on geochemical and isotopic data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitischek, Julia; Dietzel, Martin; Virgílio Cruz, J.; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Leis, Albrecht; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2016-04-01

    A conceptual model is presented to better constrain the origin and evolution of discharges at Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas Volcano, using geochemical and isotopic analyses of rock and water as well as recalculated gas composition. The evolution of thermal water clearly reveals that Na-HCO3 and Na-SO4 type of springs have their origin in meteoric water as isotope data are close to the local meteoric water line (δ 18OH2O =-3 ± 1 ‰ V-SMOW; δ DH2O= -13 ± 7 ‰ V-SMOW) with exception of a Na-Cl spring named Ferraria, Sete Cidades area (δ 18OH2O = 0.45 ‰ V-SMOW ; δ DH2O= 4.18 ‰ V-SMOW). Analysed solutions are chemical evolved by evaporation, uptake of volcanic gas, leaching of local basaltic rocks, precipitation of solids, partly admixture of sea water and/or biological activity. Following the individual concentrations supports this model e.g.: HCO3 concentration and the recalculated isotopic composition of gaseous CO2 (δ 13CCO_2 = -4 ± 2.5 ‰ V-PDB) reflect evolved magmatic CO2 uptake and the subsequent leaching progress; High SO42- concentration of up to 16.5 mmol L-1 with δ 34SSO4 = 0.35 ± 0.3 ‰ (V-CDT) reflects magmatic origin which mainly control water chemistry of boiling pools of both Fogo and Furnas lake; δ 18OSO4 = 10.5 ‰ (V-SMOW) suggests organic origin and fits together with the observation of stromatolitic structures in the related precipitates; Molar Mg/Caratio (≈ 0.77) of all thermal discharges reflects leaching of analysed local basalt (Mg/Ca≈ 0.78). Furthermore, shallow and evolved outgassing effects can be distinguished. Equilibrium temperatures for various minerals given in SI vs. T plots and further geothermometers (e.g. Na-K, Na-K-Ca geothermometers) were discussed to estimate temperatures of reservoirs.

  2. Aerosol properties and their influences on marine boundary layer cloud condensation nuclei at the ARM mobile facility over the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Timothy; Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan

    2014-04-01

    A multiplatform data set from the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) Graciosa, Azores, 2009-2010 field campaign was used to investigate how continental aerosols can influence MBL cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN). The seasonal variations of aerosol properties have shown that the winter and early spring months had the highest mean surface wind speed (> 5 m s-1) and greatest contribution of sea salt to aerosol optical depth (AOD), while continental fine mode aerosols were the main contributors to AOD during the warm season months (May-September). Five aerosol events consisting of mineral dust, pollution, biomass smoke, and volcanic ash particles were selected as case studies using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) mobile facility measurements. The aerosols in Case I were found to primarily consist of coarse mode, Saharan mineral dust. For Case II, the aerosols were also coarse mode but consisted of volcanic ash. Case III had fine mode biomass smoke and pollution aerosol influences while Cases IV and V consisted of mixtures of North American pollution and Saharan dust that was advected by an extratropical cyclone to the Azores. Cases I, IV, and V exhibited weak correlations between aerosol loading and NCCN due to mineral dust influences, while Cases II and III had a strong relationship with NCCN likely due to the sulfate content in the volcanic ash and pollution particles. The permanent Eastern North Atlantic ARM facility over the Azores will aid in a future long-term study of aerosol effects on NCCN.

  3. Attraction of alates of Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) to different light wavelengths in South Florida and the Azores.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M T; Borges, P A V; Scheffrahn, R H

    2012-12-01

    The termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) is an urban pest that causes much damage to wood structures. Little has been done concerning the use of control methods for alates. C. brevis is known to have phototropic behavior during the dispersal flights, and this knowledge has been applied for preventative control in the Azores where this species is a serious urban pest. We were interested in determining whether there was a light wavelength preference by the alates of C. brevis to optimize light traps against this species. Six light wavelengths were tested: 395 nm (UV), 460-555 nm (white), 470 nm (blue), 525 nm (green), 590 nm (yellow), and 625 nm (red) in choice chambers, with dark chambers as controls. Two populations were tested, one population in Florida and one population in the Azores (Terceira Island). We found consistent results for both populations, with a preference for the light wavelengths in the white, blue, and green spectrum (460-550 nm). This information can be used to build more effective light traps that can be used by home owners in the Azores to help control this pest. PMID:23356089

  4. New Geochemical and Isotopic Data on São Jorge Island Submarine Lavas (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, L. P.; França, Z.; Madureira, P.

    2012-12-01

    Dredging operations performed on the Azores Archipelago, during LEG 1 of cruise EMEPC/Açores/G3/2007 (Lourenço et al., 2008), recovered the first lava samples on São Jorge Island south flank, at approximately 1200m depth. Subsequent EMEPC cruises in 2008 and 2009, EMEPC/Açores/LUSO/G3/2008 (Calado et al., 2008) and EMEPC/Açores/LUSO/G3/2009 respectively, using the Luso ROV, carried out four successful geological surveys along São Jorge south flank, at depths between 800 and 1000m, recovering more lava samples. New geochemical and isotopic data on the lavas recovered in the 2008 and 2009 cruises is reported and will be compared with the existing data from the 2007 cruise and the onshore lavas (Ribeiro, 2011). The island of São Jorge is located in the Central Island Group of the Azores Archipelago, exhibiting an elongated shape, 55km long and 6.75km wide, which extends along the main regional tectonic direction (N120°). The imposing geomorphology of the island, which formed mainly by fissural volcanic activity, continues on its submarine flanks, along abrupt cliffs, rooting the island in the Azores Plateau. The lavas from the 2007 cruise, which dredge the southeast end of the island, are alkaline basaltic pillow lavas, with MgO>7.5% and with a geochemical and isotopic signature similar to the composition of the onshore lavas located immediately north of this locations (Ribeiro, 2011). The 2008 ROV survey collected samples closer to the western side of São Jorge, on a site south of Rosais Village, while the 2009 ROV survey covered the central part of São Jorge south flank, on a site south of Urzelina Village, a site south of Manadas Village and a site south of Fajã da Fragueira. These lavas are alkaline basalts and hawaiites with enrichment in LREE and in incompatible trace elements. The basalts have MgO between 6.8 and 6.2%, and average (La/Sm)n ratios of 2.1 and (La/Yb)n ratios ranging between 6.3 and 9.6. The hawaiites, which reveal some degree of magma

  5. The emergence and evolution of Santa Maria Island (Azores) - the conundrum of uplifting islands revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, R. S.; Helffrich, G. R.; Madeira, J.; Cosca, M. A.; Quartau, R.; Thomas, C.; Hipólito, A.; Ávila, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The growth and decay of ocean island volcanoes is intrinsically linked to vertical movements; whilst mechanisms for subsidence are well understood, uplift mechanisms are still very enigmatic. Santa Maria Island in the Azores is an ocean island volcano with a complex evolutionary history with subsidence followed by uplift. The island emerged by surtseyan activity at approximately 6 Ma, entailing in the formation of a subaerial shield volcano that was fully developed by ~5.6 Ma. The edifice then experienced a period of intense erosion and subsidence, during which it was partially or completely truncated to a shallow submarine bank. Around 5 Ma, volcanism resumed on the eastern side of the edifice, with occasional submarine/surtseyan activity synchronous with marine deposition. By ~4.3 Ma, volcanism grew in intensity forming a new edifice centred on the eastern flank of the underlying edifice. This new volcanic edifice started as submarine and then, as it gradually grew upwards and outpaced subsidence, breached sea level and formed a new island. The new edifice kept growing eastwards and northwards until ~3.5 Ma, when volcanic activity waned. At 3.5-3.2 Ma, however, subsidence reversed to an uplift trend that extended throughout the Upper Pleistocene into the present. This uplift trend is responsible for the generation of a staircase of shore platforms on the windward side of the island, which extends up to ~230 m in elevation. The fact that an island located in very young lithosphere experienced such a pronounced uplift trend is remarkable and raises important questions concerning possible uplift mechanisms. The loading of the neighbouring island of São Miguel may account for part of the uplift, but not the majority. Vertical tectonics along the nearby Gloria Fault is not completely implausible but unlikely to be a source of significant uplift due to its dominant strike-slip character. Thus, other mechanisms need to be considered, most notably intrusions at the base

  6. Volcanic deformation sources associated with Fogo 2011-2012 unrest, Azores - The first modelling result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Jun; Araújo, João; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Lorenzo, Maria; Ferreira, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic deformation is often observed at many active volcanoes in the world by using space geodesy techniques, namely GNSS and InSAR. More difficulties in judgement if eruptions are imminent or not arise when such phenomenon occurs at dormant volcanoes due to the lack of eruption experiences with monitoring data. The eruption triggering mechanism is still controversial at many cases, but many attempts to image deformation sources beneath volcanoes have been made using geophysical inversion techniques. In this study, we show the case study of Fogo (Água de Pau) volcano, S. Miguel Island, Azores which represents over 450 years of eruption dormancy since 1563-1564. In the recent decades Fogo has exhibited three prominent unrest episodes (1989, 2003-2006, and 2011-2012). The lack of geochemical and hydrothermal evidences for a magmatic intrusion during those episodes does not encourage discussions on resuming volcanic activity of Fogo. However, the inflation/uplift are evident on the edifices at least for the last two unrest episodes based on GPS data by Trota et al. (2009) and Okada et al. (2015), respectively. The preliminary deformation modelling based on repeated GPS campaign data suggested a shallow expanding spheroid (Trota et al. 2009) or a single Mogi sources beneath the summit caldera. We performed a more integrated inversion for the 2011-2012 episode using a genetic algorithm optimizing the source parameters. The best fit model agrees well with the regional/local tectonic lineament suggesting the close relation between the volcanic sources and the regional/local tectonics. The regional extensional stress (between Eurasia and Nubia plates) may play important roles for the ascent of volcanic fluids at Fogo volcano. We do not discard the possibility that Fogo may have been preparing for eruptions by intermittent ascents of magma at shallow crust (i.e. experiencing "failed eruptions") during the apparent dormant period. As a local monitoring agency, CIVISA

  7. Ponding Conditions and Degassing Dynamics of Mafic Magmas Beneath the Azores Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metrich, N.; Zanon, V.; D'Oriano, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Azores archipelago is located at the triple junction between the North American, African and Eurasian plates, in an area dominated by transtensive tectonic. The magmatism is concentrated along elongated volcanic ridges, generally orthogonal to the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where central volcanoes alternate with fissure zones. In order to better understand the relationships between the regional and local tectonics and the magmatism, we carried out a systematic study of basaltic pyroclasts from monogenic Strombolian cones built up on both fissure zones and central volcanoes, on five Azores Islands. We combined the major and trace element geochemistry of bulk rocks, melt inclusions and minerals with microthermometric data of coexisting CO2-rich fluid inclusions. These latter, trapped in Fo88-82 olivines, reveal pressure decrease from west to east for each ridge, but the highest pressures are recorded by fluids trapped in mineral assemblage forming ultramafic cumulates (dunites, harzburgites and wehrlites). All these results fully confirm variable depths of the Moho Transition Zone (MTZ), which marks the upper limit for underplating and correspond to the magma ponding zones where the main processes of magmatic evolution occur. The MTZ is located at 25 km beneath Flores Island, on the North American plate, and 29.5 km beneath the island of São Miguel, 380 km eastward. It reaches a minimum (18.5 km depth) under Faial at ~120 km east of the MAR. In these pressure conditions, the volatile composition is XH2O =0.1 and XCO2=0.9, at 1155-1175 °C, under QFM redox conditions. The maximum dissolved volatile content achieves 1.8-1.9 wt% of H2O and 0.4-0.5 wt% of CO2 in the central archipelago, and 2.3-2.6 wt% of H2O and 0.8-1.0 wt% of CO2 at São Miguel. However, the total pressures (PCO2+PH2O) and the dissolved H2O content recorded by melt inclusions are commonly underestimated. The initial H2O content of the basaltic magmas characteristic of each volcanic system was re

  8. Tectonic structures revealed by CO2 soil diffuse degassing anomalies at Faial Island (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, C.; Ferreira, T.; Gaspar, J. L.; Sousa, F.

    2003-04-01

    The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and its geological setting is dominated by the existence of a mantle plume in the area where the American, African and Eurasian lithospheric plates meet. The main tectonic features in the region are the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which crosses the Submarine Azores Plateau between the islands of Faial and Flores with a general N-S trend, and the so-called Terceira Rift (s.l), a WNW-ESE to NW-SE transtensional structure that behaves as the boundary between Eurasian and African plates. Faial Island is situated in the westernmost segment of the Terceira Rift (s.l.). Its nucleus is composed by a central active polygenetic volcano with a summit caldera in which NW flank rises a prominent WNW-ESE basaltic ridge where two historical eruptions took place (Cabeço do Fogo in 1672 and Capelinhos in 1957-58). Older volcanic systems in the island include a basaltic platform at SE and the dissected Ribeirinha stratovolcano at NE. The WNW-ESE Pedro Miguel graben is the most impressive tectonic structure observed in the island, being composed by two families of faults dipping NE and SW, respectively. Conjugated NNW-SSE structures were also mapped (Madeira, 1998). The existence of NE-SW faults is less clear and was put in evidence by some of the authors following the 9th July 1998 Faial earthquake (Gaspar et al., 1999). A survey based on measurements of CO2 soil concentration in the entire island was carried out in 2001 and 2002, aimed to define the relation between soil diffuse degassing and the known volcano-tectonic structures. The obtained CO2 soil concentration values ranged from 0 to 13.5 % vol., being quite low when compared to other Azorean islands. The main geochemical anomaly coincides with the active central volcano and can be related with the degassing of its magma chamber. This anomaly presents external sharp limits at N, S and E that are considered to be due to a barrier effect related with the existence of deep WNW

  9. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  10. Water column characterisation on the Azores platform and at the sea mounts south of the archipelago.

    PubMed

    Palma, Carla; Lillebø, Ana I; Borges, Carlos; Souto, Miguel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C; de Abreu, Manuel Pinto

    2012-09-01

    This study provides data concerning the hydrography and water chemistry of the Atlantic region between 29-38° N and 27-31° W, and establishes background values for dissolved Cu, Cd, Pb and As. Three water masses were identified: the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW), the Mediterranean Water (MW) and the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The ENACW exhibits a clear meridional gradient of temperature and salinity, with comparatively high values at the southern sites and lower values on the Azores platform. The ENACW, which includes the euphotic zone, also had comparatively high concentrations of oxygen and lower concentrations of nutrients and metals. The Cu, Cd and Pb results suggest that new background concentrations for OSPAR Region V (the Wider Atlantic) should be established as follows: 0.15-13 nM for Cu, 0.05-1.4 nM for Cd and 0.03-5 nM for Pb. The background concentrations of As for OSPAR Region V should be 7-28 nM. PMID:22770531

  11. Phytoplankton variability and oceanographic conditions at Condor seamount, Azores (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Moita, M. T.; Bashmachnikov, I.; Menezes, G. M.; Carmo, V.; Loureiro, C. M.; Mendonça, A.; Silva, A. F.; Martins, A.

    2013-12-01

    The variability of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a as a proxy of biomass) and community structure was evaluated over and around the Condor seamount SW of Faial Island in the Azores Archipelago using data provided from five cruises (July and November 2009, and March, July and October 2010). Phytoplankton cell abundance, taxonomy and chlorophyll a concentration were related to both the physical-chemical conditions and to the main circulation patterns observed, bringing new insights into the temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton. Only microphytoplankton and large nanophytoplankton were identified. Higher phytoplankton abundances were observed during 2010 with a maximum in October (1.3×105 cells.L-1), and higher biomasses were reported at sub-surface in March (0.43 mg Chl-a.m-3). Diatoms were the dominant group (e.g., Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Chaetoceros spp.) except in November 2009 when coccolithophores dominated (e.g., Ophiaster spp.). Significant differences were found between seasons but not in space, and salinity appears to be an important factor contributing for this seasonal variation. The present study also provides, for the first time, a list of phytoplankton species for this seamount.

  12. He and Ne isotopic ratios along the Terceira Rift: implications for the Azores mantle source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, P.; Moreira, M. A.; Nunes, J.; Lourenco, N.; Carvalho, M.; Mata, J.; Pinto de Abreu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Noble gas data (He and Ne) on olivine phenocrysts obtained from Azores’ lavas sampled along the Terceira Rift will be presented in this work. The Terceira Rift is considered as one of the slowest spreading system in the world (Vogt & Jung, 2004). Lava samples were collected inland at S. Miguel, Terceira, Graciosa, Pico and Faial Islands as well at sea at D. João de Castro Bank and south Hirondelle basin, the latter being sampled by the ROV cruises in 2008 and 2009. Noble gas data were analyzed in the Noblesse mass spectrometer housed at the IPGP. The most primitive He isotopic ratios were obtained from Pico, Terceira and Hirondelle olivines. Most Ne isotopic ratios are similar to the present-day atmosphere, but distinct 20Ne/22Ne ratios were found for the majority of submarine samples and also Pico and Faial Islands, defining mixing lines with the atmospheric end-member with slopes greater than that defined from MORB lavas. The He-Ne systematics shows that most of the new noble gas data fit in a mixing model between a dominant MORB-type mantle source and a relatively primitive mantle source related with the regional Azores component. However, data from the D. João de Castro Bank argue for the presence of a radiogenic He end-member distinct from MORB. References: Vogt, P. & Jung W. (2004). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 218: 77 90.

  13. Functional biogeography of oceanic islands and the scaling of functional diversity in the Azores.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Robert J; Rigal, François; Borges, Paulo A V; Cardoso, Pedro; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Casanoves, Fernando; Pla, Laura; Guilhaumon, François; Ladle, Richard J; Triantis, Kostas A

    2014-09-23

    Analyses of species-diversity patterns of remote islands have been crucial to the development of biogeographic theory, yet little is known about corresponding patterns in functional traits on islands and how, for example, they may be affected by the introduction of exotic species. We collated trait data for spiders and beetles and used a functional diversity index (FRic) to test for nonrandomness in the contribution of endemic, other native (also combined as indigenous), and exotic species to functional-trait space across the nine islands of the Azores. In general, for both taxa and for each distributional category, functional diversity increases with species richness, which, in turn scales with island area. Null simulations support the hypothesis that each distributional group contributes to functional diversity in proportion to their species richness. Exotic spiders have added novel trait space to a greater degree than have exotic beetles, likely indicating greater impact of the reduction of immigration filters and/or differential historical losses of indigenous species. Analyses of species occurring in native-forest remnants provide limited indications of the operation of habitat filtering of exotics for three islands, but only for beetles. Although the general linear (not saturating) pattern of trait-space increase with richness of exotics suggests an ongoing process of functional enrichment and accommodation, further work is urgently needed to determine how estimates of extinction debt of indigenous species should be adjusted in the light of these findings. PMID:25225395

  14. Cone morphologies associated with shallow marine eruptions: east Pico Island, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Neil C.; Stretch, Rachelle; Oppenheimer, Clive; Kay, Daniel; Beier, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    Eruptions in shallow water typically produce cones of volcaniclastic material. In order to identify any systematic effects of water depth and other environmental parameters on cone morphology, we have measured the heights and widths of cones in multibeam echo-sounder data from a submarine ridge extending southeast from Pico Island, Azores. XRF analyses of dredged samples show that lavas here vary compositionally from alkali basalt to trachybasalt and trachyandesite. Cones in deeper water are generally steep-sided with upper flanks close to 30°, the dip of talus at the angle of repose. However, height/width ratios of cones vary more in shallow water (200-400-m summit depth) with extreme values below 0.1; while some shallow-water cones are steep-sided as in deep water, others are much flatter. Three such cones lie on a bench at 300-m depth immediately east of Pico Island and have flank slopes of only 10-20°. We speculate that exceptionally shallow cone slopes here were produced by forced spreading of the erupting columns on reaching the water-air density barrier.

  15. Intensive surveys of the Azores Front: 2. Inferring the geostrophic and vertical velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.

    1996-07-01

    The geostrophic and vertical velocity fields are inferred using density and horizontal velocity data from three SeaSoar/acoustic Doppler current profiler surveys of the Azores Front. The analysis is a two-step procedure consisting of (1) objective analyses to reflect the observed length scales and (2) dynamical adjustments so that the density field is statically stable and the velocity field is in geostrophic balance. The vertical velocity is inferred using a version of the quasi-geostrophic omega equation in which the stratification is allowed to vary in the horizontal. The resulting vertical velocity peaks at 2 × 10-4 m s-1 at 200-300 m. There is a tendency for the denser water to the north of the front to be downwelled, while the warmer water to the south is upwelled. The implied heat flux exceeds 10 W m-2 near 100-m depth, so the upper 100 m is warmed while the lower water column is cooled, tending to stratify the upper ocean. Ageostrophic horizontal flow is toward the dense side of the front at the surface. The dominant terms in the density balance are time rate of change and horizontal advection. The inferred circulation cells may be an important mechanism of subduction in the upper ocean.

  16. Establishment of a coastal fish in the Azores: recent colonisation or sudden expansion of an ancient relict population?

    PubMed

    Stefanni, S; Castilho, R; Sala-Bozano, M; Robalo, J I; Francisco, S M; Santos, R S; Marques, N; Brito, A; Almada, V C; Mariani, S

    2015-12-01

    The processes and timescales associated with ocean-wide changes in the distribution of marine species have intrigued biologists since Darwin's earliest insights into biogeography. The Azores, a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago located >1000 km off the European continental shelf, offers ideal opportunities to investigate phylogeographic colonisation scenarios. The benthopelagic sparid fish known as the common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris) is now relatively common along the coastline of the Azores archipelago, but was virtually absent before the 1990 s. We employed a multiple genetic marker approach to test whether the successful establishment of the Azorean population derives from a recent colonisation from western continental/island populations or from the demographic explosion of an ancient relict population. Results from nuclear and mtDNA sequences show that all Atlantic and Mediterranean populations belong to the same phylogroup, though microsatellite data indicate significant genetic divergence between the Azorean sample and all other locations, as well as among Macaronesian, western Iberian and Mediterranean regions. The results from Approximate Bayesian Computation indicate that D. vulgaris has likely inhabited the Azores for ∼ 40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.5-83.6) to 52 (95% CI: 6.32-89.0) generations, corresponding to roughly 80-150 years, suggesting near-contemporary colonisation, followed by a more recent demographic expansion that could have been facilitated by changing climate conditions. Moreover, the lack of previous records of this species over the past century, together with the absence of lineage separation and the presence of relatively few private alleles, do not exclude the possibility of an even more recent colonisation event. PMID:26174025

  17. Establishment of a coastal fish in the Azores: recent colonisation or sudden expansion of an ancient relict population?

    PubMed Central

    Stefanni, S; Castilho, R; Sala-Bozano, M; Robalo, J I; Francisco, S M; Santos, R S; Marques, N; Brito, A; Almada, V C; Mariani, S

    2015-01-01

    The processes and timescales associated with ocean-wide changes in the distribution of marine species have intrigued biologists since Darwin's earliest insights into biogeography. The Azores, a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago located >1000 km off the European continental shelf, offers ideal opportunities to investigate phylogeographic colonisation scenarios. The benthopelagic sparid fish known as the common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris) is now relatively common along the coastline of the Azores archipelago, but was virtually absent before the 1990s. We employed a multiple genetic marker approach to test whether the successful establishment of the Azorean population derives from a recent colonisation from western continental/island populations or from the demographic explosion of an ancient relict population. Results from nuclear and mtDNA sequences show that all Atlantic and Mediterranean populations belong to the same phylogroup, though microsatellite data indicate significant genetic divergence between the Azorean sample and all other locations, as well as among Macaronesian, western Iberian and Mediterranean regions. The results from Approximate Bayesian Computation indicate that D. vulgaris has likely inhabited the Azores for ∼40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.5–83.6) to 52 (95% CI: 6.32–89.0) generations, corresponding to roughly 80–150 years, suggesting near-contemporary colonisation, followed by a more recent demographic expansion that could have been facilitated by changing climate conditions. Moreover, the lack of previous records of this species over the past century, together with the absence of lineage separation and the presence of relatively few private alleles, do not exclude the possibility of an even more recent colonisation event. PMID:26174025

  18. Effects of ridge geometry on mantle dynamics in an oceanic triple junction region: Implications for the Azores Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgen, Jennifer E.; Sankar, Ravi D.

    2010-09-01

    Plate boundary geometry can affect the nature of magmatism along a mid-ocean ridge. The Azores Plateau is located in a complex geological setting that includes a triple junction (TJ), an oblique and recently-formed ultra-slow-spreading ridge, a zone of diffuse seafloor deformation, a major fracture zone, and a postulated hotspot. The precise character of the hotspot is somewhat debated, as some lines of evidence indicate it may not be a classic deep-seated plume. However, seismic and gravity data suggest plateau crustal thicknesses of ˜ 8 km or more, implying some mechanism for excess melting. To assess the role of ridge geometry in creating the Azores Plateau, this study uses a finite element numerical model to isolate the effects of selected aspects of plate boundary configuration on mantle flow and melt production in a TJ kinematically similar to the Azores TJ. The model focuses on the slowest-spreading ridge in the TJ, analogous to the Terceira Rift. The effect of the varying ridge obliquity observed along the Terceira Rift is also assessed using an independent 1-D melting model. In general, relatively little melt production is predicted along the Terceira Rift analogue, except for regions closest to the TJ where the proximity of a faster-spreading ridge increases temperatures within the melting zone. In the 1-D melting model with mantle temperatures of 1350 °C, melt thicknesses of ˜ 2 km are calculated for the least oblique segments, while more oblique segments produce little to no melt. The presence of a long discontinuity (simulating the Gloria FZ) has little effect on mantle dynamics for axial distances < 350 km from the TJ, although crustal production is predicted to diminish to zero within ˜ 150 km of the discontinuity. When several ridge geometrical effects are combined (i.e., a TJ, time-limited spreading, a ridge discontinuity, and depressed spreading rates within ˜ 100 km of the TJ point), ˜ 2.5 km of variability in melt thickness can be produced

  19. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  20. Diagenetic history of lower Pliocene rhodoliths of the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic): Application of cathodoluminescence techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, A C; Meireles, R P; Barbin, V; Neto, A I; Melo, C; Ávila, S P

    2016-01-01

    The diagenetic history of calcareous fossils is required for their application as palaeoenvironmental indicators. In this study, cathodoluminescence-microscopy (CL microscopy) and back scatter electron image-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (BSE-EDS microscopy) were applied to Pliocene rhodoliths from the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic) in order to gain additional insight regarding the trace element content distribution throughout the algae thalli, and to ascertain palaeoenvironmental interpretations. Two types of luminescence were obtained: (1) high and (2) low luminescence. Rhodoliths with high luminescence are related with high concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater and low luminescence rhodoliths are related with low concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater. When the rhodoliths were deposited at about 4.0-4.5 Ma, the shoreline configuration of Santa Maria Island was much different than today. The influence of volcanic activity due to the extrusion of lavas and associated products and/or the presence of active shallow-water hydrothermal vents, was reflected in the sea water chemistry, with penecontemporaneous palaeoshores of the island featuring a high sea water concentration of Mn(2+), which mirrored on the rhodolith Mn(2+) high concentration. By contrast, rhodoliths located about 2.8 and 2.9 km from the shore, in areas with low seawater Mn(2+) concentration, had low luminescence, reflecting the low Mn(2+) concentration in seawater. Rhodoliths chemical data and the geological history of the island proved to be congruent with the palaeogeographical reconstruction of Santa Maria Island at the time of the formation of the rhodoliths. PMID:26520255

  1. Seasonal and interannual variations in coccolithophore abundance off Terceira Island, Azores (Central North Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narciso, Áurea; Gallo, Francesca; Valente, André; Cachão, Mário; Cros, Lluïsa; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; e Ramos, Joana Barcelos

    2016-04-01

    In order to characterize the natural coccolithophore community occurring offshore Azores and to determine their annual and interannual patterns, monthly samples were collected, from September 2010 to December 2014, in the photic zone off Terceira Island. The present study revealed a clear seasonal distribution and a considerable interannual variability of the living coccolithophore community. The highest coccolithophore abundances were observed during spring and winter months, especially due to the smaller species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa ericsonii. In fact, the highest biomass period was registered during April 2011, associated with enhanced abundance of the overcalcified morphotype of E. huxleyi, which was possibly influenced by subpolar waters and subsequent upwelling conditions. The highest abundances of Gephyrocapsa muellerae were recorded during June 2011 and 2014, indicating that this species characterizes the transition between the period of maximum productivity and the subsequent smoother environmental conditions, the first and the later stages of the phytoplankton succession described by Margalef, respectively. During summer to early fall, a gradual decrease of the overall coccolithophore abundance was observed, while the species richness (Margalef diversity index) increased. A subtropical coccolithophore assemblage mainly composed by Umbellosphaera tenuis, Syracosphaera spp., Discosphaera tubifera, Rhabdosphaera clavigera and Coronosphaera mediterranea indicated the presence of surface warmer waters accompanied by reduced mixing and low nutrients concentration. During late fall to winter, the coccolithophore abundance increased again with a concomitant reduction in species diversity. This is potentially linked to low sea surface temperatures, moderate nutrients concentration and surface mixed layer deepening. During 2011, colder and productive waters led to an increase in the total coccolithophore abundances. On contrary, during 2012

  2. Human vulnerability in volcanic environments: the case of Furnas, São Miguel, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibben, Christopher; Chester, David K.

    1999-09-01

    The need to examine the vulnerability of people to natural hazards, in addition to the long-established requirement to study extreme events of nature, is being increasingly recognised within disaster research. Following a discussion of the nature of human vulnerability, we propose a framework for its analysis within the context of volcanic activity and we exemplify our approach by a detailed study of Furnas, a village located at the centre of a volcano with the same name on the island of São Miguel in the Azores. The methods used included in-depth interviews with permanent residents ( n=50), analysis of census records and an examination of the socio-economic history of the town. The vulnerability of an individual to volcanic hazards involves a complex interaction of elements which, in addition to the usual factors taken into account in programmes of hazard reduction (e.g., the nature of the physical threat, location and economic situation), also comprises his or her social context and a number of physiological and psychological considerations. It is argued, further, that both generally and in the case of Furnas, the root causes of vulnerability lie in the history and development of society. Individual decision making is fundamental but takes place within and cannot be separated from this social context. Vulnerability analysis allows the identification of points where intervention may be successful in reducing the likelihood of suffering in a society. It avoids the problem of people's unexpected reactions to invention leading to a changing or even increasing level of vulnerability, by studying society rather than just one aspect of volcanic hazard in isolation.

  3. Organic matter composition and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Ravara, Ascensão; Parretti, Paola; Santos, Ricardo S.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Amaro, Teresa; Cunha, Marina R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years increasing knowledge has been accumulated on seamounts ecology; however their sedimentary environments and associated biological communities remain largely understudied. In this study we investigated quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores). In order to test the effect of the seamount on organic matter distribution, sediment samples were collected in 6 areas: the summit, the northern and southern flanks and bases, and in an external far field site. Macrofauna abundance and diversity were investigated on the summit, the southern flank and in the far field site. The organic matter distribution reflected the complex hydrodynamic conditions occurring on the Condor. Concentrations of organic matter compounds were generally lower on the whole seamount than in the far field site and on the seamount summit compared to flanks and bases. A clear difference was also evident between the northern and southern slopes of the Condor, suggesting a role of the seamount in conditioning sedimentation processes and distribution of food resources for benthic consumers. Macrofauna assemblages changed significantly among the three sampling sites. High abundance and dominance, accompanied by low biodiversity, characterized the macrofauna community on the Condor summit, while low dominance and high biodiversity were observed at the flank. Our results, although limited to five samples on the seamount and two off the seamount, do not necessarily support the paradigm that seamounts are more biodiverse than the surrounding seafloor. However, the abundance (and biomass), functional diversity and taxonomical distinctiveness of the macrofaunal assemblages from the Condor Seamount suggest that seamounts habitats may play a relevant role in adding to the regional biodiversity.

  4. Propagation of uncertainties for an evaluation of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone tsunamigenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoshchenkova, Ekaterina; Imbert, David; Richet, Yann; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent; Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess evaluation the tsunamigenic potential of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ). This work is part of the French project TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling; www-tandem.cea.fr), special attention is paid to French Atlantic coasts. Structurally, the AGFZ region is complex and not well understood. However, a lot of its faults produce earthquakes with significant vertical slip, of a type that can result in tsunami. We use the major tsunami event of the AGFZ on purpose to have a regional estimation of the tsunamigenic potential of this zone. The major reported event for this zone is the 1755 Lisbon event. There are large uncertainties concerning source location and focal mechanism of this earthquake. Hence, simple deterministic approach is not sufficient to cover on the one side the whole AGFZ with its geological complexity and on the other side the lack of information concerning the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. A parametric modeling environment Promethée (promethee.irsn.org/doku.php) was coupled to tsunami simulation software based on shallow water equations with the aim of propagation of uncertainties. Such a statistic point of view allows us to work with multiple hypotheses simultaneously. In our work we introduce the seismic source parameters in a form of distributions, thus giving a data base of thousands of tsunami scenarios and tsunami wave height distributions. Exploring our tsunami scenarios data base we present preliminary results for France. Tsunami wave heights (within one standard deviation of the mean) can be about 0.5 m - 1 m for the Atlantic coast and approaching 0.3 m for the English Channel.

  5. The Colonization History of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae) in the Azores Islands

    PubMed Central

    Rumeu, Beatriz; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Nogales, Manuel; Elias, Rui B.; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago. Methodology/Principal Findings The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid) diversity suggest that: (1) a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2) genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma); (3) the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4) the high number of haplotypes observed (16), and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization. Conclusions/Significance Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones), together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present. PMID:22110727

  6. Large-scale Sector Collapses in the Evolution of Santa Maria Island, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Sibrant, A.; Hildenbrand, A.; Costa, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Oceanic volcanic islands typically evolve through large-scale short-term events, either constructing or destructing the volcanic edifice. This tug of war between construction and catastrophic destruction should be recorded within a volcanic island, but old collapse events are sometimes hard to recognize because a number of processes modify the associated structures; therefore, recognition of the testimony of such events onshore, without recourse to offshore high-resolution bathymetry, is challenging and comprises our main objective. Additionally, no large-scale catastrophic sector collapses have ever been reported in the Azores, which makes Santa Maria Island a particularly interesting target. In Santa Maria, lava flows of the two main sub-aerial volcanic complexes dip gently to the west, they are separated by a volcano-sedimentary complex lying on an unconformity dipping gently to the east, and the ages decrease to the east. From this geometry and geochronology, we infer that: (1) more than half of the early shield volcano is missing (absence of all eastern flank, summit and part of the western flank), which we interpret as a large-scale sector collapse whose scar is in part the east-dipping unconformity covered with sediments ca. 4.2 Ma old; (2) the scar was filled by a younger shield volcano that grew very rapidly (ca. 4.0-3.6 Ma); (3) a second large-scale sector collapse followed, which again spared only part of the western flank of the younger shield volcano; (4) new volcanism made of dykes and volcanic cones aligned with the arcuate collapse scar indicate that the slide may have occurred ca. 3.6 Ma ago. We conclude that Santa Maria records onshore evidence of two large-scale sector collapses.

  7. Population diversity of Theileria annulata in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Pinto, João; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Weir, William

    2016-08-01

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes tropical theileriosis, a severe disease of cattle that occurs across the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East and Southern Asia. In the Mediterranean region, the disease has long been perceived as being a constraint to livestock production in North Africa and Turkey but was believed to have minimal impact in Southern European countries. It has recently been demonstrated that in Southern Portugal the prevalence of T. annulata is approximately 30%. While the population genetics of the parasite and the multiplicity of infection in the bovine host have been studied in a number of countries, no information is currently available on the composition of the parasite population in Southern Europe or its relationship to populations in bordering regions. A parasite genotyping system, based on micro- and mini-satellite amplification, was used to perform genetic analysis of T. annulata populations from T. annulata infected cattle in twelve farms in Southern Portugal. A diversity of genotypes and a high multiplicity of infection were found, suggesting that the parasite possesses a panmictic population in this region. In comparison with genotypes found in Tunisia and Turkey, parasites from Portugal form a genetically distinct group and show lower genetic diversity. PMID:27109468

  8. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  9. Spatio-temporal variation in the diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores archipelago, northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Verónica; Nolf, Dirk; Clarke, Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    The diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores was studied in four islands of the archipelago over four breeding seasons, using stomach flushings from 959 birds. Fish were identified from flesh, otoliths and vertebrae and cephalopods from flesh and lower beaks. The frequency of occurrence of prey taxa, and the numerical frequency of fish and cephalopods, showed marked variations both spatially, across the breeding cycle and between years. Overall, cephalopods from 37 species representing 17 families and fish from 33 species representing 18 families were identified, representing over 70 prey species and trebling what was previously known. Histioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae and Cranchiidae were the only cephalopod families present every year and represented two thirds of the cephalopods' consumption by number. Blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus was the most abundant prey species present in 1998 and 2002 but was absent in 1999 and 2000, representing on average 57.2% of prey by number in the years it occurred. Apart from blue jack mackerel, most fish species were present in very low numbers with the exception of Cubiceps gracilis, Scomberesox saurus and Maurolicus muellerii. Diaphus adenomus, was recorded for the first time for the Azores archipelago.

  10. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  11. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  12. Pre-School Education in Portugal = Educacao Pre-Escolar em Portugal. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    This report, containing both English and Portuguese text, describes the historical background and current state of preschool education systems in Portugal, and presents recommendations on guideline consolidation in the implementation of a common preschool education policy. Part 1 of the report, "Historical Background," discusses the social,…

  13. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: Analysis of Results from the ARM Mobile Facility Deployment to the Azores (2009/2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert

    2013-05-31

    The project focuses upon dataset analysis and synthesis of datasets from the AMF deployment entitled “Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL)” at Graciosa Island in the Azores. Wood is serving a PI for this AMF deployment.

  14. Gas geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids of the S. Miguel and Terceira Islands, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliro, Stefano; Viveiros, Fátima; Chiodini, Giovanni; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    We present here for the first time a complete dataset of the chemical and isotopic compositions of fumarolic fluids collected on the S. Miguel (Fogo and Furnas volcanoes) and Terceira (Pico Alto volcano) Islands. The data are analyzed and discussed, to provide both a comprehensive picture of the thermodynamic conditions of the hydrothermal systems on these two islands, and to give new insight into the origins of these fluids, for a better understanding of the geodynamic context of the Azores archipelago. For S. Miguel Island, the gas equilibria in the H2-CO2-CO-CH4-H2O system suggest temperatures of the hydrothermal system reservoirs from 190 °C to 280 °C for the Fogo volcano fumaroles, which are 30-35 °C higher than those measured for geothermal wells. The equilibrium temperatures estimated for the Furnas volcano hydrothermal system are from 200 °C to 275 °C. Equilibrium vapor at a temperature of ∼190 °C is inferred for the fumarolic fluids discharged on Terceira Island. The He isotopic composition of ∼9.6 R/Ra measured in the fumaroles of Terceira suggests that a plume-like source, presumably from the lower mantle, feeds this hydrothermal system. The relatively low 3He/4He ratios (from 5.21 to 5.35 R/Ra) and higher CO2/3He ratios of S. Miguel fluids suggest an addition of ∼45% of radiogenic He and ∼30% of crustal CO2 to a plume-like composition as at Terceira. A mainly meteoric origin is inferred for the fumarolic water, whereas the unreactive gas species (He, Ar, N2) arise from mixing processes between an atmospheric-like component and a magmatic component. On S. Miguel Island, the estimated magmatic fluid composition in terms of the ratios of N2/40Ar (62 ± 6) suggests a plume-like mantle source. Deep derived N2 isotope compositions characterized by very negative δ15N values (δ15N ⩽ -14‰) are inferred for the fluids of the Terceira Island. Also S. Miguel fluids are compatible with the same source with a possible involvement of crustal

  15. Estimation of the CO2 flux from Furnas volcanic Lake (São Miguel, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, César; Viveiros, Fátima; Cruz, J. Virgílio; Coutinho, Rui; Silva, Catarina

    2016-04-01

    A study on diffuse CO2 degassing was undertaken at Furnas lake (São Miguel island, Azores) in order to estimate the total diffuse CO2 output and identify anomalous degassing areas over the lake. Furnas lake is located in Furnas Volcano, the easternmost of the three active central volcanoes of the São Miguel island. The lake has an area of 1.87 km2 and a maximum length and width equal to 2025 and 1600 m, respectively. The maximum depth of the water column is 15 m and the estimated water storage is 14 × 106 m3. Lake water temperature is cold, with temperature values between 13 °C and 15 °C in the winter period and 18.9 °C to 19.3 °C in early autumn, and the variation along the water column suggests a monomictic character. The major-ion relative composition is in decreasing order Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2 + for cations and HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- for anions, and conductivity and pH measurements, respectively in the range of 152 to 165 μS cm- 1 and 5.3 to 8.7, suggests that Furnas has neutral-diluted waters and can be classified as a non-active lake. Diffuse CO2 flux measurements were made using the accumulation chamber method with a total of 1537 and 2577 measurements performed in two different sampling campaigns. The total amount of diffuse CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated between 28 and 321 t km- 2 d- 1, respectively, in the second and first sampling campaigns, corresponding to ~ 52 and ~ 600 t d- 1. The main anomalous degassing area identified over the Furnas lake during both surveys is probably associated to a WNW-ESE trending tectonic structure. Other secondary areas are also suggested to be tectonically influenced. Identified anomalous areas showed similarities to the ones observed during previous soil CO2 degassing studies.

  16. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. PMID:12293809

  17. Shear-wave polarization analysis of the seismic swarm following the July 9th 1998 Faial (Azores) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, N. A.; Matias, L.; Tellez, J.; Senos, L.; Gaspar, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    The Azores Islands, located at a tectonic triple Junction, geodynamically are a highly active place. The seismicity in this region occurs mainly in the form of two types of seismic swarms with tectonic and/or volcanic origins, lasting from hours to years. In some cases the swarm follows a main stronger shock, while in others the more energetic event occurs sometime after the beginning of the swarm. In order to understand the complex phenomena of this region, a multidisciplinary approach is needed, involving geophysical, geological and geochemical studies such as the one being carried under the MASHA project (POCTI/CTA/39158/2001), On July 9th 1998 an Mw=6.2 earthquake stroked the island of Faial, in the central group of the Azores archipelago, followed by a seismic swarm still active today. We will present some preliminary results of the shear-wave polarization analysis of a selected dataset of events of this swarm. These correspond to the 112 best- constrained events, record during the first 2 weeks by the seismic network deployed on the 3 islands surrounding the area of the main shock. The objective was to analyse the behaviour of the S wave polarization and the eventual relationship with the presence of seismic anisotropy under the seismic stations, and to correlate this with the regional structure and origin of the Azores plateau. Two main tectonic features are observable on the islands, one primarily orientated SE-NW and the other crossing it roughly with the WNW-ESE direction. The polarization direction observed in the majority of the seismic stations is not stable, varying from SE-NW to WSW-ENE, and showing also the presence in same cases of shear-wave splitting, indicating the presence of anisotropy. Part of the polarization seems to be coherent with the direction of the local tectonic features, but its instability suggest a more complex seismic anisotropy than that proposed by the model EDA of Crampin. Furthermore, the dataset revealed some limitations to

  18. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse. PMID:22618354

  19. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  20. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  1. Echinoderms from Azores islands: an unexpected source of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Catarina; Silva, Nuno; Pombo, Sofia; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Micael, Joana; Rodrigues, Pedro; Costa, Ana Cristina; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-04-15

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the implicated mechanisms of resistance were evaluated in Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli, isolated from a total of 250 faecal samples of echinoderms collected from Azorean waters (Portugal). A total of 144 enterococci (120 Enterococcus faecium, 14 E. hirae, 8 E. faecalis, 2 E. gallinarum) and 10 E. coli were recovered. High percentages of resistance in enterococci were found for erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracyclin and ciprofloxacin. The erm(A) or erm(B), tet(M) and/or tet(L), vat(D), aac(6')-aph(2″) and aph(3')-IIIa genes were found in isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, high-level gentamicin and high-level kanamycin, respectively. Resistance in E. coli isolates was detected for streptomycin, amikacin, tetracycline and tobramycin. The aadA gene was found in streptomycin-resistant isolates and tet(A)+tet(B) genes in tetracycline-resistant isolates. The data recovered are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through marine ecosystems and the possible implications involved in transferring these resistances either to other animals or to humans. PMID:23419753

  2. A permanent free tropospheric observatory at Pico summit in the Azores Islands? Past measurements (2001-2005) and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honrath, R. E.; Fialho, P.; Helmig, D.; Val Martin, M.; Owen, R. C.; Kleissl, J.; Strane, J. M.; Dziobak, M. P.; Tanner, D. M.; Barata, F.

    2005-12-01

    Pico mountain in the Azores Islands provides a base for continuous, free tropospheric measurements that is unique in the central North Atlantic region. The PICO-NARE station was installed there in 2001 as a temporary observatory. However, the location proved ideal for studies of aged emissions from anthropogenic (N. American) and boreal fire (N. American and Russian) emissions, as well as for less frequent interception of European and African plumes. As a result, station operation was continued through summer 2005, and we are planning for continuing operation and conversion into a permanent Portuguese GAW station in the future. This poster will provide an overview of the station, the measurements made there, typical transport pathways to the station and interannual variability in transport, and an overview of the full suite of multi-season observations and key findings from measurements to date. In addition, data availability and near-term and long-term plans for the station's future will be discussed.

  3. Serreta Submarine Eruption 1998-2001, Azores: a new compositional end-member?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipa Marques, Ana; Hamelin, Cédric; Madureira, Pedro; Rosa, Carlos; Silva, Pedro; Relvas, Jorge; Lourenço, Nuno; Conceição, Patrícia; Barriga, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The Azores platform, where the Eurasian, Nubian and American plates meet, comprises nine volcanic islands extending to both sides of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). East of the MAR, the plate boundary between Eurasian and Nubian plates is defined by the Terceira Rift, interpreted as an intra-oceanic spreading system where the Islands of S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa emerge as well and the submarine D.João de Castro Bank, separated by deep avolcanic zones [1, 2]. Submarine and subaerial lavas from the Terceira Rift are characterized by small-scale elemental and isotopic variations, and several distinct compositional end-members have been identified [2,3] supporting the concept of significant mantle source heterogeneity. A recent submarine eruption (1998-2001) occurred ~4-5 NM WNW of Terceira Island, at the Serreta Ridge where lava balloons were observed floating at the surface [4]. In 2008, an oceanographic cruise was conducted to the Serreta ridge to investigate the site of the 1998-2001 eruption, map the seafloor, identify vent location, and characterize possible products of eruption [5]. An ROV from the EMEPC (Task Group for the Extension of the Continental Shelf) was used in this survey providing high-definition video footage and fresh lava samples. Three survey ROV dives (D15, D16, D17) were made on the Serreta ridge. D15 and D17 dives were located on the southern wall of the crater, whereas D16 explored the central and northern areas of the crater floor. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of representative samples from the Serreta submarine ridge are presented for the first time. On the 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram Serreta samples plot on a linear array with the remaining Terceira rift samples. However, these results show that Serreta submarine volcanics lay on the most depleted end of the Terceira Rift array. Radiogenic isotopes also show that samples from the central and northern wall of the crater are distinct from the younger southern wall sector

  4. Ground motion and tectonics in the Terceira Island: Tectonomagmatic interactions in an oceanic rift (Terceira Rift, Azores Triple Junction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Catalão, J.; Hildenbrand, A.; Madureira, P.

    2015-05-01

    The interpretation of high-resolution topography/bathymetry, GPS and InSAR data, and detailed structural geology indicate that: (1) Terceira developed at the intersection of two major volcano-tectonic lineaments: WNW-ESE (local TR's direction) and NNW-SSE (submarine chain of volcanoes, here firstly recognised and coined Terceira Seamount Chain). (2) Terceira is affected by four main fault systems: the ca. N165° (normal faults dipping to east and west, mostly across the middle of the island), the N140° (normal faults mostly making up the Lajes Graben), the N110° (faults with oblique striations - normal dextral, making up the main volcanic lineament), and the more subtle N70° (the transform direction related to the Nubia/Eurasia plate boundary). Seismicity, GPS data and faults displacing the topography indicate that all systems are active. (3) The whole island is subsiding at a rate of ca. 5 mm/yr, as attested by both GPS and InSAR data, which is exceptionally high for the Azores islands. Common explanations like thermal contraction, or bending of the lithosphere, or magmatic processes, or collapse of the island under its own weight likely cannot justify the observed subsidence rate. The estimated average of TR's subsidence rate is also not enough, therefore we conclude that the measured 5 mm/yr can be a peak. (4) The fault geometry and kinematics are consistent with the current direction of maximum extension in the Azores (ca. N65°), and the rotation of Nubia relative to Eurasia. (5) Given that the NE shoulder of the Lajes Graben is moving upwards at 5 mm/yr and sits directly on the TR's NE shoulder, we conclude that the TR's shoulder is moving up, most likely as a result of the elastic rebound associated with rifting. The elastic rebound in both NE and SW TR's shoulders is most likely responsible for the observed ridge morphology all along the TR.

  5. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined. PMID:11586752

  6. The determinants of lottery sales in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kaizeler, Maria João; Faustino, Horácio C; Marques, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In sum, this paper examines the core determinants of lottery sales in Portugal. With panel data analysis covering 18 Portuguese districts and 5 years, this study explains the variations in a district's per-capita lottery sales in terms of key theoretical hypotheses such as per capita district income, age, education index, gender and religion. This paper concludes that the richer Portuguese districts spend more than the poorer districts and there is an inverted-U relationship between lottery sales and per capita income. The paper also concludes that married Catholic citizens spend more on lottery products than others and that the level of education returns a negative effect on lottery spending. PMID:23760689

  7. KLIMHIST: A Project on Historical Climatology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    Climatic variability from the beginning of regular meteorological observations is now acknowledged. However, climate change prior to 1900 is far from being well known in Portugal, except for the 1675-1800 period in Southern Portugal. An interdisciplinary team is working in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", since May 2012. The main objectives of the project are: (i) to contribute to the creation of a long-term history of climate in Portugal by producing databases of documentary evidence and of instrumental data since 1645, a period of natural climate variability that includes the Maunder Minimum and the Dalton Minimum; (ii) to search systematically for the first simultaneous documentary and instrumental data in order to calibrate the series; (iii) to analyse simulated multi-decadal trends over Portugal generated by climate models; (iv) to compare results with those obtained from dendroclimatology and from geothermal studies regarding Portugal and (v) to study extreme events of the past, their impacts and the vulnerability of societies to weather during the last 350 years, and compare them with current analogues. With these tasks, we expect to help completing the spatial coverage of past European climate, as the data gap over SW Europe is often mentioned. As the team members come from four different Universities in Portugal (Évora, Lisbon, Oporto and UTAD), we expect to obtain a good spatial representation of documentary evidence. Teams are now progressing in data search activities in archives. An Access database frame was constructed. Some 18th century extreme events have been and are being studied (Barbara storm, Dec.1739, among others). The first workshop took place in Lisbon (October 2012): Prof Brázdil and Dr. Domínguez-Castro (two of our consultants) were keynote speakers. Key-words: Climate reconstruction, Documentary

  8. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  9. Diversity, distribution and spatial structure of the cold-water coral fauna of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga-Henriques, A.; Porteiro, F. M.; Ribeiro, P. A.; de Matos, V.; Sampaio, Í.; Ocaña, O.; Santos, R. S.

    2013-06-01

    Cold-water corals are widely considered as important structural components of benthic habitats, potentially enhancing local abundance in a variety of fish and invertebrate species. Yet, current knowledge of the taxonomic diversity and distribution patterns of these vulnerable, slow-growing organisms is scarce and fragmented, limiting the effectiveness of spatial management and conservation measures. We have conducted an exhaustive compilation of records of alcyonaceans, antipatharians, scleractinians and stylasterids available through present day to assess the diversity, distribution and spatial structure of coral assemblages in the Azores exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The resulting database comprises 2501 entries concerning historical oceanographic expeditions and other published sources, as well as unpublished data from bottom longline by-catch. Our taxonomic inventory appears to be fairly complete for the explored habitats, accounting for 164 species (79 alcyonaceans, 58 scleractinians, 18 antipatharians and 9 stylasterids), nine of which were documented for the first time. The Azores EEZ harbours a mixed coral fauna with several zoogeographic origins, showing the closest affinity with the Lusitanian-Mediterranean region. Very few apparent endemics were found (14%), and only in part supported by consistent sampling. Coral diversity is particularly high between 300 and 900 m depths, in areas recognized as traditional fishing grounds or exploitable fish habitat within the 100-mile limit of the EEZ. The composition of coral assemblages shows significant geographical structure among longitudinal sections of the study area at comparable depths (100-1500 m). There is no evidence of a possible role of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge or latitudinal effects underlying this pattern, which suggests that it may instead reflect assemblage variability among features. Stronger changes in species composition were found along the bathymetric gradient. Notwithstanding the mix of

  10. Diversity, distribution and spatial structure of the cold-water coral fauna of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga-Henriques, A.; Porteiro, F. M.; Ribeiro, P. A.; de Matos, V.; Sampaio, Í.; Ocaña, O.; Santos, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Cold-water corals are widely considered as important structural components of benthic habitats, potentially enhancing local abundance in a variety of fish and invertebrate species. Yet, current knowledge of the taxonomic diversity and distribution patterns of these vulnerable, slow-growing organisms is scarce and fragmented, limiting the effectiveness of spatial management and conservation measures. We have conducted an exhaustive compilation of records of alcyonaceans, antipatharians, scleractinians and stylasterids available until the present day to assess the diversity, distribution, and spatial structure of coral assemblages in the Azores Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The resulting database comprises 2501 entries concerning historical oceanographic expeditions and other published sources, as well as recent data from longline bycatch. Our taxonomic inventory appears to be fairly complete for the explored habitats, accounting for 164 species (79 alcyonaceans, 58 scleractinians, 18 antipatharians and 9 stylasterids), nine of which were new records. The Azores EEZ harbours a mixed coral fauna with several zoogeographic origins, showing the closest affinity with the Lusitanian-Mediterranean region. Very few apparent endemics were found (14%), and only in part supported by consistent sampling. Coral diversity is particularly high between 300 and 900 m depths, in areas recognized as traditional fishing grounds or exploitable fish habitat within the 100-mile limit of the EEZ. The composition of coral assemblages shows significant geographical structure among longitudinal sections of the study area at comparable depths (100-1500 m). There is no evidence of a possible role of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge or latitudinal effects underlying this pattern, which suggests that it may instead reflect assemblage variability among features. Stronger changes in species composition were found along the bathymetric gradient. Notwithstanding the mix of partially overlapping steno- and

  11. [Approach and Registry of Anaphylaxis in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Mota, Inês; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Celso; Tomaz, Elza; Ferreira, Manuel Branco; Sabino, Filipa; Coelho, Anabela; Santos, Anabela; Martins, Henrique; Morais-Almeida, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis has a growing incidence, especially in children. It represents a medical emergency and its successful therapy depends on early and proper intervention. Intramuscular epinephrine, with dose adjustment according to weight and age, is the drug of choice for anaphylaxis treatment. After resolution of the acute reaction, the patient should be kept under clinical surveillance for 6 to 24 hours, due to possible biphasic reactions. Prescription of an epinephrine auto injectable device should be considered in all patients with diagnosed or suspected anaphylaxis; additionally these patients should always be referred to an Immunoallergy consultation, to perform adequate investigation and management in order to reduce future risk. All anaphylaxis episodes must be recorded in The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions (Catálogo Português de Alergias e outras Reações Adversas, CPARA), which represents a fundamental tool to share clinical information within the Health System. The present manuscript intends to disclose the most recent Portuguese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis, making its clinical approach more effective and homogeneous, and to promote the use of The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions as an essential tool to register and share information on anaphylaxis in Portugal. PMID:26849768

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of droughts in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, JoãO. Filipe; Pulido-Calvo, Inmaculada; Portela, Maria Manuela

    2010-03-01

    An analysis of droughts in mainland Portugal based on monthly precipitation data, from September 1910 to October 2004, in 144 rain gages distributed uniformly over the country is presented. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to different time scales (1, 6, and 12 consecutive months and 6 months from April to September and 12 months from October to September). To assess spatial and temporal patterns of droughts, a principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering (KMC) were applied to the SPI series. In this way, three different and spatially well-defined regions with different temporal evolution of droughts were identified (north, central, and south regions of Portugal). A spectral analysis of the SPI patterns obtained with principal component analysis and clusters analysis, using the fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT), showed that there is a manifest 3.6-year cycle in the SPI pattern in the south of Portugal and evident 2.4-year and 13.4-year cycles in the north of Portugal. The observation of the drought periods supports the occurrence of more frequent cycles of dry events in the south (droughts from moderate to extreme approximately every 3.6 years) than in the north (droughts from severe to extreme approximately every 13.4 years). These results suggest a much stronger immediate influence of the NAO in the south than in the north of Portugal, although these relations remain a challenging task.

  13. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from invasive species of the Azores, Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Jorge R; Campos, Lurdes B; Mendonça, Susana C; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2003-09-01

    The compositions of the essential oils from the leaves and flowers of Hedychium gardnerianum and from the leaves of Pittosporum undulatum growing on San Miguel Island (Azores) were investigated, and the compounds were identified by GC-MS analyses. The oils in the leaves and flowers of H. gardnerianum were rich in alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and alpha-cadinol, whereas that from P. undulatum was found to contain monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and alkanes, of which the sesquiterpenes, calamenene (41.4%), farnesol (10.9%), spathulenol (5.6%) and beta-selinene (5.2%) and the diterpene (8beta,13beta)-kaur-16-ene (10.7%) were the major components. Their potential antimicrobial activities were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and those with the highest activities against S. aureus and S. epidermis were from H. gardnerianum; none had activity against P. aeruginosa. Additionally, the essential oils from Pittosporum undulatum had good antithrombin activity whereas that from H. gardnerianum did not. PMID:12943775

  14. Microtremor Survey On PovoaÇA~o County (s. Miguel Island, Azores): Data Analysis And Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teves-Costa, P.; Riedel, C.; Vales, D.; Wallenstein, N.; Borges, A.; Senos, M. L.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.

    The seismic activity of the Azores Islands is known since the beginning of their settlement in the middle of the XV century. About 30 earthquakes produced social and economical important damages. The analysis of the damage distribution, for several earthquakes, shows systematically the existence of site effects. In order to understand the initial cause of these effects, three different zones were selected, with different geological and geomorphological characteristics, in the Povoação County, to perform a microtremor survey. Seismic data were recorded on a grid of 50 m in the three regions, using a 3-component Lennartz 1 Hz seismometer, with a sampling rate of 8 ms. The stations were deployed for 5 minutes or more to record microtremor imposed on the topmost layers by natural and anthropogenic sources. The data were processed using two different subroutine packages, in order to estimate the H/V ratio, defined according to the Nakamura methodology. However, the two processing routines gave different results, which forced us to revise all the procedures and to identify the main factors that caused it. Three portable seismic stations were installed in three fixed points, for about three months, aiming to record some earthquakes. Several small magnitude earthquakes (m < 3.0) were recorded and these data were processed in the same way as the noise data, obtaining reference H/V ratios. The interpretation of the dominant frequencies, for noise and small magnitude earthquakes, was performed taking into consideration not only the geological characteristics, but also the structural geomorphology.

  15. Moytirra: Discovery of the first known deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, A. J.; Murton, B.; Copley, J.; Lim, A.; Carlsson, J.; Collins, P.; Dorschel, B.; Green, D.; Judge, M.; Nye, V.; Benzie, J.; Antoniacomi, A.; Coughlan, M.; Morris, K.

    2013-10-01

    Geological, biological, morphological, and hydrochemical data are presented for the newly discovered Moytirra vent field at 45oN. This is the only high temperature hydrothermal vent known between the Azores and Iceland, in the North Atlantic and is located on a slow to ultraslow-spreading mid-ocean ridge uniquely situated on the 300 m high fault scarp of the eastern axial wall, 3.5 km from the axial volcanic ridge crest. Furthermore, the Moytirra vent field is, unusually for tectonically controlled hydrothermal vents systems, basalt hosted and perched midway up on the median valley wall and presumably heated by an off-axis magma chamber. The Moytirra vent field consists of an alignment of four sites of venting, three actively emitting "black smoke," producing a complex of chimneys and beehive diffusers. The largest chimney is 18 m tall and vigorously venting. The vent fauna described here are the only ones documented for the North Atlantic (Azores to Reykjanes Ridge) and significantly expands our knowledge of North Atlantic biodiversity. The surfaces of the vent chimneys are occupied by aggregations of gastropods (Peltospira sp.) and populations of alvinocaridid shrimp (Mirocaris sp. with Rimicaris sp. also present). Other fauna present include bythograeid crabs (Segonzacia sp.) and zoarcid fish (Pachycara sp.), but bathymodiolin mussels and actinostolid anemones were not observed in the vent field. The discovery of the Moytirra vent field therefore expands the known latitudinal distributions of several vent-endemic genera in the north Atlantic, and reveals faunal affinities with vents south of the Azores rather than north of Iceland.

  16. Understanding the geodynamic setting of São Miguel, Azores: A peculiar bit of mantle in the Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M.; Houlie, N.; Khan, A.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Azores Plateau and Archipelago in the Central Atlantic Ocean has traditionally been considered as the surface expression of a deep mantle plume or hotspot that has interacted with a mid-ocean ridge. It is geodynamically associated with the triple junction between the North American, African and Eurasian plates. (Yang et al., 2006) used finite frequency seismic tomography to demonstrate the presence of a zone of low P-wave velocities (peak magnitude -1.5%) in the uppermost 200km of the mantle beneath the plateau. The tomographic model is consistent with SW deflection of a mantle plume by regional upper mantle shear flow driven by absolute plate motions. The volcanic island of Sao Miguel is located within the Terceira Rift, believed to represent the boundary between the African and Eurasian plates; magmatic activity has been characterised by abundant basaltic eruptions in the past 30,000 years. The basalts are distinctive within the spectrum of global ocean island basalts for their wide range in isotopic composition, particularly in 87Sr/86Sr. Their Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions show systematic variations from west to east across the island which can be interpreted in terms of melting of a two-component mantle source. The low melting point (enriched) component in the source has been attributed to recycled ancient (~3 Ga) oceanic crust(Elliott et al., 2007). Using the thermo-barometry approach of (Lee et al., 2009) we demonstrate that the pressure and temperature of magma generation below Sao Miguel increase from west (2 GPa, 1425 °C) to east (3.8 GPa, 1575 °C), consistent with partial melting along a mantle geotherm with a potential temperature of ~ 1500 °C. This is consistent with the magnitude of the thermal anomaly beneath the Azores Plateau (ΔT ~ 150-200 °C) inferred on the basis of the seismic tomography study. The site of primary magma generation extends from the base of the local lithosphere (~ 50 km) to ~ 125 km depth. To understand the geodynamic

  17. Lethal lesions and amputation caused by plastic debris and fishing gear on the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). Three case reports from Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Barreiros, João P; Raykov, Violin S

    2014-09-15

    In this note we report and discuss three cases involving two serious injuries and one death on three specimens of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta, found in Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic). Plastic debris and lost/discarded fishing gear caused these accidents. In fact, these types of marine litter are known to cause several accidents all over the world involving many taxa. However, we think that this issue has probably a much wider impact and detected cases such as those reported here are but just a small sample of the whole unknown dimension of this serious marine pollution problem. PMID:25066455

  18. Citreicella manganoxidans sp. nov., a novel manganese oxidizing bacterium isolated from a shallow water hydrothermal vent in Espalamaca (Azores).

    PubMed

    Rajasabapathy, Raju; Mohandass, Chellandi; Dastager, Syed Gulam; Liu, Qing; Li, Wen-Jun; Colaço, Ana

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, aerobic and rod or narrow lemon-shaped bacterial strain, VSW210(T), was isolated from surface seawater in a shallow water hydrothermal vent region in Espalamaca (Azores). Strain VSW210(T) was found to grow optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and in the presence of 2-6 % (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain VSW210(T) clusters with the type strain Citreicella marina CK-I3-6(T) (sequence similarity value of 99.6 %), but DNA-DNA hybridization showed DNA-DNA relatedness between the strain VSW210(T) and C. marina CK-I3-6(T) to be 55.8 ± 3.2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain VSW210(T) was determined to be 67.4 mol%. The cellular fatty acid profiles of strain VSW210(T) was found to contain C18:1 ω7c (80.1 %) and C16:0 (9.2 %). The major polar lipids in strain VSW210(T) were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. Strain VSW210(T) was found to be able to oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble MnO2, which was confirmed with LBB staining. Differential phenotypic properties and genetic uniqueness revealed that this strain VSW210(T) is distinguishable from other species of the genus Citreicella. On the basis of the data presented, strain VSW210(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Citreicella, for which the name Citreicella manganoxidans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VSW210(T) (=KCTC 32497(T) = MCC 2286(T)). PMID:26404429

  19. Deformation in a hyperslow oceanic rift: Insights from the tectonics of the São Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; Boulesteix, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J.

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of hyperslow oceanic rifts, like the Terceira Rift (TR) in the Azores, is still poorly understood. Here we examine the distribution of strain and magmatism in the portion of the TR making up the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary. We use São Miguel Island because it stretches most of the TR width, which allows to investigate the TR's architecture and shedding light on TR's age and mode of deformation. From topography and structural analysis, and new measurements of 380 faults and dikes, we show that (1) São Miguel has two main structural directions, N150 and N110, mostly concentrated in the eastern part of the island as an onshore continuation of the faults observed offshore in the NE (N110 faults) and SW (N140) TR walls; (2) a new N50-N80 fault system is identified in São Miguel; (3) fault and dike geometries indicate that eastern São Miguel comprises the TR's northern boundary, and the lack of major faults in central and western São Miguel indicates that rifting is mostly concentrated at master faults bounding the TR. Based on TR's geometry, structural observations and plate kinematics, we estimate that the TR initiated between 1.4 and 2.7 Ma ago and that there is no appreciable seafloor spreading associated with rifting. Based on plate kinematics, on the new structural data, and on São Miguel's structural and volcanic trends, we propose that the eastern two thirds of São Miguel lie along a main TR-related transform fault striking N70-N80, which connects two widely separated N130-N150 TR-trending segments.

  20. Volcano-tectonic framework of a linear volcanic ridge (Faial-Pico ridge, Azores Archipelago) assessed by paleomagnetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pedro; Henry, Bernard; Lopes, Ana; Marques, Fernando; Madureira, Pedro; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Madeira, José; Nunes, João; Roxerová, Zuzana

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of volcanic oceanic islands results from the alternation between constructive and destructive episodes. In this study directional analyses obtained from paleomagnetic studies are used as a tool to achieve relative rotations related with destructive processes intra the Pico-Faial linear volcanic ridge (Azores archipelago; North Atlantic). A total of 45 lava flows and one dyke were sampled preferable along lava piles though to record volcano-tectonic movements. The respective paleomagnetic results are able to show important rotations within the two islands that resemble the onshore signature of this ridge. Paleomagnetic directions retrieved here mostly show elliptical distribution of ChRM's sub-perpendicular to volcanic ridge. Such distribution agrees with the development of listric faults plunging towards the axis of the volcanic ridge at Faial Island and towards offshore at the Topo complex of Pico Island. In Faial Island, the "collapse" related to the magma chamber decompression was accommodated by brittle deformation with listric faults plunging toward the core of the formed graben. On Pico Island, this collapse was probably of less importance and simply accommodated by a local tilting. Listric faults then should have been developed, in the opposite direction (compared to Faial Island case) relatively to the collapsed area, to compensate a relative local uplift. Accordingly paleomagnetic studies appear as key data to retrieve intra-islands deformations due to the volcano-tectonic balance responsible for the construction and destruction of such unstable buildings. This important tool to address georisks and natural hazards remains poorly explored and need to be strongly developed. The author wish to acknowledge MEGAHAZARDS (PTDC/CTE-GIX/108149/2008) and REGENA (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3648/2012) projects for its major contribution without which this work wouldn't be possible. Publication supported by project FCT UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz.

  1. Periodic behavior of soil CO2 emissions in diffuse degassing areas of the Azores archipelago: Application to seismovolcanic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveiros, Fátima; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Ferreira, Teresa; Silva, Catarina; Cruz, José V.

    2014-10-01

    Time series of soil CO2 efflux recorded in the Azores archipelago volcanic-hydrothermal areas feature daily and seasonal variations. The recorded CO2 efflux values were lower during summer than in the winter season. The diurnal CO2 efflux values were higher at dawn and lower in the early afternoon, contrary to that observed in biogenic environments. CO2 efflux cycles correlated well with the environmental variables, such as air temperature, wind speed, and barometric pressure, which also showed low- and high-frequency periodicities. Several simulations were performed here using the Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat 2 (TOUGH2) geothermal simulator to complement the study of Rinaldi et al. (2012). The effects of the water table depth, air temperature perturbation amplitude, and soil thermal gradient contributed to an explanation of the contrasts observed in the diurnal (S1) and semidiurnal (S2) soil CO2 efflux peaks for the different monitoring sites and seasons. Filtering techniques (multivariate regression analysis and fast Fourier transform filters) were also applied to the recorded time series to remove effects of external variables on the soil CO2 efflux. The resulting time series (the residuals) correspond to the best approach to the deep-seated (volcanic/hydrothermal) CO2 emissions and thus should be used in seismovolcanic monitoring programs. Even if no evident correlation can be established yet between the soil CO2 residuals and seismicity over the monitored time, a seismic swarm that occurred around the end of 2008 might have triggered some deviations from the observed daily cycles.

  2. The ˜1000-years BP explosive eruption of Caldeira Volcano (Faial, Azores): the first stage of incremental caldera formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Adriano; Pacheco, José; Self, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    The ˜1000-years BP eruption of Caldeira Volcano (Faial Island) was one of the last major explosive events recorded in the Azores. It produced a complex succession of pyroclastic deposits, known as the C11, divided into three members. At the base is the Brejo Member, a sequence of fine- to coarse-grained parallel-bedded ash layers found in the NW sector of the island. The middle part corresponds to the Inverno Member, a coarse-grained massive pumice fall deposit, restricted to the north flank of Caldeira Volcano. The top is dominated by the Cedros Member which includes massive to diffuse-stratified lapilli-ash and lithic breccias, exposed along the north and east flanks of the volcano. A minimum bulk volume of at least 0.22 km3 (>0.1 km3 dense rock equivalent (DRE)) is estimated for the C11 eruption, although a large portion may have been deposited offshore. The juvenile products are trachytic (59 wt% SiO2) with a homogenous whole-rock composition and mineral assemblage throughout the pyroclastic succession. However, petrographic and groundmass glass analyses indicate magma mingling/mixing processes between two trachytic batches. The C11 eruption history is divided into three phases (following the member division) with distinct eruptive styles: (1) an initial phreatomagmatic phase caused by rising magma (˜950 °C) encountering a crater pond or aquifer, (2) a fall-dominated phase which established a sub-Plinian column up to 14 km high (mass eruption rate (MER) of 1.2 × 107 kg/s) and (3) prolonged pyroclastic fountaining and sustained quasi-steady pyroclastic density current generation followed by summit collapse. The C11 eruption is interpreted as the first stage in the formation of an incremental caldera. This study provides valuable insights for a better understanding of small but complex explosive eruptions and their impact on ocean islands.

  3. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  4. Making Sense of TV for Children: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Empowering children for a critical and judicious use and consumption of media is a main objective of media literacy. This paper aims to examine the range of television programs available for children in Portugal through a comparative analysis of the programming for children broadcast by the four Portuguese terrestrial channels (RTP1, RTP2, SIC and…

  5. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  6. School Psychology in Portugal: Practitioners' Characteristics and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Sofia A.; Abreu-Lima, Isabel; Almeida, Leandro S.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on the professional characteristics and practices of school psychologists in Portugal. This study surveyed a total of 477 Portuguese school psychologists employed in public (80%) and private schools (20%). Portuguese school psychologists are described with regard to demographic, professional, and educational…

  7. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  8. Emerging Models of Teacher Training: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando; Ferreira, Manuela; Miranda, Branca

    2004-01-01

    The structural reforms of geography teacher training in Portugal have been justified by the global evolution of the educational system and took into account: (1) the political will to extend the period of compulsory schooling, which now covers the whole of lower secondary education, but will soon cover upper secondary education as well; (2) the…

  9. Open Plan Schools in Portugal: Failure or Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinho, Miguel; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Open plan schools have been largely contested in Portugal; many teachers, administrators and even parents consider this model of schooling inappropriate and therefore a failure. Recently however the Escola da Ponte, one of the open plan schools that has survived, was recognised as one of the country's most innovative educational facilities.…

  10. Research Management in Portugal: A Quest for Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Margarida; Agostinho, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Research managers at science-intensive institutions appear as a continuously evolving group of professionals whose identity is somewhat fragmented, even to themselves. In Portugal, specialized research manager roles have rapidly emerged over the last years alongside the development of a small but consolidated scientific system. In order to get an…

  11. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  12. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  13. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  14. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  15. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  16. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  17. School Closures and Community Revitalisation: The Case of Obidos, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godinho, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities in many countries are faced with the need to restructure their school networks and close some smaller facilities. Obidos, a town in western Portugal, provides a case study of how to meet these challenges by creating new school complexes that offer improved educational opportunities to the teaching staff, students and local…

  18. Morpho-structural evolution of a volcanic island developed inside an active oceanic rift: S. Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Weiss, B.; Boulesteix, T.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of volcanic islands is generally marked by fast construction phases alternating with destruction by a variety of mass-wasting processes. More specifically, volcanic islands located in areas of intense regional deformation can be particularly prone to gravitational destabilisation. The island of S. Miguel (Azores) has developed during the last 1 Myr inside the active Terceira Rift, a major tectonic structure materializing the present boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian lithospheric plates. In this work, we depict the evolution of the island, based on high-resolution DEM data, stratigraphic and structural analyses, high-precision K-Ar dating on separated mineral phases, and offshore data (bathymetry and seismic profiles). The new results indicate that: (1) the oldest volcanic complex (Nordeste), composing the easternmost part of the island, was dominantly active between ca. 850 and 750 ka, and was subsequently affected by a major south-directed flank collapse. (2) Between at least 500 ka and 250 ka, the landslide depression was massively filled by a thick lava succession erupted from volcanic cones and domes distributed along the main E-W collapse scar. (3) Since 250 kyr, the western part of this succession (Furnas area) was affected by multiple vertical collapses; associated plinian eruptions produced large pyroclastic deposits, here dated at ca. 60 ka and less than 25 ka. (4) During the same period, the eastern part of the landslide scar was enlarged by retrogressive erosion, producing the large Povoação valley, which was gradually filled by sediments and young volcanic products. (5) The Fogo volcano, in the middle of S. Miguel, is here dated between ca. 270 and 17 ka, and was affected by, at least, one southwards flank collapse. (6) The Sete Cidades volcano, in the western end of the island, is here dated between ca. 91 and 13 ka, and experienced mutliple caldera collapses; a landslide to the North is also suspected from the presence of a

  19. Catastrophic flank collapses and slumping in Pico Island during the last 130 kyr (Pico-Faial ridge, Azores Triple Junction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A. C. G.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Sibrant, A. L. R.; Santos de Campos, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Pico Island constitutes the easternmost sub-aerial domain of a steep WNW-ESE volcanic ridge, which has developed within the Nubia-Eurasia diffuse plate boundary (Azores Triple Junction). The island comprises three volcanic systems, from older to younger: the Topo Volcano, the Fissural System, and the Pico Stratovolcano. From a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (10 m), and new bathymetric, stratigraphic, structural, and high-precision K-Ar data, we reconstruct the main successive stages of growth and partial destruction of the island over the last 200 kyr. We especially concentrate on the central sector of the island, which has recorded gradual movements through slumping and catastrophic flank collapses since ca. 130 kyr. The remmants of the Topo Volcano are partly exposed on Pico's SE flank, and are here dated between 186 ± 5 and 115 ± 4 ka. Topo was significantly destroyed by N- and S-directed large-scale flank collapses between ca. 125 and 70 ka. On Pico's N flank, collapse seems to have removed all the unstable material, but in the S the collapse structure is composite, including a major flank collapse and a remnant slump complex that is still active. A first episode of deformation occurred between ca. 125 and 115 ka along the master fault of the slump. Between ca. 115 and 69 ka, most of the unstable material was removed by a major flank collapse, leaving behind a still considerable volume of unstable material that comprises the active slump. This first collapse was catastrophic and generated a large debris deposit recognized on the high-resolution bathymetry, with a minimum run-out of ca. 17 km. The scar was partially filled by volcanic products erupted from volcanic cones developed within the slump depression, and possibly also from the early WNW-ESE Fissural System. Subsequent deformation in the slump area affected in part the filling units, leading to the individualization of secondary curved faults. Younger volcanic products have gradually

  20. Construction and destruction of a volcanic island developed inside an oceanic rift: Graciosa Island, Terceira Rift, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.

    2014-09-01

    There is a great lack of knowledge regarding the evolution of islands inside active oceanic rifts, in particular the meaning of the different evolutionary steps. Therefore, we conducted an investigation in Graciosa Island, which lies at the northwestern end of the Terceira Rift in the Azores Triple Junction, with the objective of constraining the evolution of the island in terms of volcanic growth and mass wasting, in particular the meaning and age of the destruction events. From digital elevation model (DEM) analysis, stratigraphic and tectonic observations, K/Ar dating on key samples, and available bathymetry and gravity data, we propose that Graciosa comprises five main volcanic complexes separated by major unconformities related to large scale mass wasting: (1) The older volcanic edifice (Serra das Fontes Complex) grew until ca. 700 ka, and was affected by a major flank collapse towards the southwest, which removed the whole SW flank, the summit and a part of the NE flank. (2) The Baía do Filipe Complex developed between at least 472 ka and 433 ka in two different ways: in the SW (presently offshore) as a main volcano, and in the NE unconformably over the sub-aerial remnants of the Serra das Fontes Complex, as secondary volcanic edifices. (3) The Baía do Filipe Complex was affected by a major flank collapse towards the SW, again removing most of the edifice. (4) The remnants of the Baía do Filipe Complex were covered in unconformity by the Serra Dormida Complex between ca. 330 and 300 ka, which in turn was unconformably covered by the younger Basaltic Cover Complex between ca. 300 ka and 214 ka. These two units were affected by a third major sector collapse that removed the whole western flank, the summit and part of the eastern flank of the Serra Dormida and Basaltic Cover complexes. (5) Despite the relatively young age of Graciosa, the collapse scars are not well preserved, and not active anymore. (6) A central-type volcano has been growing since at least

  1. Temporal evolution of a post-caldera, mildly peralkaline magmatic system: Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, A. J.; Gertisser, R.; O'Driscoll, B.; Pacheco, J. M.; Whitley, S.; Pimentel, A.; Self, S.

    2016-05-01

    Furnas is one of three active central volcanoes on São Miguel Island, Azores, and is considered to be one of the most hazardous in the archipelago. In this study, the pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 10 young (<5 ka), intra-caldera, sub-Plinian, trachytic eruptions of the Upper Furnas Group (UFG) is investigated via whole rock major and trace element geochemistry, mineral chemistry, thermobarometry, and petrogenetic modelling. The main aim of this work is to elucidate the petrogenesis of the Furnas trachytes, constrain the P-T-fO2 conditions under which they evolve, and investigate the temporal evolution of the magma plumbing system. Results indicate that the trachytes are derived predominantly from extended fractional crystallisation of alkali basalt parental magmas, at depths between ~3 and 4 km. This is considered to take place in a density-stratified reservoir, with alkali basalt magmas at the base and hydrous trachytes forming an upper cap or cupola. The presence of this reservoir at shallow crustal depths beneath the caldera likely inhibits the ascent and subsequent eruption of mafic magmas, generating a compositional Daly Gap. Rare syenitic ejecta represent in situ crystallisation of trachytic magmas in the thermal boundary zone at the top of the reservoir. Trachytic enclaves within these syenites, in addition to banded pumices and ubiquitous clinopyroxene antecrysts in the UFG pumice falls, provide evidence for mingling/mixing processes within the magmatic system. Despite relatively uniform major element compositions, systematic trace element variations within individual eruptions highlight the importance of fractional crystallisation during late-stage evolution of the trachytes. This is facilitated by the accumulation of water and the development of mild peralkalinity, which contribute to low pre-eruptive melt viscosities and efficient crystal settling. Compositional zoning patterns between individual eruptions cannot be accounted for by periodic

  2. Developing Atmospheric Science Tools for Teachers Based on Research at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Pico Island, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, L.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric science and climate change are becoming increasingly important, especially in education, as the Next Generation Science Standards now include climate change. A collaborating team of research scientists and students are studying the free troposphere, specifically the aerosol composition and properties, on the island of Pico in the Azores Archipelago. The research station sits in the caldera of Mount Pico, 2225 meters above sea level. At this elevation, the station is above the marine boundary layer, thus placing it in the free troposphere. In this work, collaboration between a high school Earth Science teacher and university researchers was formed with the goal of developing classroom and outreach materials regarding atmospheric science. Among the materials, a video was created containing: site and project background, explanation of some of the instruments used and candid conversations regarding science and research. The video serves several purposes, such as informing students and the general public about what is happening in the atmosphere and informing students about the importance of science and research. The video could also be used to educate the local island community and tourists. Other materials designed include data directly obtained from the project, such as measurements of aerosol particles in electron microscopy photos (which were imaged for particle morphology and size), and composition of the aerosol particles. Students can use this evidence, as well as other data, to gain a better understanding of aerosols and the overall effect they have on the climate. Students will discover this evidence as they work through a series of experiments and activities. Using the strategy of Claim-Evidence-Reasoning as a way to answer scientific questions, students will use the evidence they gathered to explain their ideas. One such question could be, 'How do aerosols affect the climate?' and the student's 'claim' is their answer to that question. In the

  3. Human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Portugal, summer 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, Líbia; Proença, Paula; Osório, Hugo C; Gomes, Salomé; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Fevereiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in the Algarve region, Portugal, in the first week of September 2015. WNV is known to circulate in Portugal, with occasional reports in horses and birds (2004 to 2011) and very sporadically human cases (in 2004 and in 2010). Here we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease reported in Portugal. PMID:26535915

  4. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zé-Zé, L.; Prata, M.B.; Teixeira, T.; Marques, N.; Mondragão, A.; Fernandes, R.; Saraiva da Cunha, J.; Alves, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  5. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks. PMID:26273814

  6. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health. PMID:26486944

  7. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  8. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians. PMID:25215422

  9. Asthma in an Urban Population in Portugal: A prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and incidence of asthma are believed to be increasing but research on the true incidence, prevalence and mortality from asthma has met methodological obstacles since it has been difficult to define and diagnose asthma in epidemiological terms. New and widely accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma present opportunities for progress in this field. Studies conducted in Portugal have estimated the disease prevalence between 3% and 15%. Available epidemiological data present a significant variability due to methodological obstacles. Aim To estimate the true prevalence of asthma by gender and age groups in the population of the area covered by one urban Health Centre in Portugal. Method An observational study was conducted between February and July 2009 at the Horizonte Family Health Unit in Matosinhos, Portugal. A random sample of 590 patients, stratified by age and gender was obtained from the practice database of registered patients. Data was collected using a patient questionnaire based on respiratory symptoms and the physician's best knowledge of the patient's asthma status. The prevalence of asthma was calculated by age and gender. Results Data were obtained from 576 patients (97.6% response rate). The mean age for patients with asthma was 27.0 years (95% CI: 20.95 to 33.16). This was lower than the mean age for non-asthmatics but the difference was not statistically significant. Asthma was diagnosed in 59 persons giving a prevalence of 10.24% (95% CI: 8.16 to 12.32). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of asthma by gender. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma found in the present study was higher than that found in some studies, though lower than that found in other studies. Further studies in other regions of Portugal are required to confirm these findings. PMID:21595928

  10. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications. PMID:26581424

  11. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. PMID:26899014

  12. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  13. Seismicity And Accretion Processes Along The Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Azores using data from the MARCHE Autonomous Hydrophone Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Julie; Cevatoglu, Melis; Cannat, Mathilde; Escartin, Javier; Maia, Marcia; Tisseau, Chantal; Dziak, Robert; Goslin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    The seismicity of the South Atlantic Ocean has been recorded by the MARCHE network of 4 autonomous underwater hydrophones (AUH) moored within the SOFAR channel on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The instruments were deployed south of the Azores Plateau between 32° and 39°N from July 2005 to August 2008. The low attenuation properties of the SOFAR channel for earthquake T-wave propagation result in a detection threshold reduction from a magnitude completeness level (Mc) of ~4.3 for MAR events recorded by the land-based seismic networks to Mc=2.1 using this hydrophone array. A spatio-temporal analysis has been performed among the 5600 events recorded inside the MARCHE array. Most events are distributed along the ridge between lat. 39°N on the Azores Platform and the Rainbow (36°N) segment. In the hydrophone catalogue, acoustic magnitude (Source Level, SL) is used as a measure of earthquake size. The source level above which the data set is complete is SLc=205 dB. We look for seismic swarms using the cluster software of the SEISAN package. The criterion used are a minimum SL of 210 to detect a possible mainshock, and a radius of 30 km and a time window of 40 days after this mainshock (Cevatoglu, 2010, Goslin et al., 2012). 7 swarms with more than 15 events are identified using this approach between 32°et 39°N of latitude. The maximum number of earthquake in a swarm is 57 events. This result differs from the study of Simao et al. (2010) as we processed a further year of data and selected sequences with fewer events. Looking at the distribution of the SL as a function of time after the mainshock, we discuss the possible mechanism of these earthquakes : tectonic events with a "mainshock-aftershock" distribution fitting a modified Omori law or volcanic events showing more constant SL values. We also present the geophysical setting of these 7 swarms, using gravity, bathymetry, and available local geological data. This study illustrates the potential of

  14. Faults, Post-1720 Explosion Craters, and the Remains of a Lava Lake at Castro Bank Seamount (E Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderman, R.; Barriga, F. J.; Nishimura, C.; Pacheco, J. M.; Vogt, P. R.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Santos, R.

    2003-12-01

    During 25-28 July 2003 the US Navy submarine NR-1 dove on the seamount D. Joao de Castro Bank, compiling reconnaissance sonar and visual data. Castro Bank sits along strike and between the eastern Azorian islands of Terceira and S. Miguel, occupying a seismically active region ˜60 km from each of these islands and apparently controlled by the same underlying tectonics as other islands found along the Azores' northern margin. Castro Bank's last recorded eruptions built a ˜1 km diameter ephemeral island in the 1720s. The bathimetry of the uppermost 40 m or so of the Bank is rather well known via single beam sonar, scuba diving and AUV surveys (IH, DOP/UA and ISR/IST, unpublished work). Our dives compiled data in concentric rings along contours, collecting side- and forward-looking sonar along an overall track length of ˜20 km, with the deepest ring approaching ˜200 m depth. To document key features we came near the sea floor and took videos in water with typical visibility of ˜10-15 m. This is the first progress report on our work, which found the edifice morphologically complex and irregular. We noted that the seamount was often covered by aerially extensive yellow-brown hyaloclastic tuffs that were presumably products of the 1720s eruption, but also cut by faults and fissures (with offsets of ten's of meters) exposing abundant areas of older edifice. The faults typically lacked sediment cover, and in one case a very fresh, sediment-free fault trended along the base of a steep cliff. This suggested the faults were much younger than the 1720 eruption, an observation in accord with intense seismicity recorded in this area. The faults provided exposures of older rocks, which included abundant breccia and lesser clearly identified pillows or thick lava flows. The NW quadrant contains two small, shallow, elliptical craters. These lie side-by-side and crosscut inferred 1720s-age tuffs. One crater held a lava lake, the body of which apparently withdrew or subsided

  15. On the potential of an RST-based analysis of the MODIS-derived chl-a product over Condor seamount and surrounding areas (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancia, Emanuele; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Mendonça, Ana; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria; Tramutoli, Valerio; Martins, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Oceanographic cruises have been conducted on the Condor seamount (SW Faial Island, Azores archipelago, NE Atlantic) since 2009 to collect in situ data and understand potential seamount effects on local biodiversity. Satellite data have been concurrently collected to infer the space-time upper-ocean optical property variability and the associated physical processes. The main limitation of this analysis is the persistent and significant cloud coverage above the region that, especially in some seasons, can significantly hinder satellite data availability. This study was meant to test the robust satellite technique (RST) over the Condor seamount, assess its capability to estimate multiyear trends and identify space-time anomalies. To this aim, 11-year MODIS/AQUA level 2-derived chlorophyll-a (chl-a) data were used. Results achieved for October 2010 show, within a large-scale analysis, the presence of well-defined areas of near-surface chl-a anomalies, highlighting the occurrence of a trapping effect due to flow-topography interaction processes. Regarding the Condor area, the chl-a anomalies detected along the eastern side of the seamount were linked to a strong vertical mixing that provided sufficient inorganic nutrients requested for productivity. The achieved results, whose accuracy was also tested through a comparison with in situ data, are consistent with those independently obtained by other authors who described the phytoplankton variability around the Condor seamount. This study shows the high potential of the RST approach to assess the chl-a variability in the space-time domain in oligotrophic regions such as the Azores, allowing the identification of the most important areas to be preserved and/or managed.

  16. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates in wild birds from the Azores Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Rodrigues, Pedro; Rodrigues, Tiago; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Felgar, Ana Carolina; Pacheco, Rui; Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Regina; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-10-01

    To study the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-containing Escherichia coli isolates, and the mechanisms of resistance implicated, 220 faecal samples from wild birds were collected between 2006 and 2010 in the Azores Archipelago. Samples were spread on Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/l vancomycin and on Levine agar plates supplemented with 2 mg/l cefotaxime for VRE and ESBL-containing E. coli isolation, respectively. vanA-containing enterococcal isolates (four Enterococcus faecium and two Enterococcus durans) and vanC-1 Enterococcus gallinarum isolates were detected in six and seven faecal samples, respectively. VRE isolates showed ampicillin (n=11), ciprofloxacin (n=9), tetracycline (n=6), erythromycin (n=5), quinupristin/dalfopristin (n=3) and high-level kanamycin resistance (n=1). The tet(L) and/or tet(M) gene was found in all tetracycline-resistant isolates and the erm(B) gene in all erythromycin-resistant isolates. Three vanA-containing E. faecium and two E. gallinarum presented specific sequences of the Tn5397 transposon. Four VRE isolates harboured the ace virulence gene. One faecal sample revealed one ESBL-containing E. coli isolate that belongs to the A phylogenetic group, showed a phenotype of resistance to β-lactams and tetracycline, and harboured the bla (CTX-M-14), bla (SHV-12) and the tet(A) genes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on defining the prevalence of VRE and/or ESBL-containing E. coli strains in wild birds from the Azores. The data recovered are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through wild ecosystems and their possible implications by transferring these resistances to other animals or to humans. PMID:21834624

  17. Training in the Retail Trade in Portugal. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Maria Conceicao; And Others

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Portugal. Employment, work, and training patterns in Portugal's retail sector were researched, and case studies of two firms in the supermarket/hypermarket group, one firm in the stationary/cigarette shop sector, and one clothing manufacturer/retailer were conducted. Teams of researchers interviewed…

  18. Developmental Dyslexia: Perspectives on Teacher Training and Learning Disabilities in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalhais, Lenia; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to explore primary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward their training experiences, instructional practices, and supports received in their schools toward working with students with dyslexia in Portugal. Primary school teachers from the centre of Portugal, working with children between the first and fourth grades,…

  19. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  20. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Portugal. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeno, Luis Gomes; Sarmento, Ana Leonor

    The financing of vocational education and training (VET) in Portugal was examined. The examination focused on the following topics: (1) the economic, political, legal, and administrative contexts of funding; (2) the funding framework for VET in Portugal; (3) initial vocational training (IVT); (4) continuing vocational training (CVT); and (5)…

  1. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no general popu...

  2. Holocene estuary development in the Algarve Region (Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Heike; Höfer, Dana; Trog, Carmen; Hempel, Rita; Daut, Gerhard; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Former coastal estuaries in the Algarve region of South Portugal are used for reconstruction coastal evolution since first marine transgression processes at about 8.000 years before. The sediments of these archives allow high resolution analyses of geochemical and palynological signals. Drillings in different lagoons of the Algarve region contain the sequences from the fluvial sediments during the early Holocene, marine transgression facies during the middle Holocene and the marine/fluvial sediment deposits until present. The results of the sedimentological, geochemical and palynological analyses show that each estuary developed differently, depending on the morphology of the paleovalley, environmental conditions and especially the influence of the sea and the formation of barrier systems. The estuaries were flooded between 7500 and 5500 cal a BP by sea level rise and were almost completely filled by sediment by the beginning of the Roman occupation (226 y BC / 2176 cal a BP). A clear change in sedimentological processes is evident in the estuaries between 5500 and 3000 cal a BP and is interpreted as a result of high energy events such as storms or tsunamis (Schneider et al. 2009, Hilbich et al. 2008 ). Palynological as well as archaeological investigations show distinct anthropogenic influences since 3500 cal. BP by increasing values in maquies, cereals and open land communities. References Hilbich, C., Mügler, I., Daut, G., Frenzel, P., van der Borg, K., Mäusbacher, R. (2008): Reconstruction of the depositional history of the former coastal lagoon of Vilamoura (Algarve, Portugal): A sedimentological, microfaunal and geophysical approach.- Journal of Coastal Research 24(2B), 83-91. Schneider, H., Höfer, D., Trog, C., Busch, S., Schneider, M., Baade, J., Daut, G. & R. Mäusbacher (2009): Holocene estuary development in the Algarve Region (Southern Portugal) - A reconstruction of sedimentological and ecological evolution. - Quaternary International (In Press

  3. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor. PMID:26754741

  4. Drought and vegetation stress monitoring in Portugal using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Remote sensed information on vegetation and soil moisture, namely the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Water Index (SWI), is employed to monitor the spatial extent, severity and persistence of drought episodes over Continental Portugal, from 1999 to 2006. The severity of a given drought episode is assessed by evaluating the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation. Special attention is given to the drought episodes that have occurred in the last decade, i.e., 1999, 2002 and particularly the major event of 2005. During both the 1999 and 2005 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI are observed over large sectors of Southern Portugal for up to nine months (out of eleven) of the vegetative cycle. On the contrary, the 2002 event was characterized by negative anomalies in the northern half of Portugal and for a shorter period (eight out of eleven months). The impact of soil moisture on vegetation dynamics is evaluated by analyzing monthly anomalies of SWI and by studying the annual cycle of SWI vs. NDVI. While in the case of the drought episode of 1999 the scarcity of water in the soil persisted until spring, in the recent episode of 2005 the deficit in greenness was already apparent at the end of summer. The impact of dry periods on vegetation is clearly observed in both arable land and forest, and it is found that arable land presents a higher sensitivity. From an operational point of view, obtained results reveal the possibility of using the developed methodology to monitor, in quasi real-time, vegetation stress and droughts in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  5. Weather types and the regime of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    An objective classification scheme, as developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), was applied to classify the daily atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal between 1980 and 2007 into a set of 10 basic weather types (WTs). The classification scheme relies on a set of atmospheric circulation indices, namely southerly flow (SF), westerly flow (WF), total flow (F), southerly shear vorticity (ZS), westerly shear vorticity (ZW) and total vorticity (Z). The weather-typing approach, together with surfacemeteorological variables (e.g. intensity and direction of geostrophic wind, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation) were then associated to wildfire events as recorded in the official Portuguese fire database consisting of information on each fire occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal within the same period (>450.000 events). The objective of this study is to explore the dependence of wildfire activity on weather and climate and then evaluate the potential of WTs to discriminate among recorded wildfires on what respects to their occurrence and development. Results show that days characterised by surface flow with an eastern component (i.e. NE, E and SE) account for a high percentage of daily burnt area, as opposed to surface westerly flow (NW, W and SW), which represents about a quarter of the total number of days but only accounts for a very low percentage of active fires and of burnt area. Meteorological variables such as minimum and maximum temperatures, that are closely associated to surface wind intensity and direction, also present a good ability to discriminate between the different types of fire events.. Trigo R.M., DaCamara C. (2000) "Circulation Weather Types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int J of Climatology, 20, 1559-1581.

  6. [Fever and dry cough in a construction worker from Portugal].

    PubMed

    Wiesli, P; Flepp, M; Greminger, P

    1997-07-30

    A 33-year-old Portugese worker presented with a one-week history of nonproductive cough and fever. A presumptive diagnosis "viral infection of the respiratory tract" was made. However, because of persisting cough and fever further investigations were necessary, and finally Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood cultures. Three months before admission to the hospital the man was dressing the carcasses of a goat in Portugal and consumpted fresh goats milk cheese. Antibiotic therapy with Rifampicin and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazol over 6 weeks improved the signs and symptoms of the infection. PMID:9340710

  7. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Sofia C.; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat) and biological fluids (blood, urine) is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations. PMID:22069635

  8. Evolution of upwelling fronts off the coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll in the Atlantic Ocean off the Portugal coast using satellite imagery from 1979 to 1986 in conjunction with wind data. The spatial patterns in the imagery show the typical inshore-offshore and east-west gradients, while the temporal patterns show seasonal high winter values and low summer values. In the satellite imagery for the period 1979-1986, stable mesoscale and large scale patterns recurred despite interannual differences in absolute satellite-derived pigment concentrations.

  9. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  10. Portugal's contribution to navigation and discovery of the New World.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M L

    1993-01-01

    Even before the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator (1394) Portugal had displayed a maritime calling due to its 500-mile shore line and numerous natural bays. Inspired by the riches of India he saw during the Portuguese exploration along the coast of West Africa, Prince Henry set out methodically to collect information by bringing together Jews and Moors with geographical knowledge to found his School of Navigation. From 1415 until his death in 1460 he attracted to his school the foremost contemporary scholars in mathematics, astronomy, and cartography along with experts in knowledge of the compass, astrolabe, water currents, and the winds. This concentration of talent yielded the invention of the caravel, the most important navigational advancement of the time, crucial for long voyages across the high seas. Although the rest of Europe busied itself in political and religious wars, for 70 years (1415-1492) Portugal alone pursued the discovery of the Atlantic. "No nation in the 15th century exhibited so great a spirit of maritime enterprise as the Portuguese." PMID:8354483