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Sample records for deliquescence salt environments

  1. Salt deliquescence drives photosynthesis in the hyperarid Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Davila, Alfonso F; Hawes, Ian; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2013-08-01

    Endolithic cyanobacteria are found in halite nodules in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert. Using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry, we show here that photosynthetic systems of these cyanobacteria become active when the relative humidity rises above 70% and the salt becomes wet by way of deliquescence. This is the first evidence of active metabolism in the hyperarid core of the Atacama, and supports the view of a microbial community sustained by deliquescence. Our results expand the water activity envelope of life on Earth. PMID:23864573

  2. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3 and KNO3-NaNO3 Salt Mixtures at 90C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Craig, L; Wolery, T

    2003-12-29

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO3-H2O and KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems at 90 C to determine relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Model predictions agree with experimental results for the NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system, but underestimate relative humidity by as much as 8% and solution composition by as much as 50% in the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system.

  3. Deliquescence-induced wetting and RSL-like darkening of a Mars analogue soil containing various perchlorate and chloride salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Jacob; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2016-05-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are flow-like features on Mars characterized by a local darkening of the soil thought to be generated by the formation and flow of liquid brines. One possible mechanism responsible for forming these brines could be the deliquescence of salts present in the Martian soil. We show that the JSC Mars-1a analogue soil undergoes a darkening process when salts dispersed in the soil deliquesce, but forming continuous liquid films and larger droplets takes much longer than previously assumed. Thus, RSL may not necessarily require concurrent flowing liquid water/brine or a salt-recharge mechanism, and their association with gullies may be the result of previously flowing water and deposited salts during an earlier warmer and wetter period. In addition, our results show that electrical conductivity measurements correlate well with the deliquescence rates and provide better overall characterization than either Raman spectroscopy or estimates based on deliquescence relative humidity.

  4. Mole Ratio Dependence of the Mutual Deliquescence Relative Humidity of Aqueous Salts of Atmospheric Importance.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bryant N; Kennon, James T; Ali, Hashim M

    2016-05-26

    The response of the mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of several mixed salt systems to changes in mole ratio is presented here. The MDRH values of NH4Cl-NaCl, NH4Cl-(NH4)2SO4, and, for the first time, the NaCl-NaBr systems were acquired as a function of mole ratio. These changes were studied using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The MDRH values of 1:1 salt mixtures were consistently found to be lower than the values of the individual deliquescence relative humidity (iDRH) of NH4Cl-NaCl and NH4Cl-(NH4)2SO4. The exception was the MDRH of the NaCl-NaBr system, which was found to be higher than the iDRH of NaBr particles, but lower than the iDRH of NaCl particles. When the mole ratio of the mixed system was varied, the MDRH of the mixtures showed a slight dependence on the mole ratio. PMID:27138867

  5. The deliquescence behaviour, solubilities, and densities of aqueous solutions of five methyl- and ethyl-aminium sulphate salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Simon L.; Qiu, Chong; Zhang, Renyi

    2013-07-01

    We report measured solubilities of five aminium (i.e., monomethyl, dimethyl, trimethyl, diethyl, and triethyl) sulphate salts in water at 24 °C, and the densities of their aqueous solutions. Using these results, we have converted hygroscopic growth factors determined by Qiu and Zhang (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 4474-4480) to a moles of water per mole of solute basis, and obtained the relationships between concentration and equilibrium relative humidity (water activity) for solutions of the five salts. The results are compared with values predicted using the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) of Clegg and co-workers (J. Geophys. Res. 2002, 107, D14, Art. No. 4207). It is assumed in this model that ion and water activities in the solutions are the same as those for aqueous (NH4)2SO4 at the same molality. The experimental and modelled growth factors agree well in all cases, within the uncertainties of the data, which supports this assumption. Equations for the apparent molar volumes of the aminium sulphate salts in aqueous solutions are presented (based upon the measured densities and literature data), and also activity products of the salts in saturated aqueous solutions (based upon the measured solubilities and assumption of similarity with (NH4)2SO4). Simulations of the deliquescence curves of 1:1 and 1:9 mass ratio mixtures of monomethyl and dimethyl aminium sulphate with (NH4)2SO4 are shown to agree well with the measurements. The treatment of amines and aminium salts in the E-AIM model is described.

  6. Kinetics of Deliquescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, R. L.; Lewis, E.

    2009-12-01

    We examine deliquescence phase transformation for inorganic salt particles ranging from bulk down to several nanometers in size. Thermodynamic properties of the particles, coated with aqueous solution layers of varying thickness and surrounded by vapor, are analyzed. A thin layer criterion is introduced to define a limiting deliquescence relative humidity (DRH). Nano-size particles are predicted to deliquesce at relative humidity just below the DRH on crossing a nucleation barrier, located at a critical solution layer thickness. This barrier vanishes precisely at the DRH defined by the criterion. For a population of particles, the inherent random nature of the nucleation process is predicted to result in a distribution of RH values over which deliquescence will be seen to occur. Measurement of this (apparent) non-abrupt deliquescence of the population should provide both a validation of the nucleation mechanism and a quantitative determination of nucleation rate. This paper presents calculations of crossing (i.e. deliquescence) rate using the theory of mean first passage times (MFPT). MFPT theory is shown to provide a generalization of Becker-Döring nucleation kinetics especially useful for barrier heights much lower than those typically encountered in vapor-liquid nucleation. Barrier heights for deliquescence depend on the concentration of pre-deliquesced particles and observation time, but are typically in the 5-15kT range. Calculations use the tandem nano-differential mobility analyzer setup of Biskos et al. [1] as a model framework. In their experiment, a concentration of dry salt particles is subject to a higher RH for some observation time, after which is measured the (well-separated) populations of un-deliquesced particles and those that have deliquesced. Theoretical estimates for the conversion kinetics are presented as a function of dry particle size, DRH, and salt properties. [1] G. Biskos, A. Malinowski, L. M. Russell, P. R. Buseck, and S. T. Martin

  7. Crevice Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in High-Nitrate Dust Deliquescence Type Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, T; Gdowski, G E; Hailey, P D; Rebak, R B

    2007-02-08

    The nitrate ion (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) is an inhibitor for crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 (N06022) in chloride (Cl{sup -}) aqueous solutions. Naturally formed electrolytes may contain both chloride and nitrate ions. The higher the ratio R = [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] in the solution the stronger the inhibition of crevice corrosion. Atmospheric desert dust contains both chloride and nitrate salts, generally based on sodium (Na{sup +}) and potassium (K{sup +}). Some of these salts may deliquescence at relatively low humidity at temperatures on the order of 150 C and higher. The resulting deliquescent brines are highly concentrated and especially rich in nitrate. Electrochemical tests have been performed to explore the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in high chloride high nitrate electrolytes at temperatures as high as 150 C at ambient atmospheres. Naturally formed brines at temperatures higher than 120 C do not induce crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 because they contain high levels of nitrate. The inhibitive effect of nitrate on crevice corrosion is still active for temperatures higher than 100 C.

  8. Deliquescence of small particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Lynn M.; Ming, Yi

    2002-01-01

    The deliquescence of particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter from crystalline form to liquid droplets involves both solvation effects and surface energies. Here we study this phenomenon for the case of salt particles of initial dry diameters from 8 to 100 nm that are exposed to humid conditions from 45 to 95% relative humidity. With a simple thermodynamic equilibrium model for three soluble species (sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and a soluble organic compound), we show that the role of surface tension is to increase the relative humidity at which particles will deliquesce. For example, 15 nm dry diameter sodium chloride particles deliquesce at 83%, an 8% increase over the 75% deliquescence relative humidity for supermicron droplets and bulk solution. Many soluble species in air above 45% relative humidity are wetted with multiple layers of water molecules such that the relevant interface is that between the partially dissolved salt crystal and a saturated salt solution rather than between the dry crystal and air. Since surface tensions for this solid/liquid interface are not well known, a range of values have been used from the literature, yielding consistent results. While the existence of unstable equilibria during deliquescence of the system precludes complete experimental verification of the predicted behavior with measurements, a recent experiment suggests indirect agreement with the change in predicted deliquescence relative humidity.

  9. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3, KNO3-NaNO3, and NaCl-KNO3 Salt Mixtures From 90 to 120?C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Craig, L; Wolery, T J

    2004-10-20

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems from 90 to 120 C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Discrepancy between model prediction and experimental code can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25 C models for Cl-NO{sub 3} and K-NO{sub 3} ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the non-ideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

  10. Laboratory studies of the low-temperature deliquescence of calcium chloride salts: Relevance to aqueous solutions on Mars and in the Antarctic Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is significant interest in the possible existence of liquid water on current Mars. This water would likely exist as a brine in order to be stable on Mars today. It has been proposed that soil salts could form aqueous solutions through either the melting of ice by low-eutectic salts, or by the deliquescence of hygroscopic salts present in the Martian soil. The focus thus far has largely been on perchlorate species, which can melt ice at temperatures as low as 206 K and can deliquesce at relative humidity values as low as 38% RH. A Mars-relevant salt that has been neglected thus far is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium has been reported to be an abundant cation at the Phoenix landing site and Mars Science Laboratory instruments have recently identified calcium as well. Simulations suggest subsurface CaCl2 is an ideal candidate to produce brines with seasonality consistent with observed recurring slope lineae (RSL) (Chevrier et al., 2012). Finally, the only terrestrial site where RSL-like features have been observed (near Don Juan Pond in the Antarctic Dry Valleys) contains abundant CaCl2. These seasonal slope streaks are thought to form when CaCl2 in the soil deliquesces due to contact with atmospheric water vapor (Dickson et al., 2013). It is important to understand how this CaCl2 interacts with water vapor at low temperatures relevant to Mars and the Martian analog sites. Here we use a Raman microscope and environmental cell to monitor the low-temperature (223 - 273 K) deliquescence (solid to aqueous phase transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid phase transition) of three hydration states of CaCl2 (dihydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate). We have found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increases with increasing hydration state, which is an expected result. Average DRH values over the temperature range studied are 20.0 × 2.6% RH for the dihydrate, 31.8 × 6.3% RH for the tetrahydrate and 60.7 × 1.6% RH for the hexahydrate. Once the aqueous

  11. Deliquescence of NaCl–NaNO3, KNO3–NaNO3, and NaCl–KNO3 salt mixtures from 90 to 120°C

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Susan; Craig, Laura; Wolery, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl–NaNO3–H2O, KNO3–NaNO3–H2O, and NaCl–KNO3–H2O systems from 90 to 120°C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO3, and KNO3 represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV. Discrepancy between model prediction and experiment can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25°C models for Cl–NO3 and K–NO3 ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the nonideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

  12. Spectroscopic and Visual Evidence of Perchlorate Deliquescence Under Martian Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakakos, George; Whiteway, James

    2015-04-01

    One of the key findings during the Phoenix and Mars Science Laboratory landed Mars missions has been the detection of perchlorate, a highly deliquescent salt. Perchlorates are of great interest on Mars due to their high affinity for water vapour as well as their ability to greatly depress the freezing point of water when in solution. This has intriguing biological implications as resulting brines could potentially provide a habitable environment for living organisms. Additionally, it has been speculated that these salts may play a significant role in influencing the hydrological cycle on Mars. In order to experimentally study water exchange processes between the surface and atmosphere on Mars and assess the feasibility of a future landed detection tool, a stand-off Raman spectroscopy instrument and environmental simulation chamber have been developed at York University. A sample of magnesium perchlorate consistent with the size of patches found at the Phoenix site has been subjected to the low water vapour pressure and temperatures found at polar Martian latitudes. Results indicate that at a water vapour pressure of ~2 Pa (-54°C frost point temperature), Raman spectroscopy is able to detect the onset of brine formation and provide a relative estimate of the quantity of water taken up by the sample until complete deliquescence is reached. Significant uptake of water from the atmosphere is observed to occur prior to the frost point temperature being reached and on time scales relevant to the Martian diurnal cycle. This result suggests that perchlorates in the Martian regolith can contribute to the hydrological cycle, pre-emptively reducing the water vapour pressure before saturation is reached.

  13. Deliquescence of calcium perchlorate: A route to liquid water on Mars and other possibly habitable planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, M.; Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.

    2013-05-01

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) aboard the Phoenix Mars Lander identified the presence of 0.5% perchlorate (ClO4-). Reanalysis of the Viking gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results also suggests perchlorate was present in the soil and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover has potentially found perchlorate as well. Perchlorate salts are known to readily absorb water vapor from the atmosphere and deliquesce into an aqueous solution. We have previously performed laboratory studies to better understand the deliquescence (crystalline solid to aqueous salt) and also efflorescence (aqueous salt to crystalline solid) of several perchlorate salts at low temperatures. We found that NaClO4 and Mg(ClO4)2 are highly deliquescent, forming aqueous solutions at humidity values as low as 40% RH and at temperatures as low as 223 K. We also observed a significant hysteresis that occurs during efflorescence of these salt solutions, expected due to the kinetic inhibition of crystal nucleation. The efflorescence relative humidity values of sodium and magnesium perchlorate solutions are 13% RH and 19% RH, respectively, indicating that perchlorate salts could exist as stable or metastable aqueous solutions over a wide range of Martian RH and temperature conditions. Although the low temperature deliquescence of several perchlorate salts is now well characterized, instruments onboard Phoenix and MSL have identified calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2) as the likely parent salt. Calcium perchlorate is known for its highly deliquescent properties and low eutectic point; however, the deliquescence and efflorescence of this salt have not yet been quantified as a function of temperature. We have used Raman microscopy to examine the deliquescence and efflorescence of Ca(ClO4)2 under relevant Martian temperatures. A extremely low DRH of ~1% for the anhydrous Ca(ClO4)2 at 273 K was observed, which could allow for formation of aqueous solutions under very low RH environmental conditions

  14. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  15. Deliquescence Of Calcium Perchlorate: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions Relevant To Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, Danielle; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V. F.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate has been found by the Phoenix and Viking landers, and potentially by the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Calcium perchlorate is known for its highly deliquescent properties and low eutectic point, potentially having an impact on the local water cycle. The deliquescence and efflorescence of this salt, though, have not yet been quantified. We used a Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell to determine the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) as a function of temperature and also hydration state. Under all temperature conditions, Ca(ClO4)2 efflorescence is found to occur at relative humidity values below where deliquescence occurs. DRH increases from an average 23% RH to 55% RH as you decrease the temperature from 263 K to 223 K, with ERH values averaging 16%. This result confirms that all perchlorate salts studied thus far exhibit a significant hysteresis effect during crystallization and thus Ca(ClO4)2 readily forms supersaturated, metastable solutions. Results were compared to a thermodynamic model for three hydration states of Ca(ClO4)2. As predicted, the higher hydration states were less deliquescent and the experimental results are in good agreement with the model. To better predict the stability of aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions in the martian subsurface, we conducted a diurnal cycle experiment. Results showed that Ca(ClO4)2 can remain aqueous when exposed to the subsurface temperature and RH conditions expected at the Phoenix landing site. Present-day fluvial features, such as RSL, have been attributed to brine flows; thus, understanding RH-driven phase transitions for Ca(ClO4)2 aqueous solutions may be important for characterizing present-day water on Mars.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DUST DELIQUESCENCE FOR FEP SCREENING

    SciTech Connect

    C. Bryan

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential for penetration of the Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) waste package outer barrier by localized corrosion due to the deliquescence of soluble constituents in dust present on waste package surfaces. The results support a recommendation to exclude deliquescence-induced localized corrosion (pitting or crevice corrosion) of the outer barrier from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Preparation of this report, and supporting laboratory studies and calculations, were performed as part of the planned effort in Work Package AEBM21, as implemented in ''Technical Work Plan for: Screening Evaluation for Dust Deliquescence and Localized Corrosion'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172804]), by Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, and staff from three national laboratories: Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis and conclusions presented in this report are quality affecting, as determined in the controlling technical work plan. A summary of background information, based on work that was not performed under a quality assurance program, is provided as Appendix E. In this instance, the use of unqualified information is provided for transparency and corroboration only, and is clearly separated from uses of qualified information. Thus, the qualification status of this information does not affect the conclusions of this report. The acceptance criteria addressed in Sections 4.2 and 7.2 were changed from the technical work plan in response to review comments received during preparation of this report.

  17. Deliquescence and efflorescence of calcium perchlorate: An investigation of stable aqueous solutions relevant to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, D. L.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Davis, R. D.; Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V. F.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    Calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2) is a highly deliquescent salt that may exist on the surface of present-day Mars; however, its water uptake properties have not been well characterized at temperatures and relative humidity conditions relevant to Mars. Here, we quantify the deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of Ca(ClO4)2 as a function of temperature (223-273 K) to elucidate its behavior on the surface of Mars. A Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell was used to simulate Mars relevant temperature and relative humidity conditions and monitor deliquescence (solid to aqueous) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid) phase transitions of Ca(ClO4)2. Deliquescence and efflorescence were monitored visually using optical images and spectroscopically using Raman microscopy. We find that there is a wide range of deliquescence RH values between 5% and 55% RH. This range is due to the formation of hydrates in different temperatures regimes, with the higher DRH values occurring at the lowest temperatures. Experimental deliquescence results were compared to a thermodynamic model for three hydration states of Ca(ClO4)2. The model predicts that the higher hydration states deliquesce at a higher RH than the lower hydration states. Calcium perchlorate was found to supersaturate, with lower ERH values than DRH values. The ERH results were less dependent on temperature with an average 15 ± 4%, but values as low as 3 ± 2% were measured at 273 K. Levitation experiments were performed on single particles of Ca(ClO4)2 and Mg(ClO4)2 at 298 K. While efflorescence was observed around 15% RH for Mg(ClO4)2, the efflorescence of Ca(ClO4)2 was not observed, even when exposed to 1% RH at 298 K. Additionally, a 17-h experiment was conducted to simulate a martian subsurface diurnal cycle. This demonstrated Ca(ClO4)2 aqueous solutions can persist without efflorescing for the majority of a martian sol, up to 17 h under Mars temperature heating rates

  18. Biosignatures of Hypersaline Environments (Salt Crusts) an Analog for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. D.; Duncan, A. G.; Davilla, A. F.; McKay, C. P.

    2016-05-01

    Halophilic ecosystems are models for life in extreme environments including planetary surfaces such as Mars. Our research focuses on biosignatures in a salt crusts and the detection of these biomarkers by ground and orbital assests.

  19. The ecology of Dunaliella in high-salt environments.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-01

    Halophilic representatives of the genus Dunaliella, notably D. salina and D. viridis, are found worldwide in salt lakes and saltern evaporation and crystallizer ponds at salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation. Thanks to the biotechnological exploitation of D. salina for β-carotene production we have a profound knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of the alga. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of the members of the genus Dunaliella in hypersaline environments, in spite of the fact that Dunaliella is often the main or even the sole primary producer present, so that the entire ecosystem depends on carbon fixed by this alga. This review paper summarizes our knowledge about the occurrence and the activities of different Dunaliella species in natural salt lakes (Great Salt Lake, the Dead Sea and others), in saltern ponds and in other salty habitats where members of the genus have been found. PMID:25984505

  20. Road salt in the environment: loads, lags and consequences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, S.; Kelly, V.; Martin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Increased use of road salt over the past few decades has, not surprisingly, led to higher Na and Cl concentrations in dispersed parts of the environment. We have tracked these changes over southeastern New York for the past 20+ years and can show a clear link to road density as an explanatory factor for local concentrations. The unexpected findings center around retention of Cl in streams and shallow groundwaters long after the winter season has passed and this can result in average summertime concentrations as high as monthly mean concentrations during the snoa and ice season. These persisten concentrations have consequences for aquatic life as well as local water resources. Literature suggests these high summer values may cause harm to some sensitive organisms.Experiments show both susceptibility and adaptation by local stream algal communities. Analysis of reported data from private drinking water wells shows a sub-set has Cl levels above the EPA secondary standard and these exceedances are apparently associated with local salt application rates. The problems of rising salt are significant given the magnitude of salt release to the environment but also tractable in the sense that there are multiple motivations for minimizing application rates while maintaining public safety. The salinization issue has also proven a useful tool for public engagement since the problem is widespread yet comprehensible.

  1. Precipitates/Salts Model Calculations for Various Drift Temperature Environments

    SciTech Connect

    P. Marnier

    2001-12-20

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation within a repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, Calculations, in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The primary objective of this calculation is to predict the effects of evaporation on the abstracted water compositions established in ''EBS Incoming Water and Gas Composition Abstraction Calculations for Different Drift Temperature Environments'' (BSC 2001c). A secondary objective is to predict evaporation effects on observed Yucca Mountain waters for subsequent cement interaction calculations (BSC 2001d). The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b).

  2. Facilitation of endolithic microbial survival in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert by mineral deliquescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Alfonso F.; Gómez-Silva, Benito; de Los Rios, Asunción; Ascaso, Carmen; Olivares, Hector; McKay, Christopher P.; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2008-03-01

    The hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert is considered the dry limit for life on Earth. Soils in this region have very low abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and are practically barren of photosynthetic microorganisms because of the extreme dry conditions (≤2 mm a-1 rainfall). However, relatively abundant endolithic communities of cyanobacteria (Chroococcidiopsis) occur within halite crusts in paleolake evaporitic deposits. By means of continuous monitoring of the microclimate conditions (temperature, relative humidity, water vapor density, wetness, and photosynthetically active radiation) inside and around the halite crusts, we demonstrate here that water vapor condenses within the pore space of the halite at relative humidity (RH) levels that otherwise hinder the occurrence of liquid water in the surrounding environment. Water condensation occurs at RH >75%, which corresponds to the deliquescence point of halite. We have estimated a total of 57 deliquescence events (i.e., water condensation) within the halite crusts, as opposed to only 1 liquid water event outside. These wet events resulted in a total of 213.8 h of potential photosynthetic activity for the endolithic microorganisms versus only 6 h for organisms outside the halite crusts. Halite crusts may therefore represent the last available niche for photosynthetic activity in extreme arid environments on Earth.

  3. Virus-host interplay in high salt environments.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Nina S; Bamford, Dennis H; Oksanen, Hanna M

    2016-08-01

    Interaction of viruses and cells has tremendous impact on cellular and viral evolution, nutrient cycling and decay of organic matter. Thus, viruses can indirectly affect complex processes such as climate change and microbial pathogenicity. During recent decades, studies on extreme environments have introduced us to archaeal viruses and viruses infecting extremophilic bacteria or eukaryotes. Hypersaline environments are known to contain strikingly high numbers of viruses (∼10(9) particles per ml). Halophilic archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes inhabiting hypersaline environments have only a few cellular predators, indicating that the role of viruses is highly important in these ecosystems. Viruses thriving in high salt are called haloviruses and to date more than 100 such viruses have been described. Virulent, temperate, and persistent halovirus life cycles have been observed among the known isolates including the recently described SNJ1-SNJ2 temperate virus pair which is the first example of an interplay between two haloviruses in one host cell. In addition to direct virus and cell isolations, metagenomics have provided a wealth of information about virus-host dynamics in hypersaline environments suggesting that halovirus populations and halophilic microorganisms are dynamic over time and spatially distributed around the highly saline environments on the Earth. PMID:26929102

  4. Deliquescence and efflorescence of small particles: Unifying perspectives from nucleation theory

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw,R.; Lewis, E.

    2009-02-23

    We examine size dependent deliquescence/efflorescence phase transformation for particles down to several nanometers in size. A thin layer criterion (TLC) is introduced to define a deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) for small particles. The usual bulk deliquescence conditions are recovered in the limit of large dry particle size. Nano-size particles are shown to deliquesce to metastable states via a nucleation process at relative humidity just below the DRH. The nucleation barrier is located at a critical solution layer thickness and vanishes at the DRH defined by the TLC. Methods from nucleation theory form the basis for the analysis and yield new insights into the theory, facilitate the interpretation of measurements, and point to unification of deliquescence and efflorescence processes for particles in the nano regime. Methods include thermodynamic area constructions, Legendre transforms relating the binary free-energy surfaces for deliquescence and efflorescence processes, and application of nucleation theorems.

  5. Growth Potential of Halophilic Bacteria Isolated from Solar Salt Environments: Carbon Sources and Salt Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Javor, Barbara J.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen strains of extremely halophilic bacteria and three strains of moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from four different solar salt environments. Growth tests on carbohydrates, low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, and complex medium demonstrated that the moderate halophiles and strains of the extreme halophiles Haloarcula and Halococcus grew on most of the substrates tested. Among the Halobacterium isolates were several metabolic groups: strains that grew on a broad range of substrates and strains that were essentially confined to either amino acid (peptone) or carbohydrate oxidation. One strain (WS-4) only grew well on pyruvate and acetate. Most strains of extreme halophiles grew by anaerobic fermentation and possibly by nitrate reduction. Tests of growth potential in natural saltern brines demonstrated that none of the halobacteria grew well in brines which harbor the densest populations of these bacteria in solar salterns. All grew best in brines which were unsaturated with NaCl. The high concentrations of Na+ and Mg2+ found in saltern crystallizer brines limited bacterial growth, but the concentrations of K+ found in these brines had little effect. MgSO4 was relatively more inhibitory to the extreme halophiles than was MgCl2, but the reverse was true for the moderate halophiles. PMID:16346609

  6. Effects of Stress on Corrosion in a Molten Salt Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdzis, Samuel; Manos, Dennis; Cooke, William

    Molten salt is often used as a heat transfer and energy storage fluid in concentrating solar power plants. Despite its suitable thermal properties, molten salt can present challenges in terms of corrosion. Previous studies have focused extensively on mass loss due to molten salt-induced corrosion. In contrast, we have investigated how corrosion begins and how it changes the surface of stainless steel. Samples of alloys including 304 and 316 stainless steel were exposed to the industry-standard NaNO3-KNO3 (60%-40% by weight) mixture at temperatures over 500°C and then analyzed using Hirox, SEM, and TOF-SIMS. We compare the corrosion at grain boundaries to that within single grain surfaces, showing the effect of the increased internal stresses and the weakened passivation layer. Also, we have examined the enhanced corrosion of samples under mechanical stress, simulating the effects of thermal stresses in a power plant.

  7. Hygroscopic salts and the potential for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Davila, Alfonso F; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de Los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (a(w)) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The a(w) of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with a(w) compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with a(w) below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of a(w) used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at

  8. Performance of 115 kV fiberglass transmission crossarms in wet and salt fog environments

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.R.; Sarkinen, C.F.; Verma, V.

    1983-04-01

    This paper discusses 60 Hz-dielectric tests performed on 115 kV solid fiberglass transmission crossarm-insulator assemblies to evaluate their performance in wet and salt fog environments. Testing included the following variables: (1) wet and dry conditions, (2) new and used crossarms and insulators, (3) type and number of insulators, and (4) salt fog salinity. Analysis of test results shows that the surface coating of fiberglass insulation is susceptible to degradation in a salt fog environment. Once this coating is eroded and the glass fibers are exposed, carbonized tracking develops. The fiberglass crossarm thus loses its electrical strength.

  9. Comparison of methods for determining the deliquescence points of single crystalline ingredients and blends.

    PubMed

    Allan, Matthew; Mauer, Lisa J

    2016-03-15

    Many crystalline food ingredients undergo dissolution at a critical relative humidity known as the deliquescence point (RH0). Blends of crystalline ingredients exhibit deliquescence lowering, resulting in a deliquescence point (RH0mix) lower than the individual ingredient RH0s. To determine the effects of method type and data collection parameters, these deliquescence measurement methods were compared: saturated solution water activity, dynamic vapor sorption profiles (DVS), and dynamic dewpoint sorption profiles (DDI). Water activity measurements were broadly applicable for measuring deliquescence points when 1-4 g sample, 50-125 μL/g water:solid ratio, and 24-48 h equilibration were used. DVS and DDI techniques should be limited to samples containing 1-2 ingredients due to crystal contact point effects on RH0mix measurement. Recommended DVS parameters are: 1% RH step, 0.01% equilibrium criteria, and 3h maximum time. DDI profiles were consistent with 50-150 mL/min vapor flow rates. Ingredient mutarotation, solute interactions in solution, and contact point limitations affect the determination of deliquescence points. PMID:26575709

  10. Light scattering from sea-salt aerosols at Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Douglas; Kumar, Naresh

    2006-05-01

    A method is described to estimate light scattering (Bsp) by sea-salt aerosols at coastal locations in the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. Dry mass scattering efficiencies for fine and coarse sea-salt particles were based on previously measured dry sea-salt size distributions. Enhancement of sea-salt particle scattering by hygroscopic growth was based on NaCl water activity data. Sea-salt aerosol mass at the IMPROVE site in the Virgin Islands (VIIS) was estimated from strontium (Sr) concentrations in IMPROVE aerosol samples. Estimated Bsp, including contributions from sea-salt mass based on Sr, agreed well with measured Bsp at the VIIS IMPROVE site. On average, sea salt accounted for 52% of estimated Bsp at this site. Sea-salt aerosol mass cannot be reliably estimated from Sr unless its crustal enrichment factor exceeds 10. Sodium (Na) concentrations are not accurately determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis in IMPROVE samples. It is recommended that Na be measured in the fine and coarse modes by a more appropriate method, such as atomic absorption spectroscopy or ion chromatography, to account for scattering by sea-salt particles at IMPROVE sites where such contributions may be significant. PMID:16739800

  11. Comparative Geomorphology of Salt and Tidal Freshwater Marsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, G. B.

    2002-05-01

    Temperate estuaries include a spectrum of coastal marshes ranging from highly saline near the ocean to fresh in tributaries with substantial watershed drainage. While the hydrologic, sedimentary, and geomorphic dynamics of salt marshes have been thoroughly investigated, those aspects of tidal freshwater marshes have only begun to be addressed. Based on a recent burst in research on tidal freshwater systems in Chesapeake Bay by different universities, an attempt is made here to provide comparative geomorphology. In terms of similarities, both have tidal channels whose hydraulic geometry is primarily controlled by the tidal prism. Both show decreasing sedimentation and increasing organics with elevation and distance from channels. At seasonal to interannual time scales, the morphodynamics of both show similarities in the interplay among hydroperiod, vegetation, and geomorphology. Rather than simply evolving from youth to maturity, both systems exhibit strong evidence for dynamic equilibrium between process and morphology. Despite these similarities, there are key differences that motivate further research of tidal freshwater marshes. First, whereas salt marshes are limited by sediment supply, tidal fresh ones may not be limited depending on upstream basin size. E.g., fringing marshes along Pumunkey River have very low sediment supply, while deltaic marshes in Bush River and Sassafras River are not supply-limited. Instead, the growth of deltaic fresh marshes is transport limited, as winds and tides can only generate low momentum and turbulence for sediment transport. As illustrated in multiple systems, a constant availability of sediment leads to higher sedimentation in fresh marshes. Second, in high latitude salt marshes where the tidal range is large and the climate cold, ice acts as a strong erosional agent. In fresh marshes, ice serves to sequester sediment and buffer the erosional impact of autumnal vegetation dieback. Third, the high spatial variation in plant

  12. Provision of water by halite deliquescence for Nostoc commune biofilms under Mars relevant surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänchen, Jochen; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by findings of new mineral related water sources for organisms under extremely dry conditions on Earth we studied in an interdisciplinary approach the water sorption behaviour of halite, soil component and terrestrial Nostoc commune biofilm under Mars relevant environmental conditions. Physicochemical methods served for the determination of water sorption equilibrium data and survival of heterotrophic bacteria in biofilm samples with different water contents was assured by recultivation. Deliquescence of halite provides liquid water at temperatures <273 K and may serve as water source on Mars during the morning stabilized by the CO2 atmosphere for a few hours. The protecting biofilm of N. commune is rather hygroscopic and tends to store water at lower humidity values. Survival tests showed that a large proportion of the Alphaproteobacteria dominated microbiota associated to N. commune is very desiccation tolerant and water uptake from saturated NaCl solutions (either by direct uptake of brine or adsorption of humidity) did not enhance recultivability in long-time desiccated samples. Still, a minor part can grow under highly saline conditions. However, the salinity level, although unfavourable for the host organism, might be for parts of the heterotrophic microbiota no serious hindrance for growing in salty Mars-like environments.

  13. Genetic and physiological diversity of Tetragenococcus halophilus strains isolated from sugar- and salt-rich environments.

    PubMed

    Justé, Annelies; Lievens, Bart; Frans, Ingeborg; Marsh, Terence L; Klingeberg, Michael; Michiels, Chris W; Willems, Kris A

    2008-09-01

    Tetragenococcus halophilus is known to flourish in extreme salt environments. Recently, this halophilic bacterium also appeared as the dominant microflora during storage of sugar thick juice, an intermediate product of beet sugar production. Although T. halophilus can cause degradation of thick juice, dominance of this bacterium does not always result in degradation. In this study T. halophilus strains from high-salt and high-sugar environments, and in particular from degraded and non-degraded thick juice, were compared in detail. Both physiological and genetic characterization using Biolog, repetitive PCR fingerprinting (rep-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technology, revealed clear differences between T. halophilus strains isolated from salt- and sugar-rich environments. However, no strain pattern could be specifically and systematically associated with degraded or non-degraded thick juice. Remarkably, halophilic T. halophilus strains were not able to grow in sugar thick juice. Irrespective of the differences between the strains from high-salt or high-sugar environments, DNA-DNA hybridization grouped all strains within the species T. halophilus, except one isolate from sugar thick juice that showed different physiological and genetic characteristics, and that may represent a new species of Tetragenococcus. PMID:18757794

  14. Crystallization of DNA-capped gold nanoparticles in high-concentration, divalent salt environments.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shawn J; Kahn, Jason S; Derrien, Thomas L; Campolongo, Michael J; Zhao, Mervin; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Luo, Dan

    2014-01-27

    The multiparametric nature of nanoparticle self-assembly makes it challenging to circumvent the instabilities that lead to aggregation and achieve crystallization under extreme conditions. By using non-base-pairing DNA as a model ligand instead of the typical base-pairing design for programmability, long-range 2D DNA-gold nanoparticle crystals can be obtained at extremely high salt concentrations and in a divalent salt environment. The interparticle spacings in these 2D nanoparticle crystals can be engineered and further tuned based on an empirical model incorporating the parameters of ligand length and ionic strength. PMID:24459055

  15. Hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gas in salt environments, a contribution to gas genesis understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Pironon, J.; Grishina, S.

    1995-08-01

    The analysis of organic inclusions is a contribution to the understanding of the thermal and biochemical history of the evaporite basins by the in-situ observation of organic evolution products which are preserved by entrapment in salt. Recent applications of microanalytical techniques (FT-infrared, Raman, FT-Raman, UV-fluorescence) have confirmed and elucidated the nature of the organic phases trapped in inclusions. Three geological environments were studied corresponding to different levels of organic maturation: (1) the Bresse salt deposit (France) where the presence of solid organic matter, immature oil, carbon dioxide, and ammonium is detected, is characteristic of the early diagenesis of the massive salt series deposited at the Eocene-Oligocene period in the West European continental rift, (2) the Gabon margin where oil, methane, carbon dioxide and ammonium correspond to catagenetic products trapped in a salt diapir of the Cretaceous salt series of the Ogooue delta, and (3) the Lena-Tungusska oil-bearing region of Siberian platform where graphite, carbonaceous material, sulphur, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and oils correspond to the evolution of the evaporite-brine-organic matter system under influence of basalt intrusions. The organic history of salt rocks can be followed from Bresse to Siberian examples. Proteins and carbohydrates are rapidly destroyed during early diagenesis (Bresse-France): ammonium and carbon dioxide are produced by deamination and decarboxylation respectively, the complex organic molecular association is simplified and geopolymers (kerogen precursors) are produced. With increasing maturity (Gabon), kerogen is transformed in aliphatic compounds which are progressively cracked to produce short alkane chains and finally methane. Residual carbon dioxide is also produced. In Siberia, the organic matter evolution is linked to the d/h ratio, where d is the distance to the dolerite sill and h the thickness of the sill.

  16. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  17. Electrochemical corrosion failure mechanism of M152 steel under a salt-spray environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Pan; Xiao, Kui; Ding, Kang-kang; Wang, Xu; Yan, Li-dan; Mao, Cheng-liang; Dong, Chao-fang; Li, Xiao-gang

    2015-11-01

    The corrosion failure mechanism of M152 was studied using the neutral salt-spray test to better understand the corrosion behavior of 1Cr12Ni3Mo2VN (M152), provide a basis for the optimization of material selection, and prevent the occurrence of failure. Moreover, the mechanism was investigated using the mass loss method, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), stereology microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that M152 steel suffers severe corrosion, especially pitting corrosion, in a high-salt-spray environment. In the early stage of the experiment, the color of the corrosion products was mainly orange. The products then gradually evolved into a dense, brown substance, which coincided with a decrease of corrosion rate. Correspondingly, the EIS spectrum of M152 in the late test also exhibited three time constants and presented Warburg impedance at low frequencies.

  18. Research on the Material Removal in the Polishing of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystals Based on Deliquescent Action

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shaolong; Zhang, Feihu; Zhang, Yong; Luan, Dianrong

    2014-01-01

    Through the polishing experiments of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals based on deliquescent action, the effect of several major factors, including crystal's initial surface state, polishing time, and revolution of polishing plate, on material removal was researched. Under certain experimental conditions, the rules of material removal were reached, and experimental results are discussed, which lays the foundation for popularization and application of polishing technology for KDP crystals based on deliquescent action. PMID:24672399

  19. Ion Segregation and Deliquescence of Alkali Halide Nanocrystals on SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, Kenta; Jiang, Peng; Lin, Deng-Sung; Verdaguer, Albert; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-08-01

    The adsorption of water on alkali halide (KBr, KCl, KF, NaCl) nanocrystals on SiO2 and their deliquescence was investigated as a function of relative humidity (RH) from 8% to near saturation by scanning polarization force microscopy. At low humidity, water adsorption solvates ions at the surface of the crystals and increases their mobility. This results in a large increase in the dielectric constant, which is manifested in an increase in the electrostatic force and in an increase in the apparent height of the nanocrystals. Above 58% RH, the diffusion of ions leads to Ostwald ripening, where larger nanocrystals grow at the expense of the smaller ones. At the deliquescence point, droplets were formed. For KBr, KCl, and NaCl, the droplets exhibit a negative surface potential relative to the surrounding region, which is indicative of the preferential segregation of anions to the air/solution interface.

  20. Ion Segregation and Deliquescence of Alkali Halide Nanocrystals on SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Arima, Kenta; Jiang, Peng; Lin, Deng-Sung; Verdaguer, Albert; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-08-11

    The adsorption of water on alkali halide (KBr, KCl, KF, NaCl) nanocrystals on SiO{sub 2} and their deliquescence was investigated as a function of relative humidity (RH) from 8% to near saturation by scanning polarization force microscopy. At low humidity, water adsorption solvates ions at the surface of the crystals and increases their mobility. This results in a large increase in the dielectric constant, which is manifested in an increase in the electrostatic force and in an increase in the apparent height of the nanocrystals. Above 58% RH, the diffusion of ions leads to Ostwald ripening, where larger nanocrystals grow at the expense of the smaller ones. At the deliquescence point, droplets were formed. For KBr, KCl, and NaCl, the droplets exhibit a negative surface potential relative to the surrounding region, which is indicative of the preferential segregation of anions to the air/solution interface.

  1. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    SciTech Connect

    P. Mariner

    2004-11-09

    This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, HSO{sub 4}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CaHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, MgHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, HSiO{sub 3

  2. Effect of fatty acid coatings on ozone uptake to deliquesced KI/NaCl aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, M.; Rouvière, A.

    2009-12-01

    Phase transfer kinetics of gas phase oxidants may limit oxidative aging of aerosol particles. The aim of this work is to study the role of amphiphilic organic aerosol constituents on the kinetics of phase transfer of gaseous species to the bulk aqueous phase. The effect of (C9-C20) fatty acid surfactants on the phase transfer of ozone to deliquesced potassium iodide and sodium chloride have been investigated. Some other experiments of ozone uptake have been performed with different mixtures and proportions of fatty acids. The kinetic experiments were performed in an aerosol flow tube at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. To obtain deliquesced inorganic particles, the relative humidity was adjusted in the range of 75% to 80%. It is shown that the fatty acids in monolayer quantities may substantially inhibit the phase transfer of ozone to deliquesced particles. The results showed that especially the C15-C20 limit the mass transfer of ozone to the aqueous phase, whereby the magnitude of this effect was following the monolayer properties of the fatty acids. It was also possible to determine a resistance of such films to the transfer of ozone to the bulk phase.

  3. Methylammonium methylcarbamate thermal formation in interstellar ice analogs: a glycine salt precursor in protostellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossa, J.-B.; Duvernay, F.; Theulé, P.; Borget, F.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Chiavassa, T.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Analyses of dust cometary grains collected by the Stardust spacecraft have shown the presence of amines and amino acids molecules, and among them glycine (NH{2}CH{2}COOH). We show how the glycine molecule could be produced in the protostellar environments before its introduction into comets. Aims: We study the evolution of the interstellar ice analogues affected by both thermal heating and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons, in addition to the nature of the formed molecules and the confrontation of our experimental results with astronomical observations. Methods: Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are used to monitor the evolution of the H{2}O:CO{2}:CH{3}NH{2} and CO{2}:CH{3}NH{2} ice mixtures during both warming processes and VUV photolysis. Results: We first show how carbon dioxide (CO{2}) and methylamine (CH{3}NH{2}) thermally react in water-dominated ice to form methylammonium methylcarbamate [ CH{3}NH{3}+] [ CH{3}NHCOO-] noted C. We then determine the reaction rate and activation energy. We show that C thermal formation can occurs in the 50-70 K temperature range of a protostellar environment. Secondly, we report that a VUV photolysis of a pure C sample produces a glycine salt, methylammonium glycinate [ CH{3}NH{3}+] [ NH{2}CH{2}COO-] noted G. We propose a scenario explaining how C and subsequently G can be synthesized in interstellar ices and precometary grains. Conclusions: [ CH{3}NH{3}+] [ CH{3}NHCOO-] could be readily formed and would act as a glycine salt precursor in protostellar environments dominated by thermal and UV processing. We propose a new pathway leading to a glycine salt, which is consistent with the detection of glycine and methylamine within the returned samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 from the Stardust mission.

  4. Effects of Crowder Structure and Salt on DNA Mobility and Conformation in Crowded Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorczyca, Stephanie M.; Robertson-Anderson, Rae M.

    Biological cells are crowded environments in which DNA must move through to perform specific functions. We study how the properties of crowded cell-like environments impact DNA dynamics by tracking individual 115 kbp ring and linear DNA in different crowded environments using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. We determine the role of crowder structure and salt on DNA diffusion and conformation by measuring the mean-squared center-of-mass displacements, as well as the conformational shape, size, and fluctuations of each molecule. Previously, we used 10 and 500 kDa dextran as crowders and showed that mobility of both ring and linear DNA decreased exponentially with increased crowding, but rings compact while linear DNA elongate. These effects were dependent solely on the reduction in available volume for DNA rather than size or number of crowders. Here we use crowders of similar molecular weight, but different structure to dextran (10 kDa PEG and 400 kDa Ficoll). We find that DNA mobility reduction is independent of crowder structure and that ring and linear DNA undergo more significant compaction. Finally, we characterize the role of salt on DNA mobility and conformation to determine the relative roles of enthalpic versus entropic effects on crowding-induced DNA dynamics. This research was funded by the AFOSR Young Investigator Program, Grant No. FA95550-12-1-0315 and the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Scholarship Foundation.

  5. Localized corrosion of high performance metal alloys in an acid/salt environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Ontiveros, C.

    1991-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Space Shuttle launch site at Kennedy Space Center use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the thin walled 304L stainless steel flex hoses. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. The study focussed on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, and long term exposure at a beach corrosion testing site. Based on the results of these tests, several nickel based alloys were found to have very high resistance to this corrosive environment. Also, there was excellent agreement between the electrochemical tests and the actual beach exposure tests. This suggests that electrochemical testing may be useful for narrowing the field of potential candidate alloys before subjecting samples to long term beach exposure.

  6. A Hypermedia Environment To Explore and Negotiate Students' Conceptions: Animation of the Solution Process of Table Salt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenezer, Jazlin V.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the characteristics and values of hypermedia for learning chemistry. Reports on how a hypermedia environment was used to explore a group of 11th grade chemistry students' conceptions of table salt dissolving in water. Indicates that a hypermedia environment can be used to explore, negotiate, and assess students' conceptions of…

  7. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment.

    PubMed

    Mirete, Salvador; Mora-Ruiz, Merit R; Lamprecht-Grandío, María; de Figueras, Carolina G; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; González-Pastor, José E

    2015-01-01

    Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes from the microbial communities of a moderate-salinity rhizosphere and brine from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain), which could confer increased salt resistance to Escherichia coli. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments and the remarkable presence of three bacterial groups never revealed as major components of salt brines. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain E. coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. Eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well-known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation such as a glycerol transporter and a proton pump, whereas others encoded proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms such as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth) and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also conferred salt resistance to this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species in which these genes can function. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment. PMID:26528268

  8. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment

    PubMed Central

    Mirete, Salvador; Mora-Ruiz, Merit R.; Lamprecht-Grandío, María; de Figueras, Carolina G.; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; González-Pastor, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes from the microbial communities of a moderate-salinity rhizosphere and brine from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain), which could confer increased salt resistance to Escherichia coli. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments and the remarkable presence of three bacterial groups never revealed as major components of salt brines. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain E. coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. Eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well-known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation such as a glycerol transporter and a proton pump, whereas others encoded proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms such as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth) and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also conferred salt resistance to this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species in which these genes can function. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment. PMID:26528268

  9. The water cycles of water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Changgeng; Chan, Chak K.

    In this study, the water cycles of nine water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric interest were studied using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) at 25°C. Sodium formate, sodium acetate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and sodium methanesulfonate (Na-MSA) particles crystallize as the relative humidity (RH) decreases and they deliquesce as the RH increases. Sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate form supersaturated particles at low RH before crystallization but they do not deliquesce even at RH=90%. Sodium malonate and sodium maleate particles neither crystallize nor deliquesce. These two salts absorb and evaporate water reversibly without hysteresis. In most cases, the solid states of single particles resulting from the crystallization of supersaturated droplets do not form the most thermodynamically stable state found in bulk studies. Sodium formate, sodium oxalate, ammonium oxalate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and Na-MSA form anhydrous particles after crystallization. Sodium acetate forms particles with a water/salt molar ratio of 0.5 after crystallization. In salts with several hydrated states including sodium formate and sodium acetate, the particles deliquesce at the lowest deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the hydrates. Except sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate, all the salts studied here are as hygroscopic as typical inorganic hygroscopic aerosols. The hygroscopic organic salts have a growth factor of 1.76-2.18 from RH=10-90%, comparable to that of typical hygroscopic inorganic salts such as NaCl and (NH 4) 2SO 4. Further study of other atmospheric water-soluble organic compounds and their mixtures with inorganic salts is needed to explain the field observations of the hygroscopic growth of ambient aerosols.

  10. US NRC-Sponsored Research on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Dry Storage Canister Materials in Marine Environments - 13344

    SciTech Connect

    Oberson, Greg; Dunn, Darrell; Mintz, Todd; He, Xihua; Pabalan, Roberto; Miller, Larry

    2013-07-01

    At a number of locations in the U.S., spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is maintained at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). These ISFSIs, which include operating and decommissioned reactor sites, Department of Energy facilities in Idaho, and others, are licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 72. The SNF is stored in dry cask storage systems, which most commonly consist of a welded austenitic stainless steel canister within a larger concrete vault or overpack vented to the external atmosphere to allow airflow for cooling. Some ISFSIs are located in marine environments where there may be high concentrations of airborne chloride salts. If salts were to deposit on the canisters via the external vents, a chloride-rich brine could form by deliquescence. Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC), particularly in the presence of residual tensile stresses from welding or other fabrication processes. SCC could allow helium to leak out of a canister if the wall is breached or otherwise compromise its structural integrity. There is currently limited understanding of the conditions that will affect the SCC susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel exposed to marine salts. NRC previously conducted a scoping study of this phenomenon, reported in NUREG/CR-7030 in 2010. Given apparent conservatisms and limitations in this study, NRC has sponsored a follow-on research program to more systematically investigate various factors that may affect SCC including temperature, humidity, salt concentration, and stress level. The activities within this research program include: (1) measurement of relative humidity (RH) for deliquescence of sea salt, (2) SCC testing within the range of natural absolute humidity, (3) SCC testing at elevated temperatures, (4) SCC testing at high humidity conditions, and (5) SCC testing with various applied stresses. Results

  11. Thermodynamic and kinetic theory of nucleation, deliquescence and efflorescence transitions in the ensemble of droplets on soluble particles.

    PubMed

    Shchekin, Alexander K; Shabaev, Ilya V; Hellmuth, Olaf

    2013-02-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic peculiarities of nucleation, deliquescence and efflorescence transitions in the ensemble of droplets formed on soluble condensation nuclei from a solvent vapor have been considered. The interplay of the effects of solubility and the size of condensation nuclei has been analyzed. Activation barriers for the deliquescence and phase transitions and for the reverse efflorescence transition have been determined as functions of the relative humidity of the vapor-gas atmosphere, initial size, and solubility of condensation nuclei. It has been demonstrated that, upon variations in the relative humidity of the atmosphere, the crossover in thermodynamically stable and unstable variables of the droplet state takes place. The physical meaning of stable and unstable variables has been clarified. The kinetic equations for establishing equilibrium and steady distributions of binary droplets have been solved. The specific times for relaxation, deliquescence and efflorescence transitions have been calculated. PMID:23406138

  12. Common-ion effects on the deliquescence lowering of crystalline ingredient blends.

    PubMed

    Allan, Matthew; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2016-03-15

    Deliquescence points (RH0, RH0mix) of ionic crystalline food ingredients and blends thereof were determined using water activity and moisture sorption techniques. Measured RH0mix values of ingredient blends with and without a common ion were compared to Ross equation predictions of deliquescence lowering. In binary blends with no common ion, measured RH0mix values ranged from 5% RH lower to 6% RH higher than predicted; however, when a common ion was present, the measured RH0mix was consistently 6-8% RH higher than predicted. In tertiary blends with a common ion, RH0mix values were 15-18% RH higher than predicted. The higher RH0mix in blends with a common ion is caused by counterion dissociation competition from the common ion. At equilibrium, these solutions will have fewer solutes and a greater vapor pressure than assumed by the Ross equation. A modified Ross equation was developed to compensate for the common-ion effect and improve RH0mix predictions. PMID:26575706

  13. Relative Humidity and the Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking in an impure Plutonium Oxide Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.; Duffey, J.; Lam, P.; Dunn, K.

    2010-05-05

    Laboratory tests to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons showed that corrosion occurred in selected samples. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The exposures were conducted in sealed containers in which the oxide-salt mixtures were loaded with about 0.6 wt % water from a humidified helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration, the composition of the salt and the moisture present in the test environment. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride and 0.6 wt% water. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas above the solid mixture, or in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either no CaCl{sub 2} or 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2}. SCC was present where the 0.6 wt % water content exceeded the value needed to fully hydrate the available CaCl{sub 2}, but was absent where the water content was insufficient. These results reveal the significance of the relative humidity in the austenitic stainless steels environment to their susceptibility to corrosion. The relative humidity in the test environment was controlled by the water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salts such as CaCl{sub 2}. For each salt or salt mixture there is a threshold relative

  14. FATE OF FENTHION IN SALT-MARSH ENVIRONMENTS: 1. FACTORS AFFECTING BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC DEGRADATION RATES IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenthion (Baytex), an organophosphate insecticide, is frequently applied to salt-marsh environments to control mosquitoes. hake-flask tests were used to study rates of abiotic and biotic degradation of fenthion and the environmental parameters that affect these rates. Water or wa...

  15. Rapid Formation of Molecular Bromine from Deliquesced NaBr Aerosol in the Presence of Ozone and UV Light

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of gas-phase bromine from aqueous sodium bromide aerosols is investigated through a combination of chamber experiments and chemical kinetics modeling. Experiments show that Br2(g) is produced rapidly from deliquesced NaBr aerosols in the presence of OH radicals prod...

  16. Late glacial environments of peninsular Florida: evidence from the Little Salt Spring (LSS) site

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, J.A.; Clausen, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Located 20 km east of the Gulf of Mexico, Little Salt Spring (8 So 18) is a flooded, 60 m-deep collapse sinkhole in the Tampa Limestone. Excavation of an underwater ledge at the site has produced the oldest association - 12,000 ybp - of an artifact with a vertebrate faunal assemblage in the southeastern US. Ground water level in this feature circa 12,000 years ago was 20+/- 1 m below present mean sea level. Due to the porosity of the Florida carbonate platform, this would approximate the contemporaneous ground water table around the peninsula south of 29/sup 0/ N. latitude and below +25 m elevation. The authors theorize that a vegetation zone paralleling in the Gulf of Mexico paleocoastline (at -25 to -40 m) and extending up to present mean sea level probably resembled that of the present evergreen forest association of Florida; additionally, as far south as Fort Myers it may have included northern hardwood species. Gallery forests would have penetrated along intermittent drainageways into the interior of the peninsula but in general its quartz-rich surficial sand cover will have been desiccated, and landward of the paleocoastal forest zone the environment would have been semiarid to rid. The concomitant greatly-reduced biomass implies a decrease in carrying capacity and less available animal protein for a hunting economy. On the Florida peninsula, the critical independent variable controlling realistic models of the distribution of paleoindian habitation and land use is depth to ground water table.

  17. Laboratory investigation of perchlorate deliquescence at the surface of Mars with a Raman scattering lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakakos, George; Whiteway, James A.

    2015-10-01

    A sample of magnesium perchlorate hexahydrate was subjected to the water vapor pressure and temperatures found at the landing site of the Phoenix Mars mission. Laser Raman scattering was applied to detect the onset of deliquescence and provide a relative estimate of the quantity of water taken up and subsequently released by the sample. As the temperature of the sample decreased at the same rate as measured on Mars during the evening, significant uptake of water from the atmosphere was observed to occur prior to the frost point temperature being reached. As the temperature was lowered further, the relative humidity over ice increased to 100% and frost formed on the surface surrounding the perchlorate sample. Freezing of the brine film was observed at the eutectic temperature of -67°C, and thawing occurred at a temperature of -62°C.

  18. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    SciTech Connect

    P. Mariner

    2003-10-21

    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate

  19. Hydrologic environment of the Silurian salt deposits in parts of Michigan, Ohio, and New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, Stanley E.

    1978-01-01

    The aggregate thickness of evaporites (salt, gypsum, and anhydrite) in the Silurian Salina sequence in Michigan exceeds 1200 feet in areas near the periphery of the Michigan basin, where the salt beds are less than 3000 feet below land surface. In northeast Ohio the aggregate thickness of salt beds is as much as 200 feet in places, and in western New York it is more than 500 feet, where th beds are less than 3000 feet deep. The salt-bearing rocks dip regionally on the order of 50 feet per mile; those in Michigan dip toward the center of the Michigan basin, and those in Ohio and New York, in the Appalachian basin, dip generally southward. The rocks in both basins thicken downdip. Minor folds and faults occur in the salt-bearing rocks in all three states. Some of this defrmation has been attenuated or absorbed bo the salt beds. Occuring near the middle of thick sedimentary sequences, the salt beds are bounded aboe and below by beds containing water having dissolved-solids concentrations several times that seawter. The brines occur commonly in discrete zones of high permeability at specific places in the stratigraphic sequence. In northeast Ohio two prominent brine zones are recognized by the driller, the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone, or 'first water' zone, above the Salina Formation, and the Newburg or 'second water' zone below the Salina. In each aquifer there is a vertical component of hydraulic head, but little brine probably moves through the salt beds because their permeability is extremely low. Also, ther is little evidence of dissolution of the salt in areas distant from the outcrop, suggesting that if brine does move through the salt, movement is at a slow enough rate so that, in combination with the saturated or near-saturated condition of the water, it precludes significant dissolution. Principal brine movement is probably in the permeable zones in the direction of the hydraulic gradient. Two areas in Michigan and one area each in Ohio and New York appear

  20. Kalahari salt pans as sedimentary archives for reconstruction of Quaternary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüller, Irka; Belz, Lukas; Wilkes, Heinz; Wehrmann, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Environmental changes in southern Africa come along with variations in atmospheric and oceanic circulation as well as anthropogenic caused landuse changes. The reconstruction of the paleoenvironment is complicated by the fact that continuous geoarchives are rare in the semiarid to arid parts of this region. In the south-western Kalahari lacustrine systems with constant sedimentary records are absent due to the low precipitation. Salt pans are common geomorphological structures in the Kalahari which are temporarily flooded during summer season when isolated showers occur in their local catchment area. So, they are potential archives preserving environmental signals in phases of sedimentation. However, marginal dunes on their leeward sides represent phases of deflation. The principle processes in salt pan formation are complex and so far under discussion. Our study follows a multidisciplinary approach integrating sedimentological, geochemical and microbiological methods to understand the formation of salt pans as a prerequisite for using them as geoarchives in reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental condition during phases of sedimentation and erosion. Sediment cores from five salt pans were analysed using XRD, XRF and grain size analyses. Additionally, age models can be given for four salt pans, based on δ14C from bulk sediment TOC. As palynological material is lacking, different methods in organic geochemistry were applied (plant biomarkers, particularly leaf wax n-alkanes and n-alcohols and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures) to reconstruct variations in local vegetation assemblages. Our results allow a better understanding of the sedimentology of salt pans and their interpretation as discontinuous archives.

  1. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  2. Combined effect of glycine and sea salt on aerosol cloud droplet activation predicted by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Hede, Thomas; Tu, Yaoquan; Leck, Caroline; Agren, Hans

    2013-10-17

    The present study illustrates the combined effect of organic and inorganic compounds on cloud droplet nucleation and activation processes representative for the marine environment. Amino acids and sea salt are common marine cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which act as a prerequisite for growth of cloud droplets. The chemical and physical properties of these CCN play a key role for interfacial properties such as surface tension, which is important for the optical properties of clouds and for heterogeneous reactions. However, there is a lack of detailed information and in situ measurements of surface tension of such nanosized droplets. Here we present a study of the combined effect of zwitterionic glycine (ZGLY) and sea salt in nanosized water droplets using molecular dynamics simulations, where particular emphasis is placed on the surface tension for the nanosized droplets. The critical supersaturation is estimated by the Köhler equation. It is found that dissolved sea salt interacts with ZGLY through a water bridge and weakens the hydrogen bonds among ZGLYs, which has a significant effect on both surface tension and water vapor supersaturation. Clusters of glycine mixed with sea salt deliquesce more efficiently and have higher growth factors. PMID:24063576

  3. Two-dimensional angular light-scattering in aqueous NaCl single aerosol particles during deliquescence and efflorescence.

    PubMed

    Braun, C; Krieger, U

    2001-03-12

    We present a new method to analyze two--dimensional angular light--scattering patterns of single aerosol particles by image processing. An asymmetry parameter can be calculated to determine the solid--to--liquid partitioning in micron sized composite particles similar to using temporal light--scattering intensity fluctuations. We use the scattering patterns of the deliquescence of a NaCl crystal to prove the feasibility of the method. In addition we show that even fast processes like the efflorescence from a supersaturated solution droplet can be analyzed where temporal fluctuation analysis fails. We find that efflorescence cannot be described as a time reversed deliquescence. There is indication that during efflorescence a solid shell grows at the surface of the liquid droplet which finally collapses due to mechanical stress. PMID:19417821

  4. Cultivation and molecular monitoring of halophilic microorganisms inhabiting an extreme environment presented by a salt-attacked monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettenauer, Jörg; Sterflinger, Katja; Piñar, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years several investigations, based on culture-dependent and -independent techniques, have shown that salt-attacked stone surfaces present a habitat for extremely salt tolerant and moderate halophilic microorganisms. The inner walls of the Chapel of St. Virgil in Vienna (Austria) are an example of this phenomenon. Salt crusts cover most of the wall surfaces and salt crystallization in the porous space of the stone is causing decohesion of material and destruction of the original medieval paintings. The salt, together with the oligotrophic conditions, creates a very special and extreme habitat for halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms. In this study we investigate and monitor the cultivable and non-cultivable members of the microbial community present on the stonework of the medieval Chapel of St. Virgil after several severe disturbances of the microbial environment caused by desalination and disinfection treatments. With this finality, a combination of culture-dependent and -independent techniques was selected. The genetic diversity of a total of 104 bacterial strains isolated from the stone samples was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains were distributed over 29 groups on the basis of their RAPD patterns. Only 19 groups were differentiated by DGGE. Comparative sequence analyses showed that the isolated strains belong to related species of the genera Halobacillus (47.1%), Bacillus (35.6%), Acinetobacter (4.8%), Halomonas (3.9%), Nesterenkonia (2.9%), Paucisalibacillus (2.9%), Paenibacillus (1%), Staphylococcus (1%) and Exiguobacterium (1%). In addition, polymerase chain reaction DGGE fingerprints, in combination with the creation of clone libraries and sequencing analyses, were used to monitor and identify Archaea, the non-cultivable fraction of the microbial community. The detected archaeal sequences were closely related to different

  5. Hydrogen generation from deliquescence of ammonia borane using Ni-Co/r-GO catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chang-Chen; Chen, Bing-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen generation from the catalyzed deliquescence/hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB) using the Ni-Co catalyst supported on the graphene oxide (Ni-Co/r-GO catalyst) under the conditions of limited water supply was studied with the molar feed ratio of water to ammonia borane (denoted as H2O/AB) at 2.02, 3.97 and 5.93, respectively. The conversion efficiency of ammonia borane to hydrogen was estimated both from the cumulative volume of the hydrogen gas generated and the conversion of boron chemistry in the hydrolysates analyzed by the solid-state 11B NMR. The conversion efficiency of ammonia borane could reach nearly 100% under excess water dosage, that is, H2O/AB = 3.97 and 5.93. Notably, the hydrogen storage capacity could reach as high as 6.5 wt.% in the case with H2O/AB = 2.02. The hydrolysates of ammonia borane in the presence of Ni-Co/r-GO catalyst were mainly the mixture of boric acid and metaborate according to XRD, FT-IR and solid-state 11B NMR analyses.

  6. Determination of interfacial parameters of a soluble particle in a nonideal solution from measured deliquescence and efflorescence humidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmuth, O.; Shchekin, A. K.

    2015-04-01

    In order to study the growth/shrinking of a hygroscopic nanoparticle during hydration/dehydration in an atmosphere of water vapour, we have employed a thermodynamic approach proposed by Shchekin et al. (2008). This approach uses the mechanic and thermodynamic concept of disjoining pressure of thin films and allows, among others, the prediction of the humidity growth factor of both (i) a homogeneous solution droplet with completely dissolved residual core and (ii) a heterogeneous solution droplet with partially dissolved residual core as a function of the ambient relative humidity. For application to a nanometric sodium chloride particle we have extended the original approach by (i) considering the nonideality of the solution through the dependence of molecular volumes of the solvent and solute molecules and the solute and solvent activities on the solution concentration, (ii) deriving an equation for the estimation of the efflorescence properties of a homogeneous solution droplet, and (iii) combining the empirical power law fittings for the size dependence of the deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidity values by Biskos et al. (2006a). It was demonstrated how the solution/solute interface energy and the correlation length of a thin solution film can be determined from a combination of experimentally determinable efflorescence and deliquescence humidities with the present calculus. The solution/solute interface energy was found to be in close agreement with some previous values reported in the literature, while it strongly differs from data of some other sources. The calculated deliquescence humidity shows a low sensitivity to the choice of the numerical value for the film correlation length. The estimated film correlation length of 1 nm for a nanometric sodium chloride particle with dry particle radius of 5 nm was found to be reconcilable with available a priori estimates of the correlation length from the literature when the measurement uncertainty of the

  7. Determination of interfacial parameters of a soluble particle in a nonideal solution from measured deliquescence and efflorescence humidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmuth, O.; Shchekin, A. K.

    2014-09-01

    In order to study the growth/shrinking of a hygroscopic nanoparticle during hydration/dehydration in an atmosphere of water vapour we have employed a thermodynamic approach proposed by Shchekin et al. (2008). This approach uses the mechanic and thermodynamic concept of disjoining pressure of thin films and allows, among others, the prediction of the humidity growth factor of both (i) a homogeneous solution droplet with completely dissolved residual core, and (ii) a heterogeneous solution droplet with partially dissolved residual core as a function of the ambient relative humidity. For application to a nanometric sodium chloride particle we have extended the original approach by (i) consideration of the nonideality of the solution through the dependence of molecular volumes of the solvent and solute molecules and the solute and solvent activities on the solution concentration, by (ii) derivation of an equation for the estimation of the efflorescence properties of a homogeneous solution droplet, and by (iii) combination with the empirical power law fittings for the size dependence of the deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidity values by Biskos et al. (2006a). It was demonstrated how the solution/solute interface energy and the correlation length of a thin solution film can be determined from a combination of experimentally determinable efflorescence and deliquescence humidities with the present calculus. The solution/solute interface energy was found to be in close agreement with some previous values reported in the literature, while it strongly differs from data of some other sources. The calculated deliquescence humidity shows a low sensitivity against the choice of the numerical value for the film correlation length. The estimated film correlation length of 1 nm for a nanometric sodium chloride particle with dry particle radius of 5 nm was found to be reconcilable with available a priori estimates of the correlation length from the literature when the

  8. Table Salt from Seawater (Solar Evaporation). What We Take from Our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Science Education Center.

    This module discusses methods of obtaining table salt from seawater. Topic areas considered include: (1) obtaining salt by solar evaporation of seawater in holes; (2) obtaining salt by boiling seawater in pots; (3) how table salt is obtained from seawater in the Philippines; and (4) methods of making salt by solar evaporation of seawater in the…

  9. The dependence of lead-salt nanocrystal properties on morphology and dielectric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, Adam Christopher

    The IV-VI semiconductors, and specifically the lead-salts (PbS, PbSe, and PbTe), are a natural choice for nanocrystal science. In nanocrystals, because of their narrow band gap, small effective masses, and large dielectric constants, they offer a unique combination of both strong confinement and strong dielectric contrast with their environment. Studying how these two effects modify optical and electrical properties of nanocrystals will be the topic of this dissertation. We begin with a summary of the synthesis of high-quality PbS and PbSe nanocrystals. Special care is taken to explain the chemical procedures in detail to an audience not expected to have significant prior chemistry knowledge. The synthesized nanocrystals have bright and tunable emission that spans the edge of the visible to the near-IR spectrum (700--1800 nm), and they are capped with organic ligands making them easily adaptable to different substrates or hosts. This combination of high optical quality and flexible device engineering make them extremely desirable for application. Moving beyond single-material nanocrystals, we next explore nanocrystal heterostructures, specifically materials with a spherical core of one semiconductor and a shell of another. Core-shell structures are commonly used in nanocrystals as a method to separate the core material, where the electrons and holes are expected to stay, from interfering effects at the surface. This typically results in improvements in stability and fluorescence quantum efficiency. To that end, we develop a model to explain how confinement plays out across abrupt changes in material, focusing on the optical and electrical properties of recently synthesized PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots. We show that for typical sizes of these nanocrystals, a novel type of nanocrystal heterostructure is created, where electrons and holes extend uniformly across the abrupt material boundary, and the shell does not act as a protecting layer. For very large sizes

  10. [Effects of brassinolide on the antioxidant system and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu; Lu, Xiao-min

    2015-09-01

    The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on antioxidant system and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings were studied under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment. Compared with the control, the leaf H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation and cell membrane permeability significantly increased, and the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) and dry matter accumulation decreased by 39.3%, 40.0%, 21.2%, 47.2% and 35.9% in the suboptimal environment, respectively. Applying EBR could further improve the antioxidant enzyme activity, reduce the H2O2 content and membrane permeability of seedlings, alleviate the drop range of Pn, g(s) and Tr, improve the growth of seedlings and increase the dry matter accumulation by 25.9%. Therefore, EBR treatment could keep higher photosynthetic performance to effectively promote cucumber seedlings growth through adjusting the protective enzyme activity and reducing membrane lipid peroxide level under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment. PMID:26785558

  11. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Annealed and Cold Worked Titanium Grade 7 and Alloy 22 in 110 C Concentrated Salt Environments

    SciTech Connect

    P. Andresen

    2000-11-08

    Stress corrosion crack growth studies have been performed on annealed and cold worked Titanium Grade 7 and Alloy 22 in 110 C, aerated, concentrated, high pH salt environments characteristic of concentrated ground water. Following a very careful transition from fatigue precracking conditions to SCC conditions, the long term behavior under very stable conditions was monitored using reversing dc potential drop. Titanium Grade 7 exhibited continuous crack growth under both near-static and complete static loading conditions. Alloy 22 exhibited similar growth rates, but was less prone to maintain stable crack growth as conditions approached fully static loading.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic weld deposits in a salt spray environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, J. B.; Yu, C.; Shiue, R. K.; Tsay, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as the filler metals for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L stainless steel substrate, which was prepared via a gas tungsten arc-welding process in multiple passes. U-bend and weight-loss tests were conducted by testing the welds in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C. The dissolution of the skeletal structure in the fusion zone (FZ) caused the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the weld. The FZ in the cold-rolled condition showed the longest single crack length in the U-bend tests. Moreover, sensitization treatment at 650 °C for 10 h promoted the formation of numerous fine cracks, which resulted in a high SCC susceptibility. The weight loss of the deposits was consistent with the SCC susceptibility of the welds in a salt spray. The 309LMo deposit was superior to the 308L deposit in the salt spray.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic weld deposits in a salt spray environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, J. B.; Yu, C.; Shiue, R. K.; Tsay, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as the filler metals for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L stainless steel substrate, which was prepared via a gas tungsten arc-welding process in multiple passes. U-bend and weight-loss tests were conducted by testing the welds in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C. The dissolution of the skeletal structure in the fusion zone (FZ) caused the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the weld. The FZ in the cold-rolled condition showed the longest single crack length in the U-bend tests. Moreover, sensitization treatment at 650 °C for 10 h promoted the formation of numerous fine cracks, which resulted in a high SCC susceptibility. The weight loss of the deposits was consistent with the SCC susceptibility of the welds in a salt spray. The 309LMo deposit was superior to the 308L deposit in the salt spray.

  14. Dessicant materials screening for backfill in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    Maintaining an anhydrous environment around nuclear waste stored in a salt repository is a concern which can be alleviated by using a desiccant material for backfilling. Such a desiccant should desiccate a brine yet be non deliquescent, the hydrated product should have moderate thermal stability, and the desiccant should have a high capacity and be readily available. From a literature search MgO and CaO were identified for detailed study. These oxides, and an intimate mixture of the two obtained by calcining dolomite, were used in experiments to further determine their suitability. They proved to be excellent desiccants with a high water capacity. The hydrates of both have moderate thermal stability and a high water content. Both MgO and CaO react in an alkaline chloride brine forming oxychloride compounds with different waters of crystallization. Some of these compounds are the Sorel Cements. CaO hydrates to Ca(OH)/sub 2/ which carbonates with CO/sub 2/ in air to form CaCO/sub 3/ and release the hydrated water. Thus the intimate mixture of CaO and MgO from calcined dolomite may serve as a desiccant and remove CO/sub 2/ from the repository atmosphere.

  15. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reactions of Phenols in Fog Drops and Deliquesced Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.

    2014-12-01

    The formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in atmospheric condensed phases (i.e., aqueous SOA) can proceed rapidly, but relatively little is known of the important aqueous SOA precursors or their reaction pathways. In our work we are studying the aqueous SOA formed from reactions of phenols (phenol, guaiacol, and syringol), benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone), and phenolic carbonyls (e.g., vanillin and syringaldehyde). These species are potentially important aqueous SOA precursors because they are released in large quantities from biomass burning, have high Henry's Law constants (KH = 103 -109 M-1 atm-1) and are rapidly oxidized. To evaluate the importance of aqueous reactions of phenols as a source of SOA, we first quantified the kinetics and SOA mass yields for 11 phenols reacting via direct photodegradation, hydroxyl radical (•OH), and with an excited organic triplet state (3C*). In the second step, which is the focus of this work, we use these laboratory results in a simple model of fog chemistry using conditions during a previously reported heavy biomass burning event in Bakersfield, CA. Our calculations indicate that under aqueous aerosol conditions (i.e., a liquid water content of 100 μg m-3) the rate of aqueous SOA production (RSOA(aq)) from phenols is similar to the rate in the gas phase. In contrast, under fog/cloud conditions the aqueous RSOA from phenols is 10 times higher than the rate in the gas phase. In both of these cases aqueous RSOA is dominated by the oxidation of phenols by 3C*, followed by direct photodegradation of phenolic carbonyls, and then •OH oxidation. Our results suggest that aqueous oxidation of phenols is a significant source of SOA during fog events and also during times when deliquesced aerosols are present.

  16. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Rose, L. Shea

    2001-02-28

    Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective implementation programs. In this report, we discuss the result of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for Salt Lake City covered a total of about 34 km2 (13 mi2). At 0.50-m resolution, there were approximately 1.4 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types were examined: (1) commercial, (2) industrial, (3) educational, and (4) residential. On average, for the areas studied, vegetation covers about 46 percent of the area (ranging 44-51 percent), roofs cover about 21 percent (ranging 15-24 percent), and paved surfaces about 26 percent (ranging 21-28 percent). For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. In most non-residential areas, paved surfaces cover 46-66 percent of the area. In residential areas, on average, paved surfaces cover about 32 percent of the area. Land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) data from the United States Geological Survey were used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales to metropolitan Salt Lake City. In an area of roughly 560 km2, defining most of metropolitan Salt Lake City, over 60 percent is residential. The total roof area is about 110 km2, and the total paved surface area (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) covers about 170 km2. The total vegetated area covers about 230 km2.

  17. Plant-soil interactions in salt marsh environments: Experimental evidence from electrical resistivity tomography in the Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaga, Jacopo; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Marani, Marco; Putti, Mario

    2014-09-01

    The role of root water uptake in regulating soil water saturation in salt marshes is controversial. Modeling studies suggest that soil aeration is improved by transpiration, with implications for the distribution of vegetation species and of the associated topographic features controlling the hydraulic regime of the marshland and eventually its survival. Marsh vegetation plays a key role in the preservation of such critical environment, which represents unique marker for climatic change and impact studies. However, the direct quantification of space-time aeration patterns has remained elusive, in part, because of the limitations posed by high salinity to conventional observation techniques such as time or frequency domain reflectometry. Here we show that time-lapse microscale electrical resistivity tomography, coupled with tensiometric observations, allows the identification of variably saturated zones and the characterization of space-time soil moisture dynamics in a salt marsh in the Venice Lagoon (Italy). This is the first quantitative observational experiment which confirms that periodically flooded plants are capable of producing a persistently aerated layer below the flooded surface when transpiration proceeds at a sufficiently high rate. The experimental results are compared against previously published model predictions.

  18. Structural insights into the adaptation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) from Haloferax volcanii to a high-salt environment

    SciTech Connect

    Morgunova, Ekaterina; Gray, Fiona C.; MacNeill, Stuart A.; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2009-10-01

    The crystal structure of PCNA from the halophilic archaeon H. volcanii reveals specific features of the charge distribution on the protein surface that reflect adaptation to a high-salt environment and suggests a different type of interaction with DNA in halophilic PCNAs. The sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays vital roles in many aspects of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells and in archaea. Realising the full potential of archaea as a model for PCNA function requires a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches. In order to provide a platform for subsequent reverse genetic analysis, PCNA from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii was subjected to crystallographic analysis. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified by affinity chromatography and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a final R factor of 23.7% (R{sub free} = 25%). PCNA from H. volcanii was found to be homotrimeric and to resemble other homotrimeric PCNA clamps but with several differences that appear to be associated with adaptation of the protein to the high intracellular salt concentrations found in H. volcanii cells.

  19. MgAl2O4 spinel refractory as containment liner for high-temperature alkali salt containing environments

    DOEpatents

    Peascoe-Meisner, Roberta A [Knoxville, TN; Keiser, James R [Oak Ridge, TN; Hemric, James G [Knoxville, TN; Hubbard, Camden R [Oak Ridge, TN; Gorog, J Peter [Kent, WA; Gupta, Amul [Jamestown, NY

    2008-10-21

    A method includes containing a high-temperature alkali salt containing environment using a refractory containment liner containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel. A method, includes forming a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel having an exterior chill zone defined by substantially columnar crystallization and an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and removing at least a portion of the exterior chill zone from the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel by scalping the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel to define at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization. A product of manufacture includes a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel including an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization.

  20. The Story of the Oceans and Salt. What We Take from Our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Science Education Center.

    This module provides information on: (1) the origin of the oceans; (2) sources of minerals and salt found in the sea; and (3) the role and uses of salt in various cultures (stating, for example, that the expression "salt of the earth" describes a person who is considered one of the best). (JN)

  1. Mechanical degradation of cold-worked 304 stainless steel in salt spray environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, M. F.; Hsu, H. H.; Young, M. C.; Huang, J. Y.

    2012-03-01

    Saline corrosion is one of the major degradation mechanisms for stainless steel 304 (SS304) spent fuel canisters during the dry storage period. Slow strain rate tensile tests (SSRT) were conducted to determine the tensile strength and notched tensile strength (NTS) of cold-rolled SS304 in 0.5 and 5 wt% saline spray environments at 358 K. The YS and UTS of the steels did not decrease significantly in the 0.5 wt% saline spray environment, but a remarkable decrease in elongation was observed in the 5 wt% saline spray. Furthermore, a notch could exacerbate the saline corrosion degradation and aggravate the hydrogen embrittlement of SS304. The cold work of higher degrees could slightly improve SCC resistance of the SS304 under the lower chloride containing spray. However, the NaCl concentration is a crucial factor affecting the SCC susceptibility of SS304.

  2. Hot corrosion resistance of high-velocity oxyfuel sprayed coatings on a nickel-base superalloy in molten salt environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, T. S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R. D.

    2006-09-01

    No alloy is immune to hot corrosion attack indefinitely. Coatings can extend the lives of substrate materials used at higher temperatures in corrosive environments by forming protective oxides layers that are reasonably effective for long-term applications. This article is concerned with studying the performance of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCrBSi, Cr3C2-NiCr, Ni-20Cr, and Stellite-6 coatings on a nickel-base superalloy at 900 °C in the molten salt (Na2SO4-60% V2O5) environment under cyclic oxidation conditions. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish kinetics of corrosion. Optical microscope, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive analysis by x-ray (SEM/EDAX), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) techniques were used to characterize the as-sprayed coatings and corrosion products. The bare superalloy suffered somewhat accelerated corrosion in the given environmental conditions. whereas hot corrosion resistance of all the coated superalloys was found to be better. Among the coating studied, Ni-20Cr coated superalloy imparted maximum hot corrosion resistance, whereas Stellite-6 coated indicated minimum resistance. The hot corrosion resistance of all the coatings may be attributed to the formation of oxides and spinels of nickel, chromium, or cobalt.

  3. Boiling Temperature and Reversed Deliquescence Relative Humidity Measurements for Mineral Assemblages in the NaCl + NaNO3 + KNO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O System

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J A; Staggs, K J; Day, S D; Carroll, S A

    2005-12-01

    Boiling temperature measurements have been made at ambient pressure for saturated ternary solutions of NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, and NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O over the full composition range, along with those of the single salt systems. Boiling temperatures were also measured for the four component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O and five component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O mixtures, where the solute mole fraction of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}), was varied between 0 and 0.25. The maximum boiling temperature found for the NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is {approx} 134.9 C; for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is {approx} 165.1 C at x(NaNO{sub 3}) {approx} 0.46 and x(KNO{sub 3}) {approx} 0.54; and for the NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system is 164.7 {+-} 0.6 C at x(NaCl) {approx} 0.25 and x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) {approx} 0.75. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system forms molten salts below their maximum boiling temperatures, and the temperatures corresponding to the cessation of boiling (dry out temperatures) of these liquid mixtures were determined. These dry out temperatures range from {approx} 300 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0 to {ge} 400 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0.20 and 0.25. Mutual deliquescence/efflorescence relative humidity (MDRH/MERH) measurements were also made for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} and NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture from 120 to 180 C at ambient pressure. The NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. This salt mixture also absorbs water at 180 C, which is higher than expected from the boiling temperature experiments. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture was found to have a MDRH of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.5% at 180 C. The investigated mixture

  4. Stress-corrosion behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys in aqueous salt environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Galvin, R. P.; Nelson, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The stress corrosion susceptibility of two powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Cu-Mg; two mechanically attrited (M/A) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Mg; and two wrought, ingot alloys, X-2020 and AA7475, are compared. Time-dependent fracture in an aqueous sodium chloride environment under alternate immersion condition was found to vary significantly between alloys. The stress corrosion behavior of the two powder metallurgy processed alloys was studied in detail under conditions of crack initiation, static crack growth, and fatigue crack growth. A variety of stress corrosion tests were performed including smooth surface, time-to-failure tests; potentiostatic tests on smooth surfaces exposed to constant applied strain rates; and fracture mechanics-type tests under static and cyclic loads. Both alloys show surface pitting and subsequent intergranular corrosion. Pitting is more severe in the magnesium-bearing alloy and is associated with stringer particles strung along the extrusion direction as a result of P/M processing.

  5. The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid to deliquesced NaCl aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, K.; Vlasenko, A.; Guimbaud, C.; Ammann, M.

    2008-01-01

    Surface active organic compounds have been observed in marine boundary layer aerosol. Here, we investigate the effect such surfactants have on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3), an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary layer. The uptake of gaseous HNO3 on deliquesced NaCl aerosol was measured in a flow reactor using HNO3 labelled with the short-lived radioactive isotope 13N. The uptake coefficient γ on pure deliquesced NaCl aerosol was γ=0.5±0.2 at 60% relative humidity and 30 ppb HNO3(g). The uptake coefficient was reduced by a factor of 5-50 when the aerosol was coated with saturated linear fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 18 and 15 atoms in monolayer quantities. In contrast, neither shorter saturated linear fatty acids with 12 and 9 carbon atoms, nor coatings with the unsaturated oleic acid (C18, cis-double bond) had a detectable effect on the rate of HNO3 uptake. It is concluded that it is the structure of the monolayers formed, which determines their resistance towards HNO3 uptake. Fatty acids (C18 and C15), which form a highly ordered film in the so-called liquid condensed state, represent a significant barrier towards HNO3 uptake, while monolayers of shorter-chain fatty acids (C9, C12) and of the unsaturated oleic acid form a less ordered film in the liquid expanded state and do not hinder the uptake. Similarly, high contents of humic acids in the aerosol, a structurally inhomogeneous, quite water soluble mixture of oxidised high molecular weight organic compounds did not affect HNO3 uptake. As surfactant films on naturally occurring aerosol are expected to be less structured due to their chemical inhomogeneity, it is likely that their inhibitory effect on HNO3 uptake is smaller than that observed here for the C15 and C18 fatty acid monolayers.

  6. The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid to deliquesced NaCl aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, K.; Vlasenko, A.; Guimbaud, C.; Ammann, M.

    2008-09-01

    Surface active organic compounds have been observed in marine boundary layer aerosol. Here, we investigate the effect such surfactants have on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3), an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary layer. The uptake of gaseous HNO3 on deliquesced NaCl aerosol was measured in a flow reactor using HNO3 labelled with the short-lived radioactive isotope 13N. The uptake coefficient γ on pure deliquesced NaCl aerosol was γ=0.5±0.2 at 60% relative humidity and 30 ppb HNO3(g). The uptake coefficient was reduced by a factor of 5 50 when the aerosol was coated with saturated linear fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 18 and 15 atoms in monolayer quantities. In contrast, neither shorter saturated linear fatty acids with 12 and 9 carbon atoms, nor coatings with the unsaturated oleic acid (C18, cis-double bond) had a detectable effect on the rate of HNO3 uptake. It is concluded that it is the structure of the monolayers formed, which determines their resistance towards HNO3 uptake. Fatty acids (C18 and C15), which form a highly ordered film in the so-called liquid condensed state, represent a significant barrier towards HNO3 uptake, while monolayers of shorter-chain fatty acids (C9, C12) and of the unsaturated oleic acid form a less ordered film in the liquid expanded state and do not hinder the uptake. Similarly, high contents of humic acids in the aerosol, a structurally inhomogeneous, quite water soluble mixture of oxidised high molecular weight organic compounds did not affect HNO3 uptake. As surfactant films on naturally occurring aerosol are expected to be less structured due to their chemical inhomogeneity, it is likely that their inhibitory effect on HNO3 uptake is smaller than that observed here for the C15 and C18 fatty acid monolayers.

  7. Reversible wetting of NaCl nanoparticles at relative humidities below deliquescence observed by environmental non-contact AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Bruzewicz, D.A.; Lewis, E.; Ocko, B. M.; McGraw, R. L.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2009-12-14

    The behavior of NaCl nanoparticles as a function of relative humidity (RH) was characterized by depositing particles on a prepared hydrophobic surface and measuring their height via non-contact environmental atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact AFM allows greater sensitivity to changes in the size of particles than does contact AFM or scanning electron microscopy, and greater sensitivity to changes in shape than do mass-based techniques. Crystalline cubic NaCl nanoparticles with sides of 35 to 150 nm were found to reversibly take up water with increasing RH, and to form a liquid-like surface layer of thickness 2 to 4 nm at humidities well below the deliquescence point of 75.0% at 20°C. Measurable uptake begins at 70% RH. The maximum thickness of the layer increases with increasing RH for a given particle size and, for a given RH, increases with increasing particle size over the range studied. The liquid-like behavior of the layer is indicated by a reversible “rounding” at the tops of the particles, where the ratio of particle height to radius of curvature increases from zero (flat top) at 68% RH to 0.7 at 74% RH. These observations suggest that a reorganization of mass occurs on the solid NaCl nanoparticle, and hence that the behavior of NaCl aerosol nanoparticles at RH between 70 and 75% RH is more complex than an abrupt first-order phase transition. Theoretical treatments of the phase transition should therefore account for both the presence of a liquid-like layer prior to deliquescence, and the RH-dependent thickness of the layer.

  8. Water Uptake by Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Using Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, Danielle L.

    -day conditions. To investigate complex brine mixtures, a salt analog, deemed 'Instant Mars,' was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument at the Phoenix landing site. 'Instant Mars' was developed to fully encompass and closely replicate correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Here we use two separate techniques, Raman microscopy and particle levitation, to study the water uptake and loss properties of individual Instant Mars analog particles. Raman microscope experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions at 56 +/- 5% RH at 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution down to 13 +/- 5% RH. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that a salt analog that closely replicates in-situ measurements from the Phoenix landing site can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in RH conditions much lower than the deliquescent RH. Finally, laboratory experiments presented here examine the interaction of B. subtilis spores (B-168) with liquid water in Mars relevant temperatures and RH conditions. In addition, Ca(ClO4)2 was mixed with the B. subtilis spores and exposed to the same diurnal cycle conditions to quantify the effects of Ca(ClO4)2 on the spores. A combination of Raman microscopy and an environmental cell allows us to visually and spectrally analyze the changes of the individual B. subtilis spores and Ca(ClO4)2 mixtures as they experience present-day martian diurnal cycle conditions. Results suggest that B-168 spores can survive the arid conditions and martian temperatures, even when exposed to Ca(ClO 4)2 in the crystalline or aqueous phase. The extreme hygroscopic nature of Ca(ClO4)2 allows for direct interaction of B

  9. The environment shapes microbial enzymes: five cold-active and salt-resistant carboxylesterases from marine metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Tran, Hai; Popovic, Ana; Kovacic, Filip; Brown, Greg; Flick, Robert; Hajighasemi, Mahbod; Egorova, Olga; Somody, Joseph C; Tchigvintsev, Dmitri; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Golyshina, Olga V; Yakimov, Michail M; Savchenko, Alexei; Golyshin, Peter N; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2015-03-01

    Most of the Earth's biosphere is cold and is populated by cold-adapted microorganisms. To explore the natural enzyme diversity of these environments and identify new carboxylesterases, we have screened three marine metagenome gene libraries for esterase activity. The screens identified 23 unique active clones, from which five highly active esterases were selected for biochemical characterization. The purified metagenomic esterases exhibited high activity against α-naphthyl and p-nitrophenyl esters with different chain lengths. All five esterases retained high activity at 5 °C indicating that they are cold-adapted enzymes. The activity of MGS0010 increased more than two times in the presence of up to 3.5 M NaCl or KCl, whereas the other four metagenomic esterases were inhibited to various degrees by these salts. The purified enzymes showed different sensitivities to inhibition by solvents and detergents, and the activities of MGS0010, MGS0105 and MGS0109 were stimulated three to five times by the addition of glycerol. Screening of purified esterases against 89 monoester substrates revealed broad substrate profiles with a preference for different esters. The metagenomic esterases also hydrolyzed several polyester substrates including polylactic acid suggesting that they can be used for polyester depolymerization. Thus, esterases from marine metagenomes are cold-adapted enzymes exhibiting broad biochemical diversity reflecting the environmental conditions where they evolved. PMID:25194841

  10. Salt weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 9 photographs of Mars indicate that significant erosion has occurred on that planet. Although several possible erosion mechanisms have been proposed, most terrestrial weathering mechanisms cannot function in the present Martian environment. Salt weathering, believed to be active in the Antarctic dry valleys, is especially suited to Mars, given the presence of salts and small amounts of water. Volcanic salts are probably available, and the association of salts and water is likely from both thermodynamic and geologic considerations.

  11. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  12. Natural protein engineering: a uniquely salt-tolerant, but not halophilic, alpha-type carbonic anhydrase from algae proliferating in low- to hyper-saline environments.

    PubMed

    Bageshwar, Umesh K; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Gokhman, Irena; Savchenko, Tatyana; Sussman, Joel L; Zamir, Ada

    2004-02-01

    Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga thriving in environments ranging from fresh water to hyper-saline lakes, such as the Dead Sea. An unusual, internally duplicated, 60 kDa alpha-type carbonic anhydrase (dCA I), located on the surface of this alga, is expected to function over a broad range of salinities. It would therefore differ from other carbonic anhydrases that already lose activity at low salinities and also from halophilic proteins that require high salinities for conformational stability. Enzymatic analyses indeed indicated that dCA I retained activity at salt concentrations ranging from low salt to at least 1.5 M NaCl or KCl for CO(2) hydration, 2.0 M NaCl for esterase activity and 0.5 M for bicarbonate dehydration. Although measurements at higher salinities were constrained by the interference of salt in the respective assayed reactions, activity was noticeable even at 4.0 M NaCl. Comparisons of the internally duplicated dCA I to single-domain derivatives indicated that inter-domain interactions played a decisive role in the stability, activity, salt tolerance and pH responses of dCA I. Hence dCA I is a uniquely salt- tolerant protein, retaining an active conformation over a large range of salinities and, as a Zn metalloenzyme, largely immune to the specific inhibitory effects of anions. Its unique features make dCA I a useful model to understand the physico-chemical basis of halotolerance and protein-salt interactions in general. PMID:15047915

  13. Full-waveform and discrete-return lidar in salt marsh environments: An assessment of biophysical parameters, vertical uncertatinty, and nonparametric dem correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Jeffrey N.

    High-resolution and high-accuracy elevation data sets of coastal salt marsh environments are necessary to support restoration and other management initiatives, such as adaptation to sea level rise. Lidar (light detection and ranging) data may serve this need by enabling efficient acquisition of detailed elevation data from an airborne platform. However, previous research has revealed that lidar data tend to have lower vertical accuracy (i.e., greater uncertainty) in salt marshes than in other environments. The increase in vertical uncertainty in lidar data of salt marshes can be attributed primarily to low, dense-growing salt marsh vegetation. Unfortunately, this increased vertical uncertainty often renders lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEM) ineffective for analysis of topographic features controlling tidal inundation frequency and ecology. This study aims to address these challenges by providing a detailed assessment of the factors influencing lidar-derived elevation uncertainty in marshes. The information gained from this assessment is then used to: 1) test the ability to predict marsh vegetation biophysical parameters from lidar-derived metrics, and 2) develop a method for improving salt marsh DEM accuracy. Discrete-return and full-waveform lidar, along with RTK GNSS (Real-time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System) reference data, were acquired for four salt marsh systems characterized by four major taxa (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Distichlis spicata, and Salicornia spp.) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. These data were used to: 1) develop an innovative combination of full-waveform lidar and field methods to assess the vertical distribution of aboveground biomass as well as its light blocking properties; 2) investigate lidar elevation bias and standard deviation using varying interpolation and filtering methods; 3) evaluate the effects of seasonality (temporal differences between peak growth and senescent conditions) using lidar data

  14. One of the Distinctive Properties of Ionic Liquids over Molecular Solvents and Inorganic Salts: Enhanced Basicity Stemming from the Electrostatic Environment and "Free" Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qiwei; Xing, Huabin; Bao, Zongbi; Su, Baogen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Yiwen; Dai, Sheng; Ren, Qilong

    2014-01-01

    The basicity of ionic liquids (ILs) underlies many important IL-based processes including the dissolution and conversion of cellulose, the capture of CO2, and metal catalysis. In this work, we have disclosed the nature of the basicity of ILs, i.e., the difference between the basicity of IL and the basicity of the molecular solvent and inorganic salt, through a quantitative electrostatic and electronic analysis of the molecular surface for the first time. The results reveal one of the distinctive properties of ILs (enhanced basicity over molecular solvents and inorganic salts with the same basic site) stemming from their special electrostatic environment and microstructure. The enhancement is significant, from either the electrostatic aspect or the covalent aspect of basicity. The peculiar electrostatic environment of ILs leads to stronger basicity than similar molecular solvents, and the relatively freer microstructure of ILs contributes to the enhancement of basicity over their inorganic analogues. These results are highly instructive for better understanding the unique value of ILs and designing novel ILs to improve the efficiency of basicity-related processes.

  15. One of the distinctive properties of ionic liquids over molecular solvents and inorganic salts: enhanced basicity stemming from the electrostatic environment and "free" microstructure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Xing, Huabin; Bao, Zongbi; Su, Baogen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Yiwen; Dai, Sheng; Ren, Qilong

    2014-04-01

    The basicity of ionic liquids (ILs) underlies many important IL-based processes including the dissolution and conversion of cellulose, the capture of CO2, and metal catalysis. In this work, we have disclosed the nature of the basicity of ILs, i.e., the difference between the basicity of IL and the basicity of the molecular solvent and inorganic salt, through a quantitative electrostatic and electronic analysis of the molecular surface for the first time. The results reveal one of the distinctive properties of ILs (enhanced basicity over molecular solvents and inorganic salts with the same basic site) stemming from their special electrostatic environment and microstructure. The enhancement is significant, from either the electrostatic aspect or the covalent aspect of basicity. The peculiar electrostatic environment of ILs leads to stronger basicity than similar molecular solvents, and the relatively freer microstructure of ILs contributes to the enhancement of basicity over their inorganic analogues. These results are highly instructive for better understanding the unique value of ILs and designing novel ILs to improve the efficiency of basicity-related processes. PMID:24620779

  16. Potential of the salt-tolerant laccase-producing strain Trichoderma viride Pers. NFCCI-2745 from an estuary in the bioremediation of phenol-polluted environments.

    PubMed

    Divya, L M; Prasanth, G K; Sadasivan, C

    2014-06-01

    Industrialization causes the generation of phenolic pollutants in the environment. The ability of laccases to oxidize phenolic compounds and reduce molecular oxygen to water has led to intensive studies on these enzymes. Although salt-tolerant fungi are potential sources of enzymes for industrial applications, they have been inadequately explored for laccase production. This study describes the isolation of a salt- and phenol-tolerant strain of Trichoderma sp. with the ability to produce laccase, and thus with the potential for industrial applications. The coconut husk retting ground in the estuaries of Kerala, India, a saline environment highly polluted with phenolic compounds, was selected for isolating the fungus. Enhanced laccase production was observed at 5-10 ppt salinity. The organism could grow even at 30 ppt salinity with reduced biomass production and laccase secretion. The optimum concentration of different phenolic compounds for enhanced laccase secretion ranged between 20 and 80 mg L(-1) . As the concentration of phenolic compounds increased beyond 200 mg L(-1) , the enzyme activity decreased and was completely inhibited at 800 mg L(-1) . The tolerance of Trichoderma viride Pers. NFCCI-2745 to salinity and various phenolic compounds can be utilized in the bioremediation of highly saline and phenolic compound-rich industrial effluents. PMID:23712577

  17. Geographic scale matters in detecting the relationship between neighbourhood food environments and obesity risk: an analysis of driver license records in Salt Lake County, Utah

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X; Hanson, Heidi A; Zick, Cathleen D; Brown, Barbara B; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Empirical studies of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk have found mixed results. One possible cause of these mixed findings is the variation in neighbourhood geographic scale used. The purpose of this paper was to examine how various neighbourhood geographic scales affected the estimated relationship between food environments and obesity risk. Design Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. Setting Salt Lake County, Utah, USA. Participants 403 305 Salt Lake County adults 25–64 in the Utah driver license database between 1995 and 2008. Analysis Utah driver license data were geo-linked to 2000 US Census data and Dun & Bradstreet business data. Food outlets were classified into the categories of large grocery stores, convenience stores, limited-service restaurants and full-service restaurants, and measured at four neighbourhood geographic scales: Census block group, Census tract, ZIP code and a 1 km buffer around the resident's house. These measures were regressed on individual obesity status using multilevel random intercept regressions. Outcome Obesity. Results Food environment was important for obesity but the scale of the relevant neighbourhood differs for different type of outlets: large grocery stores were not significant at all four geographic scales, limited-service restaurants at the medium-to-large scale (Census tract or larger) and convenience stores and full-service restaurants at the smallest scale (Census tract or smaller). Conclusions The choice of neighbourhood geographic scale can affect the estimated significance of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk. However, variations in geographic scale alone do not explain the mixed findings in the literature. If researchers are constrained to use one geographic scale with multiple categories of food outlets, using Census tract or 1 km buffer as the neighbourhood geographic unit is likely to

  18. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. J.; Nowak, A.; Poulain, L.; Herrmann, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2011-12-01

    The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%). The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

  19. SALT Science Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  20. Long-term corrosion behaviors of Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 in moisture-containing molten FLiNaK salt environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Chang, Chi-Hung; Kai, Ji-Jung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated long-term corrosion behaviors of Ni-based Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 under moisture-containing molten alkali fluoride salt (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42%) environment at an ambient temperature of 700 °C. The Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 experienced similar weight losses for tested duration of 100-1000 h, which was caused by aggregate dissolution of Cr and Mo into FLiNaK salts. The corrosion rate of both alloys was high initially, but then reduced during the course of the test. The alleviated corrosion rate was due to the depletion of Cr and Mo near surface of the alloys and thus the long-term corrosion rate was controlled by diffusion of Cr and Mo outward to the alloy surface. The results of microstructural characterization revealed that the corrosion pattern for both alloys tended to be intergranular corrosion at early stage of corrosion test, and then transferred to general corrosion for longer immersion hours.

  1. Evaluation of Titanium Nitride-Modified Bondcoat System Used in Thermal Barrier Coating in Corrosive Salts Environment at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Imran Nazir; Shahid, Muhammad; Nusair Khan, A.; Durrani, Yaseer A.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were produced by air plasma spraying system on nickel base superalloy. These coatings were composed of a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 topcoat and a CoNiCrAlY bondcoat and are known as standard TBC. In this paper, standard TBC samples were compared with TiN-modified bondcoat TBC samples. Titanium nitride was deposited by utilizing a physical vapor deposition technique. Both TBC systems were exposed to high temperature in the presence of corrosive salts, i.e. a mixture of V2O5 and Na2SO4 (50:50) for 50 h. It was observed that the TiN-modified samples showed better results in terms of oxidation resistance and delamination. The formation of Cr2Ti n-2O2 n-1 phases at the interface of the topcoat-bondcoat, in TiN-modified samples were found to enhance the thermal and oxidation properties of the TBC.

  2. Domain organization of DNase from Thioalkalivibrio sp. provides insights into retention of activity in high salt environments

    PubMed Central

    Alzbutas, Gediminas; Kaniusaite, Milda; Grybauskas, Algirdas; Lagunavicius, Arunas

    2015-01-01

    Our study indicates that DNA binding domains are common in many halophilic or halotolerant bacterial DNases and they are potential activators of enzymatic activity at high ionic strength. Usually, proteins adapt to high ionic strength by increasing the number of negatively charged residues on the surface. However, in DNases such adaptation would hinder the binding to negatively charged DNA, a step critical for catalysis. In our study we demonstrate how evolution has solved this dilemma by engaging the DNA binding domain. We propose a mechanism, which enables the enzyme activity at salt concentrations as high as 4 M of sodium chloride, based on collected experimental data and domain structure analysis of a secreted bacterial DNase from the extremely halotolerant bacterium Thioalkalivibrio sp. K90mix. The enzyme harbors two domains: an N-terminal domain, that exhibits DNase activity, and a C-terminal domain, comprising a duplicate DNA binding helix-hairpin-helix motif. Here we present experimental data demonstrating that the C-terminal domain is responsible for the enzyme's resistance to high ionic strength. PMID:26191053

  3. SISGR: Water dynamics in heterogeneous and confined environments: Salt solutions, reverse micelles, and lipid multi-bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, James

    2013-11-05

    Our goal is to understand the structure and dynamics of water, in its different phases, at the interfaces between these phases, and in confined and heterogeneous environments. To this end, linear and nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy is playing a very important role. We have developed techniques for calculating spectroscopic observables, and then used our results to analyze and interpret experiment.

  4. Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salmon, L.G.; Cass, G.R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

  5. Water Uptake By Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions On Mars Using Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. ';Instant Mars' is a salt analog developed to fully encompass the correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Using environmental Raman microscopy, we have studied the water uptake by the Instant Mars analog as a function of temperature and relative humidity. Water uptake was monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy. A MicroJet droplet generator was used to generate 30 μm diameter particles that were deposited onto a quartz disc. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of water uptake is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. At -30° C, water uptake begins at ~ 35% RH as humidity is increased. The water uptake is marked by the growth of a sulfate peak at 990 cm-1, an indicator that sulfate has undergone a phase transition into an aqueous state. As the RH continues to increase, the peak in the O-H region (~3500 cm-1) broadens as more liquid water accumulates in the particles. The Instant Mars particles achieve complete deliquescence at 68% RH, indicated both visually and with Raman spectroscopy. The gradual water uptake observed suggests that deliquescence of the Instant Mars particles is not an immediate process, but that it occurs in steps marked by the deliquescence of the individual salts. Perhaps of even more significance is the tendency for the Instant Mars particles to remain aqueous at low humidity as RH is decreased. Raman spectra indicate that liquid water is present as low as 2% RH at -30° C. Ongoing work will examine the phase of Instant Mars particles under simulated Martian surface and subsurface conditions to gain insight into the possibility for aqueous solutions on Mars

  6. Insights from the metagenome of an acid salt lake: the role of biology in an extreme depositional environment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Chevrette, Marc Gerard; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Benison, Kathleen Counter

    2015-01-01

    The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars. PMID:25923206

  7. Insights from the Metagenome of an Acid Salt Lake: The Role of Biology in an Extreme Depositional Environment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Chevrette, Marc Gerard; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Benison, Kathleen Counter

    2015-01-01

    The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars. PMID:25923206

  8. Reversible uptake of water on NaCl nanoparticles at relative humidity below deliquescence point observed by noncontact environmental atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bruzewicz, Derek A; Checco, Antonio; Ocko, Benjamin M; Lewis, Ernie R; McGraw, Robert L; Schwartz, Stephen E

    2011-01-28

    The behavior of NaCl nanoparticles as a function of relative humidity (RH) has been characterized using non-contact environmental atomic force microscopy (e-AFM) to measure the heights of particles deposited on a prepared hydrophobic surface. Cubic NaCl nanoparticles with sides of 35 and 80 nm were found to take up water reversibly with increasing RH well below the bulk deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of 75% at 23(∘)C, and to form a liquid-like surface layer of thickness 2 to 5 nm, with measurable uptake (>2 nm increase in particle height) beginning at 70% RH. The maximum thickness of the layer increased with increasing RH and increasing particle size over the range studied. The liquid-like behavior of the layer was indicated by a reversible rounding at the upper surface of the particles, fit to a parabolic cross-section, where the ratio of particle height to maximum radius of curvature increases from zero (flat top) at 68% RH to 0.7 ± 0.3 at 74% RH. These observations, which are consistent with a reorganization of mass on the solid NaCl nanocrystal at RH below the DRH, suggest that the deliquescence of NaCl nanoparticles is more complex than an abrupt first-order phase transition. The height measurements are consistent with a phenomenological model that assumes favorable contributions to the free energy of formation of a liquid layer on solid NaCl due both to van der Waals interactions, which depend partly upon the Hamaker constant, A(film), of the interaction between the thin liquid film and the solid NaCl, and to a longer-range electrostatic interaction over a characteristic length of persistence, ξ; the best fit to the data corresponded to A(film)= 1 kT and ξ = 2.33 nm. PMID:21280780

  9. The material flow of salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kostick, D.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Expected near-field thermal environments in a sequentially loaded spent-fuel or high-level waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Arbital, J.G.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the effect of realistic waste emplacement schedules on repository thermal environments. Virtually all estimates to date have been based on instantaneous loading of wastes having uniform properties throughout the repository. However, more realistic scenarios involving sequential emplacement of wastes reflect the gradual filling of the repository over its lifetime. These cases provide temperatures that can be less extreme than with the simple approximation. At isolated locations in the repository, the temperatures approach the instantaneous-loading limit. However, for most of the repository, temperature rises in the near-field are 10 to 40 years behind the conservative estimates depending on the waste type and the location in the repository. Results are presented for both spent-fuel and high-level reprocessing waste repositories in salt, for a regional repository concept, and for a single national repository concept. The national repository is filled sooner and therefore more closely approximates the instantaneously loaded repository. However, temperatures in the near-field are still 20/sup 0/C or more below the values in the simple model for 40 years after startup of repository emplacement operations. The results suggest that current repository design concepts based on the instantaneous-loading predictions are very conservative. Therefore, experiments to monitor temperatures in a test and evaluation facility, for example, will need to take into account the reduced temperatures in order to provide data used in predicting repository performance.

  11. Deliquescence and Efflorescence of Single Levitated (nh4)2so4-nh4no3- Aerosol Particles At Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriescher, Y.; Krieger, U. K.; Colberg, C. A.; Peter, Th.

    Recently, Weingartner et al [1] reported low temperature measurements of ambient sub-micrometer aerosol particles below 273 K during a field campaign at a high alpine site (Jungfraujoch). Using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer they observed no efflorescence even at low relative humidity (RH < 10%). Dissolved (NH4)2SO4 is the major component of the particulate mass at the Jungfraujoch with substantial amounts of organics and nitrate present. Previously, several authors have observed that pure ammonium nitrate particles do not effloresce even at very low rela- tive humidities at room temperatures. In a recent paper Cziczo and Abbatt [2] did not find any crystallization of ammonium nitrate aerosols even at temperatures as low as 238 K although the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium nitrate is known to increase with decreasing temperature substantially [3]. This could explain that mix- tures of (NH4)2SO4/NH4NO3 might not effloresce at low temperatures. We report measurements of single levitated particles in an electrodynamic balance at temperatures comparable to the field campaign at the Jungfraujoch. Different parti- cles with various compositions of the ternary (NH4)2SO4/NH4NO3/H2O-system were studied to obtain deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidities. In contrast to Cziczo and Abbatt [2], we observe efflorescence of NH4NO3/H2O-particles at tem- peratures of 263 K and also of particles of the ternary system. [1] E. Weingartner, M. Gysel and U. Baltensperger, "Hygroscopicity of aerosol parti- cles at low temperatures, part 1", Environmental Science and Technology, in print. [2] D. J. Cziczo and J. P. D. Abbatt, "Infrared observations of the response of NaCl, MgCl2, NH4HSO4, and NH4NO3 aerosols to changes in relative humidity from 298 to 238 K", J. Phys. Chem. A, 104, 2038-2047 (2000). [3] S. L. Clegg, P. Brimblecombe and A. S. Wexler, "Thermodynamic model of the system H+- NH+- SO24 - NO- - H2O at tropospheric temperatures

  12. Studies of sulfur biogeochemistry, microbiology and paleontology in three anoxic environments: The Black Sea, a salt marsh mat, and an Ordovician black shale

    SciTech Connect

    Muramoto, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The author studied the biogeochemistry, microbial ecology and paleontology of three anoxic environments. In the Black Sea, three studies dealt with the role of particle fluxes in sulfur cycling and microbial ecology. In the water column, iron sulfides form at the oxic-anoxic interface from dissolved sulfide left after chemical oxidation, based on sulfur isotopes; formation in deep water is minimal and iron-limited. Sinking organic aggregates transport iron sulfides to the bottom. Sedimentary sulfides may originate from sulfide fluxes and record intensity of chemical vs. microbial oxidation at the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfate reduction rates from modelled diagenesis of organic carbon fluxes agree with other measured rates. A box model summarizes sulfur cycling between water column and sediments. An algal sulfur compound, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), precursor to dimethylsulfide (DMS), was measured in deep-sea particle fluxes. DMSP levels in particle fluxes vary seasonally and between oceans. Though DMSP is only 0.005% of organic carbon fluxes, its removal to the deep sea by fluxes may lessen sea-air DMS fluxes. A DMSP-DMS cycle for ocean and sediments is proposed. A third study compared bacteria biomass and morphology in particle fluxes and water column, using TEM and epifluorescence microscopy. Some bacteria had intracellular structures indicating autotrophy. Concentrations in particle fluxes were high compared to sediment bacteria populations elsewhere, but bacterial carbon is a tiny fraction of total organic carbon. In contrast, phototrophic bacteria dominated a microbial mat in a salt marsh where sulfate reduction is important. Cyanobacteria, purple and green sulfur bacteria species were strongly depth-zoned, and cell sizes decreased as depth increased. Also investigated was spatiotemporal change in a fossil lingulid brachiopod from a suboxic facies, using gradient analyses of benthic invertebrate and planktonic graptolite assemblages.

  13. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  3. Photoluminescence and anti-deliquesce of cesium iodide and its sodium-doped films deposited by thermal evaporation at high deposition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jin-Cherng; Chiang, Yueh-Sheng; Ma, Yu-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Cesium iodide (CsI) and sodium iodide (NaI) are good scintillators due to their high luminescence efficiency. These alkali halides can be excited by ultra-violet or by ionizing radiation. In this study, CsI and its Na-doped films about 8 μm thick were deposited by thermal evaporation boat without heating substrates at high deposition rates of 30, 50, 70, 90, and 110 nm/sec, respectively. The as-deposited films were sequentially deposited a silicon dioxide film to protect from deliquesce. And, the films were also post-annealed in vacuum at 150, 200, 250, and 300 °C, respectively. We calculated the packing densities of the samples according to the measurements of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and observed the luminescence properties by photoluminescence (PL) system. The surfaces and cross sections of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the above measurements we can find the optimal deposition rate of 90 nm/sec and post-annealing temperature of 250 °C in vacuum for the asdeposited cesium iodide and its sodium-doped films.

  4. Water adsorption, solvation and deliquescence of alkali halide thin films on SiO2 studied by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Arima, Kenta; Jiang, Peng; Deng, Xingyi; Bluhm, Henrik; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-03-31

    The adsorption of water on KBr thin films evaporated onto SiO2 was investigated as a function of relative humidity (RH) by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At 30percent RH adsorbed water reaches a coverage of approximately one monolayer. As the humidity continues to increase, the coverage of water remains constant or increases very slowly until 60percent RH, followed by a rapid increase up to 100percent RH. At low RH a significant number of the Br atoms are lost due to irradiation damage. With increasing humidity solvation increases ion mobility and gives rise to a partial recovery of the Br/K ratio. Above 60percent RH the increase of the Br/K ratio accelerates. Above the deliquescence point (85percent RH), the thickness of the water layer continues to increase and reaches more than three layers near saturation. The enhancement of the Br/K ratio at this stage is roughly a factor 2.3 on a 0.5 nm KBr film, indicating a strong preferential segregation of Br ions to the surface of the thin saline solution on SiO2.

  5. Geomechanical analysis applied to geological carbon dioxide sequestration, induced seismicity in deep mines, and detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sub-salt environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucier, Amie Marie

    and injection induced micro-seismicity are implemented. The second issue to which we apply geomechanical analysis in this thesis is mining-induced stress perturbations and induced seismicity in the TauTona gold mine, which is located in the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa and is one of the deepest underground mines in the world. In the first investigation, we developed and tested a new technique for determining the virgin stress state near the TauTona gold mine. This technique follows an iterative forward modeling approach that combines observations of drilling induced borehole failures in borehole images, boundary element modeling of the mining-induced stress perturbations, and forward modeling of borehole failures based on the results of the boundary element modeling. The final result was a well constrained range of principal stress orientations and magnitudes that are consistent with all the observed failures and other stress indicators. In the second investigation, we used this constrained stress state to examine the likelihood of faulting to occur both on pre-existing fault planes that are optimally oriented to the virgin stress state and on faults affected by the mining-perturbed stress field, the latter of which is calculated with boundary element modeling. We made several recommendations that could potentially increase safety in deep South African mines as development continues. Finally, the third issue addressed in this thesis is the detection of stress-induced shear wave velocity anisotropy in a sub-salt environment. In this study, we tested a technique proposed by Boness and Zoback (2006) to identify structure-induced velocity anisotropy and isolate possible stress-induced velocity anisotropy. The investigation used cross-dipole sonic data from three deep water sub-salt wells in the Gulf of Mexico. First, we determined the parameters necessary to ensure the quality of the fast azimuth data used in our analysis. We then characterized the quality

  6. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  7. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  8. Phototransformation of 4-phenoxyphenol sensitised by 4-carboxybenzophenone: Evidence of new photochemical pathways in the bulk aqueous phase and on the surface of aerosol deliquescent particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Laurentiis, Elisa; Socorro, Joanna; Vione, Davide; Quivet, Etienne; Brigante, Marcello; Mailhot, Gilles; Wortham, Henri; Gligorovski, Sasho

    2013-12-01

    In addition to direct photolysis, degradation of organic compounds by solar light can also occur by indirect photolysis or photo-sensitised processes. These reactions are important because they are involved in, among others, direct and indirect climate changes, adverse health effects from inhaled particles, effects on cloud chemistry and ozone production. In this work, the importance of atmospheric photo-sensitisation is evaluated in bulk aqueous solution and on the surface of aerosol deliquescent particles. Irradiation experiments in aqueous solution indicate that 4-carboxybenzophenone (CBP) is able to photosensitise the degradation of 4-phenoxyphenol (4 PP). The process takes place via the CBP triplet state (3CBP*), which has an oxidising nature. 4 PP is fluorescent, unlike the photosensitiser CBP, with two emission bands at ˜320 and ˜380 nm. However, addition of CBP to a 4 PP solution considerably decreases the intensity of 4 PP fluorescence bands and causes a very intense new band to appear at ˜420 nm. This behaviour suggests a possible interaction between CBP and 4 PP in solution, which could favour further light-induced processes. Moreover, the new band overlaps with the fluorescence spectrum of atmospheric HULIS (HUmic-LIke Substances), suggesting that supramolecular photosensitiser-substrate interactions may have a role in HULIS fluorescence properties. The interaction between CBP and 4 PP coated on silica particles (gas-solid system) was also investigated under simulated sunlight, and in the presence of variable relative humidity. The water molecules inhibit the degradation of 4 PP, induced by 3CBP* on the surface of aerosol particles, indicating that the process could be even faster on particles than in solution. We demonstrate that phenol substances adsorbed on aerosol surfaces and in bulk solution are substantially altered upon photosensitised processes.

  9. Bile salts as semiochemicals in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Bile salts are potent olfactory stimuli in fishes; however the biological functions driving such sensitivity remain poorly understood. We provide an integrative review of bile salts as semiochemicals in fish. First, we present characteristics of bile salt structure, metabolism, and function that are particularly relevant to chemical communication. Bile salts display a systematic pattern of structural variation across taxa, are efficiently synthesized, and are stable in the environment. Bile salts are released into the water via the intestine, urinary tract, or gills, and are highly water soluble. Second, we consider the potential role of bile salts as semiochemicals in the contexts of detecting nearby fish, foraging, assessing risk, migrating, and spawning. Lastly, we suggest future studies on bile salts as semiochemicals further characterize release into the environment, behavioral responses by receivers, and directly test the biological contexts underlying olfactory sensitivity.

  10. Geomechanical analysis applied to geological carbon dioxide sequestration, induced seismicity in deep mines, and detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sub-salt environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucier, Amie Marie

    and injection induced micro-seismicity are implemented. The second issue to which we apply geomechanical analysis in this thesis is mining-induced stress perturbations and induced seismicity in the TauTona gold mine, which is located in the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa and is one of the deepest underground mines in the world. In the first investigation, we developed and tested a new technique for determining the virgin stress state near the TauTona gold mine. This technique follows an iterative forward modeling approach that combines observations of drilling induced borehole failures in borehole images, boundary element modeling of the mining-induced stress perturbations, and forward modeling of borehole failures based on the results of the boundary element modeling. The final result was a well constrained range of principal stress orientations and magnitudes that are consistent with all the observed failures and other stress indicators. In the second investigation, we used this constrained stress state to examine the likelihood of faulting to occur both on pre-existing fault planes that are optimally oriented to the virgin stress state and on faults affected by the mining-perturbed stress field, the latter of which is calculated with boundary element modeling. We made several recommendations that could potentially increase safety in deep South African mines as development continues. Finally, the third issue addressed in this thesis is the detection of stress-induced shear wave velocity anisotropy in a sub-salt environment. In this study, we tested a technique proposed by Boness and Zoback (2006) to identify structure-induced velocity anisotropy and isolate possible stress-induced velocity anisotropy. The investigation used cross-dipole sonic data from three deep water sub-salt wells in the Gulf of Mexico. First, we determined the parameters necessary to ensure the quality of the fast azimuth data used in our analysis. We then characterized the quality

  11. Geochemistry of Natural Components in the Near-Field Environment, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Z.E. Peterman; T.A. Oliver

    2006-06-19

    The natural near-field environment in and around the emplacement drifts of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, includes the host rock, dust, seepage water, and pore water. The chemical compositions of these components have been analyzed to provide a basis for assessing possible chemical and mineralogical reactions that may occur in and around the emplacement drifts during the heating and cooling cycle. The crystal-poor rhyolite of the Topopah Spring Tuff of Miocene age with an average silica (SiO{sub 2}) content of 76 percent will host the proposed repository. Samples of the rhyolite are relatively uniform in chemical composition as shown by an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 8.6 percent for major elements. The major component of underground dust is comminuted tuff generated during construction of the tunnel. Average CVs for major elements of dust samples collected from the main tunnel (Exploratory Studies Facility, ESF) and a cross drift (Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block, ECRB) are 25 and 28 percent, respectively. This increased variability is due to a variable amount of dust derived from trachyte with SiO{sub 2} contents as low as 66 percent (from overlying crystal-rich members) and from surface dust with an even lower average SiO{sub 2} content of 60 percent (from the abundance of trachyte in outcrop and carbonate dust derived from nearby ranges). The composition of the water-soluble fraction of dust is of interest with regard to possible salt deliquescence on waste canisters. The nitrate-to-chloride (NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -}) ratio (weight) is used to assess the potential corrosive nature of the salts because an excess of NO{sub 3}{sup -} over Cl{sup -} may inhibit the formation of the more corrosive calcium chloride brines in deliquescing salts. The soluble fractions of dust samples typically have NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratios between 1 and 10. About 30 samples of seepage into the south ramp of the

  12. Theoretical investigation on local structure and transport properties of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts under electric field environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhenming; Li, Jie; Chen, Jiangan; Liu, Qingsheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of electric field and molecular ratio CR (NaF/AlF3) on basic structure and transport properties of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations with the Buckingham potential model. The [AlF6]3- groups are the dominant specie in NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts at CR ≥ 2.6, and followed by the [AlF5]2- groups, while CR ≤ 2.4, [AlF5]2- groups are the protagonists up to 40%. In NaFsbnd AlF3 system, with the increase of CR, the proportion of Fb decreases slightly and the percentage of Ff increases dramatically. The Alsbnd F bonds have ionic characters as well as partial covalently characters due to the hybridization of F-2p and Al-3s, 3p orbitals. The order of ion diffusion ability follows as Na+ > F- > Al3+. Adding more NaF can break some F bridges of structure networks and decrease the polymerization degree of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts, the viscosity reduces and ionic conductivity increases as a consequence. The calculated results of ionic conductivity are in agreement with the experimental results. Electric field has no significant impact on the local structure characters, while transport properties are not. The change of CR (NaF/AlF3) can significantly affect these characters of both the structure and transport.

  13. Factors Affecting the Kinetics of Salt Crystallization and Related Damage in Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidzadeh, N.; Desarnaud, J.; Hannelore, D.; Molari, L.; Miranda, S.; Cnudde, V.

    2014-12-01

    Salt contaminated stones or masonry materials are often observed to deteriorate under environmental conditions due to crystallization of salts, the importance of which is expected to increase in the future due to global climate change. When environmental conditions such as humidity or exposure to rain or rising damp vary, salts in contact with water (liquid or vapor) can dissolve and cause damage to the material by re-crystallization upon drying. The detailed mechanisms of the damaging processes have been investigated for several decades now. However there are still open questions such as why a given salt can lead to damage in some environmental conditions and not in others. We present both macroscopic and microscopic experiments assessing the importance of the kinetics of salt crystallization for NaCl on damage in sandstone with environmental fluctuations, i.e. wetting/drying and humidity cycling. NaCl contaminated sandstones are put in contact with liquid water and water vapor until complete saturation, followed by drying at different relative humidities. Advanced techniques such as high resolution X-ray computed tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy are used to study the kinetics of salt growth in the porous network. Our results show that the kinetics of recrystallization after deliquescence (contact with water vapor) and rewetting of salt contaminated sandstones leads to very different crystallization patterns. With humidity cycling, recrystallization promotes the formation of localised bigger cubic crystals at the subsurface of the stone whereas rewetting leads to efflorescence in the form of large localised cauliflowers at the surface. The different growth dynamics also affects the drying behaviour of the sandstones. These results reveal for the first time the major role of the crystallization dynamics in the way a given salt causes damage in some environmental conditions and not in other.

  14. Seasonal behavior of PM2.5 deliquescence, crystallization, and hygroscopic growth in the Po Valley (Milan): Implications for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Casati, Marco; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Ferrero, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols deliquescence and crystallization relative humidity (DRH and CRH) are rarely measured compared to the worldwide number of hygroscopicity measurements; this feature comes from the lack of an efficient method able to capture the whole complexity of chemical composition of aerosols. Despite this, the knowledge of both DRH and CRH are crucial for a correct parameterization of the aerosol hygroscopic growth used in different applications, among which the remote sensing is very important. In this paper, a newly developed technique (direct current conductance method) was applied in an aerosol chamber to Milan PM2.5 samples, to identify aerosol DRH and CRH both during winter and summer. These results were compared with those independently obtained by gravimetric measurements conducted in the chamber using a microbalance. Microbalance data allowed also the determination of the mass hygroscopic growth factor on the collected PM2.5 samples. Results evidenced first a good agreement between the two methods (RMSE = 2.7% and 2.3% for DRH and CRH, respectively). Collected data evidenced the hysteresis behavior of ambient particles and variability in both DRH and CRH between the two seasons. Summer samples showed higher DRH and CRH (on average 71.4 ± 1.0% RH and 62.6 ± 1.2% RH, respectively) than the winter ones (on average 55.2 ± 0.7% RH and 46.9 ± 0.6% RH). This behavior was related to the higher content of sulfates during the summer season. Conversely, the mass hygroscopic growth factor at 90% RH was higher for winter samples (2.76 ± 0.06) with respect to the summer ones (1.91 ± 0.11). Since hysteresis behavior affects optical properties of aerosols, when RH conditions are within the loop, the hygroscopic growth factor could be assigned in a wrong way. Thus, the growth factor was calculated within the hysteresis loop for both upper and lower branches: results showed that difference in hygroscopic growth factor could reach up the 24%.

  15. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  16. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  17. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  18. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  19. 40 CFR 415.650 - Applicability; description of the cobalt salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cobalt salts production subcategory. 415.650 Section 415.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.650 Applicability; description of the cobalt... cobalt salts....

  20. Molecular and Phenetic Characterization of the Bacterial Assemblage of Hot Lake, WA, an Environment with High Concentrations of Magnesium Sulfate, and Its Relevance to Mars.

    PubMed

    Kilmer, Brian R; Eberl, Timothy C; Cunderla, Brent; Chen, Fei; Clark, Benton C; Schneegurt, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Hot Lake (Oroville, WA) is an athalassohaline epsomite lake that can have precipitating concentrations of MgSO4 salts, mainly epsomite. Little biotic study has been done on epsomite lakes and it was unclear whether microbes isolated from epsomite lakes and their margins would fall within recognized halotolerant genera, common soil genera, or novel phyla. Our initial study cultivated and characterized epsotolerant bacteria from the lake and its margins. Approximately 100 aerobic heterotrophic microbial isolates were obtained by repetitive streak-plating in high-salt media including either 10% NaCl or 2 M MgSO4. The collected isolates were all bacteria, nearly evenly divided between Gram-positive and Gram-negative clades, the most abundant genera being Halomonas, Idiomarina, Marinobacter, Marinococcus, Nesterenkonia, Nocardiopsis, and Planococcus. Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Exiguobacterium, Kocuria, and Staphylococcus also were cultured. This initial study included culture-independent community analysis of direct DNA extracts of lake margin soil using PCR-based clone libraries and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Clones assigned Gram-positive bacterial clades (70% of total clones) were dominated by sequences related to uncultured actinobacteria. There were abundant Deltaproteobacteria clones related to bacterial sulfur metabolisms and clones of Legionella and Coxiella. These epsomite lake microbial communities seem to be divided between bacteria primarily associated with hyperhaline environments rich in NaCl and salinotolerant relatives of common soil organisms. Archaea appear to be in low abundance and none were isolated, despite near-saturated salinities. Growth of microbes at very high concentrations of magnesium and other sulfates has relevance to planetary protection and life-detection missions to Mars, where scant liquid water may form as deliquescent brines and appear as eutectic liquids. PMID:24748851

  1. Molecular and phenetic characterization of the bacterial assemblage of Hot Lake, WA, an environment with high concentrations of magnesium sulphate, and its relevance to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilmer, Brian R.; Eberl, Timothy C.; Cunderla, Brent; Chen, Fei; Clark, Benton C.; Schneegurt, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Hot Lake (Oroville, WA) is an athalassohaline epsomite lake that can have precipitating concentrations of MgSO4 salts, mainly epsomite. Little biotic study has been done on epsomite lakes and it was unclear whether microbes isolated from epsomite lakes and their margins would fall within recognized halotolerant genera, common soil genera or novel phyla. Our initial study cultivated and characterized epsotolerant bacteria from the lake and its margins. Approximately 100 aerobic heterotrophic microbial isolates were obtained by repetitive streak-plating in high-salt media including either 10% NaCl or 2 M MgSO4. The collected isolates were all bacteria, nearly evenly divided between Gram-positive and Gram-negative clades, the most abundant genera being Halomonas, Idiomarina, Marinobacter, Marinococcus, Nesterenkonia, Nocardiopsis and Planococcus. Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Exiguobacterium, Kocuria and Staphylococcus also were cultured. This initial study included culture-independent community analysis of direct DNA extracts of lake margin soil using PCR-based clone libraries and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Clones assigned to Gram-positive bacterial clades (70% of total clones) were dominated by sequences related to uncultured actinobacteria. There were abundant Deltaproteobacteria clones related to bacterial sulphur metabolisms and clones of Legionella and Coxiella. These epsomite lake microbial communities seem to be divided between bacteria primarily associated with hyperhaline environments rich in NaCl and salinotolerant relatives of common soil organisms. Archaea appear to be in low abundance and none were isolated, despite near-saturated salinities. Growth of microbes at very high concentrations of magnesium and other sulphates has relevance to planetary protection and life-detection missions to Mars, where scant liquid water may form as deliquescent brines and appear as eutectic liquids.

  2. Molecular and Phenetic Characterization of the Bacterial Assemblage of Hot Lake, WA, an Environment with High Concentrations of Magnesium Sulfate, and Its Relevance to Mars

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Brian R.; Eberl, Timothy C.; Cunderla, Brent; Chen, Fei; Clark, Benton C.; Schneegurt, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Hot Lake (Oroville, WA) is an athalassohaline epsomite lake that can have precipitating concentrations of MgSO4 salts, mainly epsomite. Little biotic study has been done on epsomite lakes and it was unclear whether microbes isolated from epsomite lakes and their margins would fall within recognized halotolerant genera, common soil genera, or novel phyla. Our initial study cultivated and characterized epsotolerant bacteria from the lake and its margins. Approximately 100 aerobic heterotrophic microbial isolates were obtained by repetitive streak-plating in high-salt media including either 10% NaCl or 2 M MgSO4. The collected isolates were all bacteria, nearly evenly divided between Gram-positive and Gram-negative clades, the most abundant genera being Halomonas, Idiomarina, Marinobacter, Marinococcus, Nesterenkonia, Nocardiopsis, and Planococcus. Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Exiguobacterium, Kocuria, and Staphylococcus also were cultured. This initial study included culture-independent community analysis of direct DNA extracts of lake margin soil using PCR-based clone libraries and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Clones assigned Gram-positive bacterial clades (70% of total clones) were dominated by sequences related to uncultured actinobacteria. There were abundant Deltaproteobacteria clones related to bacterial sulfur metabolisms and clones of Legionella and Coxiella. These epsomite lake microbial communities seem to be divided between bacteria primarily associated with hyperhaline environments rich in NaCl and salinotolerant relatives of common soil organisms. Archaea appear to be in low abundance and none were isolated, despite near-saturated salinities. Growth of microbes at very high concentrations of magnesium and other sulfates has relevance to planetary protection and life-detection missions to Mars, where scant liquid water may form as deliquescent brines and appear as eutectic liquids. PMID:24748851

  3. Bubble bursting as an aerosol generation mechanism during an oil spill in the deep-sea environment: molecular dynamics simulations of oil alkanes and dispersants in atmospheric air/salt water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P; Zhang, Zenghui; Ehrenhauser, Franz S; Avij, Paria; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Hung, Francisco R

    2014-01-01

    Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the properties of oil n-alkanes [i.e., n-pentadecane (C15), n-icosane (C20) and n-triacontane (C30)], as well as several surfactant species [i.e., the standard anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and three model dispersants similar to the Tween and Span species present in Corexit 9500A] at air/salt water interfaces. This study was motivated by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, and our simulation results show that, from the thermodynamic point of view, the n-alkanes and the model dispersants have a strong preference to remain at the air/salt water interface, as indicated by the presence of deep free energy minima at these interfaces. The free energy minimum of these n-alkanes becomes deeper as their chain length increases, and as the concentration of surfactant species at the interface increases. The n-alkanes tend to adopt a flat orientation and form aggregates at the bare air/salt water interface. When this interface is coated with surfactants, the n-alkanes tend to adopt more tilted orientations with respect to the vector normal to the interface. These simulation results are consistent with the experimental findings reported in the accompanying paper [Ehrenhauser et al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts 2013, in press, (DOI: 10.1039/c3em00390f)]. The fact that these long-chain n-alkanes show a strong thermodynamic preference to remain at the air/salt water interfaces, especially if these interfaces are coated with surfactants, makes these species very likely to adsorb at the surface of bubbles or droplets and be ejected to the atmosphere by sea surface processes such as whitecaps (breaking waves) and bubble bursting. Finally, the experimental finding that more oil hydrocarbons are ejected when Corexit 9500A is present in the system is consistent with the deeper free energy minima observed for the n-alkanes at the air/salt water

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial isolates from man-made high-pH, high-salt environments and identification of gene-cassette-associated open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Ghauri, Muhammad A; Khalid, Ahmad M; Grant, Susan; Grant, William D; Heaphy, Shaun

    2006-06-01

    Environmental samples were collected from high-pH sites in Pakistan, including a uranium heap set up for carbonate leaching, the lime unit of a tannery, and the Khewra salt mine. Another sample was collected from a hot spring on the shore of the soda lake, Magadi, in Kenya. Microbial cultures were enriched from Pakistani samples. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates was carried out by sequencing 16S rRNA genes. Genomic DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using integron gene-cassette-specific primers. Different gene-cassette-linked genes were recovered from the cultured strains related to Halomonas magadiensis, Virgibacillus halodenitrificans, and Yania flava and from the uncultured environmental DNA sample. The usefulness of this technique as a tool for gene mining is indicated. PMID:16732461

  5. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  6. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10689 - Organo zinc salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organo zinc salts (generic). 721.10689... Substances § 721.10689 Organo zinc salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as organo zinc salts (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10456 - Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10456 Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (PMN P-03-104) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10456 - Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10456 Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (PMN P-03-104) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10328 - Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10328 Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (PMN P-03-530) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6080 - Phosphonium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonium salt (generic name). 721... Substances § 721.6080 Phosphonium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance phosphonium salt (PMN Number P-84-820) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6080 - Phosphonium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphonium salt (generic name). 721... Substances § 721.6080 Phosphonium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance phosphonium salt (PMN Number P-84-820) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10569 - Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tricyclic quaternary amine salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10569 Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tricyclic quaternary amine salt (PMN P-08-471) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10567 - Amidoamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amidoamine salt (generic). 721.10567... Substances § 721.10567 Amidoamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amidoamine salt (PMN P-08-300) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10569 - Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tricyclic quaternary amine salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10569 Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tricyclic quaternary amine salt (PMN P-08-471) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10328 - Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10328 Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (PMN P-03-530) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June... substance identified generically as dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt (P-90-274), is subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6080 - Phosphonium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonium salt (generic name). 721... Substances § 721.6080 Phosphonium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance phosphonium salt (PMN Number P-84-820) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salt (P-90-274), is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10567 - Amidoamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amidoamine salt (generic). 721.10567... Substances § 721.10567 Amidoamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amidoamine salt (PMN P-08-300) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6080 - Phosphonium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonium salt (generic name). 721... Substances § 721.6080 Phosphonium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance phosphonium salt (PMN Number P-84-820) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34636, June... substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6080 - Phosphonium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphonium salt (generic name). 721... Substances § 721.6080 Phosphonium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance phosphonium salt (PMN Number P-84-820) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10328 - Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10328 Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (PMN P-03-530) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salt (P-90-274), is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salt (P-90-274), is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  2. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  3. Organic geochemistry of endoevaporitic environments: Microbial diversity and lipid biomarkers from gypsum deposits at the E.S.S.A Salt Works, Guerrero Negro, Baja, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M. B.; Des Marais, D. J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Turk, K. A.; Kubo, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    We report lipid biomarker distributions and microbial diversity of endoevaporitic microbial communities from the gypsum crystallizer pond (Pond #9; ~170 % salinity) at the Exportadora de Sal, (ESSA) salt works in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. According to phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA sequences, gypsum crusts from this system host stratified communities of unicellular cyanobacteria (orange Euhalothece), filamentous cyanobacteria (green Oscillatoria), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatium), and other halophilic microorganisms. Lipids collected from spatially discrete horizons of the crust indicate a shift in C16, C18 and C19 fatty acids from lower concentrations in the upper aerobic layers to higher concentrations in the deeper anaerobic zones of the crust. Compound specific isotopic analyses (CSIA) of fatty acids differentiate the more abundant C16, C18 and C19 homologues as isotopically lighter (~ -20% to -25% δ13C VPDB) from C15, C17 and C20 homologues which are isotopically heavier (~ -14% to -19% δ13C VPDB) and occur in lower abundance. CSIA of multiple compound classes reveals that gypsum domain lipids have significantly lighter δ13C values than those of lipids from the laminated benthic microbial mats living at lower salinities (i.e. ~100% to 115% salinity) in the ESSA system. This isotopic effect is consistent with intensive internal nutrient cycling within the crust. Squalane/squalene were detected in extracts from the gypsum crust indicating the presence of archaea. Diploptene is the most abundant triterpenoid of the C28 C32 hopanoids. Branched alkanes with quaternary substituted carbons (BAQCs) were also detected. These compounds have been linked with sulfur oxidizing microbial activity, which is known to be a major respiratory process in the crust's internal O2 budget (Sørensen et al., 2004). Abundant organosulfur compounds (OSC) and thiacycloalkanes in extracts indicate a vigorous internal sulfur cycle that influences both

  4. Chemical Environment at Waste Package Surfaces in a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Alai, M; Craig, L; Gdowski, G; Hailey, P; Nguyen, Q A; Rard, J; Staggs, K; Sutton, M; Wolery, T

    2005-05-26

    We have conducted a series of deliquescence, boiling point, chemical transformation, and evaporation experiments to determine the composition of waters likely to contact waste package surfaces over the thermal history of the repository as it heats up and cools back down to ambient conditions. In the above-boiling period, brines will be characterized by high nitrate to chloride ratios that are stable to higher temperatures than previously predicted. This is clearly shown for the NaCl-KNO{sub 3} salt system in the deliquescence and boiling point experiments in this report. Our results show that additional thermodynamic data are needed in nitrate systems to accurately predict brine stability and composition due to salt deliquescence in dust deposited on waste package surfaces. Current YMP models capture dry-out conditions but not composition for NaCl-KNO{sub 3} brines, and they fail to predict dry-out conditions for NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} brines. Boiling point and deliquescence experiments are needed in NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} systems to directly determine dry-out conditions and composition, because these salt mixtures are also predicted to control brine composition in the above-boiling period. Corrosion experiments are needed in high temperature and high NO{sub 3}:Cl brines to determine if nitrate inhibits corrosion in these concentrated brines at temperatures above 160 C. Chemical transformations appear to be important for pure calcium- and magnesium-chloride brines at temperatures greater than 120 C. This stems from a lack of acid gas volatility in NaCl/KNO{sub 3} based brines and by slow CO{sub 2}(g) diffusion in alkaline brines. This suggests that YMP corrosion models based on bulk solution experiments over the appropriate composition, temperature, and relative humidity range can be used to predict corrosion in thin brine films formed by salt deliquescence. In contrast to the above-boiling period, the

  5. The Effects of Mineral Dust on the Hygroscopic and Optical Properties of Inorganic Salt Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, A. R.; Greenslade, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral dust particles are a significant fraction of the total aerosol mass, thus they play an important role in the Earth's radiative budget by direct scattering and absorption of radiation. Assessing this impact is complicated by the variability of optical properties resulting from water uptake and changes in chemical composition due to atmospheric mixing. Internal mixtures of montmorillonite, a clay component of mineral dust, with sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate were studied optically using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The effects of the addition of the clay to the optically observed deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and water uptake of these salts was considered by investigating a series of different salt mass fractions. In most cases, montmorillonite alters the hygroscopic properties and causes the DRH to occur at a lower relative humidity. For ammonium sulfate, optical properties can be approximated by volume weighted mixing rules with some minor deviations around the DRH. For sodium chloride, this approximation is only accurate below the DRH with enhanced water uptake at higher relative humidities. Our results show that salt particles may transition from solid to liquid at a lower relative humidity than is expected based on the salt alone, as observed with changes in optical properties. Further, they contradict current measurements in the literature that suggest little change in the hygroscopic behavior of salts when insoluble mineral dust components are added and should continue to be investigated. Accurate, direct measurements of the effect of the addition of clays to the optical properties of common aerosol species will allow for improvements in the prediction of the aerosol direct effect.

  6. Salt: a sacred substance.

    PubMed

    De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, R M; De Santo, L S; Petrelli, L; Gallo, L; Cirillo, M; Capasso, G

    1997-11-01

    Salt is the last relic of the ocean where life was born. Its presence has influenced the whole gamut of history and its name is linked to hundred of geographical locations. Its importance for nutrition is supported by the discovery of Aeneolithic salt cellars. Salt cellars and pyramids of salt have been included in paintings and other works of art. In Japan where salt was and still is obtained from the sea, a salt culture has developed that can be traced in the rituals of everyday life, including meal preparation, sports, and Shinto ceremonies. PMID:9350697

  7. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  8. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  9. 40 CFR 420.80 - Applicability; description of the salt bath descaling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into publicly owned treatment works resulting from oxidizing and reducing salt bath descaling... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the salt... Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory § 420.80 Applicability; description of the salt bath...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  15. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the opposite! This family ... and how dangerous for your body? Michelle Rankin Hi ParkerPanella - Bath salts are drugs known as synthetic ...

  16. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. Do not eat foods with monosodium glutamate (MSG). When you go out ...

  17. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  18. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  19. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Pade, Nadin; Hagemann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants. PMID:25551682

  20. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  1. Molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lovering, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this volume, the historical background, scope, problems, economics, and future applications of molten salt technologies are discussed. Topics presented include molten salts in primary production of aluminum, general principles and handling and safety of the alkali metals, first-row transition metals, group VIII metals and B-group elements, solution electrochemistry, transport phenomena, corrosion in different molten salts, cells with molten salt electrolytes and reactants, fuel cell design, hydrocracking and liquefaction, heat storage in phase change materials, and nuclear technologies.

  2. Mechanochemical synthesis of layered hydroxy salts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Nygil

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Ultrafast synthesis method was developed for the synthesis of layered hydroxy salts. ► Preparation of hydroxy single salt by this method requires only one minute. ► Hydroxy salts with variable Ni/Zn ratio could be synthesized by varying the metal contents of the starting mixture. ► This synthesis method is solvent free and environment friendly. -- Abstract: A simple one minute synthesis method was adapted for the preparation of layered hydroxy salts of copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium by grinding the metal salts with sodium hydroxide in a mortar. This solvent free method is environment friendly and fast. This method could be extended to the preparation of Ni/Zn hydroxy double salts. The Ni/Zn ratio could be varied from 1.2 to 1.9 by varying the metal contents of the precursor salts without the formation of any impurities in the sample. The prepared compounds had similar characteristics as that of the samples prepared by precipitation route. No sign of carbonate contamination was observed in any of the prepared samples.

  3. Soluble salts at the Phoenix Lander site, Mars: A reanalysis of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

    2014-07-01

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on the Phoenix Mars Scout Lander analyzed soils for soluble ions and found Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, and ClO4-. The salts that gave rise to these ions can be inferred using aqueous equilibrium models; however, model predictions are sensitive to the initial solution composition. This is problematic because the WCL data is noisy and many different ion compositions are possible within error bounds. To better characterize ion concentrations, we reanalyzed WCL data using improvements to original analyses, including Kalman optimal smoothing and ion-pair corrections. Our results for Rosy Red are generally consistent with previous analyses, except that Ca2+ and Cl- concentrations are lower. In contrast, ion concentrations in Sorceress 1 and Sorceress 2 are significantly different from previous analyses. Using the more robust Rosy Red WCL analysis, we applied equilibrium models to determine salt compositions within the error bounds of the reduced data. Modeling with FREZCHEM predicts that WCL solutions evolve Ca-Mg-ClO4-rich compositions at low temperatures. These unusual compositions are likely influenced by limitations in the experimental data used to parameterize FREZCHEM. As an alternative method to evaluate salt assemblages, we employed a chemical divide model based on the eutectic temperatures of salts. Our chemical divide model predicts that the most probable salts in order of mass abundance are MgSO4·11H2O (meridianiite), MgCO3·nH2O, Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, KClO4, NaCl·2H2O (hydrohalite), and CaCO3 (calcite). If ClO3- is included in the chemical divide model, then NaClO3 precipitates instead of NaClO4·2H2O and Mg(ClO3)2·6H2O precipitates in addition to Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O. These salt assemblages imply that at least 1.3 wt.% H2O is bound in the soil, noting that we cannot account for water in hydrated insoluble salts or deliquescent brines. All WCL solutions within error bounds precipitate Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O and/or Mg

  4. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  5. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  6. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  7. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  8. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  9. The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction

    PubMed Central

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Methods: Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. Results: We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). Interpretation: The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health. PMID:22508978

  10. DNA nanosensor surface grafting and salt dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, B. G.; Fagundes, J.; Martin, A. A.; Raniero, L.; Favero, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigated the Paracoccidoides brasiliensis fungus nanosensor by simulations of simple strand DNA grafting on gold nanoparticle. In order to improve the knowledge of nanoparticle environment, the addiction of salt solution was studied at the models proposed by us. Nanoparticle and DNA are represented by economic models validated by us in this paper. In addition, the DNA grafting and salt influences are evaluated by adsorption and bond energies calculations. This theoretical evaluation gives support to experimental diagnostics techniques of diseases.

  11. Salt and hypertension: why is there still a debate?

    PubMed Central

    Batuman, Vecihi

    2013-01-01

    More than a quarter of human populations now suffer from hypertension paralleling the marked increase in the dietary intake of salt during the recent several decades. Despite overwhelming experimental and epidemiological evidence, some still debate the relation between salt and hypertension. Pointing to some conflicting data in a few flawed studies, they argue that policy interventions to reduce the dietary intake of salt are premature and maybe unsafe without further studies. A brief review of data relating salt intake to hypertension, along with an overview of the history of the introduction of salt to human diet on an historic and evolutionary time scale, should help dispel doubts on the effectiveness and safety of low-salt diet. The recorded history confirms how rare and inaccessible salt has been until recent times. Like all other terrestrial life forms, humans evolved in a salt-free environment under intense evolutionary pressure for the selection of salt-conserving genes. Hypertension is a prototypical evolutionary maladaptation disorder of the modern man—a species exquisitely well adapted to low salt conditions suddenly confronted with salt excess. The World Health Organization and many governments have finally taken action to reduce dietary intake of salt, which already has started to reduce the burden of hypertension and the associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This brief review is to broadly look at the evidence linking salt to hypertension from a historic and evolutionary perspective as well as touching upon some of the epidemiological and experimental data. PMID:25019011

  12. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and salts with water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, E.; Vlasenko, S.; Niessner, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2003-09-01

    The interaction of aerosol particles in the 100-200 nm size range composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor at ambient temperature and pressure (25°C, 1 atm) has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Köhler theory calculations. BSA was chosen as a well-defined model substance for proteins and other macromolecular compounds, which constitute a large fraction of the water-soluble organic component of air particulate matter. Pure BSA particles exhibited deliquescence and efflorescence transitions at ~35% relative humidity (RH) and a hygroscopic diameter increase by up to ~10% at 95% RH in good agreement with model calculations based on a simple parameterisation of the osmotic coefficient. Pure NaCl particles were converted from near-cubic to near-spherical or polyhedral shape upon interaction with water vapor at relative humidities below the deliquescence threshold (partial surface dissolution and recrystallisation), and the diameters of pure NH4NO3 particles decreased by up to 10% due to chemical decomposition and evaporation. Mixed NaCl-BSA and NH4NO3-BSA particles interacting with water vapor exhibited mobility equivalent diameter reductions of up to 20%, depending on particle generation, conditioning, size, and chemical composition (BSA dry mass fraction 10-90%). These observations can be explained by formation of porous agglomerates (envelope void fractions up to 50%) due to ion-protein interactions and electric charge effects on the one hand, and by compaction of the agglomerate structure due to capillary condensation effects on the other. The size of NH4NO3-BSA particles was apparently also influenced by volatilisation of NH4NO3, but not as much as for pure salt particles, i.e. the protein inhibited the decomposition of NH4NO3 or the evaporation of the

  13. De-Icing Salts and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln.

    Reported is an examination of the use and effects of chlorides as de-icing products for removal of snow and ice from roads immediately following storms. Increasing evidence of detrimental side effects led to a closer look and more careful evaluation of the overall significance of the so-called "bare pavement maintenance." The side effects include…

  14. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    PubMed

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-01

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers. PMID:26823100

  15. Photochemistry of triarylsulfonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dektar, J.L.; Hacker, N.P. )

    1990-08-01

    The photolysis of triphenylsulfonium, tris(4-methylphenyl)sulfonium, tris(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonium, several monosubstituted (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-PhS, and 4-PhCO), and disubstituted (4,4{prime}-Me{sub 2} and 4,4{prime}-(MeO){sub 2}) triphenylsulfonium salts was examined in solution. It was found that direct irradiation of triphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts, gave the new rearrangement products. The mechanism for direct photolysis is proposed to occur from the singlet excited states to give a predominant heterolytic cleavage along with some homolytic cleavage.

  16. GNI - A System for the Impaction and Automated Optical Sizing of Giant Aerosol Particles with Emphasis on Sea Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jorgen

    2013-04-01

    Size distributions of giant aerosol particles (e.g. sea-salt particles, dry radius larger than 0.5 μm) are not well characterized in the atmosphere, yet they contribute greatly to both direct and indirect aerosol effects. Measurements are problematic for these particles because they (i) occur in low concentrations, (ii) have difficulty in passing through air inlets, (iii) there are problems in discriminating between dry and deliquesced particles, (iv) and impaction sampling requires labor intensive methods. In this study, a simple, high-volume impaction system called the Giant Nuclei Impactor (GNI), based on free-stream exposure of polycarbonate slides from aircraft is described, along with an automated optical microscope-based system for analysis of the impacted particles. The impaction slides are analyzed in a humidity-controlled box (typically 90% relative humidity) that allows for deliquescence of sea salt particles. A computer controlled optical microscope with two digital cameras is used to acquire and analyze images of the aerosol particles. Salt particles will form near-spherical cap solution drops at high relative humidity. The salt mass in each giant aerosol particle is then calculated using simple geometry and K ̈ohler theory by assuming a NaCl composition. The system has a sample volume of about 10 L/s at aircraft speeds of 105 m/s. For salt particles, the measurement range is from about 0.7 μm dry radius to tens of micrometers, with a size-bin resolution of 0.2 μm dry radius. The sizing accuracy was tested using glass beads of known size. Characterizing the uncertainties of observational data is critical for applications to atmospheric science studies. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis is performed for the airborne GNI manual impaction and automatic optical microscope system for sizing giant aerosol particles, with particular emphasis on sea-salt particles. The factors included are (i) sizing accuracy, (ii) concentration accuracy, (iii

  17. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy. PMID:7847480

  18. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  4. Observation of sea-salt fraction in sub-100 nm diameter particles at Cape Grim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravigan, Luke T.; Ristovski, Zoran; Modini, Robin L.; Keywood, Melita D.; Gras, John L.

    2015-03-01

    Volatility-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer measurements were used to infer the composition of sub-100 nm diameter Southern Ocean marine aerosols at Cape Grim in November and December 2007. This study focuses on a short-lived high sea spray aerosol (SSA) event on 7-8 December with two externally mixed modes in the Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) distributions (90% relative humidity (RH)), one at HGF > 2 and another at HGF~1.5. The particles with HGF > 2 displayed a deliquescent transition at 73-75% RH and were nonvolatile up to 280°C, which identified them as SSA particles with a large inorganic sea-salt fraction. SSA HGFs were 3-13% below those for pure sea-salt particles, indicating an organic volume fraction (OVF) of up to 11-46%. Observed high inorganic fractions in sub-100 nm SSA is contrary to similar, earlier studies. HGFs increased with decreasing particle diameter over the range 16-97 nm, suggesting a decreased OVF, again contrary to earlier studies. SSA comprised up to 69% of the sub-100 nm particle number, corresponding to concentrations of 110-290 cm-3. Air mass back trajectories indicate that SSA particles were produced 1500 km, 20-40 h upwind of Cape Grim. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray spectrometry measurements of sub-100 nm aerosols collected from the same location, and at the same time, displayed a distinct lack of sea salt. Results herein highlight the potential for biases in TEM analysis of the chemical composition of marine aerosols.

  5. Integrated Salt Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2015-04-01

    The growing importance of salt in the energy, subsurface storage, and chemical and food industries also increases the challenges with prediction of geometries, kinematics, stress and transport in salt. This requires an approach, which integrates a broader range of knowledge than is traditionally available in the different scientific and engineering disciplines. We aim to provide a starting point for a more integrated understanding of salt, by presenting an overview of the state of the art in a wide range of salt-related topics, from (i) the formation and metamorphism of evaporites, (ii) rheology and transport properties, (iii) salt tectonics and basin evolution, (iv) internal structure of evaporites, (v) fluid flow through salt, to (vi) salt engineering. With selected case studies we show how integration of these domains of knowledge can bring better predictions of (i) sediment architecture and reservoir distribution, (ii) internal structure of salt for optimized drilling and better cavern design, (iii) reliable long-term predictions of deformations and fluid flow in subsurface storage. A fully integrated workflow is based on geomechanical models, which include all laboratory and natural observations and links macro- and micro-scale studies. We present emerging concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and deformation of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution.

  6. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  7. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  8. [Salt and cancer].

    PubMed

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  9. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical..., chemical destruction and carbon adsorption. (iv) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90...

  10. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dialkylamino alkanoate...

  14. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  17. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  18. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  19. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  20. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  8. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  9. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  11. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  13. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  14. Salt-Bridge Energetics in Halophilic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nayek, Arnab; Sen Gupta, Parth Sarthi; Banerjee, Shyamashree; Mondal, Buddhadev; Bandyopadhyay, Amal K.

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges) to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are −3.0 kcal mol−1. Majority (78%) of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46%) with a net contribution of −5.0 kcal mol−1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (−10 kcal mol−1) exceeds than that of bridge term (−7 kcal mol−1). Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic

  15. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  16. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  17. Gas-phase molecular halogen production from sea-salt particles via interface reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Aranda, A.; Thomas, J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.; Dabdub, D.

    2005-12-01

    Interface reactions at the surface of sea-salt particles have been suggested as an important source of photolyzable gas-phase halogen species in the troposphere. Such reactions are plausible, given theoretical evidence for ions at interfaces, predicted enhancements of some gases at the air-water interface, and the results of a number of experiments in which interface reactions had to be invoked to explain the data. Because of the contributions of halogen chemistry in determining ozone and other trace species in the troposphere, elucidating the roles of interface and bulk chemistry in generating photolyzable halogen gases is important. A revised version of the model of aerosol, gas and interfacial chemistry (MAGIC 2.0) is used in this work to examine the reactions of chloride and bromide ions with OH and O3. The goal is to understand the factors that determine the relative importance of bulk compared to interface chemistry in the most simple chloride and bromide systems represented by deliquesced aerosols of NaCl or NaBr. Results show the interface process involving Cl- and OH(g) is the main source of Cl2(g). For the analogous oxidation of bromide by OH, gaseous Br2 is formed mainly in the bulk aqueous phase and transferred across the interface. However, the reaction of Br- with O3(g) at the interface is the primary source of Br2(g) under dark conditions.

  18. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  19. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  20. Deposition, Accumulation, and Alteration of Cl(-), NO3(-), ClO4(-) and ClO3(-) Salts in a Hyper-Arid Polar Environment: Mass Balance and Isotopic Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Boehlke, J. K.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrette, Megan; Lacell, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl(-), NO3(-, ClO4(-)and ClO3(-)in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl(-) and NO3(-) isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4(-)/NO3(-) ratios and NO3(-) isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3(-)/ClO4(-) in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3(-), possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from approximately 10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively

  1. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-06-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl- and NO3- isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4-/NO3- ratios and NO3- isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3-/ClO4- in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3-, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age of the salts and

  2. The bioenergetics of salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this project was to try to understand the adaptive mechanisms that organisms develop in order to respond to a sudden transformation in their environment to a salt shock.'' To study this problem we used a fresh water oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacterium known as Synecoccus 6311. This organism suffers injury after this sudden exposure to high concentrations of sodium chloride equivalent to or even higher than that in sea water. Yet they are able to re-establish their photosynthetic activity which is partially injured and return to virtually normal growth rates. Identification of the temporal sequence of changes involved in adaptation to this stress was the rationale. Indeed this project employed a wide variety of biochemical and biophysical methods, including electron spin resonance techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance to study the bioenergetics and transport mechanisms, growth and energy changes in these organisms and how the structural components of the cells changed in response to adaptation to growth at high salinity. The problem has relevance for higher plants because most of the arable farmland in the world is already under use and that which is not used is usually in salite environments. Hence, understanding basic mechanisms of salt tolerance is a fundamental biological problem with great applications for bioproductivity and agriculture.

  3. The bioenergetics of salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project was to try to understand the adaptive mechanisms that organisms develop in order to respond to a sudden transformation in their environment to a salt shock.'' To study this problem we used a fresh water oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacterium known as Synecoccus 6311. This organism suffers injury after this sudden exposure to high concentrations of sodium chloride equivalent to or even higher than that in sea water. Yet they are able to re-establish their photosynthetic activity which is partially injured and return to virtually normal growth rates. Identification of the temporal sequence of changes involved in adaptation to this stress was the rationale. Indeed this project employed a wide variety of biochemical and biophysical methods, including electron spin resonance techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance to study the bioenergetics and transport mechanisms, growth and energy changes in these organisms and how the structural components of the cells changed in response to adaptation to growth at high salinity. The problem has relevance for higher plants because most of the arable farmland in the work is already under use and that which is not used is usually in salite environments. Hence, understanding basic mechanisms of salt tolerance is a fundamental biological problem with great applications for bioproductivity and agriculture. 18 refs.

  4. Centuries of Human-Driven Change in Salt Marsh Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedan, K. Bromberg; Silliman, B. R.; Bertness, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    Salt marshes are among the most abundant, fertile, and accessible coastal habitats on earth, and they provide more ecosystem services to coastal populations than any other environment. Since the Middle Ages, humans have manipulated salt marshes at a grand scale, altering species composition, distribution, and ecosystem function. Here, we review historic and contemporary human activities in marsh ecosystems—exploitation of plant products; conversion to farmland, salt works, and urban land; introduction of non-native species; alteration of coastal hydrology; and metal and nutrient pollution. Unexpectedly, diverse types of impacts can have a similar consequence, turning salt marsh food webs upside down, dramatically increasing top down control. Of the various impacts, invasive species, runaway consumer effects, and sea level rise represent the greatest threats to salt marsh ecosystems. We conclude that the best way to protect salt marshes and the services they provide is through the integrated approach of ecosystem-based management.

  5. Centuries of human-driven change in salt marsh ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gedan, K Bromberg; Silliman, B R; Bertness, M D

    2009-01-01

    Salt marshes are among the most abundant, fertile, and accessible coastal habitats on earth, and they provide more ecosystem services to coastal populations than any other environment. Since the Middle Ages, humans have manipulated salt marshes at a grand scale, altering species composition, distribution, and ecosystem function. Here, we review historic and contemporary human activities in marsh ecosystems--exploitation of plant products; conversion to farmland, salt works, and urban land; introduction of non-native species; alteration of coastal hydrology; and metal and nutrient pollution. Unexpectedly, diverse types of impacts can have a similar consequence, turning salt marsh food webs upside down, dramatically increasing top down control. Of the various impacts, invasive species, runaway consumer effects, and sea level rise represent the greatest threats to salt marsh ecosystems. We conclude that the best way to protect salt marshes and the services they provide is through the integrated approach of ecosystem-based management. PMID:21141032

  6. Deformation-assisted fluid percolation in rock salt.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Soheil; Hesse, Marc A; Prodanović, Maša; Gardner, James E

    2015-11-27

    Deep geological storage sites for nuclear waste are commonly located in rock salt to ensure hydrological isolation from groundwater. The low permeability of static rock salt is due to a percolation threshold. However, deformation may be able to overcome this threshold and allow fluid flow. We confirm the percolation threshold in static experiments on synthetic salt samples with x-ray microtomography. We then analyze wells penetrating salt deposits in the Gulf of Mexico. The observed hydrocarbon distributions in rock salt require that percolation occurred at porosities considerably below the static threshold due to deformation-assisted percolation. Therefore, the design of nuclear waste repositories in salt should guard against deformation-driven fluid percolation. In general, static percolation thresholds may not always limit fluid flow in deforming environments. PMID:26612949

  7. Separation, concentration and determination of chloramphenicol in environment and food using an ionic liquid/salt aqueous two-phase flotation system coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Wang, Yun; Yu, Cuilan; Li, Chunxiang; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Liang

    2011-01-31

    Ionic liquid-salt aqueous two-phase flotation (ILATPF) is a novel, green, non-toxic and sensitive samples pretreatment technique. ILATPF coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the analysis of chloramphenicol, which combines ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on imidazolium ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C(4)mim]Cl) and inorganic salt (K(2)HPO(4)) with solvent sublation. In ILATPF systems, phase behaviors of the ILATPF were studied for different types of ionic liquids and salts. The sublation efficiency of chloramphenicol in [C(4)mim]Cl-K(2)HPO(4) ILATPF was influenced by the types of salts, concentration of K(2)HPO(4) in aqueous solution, solution pH, nitrogen flow rate, sublation time and the amount of [C(4)mim]Cl. Under the optimum conditions, the average sublation efficiency is up to 98.5%. The mechanism of ILATPF contains two principal processes. One is the mechanism of IL-salt ILATPS formation, the other is solvent sublation. This method was practical when applied to the analysis of chloramphenicol in lake water, feed water, milk, and honey samples with the linear range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1). The method yielded limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng mL(-1) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.3 ng mL(-1). The recovery of CAP was 97.1-101.9% from aqueous samples of environmental and food samples by the proposed method. Compared with liquid-liquid extraction, solvent sublation and ionic liquid aqueous two-phase extraction, ILATPF can not only separate and concentrate chloramphenicol with high sublation efficiency, but also efficiently reduce the wastage of IL. This novel technique is much simpler and more environmentally friendly and is suggested to have important applications for the concentration and separation of other small biomolecules. PMID:21168562

  8. Cooking without salt

    MedlinePlus

    ... flavor and nutrition. Plant-based foods -- carrots, spinach, apples, and peaches -- are naturally salt-free. Sun-dried ... types of pepper, including black, white, green, and red. Experiment with vinegars (white and red wine, rice ...

  9. Shaking the Salt Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the pepper shaker or mill. Add fresh lemon juice instead of salt to season fish and ... soups, salads, vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes Ginger: Chicken, fruits Lemon juice: Lean meats, fish, poultry, salads, vegetables Mace: ...

  10. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOEpatents

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  11. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.558 - Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.558 Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as a salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (PMN P-96-1426) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.630 - Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of a modified tallow... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.630 Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic). (a) Chemical... as a salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (PMN P-96-1425) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4685 - Substituted purine metal salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted purine metal salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4685 Substituted purine metal salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... as a substituted purine metal salt (PMN P-95-175) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.558 - Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.558 Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as a salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (PMN P-96-1426) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.630 - Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of a modified tallow... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.630 Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic). (a) Chemical... as a salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (PMN P-96-1425) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4680 - Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metal salts of complex inorganic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4680 Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids... substances identified generically as metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (PMNs P-89-576 and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4680 - Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal salts of complex inorganic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4680 Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids... substances identified generically as metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (PMNs P-89-576 and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4680 - Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metal salts of complex inorganic... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4680 Metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids... substances identified generically as metal salts of complex inorganic oxyacids (PMNs P-89-576 and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1285 - Polyoxin D zinc salt; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyoxin D zinc salt; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1285 Polyoxin D zinc salt; exemption from the requirement of a... zinc salt in or on all food commodities when applied as a fungicide and used in accordance with...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1285 - Polyoxin D zinc salt; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyoxin D zinc salt; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1285 Polyoxin D zinc salt; exemption from the requirement of a... zinc salt in or on all food commodities when applied as a fungicide and used in accordance with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5330 - Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel salt of an organo compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5330 Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen. (a) Chemical... as nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen (PMN P-92-686) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5330 - Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel salt of an organo compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5330 Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen. (a) Chemical... as nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen (PMN P-92-686) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5330 - Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel salt of an organo compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5330 Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen. (a) Chemical... as nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen (PMN P-92-686) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5330 - Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nickel salt of an organo compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5330 Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen. (a) Chemical... as nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen (PMN P-92-686) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5330 - Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel salt of an organo compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5330 Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen. (a) Chemical... as nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen (PMN P-92-686) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10085 - Substituted polyaryl sulfonium polyhalide phosphate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyhalide phosphate salt (generic). 721.10085 Section 721.10085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... phosphate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted polyaryl sulfonium polyhalide phosphate salt...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10085 - Substituted polyaryl sulfonium polyhalide phosphate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyhalide phosphate salt (generic). 721.10085 Section 721.10085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... phosphate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted polyaryl sulfonium polyhalide phosphate salt...

  10. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and...

  11. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and...

  12. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and...

  13. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and...

  14. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper... copper salts, including (a) copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, and copper nitrate, and...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  7. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  8. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  9. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  10. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.630 - Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of a modified tallow... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.630 Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic). (a) Chemical... as a salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (PMN P-96-1425) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10027 - Ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkylamine salt (generic). 721.10027 Section 721.10027 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-01-862)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.5985 Section 721.5985 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10027 - Ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkylamine salt (generic). 721.10027 Section 721.10027 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-01-862)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.630 - Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of a modified tallow... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.630 Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic). (a) Chemical... as a salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (PMN P-96-1425) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.5985 Section 721.5985 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts (generic). 721.10487 Section 721.10487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.558 - Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.558 Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as a salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (PMN P-96-1426) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4685 - Substituted purine metal salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted purine metal salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4685 Substituted purine metal salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... as a substituted purine metal salt (PMN P-95-175) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10443 - Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ammonium salt (generic). 721.10443 Section 721.10443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10443 Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt... identified generically as ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (PMN P-01-470) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10181 - Halide salt of an alkylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halide salt of an alkylamine (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10181 Halide salt of an alkylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halide salt...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4340 - Substituted thiazino hydrazine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted thiazino hydrazine salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4340 Substituted thiazino hydrazine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... hydrazine salt (PMN P-88-63) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721.10170 Protection of Environment... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10181 - Halide salt of an alkylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halide salt of an alkylamine (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10181 Halide salt of an alkylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halide salt...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4685 - Substituted purine metal salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted purine metal salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4685 Substituted purine metal salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... as a substituted purine metal salt (PMN P-95-175) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10085 - Substituted polyaryl sulfonium polyhalide phosphate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyhalide phosphate salt (generic). 721.10085 Section 721.10085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... phosphate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted polyaryl sulfonium polyhalide phosphate salt...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.5985 Section 721.5985 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10090 - Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary amine salt of glycol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10090 Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic). (a) Chemical... as tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (PMN P-01-595) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.630 - Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of a modified tallow... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.630 Salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (generic). (a) Chemical... as a salt of a modified tallow alkylenediamine (PMN P-96-1425) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10027 - Ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkylamine salt (generic). 721.10027 Section 721.10027 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-01-862)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4340 - Substituted thiazino hydrazine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted thiazino hydrazine salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4340 Substituted thiazino hydrazine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical... hydrazine salt (PMN P-88-63) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10329 - Salt of mixed fatty amidoamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of mixed fatty amidoamines... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10329 Salt of mixed fatty amidoamines (generic). (a) Chemical substance... salt of mixed fatty amidoamines (PMN P-03-531) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10181 - Halide salt of an alkylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halide salt of an alkylamine (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10181 Halide salt of an alkylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halide salt...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl... identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide (PMN No. P-92-688)...