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Sample records for deliver improved models

  1. Innovative model of delivering quality improvement education for trainees – a pilot project

    PubMed Central

    Ramar, Kannan; Hale, Curt W.; Dankbar, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Background After incorporating quality improvement (QI) education as a required curriculum for our trainees in 2010, a need arose to readdress our didactic sessions as they were too long, difficult to schedule, and resulting in a drop in attendance. A ‘flipped classroom’ (FC) model to deliver QI education was touted to be an effective delivery method as it allows the trainees to view didactic materials on videos, on their own time, and uses the classroom to clarify concepts and employ learned tools on case-based scenarios including workshops. Methods The Mayo Quality Academy prepared 29 videos that incorporated the previously delivered 17 weekly didactic sessions, for a total duration of 135 min. The half-day session clarified questions related to the videos, followed by case examples and a hands-on workshop on how to perform and utilize a few commonly used QI tools and methods. Results Seven trainees participated. There was a significant improvement in knowledge as measured by pre- and post-FC model test results [improvement by 40.34% (SD 16.34), p<0.001]. The survey results were overall positive about the FC model with all trainees strongly agreeing that we should continue with this model to deliver QI education. Conclusions The pilot project of using the FC model to deliver QI education was successful in a small sample of trainees. PMID:26400052

  2. Vagus nerve stimulation delivered during motor rehabilitation improves recovery in a rat model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Khodaparast, Navid; Hays, Seth A; Sloan, Andrew M; Fayyaz, Tabbassum; Hulsey, Daniel R; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Neural plasticity is widely believed to support functional recovery following brain damage. Vagus nerve stimulation paired with different forelimb movements causes long-lasting map plasticity in rat primary motor cortex that is specific to the paired movement. We tested the hypothesis that repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with upper forelimb movements would improve recovery of motor function in a rat model of stroke. Rats were separated into 3 groups: vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitation (rehab), vagus nerve stimulation after rehab, and rehab alone. Animals underwent 4 training stages: shaping (motor skill learning), prelesion training, postlesion training, and therapeutic training. Rats were given a unilateral ischemic lesion within motor cortex and implanted with a left vagus nerve cuff. Animals were allowed 1 week of recovery before postlesion baseline training. During the therapeutic training stage, rats received vagus nerve stimulation paired with each successful trial. All 17 trained rats demonstrated significant contralateral forelimb impairment when performing a bradykinesia assessment task. Forelimb function was recovered completely to prelesion levels when vagus nerve stimulation was delivered during rehab training. Alternatively, intensive rehab training alone (without stimulation) failed to restore function to prelesion levels. Delivering the same amount of stimulation after rehab training did not yield improvements compared with rehab alone. These results demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation repeatedly paired with successful forelimb movements can improve recovery after motor cortex ischemia and may be a viable option for stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24553102

  3. Metallofullerene-Nanoplatform-Delivered Interstitial Brachytherapy Improved Survival in a Murine Model of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John D.; Broaddus, William C.; Dorn, Harry C.; Fatouros, Panos P.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Shultz, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Fullerenes are used across scientific disciplines because of their diverse properties gained by altering encapsulated or surface bound components. In this study, the recently developed theranostic agent based on a radiolabeled functionalized metallofullerene (177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80) was synthesized with high radiochemical yield and purity. The efficacy of this agent was demonstrated in two orthotopic xenograft brain tumor models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A dose-dependent improvement in survival was also shown. The in vivo stability of the agent was verified through dual label measurements of biological elimination from the tumor. Overall, these results provide evidence that nanomaterial platforms can be used to deliver effective interstitial brachytherapy. PMID:22881865

  4. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…

  5. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-08-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over the internet. Eighteen children with autism were assigned to an Intervention or Control video condition. Links to videos were delivered via email twice daily. Blind clinical examiners provided plaque index ratings at baseline, midpoint, and endpoint. Results show oral hygiene improvements in both groups, with larger effect sizes in the Intervention condition. The findings provide preliminary support for the use of internet-based interventions to improve oral hygiene for children with autism. PMID:27106570

  6. BMP-2 delivered via sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) improves bone repair in a rat open fracture model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tegan L; Schindeler, Aaron; Little, David G

    2016-07-01

    Human bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are an alternative to bone graft for the treatment of high-energy open fractures. The standard delivery system for BMP-2 is a porous collagen sponge, but we have previously found that the biocompatible, high viscosity carrier, Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) is an effective and potentially less invasive alternative. The efficacy of SAIB as a BMP-2 delivery system was examined in an open fracture model featuring a femoral osteotomy with periosteal stripping in 9-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats. SAIB containing BMP-2 (SAIB/BMP-2) was delivered into the fracture site during surgery and an additional group was further co-treated with zoledronic acid and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (SAIB/BMP-2/HA/ZA). These were compared to untreated fractures and SAIB carrier alone (negative controls), and BMP-2 loaded collagen sponge (positive control). The rate of radiographic union and the biomechanical properties of the healed fractures were compared after 6-week. Untreated and SAIB-treated fractures showed poor repair, with 53% and 64%, respectively, not bridged at 6 week. In contrast, collagen/BMP-2, SAIB/BMP-2, and SAIB/BMP-2/HA/ZA showed significantly increased union (100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively, p < 0.05). Four-point bend testing revealed that collagen/BMP-2 and SAIB/BMP-2/HA/ZA restored the strength of fractured femora to that of intact femora by 6 week, whereas untreated and SAIB remained less than intact controls by 60% and 67%, respectively (p < 0.05). Overall, the SAIB/BMP-2/HA/ZA formulation was comparable to BMP-2 infused collagen sponge in terms of promoting open fractures repair, but with the additional potential for less invasive delivery. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1168-1176, 2016. PMID:26679381

  7. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries

    SciTech Connect

    Joosten, Robbie P.; Womack, Thomas; Vriend, Gert; Bricogne, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of validation and real-space intervention possibilities for improving existing automated (re-)refinement methods. The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data.

  8. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Robbie P; Womack, Thomas; Vriend, Gert; Bricogne, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data. PMID:19171973

  9. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products. PMID:27005492

  10. A service model for delivering care closer to home.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Joanna; Taylor, Charlotte Elizabeth; Bunyan, Paul; White, Philippa Mary; Thomas, Siân Myra; Upton, Dominic

    2011-04-01

    Upton Surgery (Worcestershire) has developed a flexible and responsive service model that facilitates multi-agency support for adult patients with complex care needs experiencing an acute health crisis. The purpose of this service is to provide appropriate interventions that avoid unnecessary hospital admissions or, alternatively, provide support to facilitate early discharge from secondary care. Key aspects of this service are the collaborative and proactive identification of patients at risk, rapid creation and deployment of a reactive multi-agency team and follow-up of patients with an appropriate long-term care plan. A small team of dedicated staff (the Complex Care Team) are pivotal to coordinating and delivering this service. Key skills are sophisticated leadership and project management skills, and these have been used sensitively to challenge some traditional roles and boundaries in the interests of providing effective, holistic care for the patient.This is a practical example of early implementation of the principles underlying the Department of Health's (DH) recent Best Practice Guidance, 'Delivering Care Closer to Home' (DH, July 2008) and may provide useful learning points for other general practice surgeries considering implementing similar models. This integrated case management approach has had enthusiastic endorsement from patients and carers. In addition to the enhanced quality of care and experience for the patient, this approach has delivered value for money. Secondary care costs have been reduced by preventing admissions and also by reducing excess bed-days. The savings achieved have justified the ongoing commitment to the service and the staff employed in the Complex Care Team. The success of this service model has been endorsed recently by the 'Customer Care' award by 'Management in Practice'. The Surgery was also awarded the 'Practice of the Year' award for this and a number of other customer-focussed projects. PMID:21457595

  11. Nursing leaders can deliver a new model of care.

    PubMed

    Shalala, Donna E

    2014-01-01

    Millions more insured Americans. Increasing numbers of older patients. Higher rates of chronic illness. Fewer providers. How can our healthcare system not only manage these challenges but also improve performance and access to care while containing costs? The answer lies with our nurses. In some parts of the United States, nurses provide the full spectrum of primary and preventive care. They have successfully improved access and quality in rural areas. In other parts, nurses' hands are tied by antiquated laws and regulations that limit their ability to expand access to care. Our system cannot increase access when we have providers who are not allowed to perform to the top of their education, training, and capability. It is time to rethink how we deliver primary and preventive care and redefine the roles of doctors and nurses. This article examines the history of the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Future of Nursing report (chaired by the author) and the resulting Future of Nursing Campaign for Action, which is working to institute the report's recommendations in all 50 states. The IOM report's recommendations are simple: 1. Remove outdated restrictions on nursing practice. 2. Promote nurse leadership on hospital boards and in all healthcare sectors. 3. Strengthen nurse education and training, and increase the number of nurses with advanced degrees. 4. Increase diversity in the nursing workforce to better reflect the patient population. 5. Improve data reporting and compilation to predict workforce needs. New York, Kentucky, and Minnesota are three recent states to remove barriers pre venting advanced practice registered nurses from practicing at the top of their license. Similar efforts in California, Florida, and Indiana failed initially but are expected to make progress in the near future. The article makes clear how and why the Center to Champion Nursing in America (an initiative of AARP, the AARP Foundation, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation) is working to

  12. Extracorporeal adsorption therapy: A Method to improve targeted radiation delivered by radiometal-labeled monoclonal antibodies.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, Eneida R.; Green, Damian J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Pagal, John M.; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, A. K.; Durack, Lawrence D.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Wilbur, D. S.; Nilsson, Rune; Sandberg, Bengt; Press, Oliver W.

    2008-04-01

    Many investigators have demonstrated the ability to treat hematologic malignancies with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting hematopoietic antigens such as anti-CD20 and anti-CD45. [1-5] Although the remission rates achieved with radioimmunotherapy (RIT) are relatively high, many patients subsequently relapse presumably due to suboptimal delivery of enough radiation to eradicate the malignancy. The dose-response of leukemia and lymphoma to radiation has been proven. Substantial amounts of radiation can be delivered by RIT if followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation to rescue the bone marrow from myeloablation.[ref] However, the maximum dose of RIT that can be used is still limited by toxicity to normal tissues affected by nonspecific delivery of radiation. Efforts to improve RIT focus on improving the therapeutic ratios of radiation in target versus non-target tissues by removing the fraction of radioisotope that fails to bind to target tissues and circulates freely in the bloodstream perfusing non-target tissues. Our group and others have explored several alternatives for removal of unbound circulating antibody. [refs] One such method, extracorporeal adsorption therapy (ECAT) consists of removing unbound antibody by a method similar to plasmapheresis after critical circulation time and distribution of antibody into target tissues have been achieved. Preclinical studies of ECAT in murine xenograft models demonstrated significant improvement in therapeutic ratios of radioactivity. Chen and colleagues demonstrated that a 2-hour ECAT procedure could remove 40 to 70% of the radioactivity from liver, lung and spleen. [ref] Although isotope concentration in the tumor was initially unaffected, a 50% decrease was noted approximately 36 hours after the procedure. This approach was also evaluated in a limited phase I pilot study of patients with refractory B-cell lymphoma. [ref] After radiographic confirmation of tumor localization of a test dose of anti-CD20

  13. Improvements in recall and food choices using a graphical method to deliver information of select nutrients.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Nathan S; Ellison, Brenna D; Benjamin, Aaron S; Nakamura, Manabu T

    2016-01-01

    Consumers have difficulty using nutrition information. We hypothesized that graphically delivering information of select nutrients relative to a target would allow individuals to process information in time-constrained settings more effectively than numerical information. Objectives of the study were to determine the efficacy of the graphical method in (1) improving memory of nutrient information and (2) improving consumer purchasing behavior in a restaurant. Values of fiber and protein per calorie were 2-dimensionally plotted alongside a target box. First, a randomized cued recall experiment was conducted (n=63). Recall accuracy of nutrition information improved by up to 43% when shown graphically instead of numerically. Second, the impact of graphical nutrition signposting on diner choices was tested in a cafeteria. Saturated fat and sodium information was also presented using color coding. Nutrient content of meals (n=362) was compared between 3 signposting phases: graphical, nutrition facts panels (NFP), or no nutrition label. Graphical signposting improved nutrient content of purchases in the intended direction, whereas NFP had no effect compared with the baseline. Calories ordered from total meals, entrées, and sides were significantly less during graphical signposting than no-label and NFP periods. For total meal and entrées, protein per calorie purchased was significantly higher and saturated fat significantly lower during graphical signposting than the other phases. Graphical signposting remained a predictor of calories and protein per calorie purchased in regression modeling. These findings demonstrate that graphically presenting nutrition information makes that information more available for decision making and influences behavior change in a realistic setting. PMID:26773780

  14. Government & Private Enterprise--A Model Partnership Delivering Outstanding Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mick

    2011-01-01

    In the Australian state of Victoria, the State Government is responsible for delivering a public education system for the compulsory school years. It uses the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) as its agency to develop its educational curriculum, engage with local communities, develop and maintain a portfolio of…

  15. Improvement of electroporation to deliver plasmid DNA into dental follicle cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shaomian; Rana, Samir; Liu, Dawen; Wise, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Electroporation DNA transfer is a simple and versatile approach to deliver genes. To develop an optimal electroporation protocol to deliver DNA into cells, we conducted square wave electroporation experiments with using rat dental follicle cells as follows: 1) the cells were electroporated at different electric field strengths with lac Z plasmid; 2) plasmid concentrations were tested to determine the optimal doses; 3) various concentrations of bovine serum albumin or fetal bovine serum were added to the pulsing buffer; and, 4) the pulsing durations were studied to determine the optimal duration. These experiments indicated that the optimal electroporation electric field strength was 375 V/cm, and that plasmid concentrations greater than 0.18 μg/μl were required to achieve high transfection efficiency. BSA or FBS in the pulsing buffer significantly improved cell survival and increased the number of transfected cells. The optimal pulsing duration was in the range of 45 to 120 milliseconds (ms) at 375 V/cm. Thus, an improved electroporation protocol was established by optimizing the above parameters. In turn, this electroporation protocol can be used to deliver DNA into dental follicle cells to study the roles of candidate genes in regulating tooth eruption. PMID:19830717

  16. Hydrogel dual delivered celecoxib and anti-PD-1 synergistically improve antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongkui; Fang, Min; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Song, Yu; Shi, Jie; Li, Wei; Wu, Gang; Ren, Jinghua; Wang, Zheng; Zou, Weiping; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two major challenges facing cancer immunotherapy are the relatively low therapeutic efficacy and the potential side effects. New drug delivery system and efficient drug combination are required to overcome these challenges. We utilize an alginate hydrogel system to locally deliver 2 FDA-approved drugs, celecoxib and programmed death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb), to treat tumor-bearing mice. In two cancer models, B16-F10 melanoma and 4T1 metastatic breast cancer, the alginate hydrogel delivery system significantly improves the antitumor activities of celecoxib (CXB), PD-1 mAb, or both combined. These effects are associated with the sustained high concentrations of the drugs in peripheral circulation and within tumor regions. Strikingly, the simultaneous dual local delivery of celecoxib and PD-1 from this hydrogel system synergistically enhanced the presence of CD4+inteferon (IFN)-γ+ and CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells within the tumor as well as in the immune system. These effects are accompanied with reduced CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the tumor, reflecting a weakened immuosuppressive response. Furthermore, this combinatorial therapy increases the expression of two anti-angiogenic chemokines C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) 9 and CXCL10, and suppresses the intratumoral production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and cycloxygenase-2 (COX2), suggesting a dampened pro-tumor angiogenic and inflammatory microenvironment. This alginate-hydrogel-mediated, combinatorial therapy of celecoxib and PD-1 mAb provides a potential valuable regimen for treating human cancer. PMID:27057439

  17. Cost effectiveness of a computer-delivered intervention to improve HIV medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of adherence to medications for HIV infection are essential for optimal clinical outcomes and to reduce viral transmission, but many patients do not achieve required levels. Clinician-delivered interventions can improve patients’ adherence, but usually require substantial effort by trained individuals and may not be widely available. Computer-delivered interventions can address this problem by reducing required staff time for delivery and by making the interventions widely available via the Internet. We previously developed a computer-delivered intervention designed to improve patients’ level of health literacy as a strategy to improve their HIV medication adherence. The intervention was shown to increase patients’ adherence, but it was not clear that the benefits resulting from the increase in adherence could justify the costs of developing and deploying the intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation of development and deployment costs to the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods Costs of intervention development were drawn from accounting reports for the grant under which its development was supported, adjusted for costs primarily resulting from the project’s research purpose. Effectiveness of the intervention was drawn from results of the parent study. The relation of the intervention’s effects to changes in health status, expressed as utilities, was also evaluated in order to assess the net cost of the intervention in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Sensitivity analyses evaluated ranges of possible intervention effectiveness and durations of its effects, and costs were evaluated over several deployment scenarios. Results The intervention’s cost effectiveness depends largely on the number of persons using it and the duration of its effectiveness. Even with modest effects for a small number of patients the intervention was associated with net cost savings in some scenarios and for

  18. Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths: improving service supply and community demand

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Haws, Rachel A; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Lawn, Joy E

    2009-01-01

    Background Although a number of antenatal and intrapartum interventions have shown some evidence of impact on stillbirth incidence, much confusion surrounds ideal strategies for delivering these interventions within health systems, particularly in low-/middle-income countries where 98% of the world's stillbirths occur. Improving the uptake of quality antenatal and intrapartum care is critical for evidence-based interventions to generate an impact at the population level. This concluding paper of a series of papers reviewing the evidence for stillbirth interventions examines the evidence for community and health systems approaches to improve uptake and quality of antenatal and intrapartum care, and synthesises programme and policy recommendations for how best to deliver evidence-based interventions at community and facility levels, across the continuum of care, to reduce stillbirths. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for abstracts pertaining to community-based and health-systems strategies to increase uptake and quality of antenatal and intrapartum care services. We also sought abstracts which reported impact on stillbirths or perinatal mortality. Searches used multiple combinations of broad and specific search terms and prioritised rigorous randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses where available. Wherever eligible randomised controlled trials were identified after a Cochrane review had been published, we conducted new meta-analyses based on the original Cochrane criteria. Results In low-resource settings, cost, distance and the time needed to access care are major barriers for effective uptake of antenatal and particularly intrapartum services. A number of innovative strategies to surmount cost, distance, and time barriers to accessing care were identified and evaluated; of these, community financial incentives, loan/insurance schemes, and maternity waiting homes seem promising, but few studies have reported or evaluated the

  19. The Usability of Diabetes MAP: A Web-delivered Intervention for Improving Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lyndsay A; Bethune, Magaela C; Lagotte, Andrea E

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-delivered interventions are a feasible approach to health promotion. However, if a website is poorly designed, difficult to navigate, and has technical bugs, it will not be used as intended. Usability testing prior to evaluating a website’s benefits can identify barriers to user engagement and maximize future use. Objective We developed a Web-delivered intervention called Diabetes Medication Adherence Promotion (Diabetes MAP) and used a mixed-methods approach to test its usability prior to evaluating its efficacy on medication adherence and glycemic control in a randomized controlled trial. Methods We recruited English-speaking adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from an academic medical center who were prescribed diabetes medications. A trained research assistant administered a baseline survey, collected medical record information, and instructed participants on how to access Diabetes MAP. Participants were asked to use the site independently for 2 weeks and to provide survey and/or focus group feedback on their experience. We analyzed survey data descriptively and qualitative data thematically to identify participants’ favorable and unfavorable experiences, characterize usability concerns, and solicit recommendations for improving Diabetes MAP. Results Enrolled participants (N=32) were an average of 51.7 ± 11.8 years old, 66% (21/32) female, 60% (19/32) non-Hispanic White, 88% (28/32) had more than 12 years of education, half had household incomes over $50,000, and 78% (25/32) were privately insured. Average duration of diagnosed diabetes was 7.8 ± 6.3 years, average A1c was 7.4 ± 2.0, and 38% (12/32) were prescribed insulin. Of enrolled participants, 91% (29/32) provided survey and/or focus group feedback about Diabetes MAP. On the survey, participants agreed website information was clear and easy to understand, but in focus groups they reported navigational challenges and difficulty overcoming user errors (eg, entering data in an

  20. Models for Delivering School-Based Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, David A.; McManus, Joseph M.; Mitchell, Dennis A.

    2005-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) often are located in high-need schools and communities. Dental service is frequently an addition to existing comprehensive services, functioning in a variety of models, configurations, and locations. SBHCs are indicated when parents have limited financial resources or inadequate health insurance, limiting…

  1. Improved Speech Following Parent-Delivered Qigong Massage in Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Schalock, Mark; Williams, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Qigong massage is an eastern form of massage that can be delivered by western parents to their children with appropriate training and support. It has been shown to improve developmental measures in young children with autism when given daily for five months. A recent trial evaluating its effect on motor development in young children with Down…

  2. Does Participation in Home-Delivered Meals Programs Improve Outcomes for Older Adults? Results of a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony D; Godfryd, Alice; Buys, David R; Locher, Julie L

    2015-01-01

    Participation in home-delivered meals programs may contribute to the health and independence of older adults living in the community, especially those who are food insecure or those who are making transitions from acute, subacute, and chronic care settings to the home. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic review of all studies related to home-delivered meals in order to shed light on the state of the science. A complete review of articles appearing in PubMed using the keyword "Meal" was conducted; and titles, abstracts, and full-texts were screened for relevance. Included in this review are 80 articles. Most studies are descriptive and do not report on outcomes. Frequently reported outcomes included nutritional status based on self-reported dietary intake. Additionally, most studies included in this review are cross-sectional, have a small sample size, and/or are limited to a particular setting or participant population. More rigorous research is needed to (1) gain insight into why so few eligible older adults access home-delivered meals programs, (2) support expansion of home-delivered meals to all eligible older adults, (3) better identify what home-delivered meals models alone and in combination with other services works best and for whom, and (4) better target home-delivered meals programs where and when resources are scarce. PMID:26106985

  3. Does Participation in Home-delivered Meals Programs Improve Outcomes for Older Adults?: Results of a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anthony D.; Godfryd, Alice; Buys, David R.; Locher, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in home-delivered meals programs may contribute to the health and independence of older adults living in the community, especially those who are food insecure or those who are making transitions from acute, subacute, and chronic care settings to the home. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic review of ALL studies related to home-delivered meals in order to shed light on the state of the science. A complete review of articles appearing in PubMed using the Keyword “Meal” was conducted; and titles, abstracts, and full-texts were screened for relevance. Included in this review are 80 articles. Most studies are descriptive and do not report on outcomes. Frequently reported outcomes included nutritional status based upon self-reported dietary intake. Additionally, most studies included in this review are cross-sectional, have a small sample size, and/or are limited to a particular setting or participant population. More rigorous research is needed to: 1) gain insight into why so few eligible older adults access home-delivered meals programs, 2) support expansion of home-delivered meals to all eligible older adults, 3) better identify what home-delivered meals models alone and in combination with other services works best and for whom, and 4) better target home-delivered meals programs where and when resources are scarce. PMID:26106985

  4. The Alpha Stem Cell Clinic: a model for evaluating and delivering stem cell-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Trounson, Alan; DeWitt, Natalie D; Feigal, Ellen G

    2012-01-01

    Cellular therapies require the careful preparation, expansion, characterization, and delivery of cells in a clinical environment. There are major challenges associated with the delivery of cell therapies and high costs that will limit the companies available to fully evaluate their merit in clinical trials, and will handicap their application at the present financial environment. Cells will be manufactured in good manufacturing practice or near-equivalent facilities with prerequisite safety practices in place, and cell delivery systems will be specialized and require well-trained medical and nursing staff, technicians or nurses trained to handle cells once delivered, patient counselors, as well as statisticians and database managers who will oversee the monitoring of patients in relatively long-term follow-up studies. The model proposed for Alpha Stem Cell Clinics will initially use the capacities and infrastructure that exist in the most advanced tertiary medical clinics for delivery of established bone marrow stem cell therapies. As the research evolves, they will incorporate improved procedures and cell preparations. This model enables commercialization of medical devices, reagents, and other products required for cell therapies. A carefully constructed cell therapy clinical infrastructure with the requisite scientific, technical, and medical expertise and operational efficiencies will have the capabilities to address three fundamental and critical functions: 1) fostering clinical trials; 2) evaluating and establishing safe and effective therapies, and 3) developing and maintaining the delivery of therapies approved by the Food and Drug Administration, or other regulatory agencies. PMID:23197634

  5. The Alpha Stem Cell Clinic: A Model for Evaluating and Delivering Stem Cell-Based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, Natalie D.; Feigal, Ellen G.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cellular therapies require the careful preparation, expansion, characterization, and delivery of cells in a clinical environment. There are major challenges associated with the delivery of cell therapies and high costs that will limit the companies available to fully evaluate their merit in clinical trials, and will handicap their application at the present financial environment. Cells will be manufactured in good manufacturing practice or near-equivalent facilities with prerequisite safety practices in place, and cell delivery systems will be specialized and require well-trained medical and nursing staff, technicians or nurses trained to handle cells once delivered, patient counselors, as well as statisticians and database managers who will oversee the monitoring of patients in relatively long-term follow-up studies. The model proposed for Alpha Stem Cell Clinics will initially use the capacities and infrastructure that exist in the most advanced tertiary medical clinics for delivery of established bone marrow stem cell therapies. As the research evolves, they will incorporate improved procedures and cell preparations. This model enables commercialization of medical devices, reagents, and other products required for cell therapies. A carefully constructed cell therapy clinical infrastructure with the requisite scientific, technical, and medical expertise and operational efficiencies will have the capabilities to address three fundamental and critical functions: 1) fostering clinical trials; 2) evaluating and establishing safe and effective therapies, and 3) developing and maintaining the delivery of therapies approved by the Food and Drug Administration, or other regulatory agencies. PMID:23197634

  6. Qualitative Assessment of Adolescents Views about Improving Exposure to Internet-Delivered Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain first insight into factors which might be associated with exposure to internet-delivered interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with five groups of Dutch adolescents (n = 54), aged 12-17 years. Several aspects of exposure: a first visit;…

  7. Brief Report: Predictors of Outcomes in the Early Start Denver Model Delivered in a Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Zierhut, Cynthia; Rogers, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have looked at factors associated with responsiveness to interventions in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated learning profiles associated with response to the Early Start Denver Model delivered in a group setting. Our preliminary results from 21 preschool children with an ASD aged…

  8. Alternative Models to Deliver Developmental Math: Issues of Use and Student Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosiewicz, Holly; Ngo, Federick; Fong, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Changing how community colleges deliver developmental education has become a key policy lever to increase student achievement. Alternative development education models reduce the amount of time a student spends in remediation, provide students with supplemental instruction and support, and contextualize content to align with student…

  9. Nanoparticle-based cancer treatment: can delivered dose and biological dose be reliably modeled and quantified?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Petryk, Alicia A.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Stigliano, Robert V.; D'Angelo, Robert N.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Cassim, Shiraz M.; Foreman, Allan; Bischof, John C.; Pearce, John A.; Ryan, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Essential developments in the reliable and effective use of heat in medicine include: 1) the ability to model energy deposition and the resulting thermal distribution and tissue damage (Arrhenius models) over time in 3D, 2) the development of non-invasive thermometry and imaging for tissue damage monitoring, and 3) the development of clinically relevant algorithms for accurate prediction of the biological effect resulting from a delivered thermal dose in mammalian cells, tissues, and organs. The accuracy and usefulness of this information varies with the type of thermal treatment, sensitivity and accuracy of tissue assessment, and volume, shape, and heterogeneity of the tumor target and normal tissue. That said, without the development of an algorithm that has allowed the comparison and prediction of the effects of hyperthermia in a wide variety of tumor and normal tissues and settings (cumulative equivalent minutes/ CEM), hyperthermia would never have achieved clinical relevance. A new hyperthermia technology, magnetic nanoparticle-based hyperthermia (mNPH), has distinct advantages over the previous techniques: the ability to target the heat to individual cancer cells (with a nontoxic nanoparticle), and to excite the nanoparticles noninvasively with a noninjurious magnetic field, thus sparing associated normal cells and greatly improving the therapeutic ratio. As such, this modality has great potential as a primary and adjuvant cancer therapy. Although the targeted and safe nature of the noninvasive external activation (hysteretic heating) are a tremendous asset, the large number of therapy based variables and the lack of an accurate and useful method for predicting, assessing and quantifying mNP dose and treatment effect is a major obstacle to moving the technology into routine clinical practice. Among other parameters, mNPH will require the accurate determination of specific nanoparticle heating capability, the total nanoparticle content and biodistribution in

  10. Automated Student Model Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  11. Synthetic DNA Vaccines: Improved Vaccine Potency by Electroporation and Co-Delivered Genetic Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Flingai, Seleeke; Czerwonko, Matias; Goodman, Jonathan; Kudchodkar, Sagar B.; Muthumani, Kar; Weiner, David B.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, DNA vaccines have undergone a number of technological advancements that have incited renewed interest and heightened promise in the field. Two such improvements are the use of genetically engineered cytokine adjuvants and plasmid delivery via in vivo electroporation (EP), the latter of which has been shown to increase antigen delivery by nearly 1000-fold compared to naked DNA plasmid delivery alone. Both strategies, either separately or in combination, have been shown to augment cellular and humoral immune responses in not only mice, but also in large animal models. These promising results, coupled with recent clinical trials that have shown enhanced immune responses in humans, highlight the bright prospects for DNA vaccines to address many human diseases. PMID:24204366

  12. Delivering safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.D.; Spooner, K.G.; Walkden, P.

    2007-07-01

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  13. Delivering On Accountable Care: Lessons From A Behavioral Health Program To Improve Access And Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Robin M A; Jeffrey, Jessica; Grossman, Mark; Strouse, Thomas; Gitlin, Michael; Skootsky, Samuel A

    2016-08-01

    Patients with behavioral health disorders often have worse health outcomes and have higher health care utilization than patients with medical diseases alone. As such, people with behavioral health conditions are important populations for accountable care organizations (ACOs) seeking to improve the efficiency of their delivery systems. However, ACOs have historically faced numerous barriers in implementing behavioral health population-based programs, including acquiring reimbursement, recruiting providers, and integrating new services. We developed an evidence-based, all-payer collaborative care program called Behavioral Health Associates (BHA), operated as part of UCLA Health, an integrated academic medical center. Building BHA required several innovations, which included using our enterprise electronic medical record for behavioral health referrals and documentation; registering BHA providers with insurance plans' mental health carve-out products; and embedding BHA providers in primary care practices throughout the UCLA Health system. Since 2012 BHA has more than tripled the number of patients receiving behavioral health services through UCLA Health. After receiving BHA treatment, patients had a 13 percent reduction in emergency department use. Our efforts can serve as a model for other ACOs seeking to integrate behavioral health care into routine practice. PMID:27503975

  14. A simplified technique for delivering total body irradiation (TBI) with improved dose homogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Rui; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius; Abrams, Ross A.; Sensakovic, William; Fung, Henry C.; Chu, James C. H.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) with megavoltage photon beams has been accepted as an important component of management for a number of hematologic malignancies, generally as part of bone marrow conditioning regimens. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the authors' TBI technique, which both simplifies the treatment process and improves the treatment quality. Methods: An AP/PA TBI treatment technique to produce uniform dose distributions using sequential collimator reductions during each fraction was implemented, and a sample calculation worksheet is presented. Using this methodology, the dosimetric characteristics of both 6 and 18 MV photon beams, including lung dose under cerrobend blocks was investigated. A method of estimating midplane lung doses based on measured entrance and exit doses was proposed, and the estimated results were compared with measurements. Results: Whole body midplane dose uniformity of {+-}10% was achieved with no more than two collimator-based beam modulations. The proposed model predicted midplane lung doses 5% to 10% higher than the measured doses for 6 and 18 MV beams. The estimated total midplane doses were within {+-}5% of the prescribed midplane dose on average except for the lungs where the doses were 6% to 10% lower than the prescribed dose on average. Conclusions: The proposed TBI technique can achieve dose uniformity within {+-}10%. This technique is easy to implement and does not require complicated dosimetry and/or compensators.

  15. Patient-Centered Integrated Motor Imagery Delivered in the Home With Telerehabilitation to Improve Walking After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Maidan, Inbal; Dickstein, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose This case report describes the clinical reasoning process used to examine a person after stroke and intervene with a novel integrated motor imagery treatment designed for the rehabilitation of walking and delivered in the home through telerehabilitation. The integrated motor imagery treatment consisted of patient-centered goal setting and physical practice combined with motor and motivational imagery. Case Description The patient was a 38-year-old woman who had had a diffuse left subarachnoid hemorrhagic stroke 10 years earlier. She lived independently in an assisted living complex and carried a straight cane during long walks or in unfamiliar environments. Examination revealed a slow gait speed, reduced walking endurance, and decreased balance confidence. Although she was in the chronic phase, patient-centered integrated motor imagery was predicted to improve her community mobility. Treatment sessions of 45 to 60 minutes were held 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The practiced tasks included transitioning from sitting to standing, obstacle clearance, and navigation in interior and exterior environments; these tasks were first executed and then imagined at ratios of 1:5. Task execution allowed the creation of a scene based on movement observation. Imagery scenarios were customized to address the patient's goals and observed movement problems. Motivational elements of arousal, problem solving, and reward were embedded in the imagery scenarios. Half of the sessions were provided on site, and the remaining sessions were delivered remotely. Seven sessions were delivered by the clinician in the home, and 5 sessions were delivered using telerehabilitation. Outcomes Improvements in motor imagery ability, gait parameters, and balance were observed after training. Most gains were retained at the 3-month follow-up. Compared with on-site delivery, the telerehabilitation sessions resulted in less therapist travel time and cost, as well as shorter therapy

  16. Delivered growth factor therapy to improve healing after rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Emilie V; Silverio, Luz; Yao, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Background Degenerative rotator cuff tears are a significant cause of shoulder pain in the aging population. Rotator cuff repair surgery may be more successful when growth factors are delivered to the repair site. This study was designed to determine the cellular processes involved in normal bone-to-tendon healing and the current approaches used for biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair. Methods This review focuses on animal studies of rotator cuff repair and early human trials. Results Regular bone-to-tendon healing forms a fibrous junction between tendon and bone that is markedly different from the original bone-to-tendon junction. Tendon augmentation with cellular components serves as scaffolding for endogenous fibroblastic cells and a possible source of growth factors and fibroblastic cells. Extracellular matrices provide a scaffold for incoming fibroblastic cells. However, research in extracellular matrices is not conclusive due to intermanufacturer variation and the lack of human subject research. Growth factors and platelet-rich plasma are established in other fields of research and show promise, but have not yet been rigorously tested in rotator cuff repair augmentation. Conclusions Rotator cuff repair can benefit from biologic augmentation. However, research in this field is still young and has not yet demonstrated that the benefits in healing rates are significant enough to merit regular clinical use. Randomized controlled trials will elucidate the use of biologic augmentation in rotator cuff repairs. PMID:24198519

  17. Quality of Care Delivered Before versus After A Quality Improvement Intervention for Acute Geriatric Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Min, Lillian; Cryer, Henry; Chan, Chiao-Li; Roth, Carol; Tillou, Areti

    2014-01-01

    Background Older trauma injury patients had improved recovery after we implemented routine geriatric consultation for patients ≥ age 65 at a level-1 academic trauma center. The intervention aimed to improve quality of geriatric care. However, the specific care processes that improved are unknown. Study Design Prospective observation comparing medical care after (December 2007-November 2009) versus before (December 2006-November 2007) implementation of the geriatric consult-based intervention. To measure quality-of-care (QOC) we used 33 previously-validated care-process quality indicators (QIs) from the Assessing the Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) study, measured by review of medical records for 76 Geriatric Consult [GC] versus 71 control group patients. As pre-specified subgroup analyses, we aggregated QIs by type: geriatric (e.g., delirium screening) versus non-geriatric condition-based care (e.g., thrombosis prophylaxis) and compared QI scores by type of care. Last, we aggregated QI scores into overall, geriatric, and non-geriatric QOC scores for each patient (# QIs passed/# QIs eligible), and compared patient-level QOC for the GC versus control group, adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, comorbidity, and injury severity. Results 63% of the GC versus 11% of the control group patients received a geriatric consultation. We evaluated 2505 QIs overall (1664 geriatric-type and 841 non-geriatric QIs). In general, fewer geriatric-type QIs were passed than non-geriatric QIs (71% vs 81%, p<.001). We provided better overall-QOC to the GC (77%) than control group patients (73%, p<.05). However, the difference was not statistically significant after multivariable adjustment (p=.08). We improved geriatric-QOC for the GC (74%) compared to the control group (68%, p<.01), a difference that was significant after multivariable adjustment (p=.01). Conclusion Geriatricians and surgeons can collaboratively improve geriatric QOC for older trauma patients. PMID:25840534

  18. Delivering therapy to target: improving the odds for successful drug development.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Raghu; Brady, Martin L; Sampson, John H

    2016-07-01

    The direct delivery of drugs and other agents into tissue (in contrast to systemic administration) has been used in clinical trials for brain cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and peripheral tumors. However, continuing evidence suggests that clinical efficacy depends on adequate delivery to a target. Inadequate delivery may have doomed otherwise effective drugs, through failure to distinguish drug inefficacy from poor distribution at the target. Conventional pretreatment clinical images of the patient fail to reveal the complexity and diversity of drug transport pathways in tissue. We discuss the richness of these pathways and argue that development and patient treatment can be sped up and improved by: using quantitative as well as 'real-time' imaging; customized simulations using data from that imaging; and device designs that optimize the drug-device combination. PMID:27403630

  19. 3D delivered dose assessment using a 4DCT-based motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Weixing; Hurwitz, Martina H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Dhou, Salam; Berbeco, Ross I.; Mishra, Pankaj E-mail: jhlewis@lroc.harvard.edu; Lewis, John H. E-mail: jhlewis@lroc.harvard.edu; Seco, Joao

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically feasible method of calculating actual delivered dose distributions for patients who have significant respiratory motion during the course of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: A novel approach was proposed to calculate the actual delivered dose distribution for SBRT lung treatment. This approach can be specified in three steps. (1) At the treatment planning stage, a patient-specific motion model is created from planning 4DCT data. This model assumes that the displacement vector field (DVF) of any respiratory motion deformation can be described as a linear combination of some basis DVFs. (2) During the treatment procedure, 2D time-varying projection images (either kV or MV projections) are acquired, from which time-varying “fluoroscopic” 3D images of the patient are reconstructed using the motion model. The DVF of each timepoint in the time-varying reconstruction is an optimized linear combination of basis DVFs such that the 2D projection of the 3D volume at this timepoint matches the projection image. (3) 3D dose distribution is computed for each timepoint in the set of 3D reconstructed fluoroscopic images, from which the total effective 3D delivered dose is calculated by accumulating deformed dose distributions. This approach was first validated using two modified digital extended cardio-torso (XCAT) phantoms with lung tumors and different respiratory motions. The estimated doses were compared to the dose that would be calculated for routine 4DCT-based planning and to the actual delivered dose that was calculated using “ground truth” XCAT phantoms at all timepoints. The approach was also tested using one set of patient data, which demonstrated the application of our method in a clinical scenario. Results: For the first XCAT phantom that has a mostly regular breathing pattern, the errors in 95% volume dose (D95) are 0.11% and 0.83%, respectively for 3D fluoroscopic images

  20. 3D delivered dose assessment using a 4DCT-based motion model

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weixing; Hurwitz, Martina H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Dhou, Salam; Berbeco, Ross I.; Seco, Joao; Mishra, Pankaj; Lewis, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically feasible method of calculating actual delivered dose distributions for patients who have significant respiratory motion during the course of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: A novel approach was proposed to calculate the actual delivered dose distribution for SBRT lung treatment. This approach can be specified in three steps. (1) At the treatment planning stage, a patient-specific motion model is created from planning 4DCT data. This model assumes that the displacement vector field (DVF) of any respiratory motion deformation can be described as a linear combination of some basis DVFs. (2) During the treatment procedure, 2D time-varying projection images (either kV or MV projections) are acquired, from which time-varying “fluoroscopic” 3D images of the patient are reconstructed using the motion model. The DVF of each timepoint in the time-varying reconstruction is an optimized linear combination of basis DVFs such that the 2D projection of the 3D volume at this timepoint matches the projection image. (3) 3D dose distribution is computed for each timepoint in the set of 3D reconstructed fluoroscopic images, from which the total effective 3D delivered dose is calculated by accumulating deformed dose distributions. This approach was first validated using two modified digital extended cardio-torso (XCAT) phantoms with lung tumors and different respiratory motions. The estimated doses were compared to the dose that would be calculated for routine 4DCT-based planning and to the actual delivered dose that was calculated using “ground truth” XCAT phantoms at all timepoints. The approach was also tested using one set of patient data, which demonstrated the application of our method in a clinical scenario. Results: For the first XCAT phantom that has a mostly regular breathing pattern, the errors in 95% volume dose (D95) are 0.11% and 0.83%, respectively for 3D fluoroscopic images

  1. Oral vaccination with inhibin DNA delivered using attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis for improving reproductive traits in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Zhen, Yan-Hong; Liang, Ai-Xin; Zhang, Jian; Riaz, Hasan; Xiong, Jia-Jun; Guo, Ai-Zhen; Yang, Li-Guo

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of a novel inhibin vaccine containing inhibin α (1-32) fragments in mice. A recombinant plasmid pVAX-asd-IS was constructed by inserting recombinant inhibin α (1-32) and the hepatitis B surface antigen S into the plasmid in which the asd gene, rather than the kanamycin gene, was a selection marker. Ninety Kuming mice were divided into six groups consisting of 15 mice each. First group was (C1) injected with 200 µl of PBS, second (C2) received 1 × 10(10) CFU of crp(-) /asd(-) C500/pVAX-asd and served as vector control, third did not receive any treatment (C3), while fourth, fifth, and sixth group received 1 × 10(10) , 1 × 10(9) , 1 × 10(8) CFU of the recombinant inhibin vaccine crp(-) /asd(-) C500/pVAX-asd-IS (group T1, T2, T3), respectively. Western blotting demonstrated that recombinant expressed inhibin protein possessed immune function and that this plasmid could replicate for up to 40 generations stably. Vaccination with this strain at a dose of 1 × 10(10) CFU/200 µl per mouse induced high anti-inhibin antibody levels, significantly increased large-follicle production in T1 group (p < 0.05) and average litter size (p > 0.05) compared with control groups. Integration studies showed no evidence of inhibin fusion gene integrated into mice's genome 2-month after immunization. These results suggest that the vaccine described in the present study may provide a safe method to improve reproductive traits in animals. A trend towards increased litter size and significant increase in large follicle population depict that this vaccine may have direct application in large animal industry. PMID:24123188

  2. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service

    PubMed Central

    Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Methods Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20–36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents’ and teachers’ active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Results Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System. PMID:27366069

  3. Improved immunogenicity of individual influenza vaccine components delivered with a novel dissolving microneedle patch stable at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Vassilieva, Elena V.; Kalluri, Haripriya; McAllister, Devin; Taherbhai, Misha T.; Esser, E. Stein; Pewin, Winston P.; Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A.; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Compans, Richard W.; Skountzou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics relies on widespread vaccination coverage to induce protective immunity. In addition to a good antigenic match with the circulating viruses, the effectiveness of individual strains represented in the trivalent vaccines depends on their immunogenicity. In this study we evaluated the immunogenicity of H1N1, H3N2 and B seasonal influenza virus vaccine strains delivered individually with a novel dissolving microneedle patch and the stability of this formulation during storage at 25°C. Our data demonstrate that all strains retained their antigenic activity after incorporation in the dissolving patches as measured by SRID assay and immune responses to vaccination in BALB/c mice. After a single immunization all three antigens delivered with microneedle patches induced superior neutralizing antibody titers compared to intramuscular immunization. Cutaneous antigen delivery was especially beneficial for the less immunogenic B strain. Mice immunized with dissolving microneedle patches encapsulating influenza A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) vaccine were fully protected against lethal challenge by homologous mouse-adapted influenza virus. All vaccine components retained activity during storage at room temperature for at least three months as measured in vitro by SRID assay and in vivo by mouse immunization studies. Our data demonstrate that dissolving microneedle patches are a promising advance for influenza cutaneous vaccination due to improved immune responses using less immunogenic influenza antigens and enhanced stability. PMID:25895053

  4. Improved immunogenicity of individual influenza vaccine components delivered with a novel dissolving microneedle patch stable at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Vassilieva, Elena V; Kalluri, Haripriya; McAllister, Devin; Taherbhai, Misha T; Esser, E Stein; Pewin, Winston P; Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Prausnitz, Mark R; Compans, Richard W; Skountzou, Ioanna

    2015-08-01

    Prevention of seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics relies on widespread vaccination coverage to induce protective immunity. In addition to a good antigenic match with the circulating viruses, the effectiveness of individual strains represented in the trivalent vaccines depends on their immunogenicity. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of H1N1, H3N2, and B seasonal influenza virus vaccine strains delivered individually with a novel dissolving microneedle patch and the stability of this formulation during storage at 25 °C. Our data demonstrate that all strains retained their antigenic activity after incorporation in the dissolving patches as measured by single radial diffusion (SRID) assay and immune responses to vaccination in BALB/c mice. After a single immunization, all three antigens delivered with microneedle patches induced superior neutralizing antibody titers compared to intramuscular immunization. Cutaneous antigen delivery was especially beneficial for the less immunogenic B strain. Mice immunized with dissolving microneedle patches encapsulating influenza A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) vaccine were fully protected against lethal challenge by homologous mouse-adapted influenza virus. All vaccine components retained activity during storage at room temperature for at least 3 months as measured in vitro by SRID assay and in vivo by mouse immunization studies. Our data demonstrate that dissolving microneedle patches are a promising advance for influenza cutaneous vaccination due to improved immune responses using less immunogenic influenza antigens and enhanced stability. PMID:25895053

  5. Adenovirus-delivered wwox inhibited lung cancer growth in vivo in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Shou, F; Zhang, H; You, Q

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent and deadly malignancy worldwide. This study investigated the possibility of inhibiting lung cancer in vivo with adenovirus-delivered WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (wwox). The lung cancer model was established by inoculating A549 lung cancer cells into the pleural space of nude mice. The control or wwox adenovirus was injected into the pleural space 7 days after cell inoculation and 14 days after first injection. The tumor number and burdens were measured 2 weeks after second virus injection. The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-feto protein (AFP) levels in pleural effusion were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis of tumor cells were assessed by terminal deoxinucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling assay, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CD31 staining, respectively. Ectopic wwox significantly reduced both the number and size of lung tumors accompanied by substantially lower CEA and AFP levels in pleural effusion. The expression levels of Bcl2, Bcl-xL, vascular endothelial growth factor, PCNA-positive and CD31-positive cells in the tumors were significantly decreased, whereas levels of p21 and p73 and apoptotic cells markedly increased in mice receiving the wwox virus. These data demonstrated that wwox delivered by adenovirus was able to inhibit the growth of lung cancer in vivo, indicating the potential of using wwox as a gene therapy agent for lung cancer. PMID:26516139

  6. Motivational Interviewing Delivered by Diabetes Educators: Does It Improve Blood Glucose Control Among Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Zagarins, Sofija E.; Feinberg, Rebecca G.; Garb, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To determine whether glycemic control is improved when Motivational Interviewing (MI), a patient-centered behavior change strategy, is used with Diabetes Self Management Education (DSME) as compared to DSME alone. Methods Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients (n=234) were randomized into 4 groups: MI+DSME or DSME alone, with or without use of a computerized summary of patient self management barriers. We compared HbA1c changes between groups at 6 months and investigated mediators of HbA1c change. Results Study patients attended the majority of intervention visits (mean 3.4/4), but drop-out rate was high at follow-up research visits (35%). Multiple regression showed that groups receiving MI had a mean change in HbA1c that was significantly lower (less improved) than those not receiving MI (t=2.10; p=0.037). Mediators of HbA1c change for the total group were diabetes self-care behaviors and diabetes distress; no between-group differences were found. Conclusions DSME improved blood glucose control, underlining its benefit for T2DM management. However, MI+DSME was less effective than DSME alone. Overall, weak support was found for the clinical utility of MI in the management of T2DM delivered by diabetes educators. PMID:21074887

  7. Improvements in dose accuracy delivered with static-MLC IMRT on an integrated linear accelerator control system

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ji; Wiersma, Rodney D.; Stepaniak, Christopher J.; Farrey, Karl J.; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.

    2012-05-15

    Trilogy and the TrueBeam up to 10 MU/segment, at all dose rates greater than 100 MU/min. The linear trend of decreasing dose accuracy as a function of increasing dose rate on the Trilogy is no longer apparent on TrueBeam, even for dose rates as high as 2400 MU/min. Dose inaccuracy averaged over all ten segments in each beam delivery sequence was larger for Trilogy than TrueBeam, with the largest discrepancy (0.2% vs 3%) occurring for 1 MU/segment beams at both 300 and 600 MU/min. Conclusions: Earlier generations of Varian LINACs exhibited large dose variations for small MU segments in SMLC-IMRT delivery. Our results confirmed these findings. The dose delivery accuracy for SMLC-IMRT is significantly improved on TrueBeam compared to Trilogy for every combination of low MU/segment (1-10) and high dose rate (200-600 MU/min), in part due to the faster sampling rate (100 vs 20 Hz) and enhanced electronic integration of the MLC controller with the LINAC. SMLC-IMRT can be implemented on TrueBeam with higher dose accuracy per beam ({+-}0.2% vs {+-}3%) than previous generations of Varian C-series LINACs for 1 MU/segment delivered at 600 MU/min).

  8. Models and Simulations as a Service: Exploring the Use of Galaxy for Delivering Computational Models.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark A; Madduri, Ravi; Rodriguez, Alex; Greenstein, Joseph L; Winslow, Raimond L

    2016-03-01

    We describe the ways in which Galaxy, a web-based reproducible research platform, can be used for web-based sharing of complex computational models. Galaxy allows users to seamlessly customize and run simulations on cloud computing resources, a concept we refer to as Models and Simulations as a Service (MaSS). To illustrate this application of Galaxy, we have developed a tool suite for simulating a high spatial-resolution model of the cardiac Ca(2+) spark that requires supercomputing resources for execution. We also present tools for simulating models encoded in the SBML and CellML model description languages, thus demonstrating how Galaxy's reproducible research features can be leveraged by existing technologies. Finally, we demonstrate how the Galaxy workflow editor can be used to compose integrative models from constituent submodules. This work represents an important novel approach, to our knowledge, to making computational simulations more accessible to the broader scientific community. PMID:26958881

  9. Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Manchanda, Neha; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Jeet, Gursimer; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Various models of referral transport services have been introduced in different States in India with an aim to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Most of the research on referral transport has focussed on coverage, quality and timeliness of the service with not much information on cost and efficiency. This study was undertaken to analyze the cost of a publicly financed and managed referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, and to assess its cost and technical efficiency. Methods: Data on all resources spent for delivering referral transport service, during 2010, were collected from three districts of Haryana State. Costs incurred at State level were apportioned using appropriate methods. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to assess the technical efficiency of ambulances. To estimate the efficient scale of operation for ambulance service, the average cost was regressed on kilometres travelled for each ambulance station using a quadratic regression equation. Results: The cost of referral transport per year varied from ₹5.2 million in Narnaul to ₹9.8 million in Ambala. Salaries (36-50%) constituted the major cost. Referral transport was found to be operating at an average efficiency level of 76.8 per cent. Operating an ambulance with a patient load of 137 per month was found to reduce unit costs from an average ₹ 15.5 per km to ₹ 9.57 per km. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the publicly delivered referral transport services in Haryana were operating at an efficient level. Increasing the demand for referral transport services among the target population represents an opportunity for further improving the efficiency of the underutilized ambulances. PMID:24521648

  10. D Recording for 2d Delivering - the Employment of 3d Models for Studies and Analyses -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, A.; Baratti, G.; Jiménez, B.; Girardi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d'Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino). APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying and 3D material to

  11. The School Resource Progam: Alternative Tutoring Models for Delivering Supportive Services to L.D. Children in Mainstream Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Carole K.

    Described and evaluated are four alternative tutoring models for delivering supportive educational services to elementary grade learning disabled children in regular classes. Discussed are problems of individual programing and models such as the "Cascade of Services" to provide for differing educational needs. It is explained that the alternative…

  12. Interdisciplinary collaboration: the slogan that must be achieved for models of delivering critical care to be successful.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Richard S; Flaherty, Helen M; French, Cynthia T; Cody, Shawn; Chandler, M Willis; Connolly, Ann; Lilly, Craig M

    2012-12-01

    There is wide acceptance of the concept that interdisciplinary collaboration is an essential building block for successful health-care teams. This belief is grounded in our understanding of how teams function to address complex care needs that change with acute illness or injury. This general agreement has been validated in studies that have reported favorable outcomes associated with successfully implementing interdisciplinary models of health-care delivery in non-critical care settings. The very short time frames over which the care needs of critically ill or injured adults change and the team approach taken by nearly all ICUs strongly suggest that interdisciplinary collaboration is also beneficial in this setting. In this commentary, we define interdisciplinary collaboration and share the story of how we successfully redesigned and transformed our system-wide, interdisciplinary collaborative model for delivering critical care in order to share the lessons we learned as the process evolved with those who are about to embark on a similar challenge. We anticipate that those health-care systems that successfully implement interdisciplinary collaboration will be ahead of the curve in providing high-quality care at as low a cost as possible. Such institutions will also potentially be better positioned for improving teaching and providing a better foundation for critical care research in their institutions. PMID:23208334

  13. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  14. Using Video Modeling Delivered through iPods to Teach Vocational Tasks to Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan O.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using video modeling delivered through a Portable media player (video iPod) as a means of teaching three job-related tasks to four young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a community-based employment setting. The videos used in the study were enhanced by adding written…

  15. Role of hemostatic factors in hepatic injury and disease: animal models de-liver.

    PubMed

    Kopec, A K; Joshi, N; Luyendyk, J P

    2016-07-01

    Chronic liver damage is associated with unique changes in the hemostatic system. Patients with liver disease often show a precariously rebalanced hemostatic system, which is easily tipped towards bleeding or thrombotic complications by otherwise benign stimuli. In addition, some clinical studies have shown that hemostatic system components contribute to the progression of liver disease. There is a strong basic science foundation for clinical studies with this particular focus. Chronic and acute liver disease can be modeled in rodents and large animals with a variety of approaches, which span chronic exposure to toxic xenobiotics, diet-induced obesity, and surgical intervention. These experimental approaches have now provided strong evidence that, in addition to perturbations in hemostasis caused by liver disease, elements of the hemostatic system have powerful effects on the progression of experimental liver toxicity and disease. In this review, we cover the basis of the animal models that are most often utilized to assess the impact of the hemostatic system on liver disease, and highlight the role that coagulation proteases and their targets play in experimental liver toxicity and disease, emphasizing key similarities and differences between models. The need to characterize hemostatic changes in existing animal models and to develop novel animal models recapitulating the coagulopathy of chronic liver disease is highlighted. Finally, we emphasize the continued need to translate knowledge derived from highly applicable animal models to improve our understanding of the reciprocal interaction between liver disease and the hemostatic system in patients. PMID:27060337

  16. Evaluation of Publicly Financed and Privately Delivered Model of Emergency Referral Services for Maternal and Child Health Care in India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Lakshmi, P. V. M.; Mokashi, Tushar; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Reddy, K. Rahul; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency referral services (ERS) are being strengthened in India to improve access for institutional delivery. We evaluated a publicly financed and privately delivered model of ERS in Punjab state, India, to assess its extent and pattern of utilization, impact on institutional delivery, quality and unit cost. Methods Data for almost 0.4 million calls received from April 2012 to March 2013 was analysed to assess the extent and pattern of utilization. Segmented linear regression was used to analyse month-wise data on number of institutional deliveries in public sector health facilities from 2008 to 2013. We inspected ambulances in 2 districts against the Basic Life Support (BLS) standards. Timeliness of ERS was assessed for determining quality. Finally, we computed economic cost of implementing ERS from a health system perspective. Results On an average, an ambulance transported 3–4 patients per day. Poor and those farther away from the health facility had a higher likelihood of using the ambulance. Although the ERS had an abrupt positive effect on increasing the institutional deliveries in the unadjusted model, there was no effect on institutional delivery after adjustment for autocorrelation. Cost of operating the ambulance service was INR 1361 (USD 22.7) per patient transported or INR 21 (USD 0.35) per km travelled. Conclusion Emergency referral services in Punjab did not result in a significant change in public sector institutional deliveries. This could be due to high baseline coverage of institutional delivery and low barriers to physical access. Choice of interventions for reduction in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) should be context-specific to have high value for resources spent. The ERS in Punjab needs improvement in terms of quality and reduction of cost to health system. PMID:25360798

  17. Recontextualizing and Delivering the Biomedical Model as a Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, David P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of delivering a body of knowledge based on biomedical research as a school physical education discourse. The paper attempts to deconstruct the ideology of healthism upon which the discourse is based in order to show how ascetic practices in school physical education are promoted as a way of combating the hedonistic…

  18. Coordinated Technology-Delivered Treatment to Prevent Rehospitalization in Schizophrenia: A Novel Model of Care.

    PubMed

    Brunette, Mary F; Rotondi, Armando J; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Gottlieb, Jennifer D; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Achtyes, Eric D; Gingerich, Susan; Marcy, Patricia; Schooler, Nina R; Meyer-Kalos, Piper; Kane, John M

    2016-04-01

    Despite advances in schizophrenia treatment, symptom relapses and rehospitalizations impede recovery for many people and are a principal driver of the high cost of care. Technology-delivered or technology-enhanced treatment may be a cost-effective way to provide flexible, personalized evidence-based treatments directly to people in their homes and communities. However, evidence for the safety, acceptability, and efficacy of such interventions is only now being established. The authors of this Open Forum describe a novel, technology-based approach to prevent relapse after a hospitalization for psychosis, the Health Technology Program (HTP), which they developed. HTP provides in-person relapse prevention planning that directs use of tailored, technology-based treatment based on cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis, family psychoeducation for schizophrenia, and prescriber decision support through a Web-based program that solicits information from clients at every visit. Technology-based treatments are delivered through smartphones and computers. PMID:26725297

  19. Improved cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    We study a class of nonlocal, action-based, and purely gravitational models. These models seek to describe a cosmology in which inflation is driven by a large, bare cosmological constant that is screened by the self-gravitation between the soft gravitons that inflation rips from the vacuum. Inflation ends with the Universe poised on the verge of gravitational collapse, in an oscillating phase of expansion and contraction that should lead to rapid reheating when matter is included. After the attainment of a hot, dense Universe the nonlocal screening terms become constant as the Universe evolves through a conventional phase of radiation domination. The onset of matter domination triggers a much smaller antiscreening effect that could explain the current phase of acceleration.

  20. "Delivering as one" UN reform process to improve health partnerships and coordination: old challenges and encouraging lessons from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bile, K M; Lashari, K A; Shadoul, A F

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The UN Secretary-General constituted a high-level panel on system-wide coherence in 2005 within the areas of development, humanitarian assistance and the environment. The panel adopted "Delivering as One" as a slogan for its coherence initiative. Pakistan was among eight pilot countries implementing this reform initiative. Five joint programmes were developed, on health and population; agriculture, rural development and poverty reduction; disaster risk management; education; and environment. Fourteen UN agencies supported the health and population joint programme and participatd aripe in its implementation. Although confronted by many challenges, the positive results of the joint programmes confirmed the advantage of Delivering as One over the past scenarios of fragmentation, duplication and incoherent government and UN strategic operations. The paper shares the accomplishments of the health and population sector including its ability to harness the power of intersectoral collaboration and prospectively concentrate human and financial resources around the strategic national priorities. PMID:21495598

  1. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  2. From the Tightrope: Designing, Developing, and Delivering an Alternative Teacher Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, Patty

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2003 a number of factors came together to create a fertile environment for developing an alternative, pre-service teacher education model. The overarching goal of the model is to diversify a rural university's credential program(s) by developing and offering alternative paths toward teacher certification within the constraints of a…

  3. Localized dose delivering by ion beam irradiation for experimental trial of establishing brain necrosis model.

    PubMed

    Takata, Takushi; Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kume, Kyo; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-11-01

    Localized dose delivery techniques to establish a brain radiation necrosis model are described. An irradiation field was designed by using accelerated protons or helium ions with a spread-out Bragg peak. Measurement of the designed field confirmed that a high dose can be confined to a local volume of an animal brain. The irradiation techniques described here are very useful for establishing a necrosis model without existence of extraneous complications. PMID:26454176

  4. Cell-delivered magnetic nanoparticles caused hyperthermia-mediated increased survival in a murine pancreatic cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Basel, Matthew T; Balivada, Sivasai; Wang, Hongwang; Shrestha, Tej B; Seo, Gwi Moon; Pyle, Marla; Abayaweera, Gayani; Dani, Raj; Koper, Olga B; Tamura, Masaaki; Chikan, Viktor; Bossmann, Stefan H; Troyer, Deryl L

    2012-01-01

    Using magnetic nanoparticles to absorb alternating magnetic field energy as a method of generating localized hyperthermia has been shown to be a potential cancer treatment. This report demonstrates a system that uses tumor homing cells to actively carry iron/iron oxide nanoparticles into tumor tissue for alternating magnetic field treatment. Paramagnetic iron/ iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded into RAW264.7 cells (mouse monocyte/ macrophage-like cells), which have been shown to be tumor homing cells. A murine model of disseminated peritoneal pancreatic cancer was then generated by intraperitoneal injection of Pan02 cells. After tumor development, monocyte/macrophage-like cells loaded with iron/ iron oxide nanoparticles were injected intraperitoneally and allowed to migrate into the tumor. Three days after injection, mice were exposed to an alternating magnetic field for 20 minutes to cause the cell-delivered nanoparticles to generate heat. This treatment regimen was repeated three times. A survival study demonstrated that this system can significantly increase survival in a murine pancreatic cancer model, with an average post-tumor insertion life expectancy increase of 31%. This system has the potential to become a useful method for specifically and actively delivering nanoparticles for local hyperthermia treatment of cancer. PMID:22287840

  5. Person Focused Training: A Model for Delivering Positive Behavioural Supports to People with Challenging Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, B.; Dench, C.; Grey, I.; Shanahan, S.; Fitzsimons, E.; Hendler, J.; Corrigan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Person Focused Training is introduced as a model of service delivery for people with severe challenging behaviours. It is defined as training and supporting staff to conduct functional assessments and to design and implement positive behavioural support for specific individuals with challenging behaviours. Longitudinal outcome data are presented…

  6. The Psychology of Delivering a Psychological Service: Self-Organised Learning as a Model for Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Steve; Jenner, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The article describes how one Educational Psychology Service in the UK developed a service delivery based on self-organised learning (SOL). This model is linked to the paradigms and discourses within which educational psychology and special educational needs work. The work described here is dedicated to the memory of Brian Roberts, academic, close…

  7. Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Study of Pod-Intravaginal Rings Delivering Antiretroviral Combinations for HIV Prophylaxis in a Macaque Model

    PubMed Central

    Moss, John A.; Srinivasan, Priya; Smith, Thomas J.; Butkyavichene, Irina; Lopez, Gilbert; Brooks, Amanda A.; Martin, Amy; Dinh, Chuong T.; Smith, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis using oral regimens involving the HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) demonstrated efficacy in three clinical trials. Adherence was determined to be a key parameter for success. Incorporation of the TDF-FTC combination into intravaginal rings (IVRs) for sustained mucosal delivery could increase product adherence and efficacy compared with those of oral and vaginal gel formulations. A novel pod-IVR technology capable of delivering multiple drugs is described; this constitutes the first report of an IVR delivering TDF and FTC, as well as a triple-combination IVR delivering TDF, FTC, and the entry inhibitor maraviroc (MVC). The pharmacokinetics and preliminary local safety of the two combination pod-IVRs were evaluated in the pig-tailed macaque model. The devices exhibited sustained release at controlled rates over the 28-day study period. Median steady-state drug levels in vaginal tissues in the TDF-FTC group were 30 μg g−1 (tenofovir [TFV], in vivo hydrolysis product of TDF) and 500 μg g−1 (FTC) and in the TDF-FTC-MVC group were 10 μg g−1 (TFV), 150 μg g−1 (FTC), and 20 μg g−1 (MVC). No adverse events were observed, and there were no toxicological findings. Mild-to-moderate increases in inflammatory infiltrates were observed in the vaginal tissues of some animals in both the presence and the absence of the IVRs. The IVRs did not disturb the vaginal microbiota, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines remained stable throughout the study. Pod-IVR candidates based on the TDF-FTC combination have potential for the prevention of vaginal HIV acquisition and merit clinical investigation. PMID:24936594

  8. Scotblood 2015: Improving and delivering blood products, novel cellular therapies, and celebrating patients and donor engagement within transfusion services.

    PubMed

    Colligan, David; McGowan, Neil; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2016-08-01

    Blood Transfusion Services are striving to continually improve the efficacy and quality of their blood products whilst also simultaneously diversifying into novel cellular products. For this to be successful the relationships between the various arms of the organisation must be strong and interlinked. As new technologies impact on the products that blood transfusion services supply it should be noted that the interaction between the service and its donor base is also affected by advancing technologies. Social media has fundamentally altered the way in which the public can access information and news, as such blood services must engage and interact appropriately with these new forms of media. As a reflection of these challenges the Scotblood 2015 programme was focussed on service and product improvement, donor engagement and people centred transfusion. This commentary comprises summaries of the presentations, based in part on the abstracts provided by the speakers. PMID:27524267

  9. Identifying future models for delivering genetic services: a nominal group study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Elwyn, Glyn; Edwards, Adrian; Iredale, Rachel; Davies, Peter; Gray, Jonathon

    2005-01-01

    Background To enable primary care medical practitioners to generate a range of possible service delivery models for genetic counselling services and critically assess their suitability. Methods Modified nominal group technique using in primary care professional development workshops. Results 37 general practitioners in Wales, United Kingdom too part in the nominal group process. The practitioners who attended did not believe current systems were sufficient to meet anticipated demand for genetic services. A wide range of different service models was proposed, although no single option emerged as a clear preference. No argument was put forward for genetic assessment and counselling being central to family practice, neither was there a voice for the view that the family doctor should become skilled at advising patients about predictive genetic testing and be able to counsel patients about the wider implications of genetic testing for patients and their family members, even for areas such as common cancers. Nevertheless, all the preferred models put a high priority on providing the service in the community, and often co-located in primary care, by clinicians who had developed expertise. Conclusion There is a need for a wider debate about how healthcare systems address individual concerns about genetic concerns and risk, especially given the increasing commercial marketing of genetic tests. PMID:15831099

  10. Computer-Delivered and Web-Based Interventions to Improve Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Well-Being of University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morriss, Richard; Glazebrook, Cris

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common mental health difficulties experienced by university students and can impair academic and social functioning. Students are limited in seeking help from professionals. As university students are highly connected to digital technologies, Web-based and computer-delivered interventions could be used to improve students’ mental health. The effectiveness of these intervention types requires investigation to identify whether these are viable prevention strategies for university students. Objective The intent of the study was to systematically review and analyze trials of Web-based and computer-delivered interventions to improve depression, anxiety, psychological distress, and stress in university students. Methods Several databases were searched using keywords relating to higher education students, mental health, and eHealth interventions. The eligibility criteria for studies included in the review were: (1) the study aimed to improve symptoms relating to depression, anxiety, psychological distress, and stress, (2) the study involved computer-delivered or Web-based interventions accessed via computer, laptop, or tablet, (3) the study was a randomized controlled trial, and (4) the study was trialed on higher education students. Trials were reviewed and outcome data analyzed through random effects meta-analyses for each outcome and each type of trial arm comparison. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was used to assess study quality. Results A total of 17 trials were identified, in which seven were the same three interventions on separate samples; 14 reported sufficient information for meta-analysis. The majority (n=13) were website-delivered and nine interventions were based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A total of 1795 participants were randomized and 1480 analyzed. Risk of bias was considered moderate, as many publications did not sufficiently report their methods and seven explicitly conducted completers

  11. Orally delivered microencapsulated probiotic formulation favorably impacts polyp formation in APC (Min/+) model of intestinal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Bhathena, Jasmine; Cherif, Sofiane; Prakash, Satya

    2016-01-01

    The development of intestinal polyps in an orthotopic colorectal mouse model, receiving a probiotic yogurt formulation containing microencapsulated live Lactobacillus acidophilus cells was investigated. The expression of various immunohistochemical markers namely CD8, Mac-1, Ki-67, and cleaved caspase-3, was evaluated. Results suggest that the probiotic formulation decreases overall intestinal inflammation. Mice receiving the probiotic formulation were found to develop almost two-fold fewer tumors in the small intestines. In the large intestine, however, there was no significant difference observed among polyp numbers. The formulation appears to have potential application in the prevention of various GI pathological conditions. PMID:25060720

  12. Modeling of Dose Distribution for a Proton Beam Delivering System with the use of the Multi-Particle Transport Code 'Fluka'

    SciTech Connect

    Mumot, Marta; Agapov, Alexey

    2007-11-26

    We have developed a new delivering system for hadron therapy which uses a multileaf collimator and a range shifter. We simulate our delivering beam system with the multi-particle transport code 'Fluka'. From these simulations we obtained information about the dose distributions, about stars generated in the delivering system elements and also information about the neutron flux. All the informations obtained were analyzed from the point of view of radiation protection, homogeneity of beam delivery to patient body, and also in order to improve some modifiers used.

  13. Minimally Disruptive Medicine: A Pragmatically Comprehensive Model for Delivering Care to Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leppin, Aaron L.; Montori, Victor M.; Gionfriddo, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing proportion of healthcare resources in the United States are directed toward an expanding group of complex and multimorbid patients. Federal stakeholders have called for new models of care to meet the needs of these patients. Minimally Disruptive Medicine (MDM) is a theory-based, patient-centered, and context-sensitive approach to care that focuses on achieving patient goals for life and health while imposing the smallest possible treatment burden on patients’ lives. The MDM Care Model is designed to be pragmatically comprehensive, meaning that it aims to address any and all factors that impact the implementation and effectiveness of care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. It comprises core activities that map to an underlying and testable theoretical framework. This encourages refinement and future study. Here, we present the conceptual rationale for and a practical approach to minimally disruptive care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. We introduce some of the specific tools and strategies that can be used to identify the right care for these patients and to put it into practice. PMID:27417747

  14. A novel expression cassette delivers efficient production of exclusively tetrameric human butyrylcholinesterase with improved pharmacokinetics for protection against organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Terekhov, Stanislav; Smirnov, Ivan; Bobik, Tatiana; Shamborant, Olga; Zenkova, Marina; Chernolovskaya, Elena; Gladkikh, Danil; Murashev, Arkadii; Dyachenko, Igor; Palikov, Viktor; Palikova, Yulia; Knorre, Vera; Belogurov, Alexey; Ponomarenko, Natalie; Blackburn, G Michael; Masson, Patrick; Gabibov, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase is a stoichiometric bioscavenger against poisoning by organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. The low level of expression and extremely rapid clearance of monomeric recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (rhBChE) from bloodstream (t½≈2 min) limits its pharmaceutical application. Recently (Ilyushin at al., PNAS, 2013) we described a long-acting polysialylated recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (rhBChE-CAO), stable in the bloodstream, that protects mice against 4.2 LD50 of VR. Here we report a set of modifications of the initial rhBChE expression vector to improve stability of the enzyme in the bloodstream and increase its production in CHO cells by introducing in the expression cassette: (i) the sequence of the natural human PRAD-peptide in frame with rhBChE gene via "self-processing" viral F2A peptide under control of an hEF/HTLV promoter, and (ii) previously predicted in silico MAR 1-68 and MAR X-29 sequences. This provides fully tetrameric rhBChE (4rhBChE) at 70 mg/l, that displays improved pharmacokinetics (t½ = 32 ± 1.2 h, MRT = 43 ± 2 h). 3D Fluorescent visualization and distribution of (125)I-labeled enzyme reveals similar low level 4rhBChE and rhBChE-CAO accumulation in muscle, fat, and brain. Administered 4rhBChE was mainly catabolized in the liver and breakdown products were excreted in kidney. Injection of 1.2 LD50 and 1.1 LD50 of paraoxon to BALB/c and knockout BChE-/- mice pre-treated with 4rhBChE (50 mg/kg) resulted in 100% and 78% survival, respectively, without perturbation of long-term behavior. In contrast, 100% mortality of non-pre-treated mice was observed. The high expression level of 4rhBChE in CHO cells permits consideration of this new expression system for manufacturing BChE as a biopharmaceutical. PMID:26239905

  15. Improvement of the IAU 2000 precession model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.; Wallace, P. T.; Chapront, J.

    2005-03-01

    The IAU 2000 precession consists of the IAU 1976 ecliptic precession (Lieske et al. [CITE], A&A, 58, 1) and the precession part of the IAU 2000A equator adopted by IAU 2000 Resolution B1.6 (Mathews et al. [CITE], J. Geophys. Res., 107, B4, 10.1029/2001JB000390). In this paper we provide a range of new expressions as possible replacements for the IAU 2000 precession. The new expressions are based upon the so-called P03 solution of Capitaine et al. ([CITE], A&A, 412, 567) for the equator and the ecliptic. In addition an improved model for the precession of the equator is discussed. This improved solution was obtained in exactly the same way as P03 but using a refined model for the contributions of the non-rigid Earth (Mathews [CITE], private communication) and revised integration constants for the precession rates resulting from fits to the most recent VLBI data. The paper reports on the procedure that was used for improving the P03 solution and on the comparisons of this solution with the MHB 2000, IAU 2000 and P03 solutions. It also discusses the choices for the solution to be put forward as a replacement for IAU 2000. We concluded that the existing VLBI data were insufficient to provide convincing evidence that the improved solutions would deliver better accuracy than the existing P03 solution, and we recommend retaining P03 as the replacement for IAU 2000. P03, which unlike the IAU 2000 precession is dynamically consistent, has the advantage of already having been used experimentally by a number of groups; the model is recalled in Tables [see full text]- [see full text]. Due to the strong dependence of the precession expressions on the precession rates and of the precession in longitude (or equivalently the celestial CIP X coordinate) on the J2 rate model, we also provide a parameterized P04 solution for these quantities as functions of those parameters. The expressions include the quantities to be used in both the equinox-based and CIO-based (i.e. referred to

  16. Improving physical functional and quality of life in older adults with multiple sclerosis via a DVD-delivered exercise intervention: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; Roberts, Sarah A; Learmonth, Yvonne C; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominque; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is a need to identify innovative, low-cost and broad-reaching strategies for promoting exercise and improving physical function in older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods and analysis This randomised controlled pilot trial will test the efficacy of a 6-month, DVD-delivered exercise intervention to improve functional performance and quality of life in older adults with MS. Participants will be randomised either into a DVD-delivered exercise condition or an attentional control condition. This novel approach to programme delivery provides participants with detailed exercise instructions which are presented in a progressive manner and includes a variety of modifications to better meet varying levels of physical abilities. The targeted exercises focus on three critical elements of functional fitness: flexibility, strength and balance. It is hypothesised that participants who are randomised to the exercise DVD condition will demonstrate improvements in physical function compared with participants assigned to the attentional control condition. Data analysis will include a 2 (condition)×2 (time) mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) that follows intent-to-treat principles, as well as an examination of effect sizes. Participants will take part in qualitative interviews about perspectives on physical activity and programme participation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by a university institutional review board and registered with a federal database. Participants will be asked to read and sign a detailed informed consent document and will be required to provide a physician's approval to participate in the study. The exercise DVDs include an overview of safety-related concerns and recommendations relative to exercise participation, as well as detailed instructions highlighting the proper execution of each exercise presented on screen. Following completion of this trial, data will be immediately analysed and results

  17. The Feasibility of an E-mail–Delivered Intervention to Improve Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors in African-American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Eleanor; Schweitzer, Amy; Hurtado, Maria Eugenia; Hathway, Joanne; DiPietro, Loretta; Lei, Kai Y.; Klein, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an e-mail-delivered program to promote nutrition and physical activity in African-American college students. Participants 47 students (76% female, ages 18-20 y). Methods Students participated in a 24-week randomized controlled trial, receiving either general health information or the intervention focused on diet and physical activity. Results At baseline, 80.9% and 76.0% of participants reported interest in improving diet and physical activity, respectively. Participants evidenced poor nutrition behaviors and 46% were overweight or obese. At 24 weeks, most participants (70% control, 84% intervention) were “somewhat” or “very” satisfied with the program. The program was feasible to administrate, with the exception of measurement of physical activity using accelerometers. Conclusions An innovative e-mail-delivered program promoting positive health behaviors appears to be feasible and acceptable in African-American college students. Further research is needed to evaluate program efficacy in this population, including prevention of excess weight gain. PMID:25611932

  18. Combination Pod-Intravaginal Ring Delivers Antiretroviral Agents for HIV Prophylaxis: Pharmacokinetic Evaluation in an Ovine Model.

    PubMed

    Moss, John A; Butkyavichene, Irina; Churchman, Scott A; Gunawardana, Manjula; Fanter, Rob; Miller, Christine S; Yang, Flora; Easley, Jeremiah T; Marzinke, Mark A; Hendrix, Craig W; Smith, Thomas J; Baum, Marc M

    2016-06-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV using oral regimens based on the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been effective to various degrees in multiple clinical trials, and the CCR5 receptor antagonist maraviroc (MVC) holds potential for complementary efficacy. The effectiveness of HIV PrEP is highly dependent on adherence. Incorporation of the TDF-MVC combination into intravaginal rings (IVRs) for sustained mucosal delivery could increase product adherence and efficacy compared with oral and vaginal gel formulations. A novel pod-IVR technology capable of delivering multiple drugs is described. The pharmacokinetics and preliminary local safety characteristics of a novel pod-IVR delivering a combination of TDF and MVC were evaluated in the ovine model. The device exhibited sustained release at controlled rates over the 28-day study and maintained steady-state drug levels in cervicovaginal fluids (CVFs). Dilution of CVFs during lavage sample collection was measured by ion chromatography using an inert tracer, allowing corrected drug concentrations to be measured for the first time. Median, steady-state drug levels in vaginal tissue homogenate were as follows: for tenofovir (TFV; in vivo hydrolysis product of TDF), 7.3 × 10(2) ng g(-1) (interquartile range [IQR], 3.0 × 10(2), 4.0 × 10(3)); for TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP; active metabolite of TFV), 1.8 × 10(4) fmol g(-1) (IQR, 1.5 × 10(4), 4.8 × 10(4)); and for MVC, 8.2 × 10(2) ng g(-1) (IQR, 4.7 × 10(2), 2.0 × 10(3)). No adverse events were observed. These findings, together with previous pod-IVR studies, have allowed several lead candidates to advance into clinical evaluation. PMID:27067321

  19. Delivering bad news to patients.

    PubMed

    Monden, Kimberley R; Gentry, Lonnie; Cox, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    When physicians lack proper training, breaking bad news can lead to negative consequences for patients, families, and physicians. A questionnaire was used to determine whether a didactic program on delivering bad news was needed at our institution. Results revealed that 91% of respondents perceived delivering bad news as a very important skill, but only 40% felt they had the training to effectively deliver such news. We provide a brief review of different approaches to delivering bad news and advocate for training physicians in a comprehensive, structured model. PMID:26722188

  20. Predictors of Hepatitis B Cure Using Gene Therapy to Deliver DNA Cleavage Enzymes: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T.; Swan, Dave A.; Stone, Daniel; Jerome, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    Most chronic viral infections are managed with small molecule therapies that inhibit replication but are not curative because non-replicating viral forms can persist despite decades of suppressive treatment. There are therefore numerous strategies in development to eradicate all non-replicating viruses from the body. We are currently engineering DNA cleavage enzymes that specifically target hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA), the episomal form of the virus that persists despite potent antiviral therapies. DNA cleavage enzymes, including homing endonucleases or meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR-associated system 9 (Cas9) proteins, can disrupt specific regions of viral DNA. Because DNA repair is error prone, the virus can be neutralized after repeated cleavage events when a target sequence becomes mutated. DNA cleavage enzymes will be delivered as genes within viral vectors that enter hepatocytes. Here we develop mathematical models that describe the delivery and intracellular activity of DNA cleavage enzymes. Model simulations predict that high vector to target cell ratio, limited removal of delivery vectors by humoral immunity, and avid binding between enzyme and its DNA target will promote the highest level of cccDNA disruption. Development of de novo resistance to cleavage enzymes may occur if DNA cleavage and error prone repair does not render the viral episome replication incompetent: our model predicts that concurrent delivery of multiple enzymes which target different vital cccDNA regions, or sequential delivery of different enzymes, are both potentially useful strategies for avoiding multi-enzyme resistance. The underlying dynamics of cccDNA persistence are unlikely to impact the probability of cure provided that antiviral therapy is given concurrently during eradication trials. We conclude by describing experiments that can be used to validate the model, which will in turn

  1. Intra-Arterially Delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Detected in the Brain Parenchyma in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Kyung; Yang, Jehoon; Chang, Eun Hyuk; Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Jeongmin; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Chang, Jong Wook; Na, Duk L

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a promising role as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prior studies suggested that intra-arterially administered MSCs are engrafted into the brain in stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) animal models. However, a controversial standpoint exists in terms of the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in transgenic AD mice. The primary goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of delivering human umbilical cord-blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the brains of non-transgenic WT (C3H/C57) and transgenic AD (APP/PS1) mice through the intra-arterial (IA) route. Through two experiments, mice were infused with hUCB-MSCs via the right internal carotid artery and were sacrificed at two different time points: 6 hours (experiment 1) or 5 minutes (experiment 2) after infusion. In both experiments, no cells were detected in the brain parenchyma while MSCs were detected in the cerebrovasculature in experiment 2. The results from this study highlight that intra-arterial delivery of MSCs is not the most favorable route to be implemented as a potential therapeutic approach for AD. PMID:27203695

  2. Chronic care model strategies in the United States and Germany deliver patient-centered, high-quality diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Stock, Stephanie; Pitcavage, James M; Simic, Dusan; Altin, Sibel; Graf, Christian; Feng, Wen; Graf, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    Improving the quality of care for chronic diseases is an important issue for most health care systems in industrialized nations. One widely adopted approach is the Chronic Care Model (CCM), which was first developed in the late 1990s. In this article we present the results from two large surveys in the United States and Germany that report patients' experiences in different models of patient-centered diabetes care, compared to the experiences of patients who received routine diabetes care in the same systems. The study populations were enrolled in either Geisinger Health System in Pennsylvania or Barmer, a German sickness fund that provides medical insurance nationwide. Our findings suggest that patients with type 2 diabetes who were enrolled in the care models that exhibited key features of the CCM were more likely to receive care that was patient-centered, high quality, and collaborative, compared to patients who received routine care. This study demonstrates that quality improvement can be realized through the application of the Chronic Care Model, regardless of the setting or distinct characteristics of the program. PMID:25201658

  3. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part II: The referring clinician and patient perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Feedback from service users will provide insight into opportunities for improvement so that performance can be optimised. In the context of a formative evaluation referring clinician and patient satisfaction with a teleneurophysiology service was examined during a 20 week pilot period. Methods Questionnaire surveys of referring clinicians and patients were conducted. Results Fifteen (58%) clinicians responded to the first part of a postal survey which examined their satisfaction with traditional clinical neurophysiology services. Nine (35%) responded to a second part which assessed their experience with the teleneurophysiology service. Teleneurophysiology improved satisfaction with waiting times, availability of results and impact on patient management. There was unanimous support from the clinicians for the permanent development of a teleneurophysiology service, although 2 cautioned this could delay establishing a neurology service in their region. Eighty-two percent (116/142) of patients responded to a survey of their satisfaction with teleneurophysiology. This was compared to a previous report of 322 patients' experience with traditional CN services in Ireland. Waiting times for appointment were shorter for the former group who supported the telemedicine model recognising that it reduced the travel burden and need for overnight journeys. The two groups were equally anxious about the investigation although the teleneurophysiology patients received more prior information. Conclusion This study illustrates that teleneurophysiology is an acceptable model of service delivery for its primary customers. Their feedback is important in informing appropriate design and governance of such innovative models of health service provision. PMID:20843310

  4. Assessment of the Quality of Delivered Care for Iranian patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis by Using Comprehensive Quality Measurement Model in Health Care (CQMH)

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Saeed; Safiri, Saeid; Bayat, Mahboubeh; Mottaghi, Payman; Shokri, Azad; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Fattahi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Quality of care has become increasingly critical in the evaluation of healthcare and healthcare services. The aim of this study was to assess quality of delivered care among patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a model of Comprehensive Quality Measurement in Health Care (CQMH). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 172 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were received care from private clinics of Isfahan University of medical sciences in 2013. CQMH questionnaires were used for assessing the quality of care. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Results: The mean scores of Quality Index, Service Quality (SQ), Technical Quality (TQ), and Costumer Quality (CQ) were 72.70, 79.09, 68.54 and 70.25 out of 100, respectively. For CQ only 19.8% of participations staying the course of action even under stress and financial constraints, there is a significant gap between what RA care they received with what was recommended in the guideline for TQ. Scores of service quality was low in majority of aspects especially in "availability of support group" section. Conclusion: Study shows paradoxical findings and expresses that quality scores of service delivery for patients with arthritis rheumatoid from patient's perspective is relatively low. Therefore, for fixing this paradoxical problem, improving the participation of patients and their family and empowering them for self-management and decision should be regarded by health systems. PMID:26744728

  5. Bone marrow stem cells delivered into the subarachnoid space via cisterna magna improve repair of injured rat spinal cord white matter

    PubMed Central

    Marcol, Wiesław; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Koryciak-Komarska, Halina; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The influence of bone marrow stem cells on regeneration of spinal cord in rats was investigated. Young adult male Wistar rats were used (n=22). Focal injury of spinal cord white matter at Th10 level was produced using our original non-laminectomy method by means of high-pressured air stream. Cells from tibial and femoral bone marrow of 1-month old rats (n=3) were cultured, labeled with BrdU/Hoechst and injected into cisterna magna (experimental group) three times: immediately after spinal cord injury and 3 as well as 7 days later. Neurons in brain stem and motor cortex were labeled with FluoroGold (FG) delivered caudally from the injury site a week before the end of experiment. Functional outcome and morphological features of regeneration were analyzed during 12-week follow-up. The lesions were characterized by means of MRI. Maximal distance of expansion of implanted cells in the spinal cord was measured and the number of FG-positive neurons in the brain was counted. Rats treated with stem cells presented significant improvement of locomotor performance and spinal cord morphology when compared to the control group. Distance covered by stem cells was 7 mm from the epicenter of the injury. Number of brain stem and motor cortex FG-positive neurons in experimental group was significantly higher than in control. Obtained data showed that bone marrow stem cells are able to induce the repair of injured spinal cord white matter. The route of cells application via cisterna magna appeared to be useful for their delivery in spinal cord injury therapy. PMID:26628950

  6. Model-based software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zettervall, Brenda T.

    1994-01-01

    The activities of a field test site for the Software Engineering Institute's software process definition project are discussed. Products tested included the improvement model itself, descriptive modeling techniques, the CMM level 2 framework document, and the use of process definition guidelines and templates. The software process improvement model represents a five stage cyclic approach for organizational process improvement. The cycles consist of the initiating, diagnosing, establishing, acting, and leveraging phases.

  7. Improved model for statistical alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Miklos, I.; Toroczkai, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The statistical approach to molecular sequence evolution involves the stochastic modeling of the substitution, insertion and deletion processes. Substitution has been modeled in a reliable way for more than three decades by using finite Markov-processes. Insertion and deletion, however, seem to be more difficult to model, and thc recent approaches cannot acceptably deal with multiple insertions and deletions. A new method based on a generating function approach is introduced to describe the multiple insertion process. The presented algorithm computes the approximate joint probability of two sequences in 0(13) running time where 1 is the geometric mean of the sequence lengths.

  8. Potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering method for improving abutment dosimetry in eMLC-delivered segmented-field electron conformal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Eley, John G.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Matthews, Kenneth L.; Parker, Brent C.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering of the higher energy electron fields for improving abutment dosimetry in the planning volume when using an electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) to deliver segmented-field electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: A discrete (five-step) Gaussian edge spread function was used to match dose penumbras of differing beam energies (6-20 MeV) at a specified depth in a water phantom. Software was developed to define the leaf eMLC positions of an eMLC that most closely fit each electron field shape. The effect of 1D edge feathering of the higher energy field on dose homogeneity was computed and measured for segmented-field ECT treatment plans for three 2D PTVs in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of the x-axis (parallel to leaf motion) and remained constant along the y-axis (perpendicular to leaf motion). Additionally, the effect of 2D edge feathering was computed and measured for one radially symmetric, 3D PTV in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of both axes. For the 3D PTV, the feathering scheme was evaluated for 0.1-1.0-cm leaf widths. Dose calculations were performed using the pencil beam dose algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system. Dose verification measurements were made using a prototype eMLC (1-cm leaf width). Results: 1D discrete Gaussian edge feathering reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 2D PTVs by 34, 34, and 39%. In the 3D PTV, the broad leaf width (1 cm) of the eMLC hindered the 2D application of the feathering solution to the 3D PTV, and the standard deviation of dose increased by 10%. However, 2D discrete Gaussian edge feathering with simulated eMLC leaf widths of 0.1-0.5 cm reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 3D PTV by 33-28%, respectively. Conclusions: A five-step discrete Gaussian edge

  9. Inferior mirages: an improved model.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew T

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative model of the inferior mirage is presented, based on a realistic temperature profile in the convective boundary layer, using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The top of the inverted image is determined by the logarithmic part of the profile; the bottom is the apparent horizon, which depends on optical obstruction by roughness elements. These effects of surface roughness are included in the model, which is illustrated with a simulation. The vertical magnification varies throughout the mirage, becoming infinite at Minnaert's ill-named "vanishing line"-which makes green flashes apparent to the naked eye. PMID:25967823

  10. Implementing a K-12 Train the Trainer Professional Development Model through the School Improvement Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollnow, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to schools and districts widely distributed throughout the…

  11. Improve SSME power balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karr, Gerald R.

    1992-09-01

    Effort was dedicated to development and testing of a formal strategy for reconciling uncertain test data with physically limited computational prediction. Specific weaknesses in the logical structure of the current Power Balance Model (PBM) version are described with emphasis given to the main routing subroutines BAL and DATRED. Selected results from a variational analysis of PBM predictions are compared to Technology Test Bed (TTB) variational study results to assess PBM predictive capability. The motivation for systematic integration of uncertain test data with computational predictions based on limited physical models is provided. The theoretical foundation for the reconciliation strategy developed in this effort is presented, and results of a reconciliation analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel side turbopump subsystem are examined.

  12. Improve SSME power balance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    Effort was dedicated to development and testing of a formal strategy for reconciling uncertain test data with physically limited computational prediction. Specific weaknesses in the logical structure of the current Power Balance Model (PBM) version are described with emphasis given to the main routing subroutines BAL and DATRED. Selected results from a variational analysis of PBM predictions are compared to Technology Test Bed (TTB) variational study results to assess PBM predictive capability. The motivation for systematic integration of uncertain test data with computational predictions based on limited physical models is provided. The theoretical foundation for the reconciliation strategy developed in this effort is presented, and results of a reconciliation analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel side turbopump subsystem are examined.

  13. Runway configuration improvement programming model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, J. C.; Gibson, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The basic objectives of the study were to subject a set of runway configurations to cost analysis and to develop a dynamic programming model which would enable an airport to economically match the ground capacity to its air traffic demand. Quantitative differences in the capacity of runway configurations result from the various aircraft/aircraft and aircraft/air-system interactions. A problem formulation and solution procedure is presented which is intended to be a meaningful technique for the long-range planning of runway expansion programs.

  14. NEW DIRECTIONS IN SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS. AN ADDRESS DELIVERED TO THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT WORKSHOP, AUGUST 29, 1960, DETROIT, MICHIGAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCLUSKY, HOWARD

    IN AN ADDRESS DELIVERED TO A WORKSHOP IN THE GREAT CITIES PROJECT, IT WAS NOTED THAT SCHOOL PERSONNEL SHOULD DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO RESEARCH THE PROBLEM OF IN-MIGRATION. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT, AS A KEY TO MIGRATION AND CHANGING NEIGHBORHOODS, A CUMULATIVE RECORD FOR THE NEIGHBORHOOD AND SCHOOL DISTRICT BE KEPT. THERE IS A NEED FOR TEACHERS TO…

  15. The Feasibility of an E-Mail-Delivered Intervention to Improve Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors in African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Eleanor; Schweitzer, Amy; Hurtado, Maria Eugenia; Hathway, Joanne; DiPietro, Loretta; Lei, Kai Y.; Klein, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an e-mail-delivered program to promote nutrition and physical activity in African American college students. Participants: Forty-seven students (76% female, aged 18-20 years). Methods: Students participated in a 24-week randomized controlled trial, receiving either general health…

  16. Vermont's Community-Oriented All-Payer Medical Home Model Reduces Expenditures and Utilization While Delivering High-Quality Care

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Craig; Finison, Karl; McGraves-Lloyd, Katharine; Tremblay, Timothy; Tanzman, Beth; Hazard, Miki; Maier, Steven; Samuelson, Jenney

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patient-centered medical home programs using different design and implementation strategies are being tested across the United States, and the impact of these programs on outcomes for a general population remains unclear. Vermont has pursued a statewide all-payer program wherein medical home practices are supported with additional staffing from a locally organized shared resource, the community health team. Using a 6-year, sequential, cross-sectional methodology, this study reviewed annual cost, utilization, and quality outcomes for patients attributed to 123 practices participating in the program as of December 2013 versus a comparison population from each year attributed to nonparticipating practices. Populations are grouped based on their practices' stage of participation in a calendar year (Pre-Year, Implementation Year, Scoring Year, Post-Year 1, Post-Year 2). Annual risk-adjusted total expenditures per capita at Pre-Year for the participant group and comparison group were not significantly different. The difference-in-differences change from Pre-Year to Post-Year 2 indicated that the participant group's expenditures were reduced by −$482 relative to the comparison (95% CI, −$573 to −$391; P < .001). The lower costs were driven primarily by inpatient (−$218; P < .001) and outpatient hospital expenditures (−$154; P < .001), with associated changes in inpatient and outpatient hospital utilization. Medicaid participants also had a relative increase in expenditures for dental, social, and community-based support services ($57; P < .001). Participants maintained higher rates on 9 of 11 effective and preventive care measures. These results suggest that Vermont's community-oriented medical home model is associated with improved outcomes for a general population at lower expenditures and utilization. (Population Health Management 2016;19:196–205) PMID:26348492

  17. Vermont's Community-Oriented All-Payer Medical Home Model Reduces Expenditures and Utilization While Delivering High-Quality Care.

    PubMed

    Jones, Craig; Finison, Karl; McGraves-Lloyd, Katharine; Tremblay, Timothy; Mohlman, Mary Kate; Tanzman, Beth; Hazard, Miki; Maier, Steven; Samuelson, Jenney

    2016-06-01

    Patient-centered medical home programs using different design and implementation strategies are being tested across the United States, and the impact of these programs on outcomes for a general population remains unclear. Vermont has pursued a statewide all-payer program wherein medical home practices are supported with additional staffing from a locally organized shared resource, the community health team. Using a 6-year, sequential, cross-sectional methodology, this study reviewed annual cost, utilization, and quality outcomes for patients attributed to 123 practices participating in the program as of December 2013 versus a comparison population from each year attributed to nonparticipating practices. Populations are grouped based on their practices' stage of participation in a calendar year (Pre-Year, Implementation Year, Scoring Year, Post-Year 1, Post-Year 2). Annual risk-adjusted total expenditures per capita at Pre-Year for the participant group and comparison group were not significantly different. The difference-in-differences change from Pre-Year to Post-Year 2 indicated that the participant group's expenditures were reduced by -$482 relative to the comparison (95% CI, -$573 to -$391; P < .001). The lower costs were driven primarily by inpatient (-$218; P < .001) and outpatient hospital expenditures (-$154; P < .001), with associated changes in inpatient and outpatient hospital utilization. Medicaid participants also had a relative increase in expenditures for dental, social, and community-based support services ($57; P < .001). Participants maintained higher rates on 9 of 11 effective and preventive care measures. These results suggest that Vermont's community-oriented medical home model is associated with improved outcomes for a general population at lower expenditures and utilization. (Population Health Management 2016;19:196-205). PMID:26348492

  18. Early Intervention with a Parent-Delivered Massage Protocol Directed at Tactile Abnormalities Decreases Severity of Autism and Improves Child-to-Parent Interactions: A Replication Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Gabrielsen, Kristen R.; Budden, Sarojini S.; Buenrostro, Martha; Horton, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Tactile abnormalities are severe and universal in preschool children with autism. They respond well to treatment with a daily massage protocol directed at tactile abnormalities (QST massage for autism). Treatment is based on a model for autism proposing that tactile impairment poses a barrier to development. Two previous randomized controlled trials evaluating five months of massage treatment reported improvement of behavior, social/communication skills, and tactile and other sensory symptoms. This is the first report from a two-year replication study evaluating the protocol in 103 preschool children with autism. Parents gave daily treatment; trained staff gave weekly treatment and parent support. Five-month outcomes replicated earlier studies and showed normalization of receptive language (18%, P = .03), autistic behavior (32%, P = .006), total sensory abnormalities (38%, P = .0000005), tactile abnormalities (49%, P = .0002), and decreased autism severity (medium to large effect size, P = .008). In addition, parents reported improved child-to-parent interactions, bonding, and decreased parenting stress (44%, P = .00008). Early childhood special education programs are tasked with addressing sensory abnormalities and engaging parents in effective home programs. Until now, they have lacked research-based methods to do so. This program fulfills the need. It is recommended to parents and ECSE programs (ages 3–5) at autism diagnosis. PMID:25878901

  19. Early Intervention with a Parent-Delivered Massage Protocol Directed at Tactile Abnormalities Decreases Severity of Autism and Improves Child-to-Parent Interactions: A Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Gabrielsen, Kristen R; Budden, Sarojini S; Buenrostro, Martha; Horton, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Tactile abnormalities are severe and universal in preschool children with autism. They respond well to treatment with a daily massage protocol directed at tactile abnormalities (QST massage for autism). Treatment is based on a model for autism proposing that tactile impairment poses a barrier to development. Two previous randomized controlled trials evaluating five months of massage treatment reported improvement of behavior, social/communication skills, and tactile and other sensory symptoms. This is the first report from a two-year replication study evaluating the protocol in 103 preschool children with autism. Parents gave daily treatment; trained staff gave weekly treatment and parent support. Five-month outcomes replicated earlier studies and showed normalization of receptive language (18%, P = .03), autistic behavior (32%, P = .006), total sensory abnormalities (38%, P = .0000005), tactile abnormalities (49%, P = .0002), and decreased autism severity (medium to large effect size, P = .008). In addition, parents reported improved child-to-parent interactions, bonding, and decreased parenting stress (44%, P = .00008). Early childhood special education programs are tasked with addressing sensory abnormalities and engaging parents in effective home programs. Until now, they have lacked research-based methods to do so. This program fulfills the need. It is recommended to parents and ECSE programs (ages 3-5) at autism diagnosis. PMID:25878901

  20. Using ecosystem experiments to improve vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlyn, Belinda E.; Zaehle, Sönke; de Kauwe, Martin G.; Walker, Anthony P.; Dietze, Michael C.; Hanson, Paul J.; Hickler, Thomas; Jain, Atul K.; Luo, Yiqi; Parton, William; Prentice, I. Colin; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Shusen; Wang, Ying-Ping; Weng, Ensheng; Iversen, Colleen M.; McCarthy, Heather R.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J.

    2015-06-01

    Ecosystem responses to rising CO2 concentrations are a major source of uncertainty in climate change projections. Data from ecosystem-scale Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a unique opportunity to reduce this uncertainty. The recent FACE Model-Data Synthesis project aimed to use the information gathered in two forest FACE experiments to assess and improve land ecosystem models. A new 'assumption-centred' model intercomparison approach was used, in which participating models were evaluated against experimental data based on the ways in which they represent key ecological processes. By identifying and evaluating the main assumptions causing differences among models, the assumption-centred approach produced a clear roadmap for reducing model uncertainty. Here, we explain this approach and summarize the resulting research agenda. We encourage the application of this approach in other model intercomparison projects to fundamentally improve predictive understanding of the Earth system.

  1. Using the CLER Model in School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotto, Linda S.

    1982-01-01

    The CLER (configurations, linkages, environments, resources) Model for planned change was evaluated to determine whether it could be applied in school settings, using empirical data from two recent national school improvement studies. While the model was applicable, it did not seem sufficiently precise to be, in itself, a powerful tool for school…

  2. Improving hydrology models for a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Shannon

    2014-12-01

    Changes over time in the relationship between rainfall and catchment runoff pose a significant challenge for hydrological models, which are often calibrated under the assumption that the future relationship will be consistent with that of the past. In a recent paper, Westra et al. outlined a method for diagnosing, interpreting, and improving the capacity of models to develop predictions under such conditions.

  3. Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morea, Mihai I.

    2011-12-01

    The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.

  4. Using Ecosystem Experiments to Improve Vegetation Models

    SciTech Connect

    Medlyn, Belinda; Zaehle, S; DeKauwe, Martin G.; Walker, Anthony P.; Dietze, Michael; Hanson, Paul J.; Hickler, Thomas; Jain, Atul; Luo, Yiqi; Parton, William; Prentice, I. Collin; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Shusen; Wang, Yingping; Weng, Ensheng; Iversen, Colleen M.; McCarthy, Heather R.; Warren, Jeffrey; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2015-05-21

    Ecosystem responses to rising CO2 concentrations are a major source of uncertainty in climate change projections. Data from ecosystem-scale Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a unique opportunity to reduce this uncertainty. The recent FACE Model–Data Synthesis project aimed to use the information gathered in two forest FACE experiments to assess and improve land ecosystem models. A new 'assumption-centred' model intercomparison approach was used, in which participating models were evaluated against experimental data based on the ways in which they represent key ecological processes. Identifying and evaluating the main assumptions caused differences among models, and the assumption-centered approach produced a clear roadmap for reducing model uncertainty. We explain this approach and summarize the resulting research agenda. We encourage the application of this approach in other model intercomparison projects to fundamentally improve predictive understanding of the Earth system.

  5. Using Ecosystem Experiments to Improve Vegetation Models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Medlyn, Belinda; Zaehle, S; DeKauwe, Martin G.; Walker, Anthony P.; Dietze, Michael; Hanson, Paul J.; Hickler, Thomas; Jain, Atul; Luo, Yiqi; Parton, William; et al

    2015-05-21

    Ecosystem responses to rising CO2 concentrations are a major source of uncertainty in climate change projections. Data from ecosystem-scale Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a unique opportunity to reduce this uncertainty. The recent FACE Model–Data Synthesis project aimed to use the information gathered in two forest FACE experiments to assess and improve land ecosystem models. A new 'assumption-centred' model intercomparison approach was used, in which participating models were evaluated against experimental data based on the ways in which they represent key ecological processes. Identifying and evaluating the main assumptions caused differences among models, and the assumption-centered approach produced amore » clear roadmap for reducing model uncertainty. We explain this approach and summarize the resulting research agenda. We encourage the application of this approach in other model intercomparison projects to fundamentally improve predictive understanding of the Earth system.« less

  6. An improved ARIMA model for hydrological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. R.; Wang, C.; Lin, X.; Kang, J.

    2014-04-01

    Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model is often used to calculate time series data formed by inter-annual variations of monthly data. However, the influence brought about by inter-monthly variations within each year is ignored. Based on the monthly data classified by clustering analysis, the characteristics of time series data are extracted. An improved ARIMA model is developed accounting for both the inter-annual and inter-monthly variation. The correlation between characteristic quantity and monthly data within each year is constructed by regression analysis first. The model can be used for predicting characteristic quantity followed by the stationary treatment for characteristic quantity time series by difference. A case study is conducted to predict the precipitation in Lanzhou precipitation station, China, using the model, and the results show that the accuracy of the improved model is significantly higher than the seasonal model, with the mean residual achieving 9.41 mm and the forecast accuracy increasing by 21%.

  7. Improving Hydrology in Land Ice Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephen; Flowers, Gwenn; Schoof, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Community Earth System Model Land Ice Working Group Meeting; Boulder, Colorado, 13 January 2011 ; Recent observations indicate that mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets (“land ice”) is increasing. The drivers of these changes are not well understood, and modeling the land ice response to them remains challenging. As a result, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change explicitly avoided speculating on 21st-century sea level rise from ice dynamical processes in its fourth assessment report. The mismatch between observations of land ice change and model skill at mimicking those changes is behind recent efforts to develop next-generation land ice models. Necessary improvements to existing models include improved dynamics, coupling to climate models, and better representations of important boundary conditions and physical processes. Basal sliding, the primary control on the rate of land ice delivery to the oceans, is one such boundary condition that is largely controlled by land ice hydrology.

  8. Influenza A vaccines using linear expression cassettes delivered via electroporation afford full protection against challenge in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xuefei; Söderholm, Jonas; Lin, Feng; Kobinger, Gary; Bello, Alexander; Gregg, Derek A; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y

    2012-11-01

    Alternative DNA vaccine constructs such as fully synthetic linear expressing cassettes (LECs) offer the advantage of accelerated manufacturing techniques as well as the lack of both antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial contaminants. The speed of manufacture makes LEC technology a possible future vaccination strategy for pandemic influenza outbreaks. Previously, we reported on a novel concept of DNA delivery to dermal tissue by a minimally invasive electroporation (EP) surface device powered using low voltage parameters. This device allows electroporation without penetration of electrodes into the skin. In addition to enhancing the delivery of traditional plasmid DNA vaccines, this device may also offer a safe, tolerable and efficient method to administer LECs. To assess immunogenicity and efficacy of EP-enhanced LEC delivery in mice, we designed and tested two influenza antigens in the form of LEC constructs delivered using the newly developed surface dermal EP device. Strong CTL and antibody responses were induced by the LEC versions of the DNA vaccine. When challenged with A/Canada/AB/RV1532/2009 viruses, mice immunized with LEC encoding the M2 and NP antigens recovered faster than naïve or mice immunized ID without EP. Mice immunized with equal-molar doses of LEC encoding the M2 and NP antigens demonstrated 100% survival following a lethal (100× LD50) challenge of the heterologuos and highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus (A/Vietnam/1203/04). These results suggest that influenza DNA vaccines based on LEC technology combined with the surface delivery platform are capable of fully protecting mice in a lethal challenge and the LEC based DNA constructs may serve as viable vaccine candidates. PMID:22406460

  9. Bioidentical thyroid replacement therapy in practice: Delivering a physiologic T4:T3 ratio for improved patient outcomes with the Listecki-Snyder protocol.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Scott; Listecki, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Effective thyroid replacement therapy may be elusive to some patients, and compounding pharmacists have an opportunity to deliver more effective therapy. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th edition states that the body usually secretes T4:T3 in an 11:1 ratio but cautions against pursuing combined thyroid replacement due to the short halflife of T3 that necessitates multiple daily dosing; no commercial availability and lack of benefit were shown in trials. Commercial combinations of T4/T3 such as Armour Thyroid and Nature-Throid have a 4.22:1 T4:T3 ratio. Applying the same concept as bioidentical hormone replacement therapy, compounding pharmacists can deliver an 11:1 ratio using a commercial T4 product and taking into account oral bioavailability of each entity. The short half-life of T3 can be remedied by taking the patient's daily T3 dose and dividing it into two slow-release capsules to be dosed every 12 hours. PMID:23072197

  10. Metallochaperones: bind and deliver

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, A.C.

    2010-03-08

    Metallochaperones deliver metal ions directly to target proteins via specific protein-protein interactions. Recent research has led to a molecular picture of how some metallochaperones bind metal ions, recognize their partner proteins, and accomplish metal ion transfer.

  11. The influence of target concentration, equilibration rate constant (ke0 ) and pharmacokinetic model on the initial propofol dose delivered in effect-site target-controlled infusion.

    PubMed

    Glen, J B; Engbers, F H M

    2016-03-01

    One advantage of effect-site target-controlled infusion is the administration of a larger initial dose of propofol to speed up the induction of anaesthesia. This dose is determined by the combination of the pharmacokinetic model parameters, the target setting and the blood-effect time-constant, ke0 . With the help of computer simulation, we determined the ke0 values required to deliver a range of initial doses with three pharmacokinetic models for propofol. With an effect site target of 4 μg.ml(-1) , in a 35-year-old, 170-cm tall, 70-kg male subject, the ke0 values delivering a dose of 1.75 mg.kg(-1) with the Marsh, Schnider and Eleveld models were 0.59 min(-1) , 0.20 min(-1) and 0.26 min(-1) , respectively. These ke0 values have the attractive feature that, when used to simulate the administration schemes used in two previous studies, predicted effect site concentrations at loss of consciousness were close to those required for maintenance of anaesthesia. PMID:26682512

  12. Impact of Different Types of Knowledge on Two Preservice Teachers' Ability to Learn and Deliver the Sport Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stran, Margaret; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teachers' and pupils' responses to the Sport Education (SE) model have been very positive. Pupils clearly enjoy SE and the model created lasting changes in teachers' beliefs and perspectives on teaching. While much research has been done on the impact of SE on teachers and students, there has been relatively little research on how both…

  13. A Comparison of Speech Sound Intervention Delivered by Telepractice and Side-by-Side Service Delivery Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan-Johnson, Sue; Schmidt, Anna Marie; Schenker, Jason; Alvares, Robin; Rowan, Lynne E.; Taylor, Jacquelyn

    2013-01-01

    Telepractice has the potential to provide greater access to speech-language intervention services for children with communication impairments. Substantiation of this delivery model is necessary for telepractice to become an accepted alternative delivery model. This study investigated the progress made by school-age children with speech sound…

  14. Improving the physiological realism of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Cha, Chae Y; Rorsman, Patrik; Balaban, Robert S; La Gerche, Andre; Wade-Martins, Richard; Beard, Daniel A; Jeneson, Jeroen A L

    2016-04-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) project aims to develop integrative, explanatory and predictive computational models (C-Models) as numerical investigational tools to study disease, identify and design effective therapies and provide an in silico platform for drug screening. Ultimately, these models rely on the analysis and integration of experimental data. As such, the success of VPH depends on the availability of physiologically realistic experimental models (E-Models) of human organ function that can be parametrized to test the numerical models. Here, the current state of suitable E-models, ranging from in vitro non-human cell organelles to in vivo human organ systems, is discussed. Specifically, challenges and recent progress in improving the physiological realism of E-models that may benefit the VPH project are highlighted and discussed using examples from the field of research on cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes and Parkinson's disease. PMID:27051507

  15. Improving weather modeling in South America through IDD-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.

    2007-05-01

    The IDD-Brasil constitutes of an international collaboration among Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LPM/UFRJ), Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE) and the Unidata Program Center (Unidata/UCAR), which connects several universities and research centers across the Americas in a network to share real-time hydro meteorological data. Using this network as a new path to deliver and acquire observational data, IDD-Brazil participants are capable of receiving observational data from GTS (Global Telecommunication System), locally ingested data from several automatic weather stations networks (mesonets) from INPE, the entire array of METAR and SYNOP observations, and several model outputs and satellite imagery. During recent years Numerical Models have been used constantly, especially in mesoscale research, but the lack of a dense observational network in South America leads to several constraints during the data assimilation and model validation. Since the IDD-Brasil offers an improved and simple method to have new datasets readily accessible, it has been used continuously as a new manner to distribute surface observations that are not currently available in GTS, such as several mesonets in Brazil that account for an increase in data density. Through the usage of data ingested in IDD-Brasil as guess fields it is possible to study how the assimilation in several global models frequently used as initial conditions for mesoscale simulations can be affected, since in certain areas in Brazil the density of data nearly doubles if compared to GTS. Therefore it is also possible to better validate the results generated in mesoscale simulations, in view of the fact that the network has an improved spatial distribution. It is expected that the increase of locally held numerical model output from South American institutions in IDD- Brasil leads to an increased awareness of the need to constantly validate these results with observational data, thus

  16. Parent-delivered compensatory education for children at risk of educational failure: Improving the academic and self-regulatory skills of a Sure Start preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Ford, Ruth M; McDougall, Sine J P; Evans, Daphne

    2009-11-01

    Thirty preschoolers from low-income families participated in a 12-month intervention programme, funded by Sure Start, which engaged them in scaffolded educational activities delivered at home by their mothers. Immediately following the programme, the intervention group outperformed matched controls in tests of academic knowledge, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control, but not short-term memory or theory of mind. Teachers' ratings of children's capabilities upon school entry favoured the intervention group, especially in terms of listening, responding, writing, mathematics, and personal/social skills. Superior inhibitory control, short-term memory, and numerical skills were associated with higher ratings whereas theory of mind made a unique, negative contribution to responding. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to nurture the development of cognitive self-regulation and school readiness during early childhood. PMID:19261208

  17. SU-E-T-205: Improving Quality Assurance of HDR Brachytherapy: Verifying Agreement Between Planned and Delivered Dose Distributions Using DICOM RTDose and Advanced Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, A L; Bradley, D A; Nisbet, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: HDR brachytherapy is undergoing significant development, and quality assurance (QA) checks must keep pace. Current recommendations do not adequately verify delivered against planned dose distributions: This is particularly relevant for new treatment planning system (TPS) calculation algorithms (non TG-43 based), and an era of significant patient-specific plan optimisation. Full system checks are desirable in modern QA recommendations, complementary to device-centric individual tests. We present a QA system incorporating TPS calculation, dose distribution export, HDR unit performance, and dose distribution measurement. Such an approach, more common in external beam radiotherapy, has not previously been reported in the literature for brachytherapy. Methods: Our QA method was tested at 24 UK brachytherapy centres. As a novel approach, we used the TPS DICOM RTDose file export to compare planned dose distribution with that measured using Gafchromic EBT3 films placed around clinical brachytherapy treatment applicators. Gamma analysis was used to compare the dose distributions. Dose difference and distance to agreement were determined at prescription Point A. Accurate film dosimetry was achieved using a glass compression plate at scanning to ensure physically-flat films, simultaneous scanning of known dose films with measurement films, and triple-channel dosimetric analysis. Results: The mean gamma pass rate of RTDose compared to film-measured dose distributions was 98.1% at 3%(local), 2 mm criteria. The mean dose difference, measured to planned, at Point A was -0.5% for plastic treatment applicators and -2.4% for metal applicators, due to shielding not accounted for in TPS. The mean distance to agreement was 0.6 mm. Conclusion: It is recommended to develop brachytherapy QA to include full-system verification of agreement between planned and delivered dose distributions. This is a novel approach for HDR brachytherapy QA. A methodology using advanced film

  18. Reprint of localized dose delivering by ion beam irradiation for experimental trial of establishing brain necrosis model.

    PubMed

    Takata, Takushi; Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kume, Kyo; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-12-01

    Localized dose delivery techniques to establish a brain radiation necrosis model are described. An irradiation field was designed by using accelerated protons or helium ions with a spread-out Bragg peak. Measurement of the designed field confirmed that a high dose can be confined to a local volume of an animal brain. The irradiation techniques described here are very useful for establishing a necrosis model without existence of extraneous complications. PMID:26515136

  19. Improving the EOTDA ocean background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Charles P.; Badzik, Gregory D.

    1997-09-01

    The Electro-Optical Tactical Decision Aid (EOTDA) is a strike warfare mission planning tool originally developed by the US Air Force. The US Navy has added navy sensors and targets to the EOTDA and installed it into current fleet mission planning and support systems. Fleet experience with the EOTDA and previous studies have noted the need for improvement, especially for scenarios involving ocean backgrounds. In order to test and improve the water background model in the EOTDA, a modified version has been created that replaces the existing semi-empirical model with the SeaRad model that was developed by Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Systems (NRaD). The SeaRad model is a more rigorous solution based on the Cox-Munk wave-slope probabilities. During the April 1996 Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments (EOPACE) trials, data was collected to evaluate the effects of the SeaRad version of the EOTDA. Data was collected using a calibrated airborne infrared imaging system and operational FUR systems against ship targets. A modified version of MODTRAN also containing the SeaRad model is used to correct the data for the influences of the atmosphere. This report uses these data along with the modified EOTDA to evaluate the effects of the SeaRad model on ocean background predictions under clear and clouded skies. Upon using the more accurate water reflection model, the significance of the sky and cloud radiance contributions become more apparent leading to recommendations for further improvements.

  20. An improved model of direct gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh

    1998-09-01

    We present a new, improved model of gauge mediation of dynamical SUSY Breaking: the model does not have gauge messengers or ~10 TeV scalars charged under the Standard Model (SM), thus avoiding the problem of negative (mass)2 for supersymmetric SM (SSM) scalars faced by some earlier models. The gauge mediation is direct, i.e., the messengers which communicate SUSY breaking to the SSM fields carry quantum numbers of the gauge group which breaks SUSY. These messenger fields couple to a modulus field. The model has a very simple particle content: the modulus and the messengers are the only chiral superfields (other than the SSM fields) in the model. The inverted hierarchy mechanism is used to generate a local SUSY breaking minimum for the modulus field in a perturbative regime thus making the model calculable.

  1. An improved model for prediction of resuspension.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed M; Anspaugh, Lynn R

    2011-12-01

    A complete, historical dataset is presented of radionuclide resuspension-factors. These data span six orders of magnitude in time (ranging from 0.1 to 73,000 d), encompass more than 300 individual values, and combine observations from events on three continents. These data were then used to derive improved, empirical models that can be used to predict resuspension of trace materials after their deposit on the ground. Data-fitting techniques were used to derive models of various types and an estimate of uncertainty in model prediction. Two models were found to be suitable: a power law and the modified Anspaugh et al. model, which is a double exponential. Though statistically the power-law model provides the best metrics of fit, the modified Anspaugh model is deemed the more appropriate due to its better fit to data at early times and its ease of implementation in terms of closed analytical integrals. PMID:22048490

  2. Improving information assimilation by modeling warfighter context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaientz, Jack D.; Wood, Scott D.; Hawkins, Robert L.

    2005-05-01

    In order to wage successful campaigns, the next generation of intelligence analysts and battle commanders will need to assimilate an enormous amount of information that will come from a wide range of heterogeneous data sources. Complicating this problem further is the fact that warfighters need to be able to manage information in an environment of rapidly changing events and priorities. The consequence of not addressing this problem, or not addressing it as effectively as hostile forces do, is a potential loss of assets, personnel, or tactical advantage. To design effective information displays there needs to be an extensible framework that models the warfighters context including characteristics of the information sources being displayed, the current Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR) picture or Common Operating Picture (COP), the warfighters current state and task, and the state of the information display. BINAH (Battlespace Information and Notification through Adaptive Heuristics) uses an agent-based modeling approach coupled with research into temporal and spatial reasoning, novel display management techniques, and development of a formal high-level language for describing model-based information configuration. The result is an information configuration pipeline designed to provide perceptual and cognitive analysis support to Air Force analysts engaged in Time-Critical Targeting target nomination. It has been integrated with the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) XML-based Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) combat information management system and combines JBI delivered sensor data with a local user model and display strategies to configure a geospatial information display. The BINAH framework will provide a firm grounding for developing new C4ISR displays that maximize the ability of warfighters to assimilate the information presented.

  3. Human mesenchymal stromal cells could deliver erythropoietin and migrate to the basal layer of hair shaft when subcutaneously implanted in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Mok, P L; Cheong, S K; Leong, C F; Chua, K H; Ainoon, O

    2012-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are an attractive cell-targeting vehicle for gene delivery. MIDGE (an acronym for Minimalistic, Immunologically Defined Gene Expression) construct is relatively safer than the viral or plasmid expression system as the detrimental eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene and sequences have been eliminated. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the human MSC (hMSC) to deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in a nude mice model following nucleofection using a MIDGE construct. hMSC nucleofected with MIDGE encoding the EPO gene was injected subcutaneously in Matrigel at the dorsal flank of nude mice. Subcutaneous implantation of nucleofected hMSC resulted in increased hemoglobin level with presence of human EPO in the peripheral blood of the injected nude mice in the first two weeks post-implantation compared with the control groups. The basal layer of the hair shaft in the dermal layer was found to be significantly positive for immunohistochemical staining of a human EPO antibody. However, only a few basal layers of the hair shaft were found to be positively stained for CD105. In conclusion, hMSC harboring MIDGE-EPO could deliver and transiently express the EPO gene in the nude mice model. These cells could be localized to the hair follicle and secreted EPO protein might have possible role in hair regeneration. PMID:22560724

  4. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  5. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements are provided for the ozone reference model which is to be incorporated in the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide considerable information on the global ozone distribution, including ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from approximately 25 to 90 km, combining data from five recent satellite experiments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 SAGE, Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UVS, and SME IR). The improved models are described and use reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extend the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the period 1981-1983. Comparisons are shown between the ozone reference model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  6. An improved ARIMA model for precipitation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. R.; Wang, C.; Lin, X.; Kang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models have been widely used to calculate monthly time series data formed by interannual variations of monthly data or inter-monthly variation. However, the influence brought about by inter-monthly variations within each year is often ignored. An improved ARIMA model is developed in this study accounting for both the interannual and inter-monthly variation. In the present approach, clustering analysis is performed first to hydrologic variable time series. The characteristics of each class are then extracted and the correlation between the hydrologic variable quantity to be predicted and characteristic quantities constructed by linear regression analysis. ARIMA models are built for predicting these characteristics of each class and the hydrologic variable monthly values of year of interest are finally predicted using the modeled values of corresponding characteristics from ARIMA model and the linear regression model. A case study is conducted to predict the monthly precipitation at the Lanzhou precipitation station in Lanzhou, China, using the model, and the results show that the accuracy of the improved model is significantly higher than the seasonal model, with the mean residual achieving 9.41 mm and the forecast accuracy increasing by 21%.

  7. Spray combustion model improvement study, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical and physical modeling in spray combustion. These modeling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, atomization, dense spray effects, and group vaporization. The present mathematical formulation can be easily implemented in any time-marching multiple pressure correction methodologies such as MAST code. A sequence of validation cases includes the nonevaporating, evaporating and_burnin dense_sprays.

  8. Improving subsurface hydrology in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, J. M.; Clark, M. P.; Swenson, S. C.; Lawrence, D. M.; Tyler, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrologic processes that govern storage and transport of soil water and groundwater can have strong dynamic relationships with biogeochemical and atmospheric processes. This understanding has lead to a push to improve subsurface hydrologic parametrization in Earth System Models. Here we present results related to improving the implementation of soil moisture distribution, groundwater recharge/discharge, and subsurface drainage in the Community Land Model (CLM) which is the land surface model in the Community Earth System Model. First we identified geo-climatically different locations around the world to develop test cases. For each case we compare the vertical soil moisture distribution from the different implementations of 1D Richards equation, considering the boundary conditions, the treatment of the groundwater sink term, the vertical discretization, and the time stepping schemes. Generally, large errors in the hydrologic mass balance within the soil column occur when there is a large vertical gradient in soil moisture or when there is a shallow water table within a soil column. We then test the sensitivity of the algorithmic parameters that control temporal discretization and error tolerance of the adaptive time-stepping scheme to help optimize its computational efficiency. In addition, we vary the spatial discretization of soil layers (i.e. quantity of layers and their thicknesses) to better understand the sensitivity of vertical discretization of soil columns on soil moisture variability in ESMs. We present multivariate and multi-scale evaluation for the different model options and suggest ways to move forward with future model improvements.

  9. Improved engineering models for turbulent wall flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Zhen-Su; Chen, Xi; Zou, Hong-Yue; Hussain, Fazle

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new approach, called structural ensemble dynamics (SED), involving new concepts to describe the mean quantities in wall-bounded flows, and its application to improving the existing engineering turbulence models, as well as its physical interpretation. First, a revised k - ω model for pipe flows is obtained, which accurately predicts, for the first time, both mean velocity and (streamwise) kinetic energy for a wide range of the Reynolds number (Re), validated by Princeton experimental data. In particular, a multiplicative factor is introduced in the dissipation term to model an anomaly in the energy cascade in a meso-layer, predicting the outer peak of agreeing with data. Secondly, a new one-equation model is obtained for compressible turbulent boundary layers (CTBL), building on a multi-layer formula of the stress length function and a generalized temperature-velocity relation. The former refines the multi-layer description - viscous sublayer, buffer layer, logarithmic layer and a newly defined bulk zone - while the latter characterizes a parabolic relation between the mean velocity and temperature. DNS data show our predictions to have a 99% accuracy for several Mach numbers Ma = 2.25, 4.5, improving, up to 10%, a previous similar one-equation model (Baldwin & Lomax, 1978). Our results promise notable improvements in engineering models.

  10. A comparison of NEWS and SPARROW models to understand sources of nitrogen delivered to US coastal areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative contributions of different anthropogenic and natural sources of in-stream nitrogen (N) cannot be directly measured at whole-watershed scales. Hence, source attribution estimates beyond the scale of small catchments must rely on models. Although such estimates have be...

  11. Improving Representational Competence with Concrete Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Scopelitis, Stephanie; Lira, Matthew E.; DeSutter, Dane

    2016-01-01

    Representational competence is a primary contributor to student learning in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines and an optimal target for instruction at all educational levels. We describe the design and implementation of a learning activity that uses concrete models to improve students' representational competence and…

  12. School Improvement Model to Foster Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    Many classroom teachers are still using the traditional teaching methods. The traditional teaching methods are one-way learning process, where teachers would introduce subject contents such as language arts, English, mathematics, science, and reading separately. However, the school improvement model takes into account that all students have…

  13. Report Critiques Evidence on School Improvement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Only two of the most popular school improvement models for elementary schools have "moderately strong" evidence to show that they work, according to a consumer-style guide released last week by a Washington-based research group. The federally financed report by the American Institutes for Research rates 22 of the most widely used…

  14. INHALATION EXPOSURE AND INTAKE DOSE MODEL IMPROVEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation highlights recent human exposure model improvements and products developed by the EMRB in coordination with scientists in the OAQPS and provides insight into how these products are used by the OAQPS in its regulatory process. Besides providing a status report of...

  15. Models To Improve Service Delivery. Chapter 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on models to improve service delivery. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Empirical Evaluation of an Alternative to Hospitalization for Youth Presenting Psychiatric Emergencies" (Scott W. Henggeler); (2) "An Experimental Study of the…

  16. Modelers and policymakers : improving the relationships.

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2004-06-01

    On April 22 and 23, 2004, a diverse group of 14 policymakers, modelers, analysts, and scholars met with some 22 members of the Sandia National Laboratories staff to explores ways in which the relationships between modelers and policymakers in the energy and environment fields (with an emphasis on energy) could be made more productive for both. This report is not a transcription of that workshop, but draws very heavily on its proceedings. It first describes the concept of modeling, the varying ways in which models are used to support policymaking, and the institutional context for those uses. It then proposes that the goal of modelers and policymakers should be a relationship of mutual trust, built on a foundation of communication, supported by the twin pillars of policy relevance and technical credibility. The report suggests 20 guidelines to help modelers improve the relationship, followed by 10 guidelines to help policymakers toward the same goal.

  17. Leveraging Spatial Model to Improve Indoor Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Xu, W.; Penard, W.; Zlatanova, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we leverage spatial model to process indoor localization results and then improve the track consisting of measured locations. We elaborate different parts of spatial model such as geometry, topology and semantics, and then present how they contribute to the processing of indoor tracks. The initial results of our experiment reveal that spatial model can support us to overcome problems such as tracks intersecting with obstacles and unstable shifts between two location measurements. In the future, we will investigate more exceptions of indoor tracking results and then develop additional spatial methods to reduce errors of indoor tracks.

  18. Improved survival in rats with glioma using MRI-guided focused ultrasound and microbubbles to disrupt the blood-brain barrier and deliver Doxil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, Muna; Zhi Zhang, Yong; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Park, Juyoung; Power, Chanikarn; McDannold, Nathan

    2012-02-01

    Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) limits the transportation of most neuropeptides, proteins (enzymes, antibodies), chemotherapeutic agents, and genes that have therapeutic potential for the treatment of brain diseases. Different methods have been used to overcome this limitation, but they are invasive, non-targeted, or require the development of new drugs. We have developed a method that uses MRI-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with circulating microbubbles to temporarily open BBB in and around brain tumors to deliver chemotherapy agents. Here, we tested whether this noninvasive technique could enhance the effectiveness of a chemotherapy agent (Doxil). Using 690 kHz FUS transducer and microbubble (Definity), we induced BBB disruption in intracranially-implanted 9L glioma tumors in rat's brain in three weekly sessions. Animals who received BBB disruption and Doxil had a median survival time of 34.5 days, which was significantly longer than that found in control animals which is 16, 18.5, 21 days who received no treatment, BBB disruption only and Doxil only respectively This work demonstrates that FUS technique has promise in overcoming barriers to drug delivery, which are particularly stark in the brain due to the BBB.

  19. Application of a model for delivering occupational safety and health to smaller businesses: Case studies from the US

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Thomas R.; Sinclair, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Smaller firms are the majority in every industry in the US, and they endure a greater burden of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities than larger firms. Smaller firms often lack the necessary resources for effective occupational safety and health activities, and many require external assistance with safety and health programming. Based on previous work by researchers in Europe and New Zealand, NIOSH researchers developed for occupational safety and health intervention in small businesses. This model was evaluated with several intermediary organizations. Four case studies which describe efforts to reach small businesses with occupational safety and health assistance include the following: trenching safety training for construction, basic compliance and hazard recognition for general industry, expanded safety and health training for restaurants, and fall prevention and respirator training for boat repair contractors. Successful efforts included participation by the initiator among the intermediaries’ planning activities, alignment of small business needs with intermediary offerings, continued monitoring of intermediary activities by the initiator, and strong leadership for occupational safety and health among intermediaries. Common challenges were a lack of resources among intermediaries, lack of opportunities for in-person meetings between intermediaries and the initiator, and balancing the exchanges in the initiator–intermediary–small business relationships. The model offers some encouragement that initiator organizations can contribute to sustainable OSH assistance for small firms, but they must depend on intermediaries who have compatible interests in smaller businesses and they must work to understand the small business social system. PMID:26300585

  20. An improved model of equatorial scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secan, J. A.; Bussey, R. M.; Fremouw, E. J.; Basu, Sa.

    1995-05-01

    One of the main limitations of the modeling work that went into the equatorial section of the Wideband ionospheric scintillation model (WBMOD) was that the data set used in the modeling was limited to two stations near the dip equator (Ancon, Peru, and Kwajalein Island, in the North Pacific Ocean) at two fixed local times (nominally 1000 and 2200). Over the past year this section of the WBMOD model has been replaced by a model developed using data from three additional stations (Ascension Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean, Huancayo, Peru, and Manila, Phillipines; data collected under the auspices of the USAF Phillips Laboratory Geophysics Directorate) which provide a greater diversity in both latitude and longitude, as well as cover the entire day. The new model includes variations with latitude, local time, longitude, season, solar epoch, and geomagnetic activity levels. The way in which the irregularity strength parameter CkL is modeled has also been changed. The new model provides the variation of the full probability distribution function (PDF) of log (CkL) rather than simply the average of log (CkL). This permits the user to specify a threshold on scintillation level, and the model will calculate the percent of the time that scintillation will exceed that level in the user-specified scenario. It will also permit calculation of scintillation levels at a user-specified percentile. A final improvement to the WBMOD model is the implementation of a new theory for calculating S4 on a two-way channel.

  1. Double multiple streamtube model with recent improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Delclaux, F.

    1983-05-01

    The objective of the present paper is to show the new capabilities of the double multiple streamtube (DMS) model for predicting the aerodynamic loads and performance of the Darrieus vertical-axis turbine. The original DMS model has been improved (DMSV model) by considering the variation in the upwind and downwind induced velocities as a function of the azimuthal angle for each streamtube. A comparison is made of the rotor performance for several blade geometries (parabola, catenary, troposkien, and Sandia shape). A new formulation is given for an approximate troposkien shape by considering the effect of the gravitational field. The effects of three NACA symmetrical profiles, 0012, 0015 and 0018, on the aerodynamic performance of the turbine are shown. Finally, a semiempirical dynamic-stall model has been incorporated and a better approximation obtained for modeling the local aerodynamic forces and performance for a Darrieus rotor.

  2. Double multiple streamtube model with recent improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Delclaux, F.

    1983-05-01

    The objective is to show the new capabilities of the double multiple streamtube (DMS) model for predicting the aerodynamic loads and performance of the Darrieus vertical-axis turbine. The original DMS model has been improved (DMSV model) by considering the variation in the upwind and downwind induced velocities as a function of the azimuthal angle for each streamtube. A comparison is made of the rotor performance for several blade geometries (parabola, catenary, troposkien, and Sandia shape). A new formulation is given for an approximate troposkien shape by considering the effect of the gravitational field. The effects of three NACA symmetrical profiles, 0012, 0015 and 0018, on the aerodynamic performance of the turbine are shown. Finally, a semiempirical dynamic-stall model has been incorporated and a better approximation obtained for modeling the local aerodynamic forces and performance for a Darrieus rotor.

  3. Evaluation of Imipenem for Prophylaxis and Therapy of Yersinia pestis Delivered by Aerosol in a Mouse Model of Pneumonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Arnold; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J.; Amemiya, Kei; Fast, Randy L.; Miller, Lynda; Opal, Steven M.; Palardy, John; Parejo, Nicolas A.; Sörgel, Fritz; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Drusano, George L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously shown that mice subjected to an aerosol exposure to Yersinia pestis and treated with β-lactam antibiotics after a delay of 42 h died at an accelerated rate compared to controls. It was hypothesized that endotoxin release in antibiotic-treated mice accounted for the accelerated death rate in the mice exposed to aerosol Y. pestis. Imipenem, a β-lactam antibiotic, binds to penicillin binding protein 2 with the highest affinity and produces rounded cells. The binding of imipenem causes cells to lyse quickly and thereby to release less free endotoxin. Two imipenem regimens producing fractions of time that the concentration of free, unbound drug was above the MIC (fT>MIC) of approximately 25% (6/24 h) and 40% (9.5/24 h) were evaluated. In the postexposure prophylaxis study, the 40% and 25% regimens produced 90% and 40% survivorship, respectively. In the 42-h treatment study, both regimens demonstrated a 40 to 50% survivorship at therapy cessation and some deaths thereafter, resulting in a 30% survivorship. As this was an improvement over the results with other β-lactams, a comparison of both endotoxin and cytokine levels in mice treated with imipenem and ceftazidime (a β-lactam previously demonstrated to accelerate death in mice during treatment) was performed and supported the original hypotheses; however, the levels observed in animals treated with ciprofloxacin (included as an unrelated antibiotic that is also bactericidal but should cause little lysis due to a different mode of action) were elevated and significantly (7-fold) higher than those with ceftazidime. PMID:24687492

  4. Nanoconjugation of PSMA-Targeting Ligands Enhances Perinuclear Localization and Improves Efficacy of Delivered Alpha-Particle Emitters against Tumor Endothelial Analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Charles; Bandekar, Amey; Sempkowski, Michelle; Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sofou, Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect on killing efficacy of the intracellular trafficking patterns of α-particle emitters by using different radionuclide carriers in the setting of targeted antivascular α-radiotherapy. Nanocarriers (lipid vesicles) targeted to the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is unique to human neovasculature for a variety of solid tumors, were loaded with the α-particle generator actinium-225 and were compared with a PSMA-targeted radiolabeled antibody. Actinium-225 emits a total of four α-particles per decay, providing highly lethal and localized irradiation of targeted cells with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissues. Lipid vesicles were derivatized with two types of PSMA-targeting ligands: a fully human PSMA antibody (mAb) and a urea-based, low-molecular-weight agent. Target selectivity and extent of internalization were evaluated on monolayers of human endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced to express PSMA in static incubation conditions and in a flow field. Both types of radiolabeled PSMA-targeted vesicles exhibit similar killing efficacy, which is greater than the efficacy of the radiolabeled control mAb when compared on the basis of delivered radioactivity per cell. Fluorescence confocal microscopy demonstrates that targeted vesicles localize closer to the nucleus, unlike antibodies which localize near the plasma membrane. In addition, targeted vesicles cause larger numbers of dsDNAs per nucleus of treated cells compared with the radiolabeled mAb. These findings demonstrate that radionuclide carriers, such as PSMA-targeted lipid-nanocarriers, which localize close to the nucleus, increase the probability of α-particle trajectories crossing the nuclei, and, therefore, enhance the killing efficacy of α-particle emitters. PMID:26586724

  5. Improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qiao; Ben-Zhuo, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of biomolecular systems plays an essential role in understanding biological processes, such as ionic flow across channels, protein modification or interaction, and cell signaling. The continuum model described by the Poisson- Boltzmann (PB)/Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations has made great contributions towards simulation of these processes. However, the model has shortcomings in its commonly used form and cannot capture (or cannot accurately capture) some important physical properties of the biological systems. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the continuum model to account for discrete particle interactions and to make progress in numerical methods to provide accurate and efficient simulations. This review will summarize recent main improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems, with focus on the size-modified models, the coupling of the classical density functional theory and the PNP equations, the coupling of polar and nonpolar interactions, and numerical progress. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91230106) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences Program for Cross & Cooperative Team of the Science & Technology Innovation.

  6. Improving the translation of analgesic drugs to the clinic: animal models of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Percie du Sert, N; Rice, A S C

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain remains an area of considerable unmet clinical need. Research based on preclinical animal models has failed to deliver truly novel treatment options, questioning the predictive value of these models. This review addresses the shortcomings of rodent in vivo models commonly used in the field and highlights approaches which could increase their predictivity, including more clinically relevant assays, outcome measures and animal characteristics. The methodological quality of animal studies also needs to be improved. Low internal validity and incomplete reporting lead to a waste of valuable research resources and animal lives, and ultimately prevent an objective assessment of the true predictivity of in vivo models. PMID:24527763

  7. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  8. Improved SPICE electrical model of silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, D.; Bonanno, G.; Belluso, M.; Billotta, S.; Grillo, A.; Garozzo, S.; Romeo, G.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Sottile, G.; Impiombato, D.; Giarrusso, S.

    2013-10-01

    The present work introduces an improved SPICE equivalent electrical model of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors, in order to simulate and predict their transient response to avalanche triggering events. In particular, the developed circuit model provides a careful investigation of the magnitude and timing of the read-out signals and can therefore be exploited to perform reliable circuit-level simulations. The adopted modeling approach is strictly related to the physics of each basic microcell constituting the SiPM device, and allows the avalanche timing as well as the photodiode current and voltage to be accurately simulated. Predictive capabilities of the proposed model are demonstrated by means of experimental measurements on a real SiPM detector. Simulated and measured pulses are found to be in good agreement with the expected results.

  9. Improving residential miscellaneous electrical load modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgett, Joseph M.

    Over the past 30 years, the intensity of all major energy use categories has decreased in the residential market with the exception of miscellaneous electrical loads (MELs). MELs include primarily 120V plug-loads and some hard wired loads. MELs stand alone as the only category in which energy intensity has steadily increased over time. While MELs constitute approximately 15% - 25% of a typical home's total energy use, it is projected to increase to 36% by 2020. Despite the significant percentage of the home's total load, MELs are the least researched energy end use category and most poorly modeled. The Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index is the most widely used residential energy rating system and uses a simple square foot multiplier to model MELs. This study improves upon the HERS model by including occupant characteristics as part of the MEL model. This "new model" was created by regressing and explanatory equation from the Energy Information Agency's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). The RECS has a very large sample size of 12,083 respondents who answered over 90 pages of questions related to home structure, appliances they own and demographical information. The information provided by the respondents was used to calculate a MEL for all the RECS households. A stepwise regression process was used to create a model that included size of the home, household income, number of household members and presence of a home business to predict the MEL. The new model was then tested on 24 actual homes to compare its predictive power with the HERS model. The new model more closely predicted the actual MEL for 17 of the 24 test houses (71%). Additionally, the standard deviation or the "tightness of fit" of the new model was less than half of the HERS model when used on the RECS respondents. What this study found was that using occupant characteristics to supplement a square foot multiplier significantly increased the precision of MEL modeling.

  10. Improving data transfer for model coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Liu, L.; Yang, G.; Li, R.; Wang, B.

    2015-10-01

    Data transfer, which means transferring data fields between two component models or rearranging data fields among processes of the same component model, is a fundamental operation of a coupler. Most of state-of-the-art coupler versions currently use an implementation based on the point-to-point (P2P) communication of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) (call such an implementation "P2P implementation" for short). In this paper, we reveal the drawbacks of the P2P implementation, including low communication bandwidth due to small message size, variable and big number of MPI messages, and jams during communication. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a butterfly implementation for data transfer. Although the butterfly implementation can outperform the P2P implementation in many cases, it degrades the performance in some cases because the total message size transferred by the butterfly implementation is larger than that by the P2P implementation. To make the data transfer completely improved, we design and implement an adaptive data transfer library that combines the advantages of both butterfly implementation and P2P implementation. Performance evaluation shows that the adaptive data transfer library significantly improves the performance of data transfer in most cases and does not decrease the performance in any cases. Now the adaptive data transfer library is open to the public and has been imported into a coupler version C-Coupler1 for performance improvement of data transfer. We believe that it can also improve other coupler versions.

  11. An Improved Analytic Model for Microdosimeter Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An analytic model used to predict energy deposition fluctuations in a microvolume by ions through direct events is improved to include indirect delta ray events. The new model can now account for the increase in flux at low lineal energy when the ions are of very high energy. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated results and available data for laboratory ion beams. Comparison of GCR (galactic cosmic ray) flux between Shuttle TEPC (tissue equivalent proportional counter) flight data and current calculations draws a different assessment of developmental work required for the GCR transport code (HZETRN) than previously concluded.

  12. Improving Localization Accuracy: Successive Measurements Error Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Abu Ali, Najah; Abu-Elkheir, Mervat

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle self-localization is an essential requirement for many of the safety applications envisioned for vehicular networks. The mathematical models used in current vehicular localization schemes focus on modeling the localization error itself, and overlook the potential correlation between successive localization measurement errors. In this paper, we first investigate the existence of correlation between successive positioning measurements, and then incorporate this correlation into the modeling positioning error. We use the Yule Walker equations to determine the degree of correlation between a vehicle’s future position and its past positions, and then propose a p-order Gauss–Markov model to predict the future position of a vehicle from its past p positions. We investigate the existence of correlation for two datasets representing the mobility traces of two vehicles over a period of time. We prove the existence of correlation between successive measurements in the two datasets, and show that the time correlation between measurements can have a value up to four minutes. Through simulations, we validate the robustness of our model and show that it is possible to use the first-order Gauss–Markov model, which has the least complexity, and still maintain an accurate estimation of a vehicle’s future location over time using only its current position. Our model can assist in providing better modeling of positioning errors and can be used as a prediction tool to improve the performance of classical localization algorithms such as the Kalman filter. PMID:26140345

  13. Thermal Modeling Method Improvements for SAGE III on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; McLeod, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload, which consists of multiple subsystems, has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Many innovative analysis methods have been used in developing this model; these will be described in the paper. This paper builds on a paper presented at TFAWS 2013, which described some of the initial developments of efficient methods for SAGE III. The current paper describes additional improvements that have been made since that time. To expedite the correlation of the model to thermal vacuum (TVAC) testing, the chambers and GSE for both TVAC chambers at Langley used to test the payload were incorporated within the thermal model. This allowed the runs of TVAC predictions and correlations to be run within the flight model, thus eliminating the need for separate models for TVAC. In one TVAC test, radiant lamps were used which necessitated shooting rays from the lamps, and running in both solar and IR wavebands. A new Dragon model was incorporated which entailed a change in orientation; that change was made using an assembly, so that any potential additional new Dragon orbits could be added in the future without modification of the model. The Earth orbit parameters such as albedo and Earth infrared flux were incorporated as time-varying values that change over the course of the orbit; despite being required in one of the ISS documents, this had not been done before by any previous payload. All parameters such as initial temperature, heater voltage, and location of the payload are defined based on the case definition. For one component, testing was performed in both air and vacuum; incorporating the air convection in a submodel that was

  14. Using data assimilation for systematic model improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Matthew S.; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Browne, Phil

    2016-04-01

    In Numerical Weather Prediction parameterisations are used to simulate missing physics in the model. These can be due to a lack of scientific understanding or a lack of computing power available to address all the known physical processes. Parameterisations are sources of large uncertainty in a model as parameter values used in these parameterisations cannot be measured directly and hence are often not well known, and the parameterisations themselves are approximations of the processes present in the true atmosphere. Whilst there are many efficient and effective methods for combined state/parameter estimation in data assimilation, such as state augmentation, these are not effective at estimating the structure of parameterisations. A new method of parameterisation estimation is proposed that uses sequential data assimilation methods to estimate errors in the numerical models at each space-time point for each model equation. These errors are then fitted to predetermined functional forms of missing physics or parameterisations, that are based upon prior information. The method picks out the functional form, or that combination of functional forms, that bests fits the error structure. The prior information typically takes the form of expert knowledge. We applied the method to a one-dimensional advection model with additive model error, and it is shown that the method can accurately estimate parameterisations, with consistent error estimates. It is also demonstrated that state augmentation is not successful. The results indicate that this new method is a powerful tool in systematic model improvement.

  15. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  16. Improving Distributed Diagnosis Through Structural Model Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew John; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

    2011-01-01

    Complex engineering systems require efficient fault diagnosis methodologies, but centralized approaches do not scale well, and this motivates the development of distributed solutions. This work presents an event-based approach for distributed diagnosis of abrupt parametric faults in continuous systems, by using the structural model decomposition capabilities provided by Possible Conflicts. We develop a distributed diagnosis algorithm that uses residuals computed by extending Possible Conflicts to build local event-based diagnosers based on global diagnosability analysis. The proposed approach is applied to a multitank system, and results demonstrate an improvement in the design of local diagnosers. Since local diagnosers use only a subset of the residuals, and use subsystem models to compute residuals (instead of the global system model), the local diagnosers are more efficient than previously developed distributed approaches.

  17. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, Goddard Mars Model 1 (GMM-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S band tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of otpimum weighting and least squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, nnear-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolve the gravitational signature of the planet.

  18. Improving interannual prediction skill in a changing climate via the identi cation of compensating coupled model errors

    SciTech Connect

    Tziperman, Eli; MacMartin, Douglas

    2013-08-31

    Significant progress can be made through a truly interdisciplinary effort, combining the expertise from climate dynamics and from engineering control. We believe that this novel approach can make a unique and valuable contribution, and help the climate community deliver improved models for the potential response of the Earth's climate to increased greenhouse gas levels.

  19. Improving the physics models in the Space Weather Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, G.; Fang, F.; Frazin, R. A.; Gombosi, T. I.; Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Manchester, W. B.; Meng, X.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Vichare, G.; Yigit, E.; Yu, Y.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. H.; Glocer, A.; Jordanova, V. K.; Welling, D. T.; Zaharia, S. G.

    2010-12-01

    The success of physics based space weather forecasting depends on several factors: we need sufficient amount and quality of timely observational data, we have to understand the physics of the Sun-Earth system well enough, we need sophisticated computational models, and the models have to run faster than real time on the available computational resources. This presentation will focus on a single ingredient, the recent improvements of the mathematical and numerical models in the Space Weather Modeling Framework. We have developed a new physics based CME initiation code using flux emergence from the convection zone solving the equations of radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Our new lower corona and solar corona models use electron heat conduction, Alfven wave heating, and boundary conditions based on solar tomography. We can obtain a physically consistent solar wind model from the surface of the Sun all the way to the L1 point without artificially changing the polytropic index. The global magnetosphere model can now solve the multi-ion MHD equations and take into account the oxygen outflow from the polar wind model. We have also added the options of solving for Hall MHD and anisotropic pressure. Several new inner magnetosphere models have been added to the framework: CRCM, HEIDI and RAM-SCB. These new models resolve the pitch angle distribution of the trapped particles. The upper atmosphere model GITM has been improved by including a self-consistent equatorial electrodynamics and the effects of solar flares. This presentation will very briefly describe the developments and highlight some results obtained with the improved and new models.

  20. Improved laser ablation model for asteroid deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Massimiliano; Gibbings, Alison; Watson, Ian; Hopkins, John-Mark

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an improved laser ablation model and compares the performance - momentum coupling and deflection system mass - of laser ablation against contactless deflection methods based on ion-propulsion. The deflection of an asteroid through laser ablation is achieved by illuminating the surface of the asteroid with high intensity laser light. The absorbed energy induces the sublimation of the surface material and the generation of a plume of gas and ejecta. Similar to a rocket engine, the flow of expelled material produces a continuous and controllable thrust that could be used to modify the trajectory and tumbling motion of the asteroid. Recent results gained from a series of laser ablation experiments were used to improve the sublimation and deflection models. In each experiment a terrestrial olivine sample was ablated, under vacuum, with a 90 W continuous wave laser. The paper presents a model that better fits the outcomes of the experimental campaign, in particular in terms of mass flow rate and spot temperature.

  1. Improving Mass Balance Modeling of Benchmark Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; March, R. S.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS monitors long-term glacier mass balance at three benchmark glaciers in different climate regimes. The coastal and continental glaciers are represented by Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers in Alaska, respectively. Field measurements began in 1966 and continue. We have reanalyzed the published balance time series with more modern methods and recomputed reference surface and conventional balances. Addition of the most recent data shows a continuing trend of mass loss. We compare the updated balances to the previously accepted balances and discuss differences. Not all balance quantities can be determined from the field measurements. For surface processes, we model missing information with an improved degree-day model. Degree-day models predict ablation from the sum of daily mean temperatures and an empirical degree-day factor. We modernize the traditional degree-day model as well as derive new degree-day factors in an effort to closer match the balance time series and thus better predict the future state of the benchmark glaciers. For subsurface processes, we model the refreezing of meltwater for internal accumulation. We examine the sensitivity of the balance time series to the subsurface process of internal accumulation, with the goal of determining the best way to include internal accumulation into balance estimates.

  2. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbomachinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. This will be accomplished in a cooperative program by Penn State University and the Allison Engine Company. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tenor.

  3. Improved geometrical model of fringe projection profilometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengrong; Xi, Jiangtao; Yu, Yanguang; Guo, Qinghua; Song, Limei

    2014-12-29

    The accuracy performance of fringe projection profilometry (FPP) depends on accurate phase-to-height (PTH) mapping and system calibration. The existing PTH mapping is derived based on the condition that the plane formed by axes of camera and projector is perpendicular to the reference plane, and measurement error occurs when the condition is not met. In this paper, a new geometric model for FPP is presented to lift the condition, resulting in a new PTH mapping relationship. The new model involves seven parameters, and a new system calibration method is proposed to determine their values. Experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed technique, showing a noticeable improvement in the accuracy of 3D shape measurement. PMID:25607188

  4. Coupled Facility/Payload Vibration Modeling Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kaiser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A major phase of aerospace hardware verification is vibration testing. The standard approach for such testing is to use a shaker to induce loads into the payload. In preparation for vibration testing at NASA/GSFC there is an analysis to assess the responses of the payload. A new method of modeling the test is presented that takes into account dynamic interactions between the facility and the payload. This dynamic interaction has affected testing in the past, but been ignored or adjusted for during testing. By modeling the combination of the facility and test article (payload) it is possible to improve the prediction of hardware responses. Many aerospace test facilities work in similar way to those at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Lessons learned here should be applicable to other test facilities with similar setups.

  5. Coupled Facility-Payload Vibration Modeling Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kaiser, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    A major phase of aerospace hardware verification is vibration testing. The standard approach for such testing is to use a shaker to induce loads into the payload. In preparation for vibration testing at National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center an analysis is performed to assess the responses of the payload. A new method of modeling the test is presented that takes into account dynamic interactions between the facility and the payload. This dynamic interaction has affected testing in the past, but been ignored or adjusted for during testing. By modeling the combined dynamics of the facility and test article (payload) it is possible to improve the prediction of hardware responses. Many aerospace test facilities work in similar way to those at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Lessons learned here should be applicable to other test facilities with similar setups.

  6. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbo-machinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tensor. Penn State will lead the effort to make direct measurements of the momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors in high-speed multistage compressor flow field in the turbomachinery laboratory at Penn State. They will also process the data by both conventional and conditional spectrum analysis to derive momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors due to blade-to-blade periodic and aperiodic components, revolution periodic and aperiodic components arising from various blade rows and non-deterministic (which includes random components) correlations. The modeling results from this program will be publicly available and generally applicable to steady-state Navier-Stokes solvers used for turbomachinery component (compressor or turbine) flow field predictions. These models will lead to improved methodology, including loss and efficiency prediction, for the design of high-efficiency turbomachinery and drastically reduce the time required for the design and development cycle of turbomachinery.

  7. Improving carbon model phenology using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exrayat, Jean-François; Smallman, T. Luke; Bloom, A. Anthony; Williams, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    drivers. DALEC2-GSI showed a more realistic response to climate variability and fire disturbance than DALEC2. DALEC2-GSI more accurately reproduced the assimilated global LAI time series, particularly in areas with high levels of disturbance. This result is supported by more ecologically consistent trait combinations generated by the DALEC2-GSI calibration. In addition, using DALEC2-GSI we are able to map global information on ecosystem traits such as drought tolerance and adaptation to repeated fire disturbance. This demonstrates that utilizing data assimilation provides a useful means of improving the representation of processes within models.

  8. Residential end use demand modeling: Improvements to the ORNL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, J. E.

    1981-10-01

    The ORNL/LBL Residential Energy Demand Model incorporated major improvements in three areas: efficiency of appliances, current construction practice in new houses, and appliance retirements. The new methodology is more general, and provides energy demand estimates in better agreement with recent data. Key areas for future improvements are indicated, including: quantifying the uncertainty in model simulation, redefining the set of end uses, updating the algorithm, and broadening the model's applicability to different geographic areas. A US Department of Energy survey of appliance manufacturers was used to determine new appliance efficiencies. Similarly, surveys of current housing practices (e.g., ceiling insulation level) were used to estimate changes in heating and cooling energy requirements. Appliances are assumed to retire as a function of their age.

  9. Therapeutic efficacy of improved α-fetoprotein promoter-mediated tBid delivered by folate-PEI600-cyclodextrin nanopolymer vector in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bao-guang; Liu, Li-ping; Chen, George G; Ye, Cai Guo; Leung, Kevin K C; Ho, Rocky L K; Lin, Marie C; Lai, Paul B S

    2014-06-10

    SNPs in human AFP promoter are associated with serum AFP levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that AFP promoter variants may generate better transcriptional activities while retaining high specificity to AFP-producing cells. We sequenced human AFP promoters, cloned 15 different genotype promoters and tested their reporter activities in AFP-producing and non-producing cells. Among various AFP variant fragments tested, EA4D exhibited the highest reporter activity and thus was selected for the further study. EA4D was fused with tBid and coupled with nano-particle vector (H1) to form pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1. pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could express a high level of tBid while retain the specificity to AFP-producing cells. In a HCC tumor model, application of pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 significantly inhibited the growth of AFP-producing-implanted tumors with minimal side-effects, but had no effect on non-AFP-producing tumors. Furthermore, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could significantly sensitize HCC cells to sorafenib, an approved anti-HCC agent. Collectively, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D and the novel H1 delivery system, can specifically target and effectively suppress the AFP-producing HCC. This new therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo and it should thus be safe for further clinical tests. PMID:24726886

  10. An analytically linearized helicopter model with improved modeling accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Patrick T.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An analytically linearized model for helicopter flight response including rotor blade dynamics and dynamic inflow, that was recently developed, was studied with the objective of increasing the understanding, the ease of use, and the accuracy of the model. The mathematical model is described along with a description of the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter and flight test used to validate the model. To aid in utilization of the model for sensitivity analysis, a new, faster, and more efficient implementation of the model was developed. It is shown that several errors in the mathematical modeling of the system caused a reduction in accuracy. These errors in rotor force resolution, trim force and moment calculation, and rotor inertia terms were corrected along with improvements to the programming style and documentation. Use of a trim input file to drive the model is examined. Trim file errors in blade twist, control input phase angle, coning and lag angles, main and tail rotor pitch, and uniform induced velocity, were corrected. Finally, through direct comparison of the original and corrected model responses to flight test data, the effect of the corrections on overall model output is shown.

  11. Oscillating square wave Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) delivered during slow wave sleep does not improve declarative memory more than sham: A randomized sham controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Sahlem, Gregory L.; Badran, Bashar W.; Halford, Jonathan J.; Williams, Nolan R.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L.; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L.; Uhde, Thomas W.; Borckardt, Jeffery J.; George, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current wave form (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Objective/Hypothesis Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Methods Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517mA/CM2, and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with one-minute inter-block intervals (25 minutes total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. Results There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1±3.0SD more associations) (sham = 3.8±3.1S.D more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6±2.7 S.D. correctly typed sequences) compared to

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of improved α-fetoprotein promoter-mediated tBid delivered by folate-PEI600-cyclodextrin nanopolymer vector in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Bao-guang; Liu, Li-ping; Chen, George G.; Ye, Cai Guo; Leung, Kevin K.C.; Ho, Rocky L.K.; Lin, Marie C.; Lai, Paul B.S.

    2014-06-10

    SNPs in human AFP promoter are associated with serum AFP levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that AFP promoter variants may generate better transcriptional activities while retaining high specificity to AFP-producing cells. We sequenced human AFP promoters, cloned 15 different genotype promoters and tested their reporter activities in AFP-producing and non-producing cells. Among various AFP variant fragments tested, EA4D exhibited the highest reporter activity and thus was selected for the further study. EA4D was fused with tBid and coupled with nano-particle vector (H1) to form pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1. pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could express a high level of tBid while retain the specificity to AFP-producing cells. In a HCC tumor model, application of pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 significantly inhibited the growth of AFP-producing-implanted tumors with minimal side-effects, but had no effect on non-AFP-producing tumors. Furthermore, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could significantly sensitize HCC cells to sorafenib, an approved anti-HCC agent. Collectively, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D and the novel H1 delivery system, can specifically target and effectively suppress the AFP-producing HCC. This new therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo and it should thus be safe for further clinical tests. - Highlights: • The nano-particle vector H1 has advantages in mediating gene therapy construct pGL3-EA4D-tBid for HCC treatment. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D, can specifically target the AFP-producing HCC. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1effectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of AFP-producing HCC. • This novel pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Modeling soil water content for vegetation modeling improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfrani, Carmen; Buri, Aline; Zingg, Barbara; Vittoz, Pascal; Verrecchia, Eric; Guisan, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is known to be important for plants as it affects the physiological processes regulating plant growth. Therefore, SWC controls plant distribution over the Earth surface, ranging from deserts and grassland to rain forests. Unfortunately, only a few data on SWC are available as its measurement is very time consuming and costly and needs specific laboratory tools. The scarcity of SWC measurements in geographic space makes it difficult to model and spatially project SWC over larger areas. In particular, it prevents its inclusion in plant species distribution model (SDMs) as predictor. The aims of this study were, first, to test a new methodology allowing problems of the scarcity of SWC measurements to be overpassed and second, to model and spatially project SWC in order to improve plant SDMs with the inclusion of SWC parameter. The study was developed in four steps. First, SWC was modeled by measuring it at 10 different pressures (expressed in pF and ranging from pF=0 to pF=4.2). The different pF represent different degrees of soil water availability for plants. An ensemble of bivariate models was built to overpass the problem of having only a few SWC measurements (n = 24) but several predictors to include in the model. Soil texture (clay, silt, sand), organic matter (OM), topographic variables (elevation, aspect, convexity), climatic variables (precipitation) and hydrological variables (river distance, NDWI) were used as predictors. Weighted ensemble models were built using only bivariate models with adjusted-R2 > 0.5 for each SWC at different pF. The second step consisted in running plant SDMs including modeled SWC jointly with the conventional topo-climatic variable used for plant SDMs. Third, SDMs were only run using the conventional topo-climatic variables. Finally, comparing the models obtained in the second and third steps allowed assessing the additional predictive power of SWC in plant SDMs. SWC ensemble models remained very good, with

  14. An improved nuclear mass model: FRDM (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, Peter

    2011-10-01

    We have developed an improved nuclear mass model which we plan to finalize in 2012, so we designate it FRDM(2012). Relative to our previous mass table in 1995 we do a full four-dimensional variation of the shape coordinates EPS2, EPS3, EPS4, and EPS6, we consider axial asymmetric shape degrees of freedom and we vary the density symmetry parameter L. Other additional features are also implemented. With respect to the Audi 2003 data base we now have an accuracy of 0.57 MeV. We have carefully tested the extrapolation properties of the new mass table by adjusting model parameters to limited data sets and testing on extended data sets and find it is highly reliable in new regions of nuclei. We discuss what the remaining differences between model calculations and experiment tell us about the limitations of the currently used effective single-particle potential and possible extensions. DOE No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  15. Voxel model in BNCT treatment planning: performance analysis and improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Sara J.; Carando, Daniel G.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    2005-02-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made to study the performance of treatment planning systems in deriving an accurate dosimetry of the complex radiation fields involved in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of the patient's anatomy is one of the main factors involved in this subject. This work presents a detailed analysis of the performance of the 1 cm based voxel reconstruction approach. First, a new and improved material assignment algorithm implemented in NCTPlan treatment planning system for BNCT is described. Based on previous works, the performances of the 1 cm based voxel methods used in the MacNCTPlan and NCTPlan treatment planning systems are compared by standard simulation tests. In addition, the NCTPlan voxel model is benchmarked against in-phantom physical dosimetry of the RA-6 reactor of Argentina. This investigation shows the 1 cm resolution to be accurate enough for all reported tests, even in the extreme cases such as a parallelepiped phantom irradiated through one of its sharp edges. This accuracy can be degraded at very shallow depths in which, to improve the estimates, the anatomy images need to be positioned in a suitable way. Rules for this positioning are presented. The skin is considered one of the organs at risk in all BNCT treatments and, in the particular case of cutaneous melanoma of extremities, limits the delivered dose to the patient. Therefore, the performance of the voxel technique is deeply analysed in these shallow regions. A theoretical analysis is carried out to assess the distortion caused by homogenization and material percentage rounding processes. Then, a new strategy for the treatment of surface voxels is proposed and tested using two different irradiation problems. For a parallelepiped phantom perpendicularly irradiated with a 5 keV neutron source, the large thermal neutron fluence deviation present at shallow depths (from 54% at 0 mm depth to 5% at 4 mm depth) is reduced to 2% on average

  16. Intra-Arterially Delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Detected in the Brain Parenchyma in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na Kyung; Yang, Jehoon; Chang, Eun Hyuk; Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Jeongmin; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Chang, Jong Wook; Na, Duk L.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a promising role as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior studies suggested that intra-arterially administered MSCs are engrafted into the brain in stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) animal models. However, a controversial standpoint exists in terms of the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in transgenic AD mice. The primary goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of delivering human umbilical cord-blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the brains of non-transgenic WT (C3H/C57) and transgenic AD (APP/PS1) mice through the intra-arterial (IA) route. Through two experiments, mice were infused with hUCB-MSCs via the right internal carotid artery and were sacrificed at two different time points: 6 hours (experiment 1) or 5 minutes (experiment 2) after infusion. In both experiments, no cells were detected in the brain parenchyma while MSCs were detected in the cerebrovasculature in experiment 2. The results from this study highlight that intra-arterial delivery of MSCs is not the most favorable route to be implemented as a potential therapeutic approach for AD. PMID:27203695

  17. Improved Shell models for screened Coulomb balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, M.; Kaehlert, H.; Henning, C.; Baumgartner, H.; Filinov, A.

    2006-10-01

    Spherical Coulomb crystals in dusty plasmas [1] are well described by an isotropic Yukawa-type pair interaction and an external parabolic confinement as was shown by extensive molecular dynamics simulations [2]. A much simpler description is possible with analytical shell models which have been derived for Yukawas plasmas in [3,4]. Here we analyze improved Yukawa shell models which include correlations along the lines proposed for Coulomb crystals in [5]. The shell configurations are efficiently evaluated using a Monte Carlo procedure. [1] O. Arp, A. Piel and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004). [2] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golunychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006). [3] H. Totsuji, C. Totsuji, T. Ogawa, and K. Tsuruta, Phys. Rev. E 71, 045401 (2005). [4] C. Henning, M. Bonitz, A. Piel, P. Ludwig, H. Baumgartner, V. Golubnichiy, and D. Block, submitted to Phys. Rev. E [5] W.D. Kraeft and M. Bonitz, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 35, 94 (2006).

  18. A comprehensive track model for the improvement of corrugation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J.; Vadillo, E. G.; Santamaría, J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a detailed model of the railway track based on wave propagation, suitable for corrugation studies. The model analyses both the vertical and the transverse dynamics of the track. Using the finite strip method (FSM), only the cross-section of the rail must be meshed, and thus it is not necessary to discretise a whole span in 3D. This model takes into account the discrete nature of the support, introducing concepts pertaining to the theory of periodic structures in the formulation. Wave superposition is enriched taking into account the contribution of residual vectors. In this way, the model obtains accurate results when a finite section of railway track is considered. Results for the infinite track have been compared against those presented by Gry and Müller. Aside from the improvements provided by the model presented in this paper, which Gry's and Müller's models do not contemplate, the results arising from the comparison prove satisfactory. Finally, the calculated receptances are compared against the experimental values obtained by the authors, demonstrating a fair degree of adequacy. Finally, these receptances are used within a linear model of corrugation developed by the authors.

  19. Development of Liposomal Formulation for Delivering Anticancer Drug to Breast Cancer Stem-Cell-Like Cells and its Pharmacokinetics in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ajaz; Mondal, Sujan Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Alkharfy, Khalid M

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a liposomal formulation for delivering anticancer drug to breast cancer stem-cell-like cells, ANV-1, and evaluate its pharmacokinetics in an animal model. The anticancer drug ESC8 was used in dexamethasone (Dex)-associated liposome (DX) to form ESC8-entrapped liposome named DXE. ANV-1 cells showed high-level expression of NRP-1. To enhance tumor regression, we additionally adapted to codeliver the NRP-1 shRNA-encoded plasmid using the established DXE liposome. In vivo efficacy of DXE-NRP-1 was carried out in mice bearing ANV-1 cells as xenograft tumors and the extent of tumor growth inhibition was evaluated by tumor-size measurement. A significant difference in tumor volume started to reveal between DXE-NRP-1 group and DXE-Control group. DXE-NRP-1 group showed ∼4 folds and ∼2.5 folds smaller tumor volume than exhibited by untreated and DXE-Control-treated groups, respectively. DXE disposition was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats following an intraperitoneal dose (3.67 mg/kg of ESC8 in DXE). The plasma concentrations of ESC8 in the DXE formulation were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental analysis. ESC8 had a half-life of 11.01 ± 0.29 h, clearance of 2.10 ± 3.63 L/kg/h, and volume of distribution of 33.42 ± 0.83 L/kg. This suggests that the DXE liposome formulation could be administered once or twice daily for therapeutic efficacy. In overall, we developed a potent liposomal formulation with favorable pharmacokinetic and tumor regressing profile that could sensitize and kill highly aggressive and drug-resistive cancer stem-cell-like cells. PMID:26832839

  20. Impact of improved snowmelt modelling in a monthly hydrological model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folton, Nathalie; Garcia, Florine

    2016-04-01

    The quantification and the management of water resources at the regional scale require hydrological models that are both easy to implement and efficient. To be reliable and robust, these models must be calibrated and validated on a large number of catchments that are representative of various hydro-meteorological conditions, physiographic contexts, and specific hydrological behavior (e.g. mountainous catchments). The GRLoiEau monthly model, with its simple structure and its two free parameters, answer our need of such a simple model. It required the development of a snow routine to model catchments with temporarily snow-covered areas. The snow routine developed here does not claim to represent physical snowmelt processes but rather to simulate them globally on the catchment. The snowmelt equation is based on the degree-day method which is widely used by the hydrological community, in particular in engineering studies (Etchevers 2000). A potential snowmelt (Schaefli et al. 2005) was computed, and the parameters of the snow routine were regionalized for each mountain area. The GRLoiEau parsimonious structure requires meteorological data. They come from the distributed mesoscale atmospheric analysis system SAFRAN, which provides estimations of daily solid and liquid precipitations and temperatures on a regular square grid at the spatial resolution of 8*8 km², throughout France. Potential evapotranspiration was estimated using the formula by Oudin et al. (2005). The aim of this study is to improve the quality of monthly simulations for ungauged basins, in particular for all types of mountain catchments, without increasing the number of free parameters of the model. By using daily SAFRAN data, the production store and snowmelt can be run at a daily time scale. The question then arises whether simulating the monthly flows using a production function at a finer time step would improve the results. And by using the SAFRAN distributed climate series, a distributed approach

  1. How can model comparison help improving species distribution models?

    PubMed

    Gritti, Emmanuel Stephan; Gaucherel, Cédric; Crespo-Perez, Maria-Veronica; Chuine, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Today, more than ever, robust projections of potential species range shifts are needed to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Such projections are so far provided almost exclusively by correlative species distribution models (correlative SDMs). However, concerns regarding the reliability of their predictive power are growing and several authors call for the development of process-based SDMs. Still, each of these methods presents strengths and weakness which have to be estimated if they are to be reliably used by decision makers. In this study we compare projections of three different SDMs (STASH, LPJ and PHENOFIT) that lie in the continuum between correlative models and process-based models for the current distribution of three major European tree species, Fagussylvatica L., Quercusrobur L. and Pinussylvestris L. We compare the consistency of the model simulations using an innovative comparison map profile method, integrating local and multi-scale comparisons. The three models simulate relatively accurately the current distribution of the three species. The process-based model performs almost as well as the correlative model, although parameters of the former are not fitted to the observed species distributions. According to our simulations, species range limits are triggered, at the European scale, by establishment and survival through processes primarily related to phenology and resistance to abiotic stress rather than to growth efficiency. The accuracy of projections of the hybrid and process-based model could however be improved by integrating a more realistic representation of the species resistance to water stress for instance, advocating for pursuing efforts to understand and formulate explicitly the impact of climatic conditions and variations on these processes. PMID:23874779

  2. Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.

  3. Nuevo Amanecer: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Community-Based, Peer-Delivered Stress Management Intervention to Improve Quality of Life in Latinas With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz, Carmen; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L.; Gregorich, Steven; Lee, Howard E.; Durón, Ysabel; McGuire, Peggy; Luce, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a community-based, translational stress management program to improve health-related quality of life in Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer. Methods. We adapted a cognitive–behavioral stress management program integrating evidence-based and community best practices to address the needs of Latinas with breast cancer. Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual-care control group. Trained peers delivered the 8-week intervention between February 2011 and February 2014. Primary outcomes were breast cancer–specific quality of life and distress, and general symptoms of distress. Results. Of 151 participants, 95% were retained at 6 months (between May 2011 and May 2014). Improvements in quality of life from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention than the control group on physical well-being, emotional well-being, breast cancer concerns, and overall quality of life. Decreases from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention group on depression and somatization. Conclusions. Results suggest that translation of evidence-based programs can reduce psychosocial health disparities in Latinas with breast cancer. Integration of this program into community-based organizations enhances its dissemination potential. PMID:25905829

  4. Making change last: applying the NHS institute for innovation and improvement sustainability model to healthcare improvement.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Cathal; Howe, Cathy; Woodcock, Thomas; Myron, Rowan; Phekoo, Karen; McNicholas, Chris; Saffer, Jessica; Bell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of evidence-based treatments to deliver high-quality care is essential to meet the healthcare demands of aging populations. However, the sustainable application of recommended practice is difficult to achieve and variable outcomes well recognised. The NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement Sustainability Model (SM) was designed to help healthcare teams recognise determinants of sustainability and take action to embed new practice in routine care. This article describes a formative evaluation of the application of the SM by the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Northwest London (CLAHRC NWL). Data from project teams' responses to the SM and formal reviews was used to assess acceptability of the SM and the extent to which it prompted teams to take action. Projects were classified as 'engaged,' 'partially engaged' and 'non-engaged.' Quarterly survey feedback data was used to explore reasons for variation in engagement. Score patterns were compared against formal review data and a 'diversity of opinion' measure was derived to assess response variance over time. Of the 19 teams, six were categorized as 'engaged,' six 'partially engaged,' and seven as 'non-engaged.' Twelve teams found the model acceptable to some extent. Diversity of opinion reduced over time. A minority of teams used the SM consistently to take action to promote sustainability but for the majority SM use was sporadic. Feedback from some team members indicates difficulty in understanding and applying the model and negative views regarding its usefulness. The SM is an important attempt to enable teams to systematically consider determinants of sustainability, provide timely data to assess progress, and prompt action to create conditions for sustained practice. Tools such as these need to be tested in healthcare settings to assess strengths and weaknesses and findings disseminated to aid development. This

  5. A comprehensive model to build improvement capability in a pediatric academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Gerry M; Schoettker, Pamela J; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Luzader, Carolyn; Kotagal, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center developed a comprehensive model to build quality improvement (QI) capability to support its goal to transform its delivery system through a series of training courses. Two online modules orient staff to basic concepts and terminology and prepare them to participate more effectively in QI teams. The basic program (Rapid Cycle Improvement Collaborative, RCIC) is focused on developing the capability to use basic QI tools and complete a narrow-scoped project in approximately 120 days. The Intermediate Improvement Science Series (I(2)S(2)) program is a leadership course focusing on improvement skills and developing a broader and deeper understanding of QI in the context of the organization and external environment. The Advanced Improvement Methods (AIM) course and Quality Scholars Program stimulate the use of more sophisticated methods and prepare Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) and external faculty to undertake QI research. The Advanced Improvement Leadership Systems (AILS) sessions enable interprofessional care delivery system leadership teams to effectively lead a system of care, manage a portfolio of projects, and to deliver on CCHMC's strategic plan. Implementing these programs has shown us that 1) a multilevel curricular approach to building improvement capability is pragmatic and effective, 2) an interprofessional learning environment is critical to shifting mental models, 3) repetition of project experience with coaching and feedback solidifies critical skills, knowledge and behaviors, and 4) focusing first on developing capable interprofessional improvement leaders, versus engaging in broad general QI training across the whole organization, is effective. PMID:24369867

  6. Using Workflow Modeling to Identify Areas to Improve Genetic Test Processes in the University of Maryland Translational Pharmacogenomics Project

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, Elizabeth M.; Overby, Casey L.; Banchero, Meghan; Pollin, Toni; Kelemen, Mark; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Beitelshees, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    Delivering genetic test results to clinicians is a complex process. It involves many actors and multiple steps, requiring all of these to work together in order to create an optimal course of treatment for the patient. We used information gained from focus groups in order to illustrate the current process of delivering genetic test results to clinicians. We propose a business process model and notation (BPMN) representation of this process for a Translational Pharmacogenomics Project being implemented at the University of Maryland Medical Center, so that personalized medicine program implementers can identify areas to improve genetic testing processes. We found that the current process could be improved to reduce input errors, better inform and notify clinicians about the implications of certain genetic tests, and make results more easily understood. We demonstrate our use of BPMN to improve this important clinical process for CYP2C19 genetic testing in patients undergoing invasive treatment of coronary heart disease. PMID:26958179

  7. Testing the H56 Vaccine Delivered in 4 Different Adjuvants as a BCG-Booster in a Non-Human Primate Model of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Billeskov, Rolf; Tan, Esterlina V; Cang, Marjorie; Abalos, Rodolfo M; Burgos, Jasmin; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard; Christensen, Dennis; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The search for new and improved tuberculosis (TB) vaccines has focused on IFN-γ both for selecting antigens and for evaluating vaccine delivery strategies. The essential role of IFN-γ in endogenous host protection is well established, but it is still uncertain whether this also holds true for vaccine protection. Here we evaluate the H56 fusion protein vaccine as a BCG booster in a non-human primate (NHP) model of TB that closely recapitulates human TB pathogenesis. To date, only a handful of novel adjuvants have been tested in the NHP model of TB, and therefore we administered H56 in 3 novel cationic liposome adjuvants of increasing immunogenicity (CAF01, CAF04, CAF05) and compared them to H56 in the IC31® adjuvant previously reported to promote protection in this model. The individual clinical parameters monitored during infection (weight, ESR, X-ray) all correlated with survival, and boosting BCG with H56 in all adjuvants resulted in better survival rates compared to BCG alone. The adjuvants promoted IFN-γ-responses of increasing intensity as measured by ELISPOT in the peripheral blood, but the level of vaccine-specific IFN-γ production did not correlate with or predict disease outcome. This study's main outcome underscores the importance of the choice of adjuvant for TB subunit vaccines, and secondly it highlights the need for better correlates of protection in preclinical models of TB. PMID:27525651

  8. Testing the H56 Vaccine Delivered in 4 Different Adjuvants as a BCG-Booster in a Non-Human Primate Model of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Billeskov, Rolf; Tan, Esterlina V.; Cang, Marjorie; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Burgos, Jasmin; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard; Christensen, Dennis; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The search for new and improved tuberculosis (TB) vaccines has focused on IFN-γ both for selecting antigens and for evaluating vaccine delivery strategies. The essential role of IFN-γ in endogenous host protection is well established, but it is still uncertain whether this also holds true for vaccine protection. Here we evaluate the H56 fusion protein vaccine as a BCG booster in a non-human primate (NHP) model of TB that closely recapitulates human TB pathogenesis. To date, only a handful of novel adjuvants have been tested in the NHP model of TB, and therefore we administered H56 in 3 novel cationic liposome adjuvants of increasing immunogenicity (CAF01, CAF04, CAF05) and compared them to H56 in the IC31® adjuvant previously reported to promote protection in this model. The individual clinical parameters monitored during infection (weight, ESR, X-ray) all correlated with survival, and boosting BCG with H56 in all adjuvants resulted in better survival rates compared to BCG alone. The adjuvants promoted IFN-γ-responses of increasing intensity as measured by ELISPOT in the peripheral blood, but the level of vaccine-specific IFN-γ production did not correlate with or predict disease outcome. This study’s main outcome underscores the importance of the choice of adjuvant for TB subunit vaccines, and secondly it highlights the need for better correlates of protection in preclinical models of TB. PMID:27525651

  9. Scaling and root planning, and locally delivered minocycline reduces the load of Prevotella intermedia in an interdependent pattern, correlating with symptomatic improvements of chronic periodontitis: a short-term randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shuli; Wang, Ying; Sun, Wei; Chen, Hui; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the respective or combinatory efficacy of locally delivered 2% minocycline (MO), and scaling and root planning (SRP) by assessing both clinical parameters and the loads of four main periodontal pathogens in treating chronic periodontitis (CP). Methods Seventy adults with CP were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups: 1) SRP alone; 2) MO alone; and 3) combinatory use of SRP and MO (SRP + MO). Before and 7 days after the treatments, we evaluated both clinical parameters (pocket depth [PD] and sulcus bleeding index [SBI]) and the gene load of four main periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], and Prevotella intermedia [Pi]). Results The bacterial prevalence per patient was: Aa, 31.25%; Fn, 100%; Pg, 95.31%; and Pi, 98.44%. Seven days after treatment, the three treatments significantly reduced both PD and SBI, but not detection frequencies of the four pathogens. For PD, the reduction efficacy of SRP + MO was significantly higher than that of either MO or SRP. Only Pg responded significantly to SRP. Pg and Fn were significantly reduced in the presence of MO. Only SRP + MO showed a significant reduction effect on the gene load of Pi. The reduction of PD significantly correlated with the gene load of Pi (r=0.26; P=0.042) but not of the other bacteria. Conclusion SRP and MO reduced the load of Pi in an interdependent pattern, which correlated with symptomatic improvements of CP. PMID:26676022

  10. An Improved Model for the Turbulent PBL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A. M.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Second order turbulence models of the Mellor and Yamada type have been widely used to simulate the PBL. It is however known that these models have several deficiencies. For example, they all predict a critical Richardson number which is about four times smaller than the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data, they are unable to match the surface data, and they predict a boundary layer height lower than expected. In the present model, we show that these difficulties are all overcome by a single new physical input: the use of the most complete expression for both the pressure-velocity and the pressure-temperature correlations presently available. Each of the new terms represents a physical process that, was not accounted for by previous models. The new model is presented in three different levels according to Mellor and Yamada's terminology, with new, ready-to-use expressions for the turbulent, moments. We show that the new model reproduces several experimental and LES data better than previous models. As far as the PBL is concerned, we show that the model reproduces both the Kansas data as analyzed by Businger et al. in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for smaller Richardson numbers, as well as the LES and laboratory data up to Richardson numbers of order unity. We also show that the model yields a higher PBL height than the previous models.

  11. ARSENIC MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR IMPROVED RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project integrates research on the kinetic behavior and metabolism of arsenic at both the cellular and whole organism levels using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach. The ultimate goal is development of a robust human PBPK model for arsenic met...

  12. Flavor mediation delivers natural SUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-06-01

    If supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the hierarchy problem, then naturalness considerations coupled with recent LHC bounds require non-trivial superpartner flavor structures. Such "Natural SUSY" models exhibit a large mass hierarchy between scalars of the third and first two generations as well as degeneracy (or alignment) among the first two generations. In this work, we show how this specific beyond the standard model (SM) flavor structure can be tied directly to SM flavor via "Flavor Mediation". The SM contains an anomaly-free SU(3) flavor symmetry, broken only by Yukawa couplings. By gauging this flavor symmetry in addition to SM gauge symmetries, we can mediate SUSY breaking via (Higgsed) gauge mediation. This automatically delivers a natural SUSY spectrum. Third-generation scalar masses are suppressed due to the dominant breaking of the flavor gauge symmetry in the top direction. More subtly, the first-two-generation scalars remain highly degenerate due to a custodial U(2) symmetry, where the SU(2) factor arises because SU(3) is rank two. This custodial symmetry is broken only at order ( m c /m t )2. SUSY gauge coupling unification predictions are preserved, since no new charged matter is introduced, the SM gauge structure is unaltered, and the flavor symmetry treats all matter multiplets equally. Moreover, the uniqueness of the anomaly-free SU(3) flavor group makes possible a number of concrete predictions for the superpartner spectrum.

  13. Challenges to deliver therapies.

    PubMed

    Hansén, S O; Wakonen, J

    1998-10-01

    Medical science and pharmaceutical technology have progressed in enormous leaps. The professions have access to knowledge of improved therapies that cover a large selection of diagnoses. This state of affairs is a successful result of the long and purposeful co-operation between science and technology, theory and practice. The therapies have changed but their delivery to the patient remains the same. During the recent international recession and the continuous cost containment programmes the question of availability has risen to the fore. Availability is a question of means. That is usually interpreted as equal to saving and cost cutting. At times of affluence it could mean allowance but that seems far in the past. Availability also concerns the physical distribution of the therapies such as pharmaceuticals. So far, advances in the science have not affected either the distribution or availability of pharmaceutical products. With the rise in patient awareness, pressure is rising to make full use of the research results. This is a natural, albeit unmet, demand and represents an opportunity for the pharmacy institutions with their well trained personnel, modern outlets and the unique as well as traditional position in direct contact with the patients. This role could gain added weight through the progress of the technologies that allow ambulatory therapies instead of cost consuming institutionalisation. It would appear quite natural that the providers of such services would seek the pharmacy outlet networks as their proper points of delivery. There is no doubt that this choice would be taken as a convenient solution by the consumers of the services. This would offer considerable savings to society and efficiency to the patients. PMID:15662746

  14. A School Nurse-Delivered Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pbert, Lori; Druker, Susan; Gapinski, Mary A.; Gellar, Lauren; Magner, Robert; Reed, George; Schneider, Kristin; Osganian, Stavroula

    2013-01-01

    Background: Models are needed for implementing weight management interventions for adolescents through readily accessible venues. This study evaluated the feasibility and ef?cacy of a school nurse-delivered intervention in improving diet and activity and reducing body mass index (BMI) among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods: Six high…

  15. An improved approach for tank purge modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Jacob R.; Chintalapati, Sunil; Gutierrez, Hector M.; Kirk, Daniel R.

    2013-05-01

    Many launch support processes use helium gas to purge rocket propellant tanks and fill lines to rid them of hazardous contaminants. As an example, the purge of the Space Shuttle's External Tank used approximately 1,100 kg of helium. With the rising cost of helium, initiatives are underway to examine methods to reduce helium consumption. Current helium purge processes have not been optimized using physics-based models, but rather use historical 'rules of thumb'. To develop a more accurate and useful model of the tank purge process, computational fluid dynamics simulations of several tank configurations were completed and used as the basis for the development of an algebraic model of the purge process. The computationally efficient algebraic model of the purge process compares well with a detailed transient, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation as well as with experimental data from two external tank purges.

  16. Symbol discriminability models for improved flight displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.; Trujillo San-Martin, Maite; Gille, Jennifer

    2006-02-01

    Aviation display system designers and evaluators need to know how discriminable displayed symbols will be over a wide range of conditions to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of flight display systems. If flight display symbols are to be safely recognized by pilots, it is necessary that they can be easily discriminated from each other. Sometimes psychophysical measurements can answer this question, but computational modeling may be required to assess the numerous conditions and even help design the empirical experiments that may be needed. Here we present an image discrimination model that includes position compensation. The model takes as input the luminance values for the pixels of two symbol images, the effective viewing distance, and gives as output the discriminability in just-noticeable-differences (d') and the x and y offset in pixels needed to minimize the discriminability. The model predictions are shown to be a useful upper bound for human symbol identification performance.

  17. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-08-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3 σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the Lennard-Jones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

  18. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-08-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the Lennard-Jones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:26382410

  19. Improving Vortex Models via Optimal Control Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemati, Maziar; Eldredge, Jeff; Speyer, Jason

    2012-11-01

    Flapping wing kinematics, common in biological flight, can allow for agile flight maneuvers. On the other hand, we currently lack sufficiently accurate low-order models that enable such agility in man-made micro air vehicles. Low-order point vortex models have had reasonable success in predicting the qualitative behavior of the aerodynamic forces resulting from such maneuvers. However, these models tend to over-predict the force response when compared to experiments and high-fidelity simulations, in part because they neglect small excursions of separation from the wing's edges. In the present study, we formulate a constrained minimization problem which allows us to relax the usual edge regularity conditions in favor of empirical determination of vortex strengths. The optimal vortex strengths are determined by minimizing the error with respect to empirical force data, while the vortex positions are constrained to evolve according to the impulse matching model developed in previous work. We consider a flat plate undergoing various canonical maneuvers. The optimized model leads to force predictions remarkably close to the empirical data. Additionally, we compare the optimized and original models in an effort to distill appropriate edge conditions for unsteady maneuvers.

  20. Improved modeling of GPS selective availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braasch, Michael S.; Fink, Annmarie; Duffus, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Selective Availability (SA) represents the dominant error source for stand-alone users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Even for DGPS, SA mandates the update rate required for a desired level of accuracy in realtime applications. As was witnessed in the recent literature, the ability to model this error source is crucial to the proper evaluation of GPS-based systems. A variety of SA models were proposed to date; however, each has its own shortcomings. Most of these models were based on limited data sets or data which were corrupted by additional error sources. A comprehensive treatment of the problem is presented. The phenomenon of SA is discussed and a technique is presented whereby both clock and orbit components of SA are identifiable. Extensive SA data sets collected from Block 2 satellites are presented. System Identification theory then is used to derive a robust model of SA from the data. This theory also allows for the statistical analysis of SA. The stationarity of SA over time and across different satellites is analyzed and its impact on the modeling problem is discussed.

  1. Improved Model of a Mercury Ring Damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Shivarma, Ravishankar

    2009-01-01

    A short document discusses the general problem of mathematical modeling of the three-dimensional rotational dynamics of rigid bodies and of the use of Euler parameters to eliminate the singularities occasioned by the use of Euler angles in such modeling. The document goes on to characterize a Hamiltonian model, developed by the authors, that utilizes the Euler parameters and, hence, is suitable for use in computational simulations that involve arbitrary rotational motion. In this formulation unlike in prior Euler-parameter-based formulations, there are no algebraic constraints. This formulation includes a general potential energy function, incorporates a minimum set of momentum variables, and takes an explicit state-space form convenient for numerical implementation. Practical application of this formulation has been demonstrated by the development of a new and simplified model of the rotational motion of a rigid rotor to which is attached a partially filled mercury ring damper. Models like this one are used in guidance and control of spin-stabilized spacecraft and gyroscope-stabilized seekers in guided missiles.

  2. Automated dynamic analytical model improvement for damped structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuh, J. S.; Berman, A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described to improve a linear nonproportionally damped analytical model of a structure. The procedure finds the smallest changes in the analytical model such that the improved model matches the measured modal parameters. Features of the method are: (1) ability to properly treat complex valued modal parameters of a damped system; (2) applicability to realistically large structural models; and (3) computationally efficiency without involving eigensolutions and inversion of a large matrix.

  3. Quality Improvement on the Acute Inpatient Psychiatry Unit Using the Model for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kuldeep; Sanderson, Joshua; Galarneau, David; Keister, Thomas; Hickman, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Background A need exists for constant evaluation and modification of processes within healthcare systems to achieve quality improvement. One common approach is the Model for Improvement that can be used to clearly define aims, measures, and changes that are then implemented through a plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycle. This approach is a commonly used method for improving quality in a wide range of fields. The Model for Improvement allows for a systematic process that can be revised at set time intervals to achieve a desired result. Methods We used the Model for Improvement in an acute psychiatry unit (APU) to improve the screening incidence of abnormal involuntary movements in eligible patients—those starting or continuing on standing neuroleptics—with the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Results After 8 weeks of using the Model for Improvement, both of the participating inpatient services in the APU showed substantial overall improvement in screening for abnormal involuntary movements using the AIMS. Conclusion Crucial aspects of a successful quality improvement initiative based on the Model for Improvement are well-defined goals, process measures, and structured PDSA cycles. Success also requires communication, organization, and participation of the entire team. PMID:24052768

  4. General Equilibrium Models: Improving the Microeconomics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Walter; Westhoff, Frank

    2009-01-01

    General equilibrium models now play important roles in many fields of economics including tax policy, environmental regulation, international trade, and economic development. The intermediate microeconomics classroom has not kept pace with these trends, however. Microeconomics textbooks primarily focus on the insights that can be drawn from the…

  5. Improvements to a model of projectile fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.; Das Gupta, S.

    2011-11-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.83.044612 83, 044612 (2011)] we proposed a model for calculating cross sections of various reaction products which arise from disintegration of projectile-like fragments resulting from heavy-ion collisions at intermediate or higher energy. The model has three parts: (1) abrasion, (2) disintegration of the hot abraded projectile-like fragment (PLF) into nucleons and primary composites using a model of equilibrium statistical mechanics, and (3) possible evaporation of hot primary composites. It was assumed that the PLF resulting from abrasion has one temperature T. Data suggested that, while just one value of T seemed adequate for most cross-section calculations, a single value failed when dealing with very peripheral collisions. We have now introduced a variable T=T(b) where b is the impact parameter of the collision. We argue that there are data which not only show that T must be a function of b but, in addition, also point to an approximate value of T for a given b. We propose a very simple formula: T(b)=D0+D1[As(b)/A0] where As(b) is the mass of the abraded PLF and A0 is the mass of the projectile; D0 and D1 are constants. Using this model we compute cross sections for several collisions and compare with data.

  6. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  7. Improving phylogenetic regression under complex evolutionary models.

    PubMed

    Mazel, Florent; Davies, T Jonathan; Georges, Damien; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried; Peres-NetoO, Pedro R

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic Generalized Least Square (PGLS) is the tool of choice among phylogenetic comparative methods to measure the correlation between species features such as morphological and life-history traits or niche characteristics. In its usual form, it assumes that the residual variation follows a homogenous model of evolution across the branches of the phylogenetic tree. Since a homogenous model of evolution is unlikely to be realistic in nature, we explored the robustness of the phylogenetic regression when this assumption is violated. We did so by simulating a set of traits under various heterogeneous models of evolution, and evaluating the statistical performance (type I error [the percentage of tests based on samples that incorrectly rejected a true null hypothesis] and power [the percentage of tests that correctly rejected a false null hypothesis]) of classical phylogenetic regression. We found that PGLS has good power but unacceptable type I error rates. This finding is important since this method has been increasingly used in comparative analyses over the last decade. To address this issue, we propose a simple solution based on transforming the underlying variance-covariance matrix to adjust for model heterogeneity within PGLS. We suggest that heterogeneous rates of evolution might be particularly prevalent in large phylogenetic trees, while most current approaches assume a homogenous rate of evolution. Our analysis demonstrates that overlooking rate heterogeneity can result in inflated type I errors, thus misleading comparative analyses. We show that it is possible to correct for this bias even when the underlying model of evolution is not known a priori. PMID:27145604

  8. Efficient and Non-Toxic Biological Response Carrier Delivering TNF-α shRNA for Gene Silencing in a Murine Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jialin; Chen, Yinghui; Jiang, Shichao; Yang, Kejia; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xiaotian; Ouyang, Yuanming; Fan, Cunyi; Yuan, Weien

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an effective and specific method for silencing genes. However, an efficient and non-toxic carrier is needed to deliver the siRNA into the target cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a central role in the occurrence and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we pre-synthetized a degradable cationic polymer (PDAPEI) from 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde and low-molecular-weight polyethyleneimine (PEI, Mw = 1.8 kDa) as a gene vector for the delivery of TNF-α shRNA. The PDAPEI/pDNA complex showed a suitable particle size and stable zeta potential for transfection. In vitro study of the PDAPEI/pDNA complex revealed a lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency when transfecting TNF-α shRNA to macrophages by significantly down-regulating the expression of TNF-α. Moreover, the complex was extremely efficient in decreasing the severity of arthritis in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. PDAPEI delivered TNF-α shRNA has great potential in the treatment of RA. PMID:27594856

  9. Efficient and Non-Toxic Biological Response Carrier Delivering TNF-α shRNA for Gene Silencing in a Murine Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jialin; Chen, Yinghui; Jiang, Shichao; Yang, Kejia; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xiaotian; Ouyang, Yuanming; Fan, Cunyi; Yuan, Weien

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an effective and specific method for silencing genes. However, an efficient and non-toxic carrier is needed to deliver the siRNA into the target cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a central role in the occurrence and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we pre-synthetized a degradable cationic polymer (PDAPEI) from 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde and low-molecular-weight polyethyleneimine (PEI, Mw = 1.8 kDa) as a gene vector for the delivery of TNF-α shRNA. The PDAPEI/pDNA complex showed a suitable particle size and stable zeta potential for transfection. In vitro study of the PDAPEI/pDNA complex revealed a lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency when transfecting TNF-α shRNA to macrophages by significantly down-regulating the expression of TNF-α. Moreover, the complex was extremely efficient in decreasing the severity of arthritis in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. PDAPEI delivered TNF-α shRNA has great potential in the treatment of RA. PMID:27594856

  10. The Development and Testing of a School Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Jantzi, Doris; McElheron-Hopkins, Charryn

    2006-01-01

    This multimethod study generated and tested a "best evidence" model of school improvement processes (SIP) capable of improving student achievement. Initially developed through the review of a comprehensive body of previous empirical research, the model was further refined through a 2, 5-year longitudinal study in 10 schools. A quantitative test of…

  11. Performance Improvement/HPT Model: Guiding the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessinger, Joan Conway; Moseley, James L.; Van Tiem, Darlene M.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary is part of an ongoing dialogue that began in the October 2011 special issue of "Performance Improvement"--Exploring a Universal Performance Model for HPT: Notes From the Field. The performance improvement/HPT (human performance technology) model represents a unifying process that helps accomplish successful change, create…

  12. Improving Sensitivity in the NNSS COMPASS Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J

    2012-07-15

    The Comprehensive Analysis of Safeguards Strategies model, COMPASS, was initially implemented with the goal of eliminating functions and requirements that did not contribute to the MC&A program at the particular site. The model sub-elements were revised several times through additions and deletions as the process was better understood. Contributions and ratings were developed and implemented. Because of the original intent, the process left the contribution factors closely grouped toward the top of the range. The effect of this is a flat sensitivity; a change in any element and sub-element affected the system effectiveness to the same degree no matter which one changed. This paper describes a method for determining element and sub-element contributions so that changes in element effectiveness are more accurately reflected in the overall system effectiveness.

  13. Improved Modeling of Soil Biogeochemistry in Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Jafarov, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Modeling frozen biogeochemistry in permafrost soils is a major challenge because using observed Q10 values from incubation studies results in unrealistically high carbon emissions from permafrost. Incubation studies of frozen soil show a rapid decline in respiration as temperature decreases below freezing. Permafrost soils contain 1700 Gt of carbon, most of it frozen in permafrost below the active layer. Models with permafrost carbon in the frozen soil layers show unrealistic losses during spinup with observed Q10 values. Greatly increasing the frozen Q10 eliminates the unrealistic emissions, but suppresses winter respiration below observed values. We used a more physical approach in the Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (SiBCASA) model by separating the simulated soil carbon into three pools: thawed, thin film, and bulk frozen. Carbon transfers between thawed, thin film, and frozen pools are controlled by a curve fit of observed liquid water content in frozen soils as a function of temperature, eliminating the frozen Q10 function entirely. This restricts respiration only to the thawed pools while the frozen and thin film pools remain inactive. SiBCASA reproduces observed fluxes from incubation studies and observed winter fluxes. This new parameterization eliminated unrealistic fluxes of permafrost carbon during spinup and resulted in global total amount of frozen carbon much closer to observed values.

  14. An Improved MUSIC Model for Gibbsite Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott C.; Bickmore, Barry R.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2004-06-01

    Here we use gibbsite as a model system with which to test a recently published, bond-valence method for predicting intrinsic pKa values for surface functional groups on oxides. At issue is whether the method is adequate when valence parameters for the functional groups are derived from ab initio structure optimization of surfaces terminated by vacuum. If not, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of solvated surfaces (which are much more computationally expensive) will have to be used. To do this, we had to evaluate extant gibbsite potentiometric titration data that where some estimate of edge and basal surface area was available. Applying BET and recently developed atomic force microscopy methods, we found that most of these data sets were flawed, in that their surface area estimates were probably wrong. Similarly, there may have been problems with many of the titration procedures. However, one data set was adequate on both counts, and we applied our method of surface pKa int prediction to fitting a MUSIC model to this data with considerable success—several features of the titration data were predicted well. However, the model fit was certainly not perfect, and we experienced some difficulties optimizing highly charged, vacuum-terminated surfaces. Therefore, we conclude that we probably need to do AIMD simulations of solvated surfaces to adequately predict intrinsic pKa values for surface functional groups.

  15. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  16. Improving Acoustic Models by Watching Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witbrock, Michael J.; Hauptmann, Alexander G.

    1998-01-01

    Obtaining sufficient labelled training data is a persistent difficulty for speech recognition research. Although well transcribed data is expensive to produce, there is a constant stream of challenging speech data and poor transcription broadcast as closed-captioned television. We describe a reliable unsupervised method for identifying accurately transcribed sections of these broadcasts, and show how these segments can be used to train a recognition system. Starting from acoustic models trained on the Wall Street Journal database, a single iteration of our training method reduced the word error rate on an independent broadcast television news test set from 62.2% to 59.5%.

  17. Improving lognormal models for cosmological fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Henrique S.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Joachimi, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    It is common practice in cosmology to model large-scale structure observables as lognormal random fields, and this approach has been successfully applied in the past to the matter density and weak lensing convergence fields separately. We argue that this approach has fundamental limitations which prevent its use for jointly modelling these two fields since the lognormal distribution's shape can prevent certain correlations to be attainable. Given the need of ongoing and future large-scale structure surveys for fast joint simulations of clustering and weak lensing, we propose two ways of overcoming these limitations. The first approach slightly distorts the power spectra of the fields using one of two algorithms that minimizes either the absolute or the fractional distortions. The second one is by obtaining more accurate convergence marginal distributions, for which we provide a fitting function, by integrating the lognormal density along the line of sight. The latter approach also provides a way to determine directly from theory the skewness of the convergence distribution and, therefore, the parameters for a lognormal fit. We present the public code Full-sky Lognormal Astro-fields Simulation Kit (FLASK) which can make tomographic realizations on the sphere of an arbitrary number of correlated lognormal or Gaussian random fields by applying either of the two proposed solutions, and show that it can create joint simulations of clustering and lensing with sub-per-cent accuracy over relevant angular scales and redshift ranges.

  18. Enhancing family physician capacity to deliver quality palliative home care

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Denise; Howell, Doris; Brazil, Kevin; Howard, Michelle; Taniguchi, Alan

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family physicians face innumerable challenges to delivering quality palliative home care to meet the complex needs of end-of-life patients and their families. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To implement a model of shared care to enhance family physicians’ ability to deliver quality palliative home care, particularly in a community-based setting. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Family physicians in 3 group practices (N = 21) in Ontario’s Niagara West region collaborated with an interprofessional palliative care team (including a palliative care advanced practice nurse, a palliative medicine physician, a bereavement counselor, a psychosocial-spiritual advisor, and a case manager) in a shared-care partnership to provide comprehensive palliative home care. Key features of the program included systematic and timely identification of end-of-life patients, needs assessments, symptom and psychosocial support interventions, regular communication between team members, and coordinated care guided by outcome-based assessment in the home. In addition, educational initiatives were provided to enhance family physicians’ knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION Because of the program, participants reported improved communication, effective interprofessional collaboration, and the capacity to deliver palliative home care, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to end-of-life patients in the community. PMID:19074714

  19. Improving pregnancy outcome during imprisonment: a model residential care program.

    PubMed

    Siefert, K; Pimlott, S

    2001-04-01

    The female prison population has increased dramatically in recent years. Most women prisoners are involved with drugs, and as many as 25 percent are pregnant or have delivered within the past year. Reproductive health and drug treatment services for women in prison are inadequate, if they are available at all, and although illicit drugs are readily available in prison, drug-involved pregnant women often are incarcerated to protect fetal health. Studies of pregnancy outcome among women prisoners have demonstrated high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. This article examines issues related to pregnancy among women prisoners and describes an innovative residential program designed for pregnant, drug-dependent women in a state adult corrections system. Social workers can play an important role in promoting policy reform and improved services for this underserved population. PMID:11329642

  20. An improved model for fragment-based lead generation at AstraZeneca.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Nathan; Spadola, Loredana; Cowen, Scott; Patel, Joe; Schönherr, Heike; Cao, Qing; McKenzie, Andrew; Edfeldt, Fredrik; Rabow, Al; Goodnow, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Modest success rates in fragment-based lead generation (FBLG) projects at AstraZeneca (AZ) prompted operational changes to improve performance. In this review, we summarize these changes, emphasizing the construction and composition of the AZ fragment library, screening practices and working model. We describe the profiles of the screening method for specific fragment subsets and statistically assess our ability to follow up on fragment hits through near-neighbor selection. Performance analysis of our second-generation fragment library (FL2) in screening campaigns illustrates the complementary nature of flat and 3D fragments in exploring protein-binding pockets and highlights our ability to deliver fragment hits using multiple screening techniques for various target classes. The new model has had profound impact on the successful delivery of lead series to drug discovery projects. PMID:27179986

  1. Employing ISRU Models to Improve Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    An analytical model for hydrogen reduction of regolith was used to investigate the effects of several key variables on the energy and mass performance of reactors for a lunar in-situ resource utilization oxygen production plant. Reactor geometry, reaction time, number of reactors, heat recuperation, heat loss, and operating pressure were all studied to guide hardware designers who are developing future prototype reactors. The effects of heat recuperation where the incoming regolith is pre-heated by the hot spent regolith before transfer was also investigated for the first time. In general, longer reaction times per batch provide a lower overall energy, but also result in larger and heavier reactors. Three reactors with long heat-up times results in similar energy requirements as a two-reactor system with all other parameters the same. Three reactors with heat recuperation results in energy reductions of 20 to 40 percent compared to a three-reactor system with no heat recuperation. Increasing operating pressure can provide similar energy reductions as heat recuperation for the same reaction times.

  2. Improved solar array power point model with SPICE realization

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    An improved and simplified formulation is given for a solar array current-voltage model. This model curve matches a specified maximum power point (i,v) specification, in addition to the open-circuit and short-circuit specifications. The improved model has a simplified numerical solution, which is practical for SPICE simulation of orbital-scale electrical power systems. This paper presents the mathematical development of the solar array model solution, and the form of the necessary Newton/Raphson equations. The iterative nonlinear solution is then realized in a SPICE model of the solar array, which is then demonstrated in an orbital-time-scale satellite power system simulation.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED URBAN AIRSHED MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research and development effort to improve certain physical processes simulated in the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) processor and model programs, and to update the computer software is described. he UAM is an Eulerian photochemical grid model designed to simulate the relevant phys...

  4. Business Models for Training and Performance Improvement Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Although typically applied to entire enterprises, the concept of business models applies to training and performance improvement groups. Business models are "the method by which firm[s] build and use [their] resources to offer.. value." Business models affect the types of projects, services offered, skills required, business processes, and type of…

  5. Improved Solar-Radiation-Pressure Models for GPS Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Kuang, Da

    2006-01-01

    A report describes a series of computational models conceived as an improvement over prior models for determining effects of solar-radiation pressure on orbits of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. These models are based on fitting coefficients of Fourier functions of Sun-spacecraft- Earth angles to observed spacecraft orbital motions.

  6. Estuarine modeling: Does a higher grid resolution improve model performance?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological models are useful tools to explore cause effect relationships, test hypothesis and perform management scenarios. A mathematical model, the Gulf of Mexico Dissolved Oxygen Model (GoMDOM), has been developed and applied to the Louisiana continental shelf of the northern ...

  7. Improvement of a parsimonious model for streamflow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Charles; Michel, Claude; Andréassian, Vazken

    2003-08-01

    Hydrologists have been struggling over the past decades to improve rainfall-runoff models. As a consequence, models proposed 20-30 years ago still keep evolving as progress is made in the understanding of catchment hydrological behaviour. Here we present the GR4J model, a daily lumped rainfall-runoff model which is the result of a continuous improvement process over the last 15 years. The article provides the mathematical formulation of a new four-parameter version of the model. Model performance is assessed on a large sample of catchments: compared to other rainfall-runoff models, the GR4J performance is among the best ones. It also gives better results than the previous three-parameter model version, especially in the simulation of low flows. The tests indicate that a four-parameter structure corresponds to the maximum level of complexity that could be afforded in the model. Adding more free parameters did not bring significant improvements. The gain in model robustness with this new version should enhance the confidence in the practical use of this simple model for water engineering and resource management. The discussion underlines the potential limits introduced in the modelling process when one relies on a priori concepts in building a model structure and it stresses the value of large catchment samples to assess models.

  8. Enhanced Efficacy of a Codon-Optimized DNA Vaccine Encoding the Glycoprotein Precursor Gene of Lassa Virus in a Guinea Pig Disease Model When Delivered by Dermal Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kathleen A; Broderick, Kate E; Wilkinson, Eric R; Shaia, Carl I; Bell, Todd M; Shurtleff, Amy C; Spik, Kristin W; Badger, Catherine V; Guttieri, Mary C; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) causes a severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa. Presently, there are no FDA-licensed medical countermeasures for this disease. In a pilot study, we constructed a DNA vaccine (pLASV-GPC) that expressed the LASV glycoprotein precursor gene (GPC). This plasmid was used to vaccinate guinea pigs (GPs) using intramuscular electroporation as the delivery platform. Vaccinated GPs were protected from lethal infection (5/6) with LASV compared to the controls. However, vaccinated GPs experienced transient viremia after challenge, although lower than the mock-vaccinated controls. In a follow-on study, we developed a new device that allowed for both the vaccine and electroporation pulse to be delivered to the dermis. We also codon-optimized the GPC sequence of the vaccine to enhance expression in GPs. Together, these innovations resulted in enhanced efficacy of the vaccine. Unlike the pilot study where neutralizing titers were not detected until after virus challenge, modest neutralizing titers were detected in guinea pigs before challenge, with escalating titers detected after challenge. The vaccinated GPs were never ill and were not viremic at any timepoint. The combination of the codon-optimized vaccine and dermal electroporation delivery is a worthy candidate for further development. PMID:26344112

  9. Enhanced Efficacy of a Codon-Optimized DNA Vaccine Encoding the Glycoprotein Precursor Gene of Lassa Virus in a Guinea Pig Disease Model When Delivered by Dermal Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Cashman, Kathleen A.; Broderick, Kate E.; Wilkinson, Eric R.; Shaia, Carl I.; Bell, Todd M.; Shurtleff, Amy C.; Spik, Kristin W.; Badger, Catherine V.; Guttieri, Mary C.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) causes a severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa. Presently, there are no FDA-licensed medical countermeasures for this disease. In a pilot study, we constructed a DNA vaccine (pLASV-GPC) that expressed the LASV glycoprotein precursor gene (GPC). This plasmid was used to vaccinate guinea pigs (GPs) using intramuscular electroporation as the delivery platform. Vaccinated GPs were protected from lethal infection (5/6) with LASV compared to the controls. However, vaccinated GPs experienced transient viremia after challenge, although lower than the mock-vaccinated controls. In a follow-on study, we developed a new device that allowed for both the vaccine and electroporation pulse to be delivered to the dermis. We also codon-optimized the GPC sequence of the vaccine to enhance expression in GPs. Together, these innovations resulted in enhanced efficacy of the vaccine. Unlike the pilot study where neutralizing titers were not detected until after virus challenge, modest neutralizing titers were detected in guinea pigs before challenge, with escalating titers detected after challenge. The vaccinated GPs were never ill and were not viremic at any timepoint. The combination of the codon-optimized vaccine and dermal electroporation delivery is a worthy candidate for further development. PMID:26344112

  10. Primary care access improvement: an empowerment-interaction model.

    PubMed

    Ledlow, G R; Bradshaw, D M; Shockley, C

    2000-05-01

    Improving community primary care access is a difficult and dynamic undertaking. Realizing a need to improve appointment availability, a systematic approach based on measurement, empowerment, and interaction was developed. The model fostered exchange of information and problem solving between interdependent staff sections within a managed care system. Measuring appointments demanded but not available proved to be a credible customer-focused approach to benchmark against set goals. Changing the organizational culture to become more sensitive to changing beneficiary needs was a paramount consideration. Dependent-group t tests were performed to compare the pretreatment and posttreatment effect. The empowerment-interaction model significantly improved the availability of routine and wellness-type appointments. The availability of urgent appointments improved but not significantly; a better prospective model needs to be developed. In aggregate, appointments demanded but not available (empowerment-interaction model) were more than 10% before the treatment and less than 3% with the treatment. PMID:10826388

  11. Assimilation of Spatio-Temporal Cosmic-Ray Neutron Data to Improve Hydrological Model Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Schrön, M.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.; Rosolem, R.; Rakovec, O.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Reinstorf, F.; Zacharias, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale hydrological models like mHM (Samaniego et al., 2010, WRR) are usually evaluated with observed discharge, which is a spatially integrated signal of the watershed. However, an accurate prediction of spatially distributed soil water content often is of higher interest for hydrologic prediction. For hydrologic models operating at intermediate to regional scales, Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors provide unrivaled soil moisture data which are much more representative than point data and of higher spatio-temporal resolution than most remote-sensing products. We are aiming to improve soil moisture calibration and evaluation in mHM with the support of the intermediate-scale data from cosmic-ray neutrons. The relationship between soil moisture profiles in the footprint and the corresponding cosmic-ray neutron counts is non-linear and not unique. Therefore we assimilate cosmic-ray neutron data directly by employing the nested forward model COSMIC (Shuttleworth et al. 2013, HESS), which calculates neutron counts from the modeled soil moisture. In optimization mode, mHM is able to calibrate parameters of both, the hydrological system and/or the neutron prediction model itself. Model performance is evaluated with independent measurements of soil moisture patterns from several catchment-wide TDR campaigns, time series of a Wireless Sensor Network and discharge in the small catchment "Schäfertal" (1.6 km2) in central Germany. One of the major challenges is to improve soil moisture and discharge performance simultaneously in the hydrologic model. This work is an important step towards the assimilation of continuous spatial data from mobile Cosmic Ray Sensing. The so-called TERENO:Rover delivers highly-resolved spatial patterns of water content in a whole catchment, which has a great potential to improve spatial performance of hydrological models.

  12. Thermal expansion of noble metals using improved lattice dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B.

    2013-06-01

    Isothermal bulk modulus and volume thermal expansion for noble metals have been studied on the basis of improved lattice dynamical model proposed by Pandya et al [Physica B 307, 138-149 (2001)]. The present study shows that for all three noble metals the approach gives satisfactory results, when they are compared with experimental findings. The present study thus confirms the use of improved model to study anharmonic property, and can be extended to study temperature dependent properties in high temperature range.

  13. Scientific Publishing: Adding Value, Delivering Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Publishers are developing new services and applying new technologies to improve publication and reading experiences for the scholarly community. This needs to be implemented with care to avoid adding technology-driven complexity. Our publishing processes need to be widely accessible to both authors and readers and to maintain the scientific record. Beth Mayes will outline new developments at IOP Publishing delivering (1) improvements to the presentation of articles and their commitment to formats that go beyond the PDF, improving the understanding of research. (2) How IOP Publishing is responding to the growing calls for metadata and linking that involve being central to the shared information ecosystem for astronomy. (3) After publication, discuss how publishers invest in metrics and new initiatives for discovery that improve the impact of published research.

  14. Improved analytical model for residual stress prediction in orthogonal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaoxu; Li, Bin; Xiong, Liangshan

    2014-09-01

    The analytical model of residual stress in orthogonal cutting proposed by Jiann is an important tool for residual stress prediction in orthogonal cutting. In application of the model, a problem of low precision of the surface residual stress prediction is found. By theoretical analysis, several shortages of Jiann's model are picked out, including: inappropriate boundary conditions, unreasonable calculation method of thermal stress, ignorance of stress constraint and cyclic loading algorithm. These shortages may directly lead to the low precision of the surface residual stress prediction. To eliminate these shortages and make the prediction more accurate, an improved model is proposed. In this model, a new contact boundary condition between tool and workpiece is used to make it in accord with the real cutting process; an improved calculation method of thermal stress is adopted; a stress constraint is added according to the volumeconstancy of plastic deformation; and the accumulative effect of the stresses during cyclic loading is considered. At last, an experiment for measuring residual stress in cutting AISI 1045 steel is conducted. Also, Jiann's model and the improved model are simulated under the same conditions with cutting experiment. The comparisons show that the surface residual stresses predicted by the improved model is closer to the experimental results than the results predicted by Jiann's model.

  15. Improved analytical model for residual stress prediction in orthogonal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaoxu; Li, Bin; Xiong, Liangshan

    2014-09-01

    The analytical model of residual stress in orthogonal cutting proposed by Jiann is an important tool for residual stress prediction in orthogonal cutting. In application of the model, a problem of low precision of the surface residual stress prediction is found. By theoretical analysis, several shortages of Jiann's model are picked out, including: inappropriate boundary conditions, unreasonable calculation method of thermal stress, ignorance of stress constraint and cyclic loading algorithm. These shortages may directly lead to the low precision of the surface residual stress prediction. To eliminate these shortages and make the prediction more accurate, an improved model is proposed. In this model, a new contact boundary condition between tool and workpiece is used to make it in accord with the real cutting process; an improved calculation method of thermal stress is adopted; a stress constraint is added according to the volume-constancy of plastic deformation; and the accumulative effect of the stresses during cyclic loading is considered. At last, an experiment for measuring residual stress in cutting AISI 1045 steel is conducted. Also, Jiann's model and the improved model are simulated under the same conditions with cutting experiment. The comparisons show that the surface residual stresses predicted by the improved model is closer to the experimental results than the results predicted by Jiann's model.

  16. In vivo genome editing improves muscle function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher E; Hakim, Chady H; Ousterout, David G; Thakore, Pratiksha I; Moreb, Eirik A; Castellanos Rivera, Ruth M; Madhavan, Sarina; Pan, Xiufang; Ran, F Ann; Yan, Winston X; Asokan, Aravind; Zhang, Feng; Duan, Dongsheng; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-22

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease affecting about 1 out of 5000 male births and caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Genome editing has the potential to restore expression of a modified dystrophin gene from the native locus to modulate disease progression. In this study, adeno-associated virus was used to deliver the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system to the mdx mouse model of DMD to remove the mutated exon 23 from the dystrophin gene. This includes local and systemic delivery to adult mice and systemic delivery to neonatal mice. Exon 23 deletion by CRISPR-Cas9 resulted in expression of the modified dystrophin gene, partial recovery of functional dystrophin protein in skeletal myofibers and cardiac muscle, improvement of muscle biochemistry, and significant enhancement of muscle force. This work establishes CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing as a potential therapy to treat DMD. PMID:26721684

  17. A model of continuous quality improvement for health service organisations.

    PubMed

    Thornber, M

    1992-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (or Total Quality Management) is an approach to management originally used in manufacturing and now being applied in the health services. This article describes a model of Continuous Quality Improvement which has been used in NSW public and private hospitals. The model consists of Ten Key Elements. The first driving force of this model is 'defining quality in terms of customer expectations' of quality. The second driving force emphasises that 'quality improvement is a leadership issue'. Leaders are required to: coordinate staff participation in work process analysis; train staff in the customer service orientation; lead effective meetings and negotiate with both internal and external service partners. Increased staff motivation, quality improvement and reduction in running costs are seen to be the benefits of CQI for health service organisations. PMID:10117452

  18. Improved Atmospheric Refraction Correction Models in Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Glynn

    2004-03-01

    The primary source of unmodeled error in space geodetic techniques such as VLBI, GPS and SLR is atmospheric refraction. SLR uses lasers (532 nm) to measure very precise ranges from ground tracking stations to spaceborne geodetic satellites with accuracies at the millimeter level. Improved refraction modeling is essential in reducing errors in SLR measurements that study variations in the Earth's gravitational field and vertical crustal motion as well as monitoring sea-level rise, post-glacial rebound and earthquake predictions. The Marini and Murray model developed in the 1970's has primarily been used for data analysis, but recent work by Mendes et al., 2002 provides significant improvement in modeling the elevation dependency of the zenith atmospheric delay. The elevation dependency is modeled by what are known as mapping functions. Improvements in modeling the zenith delay itself where achieved by computing the group refractivity using a procedure described by Ciddor [1996] and by including the non-hydrostatic (wet) zenith delay. Two color SLR can also be used to determine the zenith delay by measuring the dispersive delay of two laser pulses each at a different wavelength. By comparing the Mendes and Marini Murray models to this experimental technique, one is able to evaluate the accuracy of the two models. We have found errors between the two models when compared to two color SLR at the centimeter level, which increases significantly at 355 nm, indicating the need for an improvement of existing dispersion formulae.

  19. Titan I propulsion system modeling and possible performance improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Oreste

    This thesis features the Titan I propulsion systems and offers data-supported suggestions for improvements to increase performance. The original propulsion systems were modeled both graphically in CAD and via equations. Due to the limited availability of published information, it was necessary to create a more detailed, secondary set of models. Various engineering equations---pertinent to rocket engine design---were implemented in order to generate the desired extra detail. This study describes how these new models were then imported into the ESI CFD Suite. Various parameters are applied to these imported models as inputs that include, for example, bi-propellant combinations, pressure, temperatures, and mass flow rates. The results were then processed with ESI VIEW, which is visualization software. The output files were analyzed for forces in the nozzle, and various results were generated, including sea level thrust and ISP. Experimental data are provided to compare the original engine configuration models to the derivative suggested improvement models.

  20. DNA Targeting Sequence Improves Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Plasmid DNA Transfection Efficiency in Model Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Matthew M.; Dean, David A.; Dobson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Efficient non-viral plasmid DNA transfection of most stem cells, progenitor cells and primary cell lines currently presents an obstacle for many applications within gene therapy research. From a standpoint of efficiency and cell viability, magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection is a promising gene vectoring technique because it has demonstrated rapid and improved transfection outcomes when compared to alternative non-viral methods. Recently, our research group introduced oscillating magnet arrays that resulted in further improvements to this novel plasmid DNA (pDNA) vectoring technology. Continued improvements to nanomagnetic transfection techniques have focused primarily on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) functionalization and transfection parameter optimization: cell confluence, growth media, serum starvation, magnet oscillation parameters, etc. Noting that none of these parameters can assist in the nuclear translocation of delivered pDNA following MNP-pDNA complex dissociation in the cell’s cytoplasm, inclusion of a cassette feature for pDNA nuclear translocation is theoretically justified. In this study incorporation of a DNA targeting sequence (DTS) feature in the transfecting plasmid improved transfection efficiency in model neurons, presumably from increased nuclear translocation. This observation became most apparent when comparing the response of the dividing SH-SY5Y precursor cell to the non-dividing and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PMID:26287182

  1. Process Correlation Analysis Model for Process Improvement Identification

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data. PMID:24977170

  2. Improved Systematic Pointing Error Model for the DSN Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Withington, Philip M.; Richter, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    New pointing models have been developed for large reflector antennas whose construction is founded on elevation over azimuth mount. At JPL, the new models were applied to the Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-meter antenna s subnet for corrections of their systematic pointing errors; it achieved significant improvement in performance at Ka-band (32-GHz) and X-band (8.4-GHz). The new models provide pointing improvements relative to the traditional models by a factor of two to three, which translate to approximately 3-dB performance improvement at Ka-band. For radio science experiments where blind pointing performance is critical, the new innovation provides a new enabling technology. The model extends the traditional physical models with higher-order mathematical terms, thereby increasing the resolution of the model for a better fit to the underlying systematic imperfections that are the cause of antenna pointing errors. The philosophy of the traditional model was that all mathematical terms in the model must be traced to a physical phenomenon causing antenna pointing errors. The traditional physical terms are: antenna axis tilts, gravitational flexure, azimuth collimation, azimuth encoder fixed offset, azimuth and elevation skew, elevation encoder fixed offset, residual refraction, azimuth encoder scale error, and antenna pointing de-rotation terms for beam waveguide (BWG) antennas. Besides the addition of spherical harmonics terms, the new models differ from the traditional ones in that the coefficients for the cross-elevation and elevation corrections are completely independent and may be different, while in the traditional model, some of the terms are identical. In addition, the new software allows for all-sky or mission-specific model development, and can utilize the previously used model as an a priori estimate for the development of the updated models.

  3. Can a Healthcare "Lean Sweep" Deliver on What Matters to Patients? Comment on "Improving Wait Times to Care for Individuals with Multimorbidities and Complex Conditions Using Value Stream Mapping".

    PubMed

    Verma, Jennifer Y; Amar, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Disconnects and defects in care - such as duplication, poor integration between services or avoidable adverse events - are costly to the health system and potentially harmful to patients and families. For patients living with multiple chronic conditions, such disconnects can be particularly detrimental. Lean is an approach to optimizing value by reducing waste (eg, duplication and defects) and containing costs (eg, improving integration of services) as well as focusing on what matters to patients. Lean works particularly well to optimize existing processes and services. However, as the burden of chronic illness and frailty overtake episodic care needs, health systems require far greater complex, adaptive change. Such change ought to take into account outcomes in population health in addition to care experiences and costs (together, comprising the Triple Aim); and involve patients and families in co-designing new models of care that better address complex, longer-term health needs. PMID:26673343

  4. Benchmarking and improving microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Hartman, M. D.; Sulman, B. N.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models that are designed to project future carbon (C) cycle - climate feedbacks exhibit notably poor representation of soil biogeochemical processes and generate highly uncertain projections about the fate of the largest terrestrial C pool on Earth. Given these shortcomings there has been intense interest in soil biogeochemical model development, but parallel efforts to create the analytical tools to characterize, improve and benchmark these models have thus far lagged behind. A long-term goal of this work is to develop a framework to compare, evaluate and improve the process-level representation of soil biogeochemical models that could be applied in global land surface models. Here, we present a newly developed global model test bed that is built on the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model (CASA-CNP) that can rapidly integrate different soil biogeochemical models that are forced with consistent driver datasets. We focus on evaluation of two microbial explicit soil biogeochemical models that function at global scales: the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization model (MIMICS) and Carbon, Organisms, Rhizosphere, and Protection in the Soil Environment (CORPSE) model. Using the global model test bed coupled to MIMICS and CORPSE we quantify the uncertainty in potential C cycle - climate feedbacks that may be expected with these microbial explicit models, compared with a conventional first-order, linear model. By removing confounding variation of climate and vegetation drivers, our model test bed allows us to isolate key differences among different soil model structure and parameterizations that can be evaluated with further study. Specifically, the global test bed also identifies key parameters that can be estimated using cross-site observations. In global simulations model results are evaluated with steady state litter, microbial biomass, and soil C pools and benchmarked against independent globally gridded data products.

  5. Spectral analysis of walking improvement utilizing AR modeling.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Masako; Tsuruoka, Yuriko

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the walking improvement based on 1/f fluctuations and impulse responses utilizing Auto-Regressive (AR) modeling. Once subjects were aware of the correct posture, the fluctuation of subject's both sides of the hip while walking was improved more rhythmic. The analysis of impulse response utilizing AR modeling provided clear results for the evaluation of improvement to walking stability. After the subjects understood their own walking condition, based on 1/f fluctuation, and had received suitable rehabilitation and shoes, their walking stability improved satisfactorily. This study provides a useful method of medical evaluation in rehabilitation and physical fitness, and a means for subjects to maintain a state of well being. PMID:19163860

  6. An improved human display model for occupant crash simulation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willmert, K. D.; Potter, T. E.

    1975-01-01

    An improved three-dimensional display model of a human being which can be used to display the results of three-dimensional simulation programs that predict the positions of an occupant during impact of a vehicle was presented. The model allows the user to view the occupant from any orientation in any position during the crash. The display model assumes the usual break up of the body into rigid segments which is normal for occupant crash simulation programs, but the shape of the segments in the display model are not necessarily the same as those used in the crash simulation. The display model is proportioned so as to produce a realistic drawing of the human body in any position. Joints connecting the segments are also drawn to improve realism.

  7. Improving nonlinear modeling capabilities of functional link adaptive filters.

    PubMed

    Comminiello, Danilo; Scarpiniti, Michele; Scardapane, Simone; Parisi, Raffaele; Uncini, Aurelio

    2015-09-01

    The functional link adaptive filter (FLAF) represents an effective solution for online nonlinear modeling problems. In this paper, we take into account a FLAF-based architecture, which separates the adaptation of linear and nonlinear elements, and we focus on the nonlinear branch to improve the modeling performance. In particular, we propose a new model that involves an adaptive combination of filters downstream of the nonlinear expansion. Such combination leads to a cooperative behavior of the whole architecture, thus yielding a performance improvement, particularly in the presence of strong nonlinearities. An advanced architecture is also proposed involving the adaptive combination of multiple filters on the nonlinear branch. The proposed models are assessed in different nonlinear modeling problems, in which their effectiveness and capabilities are shown. PMID:26057613

  8. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David J.; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, L. Ruby; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-21

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale models, such as the land components of Earth System Models (ESMs), do not yet represent the terrestrial water cycle in a fully integrated manner or resolve the finer-scale processes that can dominate large-scale water budgets. This paper reviews the current representation of hydrologic processes in ESMs and identifies the key opportunities for improvement. This review suggests that (1) the development of ESMs has not kept pace with modeling advances in hydrology, both through neglecting key processes (e.g., groundwater) and neglecting key aspects of spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; and (2) many modeling advances in hydrology can readily be incorporated into ESMs and substantially improve predictions of the water cycle. Accelerating modeling advances in ESMs requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking activities, in order to systematically evaluate competing modeling alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs. This demands stronger collaboration, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM development and through more detailed evaluation of ESM processes in research watersheds. Advances in the representation of hydrologic process in ESMs can substantially improve energy, carbon and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role the water cycle plays in regulating these cycles.

  9. Evaluation of Improved Spacecraft Models for GLONASS Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J. P.; Sibthorpe, A.; Harvey, N.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Kuang, D.

    2010-12-01

    High-fidelity spacecraft models become more important as orbit determination strategies achieve greater levels of precision and accuracy. In this presentation, we assess the impacts of new solar radiation pressure and attitude models on precise orbit determination (POD) for GLONASS spacecraft within JPLs GIPSY-OASIS software. A new solar radiation pressure model is developed by empirically fitting a Fourier expansion to solar pressure forces acting on the spacecraft X, Y, Z components using one year of recent orbit data. Compared to a basic “box-wing” solar pressure model, the median 24-hour orbit prediction accuracy for one month of independent test data improves by 43%. We additionally implement an updated yaw attitude model during eclipse periods. We evaluate the impacts of both models on post-processed POD solutions spanning 6-months. We consider a number of metrics such as internal orbit and clock overlaps as well as comparisons to independent solutions. Improved yaw attitude modeling reduces the dependence of these metrics on the “solar elevation” angle. The updated solar pressure model improves orbit overlap statistics by several mm in the median sense and centimeters in the max sense (1D). Orbit differences relative to the IGS combined solution are at or below the 5 cm level (1D RMS).

  10. Demonstrating the improvement of predictive maturity of a computational model

    SciTech Connect

    Hemez, Francois M; Unal, Cetin; Atamturktur, Huriye S

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an improvement of predictive capability brought to a non-linear material model using a combination of test data, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and calibration. A model that captures increasingly complicated phenomena, such as plasticity, temperature and strain rate effects, is analyzed. Predictive maturity is defined, here, as the accuracy of the model to predict multiple Hopkinson bar experiments. A statistical discrepancy quantifies the systematic disagreement (bias) between measurements and predictions. Our hypothesis is that improving the predictive capability of a model should translate into better agreement between measurements and predictions. This agreement, in turn, should lead to a smaller discrepancy. We have recently proposed to use discrepancy and coverage, that is, the extent to which the physical experiments used for calibration populate the regime of applicability of the model, as basis to define a Predictive Maturity Index (PMI). It was shown that predictive maturity could be improved when additional physical tests are made available to increase coverage of the regime of applicability. This contribution illustrates how the PMI changes as 'better' physics are implemented in the model. The application is the non-linear Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) strength model applied to Beryllium metal. We demonstrate that our framework tracks the evolution of maturity of the PTW model. Robustness of the PMI with respect to the selection of coefficients needed in its definition is also studied.

  11. An improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-07-01

    To explore and evaluate the impacts of relative velocity fluctuation on the dynamic characteristics and fuel consumptions of traffic flow, we present an improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation based on the full velocity difference model, then we carry out several numerical simulations to determine the optimal time window length and to explore how relative velocity fluctuation affects cars' velocity and its fluctuation as well as fuel consumptions. It can be found that the improved car-following model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion, and that taking relative velocity fluctuation into account in designing the advanced adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  12. DOT2: Macromolecular docking with improved biophysical models.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Victoria A; Thompson, Elaine E; Pique, Michael E; Perez, Martin S; Ten Eyck, L F

    2013-07-30

    Computational docking is a useful tool for predicting macromolecular complexes, which are often difficult to determine experimentally. Here, we present the DOT2 software suite, an updated version of the DOT intermolecular docking program. DOT2 provides straightforward, automated construction of improved biophysical models based on molecular coordinates, offering checkpoints that guide the user to include critical features. DOT has been updated to run more quickly, allow flexibility in grid size and spacing, and generate an infinitive complete list of favorable candidate configurations. Output can be filtered by experimental data and rescored by the sum of electrostatic and atomic desolvation energies. We show that this rescoring method improves the ranking of correct complexes for a wide range of macromolecular interactions and demonstrate that biologically relevant models are essential for biologically relevant results. The flexibility and versatility of DOT2 accommodate realistic models of complex biological systems, improving the likelihood of a successful docking outcome. PMID:23695987

  13. DOT2: Macromolecular Docking With Improved Biophysical Models

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Victoria A.; Thompson, Elaine E.; Pique, Michael E.; Perez, Martin S.; Eyck, Lynn Ten

    2015-01-01

    Computational docking is a useful tool for predicting macromolecular complexes, which are often difficult to determine experimentally. Here we present the DOT2 software suite, an updated version of the DOT intermolecular docking program. DOT2 provides straightforward, automated construction of improved biophysical models based on molecular coordinates, offering checkpoints that guide the user to include critical features. DOT has been updated to run more quickly, allow flexibility in grid size and spacing, and generate a complete list of favorable candidate configu-rations. Output can be filtered by experimental data and rescored by the sum of electrostatic and atomic desolvation energies. We show that this rescoring method improves the ranking of correct complexes for a wide range of macromolecular interactions, and demonstrate that biologically relevant models are essential for biologically relevant results. The flexibility and versatility of DOT2 accommodate realistic models of complex biological systems, improving the likelihood of a successful docking outcome. PMID:23695987

  14. A process improvement model for software verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Sabolish, George

    1994-01-01

    We describe ongoing work at the NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Facility to establish a process improvement model for software verification and validation (V&V) organizations. This model, similar to those used by some software development organizations, uses measurement-based techniques to identify problem areas and introduce incremental improvements. We seek to replicate this model for organizations involved in V&V on large-scale software development projects such as EOS and Space Station. At the IV&V Facility, a university research group and V&V contractors are working together to collect metrics across projects in order to determine the effectiveness of V&V and improve its application. Since V&V processes are intimately tied to development processes, this paper also examines the repercussions for development organizations in large-scale efforts.

  15. A process improvement model for software verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Sabolish, George

    1994-01-01

    We describe ongoing work at the NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Facility to establish a process improvement model for software verification and validation (V&V) organizations. This model, similar to those used by some software development organizations, uses measurement-based techniques to identify problem areas and introduce incremental improvements. We seek to replicate this model for organizations involved in V&V on large-scale software development projects such as EOS and space station. At the IV&V Facility, a university research group and V&V contractors are working together to collect metrics across projects in order to determine the effectiveness of V&V and improve its application. Since V&V processes are intimately tied to development processes, this paper also examines the repercussions for development organizations in large-scale efforts.

  16. Improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Medlyn, B. E.; Dukes, J.; Bonan, G. B.; von Caemmerer, S.; Dietze, M.; Kattge, J.; Leakey, A. D.; Mercado, L. M.; Niinemets, U.; Prentice, I. C. C.; Serbin, S.; Sitch, S.; Way, D. A.; Zaehle, S.

    2015-12-01

    Continued use of fossil fuel drives an accelerating increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and is the principal cause of global climate change. Many of the observed and projected impacts of rising [CO2] portend increasing environmental and economic risk, yet the uncertainty surrounding the projection of our future climate by Earth System Models (ESMs) is unacceptably high. Improving confidence in our estimation of future [CO2] is essential if we seek to project global change with greater confidence. There are critical uncertainties over the long term response of terrestrial CO2 uptake to global change, more specifically, over the size of the terrestrial carbon sink and over its sensitivity to rising [CO2] and temperature. Reducing the uncertainty associated with model representation of the largest CO2 flux on the planet is therefore an essential part of improving confidence in projections of global change. Here we have examined model representation of photosynthesis in seven process models including several global models that underlie the representation of photosynthesis in the land surface model component of ESMs that were part of the recent Fifth Assessment Report from the IPCC. Our approach was to focus on how physiological responses are represented by these models, and to better understand how structural and parametric differences drive variation in model responses to light, CO2, nutrients, temperature, vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture. We challenged each model to produce leaf and canopy responses to these factors to help us identify areas in which current process knowledge and emerging data sets could be used to improve model skill, and also identify knowledge gaps in current understanding that directly impact model outputs. We hope this work will provide a roadmap for the scientific activity that is necessary to advance process representation, parameterization and scaling of photosynthesis in the next generation of Earth System Models.

  17. An improved k-epsilon model for near wall turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. H.; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    An improved k-epsilon model for low Reynolds number turbulence near a wall is presented. In the first part of this work, the near-wall asymptotic behavior of the eddy viscosity and the pressure transport term in the turbulent kinetic energy equation are analyzed. Based on these analyses, a modified eddy viscosity model with the correct near-wall behavior is suggested, and a model for the pressure transport term in the k-equation is proposed. In addition, a modeled dissipation rate equation is reformulated, and a boundary condition for the dissipation rate is suggested. In the second part of the work, one of the deficiencies of the existing k-epsilon models, namely, the wall distance dependency of the equations and the damping functions, is examined. An improved model that does not depend on any wall distance is introduced. Fully developed turbulent channel flows and turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate are studied as validations for the proposed new models. Numerical results obtained from the present and other previous k-epsilon models are compared with data from direct numerical simulation. The results show that the present k-epsilon model, with added robustness, performs as well as or better than other existing models in predicting the behavior of near-wall turbulence.

  18. An Outpatient, Ambulant-Design, Controlled Human Infection Model Using Escalating Doses of Salmonella Typhi Challenge Delivered in Sodium Bicarbonate Solution

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, Claire S.; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Haworth, Kathryn; Peters, Anna; John, Tessa; Thompson, Ben A. V.; Kerridge, Simon A.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Zhou, Liqing; Holt, Kathryn E.; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lockhart, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Typhoid fever is a major global health problem, the control of which is hindered by lack of a suitable animal model in which to study Salmonella Typhi infection. Until 1974, a human challenge model advanced understanding of typhoid and was used in vaccine development. We set out to establish a new human challenge model and ascertain the S. Typhi (Quailes strain) inoculum required for an attack rate of 60%–75% in typhoid-naive volunteers when ingested with sodium bicarbonate solution. Methods. Groups of healthy consenting adults ingested escalating dose levels of S. Typhi and were closely monitored in an outpatient setting for 2 weeks. Antibiotic treatment was initiated if typhoid diagnosis occurred (temperature ≥38°C sustained ≥12 hours or bacteremia) or at day 14 in those remaining untreated. Results. Two dose levels (103 or 104 colony-forming units) were required to achieve the primary objective, resulting in attack rates of 55% (11/20) or 65% (13/20), respectively. Challenge was well tolerated; 4 of 40 participants fulfilled prespecified criteria for severe infection. Most diagnoses (87.5%) were confirmed by blood culture, and asymptomatic bacteremia and stool shedding of S. Typhi was also observed. Participants who developed typhoid infection demonstrated serological responses to flagellin and lipopolysaccharide antigens by day 14; however, no anti-Vi antibody responses were detected. Conclusions. Human challenge with a small inoculum of virulent S. Typhi administered in bicarbonate solution can be performed safely using an ambulant-model design to advance understanding of host–pathogen interactions and immunity. This model should expedite development of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics for typhoid control. PMID:24519873

  19. Examples of improved reservoir modeling through geostatistical data integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bashore, W.M.; Araktingi, U.G.

    1994-12-31

    Results from four case studies are presented to demonstrate improvements in reservoir modeling and subsequent flow predictions through various uses of geostatistical integration methods. Specifically, these cases highlight improvements gained from (1) better understanding of reservoir geometries through 3D visualization, (2) forward modeling to assess the value of new data prior to acquisition and integration, (3) assessment of reduced uncertainty in porosity prediction through integration of seismic acoustic impedance, and (4) integration of crosswell tomographic and reflection data. The intent of each of these examples is to quantify the add-value of geological and geophysical data integration in engineering terms such as fluid-flow results and reservoir property predictions.

  20. An Improved 360 Degree and Order Model of Venus Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, Nicole J.; Konopliv, Alex S.; Kucinskas, Algis B.; Ford, Peter G.

    1999-01-01

    We present an improved 360 degree and order spherical harmonic solution for Venus' topography. The new model uses the most recent set of Venus altimetry data with spacecraft positions derived from a recent high resolution gravity model. Geometric analysis indicates that the offset between the center of mass and center of figure of Venus is about 10 times smaller than that for the Earth, the Moon, or Mars. Statistical analyses confirm that the RMS topography follows a power law over the central part of the spectrum. Compared to the previous topography model, the new model is more highly correlated with Venus' harmonic gravity field.

  1. An Improved 360 Degree and Order Model of Venus Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, Nicole J.; Konopliv, Alex S.; Kucinskas, Algis B.; Ford, Peter G.

    1999-05-01

    We present an improved 360 degree and order spherical harmonic solution for Venus' topography. The new model uses the most recent set of Venus altimetry data with spacecraft positions derived from a recent high resolution gravity model. Geometric analysis indicates that the offset between the center of mass and center of figure of Venus is about 10 times smaller than that for the Earth, the Moon, or Mars. Statistical analyses confirm that the RMS topography follows a power law over the central part of the spectrum. Compared to the previous topography model, the new model is more highly correlated with Venus' harmonic gravity field.

  2. Improved magnetic field analysis of induction motor models

    SciTech Connect

    Enokizono, Masato; Sadanaga, Yuichiro

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents an improved magnetic field analysis for induction motor models. In the analysis with the conventional numerical modeling of magnetic materials, the vector relations between the flux density and the field intensity under a rotating field cannot be expressed exactly. In this paper, the authors derived the tensor magnetic reluctivity from the data measured with two-dimensional measurement method. This expression is applied to analyze a three-phase induction motor model core. The examples show that the calculated results obtained by the new method are different from those of the conventional modeling.

  3. Numerical analysis of modeling based on improved Elman neural network.

    PubMed

    Jie, Shao; Li, Wang; WeiSong, Zhao; YaQin, Zhong; Malekian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A modeling based on the improved Elman neural network (IENN) is proposed to analyze the nonlinear circuits with the memory effect. The hidden layer neurons are activated by a group of Chebyshev orthogonal basis functions instead of sigmoid functions in this model. The error curves of the sum of squared error (SSE) varying with the number of hidden neurons and the iteration step are studied to determine the number of the hidden layer neurons. Simulation results of the half-bridge class-D power amplifier (CDPA) with two-tone signal and broadband signals as input have shown that the proposed behavioral modeling can reconstruct the system of CDPAs accurately and depict the memory effect of CDPAs well. Compared with Volterra-Laguerre (VL) model, Chebyshev neural network (CNN) model, and basic Elman neural network (BENN) model, the proposed model has better performance. PMID:25054172

  4. Crop model improvement reduces the uncertainty of the response to temperature of multi-model ensembles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve climate change impact estimates, multi-model ensembles (MMEs) have been suggested. MMEs enable quantifying model uncertainty, and their medians are more accurate than that of any single model when compared with observations. However, multi-model ensembles are costly to execute, so model i...

  5. Improvement of Continuous Hydrologic Models and HMS SMA Parameters Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeian Zadeh, Mehdi; Zia Hosseinipour, E.; Abghari, Hirad; Nikian, Ashkan; Shaeri Karimi, Sara; Moradzadeh Azar, Foad

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological models can help us to predict stream flows and associated runoff volumes of rainfall events within a watershed. There are many different reasons why we need to model the rainfall-runoff processes of for a watershed. However, the main reason is the limitation of hydrological measurement techniques and the costs of data collection at a fine scale. Generally, we are not able to measure all that we would like to know about a given hydrological systems. This is very particularly the case for ungauged catchments. Since the ultimate aim of prediction using models is to improve decision-making about a hydrological problem, therefore, having a robust and efficient modeling tool becomes an important factor. Among several hydrologic modeling approaches, continuous simulation has the best predictions because it can model dry and wet conditions during a long-term period. Continuous hydrologic models, unlike event based models, account for a watershed's soil moisture balance over a long-term period and are suitable for simulating daily, monthly, and seasonal streamflows. In this paper, we describe a soil moisture accounting (SMA) algorithm added to the hydrologic modeling system (HEC-HMS) computer program. As is well known in the hydrologic modeling community one of the ways for improving a model utility is the reduction of input parameters. The enhanced model developed in this study is applied to Khosrow Shirin Watershed, located in the north-west part of Fars Province in Iran, a data limited watershed. The HMS SMA algorithm divides the potential path of rainfall onto a watershed into five zones. The results showed that the output of HMS SMA is insensitive with the variation of many parameters such as soil storage and soil percolation rate. The study's objective is to remove insensitive parameters from the model input using Multi-objective sensitivity analysis. Keywords: Continuous Hydrologic Modeling, HMS SMA, Multi-objective sensitivity analysis, SMA Parameters

  6. Improved simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in catchment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    teklesadik, aklilu; van Griensven, Ann; Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater storage can have a significant contribution to stream flow, therefore a thorough understanding of the groundwater surface water interaction is of prime important when doing catchment modeling. The aim of this study is to improve the simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in a catchment model of the upper Zenne River basin located in Belgium. To achieve this objective we used the "Groundwater-Surface water Flow" (GSFLOW) modeling software, which is an integration of the surface water modeling tool "Precipitation and Runoff Modeling system" (PRMS) and the groundwater modeling tool MODFLOW. For this case study, the PRMS model and MODFLOW model were built and calibrated independently. The PRMS upper Zenne River basin model is divided into 84 hydrological response units (HRUs) and is calibrated with flow data at the Tubize gauging station. The spatial discretization of the MODFLOW upper Zenne groundwater flow model consists of 100m grids. Natural groundwater divides and the Brussels-Charleroi canal are used as boundary conditions for the MODFLOW model. The model is calibrated using piezometric data. The GSFLOW results were evaluated against a SWAT model application and field observations of groundwater-surface water interactions along a cross section of the Zenne River and riparian zone. The field observations confirm that there is no exchange of groundwater beyond the Brussel-Charleroi canal and that the interaction at the river bed is relatively low. The results show that there is a significant difference in the groundwater simulations when using GSFLOW versus SWAT. This indicates that the groundwater component representation in the SWAT model could be improved and that a more realistic implementation of the interactions between groundwater and surface water is advisable. This could be achieved by integrating SWAT and MODFLOW.

  7. Utilizing Cloud Computing to Improve Climate Modeling and Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Yang, C.; Liu, K.; Sun, M.; XIA, J.; Huang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Climate studies have become increasingly important due to the global climate change, one of the biggest challenges for the human in the 21st century. Climate data, not only observations data collected from various sensors but also simulated data generated from diverse climate models, are essential for scientists to explore the potential climate change patterns and analyze the complex climate dynamics. Climate modeling and simulation, a critical methodology for simulating the past and predicting the future climate conditions, can produce huge amount of data that contains potentially valuable information for climate studies. However, using modeling method in climate studies poses at least two challenges for scientists. First, running climate models is a computing intensive process, which requires large amounts of computation resources. Second, running climate models is also a data intensive process generating Big geospatial Data (model output), which demands large storage for managing the data and large computing power to process and analyze these data. This presentation introduces a novel framework to tackle the two challenges by 1) running climate models in a cloud environment in an automated fashion, and 2) managing and parallel processing Big model output Data by leveraging cloud computing technologies. A prototype system is developed based on the framework using ModelE as the climate model. Experiment results show that this framework can improve climate modeling in the research cycle by accelerating big data generation (model simulation), big data management (storage and processing) and on demand big data analytics.

  8. Improved community model for social networks based on social mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Zhen; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an improved community model for social networks based on social mobility. The relationship between the group distribution and the community size is investigated in terms of communication rate and turnover rate. The degree distributions, clustering coefficients, average distances and diameters of networks are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the small-world property and can reproduce social networks effectively and efficiently.

  9. Aligning academic continuing medical education with quality improvement: a model for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nancy L; Davis, David A; Johnson, Nathan M; Grichnik, Katherine L; Headrick, Linda A; Pingleton, Susan K; Bower, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    The recent health care quality improvement (QI) movement has called for significant changes to the way that health care is delivered and taught in academic medical centers (AMCs). This movement also has affected academic continuing medical education (CME). In January 2011, to better align the CME and QI efforts of AMCs, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) launched a pilot initiative called Aligning and Educating for Quality (ae4Q). The goal of this pilot was to assist 11 AMCs as they moved to a more integrated model of continuous performance improvement by aligning their quality measurement and improvement with their continuing education endeavors. In this article, the authors describe the development of the ae4Q pilot and the resulting outcomes that have led to ongoing improvements.During the 18-month pilot, AAMC consultants conducted readiness assessments and on-site visits and provided consultation services and Web-based resources based on the AMC's needs. Following these interventions at each site, they then conducted both interviews with participants and postintervention assessment surveys to measure the impact of the pilot. Findings included demonstrated increases in the alignment of CME and QI, a greater use of quality data in CME design and delivery, and a greater use of CME as an intervention for clinical improvement. Two sites also attributed measureable improved clinical outcomes to their participation in the ae4Q pilot. The AAMC has used these findings to create resources and ongoing services to support AMCs as they pursue efforts to align QI and CME. PMID:23969360

  10. Enhanced expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65 improves symptoms of rat parkinsonian models.

    PubMed

    Lee, B; Lee, H; Nam, Y R; Oh, J H; Cho, Y H; Chang, J W

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we report the amelioration of parkinsonian symptoms in rat Parkinson's disease (PD) models, as a result of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65 with a modified cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The transfer of the gene for gamma-amino butryic acid (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme in gama-amino butrylic acid (GABA) production, has been investigated as a means to increase inhibitory synaptic activity. Electrophysiological evidence suggests that the transfer of the GAD65 gene to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can change the excitatory output of this nucleus to inhibitory output. Our in vitro results also demonstrated higher GAD65 expression in cells transfected with the JDK promoter, as compared to cells transfected with the CMV promoter. Also, a rat PD model in which recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 (rAAV2)-JDK-GAD65 was delivered into the STN exhibited significant behavioral improvements, as compared to the saline-injected group. Interestingly, we observed that these behavioral improvements were more obvious in rat PD models in which rAAV2-JDK-GAD65 was injected into the STN than in rat PD models in which rAAV2-CMV-GAD65 was injected into the STN. Moreover, according to electrophysiological data, the rAAV2-JDK-GAD65-injected group exhibited more constant improvements in firing rates than did the rAAV2-CMV-GAD65-injected group. These data indicate that the JDK promoter, when coupled with GAD65 expression, is more effective with regard to parkinsonian symptoms than is the CMV promoter. PMID:15829994

  11. Ensemble Learning of QTL Models Improves Prediction of Complex Traits

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Yang; Holland, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) models can provide useful insights into trait genetic architecture because of their straightforward interpretability but are less useful for genetic prediction because of the difficulty in including the effects of numerous small effect loci without overfitting. Tight linkage between markers introduces near collinearity among marker genotypes, complicating the detection of QTL and estimation of QTL effects in linkage mapping, and this problem is exacerbated by very high density linkage maps. Here we developed a thinning and aggregating (TAGGING) method as a new ensemble learning approach to QTL mapping. TAGGING reduces collinearity problems by thinning dense linkage maps, maintains aspects of marker selection that characterize standard QTL mapping, and by ensembling, incorporates information from many more markers-trait associations than traditional QTL mapping. The objective of TAGGING was to improve prediction power compared with QTL mapping while also providing more specific insights into genetic architecture than genome-wide prediction models. TAGGING was compared with standard QTL mapping using cross validation of empirical data from the maize (Zea mays L.) nested association mapping population. TAGGING-assisted QTL mapping substantially improved prediction ability for both biparental and multifamily populations by reducing both the variance and bias in prediction. Furthermore, an ensemble model combining predictions from TAGGING-assisted QTL and infinitesimal models improved prediction abilities over the component models, indicating some complementarity between model assumptions and suggesting that some trait genetic architectures involve a mixture of a few major QTL and polygenic effects. PMID:26276383

  12. Understanding catchment behavior through stepwise model concept improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Matgen, Patrick; Pfister, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Lack of data is one of the main limitations for hydrological modeling. However, it is often used as a justification for over simplifying, poorly performing models. If we want to enhance our understanding of hydrological systems, it is important to fully exploit the information contained in the available data, and to learn from model deficiencies. In this paper, we propose a methodology where we systematically update the model structure, progressively incorporating new hypotheses of catchment behavior. We apply this methodology to the Alzette river basin in Luxembourg, showing how stepwise model improvement helps to identify the behavior of this catchment. We show that the most significant improvement of the evolving model structure is associated to the characterization of antecedent wetness. This is improved accounting for interception, which affects vertical storage distribution, and accounting for rainfall spatial heterogeneity, which influences storage variations in the horizontal dimension. Overall, our results suggested that, due to the damping effect of the basin, the description of fast catchment response benefits more from spatially distributed information than that of slow catchment response.

  13. Ensemble Learning of QTL Models Improves Prediction of Complex Traits.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yang; Holland, James B

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) models can provide useful insights into trait genetic architecture because of their straightforward interpretability but are less useful for genetic prediction because of the difficulty in including the effects of numerous small effect loci without overfitting. Tight linkage between markers introduces near collinearity among marker genotypes, complicating the detection of QTL and estimation of QTL effects in linkage mapping, and this problem is exacerbated by very high density linkage maps. Here we developed a thinning and aggregating (TAGGING) method as a new ensemble learning approach to QTL mapping. TAGGING reduces collinearity problems by thinning dense linkage maps, maintains aspects of marker selection that characterize standard QTL mapping, and by ensembling, incorporates information from many more markers-trait associations than traditional QTL mapping. The objective of TAGGING was to improve prediction power compared with QTL mapping while also providing more specific insights into genetic architecture than genome-wide prediction models. TAGGING was compared with standard QTL mapping using cross validation of empirical data from the maize (Zea mays L.) nested association mapping population. TAGGING-assisted QTL mapping substantially improved prediction ability for both biparental and multifamily populations by reducing both the variance and bias in prediction. Furthermore, an ensemble model combining predictions from TAGGING-assisted QTL and infinitesimal models improved prediction abilities over the component models, indicating some complementarity between model assumptions and suggesting that some trait genetic architectures involve a mixture of a few major QTL and polygenic effects. PMID:26276383

  14. ILNCSIM: improved lncRNA functional similarity calculation model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-An; Chen, Xing; You, Zhu-Hong; Huang, De-Shuang; Chan, Keith C C

    2016-05-01

    Increasing observations have indicated that lncRNAs play a significant role in various critical biological processes and the development and progression of various human diseases. Constructing lncRNA functional similarity networks could benefit the development of computational models for inferring lncRNA functions and identifying lncRNA-disease associations. However, little effort has been devoted to quantifying lncRNA functional similarity. In this study, we developed an Improved LNCRNA functional SIMilarity calculation model (ILNCSIM) based on the assumption that lncRNAs with similar biological functions tend to be involved in similar diseases. The main improvement comes from the combination of the concept of information content and the hierarchical structure of disease directed acyclic graphs for disease similarity calculation. ILNCSIM was combined with the previously proposed model of Laplacian Regularized Least Squares for lncRNA-Disease Association to further evaluate its performance. As a result, new model obtained reliable performance in the leave-one-out cross validation (AUCs of 0.9316 and 0.9074 based on MNDR and Lnc2cancer databases, respectively), and 5-fold cross validation (AUCs of 0.9221 and 0.9033 for MNDR and Lnc2cancer databases), which significantly improved the prediction performance of previous models. It is anticipated that ILNCSIM could serve as an effective lncRNA function prediction model for future biomedical researches. PMID:27028993

  15. Simulating urban expansion using an improved SLEUTH model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinsheng; Sun, Rui; Yang, Qingyun; Su, Guiwu; Qi, Wenhua

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated urbanization creates challenges of water shortages, air pollution, and reductions in green space. To address these issues, methods for assessing urban expansion with the goal of achieving reasonable urban growth should be explored. In this study, an improved slope, land use, exclusion, urban, transportation, hillshade (SLEUTH) cellular automata model is developed and applied to the city of Tangshan, China, for urban expansion research. There are three modifications intended to improve SLEUTH: first, the utilization of ant colony optimization to calibrate SLEUTH to simplify the calibration procedures and improve their efficiency; second, the introduction of subregional calibration to replace calibration of the entire study area; and third, the incorporation of social and economic data to adjust the self-modification rule of SLEUTH. The first two modifications improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency compared with the original SLEUTH. The third modification fails to improve SLEUTH, and further experiments are needed. Using the improvements to the SLEUTH model, forecasts of urban growth are performed for every year up to 2020 for the city of Tangshan under two scenarios: an inertia trend scenario and a policy-adjusted scenario.

  16. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  17. Improving the Performance Scalability of the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mirin, Arthur; Worley, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), which serves as the atmosphere component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), is the most computationally expensive CCSM component in typical configurations. On current and next-generation leadership class computing systems, the performance of CAM is tied to its parallel scalability. Improving performance scalability in CAM has been a challenge, due largely to algorithmic restrictions necessitated by the polar singularities in its latitude-longitude computational grid. Nevertheless, through a combination of exploiting additional parallelism, implementing improved communication protocols, and eliminating scalability bottlenecks, we have been able to more than double the maximum throughput rate of CAM on production platforms. We describe these improvements and present results on the Cray XT5 and IBM BG/P. The approaches taken are not specific to CAM and may inform similar scalability enhancement activities for other codes.

  18. Does Writing Modeled after Children's Picture Books Improve Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmer, Jean E.

    A study examined whether writing modeled from children's picture books would improve reading comprehension of fourth and fifth graders as much as traditional skills instruction. Subjects, 69 children reading at least one year below grade level from six Chapter 1 Colorado schools, were pretested for reading comprehension levels. Subjects were then…

  19. Improving Schools through Inservice Test Construction: The Rossville Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, David Alan

    A method for improving curriculum and schools through the local development of competency tests in basic skills--the Competency-Rossville Model (CRM)--is outlined. The method was originated in the school system of Rossville (Illinois) and has been tested in five other midwestern school systems. The approach leads the faculty of the school, with…

  20. Model for Improvement of Learning Using Topographic Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, David B.

    The paper develops a method for learning improvement which incorporates the learner in the development of the learning/instructional strategy. To this end, a rate limiting model using topographical brain mapping as an educational intervention is presented. It is suggested that such intervention programs focus on those factors which are…

  1. RDI Advising Model for Improving the Teaching-Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Fuente, Jesus; Lopez-Medialdea, Ana Maria

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Advising in Educational Psychology from the perspective of RDI takes on a stronger investigative, innovative nature. The model proposed by De la Fuente et al (2006, 2007) and Education & Psychology (2007) was applied to the field of improving teaching-learning processes at a school. Hypotheses were as follows: (1) interdependence…

  2. Guiding and Modelling Quality Improvement in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the process of creating quality improvement in higher education institutions from the point of view of current organisational theory and social-science modelling techniques. The author considers the higher education institution as a functioning complex of rules, norms and other organisational features and reviews the social…

  3. Strategies for improving animal models for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Cibelli, Jose; Emborg, Marina E; Prockop, Darwin J; Roberts, Michael; Schatten, Gerald; Rao, Mahendra; Harding, John; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg

    2013-03-01

    The field of regenerative medicine is moving toward translation to clinical practice. However, there are still knowledge gaps and safety concerns regarding stem cell-based therapies. Improving large animal models and methods for transplantation, engraftment, and imaging should help address these issues, facilitating eventual use of stem cells in the clinic. PMID:23472868

  4. Strategies for Improving Animal Models for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cibelli, Jose; Emborg, Marina E.; Prockop, Darwin J.; Roberts, Michael; Schatten, Gerald; Rao, Mahendra; Harding, John; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine is moving toward translation to clinical practice. However, there are still knowledge gaps and safety concerns regarding stem cell-based therapies. Improving large animal models and methods for transplantation, engraftment, and imaging should help address these issues, facilitating eventual use of stem cells in the clinic. PMID:23472868

  5. The Theoretical Basis of the Effective School Improvement Model (ESI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerens, Jaap; Demeuse, Marc

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the process of theoretical reflection that preceded the development and empirical verification of a model of "effective school improvement". The focus is on basic mechanisms that could be seen as underlying "getting things in motion" and change in education systems. Four mechanisms are distinguished: synoptic rational…

  6. Improving Project Management Using Formal Models and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Theodore; Sturken, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This talk discusses the advantages formal modeling and architecture brings to project management. These emerging technologies have both great potential and challenges for improving information available for decision-making. The presentation covers standards, tools and cultural issues needing consideration, and includes lessons learned from projects the presenters have worked on.

  7. The Continuous Improvement Model: A K-12 Literacy Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if the eight steps of the Continuous Improvement Model (CIM) provided a framework to raise achievement and to focus educators in identifying high-yield literacy strategies. This study sought to determine if an examination of the assessment data in reading revealed differences among schools that fully,…

  8. Promoting Continuous Quality Improvement in Online Teaching: The META Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Eileen; McCracken, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Experienced e-learning faculty members share strategies for implementing a comprehensive postsecondary faculty development program essential to continuous improvement of instructional skills. The high-impact META Model (centered around Mentoring, Engagement, Technology, and Assessment) promotes information sharing and content creation, and fosters…

  9. Systematic Improvement of a Classical Molecular Model of Water

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Ponder, Jay W.; Ren, Pengyu; Chodera, John D.; Eastman, Peter K.; Martinez, Todd J.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2013-01-01

    We report the iAMOEBA (i.e. “inexpensive AMOEBA”) classical polarizable water model. iAMOEBA uses a direct approximation to describe electronic polarizability, which reduces the computational cost relative to a fully polarizable model such as AMOEBA. The model is parameterized using ForceBalance, a systematic optimization method that simultaneously utilizes training data from experimental measurements and high-level ab initio calculations. We show that iAMOEBA is a highly accurate model for water in the solid, liquid, and gas phases, with the ability to fully capture the effects of electronic polarization and predict a comprehensive set of water properties beyond the training data set including the phase diagram. The increased accuracy of iAMOEBA over the fully polarizable AMOEBA model demonstrates ForceBalance as a method that allows the researcher to systematically improve empirical models by optimally utilizing the available data. PMID:23750713

  10. An improved intrusion detection model based on paraconsistent logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Zhang, Huanguo; Wang, Lina; Yang, Min

    2005-02-01

    A major difficulty of current intrusion detection model is the attack set cannot be separated from normal set thoroughly. On the basis of paraconsistent logic, an improved intrusion detection model is proposed to solve this problem. We give a proof that the detection model is trivial and discuss the reason of false alerts. A parallel paraconsistent detection algorithm is presented to develop the detection technology based on our model. An experiment using network connection data, which is usually used to evaluate the intrusion detection methods, is given to illustrate the performance of this model. We use one-class supported vector machine (SVM) to train our profiles and use supported vector-clustering (SVC) algorithm to update our detection profiles. Results of the experiment indicate that the detection system based on our model can deal with the uncertain events and reduce the false alerts.

  11. Improving the transferability of hydrological model parameters under changing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yingchun; Bárdossy, András

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological models are widely utilized to describe catchment behaviors with observed hydro-meteorological data. Hydrological process may be considered as non-stationary under the changing climate and land use conditions. An applicable hydrological model should be able to capture the essential features of the target catchment and therefore be transferable to different conditions. At present, many model applications based on the stationary assumptions are not sufficient for predicting further changes or time variability. The aim of this study is to explore new model calibration methods in order to improve the transferability of model parameters. To cope with the instability of model parameters calibrated on catchments in non-stationary conditions, we investigate the idea of simultaneously calibration on streamflow records for the period with dissimilar climate characteristics. In additional, a weather based weighting function is implemented to adjust the calibration period to future trends. For regions with limited data and ungauged basins, the common calibration was applied by using information from similar catchments. Result shows the model performance and transfer quantity could be well improved via common calibration. This model calibration approach will be used to enhance regional water management and flood forecasting capabilities.

  12. Improved 20- to 32-GHz atmospheric absorption model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Pol, Sandra L.; Ruf, Christopher S.; Keihm, Stephen J.

    1998-09-01

    An improved model for the absorption of the atmosphere near the 22-GHz water vapor line is presented. The Van Vleck-Weisskopf line shape is used with a simple parameterized version of the model from Liebe et al. [1993] for the water vapor absorption spectra and a scaling of the model from Rosenkranz [1993] for the 20- to 32-GHz oxygen absorption. Radiometric brightness temperature measurements from two sites of contrasting climatological properties, San Diego, California, and West Palm Beach, Florida, were used as ground truth for comparison with in situ radiosonde-derived brightness temperatures under clear-sky conditions. Estimation of the new model's four parameters, related to water vapor line strength, line width and continuum absorption, and far-wing oxygen absorption, was performed using the Newton-Raphson inversion method. Improvements to the water vapor line strength and line width parameters are found to be statistically significant. The accuracy of the new absorption model is estimated to be 3% between 20 and 24 GHz, degrading to 8% near 32 GHz. In addition, the Hill line shape asymmetry ratio was evaluated in several currently used models to show the agreement of the data with Van Vleck-Weisskopf based models and to rule out water vapor absorption models near 22 GHz given by Waters [1976] and Ulaby et al. [1981], which are based on the Gross line shape.

  13. Evaluation and improvement of the cloud resolving model component of the multi-scale modeling framework

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Cheng, Anning

    2009-10-01

    Developed, implemented and tested an improved Colorado State University (CSU) SAM (System for Atmospheric Modeling) cloud-resolving model (CRM) with the advanced third-order turbulence closure (IPHOC).

  14. The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) Trial: A Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial That Assesses the Impact of Mobile Phone Delivered Reminders and Travel Subsidies to Improve Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates and Timeliness in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kagucia, E. Wangeci; Ochieng, Benard; Hariharan, Nisha; Obor, David; Moulton, Lawrence H; Winch, Peter J; Levine, Orin S; Odhiambo, Frank; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    vaccines for bacille Calmette-Guerin, three doses of pentavalent and polio, and measles by 12 months of age. General estimating equation (GEE) models that account for clustering will be employed for primary outcome analyses. Results Enrollment was completed in October 2014. Twelve month follow-up visits to ascertain immunization status from the maternal and child health booklet were completed in February 2016. Conclusions This is one of the first studies to examine the effect of text message reminders on immunization coverage and timeliness in a lower income country and is the first study to assess the effect of mobile money-based incentives to improve immunization coverage. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01878435; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01878435 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6hQlwGYJR) PMID:27189422

  15. Improvement of a near wake model for trailing vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrung, G. R.; Hansen, M. H.; Madsen, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    A near wake model, originally proposed by Beddoes, is further developed. The purpose of the model is to account for the radially dependent time constants of the fast aerodynamic response and to provide a tip loss correction. It is based on lifting line theory and models the downwash due to roughly the first 90 degrees of rotation. This restriction of the model to the near wake allows for using a computationally efficient indicial function algorithm. The aim of this study is to improve the accuracy of the downwash close to the root and tip of the blade and to decrease the sensitivity of the model to temporal discretization, both regarding numerical stability and quality of the results. The modified near wake model is coupled to an aerodynamics model, which consists of a blade element momentum model with dynamic inflow for the far wake and a 2D shed vorticity model that simulates the unsteady buildup of both lift and circulation in the attached flow region. The near wake model is validated against the test case of a finite wing with constant elliptical bound circulation. An unsteady simulation of the NREL 5 MW rotor shows the functionality of the coupled model.

  16. Correction, improvement and model verification of CARE 3, version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, D. M.; Manke, J. W.; Altschul, R. E.; Nelson, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    An independent verification of the CARE 3 mathematical model and computer code was conducted and reported in NASA Contractor Report 166096, Review and Verification of CARE 3 Mathematical Model and Code: Interim Report. The study uncovered some implementation errors that were corrected and are reported in this document. The corrected CARE 3 program is called version 4. Thus the document, correction. improvement, and model verification of CARE 3, version 3 was written in April 1984. It is being published now as it has been determined to contain a more accurate representation of CARE 3 than the preceding document of April 1983. This edition supercedes NASA-CR-166122 entitled, 'Correction and Improvement of CARE 3,' version 3, April 1983.

  17. On improving the communication between models and data.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Michael C; Lebauer, David S; Kooper, Rob

    2013-09-01

    The potential for model-data synthesis is growing in importance as we enter an era of 'big data', greater connectivity and faster computation. Realizing this potential requires that the research community broaden its perspective about how and why they interact with models. Models can be viewed as scaffolds that allow data at different scales to inform each other through our understanding of underlying processes. Perceptions of relevance, accessibility and informatics are presented as the primary barriers to broader adoption of models by the community, while an inability to fully utilize the breadth of expertise and data from the community is a primary barrier to model improvement. Overall, we promote a community-based paradigm to model-data synthesis and highlight some of the tools and techniques that facilitate this approach. Scientific workflows address critical informatics issues in transparency, repeatability and automation, while intuitive, flexible web-based interfaces make running and visualizing models more accessible. Bayesian statistics provides powerful tools for assimilating a diversity of data types and for the analysis of uncertainty. Uncertainty analyses enable new measurements to target those processes most limiting our predictive ability. Moving forward, tools for information management and data assimilation need to be improved and made more accessible. PMID:23181765

  18. Enhanced efficacy of combination therapy with adeno-associated virus-delivered pigment epithelium-derived factor and cisplatin in a mouse model of Lewis lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    HE, SHA-SHA; WU, QIN-JIE; GONG, CHANG YANG; LUO, SHUN-TAO; ZHANG, SHUANG; LI, MENG; LU, LIAN; WEI, YU-QUAN; YANG, LI

    2014-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, and the antitumor effect of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated PEDF expression has been demonstrated in a range of animal models. The combined treatment of low-dose chemotherapy and gene therapy inhibits the growth of solid tumors more effectively than current traditional therapies or gene therapy alone. In the present study, the effect of treatment with an AAV2 vector harboring the human PEDF (hPEDF) gene in combination with low-dose cisplatin on the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice was assessed. LLC cells were infected with AAV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the presence or absence of cisplatin, and then the effect of cisplatin on AAV-mediated gene expression was evaluated by image and flow cytometric analysis. Tumor growth, survival time, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, microvessel density (MVD) and apoptotic index were analyzed in C57BL/6 mice treated with AAV-hPEDF, cisplatin or cisplatin plus AAV-hPEDF. The results of the present study provide evidence that cisplatin treatment is able to enhance AAV-mediated gene expression in LLC cells. In addition, the combined treatment of cisplatin plus AAV-hPEDF markedly prolonged the survival time of the mice and inhibited tumor growth, resulting in significant suppression of tumor angiogenesis and induction of tumor apoptosis in vivo, and also protected against cisplatin-related toxicity. These findings suggest that combination of AAV-hPEDF and cisplatin has potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. PMID:24714917

  19. Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered via tetracycline-regulated lentiviral vectors in the quinolinic acid rat model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Régulier, E; Pereira de Almeida, L; Sommer, B; Aebischer, P; Déglon, N

    2002-11-01

    The ability to regulate gene expression constitutes a prerequisite for the development of gene therapy strategies aimed at the treatment of neurologic disorders. In the present work, we used tetracycline (Tet)-regulated lentiviral vectors to investigate the dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the quinolinic acid (QA) model of Huntington's disease (HD). The Tet system was split in two lentiviruses, the first one containing the CNTF or green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNAs under the control of the Tet-response element (TRE) and a second vector encoding the transactivator (tTA). Preliminary coinfection study demonstrated that 63.8% +/- 2.0% of infected cells contain at least two viral copies. Adult rats were then injected with CNTF- and GFP-expressing viral vectors followed 3 weeks later by an intrastriatal administration of QA. A significant reduction of apomorphine-induced rotations was observed in the CNTF-on group. In contrast, GFP-treated animals or CNTF-off rats displayed an ipsilateral turning behavior in response to apomorphine. A selective sparing of DARPP-32-, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, and NADPH-d-positive neurons was observed in the striatum of CNTF-on rats compared to GFP animals and CNTF-off group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed on striatal samples of rats sacrificed at the same time point indicated that this neuroprotective effect was associated with the production of 15.5 +/- 4.7 ng CNTF per milligram of protein whereas the residual CNTF expression in the off state (0.54 +/- 0.02 ng/mg of protein) was not sufficient to protect against QA toxicity. These results establish the proof of principle of neurotrophic factor dosing for neurodegenerative diseases and demonstrate the feasibility of lentiviral-mediated tetracycline-regulated gene transfer in the brain. PMID:12427308

  20. Vaginally Delivered Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Provides Greater Protection than Tenofovir against Genital Herpes in a Murine Model of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Briana; Jandl, Thomas; Teller, Ryan S.; Taneva, Ekaterina; Wang, Yanhua; Nagaraja, Umadevi; Kiser, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to genital herpes in medroxyprogesterone-treated mice may provide a surrogate of increased HIV risk and a preclinical biomarker of topical preexposure prophylaxis safety. We evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in this murine model because an intravaginal ring eluting this drug is being advanced into clinical trials. To avoid the complications of surgically inserting a ring, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-stable formulations of TDF were prepared. One week of twice-daily 0.3% TDF gel was well tolerated and did not result in any increase in HSV-2 susceptibility but protected mice from herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) disease compared to mice treated with the HEC placebo gel. No significant increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines in vaginal washes or change in cytokine, chemokine, or mitochondrial gene expression in RNA extracted from genital tract tissue was detected. To further evaluate efficacy, mice were treated with gel once daily beginning 12 h prior to high-dose HSV-2 challenge or 2 h before and after viral challenge (BAT24 dosing). The 0.3% TDF gel provided significant protection compared to the HEC gel following either daily (in 9/10 versus 1/10 mice, P < 0.01) or BAT24 (in 14/20 versus 4/20 mice, P < 0.01) dosing. In contrast, 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel protected only 4/10 mice treated with either regimen. Significant protection was also observed with daily 0.03% TDF compared to HEC. Protection was associated with greater murine cellular permeability of radiolabeled TDF than of TFV. Together, these findings suggest that TDF is safe, may provide substantially greater protection against HSV than TFV, and support the further clinical development of a TDF ring. PMID:24323471

  1. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David J.; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, L. Ruby; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-01

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale land models (as a component of Earth System Models, or ESMs) do not yet reflect the best hydrologic process understanding or utilize the large amount of hydrologic observations for model testing. This paper discusses the opportunities and key challenges to improve hydrologic process representations and benchmarking in ESM land models, suggesting that (1) land model development can benefit from recent advances in hydrology, both through incorporating key processes (e.g., groundwater-surface water interactions) and new approaches to describe multiscale spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; (2) accelerating model advances requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking in order to systematically evaluate competing alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs, and (3) stronger collaboration is needed between the hydrology and ESM modeling communities, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM land model development, and through rigorous evaluation of ESM hydrology performance in research watersheds or Critical Zone Observatories. Such coordinated efforts in advancing hydrology in ESMs have the potential to substantially impact energy, carbon, and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role hydrologic processes play in regulating these cycles.

  2. Methods improvements incorporated into the SAPHIRE ASP models

    SciTech Connect

    Sattison, M.B.; Blackman, H.S.; Novack, S.D.

    1995-04-01

    The Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has sought the assistance of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to make some significant enhancements to the SAPHIRE-based Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models recently developed by the INEL. The challenge of this project is to provide the features of a full-scale PRA within the framework of the simplified ASP models. Some of these features include: (1) uncertainty analysis addressing the standard PRA uncertainties and the uncertainties unique to the ASP models and methods, (2) incorporation and proper quantification of individual human actions and the interaction among human actions, (3) enhanced treatment of common cause failures, and (4) extension of the ASP models to more closely mimic full-scale PRAs (inclusion of more initiators, explicitly modeling support system failures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of the methods being used to make the above improvements.

  3. Improved inline model for nonlocal electron transport in HYDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinak, M. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Patel, M. V.; Robey, H.; Ridgers, C. P.; Kingham, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    The nonlocal electron transport model in HYDRA has been improved in several respects. The original multigroup model has been extended to include the cascade in energy as particles slow down, yielding a more accurate range. The model was also extended to account for contributions to the energy loss rate due to bound electrons. These are among the important modifications that have enabled the package to simulate classes of suprathermal electrons. We show recent calculations using the model that suggest superthermal electrons could be having a significant effect on performance of cryogenic capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility. We evaluate the nonlocal transport model's accuracy by comparison with an electron VFP code. Comparisons assess the accuracy of the calculated thermal transport for plasmas relevant to NIF experiments. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. The improved code TAC maker for modeling of planet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.

    We present improvements of the code TAC-maker for modeling of planet transits. While the initial version of the code calculated synthetic transits for certain values of the input parameters, the new version TAC-maker 1.1.0 gives a possibility to obtain simultaneously numerous synthetic transits corresponding to chosen ranges of values for each fitted parameter. The most valuable property of the improved version of the code is the ability to obtain the global minimum of χ^{2} in the multidimensional parametric space and to estimate the errors of the searched parameters.

  5. Recent Improvements to the Calibration Models for RXTE/PCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahoda, K.

    2008-01-01

    We are updating the calibration of the PCA to correct for slow variations, primarily in energy to channel relationship. We have also improved the physical model in the vicinity of the Xe K-edge, which should increase the reliability of continuum fits above 20 keV. The improvements to the matrix are especially important to simultaneous observations, where the PCA is often used to constrain the continuum while other higher resolution spectrometers are used to study the shape of lines and edges associated with Iron.

  6. Pump for delivering heated fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermomechanical pump particularly suited for use in pumping a warming fluid obtained from an RTG (Radioisotope Thermal Generator) through science and flight instrumentation aboard operative spacecraft is described. The invention is characterized by a pair of operatively related cylinders, each including a reciprocating piston head dividing the cylinder into a pressure chamber confining therein a vaporizable fluid, and a pumping chamber for propelling the warming fluid, and a fluid delivery circuit for alternately delivering the warming fluid from the RTG through the pressure chamber of one cylinder to the pumping chamber of the other cylinder, whereby the vaporizable fluid within the pair of pressure chambers alternately is vaporized and condensed for driving the associated pistons in pumping and intake strokes.

  7. A System Dynamics Model to Improve Water Resources Allocation in the Conchos River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastelum, J. R.; Valdes, J. B.; Stewart, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Conchos river located in Chihuahua state on a semiarid region is the most important Mexican river contributing water deliveries to USA as established by the Water treaty of 1944 signed between Mexico and USA. Historically, Mexico has delivered to UNITED STATES 550 Hm3 (445,549.5 ACF) per year of water since the treaty was established, which is 25% above the yearly water volume Mexico is required to deliver. The Conchos river has contributed with 54% of the historic Mexican water treaty deliveries to the UNITED STATES, which represents the highest percentage of the 6 Mexican rivers considered on the water treaty. However, during drought situations the basin has proven to be vulnerable, for instance, because of the severe drought of the 90's, several cities in 1992 on Chihuahua state where declared disaster areas, and from 1992 to 2001 Mexico had accumulated a water treaty deficit of 2111.6 Hm3 (1,710,586 ACF). This has conduced to economic, social, and political difficulties in both countries. Because of the cited problematic and considering the poor understanding of the relationship between water supply and demand factors on the basin, a decision support system (DSS) has been developed aimed to improve the decision making process related with the water resources allocation process. This DSS has been created using System Dynamics (SD). It is a semi-distributed model and is running on monthly time step basis. For both the short and long term, three important water resources management strategies have been evaluated: several water allocation policies from reservoirs to water users; bulk water rights transfers inside and outside Irrigation Districts; and improvement of water distribution efficiencies. The model results have provided very useful regard to gain more quantitative understanding of the different strategies being implemented. They have also indicated that the different water resources alternatives change its degree of importance according to the

  8. Improved Sharp Interface Models in Coastal Aquifers of Finite Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christelis, Vasileios; Mantoglou, Aristotelis

    2013-04-01

    Coastal aquifer management often involves aquifers of finite dimensions where optimal pumping rates must be calculated through a combined simulation-optimization procedure. Variable-density numerical models are considered more exact than sharp interface models as they better describe the governing flow and transport equations. However, such models are not always preferable in pumping optimization studies, due to their complexity and computational burden. On the other hand, sharp interface models are approximate and can lead to large errors if they are not applied properly, particularly when model boundaries are not treated correctly. The present paper proposes improved sharp interface models considering aquifer boundaries in a proper way. Two sharp interface models are investigated based on the single potential formulation and the Ghyben-Herzberg relation. The first model (Strack, 1976) is based on the assumption of a semi-infinite aquifer with a sea-boundary only. The second model (Mantoglou, 2003) is based on an analytical solution developed for coastal aquifers of finite size and accounts for inland and lateral aquifer boundaries. Next, both models are modified using an empirical correction factor (similar to Pool and Carrera, 2011) which accounts for mixing. A simple pumping optimization problem with a single well in a confined coastal aquifer of finite size with four boundaries (sea, inland and lateral impervious boundaries) is employed. The constraint prevents the toe of the interface to reach the well and the optimal pumping rates are calculated for different locations of the pumping well and different combinations of aquifer parameters. Then the results of the sharp interface models are compared to the 'true' results of the corresponding variable-density numerical model in order to evaluate the performance of the sharp interface models. The results indicate that when the location of the well is close to the sea-boundary, the semi-infinite and the finite

  9. Improvement on the polynomial modeling of digital camera colorimetric characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoqiao; Yu, Hongfei; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghang

    2014-11-01

    The digital camera has become a requisite for people's life, also essential in imaging applications, and it is important to get more accurate colors with digital camera. The colorimetric characterization of digital camera is the basis of image copy and color management process. One of the traditional methods for deriving a colorimetric mapping between camera RGB signals and the tristimulus values CIEXYZ is to use polynomial modeling with 3×11 polynomial transfer matrices. In this paper, an improved polynomial modeling is presented, in which the normalized luminance replaces the camera inherent RGB values in the traditional polynomial modeling. The improved modeling can be described by a two stage model. The first stage, relationship between the camera RGB values and normalized luminance with six gray patches in the X-rite ColorChecker 24-color card was described as "Gamma", camera RGB values were converted into normalized luminance using Gamma. The second stage, the traditional polynomial modeling was improved to the colorimetric mapping between normalized luminance and the CIEXYZ. Meanwhile, this method was used under daylight lighting environment, the users can not measure the CIEXYZ of the color target char using professional instruments, but they can accomplish the task of the colorimetric characterization of digital camera. The experimental results show that: (1) the proposed method for the colorimetric characterization of digital camera performs better than traditional polynomial modeling; (2) it's a feasible approach to handle the color characteristics using this method under daylight environment without professional instruments, the result can satisfy for request of simple application.

  10. Further improvements on a global nuclear mass model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Min; Wang Ning; Deng Yangge; Wu Xizhen

    2011-07-15

    The semi-empirical macroscopic-microscopic mass formula is further improved by considering some residual corrections. The rms deviation from 2149 known nuclear masses is significantly reduced to 336 keV, even lower than that achieved with the best of the Duflo-Zuker models. The {alpha}-decay energies of super-heavy nuclei, the Garvey-Kelson relations, and the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) can be reproduced remarkably well with the model, and the predictive power of the mass model is good. With a systematic study of 17 global nuclear mass models, we find that the quadratic form of the IMME is closely related to the accuracy of nuclear mass calculations when the Garvey-Kelson relations are reproduced reasonably well. Fulfilling both the IMME and the Garvey-Kelson relations seem to be two necessary conditions for improving the quality of the model prediction. Furthermore, the {alpha}-decay energies of super-heavy nuclei should be used as an additional constraint on global nuclear mass models.

  11. Freezable Radiator Model Correlation Improvements and Fluids Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillibridge, Sean; Navarro, Moses

    2011-01-01

    Freezable radiators offer an attractive solution to the issue of thermal control system scalability. As thermal environments change, a freezable radiator will effectively scale the total heat rejection it is capable of as a function of the thermal environment and flow rate through the radiator. Scalable thermal control systems are a critical technology for spacecraft that will endure missions with widely varying thermal requirements. These changing requirements are a result of the space craft s surroundings and because of different thermal rejection requirements during different mission phases. However, freezing and thawing (recovering) a radiator is a process that has historically proven very difficult to predict through modeling, resulting in highly inaccurate predictions of recovery time. To attempt to improve this, tests were conducted in 2009 to determine whether the behavior of a simple stagnating radiator could be predicted or emulated in a Thermal Desktop(trademark) numerical model. A 50-50 mixture of DowFrost HD and water was used as the working fluid. Efforts to scale this model to a full scale design, as well as efforts to characterize various thermal control fluids at low temperatures are also discussed. Previous testing and modeling efforts showed that freezable radiators could be operated as intended, and be fairly, if not perfectly predicted by numerical models. This paper documents the improvements made to the numerical model, and outcomes of fluid studies that were determined necessary to go forward with further radiator testing.

  12. MJO empirical modeling and improved prediction by "Past Noise Forecasting"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, D. A.; Chekroun, M.; Robertson, A. W.; Ghil, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in tropics and plays an important role in global climate. Here we presents modeling and prediction study of MJO by using Empirical Model Reduction (EMR). EMR is a methodology for constructing stochastic models based on the observed evolution of selected climate fields; these models represent unresolved processes as multivariate, spatially correlated stochastic forcing. In EMR, multiple polynomial regression is used to estimate the nonlinear, deterministic propagator of the dynamics, as well as multi-level additive stochastic forcing -"noise", directly from the observational dataset. The EMR approach has been successfully applied on the seasonal-to-interannual time scale for real-time ENSO prediction (Kondrashov et al. 2005), as well as atmospheric midlatitude intraseasonal variability (Kondrashov et al. 2006,2010). In this study nonlinear (quadratic) with annual cycle, three-level EMR model was developed to model and predict leading pair of real-time multivariate Madden-Julian oscillation (RMM1,2) daily indices (June 1974- January 2009, http://cawcr.gov.au/staff/mwheeler/maproom/RMM/). The EMR model captures essential MJO statistical features, such as seasonal dependence, RMM1,2 autocorrelations and spectra. By using the "Past Noise Forecasting" (PNF) approach developed and successfully applied to improve long-term ENSO prediction in Chekroun et al. (2011), we are able to notably improve the cross-validated prediction skill of RMM indices- especially at lead times of 15-to-30 days. The EMR/PNF method has two steps: (i) select noise samples - or "snippets" - from the past noise, which have forced the EMR model to yield the MJO phase resembling the one at the the currently observed state; and (ii) use these "noise" snippets to create ensemble forecast of EMR model. The MJO phase identification is based on Singular Spectrum Analysis reconstruction of 30-60 day MJO cycle.

  13. European tidal gravity: An improvement agreement between observations and models

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.F.; Edge, R.J.; Jeffries, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Tidal gravity observations were made at 5 sites in Europe using improved LaCoste and Romberg ET gravimeters. Special attention was paid to improving the accuracy of determining both the amplitude and phase in tidal gravity measurements. The measuring screws of the gravimeters were calibrated on the well established short range vertical gravity calibration lines at Hannover, FRG. For M{sub 2} and O{sub 1}, it is shown that there is a very significant improvement in the agreement between observations and models compared to previous European tidal gravity measurements. For O{sub 1}, the ocean tide loading and attraction is very small in Europe and these observations verify that the Dehant-Wahr anelastic body tide gravimetric factor is accurate to within 0.2%. There is no dependence upon lateral changes of Earth structure, at least within the accuracy of these measurements.

  14. NEW IMPROVEMENTS TO MFIRE TO ENHANCE FIRE MODELING CAPABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L.; Smith, A.C.; Yuan, L.

    2016-01-01

    NIOSH's mine fire simulation program, MFIRE, is widely accepted as a standard for assessing and predicting the impact of a fire on the mine ventilation system and the spread of fire contaminants in coal and metal/nonmetal mines, which has been used by U.S. and international companies to simulate fires for planning and response purposes. MFIRE is a dynamic, transient-state, mine ventilation network simulation program that performs normal planning calculations. It can also be used to analyze ventilation networks under thermal and mechanical influence such as changes in ventilation parameters, external influences such as changes in temperature, and internal influences such as a fire. The program output can be used to analyze the effects of these influences on the ventilation system. Since its original development by Michigan Technological University for the Bureau of Mines in the 1970s, several updates have been released over the years. In 2012, NIOSH completed a major redesign and restructuring of the program with the release of MFIRE 3.0. MFIRE's outdated FORTRAN programming language was replaced with an object-oriented C++ language and packaged into a dynamic link library (DLL). However, the MFIRE 3.0 release made no attempt to change or improve the fire modeling algorithms inherited from its previous version, MFIRE 2.20. This paper reports on improvements that have been made to the fire modeling capabilities of MFIRE 3.0 since its release. These improvements include the addition of fire source models of the t-squared fire and heat release rate curve data file, the addition of a moving fire source for conveyor belt fire simulations, improvement of the fire location algorithm, and the identification and prediction of smoke rollback phenomena. All the improvements discussed in this paper will be termed as MFIRE 3.1 and released by NIOSH in the near future. PMID:27375301

  15. Process-Improvement Cost Model for the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Dyas, Sheila R; Greenfield, Eric; Messimer, Sherri; Thotakura, Swati; Gholston, Sampson; Doughty, Tracy; Hays, Mary; Ivey, Richard; Spalding, Joseph; Phillips, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a simplified, activity-based costing approach for hospital emergency departments (EDs) to use with Lean Six Sigma cost-benefit analyses. The cost model complexity is reduced by removing diagnostic and condition-specific costs, thereby revealing the underlying process activities' cost inefficiencies. Examples are provided for evaluating the cost savings from reducing discharge delays and the cost impact of keeping patients in the ED (boarding) after the decision to admit has been made. The process-improvement cost model provides a needed tool in selecting, prioritizing, and validating Lean process-improvement projects in the ED and other areas of patient care that involve multiple dissimilar diagnoses. PMID:26720989

  16. Improvements to the analytical linescan model for SEM metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Chris A.; Bunday, Benjamin D.

    2016-03-01

    Critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) metrology has long used empirical approaches to determine edge locations. While such solutions are very flexible, physics-based models offer the potential for improved accuracy and precision for specific applications. Here, Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate theoretical linescans from single step and line/space targets in order to build a physics-based analytical model, including the presence of bottom footing and top corner rounding. The resulting analytical linescan model fits the Monte Carlo simulation results for different feature heights, widths, pitches, sidewall angles, bottom footing, and top corner rounding. This model has also been successfully applied to asymetric features such as sidewall spacers encountered in self-aligned double patterning.

  17. An improved source model for aircraft interior noise studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Fuller, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    There is concern that advanced turboprop engines currently being developed may produce excessive aircraft cabin noise levels. This concern has stimulated renewed interest in developing aircraft interior noise reduction methods that do not significantly increase take off weight. An existing analytical model for noise transmission into aircraft cabins was utilized to investigate the behavior of an improved propeller source model for use in aircraft interior noise studies. The new source model, a virtually rotating dipole, is shown to adequately match measured fuselage sound pressure distributions, including the correct phase relationships, for published data. The virtually rotating dipole is used to study the sensitivity of synchrophasing effectiveness to the fuselage sound pressure trace velocity distribution. Results of calculations are presented which reveal the importance of correctly modeling the surface pressure phase relations in synchrophasing and other aircraft interior noise studies.

  18. Low Complexity Models to improve Incomplete Sensitivities for Shape Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, Mugurel; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moreau, Stéphane

    2003-01-01

    The present global platform for simulation and design of multi-model configurations treat shape optimization problems in aerodynamics. Flow solvers are coupled with optimization algorithms based on CAD-free and CAD-connected frameworks. Newton methods together with incomplete expressions of gradients are used. Such incomplete sensitivities are improved using reduced models based on physical assumptions. The validity and the application of this approach in real-life problems are presented. The numerical examples concern shape optimization for an airfoil, a business jet and a car engine cooling axial fan.

  19. A time-dependent model for improved biogalvanic tissue characterisation.

    PubMed

    Chandler, J H; Culmer, P R; Jayne, D G; Neville, A

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of the passive electrical resistance of biological tissues through biogalvanic characterisation has been proposed as a simple means of distinguishing healthy from diseased tissue. This method has the potential to provide valuable real-time information when integrated into surgical tools. Characterised tissue resistance values have been shown to be particularly sensitive to external load switching direction and rate, bringing into question the stability and efficacy of the technique. These errors are due to transient variations observed in measurement data that are not accounted for in current electrical models. The presented research proposes the addition of a time-dependent element to the characterisation model to account for losses associated with this transient behaviour. Influence of switching rate has been examined, with the inclusion of transient elements improving the repeatability of the characterised tissue resistance. Application of this model to repeat biogalvanic measurements on a single ex vivo human colon tissue sample with healthy and cancerous (adenocarcinoma) regions showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between tissue types. In contrast, an insignificant difference (p > 0.05) between tissue types was found when measurements were subjected to the current model, suggesting that the proposed model may allow for improved biogalvanic tissue characterisation. PMID:26298197

  20. Improvements in Modeling 90 degree Bleed Holes for Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The modeling of porous bleed regions as boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of supersonic inlet flows has been improved through a scaling of sonic flow coefficient data for 90deg bleed holes. The scaling removed the Mach number as a factor in computing the sonic flow coefficient and allowed the data to be fitted with a quadratic equation, with the only factor being the ratio of the plenum static pressure to the surface static pressure. The implementation of the bleed model into the Wind-US CFD flow solver was simplified by no longer requiring the evaluation of the flow properties at the boundary-layer edge. The quadratic equation can be extrapolated to allow the modeling of small amounts of blowing, which can exist when recirculation of the bleed flow occurs within the bleed region. The improved accuracy of the bleed model was demonstrated through CFD simulations of bleed regions on a flat plate in supersonic flow with and without an impinging oblique shock. The bleed model demonstrated good agreement with experimental data and three-dimensional CFD simulations of bleed holes.

  1. A communication tool to improve the patient journey modeling process.

    PubMed

    Curry, Joanne; McGregor, Carolyn; Tracy, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Quality improvement is high on the agenda of Health Care Organisations (HCO) worldwide. Patient journey modeling is a relatively recent innovation in healthcare quality improvement that models the patient's movement through the HCO by viewing it from a patient centric perspective. Critical to the success of the redesigning care process is the involvement of all stakeholders and their commitment to actively participate in the process. Tools which promote this type of communication are a critical enabler that can significantly affect the overall process redesign outcomes. Such a tool must also be able to incorporate additional factors such as relevant policies and procedures, staff roles, system usage and measurements such as process time and cost. This paper presents a graphically based communication tool that can be used as part of the patient journey modeling process to promote stakeholder involvement, commitment and ownership as well highlighting the relationship of other relevant variables that contribute to the patient's journey. Examples of how the tool has been used and the framework employed are demonstrated via a midwife-led primary care case study. A key contribution of this research is the provision of a graphical communication framework that is simple to use, is easily understood by a diverse range of stakeholders and enables ready recognition of patient journey issues. Results include strong stakeholder buy-in and significant enhancement to the overall design of the future patient journey. Initial results indicate that the use of such a communication tool can improve the patient journey modeling process and the overall quality improvement outcomes. PMID:17945852

  2. Improving merge methods for grid-based digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, J. P.; Prodanović, D.; Maksimović, Č.

    2016-03-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are used to represent the terrain in applications such as, for example, overland flow modelling or viewshed analysis. DEMs generated from digitising contour lines or obtained by LiDAR or satellite data are now widely available. However, in some cases, the area of study is covered by more than one of the available elevation data sets. In these cases the relevant DEMs may need to be merged. The merged DEM must retain the most accurate elevation information available while generating consistent slopes and aspects. In this paper we present a thorough analysis of three conventional grid-based DEM merging methods that are available in commercial GIS software. These methods are evaluated for their applicability in merging DEMs and, based on evaluation results, a method for improving the merging of grid-based DEMs is proposed. DEMs generated by the proposed method, called MBlend, showed significant improvements when compared to DEMs produced by the three conventional methods in terms of elevation, slope and aspect accuracy, ensuring also smooth elevation transitions between the original DEMs. The results produced by the improved method are highly relevant different applications in terrain analysis, e.g., visibility, or spotting irregularities in landforms and for modelling terrain phenomena, such as overland flow.

  3. Improved molecular collision models for nonequilibrium rarefied gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Neal

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method typically used to model thermochemical nonequilibrium rarefied gases requires accurate total collision cross sections, reaction probabilities, and molecular internal energy exchange models. However, the baseline total cross sections are often determined from extrapolations of relatively low-temperature viscosity data, reaction probabilities are defined such that experimentally determined equilibrium reaction rates are replicated, and internal energy relaxation models are phenomenological in nature. Therefore, these models have questionable validity in modeling strongly nonequilibrium gases with temperatures greater than those possible in experimental test facilities. To rectify this deficiency, the Molecular Dynamics/Quasi-Classical Trajectories (MD/QCT) method can be used to accurately compute total collision cross sections, reaction probabilities, and internal energy exchange models based on first principles for hypervelocity collision conditions. In this thesis, MD/QCT-based models were used to improve simulations of two unique nonequilibrium rarefied gas systems: the Ionian atmosphere and hypersonic shocks in Earth's atmosphere. The Jovian plasma torus flows over Io at ≈ 57 km/s, inducing high-speed collisions between atmospheric SO2 and the hypervelocity plasma's O atoms and ions. The DSMC method is well-suited to model the rarefied atmosphere, so MD/QCT studies are therefore conducted to improve DSMC collision models of the critical SO2-O collision pair. The MD/QCT trajectory simulations employed a new potential energy surface that was developed using a ReaxFF fit to a set of ab initio calculations. Compared to the MD/QCT results, the baseline DSMC models are found to significantly under-predict total cross sections, use reaction probabilities that are unrealistically high, and give unphysical internal energies above the dissociation energy for non-reacting inelastic collisions and under-predicts post

  4. Improvement of a 2D numerical model of lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimine, Y.

    2013-12-01

    I propose an improved procedure that reduces an improper dependence of lava flow directions on the orientation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in two-dimensional simulations based on Ishihara et al. (in Lava Flows and Domes, Fink, JH eds., 1990). The numerical model for lava flow simulations proposed by Ishihara et al. (1990) is based on two-dimensional shallow water model combined with a constitutive equation for a Bingham fluid. It is simple but useful because it properly reproduces distributions of actual lava flows. Thus, it has been regarded as one of pioneer work of numerical simulations of lava flows and it is still now widely used in practical hazard prediction map for civil defense officials in Japan. However, the model include an improper dependence of lava flow directions on the orientation of DEM because the model separately assigns the condition for the lava flow to stop due to yield stress for each of two orthogonal axes of rectangular calculating grid based on DEM. This procedure brings a diamond-shaped distribution as shown in Fig. 1 when calculating a lava flow supplied from a point source on a virtual flat plane although the distribution should be circle-shaped. To improve the drawback, I proposed a modified procedure that uses the absolute value of yield stress derived from both components of two orthogonal directions of the slope steepness to assign the condition for lava flows to stop. This brings a better result as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 1. (a) Contour plots calculated with the original model of Ishihara et al. (1990). (b) Contour plots calculated with a proposed model.

  5. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  6. Advancing Solid Earth Science through Improved Atmosphere Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niell, A. E.

    2004-01-01

    We proposed to investigate and develop better models for the effect of the hydrostatic and water vapor components of the neutral atmosphere on delay for VLBI and GPS by using a Numerical Weather Model to better simulate realistic atmosphere conditions. By using a raytrace calculation through the model atmosphere at the times of actual VLBI observations, the potential improvement in geodetic results can be evaluated. Also, by calculating the actual variation of delays with elevation and azimuth, the errors in current mapping function models can be assessed. The VLBI data to be initially analyzed are the fifteen days of the CONT02 sessions of 2002 October which included eight stations. There are three segments to the research. 1) The PSU/NCAR fifth generation mesoscale numerical weather model (MM5) will be used to provide the state of the atmosphere with highest horizontal resolution of 3 km. 2) A three-dimensional raytrace program will be developed to determine the delays through the model atmosphere at the times and in the directions of the VLBI observations for each of the sites. 3) The VLBI data will be analyzed using both standard models for the atmosphere mapping functions and the mapping functions derived from the NWM raytracing.

  7. Improved Empirical Models of Plasmaspheric Hiss Intensity and Spectral Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasojevic, M.; Shprits, Y.; Orlova, K.

    2015-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss is a whistler mode emission that permeates the Earth's plasmasphere and is a significant driver of energetic electron losses through cyclotron-resonant pitch angle scattering. The EMFISIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission provides vastly improved measurements of the hiss wave environment including continuous measurements of the wave magnetic field cross-spectral matrix and enhanced low frequency coverage. Here, we develop empirical models of hiss wave intensity and spectral distribution using two years of Van Allen Probes data. First, we describe the construction of the hiss database. Then, we compare the hiss spectral distribution and integrated wave amplitude obtained from Van Allen Probes to those previous extracted from the CRRES mission. We present new models of the hiss frequency distribution that extend to lower frequency than conventional models of hiss. Next, we develop a multiple regression model of the average hiss magnetic field intensity as a function of Kp, L, magnetic latitude and magnetic local time. We use the full regression model to explore general trends in the data and use insights from the model to develop a simplified model of wave intensity for straightforward inclusion in quasi-linear diffusion calculations of electron scattering rates.

  8. Improved macroscopic traffic flow model for aggressive drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A. R.; Velasco, R. M.

    2011-03-24

    As has been done for the treatment of diluted gases, kinetic methods are formulated for the study of unidirectional freeway traffic. Fluid dynamic models obtained from kinetic equations have inherent restrictions, the principal one is the restriction to the low density regime. Macroscopic models obtained from kinetic equations tends to selfrestrict to this regime and makes impossible to observe the medium density region. In this work, we present some results heading to improve this model and extend the observable region. Now, we are presenting a fluid dynamic model for aggressive drivers obtained from kinetic assumptions to extend the model to the medium density region in order to study synchronization phenomena which is a very interesting transition phase between free flow and traffic jams. We are changing the constant variance prefactor condition imposed before by a variance prefactor density dependent, the numerical solution of the model is presented, analyzed and contrasted with the previous one. We are also comparing our results with heuristic macroscopic models and real traffic observations.

  9. Delivering Science from Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Peter Joseph

    2015-08-01

    The SKA will be capable of producing a stream of science data products that are Exa-scale in terms of their storage and processing requirements. This Google-scale enterprise is attracting considerable international interest and excitement from within the industrial and academic communities. In this paper we examine the data flow, storage and processing requirements of a number of key SKA survey science projects to be executed on the baseline SKA1 configuration. Based on a set of conservative assumptions about trends for HPC and storage costs, and the data flow process within the SKA Observatory, it is apparent that survey projects of the scale proposed will potentially drive construction and operations costs beyond the current anticipated SKA1 budget. This implies a sharing of the resources and costs to deliver SKA science between the community and what is contained within the SKA Observatory. A similar situation was apparent to the designers of the LHC more than 10 years ago. We propose that it is time for the SKA project and broader community to consider the effort and process needed to design and implement a distributed science data system that leans on the lessons of other projects and looks to recent developments in Cloud technologies to ensure an affordable, effective and global achievement of science goals.

  10. An improved model for the Earth's gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    An improved model for the Earth's gravity field, TEG-1, was determined using data sets from fourteen satellites, spanning the inclination ranges from 15 to 115 deg, and global surface gravity anomaly data. The satellite measurements include laser ranging data, Doppler range-rate data, and satellite-to-ocean radar altimeter data measurements, which include the direct height measurement and the differenced measurements at ground track crossings (crossover measurements). Also determined was another gravity field model, TEG-1S, which included all the data sets in TEG-1 with the exception of direct altimeter data. The effort has included an intense scrutiny of the gravity field solution methodology. The estimated parameters included geopotential coefficients complete to degree and order 50 with selected higher order coefficients, ocean and solid Earth tide parameters, Doppler tracking station coordinates and the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Extensive error analysis and calibration of the formal covariance matrix indicate that the gravity field model is a significant improvement over previous models and can be used for general applications in geodesy.

  11. Sheet Hydroforming Process Numerical Model Improvement Through Experimental Results Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, Papadia; Antonio, Del Prete; Alfredo, Anglani

    2010-06-01

    The increasing application of numerical simulation in metal forming field has helped engineers to solve problems one after another to manufacture a qualified formed product reducing the required time [1]. Accurate simulation results are fundamental for the tooling and the product designs. The wide application of numerical simulation is encouraging the development of highly accurate simulation procedures to meet industrial requirements. Many factors can influence the final simulation results and many studies have been carried out about materials [2], yield criteria [3] and plastic deformation [4,5], process parameters [6] and their optimization. In order to develop a reliable hydromechanical deep drawing (HDD) numerical model the authors have been worked out specific activities based on the evaluation of the effective stiffness of the blankholder structure [7]. In this paper after an appropriate tuning phase of the blankholder force distribution, the experimental activity has been taken into account to improve the accuracy of the numerical model. In the first phase, the effective capability of the blankholder structure to transfer the applied load given by hydraulic actuators to the blank has been explored. This phase ended with the definition of an appropriate subdivision of the blankholder active surface in order to take into account the effective pressure map obtained for the given loads configuration. In the second phase the numerical results obtained with the developed subdivision have been compared with the experimental data of the studied model. The numerical model has been then improved, finding the best solution for the blankholder force distribution.

  12. Improving NASA's Multiscale Modeling Framework for Tropical Cyclone Climate Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Nelson, Bron; Cheung, Samson; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2013-01-01

    One of the current challenges in tropical cyclone (TC) research is how to improve our understanding of TC interannual variability and the impact of climate change on TCs. Recent advances in global modeling, visualization, and supercomputing technologies at NASA show potential for such studies. In this article, the authors discuss recent scalability improvement to the multiscale modeling framework (MMF) that makes it feasible to perform long-term TC-resolving simulations. The MMF consists of the finite-volume general circulation model (fvGCM), supplemented by a copy of the Goddard cumulus ensemble model (GCE) at each of the fvGCM grid points, giving 13,104 GCE copies. The original fvGCM implementation has a 1D data decomposition; the revised MMF implementation retains the 1D decomposition for most of the code, but uses a 2D decomposition for the massive copies of GCEs. Because the vast majority of computation time in the MMF is spent computing the GCEs, this approach can achieve excellent speedup without incurring the cost of modifying the entire code. Intelligent process mapping allows differing numbers of processes to be assigned to each domain for load balancing. The revised parallel implementation shows highly promising scalability, obtaining a nearly 80-fold speedup by increasing the number of cores from 30 to 3,335.

  13. Improved Modeling in a Matlab-Based Navigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack; Harman, Rick; Larimore, Wallace E.

    1999-01-01

    An innovative approach to autonomous navigation is available for low earth orbit satellites. The system is developed in Matlab and utilizes an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to estimate the attitude and trajectory based on spacecraft magnetometer and gyro data. Preliminary tests of the system with real spacecraft data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Satellite (RXTE) indicate the existence of unmodeled errors in the magnetometer data. Incorporating into the EKF a statistical model that describes the colored component of the effective measurement of the magnetic field vector could improve the accuracy of the trajectory and attitude estimates and also improve the convergence time. This model is identified as a first order Markov process. With the addition of the model, the EKF attempts to identify the non-white components of the noise allowing for more accurate estimation of the original state vector, i.e. the orbital elements and the attitude. Working in Matlab allows for easy incorporation of new models into the EKF and the resulting navigation system is generic and can easily be applied to future missions resulting in an alternative in onboard or ground-based navigation.

  14. An Improved Comprehensive Model for the Apparent Viscosity of Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Anderson, Spencer

    2008-11-01

    An improved comprehensive model for the apparent viscosity of blood is developed and used in simulations of the microcirculation in capillary bundles of rat spinotrapezius muscle fascia. In the microcirculation, the apparent viscosity of blood depends on the local vessel diameter, hematocrit, and shear rate. The proposed comprehensive model extends the apparent viscosity model developed by Pries, Secomb, Gaehtgens, and Gross (Circulation Research, 67, 826-834, 1990), which describes the effect of vessel diameter and hematocrit on the apparent viscosity. A shear thinning term is developed using the experimental data of Lipowsky, Usami, and Chien (Microvascular Research, 19, 297-319, 1980). Curve fits of this data can be combined with equations given in the Pries et al. work to create a system of equations that can be used to find the shear thinning factor. The simulations based on the improved apparent viscosity model use realistic vessel topology for the microvasculature, reconstructed from microscope images of tissue samples, and consider passive and active vessel properties. The numerical method is based on a Hagen-Poiseuille balance in the microvessels and a sparse matrix solver is used to obtain the solution. It was found that the inclusion of the shear factor decreases the overall flowrate in the capillary bundle. Many vessel connections in the fascia are characterized by relatively low shear rates and therefore increased apparent viscosity.

  15. Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, R.; Chipperfield, M.; Savage, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Met Office's operational regional Air Quality Unified Model (AQUM) contains a description of atmospheric chemistry/aerosols which allows for the short-term forecast of chemical weather (e.g. high concentrations of ozone or nitrogen dioxide, which can trigger warnings of poor air quality). AQUM's performance has so far only been tested against a network of surface monitoring stations. Therefore, with recent improvements in the quality and quantity of satellite measurements, data products (e.g. tropospheric columns, vertical profiles) from several satellite instruments will be used to test the performance of the model. First comparisons between an AQUM simulation for the UK heatwave event of July 2006 and data from OMI, TES (both on AURA) and MODIS (on AQUA) have identified multiple model-satellite biases. The chemical/aerosol species investigated for this simulation include nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.55 microns wavelength. NO2 spatial positive mean biases (AQUM-OMI July 2006 monthly mean tropospheric columns) over north- east England suggest model overestimation in the area's urban regions. Currently, sensitivity tests of the NOx emission datasets are investigating these biases and the model's represent of urban pollution. In the UK O3 monthly mean vertical profile comparisons (AQUM-TES), strong positive mean biases are detected in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. Since the AQUM does not use a stratospheric chemistry scheme, the satellite climatological vertical boundary conditions will be investigated (e.g. test the model with new boundary conditions using multiple satellite instruments or perturb existing climatologies). Comparisons of HCHO (AQUM-OMI monthly mean tropospheric columns) biases highlight strong negative biases over continental Europe and sporadic positive biases in the south-east lateral boundary conditions. Therefore, evaluation and development of

  16. Improved Dielectric Solvation Model for Electronic Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, Daniel

    2015-12-16

    This project was originally funded for the three year period from 09/01/2009 to 08/31/2012. Subsequently a No-Cost Extension was approved for a revised end date of 11/30/2013. The primary goals of the project were to develop continuum solvation models for nondielectric short-range interactions between solvent and solute that arise from dispersion, exchange, and hydrogen bonding. These goals were accomplished and are reported in the five peer-reviewed journal publications listed in the bibliography below. The secondary goals of the project included derivation of analytic gradients for the models, improvement of the cavity integration scheme, application of the models to the core-level spectroscopy of water, and several other miscellaneous items. These goals were not accomplished because they depended on completion of the primary goals, after which there was a lack of time for any additional effort.

  17. An improved model for the combustion of AP composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents several improvements to the BDP model of steady-state burning of AP composite solid propellants. The Price-Boggs-Derr model of AP monopropellant burning is incorporated to represent the AP. A separate energy equation is written for the binder to permit a different surface temperature from the AP; this includes an analysis of the sharing of primary diffusion flame energy, and correction of a BDP model inconsistency in treating the binder regression rate. A method for assembling component contributions to calculate the burning rates of multimodal propellants is also presented. Results are shown in the form of representative burning rate curves, comparisons with data, and calculated internal details of interest. Ideas for future work are discussed in an Appendix.

  18. Dialect Topic Modeling for Improved Consumer Medical Search

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, Steven P.; Yang, Shuang-Hong; Zha, Hongyuan; Jiao, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Access to health information by consumers is ham- pered by a fundamental language gap. Current attempts to close the gap leverage consumer oriented health information, which does not, however, have good coverage of slang medical terminology. In this paper, we present a Bayesian model to automatically align documents with different dialects (slang, com- mon and technical) while extracting their semantic topics. The proposed diaTM model enables effective information retrieval, even when the query contains slang words, by explicitly modeling the mixtures of dialects in documents and the joint influence of dialects and topics on word selection. Simulations us- ing consumer questions to retrieve medical information from a corpus of medical documents show that diaTM achieves a 25% improvement in information retrieval relevance by nDCG@5 over an LDA baseline.

  19. Validation of Atmospheric Refraction Modeling Improvements in Satellite Laser Ranging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, G.; Pavlis, E. C.; Mendes, V. B.; Pavlis, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric refraction is an important accuracy-limiting factor in the use of satellite laser ranging (SLR) for high-accuracy science applications. In most of these applications, and particularly for the establishment and monitoring of the TRF, of great interest is the stability of its scale and its implied height system. The modeling of atmospheric refraction in the analysis of SLR data comprises the determination of the delay in the zenith direction and subsequent projection to a given elevation angle, using a mapping function. Standard data analyses practices use the 1973 Marini-Murray model for both zenith delay determination and mapping. This model was tailored for a particular wavelength and is not suitable for all the wavelengths used in modern SLR systems. Mendes et al., [2002] pointed out some limitations in that model, namely as regards the modeling of the elevation dependency of the zenith atmospheric delay (the mapping function component of the model). The mapping functions developed by Mendes et al. [2002] represent a significant improvement over the built-in mapping function of the Marini-Murray model and other known mapping functions. Of particular note is the ability of the new mapping functions to be used in combination with any zenith delay model, used to predict the atmospheric zenith delay. Mendes and Pavlis [2002] concluded also that current zenith delay models have errors at the millimeter level, which increase significantly at 0.355 micrometers, reflecting inadequacy in the dispersion formulae incorporated in these models. In a next step therefore, a more accurate zenith delay model was developed, applicable to the range of wavelengths used in modern SLR instrumentation (0.355 to 1.064 micrometers), [Mendes and Pavlis, 2004]. Using ray tracing through a large database of radiosonde and globally distributed satellite data, as well as the analysis of several years of SLR tracking data, we assess the new zenith delay models and mapping functions

  20. Improved engine wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plengsaard, Chalearmpol

    Improved wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are presented in this research. The classical Werner-Wengle (WW) wall shear stress model is used along with near-wall sub-grid scale viscosity. A sub-grid scale turbulent kinetic energy is employed in a model for the eddy viscosity. To gain better heat flux results, a modified classical variable-density wall heat transfer model is also used. Because no experimental wall shear stress results are available in engines, the fully turbulent developed flow in a square duct is chosen to validate the new wall models. The model constants in the new wall models are set to 0.01 and 0.8, respectively and are kept constant throughout the investigation. The resulting time- and spatially-averaged velocity and temperature wall functions from the new wall models match well with the law-of-the-wall experimental data at Re = 50,000. In order to study the effect of hot air impinging walls, jet impingement on a flat plate is also tested with the new wall models. The jet Reynolds number is equal to 21,000 and a fixed jet-to-plate spacing of H/D = 2.0. As predicted by the new wall models, the time-averaged skin friction coefficient agrees well with experimental data, while the computed Nusselt number agrees fairly well when r/D > 2.0. Additionally, the model is validated using experimental data from a Caterpillar engine operated with conventional diesel combustion. Sixteen different operating engine conditions are simulated. The majority of the predicted heat flux results from each thermocouple location follow similar trends when compared with experimental data. The magnitude of peak heat fluxes as predicted by the new wall models is in the range of typical measured values in diesel combustion, while most heat flux results from previous LES wall models are over-predicted. The new wall models generate more accurate predictions and agree better with experimental data.

  1. Peer Assessment with Online Tools to Improve Student Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Leslie J.

    2012-11-01

    Introductory physics courses often require students to develop precise models of phenomena and represent these with diagrams, including free-body diagrams, light-ray diagrams, and maps of field lines. Instructors expect that students will adopt a certain rigor and precision when constructing these diagrams, but we want that rigor and precision to be an aid to sense-making rather than meeting seemingly arbitrary requirements set by the instructor. By giving students the authority to develop their own models and establish requirements for their diagrams, the sense that these are arbitrary requirements diminishes and students are more likely to see modeling as a sense-making activity. The practice of peer assessment can help students take ownership; however, it can be difficult for instructors to manage. Furthermore, it is not without risk: students can be reluctant to critique their peers, they may view this as the job of the instructor, and there is no guarantee that students will employ greater rigor and precision as a result of peer assessment. In this article, we describe one approach for peer assessment that can establish norms for diagrams in a way that is student driven, where students retain agency and authority in assessing and improving their work. We show that such an approach does indeed improve students' diagrams and abilities to assess their own work, without sacrificing students' authority and agency.

  2. Improved Earth Sensor Performance Using a Sequentially Correlated Noise Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Spacecraft attitude estimation by means of an extended Kalman filter requires a reasonably true model of the inherent noise of each sensor. For some sensors, the largest uncorrected noise comes not from the sensor itself, but from errors in the model for the predicted observations. This is certainly the case for Earth horizon sensors. The Earth horizon as seen from low Earth orbit is nearly a circle whose radius depends primarily on altitude. A straightforward latitude-dependent correction is added to this to account for the oblateness of the Earth. There also are both seasonal and stochastic variations in the horizon height. The seasonal variations can be predicted to some limited degree based on models de(ived from historical data. The stochastic component characteristically shows variations that are correlated both in time and space but which are unpredictable over long time spans. This work investigates whether Earth horizon sensor performance can be improved by solving for its systematic error as an augmentation of an attitude Kalman filter. It is found that using only Earth and Sun sensors, the augmented state is not fully observable. Even when magnetometer data is included, only the pitch axis component of the error can be improved; the roll component is unobservable.

  3. Improved Earth Sensor Performance Using a Sequentially Correlated Noise Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, J.

    1999-01-01

    Spacecraft attitude estimation by means of an extended Kalman filter requires a reasonably true model of the inherent noise of each sensor. For some sensors, the largest uncorrected noise comes not from the sensor itself, but from errors in the model for the predicted observations. This is certainly the case for Earth horizon sensors. The Earth horizon as seen from low Earth orbit is nearly a circle whose radius depends primarily on altitude. A straightforward latitude-dependent correction is added to this to account for the oblateness of the Earth. There also are both seasonal and stochastic variations in the horizon height. The seasonal variations can be predicted to some limited degree based on models derived from historical data. The stochastic component characteristically shows variations that are correlated both in time and space but which are unpredictable over long time spans. This work investigates whether Earth horizon sensor performance can be improved by solving for its systematic error as an augmentation of an attitude Kalman filter. It is found that using only Earth and Sun sensors, the augmented state is not fully observable. Even when magnetometer data is included, only the pitch axis component of the error can be improved; the roll component is unobservable.

  4. Improved intra-species collision models for PIC simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Lemons, D.S.; Winske, D.

    1998-07-01

    In recent years, the authors have investigated methods to improve the effectiveness of modeling collisional processes in particle-in-cell codes. Through the use of generalized collision models, plasma dynamics can be followed both in the regime of nearly collisionless plasmas as well as in the hydrodynamic limit of collisional plasmas. They have developed a collision-field method to treat both the case of collisions between unlike plasma species (inter-species collisions), through the use of a deterministic, grid-based force, and between particles of the same species (intra-species collisions), through the use of a Langevin equation. While the approach used for inter-species collisions is noise-free in that the collision experienced by a particle does not require any random numbers, such random numbers are used for intra-species collisions. This gives rise to a stochastic cooling effect inherent in the Langevin approach. In this paper, the authors concentrate on intra-species collisions and describe how the accuracy of the model can be improved by appropriate corrections to velocity and spatial moments.

  5. Febuxostat improves outcome in a rat model of cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Masaaki; Pelgrim, Loes; Tschirner, Anika; Baumgarten, Anna; von Haehling, Stephan; Palus, Sandra; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D; Springer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Background Activity of xanthine oxidase is induced in cancer cachexia, and its inhibition by allopurinol or oxypurinol improves survival and reduces wasting in the Yoshida hepatoma cancer cachexia model. Here, we tested the effects of the second-generation xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat compared with placebo in the same model as used previously by our group. Methods Wistar rats (∽200 g) were treated daily with febuxostat at 5 mg/kg/day or placebo via gavage for a maximum of 17 days. Weight change, quality of life, and body composition were analysed. After sacrifice, proteasome activity in the gastrocnemius muscle was measured. Muscle-specific proteins involved in metabolism were analysed by western blotting. Results Treatment of the tumour-bearing rats with febuxostat led to a significantly improved survival compared with placebo (hazard ratio: 0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.22–0.93, P = 0.03). Loss of body weight was reduced (−26.3 ± 12.4 g) compared with placebo (−50.2 ± 2.1 g, P < 0.01). Wasting of lean mass was attenuated (−12.7 ± 10.8 g) vs. placebo (−31.9 ± 2.1 g, P < 0.05). While we did not see an effect of febuxostat on proteasome activity at the end of the study, the pAkt/Akt ratio was improved by febuxostat (0.94 ± 0.09) vs. placebo (0.41 ± 0.05, P < 0.01), suggesting an increase in protein synthesis. Conclusions Febuxostat attenuated cachexia progression and improved survival of tumour-bearing rats. PMID:26136193

  6. Using Ionosonde-Based Indices to Improve Ionospheric Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Steven; Bilitza, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    In this study new ionospheric indices are presented for the representation of the solar cycle variation of the F2 peak plasma frequency foF2 and the related F2 peak density NmF2. The indices use different groups of ionosonde stations and follow the methodology for the construction of the "global effective sunspot number" (IG) given by Liu et al. (1982). These new indices are derived using monthly median daytime foF2 ionosonde measurements from selected ionosonde stations and distinguish between Northern and Southern hemispheres. We also investigate the differences in these indices when the URSI-88 model is used for foF2 instead of the CCIR model that was used by Liu et al (1982). This is important because the URSI-88 model is the model recommended in IRI. The effectiveness of these new indices is evaluated with a large volume of ionosonde measurements (96 stations) and their performance is compared to that of the IG12 index, currently used in IRI, and to the widely used F10.7 solar index. For the evaluation, a full model representation is used for foF2 including annual and semi-annual oscillatory terms, linear solar terms and cross terms. Our study shows that improvements of several percent can be achieved with these new indices compared to the IG12 index currently used in IRI. Liu, R., P. Smith, and J. King (1983), A new solar index which leads to improved foF2 predictions using the CCIR atlas, Telecommun. J., 50, 408-414

  7. Use of a business excellence model to improve conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Black, Simon; Groombridge, Jim

    2010-12-01

    The current shortfall in effectiveness within conservation biology is illustrated by increasing interest in "evidence-based conservation," whose proponents have identified the need to benchmark conservation initiatives against actions that lead to proven positive effects. The effectiveness of conservation policies, approaches, and evaluation is under increasing scrutiny, and in these areas models of excellence used in business could prove valuable. Typically, conservation programs require years of effort and involve rigorous long-term implementation processes. Successful balance of long-term efforts alongside the achievement of short-term goals is often compromised by management or budgetary constraints, a situation also common in commercial businesses. "Business excellence" is an approach many companies have used over the past 20 years to ensure continued success. Various business excellence evaluations have been promoted that include concepts that could be adapted and applied in conservation programs. We describe a conservation excellence model that shows how scientific processes and results can be aligned with financial and organizational measures of success. We applied the model to two well-documented species conservation programs. In the first, the Po'ouli program, several aspects of improvement were identified, such as more authority for decision making in the field and better integration of habitat management and population recovery processes. The second example, the black-footed ferret program, could have benefited from leadership effort to reduce bureaucracy and to encourage use of best-practice species recovery approaches. The conservation excellence model enables greater clarity in goal setting, more-effective identification of job roles within programs, better links between technical approaches and measures of biological success, and more-effective use of resources. The model could improve evaluation of a conservation program's effectiveness and may be

  8. Improvement of non-isobaric model for shock ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahbod, Amir Hossein; Abolfazl Ghasemi, Seyed; Jafar Jafari, Mohammad; Rezaei, Somayeh; Sobhanian, Samad

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, improved relations of total fuel energy, fuel gain, hot-spot radius and total areal density in a non-isobaric model of fuel assembly have been derived and compared with the numerical results of [J. Schmitt, J.W. Bates, S.P. Obenschain, S.T. Zalesak, D.E. Fyfe, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010); S. Atzeni, A. Marocchino, A. Schiavi, G. Schurtz, New J. Phys. 15, 045004 (2013)] and several simulations performed by MULTI-1D radiation hydrodynamic code for shock ignition scenario. Our calculations indicate that the approximations made by [M.D. Rosen, J.D. Lindl, A.R. Thiessen, LLNL Laser Program Annual Report, UCRL-50021-83, pp. 3-5 (1983); J. Schmitt, J.W. Bates, S.P. Obenschain, S.T. Zalesak, D.E. Fyfe, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010)] for the calculation of burn-up fraction are not accurate enough to give results consistent with simulations. Therefore, we have introduced more appropriate approximations for the burn-up fraction and total areal density of the fuel that are in more agreement with simulation results of shock ignition. Meanwhile, it is shown that the related formulas of the non-isobaric model for total fuel energy, fuel gain and also hot-spot radius cannot determine the model parameters independently, but improved model choose a better selection and less restrictions on determination of the parameters for the non-isobaric model. Such derivations can be used in theoretical studies of the ignition conditions and burn-up fraction of the fuel in shock ignition scenario.

  9. Using the Cascade Model to Improve Antenatal Screening for the Hemoglobin Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Dinah; Papadopoulos, Irena; Kelly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The inherited hemoglobin disorders constitute a major public health problem. Facilitators (experienced hemoglobin counselors) were trained to deliver knowledge and skills to "frontline" practitioners to enable them to support parents during antenatal screening via a cascade (train-the-trainer) model. Objectives of evaluation were to…

  10. Ultravisible warped model from flavor triviality and improved naturalness

    SciTech Connect

    Delaunay, Cedric; Gedalia, Oram; Lee, Seung J.; Perez, Gilad; Ponton, Eduardo

    2011-06-01

    A warped extra-dimensional model, where the standard model Yukawa hierarchy is set by UV physics, is shown to have a sweet spot of parameters with improved experimental visibility and possibly naturalness. Upon marginalizing over all the model parameters, a Kaluza-Klein scale of 2.1 TeV can be obtained at 2{sigma} (95.4% C.L.) without conflicting with electroweak precision measurements. Fitting all relevant parameters simultaneously can relax this bound to 1.7 TeV. In this bulk version of the Rattazzi-Zaffaroni shining model, flavor violation is also highly suppressed, yielding a bound of 2.4 TeV. Nontrivial flavor physics at the LHC in the form of flavor gauge bosons is predicted. The model is also characterized by a depletion of the third-generation couplings--as predicted by the general minimal flavor violation framework--which can be tested via flavor precision measurements. In particular, sizable CP violation in {Delta}B=2 transitions can be obtained, and there is a natural region where B{sub s} mixing is predicted to be larger than B{sub d} mixing, as favored by recent Tevatron data. Unlike other proposals, the new contributions are not linked to Higgs or any scalar exchange processes.

  11. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  12. Generation of improved humanized mouse models for human infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Michael A.; Wiles, Michael V.; Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2014-01-01

    The study of human-specific infectious agents has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models. More recently development of novel strains of immunodeficient mice has begun to provide the opportunity to utilize small animal models for the study of many human-specific infectious agents. The introduction of a targeted mutation in the IL2 receptor common gamma chain gene (IL2rgnull) in mice already deficient in T and B cells led to a breakthrough in the ability to engraft hematopoietic stem cells, as well as functional human lymphoid cells and tissues, effectively creating human immune systems in immunodeficient mice. These humanized mice are becoming increasingly important as pre-clinical models for the study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and other human-specific infectious agents. However, there remain a number of opportunities to further improve humanized mouse models for the study of human-specific infectious agents. This is being done by the implementation of innovative technologies, which collectively will accelerate the development of new models of genetically modified mice, including; i) modifications of the host to reduce innate immunity, which impedes human cell engraftment; ii) genetic modification to provide human-specific growth factors and cytokines required for optimal human cell growth and function; iii) and new cell and tissue engraftment protocols. The development of “next generation” humanized mouse models continues to provide exciting opportunities for the establishment of robust small animal models to study the pathogenesis of human-specific infectious agents, as well as for testing the efficacy of therapeutic agents and experimental vaccines. PMID:24607601

  13. Improved Focalization of Electrical Microstimulation Using Microelectrode Arrays: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Joucla, Sébastien; Yvert, Blaise

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular electrical stimulation (EES) of the central nervous system (CNS) has been used empirically for decades, with both fundamental and clinical goals. Currently, microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer new possibilities for CNS microstimulation. However, although focal CNS activation is of critical importance to achieve efficient stimulation strategies, the precise spatial extent of EES remains poorly understood. The aim of the present work is twofold. First, we validate a finite element model to compute accurately the electrical potential field generated throughout the extracellular medium by an EES delivered with MEAs. This model uses Robin boundary conditions that take into account the surface conductance of electrode/medium interfaces. Using this model, we determine how the potential field is influenced by the stimulation and ground electrode impedances, and by the electrical conductivity of the neural tissue. We confirm that current-controlled stimulations should be preferred to voltage-controlled stimulations in order to control the amplitude of the potential field. Second, we evaluate the focality of the potential field and threshold-distance curves for different electrode configurations. We propose a new configuration to improve the focality, using a ground surface surrounding all the electrodes of the array. We show that the lower the impedance of this surface, the more focal the stimulation. In conclusion, this study proposes new boundary conditions for the design of precise computational models of extracellular stimulation, and a new electrode configuration that can be easily incorporated into future MEA devices, either in vitro or in vivo, for a better spatial control of CNS microstimulation. PMID:19279677

  14. Gravitational model improvement at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F. J.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Smith, D. E.; Klosko, S. M.; Pavlis, E. C.; Robbins, J. W.; Williamson, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    Major new computations of terrestrial gravitational field models were performed by the Geodynamics Branch of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This development has incorporated the present state of the art results in satellite geodesy and have relied upon a more consistent set of reference constants than was heretofore utilized in GSFC's GEM models. The solutions are complete in spherical harmonic coefficients out to degree 50 for the gravity field parameters. These models include adjustment for a subset of 66 ocean tidal coefficients for the long wavelength components of 12 major ocean tides. This tidal adjustment was made in the presence of 550 other fixed ocean tidal terms representing 32 major and minor ocean tides and the Wahr frequency dependent solid earth tidal model. In addition 5-day averaged values for Earth rotation and polar motion were derived for the time period of 1980 onward. Two types of models were computed. These are satellite only models relying exclusively on tracking data and combination models which have incorporated satellite altimetry and surface gravity data. The satellite observational data base consists of over 1100 orbital arcs of data on 31 satellites. A large percentage of these observations were provided by third generation laser stations (less than 5 cm). A calibration of the model accuracy of the GEM-T2 satellite only solution indicated that it was a significant improvement over previous models based solely upon tracking data. The rms geoid error for this field is 110 cm to degree and order 36. This is a major advancement over GEM-T1 whose errors were estimated to be 160 cm. An error propagation using the covariances of the GEM-T2 model for the TOPEX radial orbit component indicates that the rms radial errors are expected to be 12 cm. The combination solution, PGS-3337, is a preliminary effort leading to the development of GEM-T3. PGS-3337 has incorporated global sets of surface gravity data and the Seasat altimetry to produce a

  15. Improving the predictive value of interventional animal models data.

    PubMed

    Zeiss, Caroline J

    2015-04-01

    For many chronic diseases, translational success using the animal model paradigm has reached an impasse. Using Alzheimer's disease as an example, this review employs a networks-based method to assess repeatability of outcomes across species, by intervention and mechanism. Over 75% of animal studies reported an improved outcome. Strain background was a significant potential confounder. Five percent of interventions had been tested across animals and humans, or examined across three or more animal models. Positive outcomes across species emerged for donepezil, memantine and exercise. Repeatable positive outcomes in animals were identified for the amyloid hypothesis and three additional mechanisms. This approach supports in silico reduction of positive outcomes bias in animal studies. PMID:25448761

  16. An Improved Degree-day Melt Model Considering Albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Strasser, U.; Burlando, P.; Funk, M.; Brock, B.; Corripio, J.

    Albedo is a major controlling factor for the melting of snow and ice. Here, an en- hanced degree-day melt model for the point scale is presented, in which the classical dependency on temperature is extended by considering albedo and global radiation. Temperature based index melt methods have been widely used due to their good per- formances, the availability of temperature data and the ease of its spatial interpolation. Other authors have recently improved the standard approach by addition of a radiation term. Here, the latter is modified with albedo, which represents a physical property of the material, and accounts for the way the surface reacts to the energy input of global radiation. The formulation adopted is additive, being melt expressed as the sum of two components, one controlled by temperature and the second by short-wave incoming radiation. Such a representation allows to separate in a clear way the two important contributions to melt of long wave and global radiation The model was run at different sites where the necessary meteorological data are measured and melt values are avail- able. In the pre-alpine site of Col de Porte (French Alps, 1340m), melt was computed by use of a highly sophisticated, physically based energy balance model. An ultrasonic device was used at a glacier location on Haut Glacier d'Arolla (Swiss Alps, 2920 m). Both measured short-wave radiation and computed potential direct short-wave radia- tion were used, and different temporal resolutions were tested. Results are discussed with the purpose of evaluating the increased efficiency of the improved degree-day scheme, and in the light of extending it to a distributed model, which accounts for space-time albedo variability.

  17. Flooding Experiments and Modeling for Improved Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Solmos, M., Hogan, K.J., VIerow, K.

    2008-09-14

    Countercurrent two-phase flow and “flooding” phenomena in light water reactor systems are being investigated experimentally and analytically to improve reactor safety of current and future reactors. The aspects that will be better clarified are the effects of condensation and tube inclination on flooding in large diameter tubes. The current project aims to improve the level of understanding of flooding mechanisms and to develop an analysis model for more accurate evaluations of flooding in the pressurizer surge line of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Interest in flooding has recently increased because Countercurrent Flow Limitation (CCFL) in the AP600 pressurizer surge line can affect the vessel refill rate following a small break LOCA and because analysis of hypothetical severe accidents with the current flooding models in reactor safety codes shows that these models represent the largest uncertainty in analysis of steam generator tube creep rupture. During a hypothetical station blackout without auxiliary feedwater recovery, should the hot leg become voided, the pressurizer liquid will drain to the hot leg and flooding may occur in the surge line. The flooding model heavily influences the pressurizer emptying rate and the potential for surge line structural failure due to overheating and creep rupture. The air-water test results in vertical tubes are presented in this paper along with a semi-empirical correlation for the onset of flooding. The unique aspects of the study include careful experimentation on large-diameter tubes and an integrated program in which air-water testing provides benchmark knowledge and visualization data from which to conduct steam-water testing.

  18. Quantifying urban street configuration for improvements in air pollution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Beekhuizen, Johan; Beelen, Rob; Wang, Meng; Vermeulen, Roel; Brunekreef, Bert; Huss, Anke; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    In many built-up urban areas, tall buildings along narrow streets obstruct the free flow of air, resulting in higher pollution levels. Input data to account for street configuration in models are difficult to obtain for large numbers of streets. We describe an approach to calculate indicators of this "urban canyon effect" using 3-dimensional building data and evaluated whether these indicators improved spatially resolved land use regression (LUR) models.Concentrations of NO2 and NOx were available from 132 sites in the Netherlands. We calculated four indicators for canyon effects at each site: (1) the maximum aspect ratio (building height/width of the street) between buildings on opposite sides of the street, (2) the mean building angle, which is the angle between the horizontal street level and the line of sight to the top of surrounding buildings, (3) median building angle and (4) "SkyView Factor" (SVF), a measure of the total fraction of visible sky. Basic LUR models were computed for both pollutants using common predictors such as household density, land-use and nearby traffic intensity. We added each of the four canyon indicators to the basic LUR models and evaluated whether they improved the model.The calculated aspect ratio agreed well (R2 = 0.49) with aspect ratios calculated from field observations. Explained variance (R2) of the basic LUR models without canyon indicators was 80% for NO2 and 76% for NOx, and increased to 82% and 78% respectively if SVF was included. Despite this small increase in R2, contrasts in SVF (10th-90th percentile) resulted in substantial concentration differences of 5.56 μg m-3 in NO2 and 10.9 μg m-3 in NOx.We demonstrated a GIS based approach to quantify the obstruction of free air flow by buildings, applicable for large numbers of streets. Canyon indicators could be valuable to consider in air pollution models, especially in areas with low- and high-rise canyons.

  19. Plans for performance and model improvements in the LISE++ software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchera, M. P.; Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.; Sherrill, B. M.; Tarasova, K. V.

    2016-06-01

    The LISE++ software for fragment separator simulations is undergoing a major update. LISE++ is the standard software used at in-flight separator facilities for predicting beam intensity and purity. The code simulates nuclear physics experiments where fragments are produced and then selected with a fragment separator. A set of modifications to improve the functionality of the code is discussed in this work. These modifications include transportation to a modern graphics framework and updated compilers to aid in the performance and sustainability of the code. To accommodate the diversity of our users' computer platform preferences, we extend the software from Windows to a cross-platform application. The calculations of beam transport and isotope production are becoming more computationally intense with the new large scale facilities. Planned new features include new types of optimization, for example, optimization of ion optics, improvements in reaction models, and new event generator options. In addition, LISE++ interface with control systems are planned. Computational improvements as well as the schedule for updating this large package will be discussed.

  20. Improving the representation of Arctic photosynthesis in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Sloan, V. L.; Norby, R. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this models must accurately represent the terrestrial carbon cycle. Although Arctic carbon fluxes are small relative to global carbon fluxes, uncertainty is large. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis and most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity. Two key parameters required by the FvCB model are an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is typically fixed for a given plant functional type (PFT). Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. We examined the derivation of Vc,max and Jmax in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max and Jmax for a range of Arctic PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. We found that the values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic plants in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured, and contemporary temperature response functions for Vc,max also appear to underestimate Vc,max at low temperature. ESMs typically use a single multiplier (JVratio) to convert Vc,max to Jmax, however we found that the JVratio of Arctic plants is higher than current estimates suggesting that Arctic PFTs will be more responsive to rising carbon dioxide than currently projected. In addition we are exploring remotely sensed methods to scale up key biochemical (e.g. leaf N, leaf mass area) and physiological (e.g. Vc,max and Jmax) properties that drive model representation of photosynthesis in the Arctic. Our data suggest that the Arctic tundra has a much greater capacity for CO2 uptake, particularly at low temperature, and will be more CO2 responsive

  1. Policy improvement by a model-free Dyna architecture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kao-Shing; Lo, Chia-Yue

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to accelerate the process of policy improvement in reinforcement learning. The proposed Dyna-style system combines two learning schemes, one of which utilizes a temporal difference method for direct learning; the other uses relative values for indirect learning in planning between two successive direct learning cycles. Instead of establishing a complicated world model, the approach introduces a simple predictor of average rewards to actor-critic architecture in the simulation (planning) mode. The relative value of a state, defined as the accumulated differences between immediate reward and average reward, is used to steer the improvement process in the right direction. The proposed learning scheme is applied to control a pendulum system for tracking a desired trajectory to demonstrate its adaptability and robustness. Through reinforcement signals from the environment, the system takes the appropriate action to drive an unknown dynamic to track desired outputs in few learning cycles. Comparisons are made between the proposed model-free method, a connectionist adaptive heuristic critic, and an advanced method of Dyna-Q learning in the experiments of labyrinth exploration. The proposed method outperforms its counterparts in terms of elapsed time and convergence rate. PMID:24808427

  2. Structure determination and improved model of plant photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Amunts, Alexey; Toporik, Hila; Borovikova, Anna; Nelson, Nathan

    2010-01-29

    Photosystem I functions as a sunlight energy converter, catalyzing one of the initial steps in driving oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Functionally, Photosystem I captures sunlight and transfers the excitation energy through an intricate and precisely organized antenna system, consisting of a pigment network, to the center of the molecule, where it is used in the transmembrane electron transfer reaction. Our current understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms underlying these processes has profited greatly from elucidation of the crystal structures of the Photosystem I complex. In this report, we describe the developments that ultimately led to enhanced structural information of plant Photosystem I. In addition, we report an improved crystallographic model at 3.3-A resolution, which allows analysis of the structure in more detail. An improved electron density map yielded identification and tracing of subunit PsaK. The location of an additional ten beta-carotenes as well as five chlorophylls and several loop regions, which were previously uninterpretable, are now modeled. This represents the most complete plant Photosystem I structure obtained thus far, revealing the locations of and interactions among 17 protein subunits and 193 non-covalently bound photochemical cofactors. Using the new crystal structure, we examine the network of contacts among the protein subunits from the structural perspective, which provide the basis for elucidating the functional organization of the complex. PMID:19923216

  3. Improved transcranial magnetic stimulation coil design with realistic head modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2013-03-01

    We are investigating Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a noninvasive technique based on electromagnetic induction which causes stimulation of the neurons in the brain. TMS can be used as a pain-free alternative to conventional electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) which is still widely implemented for treatment of major depression. Development of improved TMS coils capable of stimulating subcortical regions could also allow TMS to replace invasive deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires surgical implantation of electrodes in the brain. Our new designs allow new applications of the technique to be established for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications of psychiatric disorders and neurological diseases. Calculation of the fields generated inside the head is vital for the use of this method for treatment. In prior work we have implemented a realistic head model, incorporating inhomogeneous tissue structures and electrical conductivities, allowing the site of neuronal activation to be accurately calculated. We will show how we utilize this model in the development of novel TMS coil designs to improve the depth of penetration and localization of stimulation produced by stimulator coils.

  4. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  5. Improving default risk prediction using Bayesian model uncertainty techniques.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Reza; Mosleh, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Credit risk is the potential exposure of a creditor to an obligor's failure or refusal to repay the debt in principal or interest. The potential of exposure is measured in terms of probability of default. Many models have been developed to estimate credit risk, with rating agencies dating back to the 19th century. They provide their assessment of probability of default and transition probabilities of various firms in their annual reports. Regulatory capital requirements for credit risk outlined by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision have made it essential for banks and financial institutions to develop sophisticated models in an attempt to measure credit risk with higher accuracy. The Bayesian framework proposed in this article uses the techniques developed in physical sciences and engineering for dealing with model uncertainty and expert accuracy to obtain improved estimates of credit risk and associated uncertainties. The approach uses estimates from one or more rating agencies and incorporates their historical accuracy (past performance data) in estimating future default risk and transition probabilities. Several examples demonstrate that the proposed methodology can assess default probability with accuracy exceeding the estimations of all the individual models. Moreover, the methodology accounts for potentially significant departures from "nominal predictions" due to "upsetting events" such as the 2008 global banking crisis. PMID:23163724

  6. IMPROVED NUMERICAL METHODS FOR MODELING RIVER-AQUIFER INTERACTION.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Sue Tillery; Phillip King

    2008-09-01

    A new option for Local Time-Stepping (LTS) was developed to use in conjunction with the multiple-refined-area grid capability of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) groundwater modeling program, MODFLOW-LGR (MF-LGR). The LTS option allows each local, refined-area grid to simulate multiple stress periods within each stress period of a coarser, regional grid. This option is an alternative to the current method of MF-LGR whereby the refined grids are required to have the same stress period and time-step structure as the coarse grid. The MF-LGR method for simulating multiple-refined grids essentially defines each grid as a complete model, then for each coarse grid time-step, iteratively runs each model until the head and flux changes at the interfacing boundaries of the models are less than some specified tolerances. Use of the LTS option is illustrated in two hypothetical test cases consisting of a dual well pumping system and a hydraulically connected stream-aquifer system, and one field application. Each of the hypothetical test cases was simulated with multiple scenarios including an LTS scenario, which combined a monthly stress period for a coarse grid model with a daily stress period for a refined grid model. The other scenarios simulated various combinations of grid spacing and temporal refinement using standard MODFLOW model constructs. The field application simulated an irrigated corridor along the Lower Rio Grande River in New Mexico, with refinement of a small agricultural area in the irrigated corridor.The results from the LTS scenarios for the hypothetical test cases closely replicated the results from the true scenarios in the refined areas of interest. The head errors of the LTS scenarios were much smaller than from the other scenarios in relation to the true solution, and the run times for the LTS models were three to six times faster than the true models for the dual well and stream-aquifer test cases, respectively. The results of the field application

  7. Advanced Model for Extreme Lift and Improved Aeroacoustics (AMELIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtwardt, Jonathan; Paciano, Eric; Jameson, Tina; Fong, Robert; Marshall, David

    2012-01-01

    With the very recent advent of NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project (ERA), which is dedicated to designing aircraft that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment, there is a need for research and development of methodologies to minimize fuel burn, emissions, and reduce community noise produced by regional airliners. ERA tackles airframe technology, propulsion technology, and vehicle systems integration to meet performance objectives in the time frame for the aircraft to be at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 4-6 by the year of 2020 (deemed N+2). The proceeding project that investigated similar goals to ERA was NASA's Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW). SFW focused on conducting research to improve prediction methods and technologies that will produce lower noise, lower emissions, and higher performing subsonic aircraft for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. The work provided in this investigation was a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contract #NNL07AA55C funded by Subsonic Fixed Wing. The project started in 2007 with a specific goal of conducting a large-scale wind tunnel test along with the development of new and improved predictive codes for the advanced powered-lift concepts. Many of the predictive codes were incorporated to refine the wind tunnel model outer mold line design. The large scale wind tunnel test goal was to investigate powered lift technologies and provide an experimental database to validate current and future modeling techniques. Powered-lift concepts investigated were Circulation Control (CC) wing in conjunction with over-the-wing mounted engines to entrain the exhaust to further increase the lift generated by CC technologies alone. The NRA was a five-year effort; during the first year the objective was to select and refine CESTOL concepts and then to complete a preliminary design of a large-scale wind tunnel model for the large scale test. During the second, third, and fourth years the large-scale wind

  8. A new approach for improving flood model predictions based on the sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostache, R.; Corato, G.; Chini, M.; Wood, M.; Giustarini, L.; Matgen, P.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic models represent an important component in flood prediction systems. Unfortunately, providing reliable model predictions and reducing the associated uncertainties remain challenging; especially for poorly gauged river basins. As SAR flood image databases are significant (and expected to grow rapidly with contributions from new satellites such as Sentinel-1) there are obvious opportunities to use these flood images to improve model predictions. In this context our aim is to contribute to the development of a global and near real-time remote sensing service that delivers flood predictions to support flood management around the globe. The study takes advantage of recently developed efficient, rapid and automatic algorithms for the delineation of flood extent using SAR images. The main objective of the study is to show how near real-time sequential assimilation of SAR derived flood extents can improve model predictions. As a test case we use the July 2007 flood event of the river Severn (UK) and the February 2007 flood event of the lower river Zambezi (Mozambique). We use the Lisflood-FP hydraulic model and we adopt the particle filter as assimilation technique. An important issue in the framework of the assimilation of remote sensing-derived information is to quantify observation uncertainty. To do so we introduce an original image processing approach that assigns to each pixel a 'probability to be flooded' based on its backscatter values. The sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent maps show a significant improvement in the hydraulic model predictions although the addition of sequences of images with similar flood extents has some limit. The main achievement of the study is that model predictions are clearly improved by the assimilation of SAR derived flood extent not only in terms of predicted flooded areas but also in terms of predicted discharge and water level hydrographs.

  9. A new approach for improving flood model predictions based on the sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostache, Renaud; Corato, Giovanni; Chini, Marco; Wood, Melissa; Giustarini, Laura; Matgen, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Hydrodynamic models represent an important component in flood prediction systems. However, providing reliable model predictions and reducing the associated uncertainties remain challenging, especially in poorly gauged river basins. As Synthetic Aperture Radar-derived flood image databases are significant (and expected to grow rapidly with contributions from new satellites such as Sentinel-1) there are emerging opportunities for using these data collections to improve model predictions. In this context our aim is to contribute to the development of a global and near real-time remote sensing-based service that delivers flood predictions to support flood management. The study takes advantage of recently developed efficient, rapid and automatic algorithms for the delineation of flood extent using SAR images. The main objective of the study is to show how near real-time sequential assimilation of SAR derived flood extents can improve model predictions. As a test case we use the July 2007 flood event of the river Severn (UK) and the February 2007 flood event of the lower Zambezi (Mozambique). We use the Lisflood-FP hydraulic model and we adopt a particle filter-based assimilation scheme. An important issue in the framework of the assimilation of remote sensing-derived information is to quantify observation uncertainty. To do so we introduce for the first time an image processing approach that assigns to each pixel a 'probability to be flooded' based on its backscatter values. The sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent maps shows a significant improvement in the hydraulic model predictions. The main achievement of the study is that model predictions are clearly improved by the assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent not only in terms of predicted flooded areas but also in terms of predicted discharge and water level surface elevation hydrographs.

  10. Improving modeled snow albedo estimates during the spring melt season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. Jahanzeb; Velde, Rogier; Vekerdy, Zoltan; Su, Zhongbo

    2014-06-01

    Snow albedo influences snow-covered land energy and water budgets and is thus an important variable for energy and water fluxes calculations. Here, we quantify the performance of the three existing snow albedo parameterizations under alpine, tundra, and prairie snow conditions when implemented in the Noah land surface model (LSM)—Noah's default and ones from the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) LSMs. The Noah LSM is forced with and its output is evaluated using in situ measurements from seven sites in U.S. and France. Comparison of the snow albedo simulations with the in situ measurements reveals that the three parameterizations overestimate snow albedo during springtime. An alternative snow albedo parameterization is introduced that adopts the shape of the variogram for the optically thick snowpacks and decreases the albedo further for optically thin conditions by mixing the snow with the land surface (background) albedo as a function of snow depth. In comparison with the in situ measurements, the new parameterization improves albedo simulation of the alpine and tundra snowpacks and positively impacts the simulation of snow depth, snowmelt rate, and upward shortwave radiation. An improved model performance with the variogram-shaped parameterization can, however, not be unambiguously detected for prairie snowpacks, which may be attributed to uncertainties associated with the simulation of snow density. An assessment of the model performance for the Upper Colorado River Basin highlights that with the variogram-shaped parameterization Noah simulates more evapotranspiration and larger runoff peaks in Spring, whereas the Summer runoff is lower.

  11. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Improves Target Coverage and Parotid Gland Sparing When Delivering Total Mucosal Irradiation in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck of Unknown Primary Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bhide, Shreerang Clark, Catherine; Harrington, Kevin; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2007-10-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with occult primary site represents a controversial clinical problem. Conventional total mucosal irradiation (TMI) maximizes local control, but at the expense of xerostomia. IMRT has been shown to spare salivary tissue in head and cancer patients. This study has been performed to investigate the potential of IMRT to perform nodal and TMI and also allow parotid gland sparing in this patient group. Conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and IMRT plans were produced for six patients to treat the ipsilateral (involved) post-operative neck (PTV1) and the un-operated contralateral neck and mucosal axis (PTV2). Plans were produced with and without the inclusion of nasopharynx in the PTV2. The potential to improve target coverage and spare the parotid glands was investigated for the IMRT plans. There was no significant difference in the mean doses to the PTV1 using CRT and IMRT (59.7 and 60.0 respectively, p = 0.5). The maximum doses to PTV1 and PTV2 were lower for the IMRT technique as compared to CRT (P = 0.008 and P < 0.0001), respectively, and the minimum doses to PTV1 and PTV2 were significantly higher for IMRT as compared to CRT (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001), respectively, illustrating better dose homogeneity with IMRT. The mean dose to the parotid gland contralateral to PTV1 was significantly lower for IMRT (23.21 {+-} 0.7) as compared to CRT (50.5 {+-} 5.8) (P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in parotid dose between plans with and without the inclusion of the nasopharynx. IMRT offers improved dose homogeneity in PTV1 and PTV2 and allows for parotid sparing.

  12. improved vegetation phenology in the JULES land-surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, S. O.

    2013-12-01

    Sietse Los, Steven Hancock, Peter North, Jose Gomez-Dans Introduction: Land-surface properties such as albedo, soil moisture and vegetation biophysical parameters affect water, energy and carbon fluxes from the land to the atmosphere an this can alter weather patterns. Here we use globally consistent satellite observations to improve modelling of the vegetation seasonal cycle in the JULES land-surface model (LSM) to better represent these fluxes. JULES model: The JULES LSM is the land surface component of the suite of UK MetOffice general circulation models. JULES is used both in operational weather forecasting and for simulations of future climate. Within JULES, seasonal changes in surface albedo are controlled by snow (not covered here) and vegetation dynamics (phenology). Vegetation phenology is controlled by temperature and water availability, with timings and rates set by a number of trigger thresholds and leaf growth/death rates. Satellite data: The ability of JULES to represent vegetation, in terms of its seasonal cycle as well as the interannual variation, was tested on normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI = (near-infrared - red) / (near-infrared + red)) data. JULES uses a 1D radiative transfer model to predict hemispheric surface albedo for a given leaf area whilst satellites measure reflectance from a single view direction and this may not match the hemispheric albedo. To test this, JULES predictions were compared to the FLIGHT (a 3D radiative transfer model) simulations for different view directions. This revealed that either NDVI profiles need to be normalised to allow a direct comparison (as done here) or else the JULES 1D model must be replaced by a full 3D radiative transfer model, which is computationally expensive. Experiments: The original phenology module in JULES was optimised against NDVI observations using a Monte-Carlo Markov chain method. This optimisation was unsuccessful; and we therefore concluded that the JULES phenology cannot

  13. The Urgent Need for Improved Climate Models and Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Lisa; Baethgen, Walter; Kirtman, Ben; Meehl, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    An investment over the next 10 years of the order of US$2 billion for developing improved climate models was recommended in a report (http://wcrp.wmo.int/documents/WCRP_WorldModellingSummit_Jan2009.pdf) from the May 2008 World Modelling Summit for Climate Prediction, held in Reading, United Kingdom, and presented by the World Climate Research Programme. The report indicated that “climate models will, as in the past, play an important, and perhaps central, role in guiding the trillion dollar decisions that the peoples, governments and industries of the world will be making to cope with the consequences of changing climate.” If trillions of dollars are going to be invested in making decisions related to climate impacts, an investment of $2 billion, which is less than 0.1% of that amount, to provide better climate information seems prudent. One example of investment in adaptation is the World Bank's Climate Investment Fund, which has drawn contributions of more than $6 billion for work on clean technologies and adaptation efforts in nine pilot countries and two pilot regions. This is just the beginning of expenditures on adaptation efforts by the World Bank and other mechanisms, focusing on only a small fraction of the nations of the world and primarily aimed at anticipated anthropogenic climate change. Moreover, decisions are being made now, all around the world—by individuals, companies, and governments—that affect people and their livelihoods today, not just 50 or more years in the future. Climate risk management, whether related to projects of the scope of the World Bank's or to the planning and decisions of municipalities, will be best guided by meaningful climate information derived from observations of the past and model predictions of the future.

  14. Improving the representation of Arctic photosynthesis in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.; Sloan, V. L.; Wyatt, R. A.; Kubien, D. S.; Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this they must accurately represent the carbon fluxes associated with the terrestrial carbon cycle. Although Arctic carbon fluxes are small - relative to global carbon fluxes - uncertainty is large. As part of a multidisciplinary project to improve the representation of the Arctic in ESMs (Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic) we are examining the photosynthetic parameterization of the Arctic plant functional type (PFT) in ESMs. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis. Most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity. Two key parameters required by the FvCB model are an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is usually fixed for a given PFT. Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max for the Arctic PFT in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. We examined the derivation of Vc,max and Jmax in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max and Jmax for 7 species representing both dominant vegetation and key Arctic PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. The values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic PFTs in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured in these species. Examination of the derivation of Vc,max in ESMs identified that the cause of the relatively low Vc,max value was the result of underestimating both the leaf N content and the investment of that N in Rubisco. Contemporary temperature response functions for Vc,max also appear to underestimate Vc,max at low temperature. ESMs typically use a single multiplier (JVratio) to convert Vc,max to Jmax for all PFTs. We found that the JVratio of

  15. Improvement of snowpack simulations in a regional climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, J.; Miller, N.L.

    2011-01-10

    To improve simulations of regional-scale snow processes and related cold-season hydroclimate, the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3), developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), was coupled with the Pennsylvania State University/NCAR fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). CLM3 physically describes the mass and heat transfer within the snowpack using five snow layers that include liquid water and solid ice. The coupled MM5–CLM3 model performance was evaluated for the snowmelt season in the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwestern United States using gridded temperature and precipitation observations, along with station observations. The results from MM5–CLM3 show a significant improvement in the SWE simulation, which has been underestimated in the original version of MM5 coupled with the Noah land-surface model. One important cause for the underestimated SWE in Noah is its unrealistic land-surface structure configuration where vegetation, snow and the topsoil layer are blended when snow is present. This study demonstrates the importance of the sheltering effects of the forest canopy on snow surface energy budgets, which is included in CLM3. Such effects are further seen in the simulations of surface air temperature and precipitation in regional weather and climate models such as MM5. In addition, the snow-season surface albedo overestimated by MM5–Noah is now more accurately predicted by MM5–CLM3 using a more realistic albedo algorithm that intensifies the solar radiation absorption on the land surface, reducing the strong near-surface cold bias in MM5–Noah. The cold bias is further alleviated due to a slower snowmelt rate in MM5–CLM3 during the early snowmelt stage, which is closer to observations than the comparable components of MM5–Noah. In addition, the over-predicted precipitation in the Pacific Northwest as shown in MM5–Noah is significantly decreased in MM5 CLM3 due to the lower evaporation resulting from the

  16. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gangsheng; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Steinweg, Jessica M.; Gu, Lianhong; Post, Wilfred M.

    2014-07-11

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks due to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here, we enhanced the Microbial-Enzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, i.e., MEND with dormancy and MEND without dormancy, against long-term (270 d) lab incubations of four soils with isotopically-labeled substrates. MEND without dormancy adequately fitted multiple observations (total and 14C respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. The MEND with dormancy improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20 71% over the MEND without dormancy. We observed large differences for two fitted model parameters, the specific maintenance and growth rates for active microbes, depending on whether dormancy was considered. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with observations in multiple carbon pools are necessary to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling.

  17. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Gangsheng; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Steinweg, Jessica M.; Gu, Lianhong; Post, Wilfred M.

    2014-07-11

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks due to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here, we enhanced the Microbial-Enzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, i.e., MEND with dormancy and MEND without dormancy, against long-term (270 d) lab incubations of fourmore » soils with isotopically-labeled substrates. MEND without dormancy adequately fitted multiple observations (total and 14C respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. The MEND with dormancy improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20 71% over the MEND without dormancy. We observed large differences for two fitted model parameters, the specific maintenance and growth rates for active microbes, depending on whether dormancy was considered. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with observations in multiple carbon pools are necessary to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling.« less

  18. Improved knowledge diffusion model based on the collaboration hypernetwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiang-Pan; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Guang-Yong; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-06-01

    The process for absorbing knowledge becomes an essential element for innovation in firms and in adapting to changes in the competitive environment. In this paper, we present an improved knowledge diffusion hypernetwork (IKDH) model based on the idea that knowledge will spread from the target node to all its neighbors in terms of the hyperedge and knowledge stock. We apply the average knowledge stock V(t) , the variable σ2(t) , and the variance coefficient c(t) to evaluate the performance of knowledge diffusion. By analyzing different knowledge diffusion ways, selection ways of the highly knowledgeable nodes, hypernetwork sizes and hypernetwork structures for the performance of knowledge diffusion, results show that the diffusion speed of IKDH model is 3.64 times faster than that of traditional knowledge diffusion (TKDH) model. Besides, it is three times faster to diffuse knowledge by randomly selecting "expert" nodes than that by selecting large-hyperdegree nodes as "expert" nodes. Furthermore, either the closer network structure or smaller network size results in the faster knowledge diffusion.

  19. Sensor Placement Guide for Structural Joint Stiffness Model Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. B.; Park, Y. S.

    1997-09-01

    The first requirement for an effective structural dynamic modification and control is an accurate finite element (FE model) having dynamic properties (natural frequencies and mode shapes, etc.) close to the measured values from real structures. The differences between the two models are attributed mainly to the uncertainties on joint regions, so an intermediate process to improve the FE model by adjusting and identifying joint properties is needed. A robust identification method is necessary to get reliable joint characteristics, and the selection of sensor positions plays a key role. All present methods of sensor positioning are a compromise between reliability and efficiency. This paper suggests a faster, automatic and more reliable sensor placement method. Based on an iterative scheme, it is similar to the effective independent method. Also, to overcome the shortcomings of the previous methods, it proposes a maximum allowable number of degrees of freedom that can be deleted at each iteration. This increases the ability to select optimum sensor positions. The suggested method was tested and verified with a satellite solar array and a T-shaped beam structure.

  20. Delivering Faster Congestion Feedback with the Mark-Front Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chunlei; Jain, Raj

    2001-01-01

    Computer networks use congestion feedback from the routers and destinations to control the transmission load. Delivering timely congestion feedback is essential to the performance of networks. Reaction to the congestion can be more effective if faster feedback is provided. Current TCP/IP networks use timeout, duplicate Acknowledgement Packets (ACKs) and explicit congestion notification (ECN) to deliver the congestion feedback, each provides a faster feedback than the previous method. In this paper, we propose a markfront strategy that delivers an even faster congestion feedback. With analytical and simulation results, we show that mark-front strategy reduces buffer size requirement, improves link efficiency and provides better fairness among users. Keywords: Explicit Congestion Notification, mark-front, congestion control, buffer size requirement, fairness.

  1. Concurrent erythropoietin and hypothermia treatment improve outcomes in a term nonhuman primate model of perinatal asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Traudt, Christopher M.; McPherson, Ronald J.; Bauer, Larry A.; Richards, Todd L.; Burbacher, Thomas M.; McAdams, Ryan M.; Juul, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Up to 65% of untreated infants suffering from moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are at risk of death or major disability. Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) reduces this risk to approximately 50% (number needed to treat 7-9). Erythropoietin (Epo) is a neuroprotective treatment that is promising as an adjunctive therapy to decrease HIE-induced injury because Epo decreases apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative injury, and promotes glial cell survival, and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that HT and concurrent Epo will be safe, effective, improve survival and reduce moderate-severe cerebral palsy (CP) in a term nonhuman primate model of perinatal asphyxia. Methodology 35 Macaca nemestrina were delivered after 15-18 min of umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) and randomized to saline (n=14), HT only (n=9) or HT+Epo (n=12). There were 12 unasphyxiated controls. Epo (3500 U/kg × 1 followed by 3 doses of 2500 U/Kg, or Epo 1000 U/kg/d × 4 doses) was given on days 1, 2, 3, and 7. Timed blood samples were collected to measure plasma Epo concentrations. Animals underwent MRI/MRS and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at < 72 hours of age and again at 9 months. A battery of weekly developmental assessments was performed. Results UCO resulted in death or moderate-severe CP in 43% of saline, 44% of HT, and 0% of HT+Epo treated animals. Compared to non-UCO control animals, UCO animals exhibit poor weight gain, behavioral impairment, poor cerebellar growth and abnormal brain DTI. Compared to UCO saline, UCO HT+Epo improved motor and cognitive responses, cerebellar growth, DTI measures, and produced a death/disability relative risk reduction of 0.911 (95% CI −0.429 to 0.994), an absolute risk reduction of 0.395 (95% CI 0.072 to 0.635), and a number needed to treat of 2 (95% CI 14 to 2). HT+Epo effects on DTI included improved mode of anisotropy, fractional anisotropy, relative anisotropy and volume ratio as compared to UCO saline treated infants. No adverse

  2. Gravity model improvement using GEOS-3 (GEM 9 and 10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Laubscher, R. E.; Wagner, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The use of collocation permitted GEM 9 to be a larger field than previous derived satellite models, GEM 9 having harmonics complete to 20 x 20 with selected higher degree terms. The satellite data set has approximately 840,000 observations, of which 200,000 are laser ranges taken on 9 satellites equipped with retroreflectors. GEM 10 is complete to 22 x 22 with selected higher degree terms out to degree and order 30 amounting to a total of 592 coefficients. Comparisons with surface gravity and altimeter data indicate a substantial improvement in GEM 9 over previous satellite solutions; GEM 9 is in even closer agreement with surface data than the previously published GEM 6 solution which contained surface gravity. In particular the free air gravity anomalies calculated from GEM 9 and a surface gravity solution are in excellent agreement for the high degree terms.

  3. Skill improvement from increased ensemble size and model diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelSole, Timothy; Nattala, Jyothi; Tippett, Michael K.

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes an objective procedure for deciding if the skill of a combination of forecasts is significantly larger than that of a single forecast, and for deciding if the observed improvement is dominated by reduction of noise associated with ensemble averaging, or by addition of new predictable signals. Information theory provides an attractive framework for addressing these questions. The procedure is applied to El Niño-Southern Oscillation hindcasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) and reveals that the observed skill advantage of the NMME compared to individual models is substantially greater than that expected from increased ensemble size alone and is more consistent with the addition of new signals.

  4. Improving parallel I/O autotuning with performance modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Behzad, Babak; Byna, Surendra; Wild, Stefan M.; Prabhat, -; Snir, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Various layers of the parallel I/O subsystem offer tunable parameters for improving I/O performance on large-scale computers. However, searching through a large parameter space is challenging. We are working towards an autotuning framework for determining the parallel I/O parameters that can achieve good I/O performance for different data write patterns. In this paper, we characterize parallel I/O and discuss the development of predictive models for use in effectively reducing the parameter space. Furthermore, applying our technique on tuning an I/O kernel derived from a large-scale simulation code shows that the search time can be reduced from 12 hours to 2more » hours, while achieving 54X I/O performance speedup.« less

  5. Improving parallel I/O autotuning with performance modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Behzad, Babak; Byna, Surendra; Wild, Stefan M.; Prabhat, -; Snir, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Various layers of the parallel I/O subsystem offer tunable parameters for improving I/O performance on large-scale computers. However, searching through a large parameter space is challenging. We are working towards an autotuning framework for determining the parallel I/O parameters that can achieve good I/O performance for different data write patterns. In this paper, we characterize parallel I/O and discuss the development of predictive models for use in effectively reducing the parameter space. Furthermore, applying our technique on tuning an I/O kernel derived from a large-scale simulation code shows that the search time can be reduced from 12 hours to 2 hours, while achieving 54X I/O performance speedup.

  6. A improvement to the cluster recognition model for peripheral collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Mignerey, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    Among the microscopic dynamical simulations used for the study of the evolution of nuclear collisions at energies around 100 MeV, it has ben found, that the BUU-type of calculation describes adequately the general features of nuclear collisions in that energy regime. The BUU method consists of the numerical solution of the modified Vlaslov equation for a generated phase-space distribution of nucleons. It generally describes satisfactorily the first stages of a nuclear reaction, however it is not able to separate the fragments formed during the projectile-target interaction. It therefore is necessary to insert a clusterization procedure to obtain the primary fragments of the reaction. The general description of the clustering model proposed by the authors can be found elsewhere. The current paper deals with improvements that have been made to the clustering procedure.

  7. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model-1 (GMM-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S-bank tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9, and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of optimum weighting and least-squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X-band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, near-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolves the gravitational signature of the planet.

  8. An In-Situ Forming Skin Substitute Improves Healing Outcome in a Hypertrophic Scar Model

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Ryan; Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Jalili, Reza B.; Hossenini-Tabatabaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Wound repair requires a sequential series of biological events that begins with the deposition of a temporary scaffold within which cells can repair the skin. Without a scaffold, repair is essentially impossible. Aberrant wound healing, such as hypertrophic scarring or nonhealing, has a tremendous burden on healthcare and quality of life. Timely wound closure dramatically reduces the risk of infection and scarring. Cellular skin substitutes are opportune to meet this need. Our goal was to create an in-situ forming scaffold that can be easily combined with cells to rapidly form a dermal substitute within the wound bed. In this study, we evaluated the application of a polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-glycosaminoglycan-based biohybrid scaffold system in full-thickness wounds on a rabbit fibrotic ear model. Punch wounds (6 mm) were either untreated or filled with an acellular scaffold, a scaffold containing xenofibroblasts, or a scaffold containing xenofibroblasts expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Results demonstrated that (1) both acellular and IDO-expressing fibroblast in-situ forming scaffolds significantly reduced scar elevation index (1.24±0.05 and 1.25±0.03; p<0.05) and improved overall healing quality compared with xenofibroblast scaffolds and untreated wounds; (2) IDO-expressing fibroblast scaffolds significantly reduced T-cell infiltration into the scaffold-engrafted area (p<0.05); and (3) both IDO-expressing and acellular in-situ forming scaffolds demonstrated increased vessel-like and nerve-like structures (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that the use of the in-situ forming scaffold, and even more so when delivering IDO-expressing cells, improved healing outcome in full-thickness hypertrophic rabbit ear wounds. PMID:25412924

  9. Improved LHCD simulation model and implication for future experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Baek, S.; Bonoli, P.; Faust, I.; Parker, R.; Labombard, B.; White, A.; Wukitch, S.

    2015-11-01

    The simulation model for LHCD using the raytracing/FokkerPlanck (GENRAY/CQL3D) code has been improved. Including realistic 2D SOL profiles resolves the discrepancy previously observed at high density (ne > 1 ×1020m-3). Impact of nonlinear interaction in front of the launcher is investigated. It is shown that the distortion of launch n| | spectrum is rather small (up to 10% of injected power). These simulation results suggest that improvement of current drive observed on Alcator C-Mod is indeed caused by realizing preferable SOL plasma profiles. Implication of these results to future experiments will be discussed. In order to minimize edge parasitic losses, realizing high single pass absorption and reducing prompt losses in front of launcher are both crucial. The advantage of LH launch from low field side (LFS) and high field side (HFS) is compared in this regards. A compact LH launcher suitable to test LH wave launch from HFS on a small scale device is designed and its plasma coupling characteristic will be presented. This work was performed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, a DoE Office of Science user facility, and is supported by USDoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. Modeling of Glass Making Processes for Improved Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas P. Seward III

    2003-03-31

    The overall goal of this project was to develop a high-temperature melt properties database with sufficient reliability to allow mathematical modeling of glass melting and forming processes for improved product quality, improved efficiency and lessened environmental impact. It was initiated by the United States glass industry through the NSF Industry/University Center for Glass Research (CGR) at Alfred University [1]. Because of their important commercial value, six different types/families of glass were studied: container, float, fiberglass (E- and wool-types), low-expansion borosilicate, and color TV panel glasses. CGR member companies supplied production-quality glass from all six families upon which we measured, as a function of temperature in the molten state, density, surface tension, viscosity, electrical resistivity, infrared transmittance (to determine high temperature radiative conductivity), non-Newtonian flow behavior, and oxygen partial pres sure. With CGR cost sharing, we also studied gas solubility and diffusivity in each of these glasses. Because knowledge of the compositional dependencies of melt viscosity and electrical resistivity are extremely important for glass melting furnace design and operation, these properties were studied more fully. Composition variations were statistically designed for all six types/families of glass. About 140 different glasses were then melted on a laboratory scale and their viscosity and electrical resistivity measured as a function of temperature. The measurements were completed in February 2003 and are reported on here. The next steps will be (1) to statistically analyze the compositional dependencies of viscosity and electrical resistivity and develop composition-property response surfaces, (2) submit all the data to CGR member companies to evaluate the usefulness in their models, and (3) publish the results in technical journals and most likely in book form.

  11. COUNTERCURRENT FLOW LIMITATION EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING FOR IMPROVED REACTOR SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen

    2008-09-26

    This project is investigating countercurrent flow and “flooding” phenomena in light water reactor systems to improve reactor safety of current and future reactors. To better understand the occurrence of flooding in the surge line geometry of a PWR, two experimental programs were performed. In the first, a test facility with an acrylic test section provided visual data on flooding for air-water systems in large diameter tubes. This test section also allowed for development of techniques to form an annular liquid film along the inner surface of the “surge line” and other techniques which would be difficult to verify in an opaque test section. Based on experiences in the air-water testing and the improved understanding of flooding phenomena, two series of tests were conducted in a large-diameter, stainless steel test section. Air-water test results and steam-water test results were directly compared to note the effect of condensation. Results indicate that, as for smaller diameter tubes, the flooding phenomena is predominantly driven by the hydrodynamics. Tests with the test sections inclined were attempted but the annular film was easily disrupted. A theoretical model for steam venting from inclined tubes is proposed herein and validated against air-water data. Empirical correlations were proposed for air-water and steam-water data. Methods for developing analytical models of the air-water and steam-water systems are discussed, as is the applicability of the current data to the surge line conditions. This report documents the project results from July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2008.

  12. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gangsheng; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie A; Schadt, Christopher W; Megan Steinweg, J; Gu, Lianhong; Post, Wilfred M

    2015-01-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life-history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks owing to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here we developed the microbial enzyme-mediated decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, that is, MEND with dormancy (MEND) and MEND without dormancy (MEND_wod), against long-term (270 days) carbon decomposition data from laboratory incubations of four soils with isotopically labeled substrates. MEND_wod adequately fitted multiple observations (total C–CO2 and 14C–CO2 respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. MEND improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20–71% over MEND_wod. We also quantified uncertainties in parameters and model simulations using the Critical Objective Function Index method, which is based on a global stochastic optimization algorithm, as well as model complexity and observational data availability. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with experimental data for multiple carbon pools are conducive to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations, and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling. PMID:25012899

  13. Improving Conceptual Models Using AEM Data and Probability Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. C.; Munday, T. J.; Christensen, N. B.

    2012-12-01

    main diagonal is used. Complications arise when we ask more specific questions, such as "What is the probability that the resistivity of layer 2 <= x, given that layer 1 <= y?" The probability then becomes conditional, calculation includes covariance terms, the integration is taken over many dimensions, and the cross-correlation of parameters becomes important. To illustrate, we examine the inversion results of a Tempest AEM survey over the Uley Basin aquifers in the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. Key aquifers include the unconfined Bridgewater Formation that overlies the Uley and Wanilla Formations, which contain Tertiary clays and Tertiary sandstone. These Formations overlie weathered basement which define the lower bound of the Uley Basin aquifer systems. By correlating the conductivity of the sub-surface Formation types, we pose questions such as: "What is the probability-depth of the Bridgewater Formation in the Uley South Basin?", "What is the thickness of the Uley Formation?" and "What is the most probable depth to basement?" We use these questions to generate improved conceptual hydrogeological models of the Uley Basin in order to develop better estimates of aquifer extent and the available groundwater resource.

  14. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Jason; Messing, John; Altas, Irfan

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master's degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU). The Industry Master's degree is an academic program for students currently employed…

  15. Improvements in Hanford TRU Program Utilizing Systems Modeling and Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, P.A.; Bailey, K.B.; McKenney, D.E.; Uytioco, E.

    2008-07-01

    into queues based on their current status in the process. A container can be in only one queue at any given time. Existing data systems are queried to establish the quantity of containers in each queue on any given day. This sets the amount of feed available that is then modeled to be processed according to the daily production plans. The daily production plans were created by identifying the equipment necessary and the staff that performs each process step, and determining the expected production rate for each step. Production performance is monitored on a weekly basis with Project senior staff to establish a total operating efficiency (TOE) for each step (comparing actual performance to production capacity). The unit operations were modeled to be constrained by each day's feed queue plus the performance of the preceding step. The TOE for each unit operation was applied to an integrated model to determine bottlenecks and identify areas for improvement. All of the steps were linked to predict future system performance based on available feed and integrated system-level TOE. It has been determined that at times sub-optimization of a particular unit operation is necessary to ensure the system remains balanced (e.g., having excess capacity in assay does no good if there is no feed available because the real-time radiography [RTR] is working at half capacity). Several recommendations have been provided to the Project management team resulting in improvements in the performance of TRU certification activities by Hanford's TRU Program. (authors)

  16. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  17. Improved spring model-based collaborative indoor visible light positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhijie; Zhang, WeiNan; Zhou, GuoFu

    2016-03-01

    Gaining accuracy with indoor positioning of individuals is important as many location-based services rely on the user's current position to provide them with useful services. Many researchers have studied indoor positioning techniques based on WiFi and Bluetooth. However, they have disadvantages such as low accuracy or high cost. In this paper, we propose an indoor positioning system in which visible light radiated from light-emitting diodes is used to locate the position of receivers. Compared with existing methods using light-emitting diode light, we present a high-precision and simple implementation collaborative indoor visible light positioning system based on an improved spring model. We first estimate coordinate position information using the visible light positioning system, and then use the spring model to correct positioning errors. The system can be employed easily because it does not require additional sensors and the occlusion problem of visible light would be alleviated. We also describe simulation experiments, which confirm the feasibility of our proposed method.

  18. Improving the channeler ant model for lung CT analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerello, Piergiorgio; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Fiorina, Elisa; Oppedisano, Chiara; Peroni, Cristiana; Arteche Diaz, Raul; Bellotti, Roberto; Bosco, Paolo; Camarlinghi, Niccolo; Massafra, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    The Channeler Ant Model (CAM) is an algorithm based on virtual ant colonies, conceived for the segmentation of complex structures with different shapes and intensity in a 3D environment. It exploits the natural capabilities of virtual ant colonies to modify the environment and communicate with each other by pheromone deposition. When applied to lung CTs, the CAM can be turned into a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) method for the identification of pulmonary nodules and the support to radiologists in the identification of early-stage pathological objects. The CAM has been validated with the segmentation of 3D artificial objects and it has already been successfully applied to the lung nodules detection in Computed Tomography images within the ANODE09 challenge. The model improvements for the segmentation of nodules attached to the pleura and to the vessel tree are discussed, as well as a method to enhance the detection of low-intensity nodules. The results on five datasets annotated with different criteria show that the analytical modules (i.e. up to the filtering stage) provide a sensitivity in the 80 - 90% range with a number of FP/scan of the order of 20. The classification module, although not yet optimised, keeps the sensitivity in the 70 - 85% range at about 10 FP/scan, in spite of the fact that the annotation criteria for the training and the validation samples are different.

  19. Improved Tropospheric Ozone Residual and Comparisons to the GMI Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Joiner, J.; Ziemke, G.; Duncan, B.; Stahan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Our tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) is produced by subtracting the stratospheric ozone column measured by MLS and the tropospheric ozone column measured by OMI. In our approach we use backward and forward trajectories from four days of MLS V2.2 measurements to boost the horizontal resolution of the stratospheric ozone field. The MLS stratospheric column is then subtracted from the OMI Col. 3 total ozone column. High reflectivity scenes (clouds) are no longer discarded - the OMI cloud pressure and radiative cloud fraction is used to adjust the surface pressure to the cloud centroid pressure. The subsequent TOR fields are validated by comparing them to ozonesondes. Our TOR fields show a 0.8 correlation to sonde columns; a clear improvement over earlier calculations. OMI-MLS TOR from 2005 and 2006 are compared with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) derived tropospheric column. The results show that the OMI-MLS TOR underestimates the tropospheric column. GMI tropospheric column and OMI-MLS TOR compare better if the lowest 1.5 km of the GMI column is excluded. This is consistent with a global -7 DU low offset from the sonde columns that is probably due to lack of OMI boundary layer ozone sensitivity. The GMI model zonal distribution also shows relatively higher tropospheric columns at mid latitudes and lower column amounts at high latitudes compared to the OMI-MLS TOR.

  20. Can modeling improve estimation of desert tortoise population densities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nussear, K.E.; Tracy, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    The federally listed desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is currently monitored using distance sampling to estimate population densities. Distance sampling, as with many other techniques for estimating population density, assumes that it is possible to quantify the proportion of animals available to be counted in any census. Because desert tortoises spend much of their life in burrows, and the proportion of tortoises in burrows at any time can be extremely variable, this assumption is difficult to meet. This proportion of animals available to be counted is used as a correction factor (g0) in distance sampling and has been estimated from daily censuses of small populations of tortoises (6-12 individuals). These censuses are costly and produce imprecise estimates of g0 due to small sample sizes. We used data on tortoise activity from a large (N = 150) experimental population to model activity as a function of the biophysical attributes of the environment, but these models did not improve the precision of estimates from the focal populations. Thus, to evaluate how much of the variance in tortoise activity is apparently not predictable, we assessed whether activity on any particular day can predict activity on subsequent days with essentially identical environmental conditions. Tortoise activity was only weakly correlated on consecutive days, indicating that behavior was not repeatable or consistent among days with similar physical environments. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Improved spring model-based collaborative indoor visible light positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhijie; Zhang, WeiNan; Zhou, GuoFu

    2016-06-01

    Gaining accuracy with indoor positioning of individuals is important as many location-based services rely on the user's current position to provide them with useful services. Many researchers have studied indoor positioning techniques based on WiFi and Bluetooth. However, they have disadvantages such as low accuracy or high cost. In this paper, we propose an indoor positioning system in which visible light radiated from light-emitting diodes is used to locate the position of receivers. Compared with existing methods using light-emitting diode light, we present a high-precision and simple implementation collaborative indoor visible light positioning system based on an improved spring model. We first estimate coordinate position information using the visible light positioning system, and then use the spring model to correct positioning errors. The system can be employed easily because it does not require additional sensors and the occlusion problem of visible light would be alleviated. We also describe simulation experiments, which confirm the feasibility of our proposed method.

  2. Schools as host environments: toward a schoolwide reading improvement model.

    PubMed

    Kame'enui, E J; Simmons, D C; Coyne, M D

    2000-01-01

    Despite vast differences among school districts across the country, all students must learn how to read in a complex "host-environment" called a school. A challenge in beginning reading, therefore, is to transcend these differences and focus, instead, on the essential task of teaching reading in schools. Teaching reading involves attending to what we know about beginning reading and the alphabetic writing system, the difficulties of reading, and the challenges associated with dyslexia. Teaching reading in a school requires that interventions be tailored to the unique needs of an individual school and implemented and sustained at the school building level. In this article, we outline the Schoolwide Reading Improvement Model (SRIM). This model is characterized by the strategic integration of research-based practices in assessment, instructional design, and beginning reading instruction. Additionally, the SRIM acknowledges the specific needs of individual schools and is customized to provide the best fit with each unique "host-environment." First we provide a description of each major stage of the SRIM and then an example of its application in a school district in western Oregon. PMID:20563779

  3. Therapist-assisted Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for depression and anxiety: translating evidence into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Pugh, N E; Nugent, M M; Hesser, H; Andersson, G; Ivanov, M; Butz, C G; Marchildon, G; Asmundson, G J G; Klein, B; Austin, D W

    2014-12-01

    This dissemination study examined the effectiveness of therapist-assisted Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) when offered in clinical practice. A centralized unit screened and coordinated ICBT delivered by newly trained therapists working in six geographically dispersed clinical settings. Using an open trial design, 221 patients were offered 12 modules of ICBT for symptoms of generalized anxiety (n=112), depression (n=83), or panic (n=26). At baseline, midpoint and post-treatment, patients completed self-report measures. On average, patients completed 8 of 12 modules. Latent growth curve modeling identified significant reductions in depression, anxiety, stress and impairment (d=.65-.78), and improvements in quality of life (d=.48-.66). Improvements in primary symptoms were large (d=.91-1.25). Overall, therapist-assisted ICBT was effective when coordinated across settings in clinical practice, but further attention should be given to strategies to improve completion of treatment modules. PMID:25445078

  4. Improving permafrost distribution modelling using feature selection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluigi, Nicola; Lambiel, Christophe; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    The availability of an increasing number of spatial data on the occurrence of mountain permafrost allows the employment of machine learning (ML) classification algorithms for modelling the distribution of the phenomenon. One of the major problems when dealing with high-dimensional dataset is the number of input features (variables) involved. Application of ML classification algorithms to this large number of variables leads to the risk of overfitting, with the consequence of a poor generalization/prediction. For this reason, applying feature selection (FS) techniques helps simplifying the amount of factors required and improves the knowledge on adopted features and their relation with the studied phenomenon. Moreover, taking away irrelevant or redundant variables from the dataset effectively improves the quality of the ML prediction. This research deals with a comparative analysis of permafrost distribution models supported by FS variable importance assessment. The input dataset (dimension = 20-25, 10 m spatial resolution) was constructed using landcover maps, climate data and DEM derived variables (altitude, aspect, slope, terrain curvature, solar radiation, etc.). It was completed with permafrost evidences (geophysical and thermal data and rock glacier inventories) that serve as training permafrost data. Used FS algorithms informed about variables that appeared less statistically important for permafrost presence/absence. Three different algorithms were compared: Information Gain (IG), Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) and Random Forest (RF). IG is a filter technique that evaluates the worth of a predictor by measuring the information gain with respect to the permafrost presence/absence. Conversely, CFS is a wrapper technique that evaluates the worth of a subset of predictors by considering the individual predictive ability of each variable along with the degree of redundancy between them. Finally, RF is a ML algorithm that performs FS as part of its

  5. Evaluation of Drug Concentrations Delivered by Microiontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas C; Wightman, R Mark

    2016-06-21

    Microiontophoresis uses an electric current to eject a drug solution from a glass capillary and is often utilized for targeted delivery in neurochemical investigations. The amount of drug ejected, and its effective concentration at the tip, has historically been difficult to determine, which has precluded its use in quantitative studies. To address this, a method called controlled iontophoresis was developed which employs a carbon-fiber microelectrode incorporated into a multibarreled iontophoretic probe to detect the ejection of electroactive species. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of this method. To do this, we eject different concentrations of quinpirole, a D2 receptor agonist, into a brain slice containing the dorsal striatum, a brain region with a high density of dopamine terminals. Local electrical stimulation was used to evoke dopamine release, and inhibitory actions of quinpirole on this release were examined. The amount of drug ejected was estimated by detection of a coejected electrochemical marker. Dose response curves generated in this manner were compared to curves generated by conventional perfusion of quinpirole through the slice. We find several experimental conditions must be optimized for accurate results. First, selection of a marker with an identical charge was necessary to mimic the ejection of the cationic agonist. Next, evoked responses were more precise following longer periods between the end of the ejection and stimulation. Lastly, the accuracy of concentration evaluations was improved by longer ejections. Incorporation of these factors into existing protocols allows for greater certainty of concentrations delivered by controlled iontophoresis. PMID:27212615

  6. Does model performance improve with complexity? A case study with three hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Rene; Staudinger, Maria; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Seibert, Jan; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades considerable progress has been made in climate model development. Following the massive increase in computational power, models became more sophisti- cated. At the same time also simple conceptual models have advanced. In this study we validate and compare three hydrological models of different complexity to investigate whether their performance varies accordingly. For this purpose we use runoff and also soil moisture measurements, which allow a truly independent validation, from several sites across Switzerland. The models are calibrated in similar ways with the same runoff data. Our results show that the more complex models HBV and PREVAH outperform the simple water balance model (SWBM) in case of runoff but not for soil moisture. Furthermore the most sophisticated PREVAH model shows an added value compared to the HBV model only in case of soil moisture. Focusing on extreme events we find generally improved performance of the SWBM during drought conditions and degraded agreement with observations during wet extremes. For the more complex models we find the opposite behavior, probably because they were primarily developed for predic- tion of runoff extremes. As expected given their complexity, HBV and PREVAH have more problems with over-fitting. All models show a tendency towards better perfor- mance in lower altitudes as opposed to (pre-)alpine sites. The results vary considerably across the investigated sites. In contrast, the different metrics we consider to estimate the agreement between models and observations lead to similar conclusions, indicating that the performance of the considered models is similar at different time scales as well as for anomalies and long-term means. We conclude that added complexity does not necessarily lead to improved performance of hydrological models, and that performance can vary greatly depending on the considered hydrological variable (e.g. runoff vs. soil moisture) or hydrological conditions (floods vs

  7. Does model performance improve with complexity? A case study with three hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Rene; Staudinger, Maria; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Seibert, Jan; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades considerable progress has been made in climate model development. Following the massive increase in computational power, models became more sophisticated. At the same time also simple conceptual models have advanced. In this study we validate and compare three hydrological models of different complexity to investigate whether their performance varies accordingly. For this purpose we use runoff and also soil moisture measurements, which allow a truly independent validation, from several sites across Switzerland. The models are calibrated in similar ways with the same runoff data. Our results show that the more complex models HBV and PREVAH outperform the simple water balance model (SWBM) in case of runoff but not for soil moisture. Furthermore the most sophisticated PREVAH model shows an added value compared to the HBV model only in case of soil moisture. Focusing on extreme events we find generally improved performance of the SWBM during drought conditions and degraded agreement with observations during wet extremes. For the more complex models we find the opposite behavior, probably because they were primarily developed for prediction of runoff extremes. As expected given their complexity, HBV and PREVAH have more problems with over-fitting. All models show a tendency towards better performance in lower altitudes as opposed to (pre-) alpine sites. The results vary considerably across the investigated sites. In contrast, the different metrics we consider to estimate the agreement between models and observations lead to similar conclusions, indicating that the performance of the considered models is similar at different time scales as well as for anomalies and long-term means. We conclude that added complexity does not necessarily lead to improved performance of hydrological models, and that performance can vary greatly depending on the considered hydrological variable (e.g. runoff vs. soil moisture) or hydrological conditions (floods vs. droughts).

  8. Improving the Ni I atomic model for solar and stellar atmospheric models

    SciTech Connect

    Vieytes, M. C.; Fontenla, J. M. E-mail: johnf@digidyna.com

    2013-06-01

    Neutral nickel (Ni I) is abundant in the solar atmosphere and is one of the important elements that contribute to the emission and absorption of radiation in the spectral range between 1900 and 3900 Å. Previously, the Solar Radiation Physical Modeling (SRPM) models of the solar atmosphere only considered a few levels of this species. Here, we improve the Ni I atomic model by taking into account 61 levels and 490 spectral lines. We compute the populations of these levels in full NLTE using the SRPM code and compare the resulting emerging spectrum with observations. The present atomic model significantly improves the calculation of the solar spectral irradiance at near-UV wavelengths, which is important for Earth atmospheric studies, and particularly for ozone chemistry.

  9. Improved Gravimetric Geoid Model for Japan From Terrestrial Data and Altimetric Gravity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroishi, Y.

    2003-12-01

    An improved gravimetric geoid model for Japan is developed by combining an altimetric gravity model, KMS02 with terrestrial gravity data. Additional terrestrial gravity data were newly obtained in some data gaps for previous geoid models: ship data in the western part of Seto Inland Sea and land gravity data in south and east Hokkaido, where the latest gravimetric geoid model for Japan, JGEOID2000 shows relatively large errors at short wavelengths. In addition, medium wavelength signals of gravity from KMS02 are retrieved and combined by filtering based on wavelets. The combination significantly reduces systematic errors of JGEOID2000 gravity/geoid models derived from ship data, at medium wavelengths around Hokkaido Island. Moreover, recently-released global geopotential models from the GRACE mission, EIGEN-GRACE01S by GFZ and GGM01 by CSR are used as a foundation for 1D-FFT computation of Stokes integral in a remove-restore manner. Those models themselves show improved performance over the Japanese islands in terms of geoid heights when compared with GPS/leveling geoid heights throughout the islands. When we change the maximum degree of the spherical harmonics used and merge them with higher degree harmonics of EGM96 (up to degree and order 360), those geopotential models seem to work best at degree 90. Resulting geoid models are compared and evaluated with GPS/leveling geoid heights.

  10. Application and improvement of Raupach's shear stress partitioning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, B. A.; Lehning, M.; Gromke, C.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian processes such as the entrainment, transport and redeposition of sand, soil or snow are able to significantly reshape the earth's surface. In times of increasing desertification and land degradation, often driven by wind erosion, investigations of aeolian processes become more and more important in environmental sciences. The reliable prediction of the sheltering effect of vegetation canopies against sediment erosion, for instance, is a clear practical application of such investigations to identify suitable and sustainable counteractive measures against wind erosion. This study presents an application and improvement of a theoretical model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1992, Vol.60, 375-395 and Journal of Geophysical Research, 1993, Vol.98, 3023-3029) which allows for quantifying the sheltering effect of vegetation against sediment erosion. The model predicts the shear stress ratios τS'/τ and τS''/τ. Here, τS is the part of the total shear stress τ that acts on the ground beneath the plants. The spatial peak τS'' of the surface shear stress is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment whereas the spatial mean τS' can be used to quantify particle mass fluxes. The precise and accurate prediction of these quantities is essential when modeling wind erosion. Measurements of the surface shear stress distributions τS(x,y) on the ground beneath live vegetation canopies (plant species: lolium perenne) were performed in a controlled wind tunnel environment to determine the model parameters and to evaluate the model performance. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison, since previous wind tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear stress partitioning. The model constant c, which is needed to determine the total stress τ for a canopy of interest and which remained rather unspecified to date, was found to be c ≈ 0

  11. Therapeutic assessment of mesenchymal stem cells delivered within a PEGylated fibrin gel following an ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Ricles, Laura M; Hsieh, Pei-Ling; Dana, Nicholas; Rybalko, Viktoriya; Kraynak, Chelsea; Farrar, Roger P; Suggs, Laura J

    2016-09-01

    The intent of the current study was to investigate the therapeutic contribution of MSCs to vascular regeneration and functional recovery of ischemic tissue. We used a rodent hind limb ischemia model and intramuscularly delivered MSCs within a PEGylated fibrin gel matrix. Within this model, we demonstrated that MSC therapy, when delivered in PEGylated fibrin, results in significantly higher mature blood vessel formation, which allows for greater functional recovery of skeletal muscle tissue as assessed using force production measurements. We observed initial signs of vascular repair at early time points when MSCs were delivered without PEGylated fibrin, but this did not persist or lead to recovery of the tissue in the long-term. Furthermore, animals which were treated with PEGylated fibrin alone exhibited a greater number of mature blood vessels, but they did not arterialize and did not show improvements in force production. These results demonstrate that revascularization of ischemic tissue may be a necessary but not sufficient step to complete functional repair of the injured tissue. This work has implications on stem cell therapies for ischemic diseases and also potentially on how such therapies are evaluated. PMID:27318932

  12. Adoption of the chronic care model to improve HIV care

    PubMed Central

    Tu, David; Belda, Patricia; Littlejohn, Doreen; Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Valle-Rivera, Juan; Tyndall, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the effectiveness of implementing the chronic care model (CCM) in improving HIV clinical outcomes. Design Multisite, prospective, interventional cohort study. Setting Two urban community health centres in Vancouver and Prince George, BC. Participants Two hundred sixty-nine HIV-positive patients (18 years of age or older) who received primary care at either of the study sites. Intervention Systematic implementation of the CCM during an 18-month period. Main outcome measures Documented pneumococcal vaccination, documented syphilis screening, documented tuberculosis screening, antiretroviral treatment (ART) status, ART status with undetectable viral load, CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/mL, and CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/mL while not taking ART compared during a 36-month period. Results Overall, 35% of participants were women and 59% were aboriginal persons. The mean age was 45 years and most participants had a history of injection drug use that was the presumed route of HIV transmission. During the study follow-up period, 39 people died, and 11 transferred to alternate care providers. Compared with their baseline clinical status, study participants showed statistically significant (P < .001 for all) increases in pneumococcal immunization (54% vs 84%), syphilis screening (56% vs 91%), tuberculosis screening (23% vs 38%), and antiretroviral uptake (47% vs 77%), as well as increased viral load suppression rates among those receiving ART (72% vs 90%). Stable housing at baseline was associated with a 4-fold increased probability of survival. Aboriginal ethnicity was not associated with better or worse outcomes at baseline or at follow-up. Conclusion Application of the CCM approach to HIV care in a marginalized, largely aboriginal patient population led to improved disease screening, immunization, ART uptake, and virologic suppression rates. In addition to addressing underlying social determinants of health, a paradigm shift

  13. Can quantile mapping improve precipitation extremes from regional climate models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Satyanarayana; Gobiet, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The ability of quantile mapping to accurately bias correct regard to precipitation extremes is investigated in this study. We developed new methods by extending standard quantile mapping (QMα) to improve the quality of bias corrected extreme precipitation events as simulated by regional climate model (RCM) output. The new QM version (QMβ) was developed by combining parametric and nonparametric bias correction methods. The new nonparametric method is tested with and without a controlling shape parameter (Qmβ1 and Qmβ0, respectively). Bias corrections are applied on hindcast simulations for a small ensemble of RCMs at six different locations over Europe. We examined the quality of the extremes through split sample and cross validation approaches of these three bias correction methods. This split-sample approach mimics the application to future climate scenarios. A cross validation framework with particular focus on new extremes was developed. Error characteristics, q-q plots and Mean Absolute Error (MAEx) skill scores are used for evaluation. We demonstrate the unstable behaviour of correction function at higher quantiles with QMα, whereas the correction functions with for QMβ0 and QMβ1 are smoother, with QMβ1 providing the most reasonable correction values. The result from q-q plots demonstrates that, all bias correction methods are capable of producing new extremes but QMβ1 reproduces new extremes with low biases in all seasons compared to QMα, QMβ0. Our results clearly demonstrate the inherent limitations of empirical bias correction methods employed for extremes, particularly new extremes, and our findings reveals that the new bias correction method (Qmß1) produces more reliable climate scenarios for new extremes. These findings present a methodology that can better capture future extreme precipitation events, which is necessary to improve regional climate change impact studies.

  14. Improving Estimated Optical Constants With MSTM and DDSCAT Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, K. M.; Wolff, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present numerical experiments to determine quantitatively the effects of mineral particle clustering on Mars spacecraft spectral signatures and to improve upon the values of refractive indices (optical constants n, k) derived from Mars dust laboratory analog spectra such as those from RELAB and MRO CRISM libraries. Whereas spectral properties for Mars analog minerals and actual Mars soil are dominated by aggregates of particles smaller than the size of martian atmospheric dust, the analytic radiative transfer (RT) solutions used to interpret planetary surfaces assume that individual, well-separated particles dominate the spectral signature. Both in RT models and in the refractive index derivation methods that include analytic RT approximations, spheres are also over-used to represent nonspherical particles. Part of the motivation is that the integrated effect over randomly oriented particles on quantities such as single scattering albedo and phase function are relatively less than for single particles. However, we have seen in previous numerical experiments that when varying the shape and size of individual grains within a cluster, the phase function changes in both magnitude and slope, thus the "relatively less" effect is more significant than one might think. Here we examine the wavelength dependence of the forward scattering parameter with multisphere T-matrix (MSTM) and discrete dipole approximation (DDSCAT) codes that compute light scattering by layers of particles on planetary surfaces to see how albedo is affected and integrate our model results into refractive index calculations to remove uncertainties in approximations and parameters that can lower the accuracy of optical constants. By correcting the single scattering albedo and phase function terms in the refractive index determinations, our data will help to improve the understanding of Mars in identifying, mapping the distributions, and quantifying abundances for these minerals and will address long

  15. Bayesian Proteoform Modeling Improves Protein Quantification of Global Proteomic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Datta, Susmita; Payne, Samuel H.; Kang, Jiyun; Bramer, Lisa M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Tardiff, Mark F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Pounds, Joel G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2014-12-01

    As the capability of mass spectrometry-based proteomics has matured, tens of thousands of peptides can be measured simultaneously, which has the benefit of offering a systems view of protein expression. However, a major challenge is that with an increase in throughput, protein quantification estimation from the native measured peptides has become a computational task. A limitation to existing computationally-driven protein quantification methods is that most ignore protein variation, such as alternate splicing of the RNA transcript and post-translational modifications or other possible proteoforms, which will affect a significant fraction of the proteome. The consequence of this assumption is that statistical inference at the protein level, and consequently downstream analyses, such as network and pathway modeling, have only limited power for biomarker discovery. Here, we describe a Bayesian model (BP-Quant) that uses statistically derived peptides signatures to identify peptides that are outside the dominant pattern, or the existence of multiple over-expressed patterns to improve relative protein abundance estimates. It is a research-driven approach that utilizes the objectives of the experiment, defined in the context of a standard statistical hypothesis, to identify a set of peptides exhibiting similar statistical behavior relating to a protein. This approach infers that changes in relative protein abundance can be used as a surrogate for changes in function, without necessarily taking into account the effect of differential post-translational modifications, processing, or splicing in altering protein function. We verify the approach using a dilution study from mouse plasma samples and demonstrate that BP-Quant achieves similar accuracy as the current state-of-the-art methods at proteoform identification with significantly better specificity. BP-Quant is available as a MatLab ® and R packages at https://github.com/PNNL-Comp-Mass-Spec/BP-Quant.

  16. Biomechanical modelling and evaluation of construction jobs for performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Parida, Ratri; Ray, Pradip Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Occupational risk factors, such as awkward posture, repetition, lack of rest, insufficient illumination and heavy workload related to construction-related MMH activities may cause musculoskeletal disorders and poor performance of the workers, ergonomic design of construction worksystems was a critical need for improving their health and safety wherein a dynamic biomechanical models were required to be empirically developed and tested at a construction site of Tata Steel, the largest steel making company of India in private sector. In this study, a comprehensive framework is proposed for biomechanical evaluation of shovelling and grinding under diverse work environments. The benefit of such an analysis lies in its usefulness in setting guidelines for designing such jobs with minimization of risks of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and enhancing correct methods of carrying out the jobs leading to reduced fatigue and physical stress. Data based on direct observations and videography were collected for the shovellers and grinders over a number of workcycles. Compressive forces and moments for a number of segments and joints are computed with respect to joint flexion and extension. The results indicate that moments and compressive forces at L5/S1 link are significant for shovellers while moments at elbow and wrist are significant for grinders. PMID:22317733

  17. Improving models to predict phenological responses to global change

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    2015-11-25

    The term phenology describes both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, including, for example, when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to variation in weather (e.g. a warm vs. cold spring) as well as longer-term changes in climate (e.g. warming trends and changes in the timing and amount of rainfall). We conducted a study to investigate the phenological response of northern peatland communities to global change. Field work was conducted at the SPRUCE experiment in northern Minnesota, where we installed 10 digital cameras. Imagery from the cameras is being used to track shifts in plant phenology driven by elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperature in the different SPRUCE experimental treatments. Camera imagery and derived products (“greenness”) is being posted in near-real time on a publicly available web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/gallery/). The images will provide a permanent visual record of the progression of the experiment over the next 10 years. Integrated with other measurements collected as part of the SPRUCE program, this study is providing insight into the degree to which phenology may mediate future shifts in carbon uptake and storage by peatland ecosystems. In the future, these data will be used to develop improved models of vegetation phenology, which will be tested against ground observations collected by a local collaborator.

  18. A model for improving endangered species recovery programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brian; Reading, Richard; Conway, Courtney; Jackson, Jerome A.; Hutchins, Michael; Snyder, Noel; Forrest, Steve; Frazier, Jack; Derrickson, Scott

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses common organizational problems that cause inadequate planning and implementation processes of endangered species recovery across biologically dissimilar species. If these problems occur, even proven biological conservation techniques are jeopardized. We propose a solution that requires accountability in all phases of the restoration process and is based on cooperative input among government agencies, nongovernmental conservation organizations, and the academic community. The first step is formation of a task-oriented recovery team that integrates the best expertise into the planning process. This interdisciplinary team should be composed of people whose skills directly address issues critical for recovery. Once goals and procedures are established, the responsible agency (for example, in the United States, the US Fish and Wildlife Service) could divest some or all of its obligation for implementing the plan, yet still maintain oversight by holding implementing entities contractually accountable. Regular, periodic outside review and public documentation of the recovery team, lead agency, and the accomplishments of implementing bodies would permit evaluation necessary to improve performance. Increased cooperation among agency and nongovernmental organizations provided by this model promises a more efficient use of limited resources toward the conservation of biodiversity.

  19. Applying Quality Function Deployment Model in Burn Unit Service Improvement.

    PubMed

    Keshtkaran, Ali; Hashemi, Neda; Kharazmi, Erfan; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2014-10-13

    Quality function deployment (QFD) is one of the most effective quality design tools. This study applies QFD technique to improve the quality of the burn unit services in Ghotbedin Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. First, the patients' expectations of burn unit services and their priorities were determined through Delphi method. Thereafter, burn unit service specifications were determined through Delphi method. Further, the relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and also the relationships between service specifications were determined through an expert group's opinion. Last, the final importance scores of service specifications were calculated through simple additive weighting method. The findings show that burn unit patients have 40 expectations in six different areas. These expectations are in 16 priority levels. Burn units also have 45 service specifications in six different areas. There are four-level relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and four-level relationships between service specifications. The most important burn unit service specifications have been identified in this study. The QFD model developed in the study can be a general guideline for QFD planners and executives. PMID:23884047

  20. Multi-Sensor Model-Data Assimilation for Improved Modeling of Savanna Carbon and Water Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Guerschman, J.; Hill, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    Model-data assimilation methods are increasingly being used to improve model predictions of carbon pools and fluxes, soil profile moisture contents, and evapotranspiration at catchment to regional scales. In this talk, I will discuss the development of model-data assimilation methods for application to parameter and state estimation problems in the context of savanna carbon and water cycles. A particular focus of this talk will be on the integration of in situ datasets and multiple types of satellite observations with radiative transfer, surface energy balance, and carbon budget models. An example will be drawn from existing work demonstrating regional estimation of soil profile moisture content based on multiple satellite sensors. The data assimilation scheme comprised a forward model, observation operators, multiple observation datasets and an optimization scheme. The forward model propagates model state variables in time based on climate forcing, initial conditions and model parameters and includes processes governing evapotranspiration, water budget and carbon cycle processes. The observation operators calculate modeled land surface temperature and microwave brightness temperatures based on the state variables of profile soil moisture and soil surface layer soil moisture at less than 2.5 cm depth. Satellite observations used in the assimilation scheme are surface brightness temperatures from AMSR-E (passive microwave at 6.9GHz at horizontal polarization) and from AVHRR (thermal channels 4 & 5 from NOAA-18), and land surface reflectances from MODIS Terra (channels 1 and 2 at 250m resolution). These three satellite sensors overpass at approximately the same time of day and provide independent observations of the land surface at different wavelengths. The observed brightness temperatures are used as constraints on the coupled energy balance/microwave radiative transfer model, and a canopy optical model was inverted to retrieve leaf area indices from observed

  1. Beyond the Fluid Approximation: Improved Modeling of the Intracluster Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Brian

    surveys targeting galaxy clusters. This project is innovative due to its novel combination of cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with physics-rich non-ideal MHD, hybrid gyrokinetic+MHD, and particle-in-cell electrodynamics calculations, which will enable us to reliably explore astrophysical plasma behavior over a far greater range of spatial scales than has been previously possible. The understanding gained by doing this will translate directly to more accurate cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters, and will be transformative in terms of our ability to use clusters as cosmological probes and as laboratories for plasma physics in extreme environments. This work will directly impact current and future X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich, and radio surveys of galaxy clusters, and will lead to improved modeling of plasma physics in a range of astrophysical situations.

  2. Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159549.html Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries Machines might ... Right now, people often associate the use of drones with warfare. But in the future they could ...

  3. Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159549.html Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries Machines might ... Right now, people often associate the use of drones with warfare. But in the future they could ...

  4. Development and Implementation of Efficiency-Improving Analysis Methods for the SAGE III on ISS Thermal Model Originating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; Scola, Salvatore; Tobin, Steven; McLeod, Shawn; Mannu, Sergio; Guglielmo, Corrado; Moeller, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2015. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Several novel methods have been implemented to facilitate efficient payload-level thermal analysis, including the use of a design of experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the worst-case orbits for SAGE III while on ISS, use of TD assemblies to move payloads from the Dragon trunk to the Enhanced Operational Transfer Platform (EOTP) to its final home on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC)-4, incorporation of older models in varying unit sets, ability to change units easily (including hardcoded logic blocks), case-based logic to facilitate activating heaters and active elements for varying scenarios within a single model, incorporation of several coordinate frames to easily map to structural models with differing geometries and locations, and streamlined results processing using an Excel-based text file plotter developed in-house at LaRC. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal model and describes the development and implementation of these efficiency-improving analysis methods.

  5. Modeling runoff generation in the Geer river basin with improved model parameterizations to the REW approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. P.; Fenicia, F.; Rientjes, T. H. M.; Reggiani, P.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    A rainfall-runoff model has been developed for the Geer river catchment based on the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) approach. The approach takes into account five dominant hydrological processes. The entire river catchment is descritized into a finite number of sub-catchments, or REWs. To describe these processes, five flow zones within each REW are distinguished. Within each zone, averaged values for state variables and model parameters are used. In this research, some new model parameterizations are introduced. A consistency analysis has been carried out with respect to the effects of the subsurface parameterization on runoff generation processes for the purpose of evaluating model behavior. In addition, a new approach for representing the relation between topography and the variable source area for the saturation overland flow within a REW is proposed. Results show that the improved model parameterization produces better simulations of river discharge and that the REW approach is an appropriate tool for investigating rainfall runoff relations.

  6. Deep brain stimulation improves behavior and modulates neural circuits in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bikovsky, Lior; Hadar, Ravit; Soto-Montenegro, María Luisa; Klein, Julia; Weiner, Ina; Desco, Manuel; Pascau, Javier; Winter, Christine; Hamani, Clement

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a significant number of patients not adequately responding to treatment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical technique currently investigated for medically-refractory psychiatric disorders. Here, we use the poly I:C rat model of schizophrenia to study the effects of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (Nacc) DBS on two behavioral schizophrenia-like deficits, i.e. sensorimotor gating, as reflected by disrupted prepulse inhibition (PPI), and attentional selectivity, as reflected by disrupted latent inhibition (LI). In addition, the neurocircuitry influenced by DBS was studied using FDG PET. We found that mPFC- and Nacc-DBS alleviated PPI and LI abnormalities in poly I:C offspring, whereas Nacc- but not mPFC-DBS disrupted PPI and LI in saline offspring. In saline offspring, mPFC-DBS increased metabolism in the parietal cortex, striatum, ventral hippocampus and Nacc, while reducing it in the brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray. Nacc-DBS, on the other hand, increased activity in the ventral hippocampus and olfactory bulb and reduced it in the septal area, brainstem, periaqueductal gray and hypothalamus. In poly I:C offspring changes in metabolism following mPFC-DBS were similar to those recorded in saline offspring, except for a reduced activity in the brainstem and hypothalamus. In contrast, Nacc-DBS did not induce any statistical changes in brain metabolism in poly I:C offspring. Our study shows that mPFC- or Nacc-DBS delivered to the adult progeny of poly I:C treated dams improves deficits in PPI and LI. Despite common behavioral responses, stimulation in the two targets induced different metabolic effects. PMID:27302677

  7. Improving Patient Flow Utilizing a Collaborative Learning Model.

    PubMed

    Tibor, Laura C; Schultz, Stacy R; Cravath, Julie L; Rein, Russell R; Krecke, Karl N

    2016-01-01

    This initiative utilized a collaborative learning approach to increase knowledge and experience in process improvement and systems thinking while targeting improved patient flow in seven radiology modalities. Teams showed improvements in their project metrics and collectively streamlined the flow for 530 patients per day by improving patient lead time, wait time, and first case on-time start rates. In a post-project survey of 50 project team members, 82% stated they had more effective solutions as a result of the process improvement methodology, 84% stated they will be able to utilize the process improvement tools again in the future, and 98% would recommend participating in another project to a colleague. PMID:27514106

  8. Model-experiment interaction to improve representation of phosphorus limitation in land models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norby, R. J.; Yang, X.; Cabugao, K. G. M.; Childs, J.; Gu, L.; Haworth, I.; Mayes, M. A.; Porter, W. S.; Walker, A. P.; Weston, D. J.; Wright, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon-nutrient interactions play important roles in regulating terrestrial carbon cycle responses to atmospheric and climatic change. None of the CMIP5 models has included routines to represent the phosphorus (P) cycle, although P is commonly considered to be the most limiting nutrient in highly productive, lowland tropical forests. Model simulations with the Community Land Model (CLM-CNP) show that inclusion of P coupling leads to a smaller CO2 fertilization effect and warming-induced CO2 release from tropical ecosystems, but there are important uncertainties in the P model, and improvements are limited by a dearth of data. Sensitivity analysis identifies the relative importance of P cycle parameters in determining P availability and P limitation, and thereby helps to define the critical measurements to make in field campaigns and manipulative experiments. To improve estimates of P supply, parameters that describe maximum amount of labile P in soil and sorption-desorption processes are necessary for modeling the amount of P available for plant uptake. Biochemical mineralization is poorly constrained in the model and will be improved through field observations that link root traits to mycorrhizal activity, phosphatase activity, and root depth distribution. Model representation of P demand by vegetation, which currently is set by fixed stoichiometry and allometric constants, requires a different set of data. Accurate carbon cycle modeling requires accurate parameterization of the photosynthetic machinery: Vc,max and Jmax. Relationships between the photosynthesis parameters and foliar nutrient (N and P) content are being developed, and by including analysis of covariation with other plant traits (e.g., specific leaf area, wood density), we can provide a basis for more dynamic, trait-enabled modeling. With this strong guidance from model sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, field studies are underway in Puerto Rico and Panama to collect model-relevant data on P

  9. Evaluation of Atmospheric Loading and Improved Troposphere Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Le Bail, Karine; Pavlis, Despina E.

    2012-01-01

    Forward modeling of non-tidal atmospheric loading displacements at geodetic tracking stations have not routinely been included in Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositionning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) or Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station analyses for either POD applications or reference frame determination. The displacements which are computed from 6-hourly models such as the ECMWF and can amount to 3-10 mm in the east, north and up components depending on the tracking station locations. We evaluate the application of atmospheric loading in a number ways using the NASA GSFC GEODYN software: First we assess the impact on SLR & DORIS-determined orbits such as Jason-2, where we evaluate the impact on the tracking data RMS of fit and how the total orbits are changed with the application of this correction. Preliminary results show an RMS radial change of 0.5 mm for Jason-2 over 54 cycles and a total change in the Z-centering of the orbit of 3 mm peak-to-peak over one year. We also evaluate the effects on other DORIS-satellites such as Cryosat-2, Envisat and the SPOT satellites. In the second step, we produce two SINEX time series based on data from available DORIS satellites and assess the differences in WRMS, scale and Helmert translation parameters. Troposphere refraction is obviously an important correction for radiometric data types such as DORIS. We evaluate recent improvements in DORIS processing at GSFC including the application of the Vienna Mapping Function (VMF1) grids with a-priori hydrostatic (VZHDs) and wet (VZWDs) zenith delays. We reduce the gridded VZHD at the stations height using pressure and temperature derived from GPT (strategy 1) and Saastamoinen. We discuss the validation of the VMF1 implementation and its application to the Jason-2 POD processing, compared to corrections using the Niell mapping function and the GMF. Using one year of data, we also assess the impact of the new troposphere corrections on the DORIS-only solutions, most

  10. An improvement model to optimise hospital interdisciplinary learning.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Deborah A; Rafferty, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Fidelma

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Interdisciplinary healthcare education and collaboration facilitates healthcare quality improvement (QI). Education challenges include cost, logistics and defining the optimum staff-engaging method. The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimum QI educational model and measure its impact using plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles. Design/methodology/approach - The authors established an on-site interdisciplinary QI learning collaborative: weekly 30-minute learning sessions close to the working environment; a learning materials Twitter repository; and junior doctor-led QI work streams aligned with surgical directorate quality goals supported by a mentorship network. Delivery style (lectures, workshops and QI project reporting) and learning session content was planned weekly using PDSA cycles and modified using participant feedback (score 0-10). All surgical directorate QI work streams were measured before and at nine months. Findings - From May 2014 to February 2015, there were 32 learning sessions with 266 scores (median 12 weekly, range 5-21). Workshop delivery scored the highest (mean score 9.0), followed by live project reports (mean score 8.8). The surgical QI work streams increased threefold from four to 12, including six junior doctor-led projects. Practical implications - By proactively acting upon feedback, the authors centralised QI measurement and tailored learning sessions to staff needs. Building sustainability involves continually refining learning curriculum and QI work streams, and expanding the mentorship network. Originality/value - The collaborative was established at no additional cost. Twitter is used to promote meetings, facilitate conversations and act as a learning repository. The mentorship framework builds QI and coaching expertise. PMID:27256777

  11. Improved Nuclear Reactor and Shield Mass Model for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robb, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are being developed to explore the distant reaches of the solar system. Beyond Mars, solar energy is inadequate to power advanced scientific instruments. One technology that can meet the energy requirements is the space nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor is used as a heat source for which a heat-to-electricity conversion system is needed. Examples of such conversion systems are the Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling cycles. Since launch cost is proportional to the amount of mass to lift, mass is always a concern in designing spacecraft. Estimations of system masses are an important part in determining the feasibility of a design. I worked under Michael Barrett in the Thermal Energy Conversion Branch of the Power & Electric Propulsion Division. An in-house Closed Cycle Engine Program (CCEP) is used for the design and performance analysis of closed-Brayton-cycle energy conversion systems for space applications. This program also calculates the system mass including the heat source. CCEP uses the subroutine RSMASS, which has been updated to RSMASS-D, to estimate the mass of the reactor. RSMASS was developed in 1986 at Sandia National Laboratories to quickly estimate the mass of multi-megawatt nuclear reactors for space applications. In response to an emphasis for lower power reactors, RSMASS-D was developed in 1997 and is based off of the SP-100 liquid metal cooled reactor. The subroutine calculates the mass of reactor components such as the safety systems, instrumentation and control, radiation shield, structure, reflector, and core. The major improvements in RSMASS-D are that it uses higher fidelity calculations, is easier to use, and automatically optimizes the systems mass. RSMASS-D is accurate within 15% of actual data while RSMASS is only accurate within 50%. My goal this summer was to learn FORTRAN 77 programming language and update the CCEP program with the RSMASS-D model.

  12. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    PubMed

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. PMID:23528675

  13. Improving Shade Modelling in a Regional River Temperature Model Using Fine-Scale LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, D. M.; Loicq, P.; Moatar, F.; Beaufort, A.; Melin, E.; Jullian, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Air temperature is often considered as a proxy of the stream temperature to model the distribution areas of aquatic species water temperature is not available at a regional scale. To simulate the water temperature at a regional scale (105 km²), a physically-based model using the equilibrium temperature concept and including upstream-downstream propagation of the thermal signal was developed and applied to the entire Loire basin (Beaufort et al., submitted). This model, called T-NET (Temperature-NETwork) is based on a hydrographical network topology. Computations are made hourly on 52,000 reaches which average 1.7 km long in the Loire drainage basin. The model gives a median Root Mean Square Error of 1.8°C at hourly time step on the basis of 128 water temperature stations (2008-2012). In that version of the model, tree shadings is modelled by a constant factor proportional to the vegetation cover on 10 meters sides the river reaches. According to sensitivity analysis, improving the shade representation would enhance T-NET accuracy, especially for the maximum daily temperatures, which are currently not very well modelized. This study evaluates the most efficient way (accuracy/computing time) to improve the shade model thanks to 1-m resolution LIDAR data available on tributary of the LoireRiver (317 km long and an area of 8280 km²). Two methods are tested and compared: the first one is a spatially explicit computation of the cast shadow for every LIDAR pixel. The second is based on averaged vegetation cover characteristics of buffers and reaches of variable size. Validation of the water temperature model is made against 4 temperature sensors well spread along the stream, as well as two airborne thermal infrared imageries acquired in summer 2014 and winter 2015 over a 80 km reach. The poster will present the optimal length- and crosswise scale to characterize the vegetation from LIDAR data.

  14. Community Collaboration to Improve Schools: Introducing a New Model from Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Lawson, Hal A.; Bean, Jerry; Flaspohler, Paul; Boone, Barbara; Kwiatkowski, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Conventional school improvement models traditionally involve "walled-in" approaches. These models focus primarily on academic learning strategies in response to standards-based accountabilities. Although positive outcomes have been documented, expanded school improvement models such as the Ohio Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement…

  15. A Pilot Telerehabilitation Program: Delivering Early Intervention Services to Rural Families

    PubMed Central

    Cason, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services. PMID:25945160

  16. Instructional Improvement Networking in Higher Education: California's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described is the Instructional Improvement Information Service (IIIS) database which provides information concerning instructional improvement activities, including project evaluations and printed matter such as lab manuals and tests to users at colleges and universities throughout California as well as a few other states. (TG)

  17. Teaching Improvement Model Designed with DEA Method and Management Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoneri, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This study uses student evaluation of teachers to design a teaching improvement matrix based on teaching efficiency and performance by combining management matrix and data envelopment analysis. This matrix is designed to formulate suggestions to improve teaching. The research sample consists of 42 classes of freshmen following a course of English…

  18. Applying a Continuous Quality Improvement Model To Assess Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Keith

    This handbook outlines techniques and processes for improving institutional effectiveness and ensuring continuous quality improvement, based on strategic planning activities at Wisconsin's Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC). First, institutional effectiveness is defined and 17 core indicators of effectiveness developed by the Wisconsin…

  19. Improving Predictive Modeling in Pediatric Drug Development: Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Mechanistic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Slikker, William; Young, John F.; Corley, Rick A.; Dorman, David C.; Conolly, Rory B.; Knudsen, Thomas; Erstad, Brian L.; Luecke, Richard H.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Timchalk, Chuck; Mattison, Donald R.

    2005-07-26

    A workshop was conducted on November 18?19, 2004, to address the issue of improving predictive models for drug delivery to developing humans. Although considerable progress has been made for adult humans, large gaps remain for predicting pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) outcome in children because most adult models have not been tested during development. The goals of the meeting included a description of when, during development, infants/children become adultlike in handling drugs. The issue of incorporating the most recent advances into the predictive models was also addressed: both the use of imaging approaches and genomic information were considered. Disease state, as exemplified by obesity, was addressed as a modifier of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during development. Issues addressed in this workshop should be considered in the development of new predictive and mechanistic models of drug kinetics and dynamics in the developing human.

  20. On the application of ensemble modeling techniques to improve ambient solar wind models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Pete; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran

    2013-02-01

    Ensemble modeling is a method of prediction based on the use of a representative sample of possible future states. Global models of the solar corona and inner heliosphere are now maturing to the point of becoming predictive tools; thus, it is both meaningful and necessary to quantitatively assess their uncertainty and limitations. In this study, we apply simple ensemble modeling techniques as a first step towards these goals. We focus on one relatively quiescent time period, Carrington rotation 2062, which occurred during the late declining phase of solar cycle 23. To illustrate and assess the sensitivity of the model results to variations in boundary conditions, we compute solutions using synoptic magnetograms from seven solar observatories. Model sensitivity is explored using (1) different combinations of models, (2) perturbations in the base coronal temperature (a free parameter in one of the model approximations), and (3) the spatial resolution of the numerical grid. We present variance maps, "whisker" plots, and "Taylor" diagrams to summarize the accuracy of the solutions and compute skill scores, which demonstrate that the ensemble mean solution outperforms any of the individual realizations. Our results provide a baseline against which future model improvements can be compared.

  1. Improving a complex finite-difference ground water flow model through the use of an analytic element screening model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.; Kelson, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that analytic element models have potential as powerful screening tools that can facilitate or improve calibration of more complicated finite-difference and finite-element models. We demonstrate how a two-dimensional analytic element model was used to identify errors in a complex three-dimensional finite-difference model caused by incorrect specification of boundary conditions. An improved finite-difference model was developed using boundary conditions developed from a far-field analytic element model. Calibration of a revised finite-difference model was achieved using fewer zones of hydraulic conductivity and lake bed conductance than the original finite-difference model. Calibration statistics were also improved in that simulated base-flows were much closer to measured values. The improved calibration is due mainly to improved specification of the boundary conditions made possible by first solving the far-field problem with an analytic element model.This paper demonstrates that analytic element models have potential as powerful screening tools that can facilitate or improve calibration of more complicated finite-difference and finite-element models. We demonstrate how a two-dimensional analytic element model was used to identify errors in a complex three-dimensional finite-difference model caused by incorrect specification of boundary conditions. An improved finite-difference model was developed using boundary conditions developed from a far-field analytic element model. Calibration of a revised finite-difference model was achieved using fewer zones of hydraulic conductivity and lake bed conductance than the original finite-difference model. Calibration statistics were also improved in that simulated base-flows were much closer to measured values. The improved calibration is due mainly to improved specification of the boundary conditions made possible by first solving the far-field problem with an analytic element model.

  2. Improvement of filament-protection circuitry in a Finnigan model 251 mass spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildman, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    As delivered from Finnigan MAT, the emission current of the Leybold-Heraeus model IM210 ionization vacuum gage on a model 251 isotope ratio mass spectrometer can turn on as soon as the ' PUMP ON ' switch is depressed, before a good vacuum in the mass spectrometer is attained. The filament in the source of the mass spectrometer may turn on at the same time, thereby shortening its life or burning it out if the vacuum is poor. This design flaw can be corrected by a simple modification of the electronic circuitry. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Improved Space Charge Modeling for Simulation and Design of Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Robert H. Jackson, Thuc Bui, John Verboncoeur

    2010-04-19

    Photoinjectors in advanced high-energy accelerators reduce beam energy spreads and enhance undulator photon fluxes. Photoinjector design is difficult because of the substantial differences in time and spatial scales. This Phase I program explored an innovative technique, the local Taylor polynomial (LTP) formulation, for improving finite difference analysis of photoinjectors. This included improved weighting techniques, systematic formula for high order interpolation and electric field computation, and improved handling of space charge. The Phase I program demonstrated that the approach was powerful, accurate, and efficient. It handles space charge gradients better than currently available technology.

  4. Residential energy demand models: Current status and future improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, G.

    1980-12-01

    Two models currently used to analyze energy use by the residential sector are described. The ORNL model is used to forecast energy use by fuel type for various end uses on a yearly basis. The MATH/CHRDS model analyzes variations in energy expenditures by households of various socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The essential features of the ORNL and MATH/CHRDS models are retained in a proposed model and integrated into a framework that is more flexible than either model. The important determinants of energy use by households are reviewed.

  5. CFD modeling of entrained-flow coal gasifiers with improved physical and chemical sub-models

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. While the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside entrained-flow gasifiers has been modeled through computational fluid dynamic (CFD), the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented here include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate, a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and heating rate effect on volatile yield, and careful selection of global gas phase reaction kinetics. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for systemwide design and optimization.

  6. Improved forecasting of thermospheric densities using multi-model ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvidge, Sean; Godinez, Humberto C.; Angling, Matthew J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the first known application of multi-model ensembles to the forecasting of the thermosphere. A multi-model ensemble (MME) is a method for combining different, independent models. The main advantage of using an MME is to reduce the effect of model errors and bias, since it is expected that the model errors will, at least partly, cancel. The MME, with its reduced uncertainties, can then be used as the initial conditions in a physics-based thermosphere model for forecasting. This should increase the forecast skill since a reduction in the errors of the initial conditions of a model generally increases model skill. In this paper the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM), the US Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter radar Exosphere 2000 (NRLMSISE-00), and Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) have been used to construct the MME. As well as comparisons between the MMEs and the "standard" runs of the model, the MME densities have been propagated forward in time using the TIE-GCM. It is shown that thermospheric forecasts of up to 6 h, using the MME, have a reduction in the root mean square error of greater than 60 %. The paper also highlights differences in model performance between times of solar minimum and maximum.

  7. Learning Anatomy: Do New Computer Models Improve Spatial Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Amit; Norman, Geoff; Spero, Lawrence; Taylor, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Assesses desktop-computer models that rotate in virtual three-dimensional space. Compares spatial learning with a computer carpal-bone model horizontally rotating at 10-degree views with the same model rotating at 90-degree views. (Author/CCM)

  8. Using Dirichlet Priors to Improve Model Parameter Plausibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Dovan; Gong, Yue; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Student modeling is a widely used approach to make inference about a student's attributes like knowledge, learning, etc. If we wish to use these models to analyze and better understand student learning there are two problems. First, a model's ability to predict student performance is at best weakly related to the accuracy of any one of its…

  9. An exercise in hydrological modeling: does expert knowledge improve model results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellebrand, H.; Müller, C.; Matgen, P.; Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H.

    2009-04-01

    In hydrological modeling the use of detailed soil data is sometimes troublesome since often these data are hard to obtain and, if available at all, difficult to interpret or process in a way that makes them meaningful for the model at hand. In this study a labor-intensive methodology to assess dominant runoff processes (DRP), which occur after prolonged rainfall events, is simplified and applied at a meso-scale basin in order to be used in rainfall runoff modeling. Intuitively the understanding and mapping of dominant runoff processes shows high potential for improving hydrological models, but there is an ongoing debate on ways to integrate this information in models. In this study a two step approach is suggested. First, dominant runoff processes are mapped using three characteristics: the permeability of the substratum, land-use information and slope. During a field campaign the processes are validated and for each DRP assumptions are made concerning their water storage capacity. The latter is done by combining soil data obtained during the field campaign with soil data obtained from the literature. Second, a parsimoniously parameterized hydrological model is set-up for each dominant runoff process and is parameterized a priori by means of expert knowledge. The overall catchment response is computed based on the area-weighted contribution from each process unit. The proposed methodology is tested in a case study in the Attert river basin located in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. For this purpose two models have been developed and applied: a so-called benchmark model in which the soil is represented as one lumped parameter and a second model in which the soil is represented by the mapped dominant runoff processes. The main goal of this study is to investigate whether the integration of dominant runoff process maps with hydrological models yields improvement of simulation results. The proposed maps and methodology could thus enhance hydrological predictions in

  10. An improved numerical model for wave rotor design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Wilson, Jack

    1992-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed which can predict both the unsteady flows within a wave rotor and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, and perfect gas flow. Besides the dominant wave behavior, it is also capable of predicting the effects of finite tube opening time, leakage from the tube ends, and viscosity. The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design, optimization, and analysis of wave rotor cycles for any application. This paper discusses some details of the model and presents comparisons between the model and two laboratory wave rotor experiments.

  11. An Improved Radiative Transfer Model for Climate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Clough, Shepard A.; Toon, Owen B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a radiative transfer model that has been developed to accurately predict the atmospheric radiant flux in both the infrared and the solar spectrum with a minimum of computational effort. The model is designed to be included in numerical climate models To assess the accuracy of the model, the results are compared to other more detailed models for several standard cases in the solar and thermal spectrum. As the thermal spectrum has been treated in other publications, we focus here on the solar part of the spectrum. We perform several example calculations focussing on the question of absorption of solar radiation by gases and aerosols.

  12. Performance Improvement Plan (PIP): A Conceptual Model for Instructional Improvement at Chemeketa Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Faith

    This report summarizes the three-part Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) conducted by the Instructional Division of Chemeketa Community College from August, 1977 to June, 1979. Results of the first stage, a needs assessment completed in 1978, are summarized in terms of limitations and additional information needed, alternative strategies, and…

  13. Getting started with the model for improvement: psychology and leadership in quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Pratap, J Nick; Varughese, Anna M; Adler, Elena; Kurth, C Dean

    2013-02-01

    Although the case for quality in hospitals is compelling, doctors are often uncertain how to achieve it. This article forms the third and final part of a series providing practical guidance on getting started with a first quality improvement project. Introduction. PMID:23411980

  14. Model Averaging for Improving Inference from Causal Diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Hamra, Ghassan B.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Vahratian, Anjel

    2015-01-01

    Model selection is an integral, yet contentious, component of epidemiologic research. Unfortunately, there remains no consensus on how to identify a single, best model among multiple candidate models. Researchers may be prone to selecting the model that best supports their a priori, preferred result; a phenomenon referred to as “wish bias”. Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), based on background causal and substantive knowledge, are a useful tool for specifying a subset of adjustment variables to obtain a causal effect estimate. In many cases, however, a DAG will support multiple, sufficient or minimally-sufficient adjustment sets. Even though all of these may theoretically produce unbiased effect estimates they may, in practice, yield somewhat distinct values, and the need to select between these models once again makes the research enterprise vulnerable to wish bias. In this work, we suggest combining adjustment sets with model averaging techniques to obtain causal estimates based on multiple, theoretically-unbiased models. We use three techniques for averaging the results among multiple candidate models: information criteria weighting, inverse variance weighting, and bootstrapping. We illustrate these approaches with an example from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN) study. We show that each averaging technique returns similar, model averaged causal estimates. An a priori strategy of model averaging provides a means of integrating uncertainty in selection among candidate, causal models, while also avoiding the temptation to report the most attractive estimate from a suite of equally valid alternatives. PMID:26270672

  15. Do bioclimate variables improve performance of climate envelope models?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watling, James I.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Bucklin, David N.; Speroterra, Carolina; Brandt, Laura A.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate envelope models are widely used to forecast potential effects of climate change on species distributions. A key issue in climate envelope modeling is the selection of predictor variables that most directly influence species. To determine whether model performance and spatial predictions were related to the selection of predictor variables, we compared models using bioclimate variables with models constructed from monthly climate data for twelve terrestrial vertebrate species in the southeastern USA using two different algorithms (random forests or generalized linear models), and two model selection techniques (using uncorrelated predictors or a subset of user-defined biologically relevant predictor variables). There were no differences in performance between models created with bioclimate or monthly variables, but one metric of model performance was significantly greater using the random forest algorithm compared with generalized linear models. Spatial predictions between maps using bioclimate and monthly variables were very consistent using the random forest algorithm with uncorrelated predictors, whereas we observed greater variability in predictions using generalized linear models.

  16. Improved Subcell Model for the Prediction of Braided Composite Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, Christopher R.; Xinran, Xiao; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the modeling of triaxially braided composites was explored through a semi-analytical discretization. Four unique subcells, each approximated by a "mosaic" stacking of unidirectional composite plies, were modeled through the use of layered-shell elements within the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA. Two subcell discretizations were investigated: a model explicitly capturing pure matrix regions, and a novel model which absorbed pure matrix pockets into neighboring tow plies. The in-plane stiffness properties of both models, computed using bottom-up micromechanics, correlated well to experimental data. The absorbed matrix model, however, was found to best capture out-of- plane flexural properties by comparing numerical simulations of the out-of-plane displacements from single-ply tension tests to experimental full field data. This strong correlation of out-of-plane characteristics supports the current modeling approach as a viable candidate for future work involving impact simulations.

  17. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  18. Improving a regional model using reduced complexity and parameter estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelson, Victor A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Haitjema, Henk M.

    2002-01-01

    The availability of powerful desktop computers and graphical user interfaces for ground water flow models makes possible the construction of ever more complex models. A proposed copper-zinc sulfide mine in northern Wisconsin offers a unique case in which the same hydrologic system has been modeled using a variety of techniques covering a wide range of sophistication and complexity. Early in the permitting process, simple numerical models were used to evaluate the necessary amount of water to be pumped from the mine, reductions in streamflow, and the drawdowns in the regional aquifer. More complex models have subsequently been used in an attempt to refine the predictions. Even after so much modeling effort, questions regarding the accuracy and reliability of the predictions remain. We have performed a new analysis of the proposed mine using the two-dimensional analytic element code GFLOW coupled with the nonlinear parameter estimation code UCODE. The new model is parsimonious, containing fewer than 10 parameters, and covers a region several times larger in areal extent than any of the previous models. The model demonstrates the suitability of analytic element codes for use with parameter estimation codes. The simplified model results are similar to the more complex models; predicted mine inflows and UCODE-derived 95% confidence intervals are consistent with the previous predictions. More important, the large areal extent of the model allowed us to examine hydrological features not included in the previous models, resulting in new insights about the effects that far-field boundary conditions can have on near-field model calibration and parameterization. In this case, the addition of surface water runoff into a lake in the headwaters of a stream while holding recharge constant moved a regional ground watershed divide and resulted in some of the added water being captured by the adjoining basin. Finally, a simple analytical solution was used to clarify the GFLOW model

  19. Improved numerical modeling of morphodynamics of rivers with steep banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langendoen, Eddy J.; Mendoza, Alejandro; Abad, Jorge D.; Tassi, Pablo; Wang, Dongchen; Ata, Riadh; El kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Hervouet, Jean-Michel

    2016-07-01

    The flow and sediment transport processes near steep streambanks, which are commonly found in meandering, braided, and anastomosing stream systems, exhibit complex patterns that produce intricate interactions between bed and bank morphologic adjustment. Increasingly, multi-dimensional computer models of riverine morphodynamics are used to aid in the study of these processes. A number of depth-averaged two-dimensional models are available to simulate morphologic adjustment of both bed and banks. Unfortunately, these models use overly simplified conceptual models of riverbank erosion, are limited by inflexible structured mesh systems, or are unable to accurately account for the flow and sediment transport adjacent to streambanks of arbitrary geometry. A new, nonlinear model is introduced that resolves these limitations. The model combines the river morphodynamics computer models TELEMAC-2D and SISYPHE of the open source TELEMAC-MASCARET suite of solvers with the bank erosion modules of the CONCEPTS channel evolution computer model. The performance of the new model is evaluated for meander-planform initiation and development. The most important findings are: (1) the model is able to simulate a much greater variety and complexity in meander wavelengths; (2) simulated meander development agrees closely with the unified bar-bend theory of Tubino and Seminara (1990); and (3) the rate of meander planform adjustment is greatly reduced if the wavelength of alternate bars is similar to that of meanders.

  20. Improving Instruction through Schoolwide Professional Development: Effects of the Data-on-Enacted-Curriculum Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf K.; Smithson, John; Porter, Andrew; Nunnaley, Diana; Osthoff, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The instructional improvement model Data on Enacted Curriculum was tested with an experimental design using randomized place-based trials. The improvement model is based on using data on instructional practices and achievement to guide professional development and decisions to refocus on instruction. The model was tested in 50 U.S. middle schools…

  1. Capacity-Related Innovations Resulting from the Implementation of a Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Lawson, Hal A.; Iachini, Aidyn; Bean, Gerald; Flaspohler, Paul D.; Zullig, Keith

    2010-01-01

    A new genus of district and school improvement models entails partnerships with other organizations and new working relationships with families, community leaders, and youths. The Ohio Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement (OCCMSI) is one such model. It enables partners to leverage family and community resources for learning,…

  2. Improving hospital efficiency: a process model of organizational change commitments.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Amit; Huising, Ruthanne; Golden, Brian R

    2014-02-01

    Improving hospital efficiency is a critical goal for managers and policy makers. We draw on participant observation of the perioperative coaching program in seven Ontario hospitals to develop knowledge of the process by which the content of change initiatives to increase hospital efficiency is defined. The coaching program was a change initiative involving the use of external facilitators with the goal of increasing perioperative efficiency. Focusing on the role of subjective understandings in shaping initiatives to improve efficiency, we show that physicians, nurses, administrators, and external facilitators all have differing frames of the problems that limit efficiency, and propose different changes that could enhance efficiency. Dynamics of strategic and contested framing ultimately shaped hospital change commitments. We build on work identifying factors that enhance the success of change efforts to improve hospital efficiency, highlighting the importance of subjective understandings and the politics of meaning-making in defining what hospitals change. PMID:24132582

  3. An experimentally determined evolutionary model dramatically improves phylogenetic fit.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Jesse D

    2014-08-01

    All modern approaches to molecular phylogenetics require a quantitative model for how genes evolve. Unfortunately, existing evolutionary models do not realistically represent the site-heterogeneous selection that governs actual sequence change. Attempts to remedy this problem have involved augmenting these models with a burgeoning number of free parameters. Here, I demonstrate an alternative: Experimental determination of a parameter-free evolutionary model via mutagenesis, functional selection, and deep sequencing. Using this strategy, I create an evolutionary model for influenza nucleoprotein that describes the gene phylogeny far better than existing models with dozens or even hundreds of free parameters. Emerging high-throughput experimental strategies such as the one employed here provide fundamentally new information that has the potential to transform the sensitivity of phylogenetic and genetic analyses. PMID:24859245

  4. Improving hypothesis testing through the application of flexible model structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, F.; Kavetski, D.; Schoups, G.; Clark, M. P.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    Flexible model structures simplify the model building process, therefore facilitating hypothesis testing, which is particularly useful in the context of conceptual hydrological modelling. The recently introduced flexible framework SUPERFLEX is based on generic elements which can be customized and assembled to generate different model configurations. We here show how this framework can be used to characterize important aspects of catchment functional response, which, when combined with existing experimental knowledge about the catchment structure, help catchment characterization. The case study is based on a set of Luxembourgish catchments located in different geologies, which are perceived to behave differently based on previous fieldwork experience. The comparison of the performance of different model structures elucidates different aspects of catchment response associated to the various catchments, such as linear vs. nonlinear behaviour, or horizontal vs. vertical preferential flow pathways. We show how the synthesis of the modelling and experimenting experiences provides a more robust understanding of catchment behaviour than it could be achieved by any individual perspective.

  5. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  6. Improvement and extension of a radar forest backscattering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, David S.; Wang, Yong

    1988-01-01

    Research to-date has focused on modeling development and programming based on model components proposed during the past several months and research progress made by the Simonett team. The model components and programs (in C language under UNIX) finished to date are summarized. These model components may help explain the contributions of various vegetation structural components to the attenuation and backscattering of vegetated surfaces to extract useful data concerning forest stands and their underlying surfaces for both the seawater-on and seawater-off.

  7. A Model to Explain Quality Improvement Effect of Peer Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Mutsumi; Komoda, Norihisa

    Through the analysis of Rayleigh model, an explanatory model for the quality effect of peer reviews is constructed. The review activities are evaluated by the defect removal rate at each phase. We made hypotheses on how these measurements are related to the product quality. These hypotheses are verified through regression analysis of actual project data, and concrete calculation formulae are obtained as a model. Making use of the mechanism to construct this model, we can develop a method for making concrete review plan and setting objective values to manage on-going review activities.

  8. A Measurement Model of Microgenetic Transfer for Improving Instructional Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Yudelson, Michael; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve instructional task design often make reference to the mental structures, such as "schemas" (e.g., Gick & Holyoak, 1983) or "identical elements" (Thorndike & Woodworth, 1901), that are common to both the instructional and target tasks. This component based (e.g., Singley & Anderson, 1989) approach…

  9. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES USING DIRECT FLUX MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project uses a novel approach to measure real-world pollutant fluxes on an extended spatial and temporal scale, and to infer from those the source-specific pollutant emissions needed for a comparison to and an improvement of current emissions inventories. Air pollutants a...

  10. Improving Student Success Using Predictive Models and Data Visualisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essa, Alfred; Ayad, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    The need to educate a competitive workforce is a global problem. In the US, for example, despite billions of dollars spent to improve the educational system, approximately 35% of students never finish high school. The drop rate among some demographic groups is as high as 50-60%. At the college level in the US only 30% of students graduate from…

  11. Improvements in Nonconservative Force Modelling for TOPEX/POSEIDON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Kubitschek, Daniel G.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, Nikita B.; Born, George H.

    1999-01-01

    It was recognized prior to the launch of TOPEX/POSEIDON, that the most important source of orbit error other than the gravity field, was due to nonconservative force modelling. Accordingly, an intensive effort was undertaken to study the nonconservative forces acting on the spacecraft using detailed finite element modelling (Antreasian, 1992; Antreasian and Rosborough, 1992). However, this detailed modelling was not suitable for orbit determination, and a simplified eight plate "box-wing" model was developed that took into account the aggregate effect of the various materials and associated thermal properties of each spacecraft surface. The a priori model was later tuned post launch with actual tracking data [Nerem et al., 1994; Marshall and Luthcke, 1994; Marshall et al., 1995]. More recently, Kubitschek (1997] developed a newer box-wing model for TOPEX/POSEIDON, which included updated material properties, accounted for a solar array deflection, and modelled solar array warping due to thermal effects. We have used this updated model as a basis to retune the macromodel for TOPEX/POSEIDON, and report on preliminary results using at least 36 cycles (one year) of SLR and DORIS data in 1993.

  12. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alison; Fink, Daniel; Reynolds, Mark D; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sullivan, Brian L; Bruns, Nicholas E; Hallstein, Eric; Merrifield, Matt S; Matsumoto, Sandi; Kelling, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10-58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations. PMID:26591443

  13. The Use of Modelling for Improving Pupils' Learning about Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregidgo, David; Ratcliffe, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the use of modeling in science teaching. Describes a study in which two parallel groups of year seven pupils modeled concepts of cell structure and function as they produced two- or three-dimensional representations of plant and animal cells. (Author/CCM)

  14. Delamination Modeling of Composites for Improved Crash Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Finite element crash modeling of composite structures is limited by the inability of current commercial crash codes to accurately model delamination growth. Efforts are made to implement and assess delamination modeling techniques using a current finite element crash code, MSC/DYTRAN. Three methods are evaluated, including a straightforward method based on monitoring forces in elements or constraints representing an interface; a cohesive fracture model proposed in the literature; and the virtual crack closure technique commonly used in fracture mechanics. Results are compared with dynamic double cantilever beam test data from the literature. Examples show that it is possible to accurately model delamination propagation in this case. However, the computational demands required for accurate solution are great and reliable property data may not be available to support general crash modeling efforts. Additional examples are modeled including an impact-loaded beam, damage initiation in laminated crushing specimens, and a scaled aircraft subfloor structures in which composite sandwich structures are used as energy-absorbing elements. These examples illustrate some of the difficulties in modeling delamination as part of a finite element crash analysis.

  15. A Training Model for Improving Interracial Relations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Daphne D.; Murray, Saundra R.

    The research described and evaluated in this report tests a model for intervention strategies to reduce the impact of racism on blacks in a university setting. The basic assumptions of the model discussed are that institutional racism is systematic and must be attacked through systems intervention by trained people, and that individual, group and…

  16. A Controlled Approach to Model Comparison and Improvement: Insights from the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    The current generation of models has followed a myriad of different development paths, making it difficult to identify a clear path to model improvement. Model comparison studies have been undertaken to explore model differences, but have not been able to meaningfully attribute inter-model differences to individual model components because there are often too many differences among the participating models. Model comparison studies have therefore provided limited insight into the causes of differences in model behavior, and model development has relied on the inspiration and experience of individual modelers rather than on a systematic analysis of model shortcomings. This presentation introduces a unified approach to process-based hydrologic modeling to enable controlled and systematic evaluation of different modeling approaches. Our model framework, called the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA), formulates a general set of conservation equations, providing the flexibility to experiment with different spatial representations, different flux parameterizations, different model parameter values, and different time stepping schemes. The SUMMA framework presented here enables users to decompose the modeling problem into the individual decisions made as part of model development, and evaluate different model development decisions in a systematic and controlled way. We present case studies to illustrate the use of SUMMA to select among competing modeling approaches, based on observed data from the Reynolds Creek CZO. Specific examples of preferable modeling approaches include adjustments to the shape of the below-canopy wind profile to improve simulations of below-canopy snowpack, and explicitly representing distributed lateral flow processes to improve simulations of riparian transpiration and streamflow. Results also demonstrate that changes in parameter values can make as much or more difference to the model predictions than changes in the

  17. Improvement and extension of a radar forest backscattering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, David S.; Wang, Yong

    1989-01-01

    Radar modeling of mangal forest stands, in the Sundarbans area of Southern Bangladesh, was developed. The modeling employs radar system parameters with forest data on tree height, spacing, biomass, species combinations, and water (including slightly conductive water), content both in leaves and trunks of the mangal. For Sundri and Gewa tropical mangal forests, six model components are proposed, which are required to explain the contributions of various forest species combinations in the attenuation and scattering of mangal vegetated nonflooded or flooded surfaces. Statistical data of simulated images were compared with those of SIR-B images both to refine the modeling procedures and to appropriately characterize the model output. The possibility of delineation of flooded or nonflooded boundaries is discussed.

  18. Exploiting ovine immunology to improve the relevance of biomedical models

    PubMed Central

    Entrican, Gary; Wattegedera, Sean R.; Griffiths, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of human disease are important tools in many areas of biomedicine; for example, in infectious disease research and in the development of novel drugs and medical devices. Most studies involving animals use rodents, in particular congenic mice, due to the availability of a wide number of strains and the ease with which they can be genetically manipulated. The use of mouse models has led to major advances in many fields of research, in particular in immunology but despite these advances, no animal model can exactly reproduce all the features of human disease. It is increasingly becoming recognised that in many circumstances mice do not provide the best model and that alternative species may be more appropriate. Here, we describe the relative merits of sheep as biomedical models for human physiology and disease in comparison to mice, with a particular focus on reproductive and respiratory pathogens. PMID:25263932

  19. Improvement and extension of a radar forest backscattering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, David S.; Wang, Yong

    1989-01-01

    Radar modeling of mangal forest stands, in the Sundarbans area of Southern Bangladesh, was developed. The modeling employs radar system parameters such as wavelength, polarization, and incidence angle, with forest data on tree height, spacing, biomass, species combinations, and water content (including slightly conductive water) both in leaves and trunks of the mangal. For Sundri and Gewa tropical mangal forests, five model components are proposed, which are required to explain the contributions of various forest species combinations in the attenuation and scattering of mangal vegetated nonflooded or flooded surfaces. Statistical data of simulated images (HH components only) were compared with those of SIR-B images both to refine the modeling procedures and to appropriately characterize the model output. The possibility of delineation of flooded or non-flooded boundaries is discussed.

  20. Recent improvements in atmospheric environment models for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. Jeffrey; Suggs, Ronnie J.; Smith, Robert E.; Hickey, Michael; Catlett, Karen

    1991-01-01

    The capability of empirical models of the earth's thermosphere must continually be updated if they are to keep pace with their many applications in the aerospace industry. This paper briefly summarizes the progress of several such efforts in support of the Space Station Program. The efforts consists of the development of data bases, analytical studies of the data, and evaluation and intercomparison of thermosphere models. A geomagnetic storm model of Slowey does not compare as well to the MSIS-86 model as does the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET). LDEF orbit decay data is used to evaluate the performance of the MET and MSIS-86 during a period of high solar activity; equal to or exceeding the highest levels that existed during the time of the original data sets upon which these models are based.

  1. Delivering Images for Mars Rover Science Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for delivering, via the Internet, images transmitted to Earth from cameras on the Mars Explorer Rovers, the Phoenix Mars Lander, the Mars Science Laboratory, and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. The images in question are used by geographically dispersed scientists and engineers in planning Rover scientific activities and Rover maneuvers pertinent thereto.

  2. Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudge, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for delivering teaching modules and makes recommendations for successful use of the Internet. Highlights include the availability of information at all times and from remote locations, multimedia capabilities, infrastructure needed, security issues, updating, needed skills, and…

  3. Is International Accounting Education Delivering Pedagogical Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Chris; Millanta, Brian; Tweedie, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether universities are delivering pedagogical value to international accounting students commensurate with the costs of studying abroad. The paper uses survey and interview methods to explore the extent to which Chinese Learners (CLs) in an Australian postgraduate accounting subject have distinct learning needs. The paper…

  4. MaxMod: a hidden Markov model based novel interface to MODELLER for improved prediction of protein 3D models.

    PubMed

    Parida, Bikram K; Panda, Prasanna K; Misra, Namrata; Mishra, Barada K

    2015-02-01

    Modeling the three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins assumes great significance because of its manifold applications in biomolecular research. Toward this goal, we present MaxMod, a graphical user interface (GUI) of the MODELLER program that combines profile hidden Markov model (profile HMM) method with Clustal Omega program to significantly improve the selection of homologous templates and target-template alignment for construction of accurate 3D protein models. MaxMod distinguishes itself from other existing GUIs of MODELLER software by implementing effortless modeling of proteins using templates that bear modified residues. Additionally, it provides various features such as loop optimization, express modeling (a feature where protein model can be generated directly from its sequence, without any further user intervention) and automatic update of PDB database, thus enhancing the user-friendly control of computational tasks. We find that HMM-based MaxMod performs better than other modeling packages in terms of execution time and model quality. MaxMod is freely available as a downloadable standalone tool for academic and non-commercial purpose at http://www.immt.res.in/maxmod/. PMID:25636267

  5. Boosting BCG with inert spores improves immunogenicity and induces specific IL-17 responses in a murine model of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Kaveh, Daryan A; Sibly, Laura; Webb, Paul R; Bull, Naomi C; Cutting, Simon M; Hogarth, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global pandemic, in both animals and man, and novel vaccines are urgently required. Heterologous prime-boost of BCG represents a promising strategy for improved TB vaccines, with respiratory delivery the most efficacious to date. Such an approach may be an ideal vaccination strategy against bovine TB (bTB), but respiratory vaccination presents a technical challenge in cattle. Inert bacterial spores represent an attractive vaccine vehicle. Therefore we evaluated whether parenterally administered spores are efficacious when used as a BCG boost in a murine model of immunity against Mycobacterium bovis. Here we report the use of heat-killed, TB10.4 adsorbed, Bacillus subtilis spores delivered via subcutaneous injection to boost immunity primed by BCG. We demonstrate that this approach improves the immunogenicity of BCG. Interestingly, this associated with substantial boosting of IL-17 responses; considered to be important in protective immunity against TB. These data demonstrate that parenteral delivery of spores represents a promising vaccine vehicle for boosting BCG, and identifies potential for optimisation for use as a vaccine for bovine TB. PMID:27156624

  6. Improving Agent Based Models and Validation through Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Marek; Demianyk, Bryan C.P.; Friesen, Marcia R.; McLeod, Robert D.; Mukhi, Shamir N.

    2011-01-01

    This work is contextualized in research in modeling and simulation of infection spread within a community or population, with the objective to provide a public health and policy tool in assessing the dynamics of infection spread and the qualitative impacts of public health interventions. This work uses the integration of real data sources into an Agent Based Model (ABM) to simulate respiratory infection spread within a small municipality. Novelty is derived in that the data sources are not necessarily obvious within ABM infection spread models. The ABM is a spatial-temporal model inclusive of behavioral and interaction patterns between individual agents on a real topography. The agent behaviours (movements and interactions) are fed by census / demographic data, integrated with real data from a telecommunication service provider (cellular records) and person-person contact data obtained via a custom 3G Smartphone application that logs Bluetooth connectivity between devices. Each source provides data of varying type and granularity, thereby enhancing the robustness of the model. The work demonstrates opportunities in data mining and fusion that can be used by policy and decision makers. The data become real-world inputs into individual SIR disease spread models and variants, thereby building credible and non-intrusive models to qualitatively simulate and assess public health interventions at the population level. PMID:23569606

  7. Preliminary numerical analysis of improved gas chromatograph model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrow, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for the gas chromatograph was developed which incorporates the heretofore neglected transport mechanisms of intraparticle diffusion and rates of adsorption. Because a closed-form analytical solution to the model does not appear realizable, techniques for the numerical solution of the model equations are being investigated. Criteria were developed for using a finite terminal boundary condition in place of an infinite boundary condition used in analytical solution techniques. The class of weighted residual methods known as orthogonal collocation is presently being investigated and appears promising.

  8. Joint regression analysis and AMMI model applied to oat improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A.; Oliveira, T. A.; Mejza, S.

    2012-09-01

    In our work we present an application of some biometrical methods useful in genotype stability evaluation, namely AMMI model, Joint Regression Analysis (JRA) and multiple comparison tests. A genotype stability analysis of oat (Avena Sativa L.) grain yield was carried out using data of the Portuguese Plant Breeding Board, sample of the 22 different genotypes during the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 in six locations. In Ferreira et al. (2006) the authors state the relevance of the regression models and of the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI) model, to study and to estimate phenotypic stability effects. As computational techniques we use the Zigzag algorithm to estimate the regression coefficients and the agricolae-package available in R software for AMMI model analysis.

  9. Initiative to improve process representation in chemistry-climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, Sarah J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Ravishankara, A.R.

    2009-06-16

    The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Initiative (AC&C) will address the current large uncertainties in our understanding of chemistry-climate interactions for short-lived atmospheric chemical constituents (e.g. aerosols, ozone, and methane). Understanding what controls the distribution of these species, how they affect climate, and how their distributions might change with a changing climate are important for air quality and climate forecasts. AC&C will address this issue in its first phase through a series of modeling exercises designed to test models’ ability to reproduce observed changes in these species distributions, to produce a set of coordinated forecasts for their future distribution, and to understand how processes are represented in different models. Observational databases will be used to test the models and to better understand processes represented in the models. This article describes the plans for this first phase of activities and seeks participation from the research community.

  10. Modeling the clouds on Venus: model development and improvement of a nucleation parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttänen, Anni; Bekki, Slimane; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Julin, Jan; Montmessin, Franck; Ortega, Ismael K.; Lebonnois, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    As both the clouds of Venus and aerosols in the Earth's stratosphere are composed of sulfuric acid droplets, we use the 1-D version of a model [1,4] developed for stratospheric aerosols and clouds to study the clouds on Venus. We have removed processes and compounds related to the stratospheric clouds so that the only species remaining are water and sulfuric acid, corresponding to the stratospheric sulfate aerosols, and we have added some key processes. The model describes microphysical processes including condensation/evaporation, and sedimentation. Coagulation, turbulent diffusion, and a parameterization for two-component nucleation [8] of water and sulfuric acid have been added in the model. Since the model describes explicitly the size distribution with a large number of size bins (50-500), it can handle multiple particle modes. The validity ranges of the existing nucleation parameterization [7] have been improved to cover a larger temperature range, and the very low relative humidity (RH) and high sulfuric acid concentrations found in the atmosphere of Venus. We have made several modifications to improve the 2002 nucleation parameterization [7], most notably ensuring that the two-component nucleation model behaves as predicted by the analytical studies at the one-component limit reached at extremely low RH. We have also chosen to use a self-consistent cluster distribution [9], constrained by scaling it to recent quantum chemistry calculations [3]. First tests of the cloud model have been carried out with temperature profiles from VIRA [2] and from the LMD Venus GCM [5], and with a compilation of water vapor and sulfuric acid profiles, as in [6]. The temperature and pressure profiles do not evolve with time, but the vapour profiles naturally change with the cloud. However, no chemistry is included for the moment, so the vapor concentrations are only dependent on the microphysical processes. The model has been run for several hundreds of Earth days to reach a

  11. Development of an equipment management model to improve effectiveness of processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H. S.; Ju, T. Y.; Song, T. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear industries have developed and are trying to create a performance model to improve effectiveness of the processes implemented at nuclear plants in order to enhance performance. Most high performing nuclear stations seek to continually improve the quality of their operations by identifying and closing important performance gaps. Thus, many utilities have implemented performance models adjusted to their plant's configuration and have instituted policies for such models. KHNP is developing a standard performance model to integrate the engineering processes and to improve the inter-relation among processes. The model, called the Standard Equipment Management Model (SEMM), is under development first by focusing on engineering processes and performance improvement processes related to plant equipment used at the site. This model includes performance indicators for each process that can allow evaluating and comparing the process performance among 21 operating units. The model will later be expanded to incorporate cost and management processes. (authors)

  12. A New Model for Improving the Communication of Learning in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuelke, L. D.

    This paper presents a model for improving a learning transaction between teacher and student. Included with the model is an actual sample learning module in communication theory offered at Governors State University, Forest Park, Illinois. (Author)

  13. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Qual...

  14. Improved landslide-tsunami prediction: Effects of block model parameters and slide model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Valentin; Spinneken, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    Subaerial landslide-tsunamis and impulse waves are caused by mass movements impacting into a water body, and the hazards they pose have to be reliably assessed. Empirical equations developed with physical Froude model studies can be an efficient method for such predictions. The present study improves this methodology and addresses two significant shortcomings in detail for the first time: these are the effect of three commonly ignored block model parameters and whether the slide is represented by a rigid block or a deformable granular material. A total of 144 block slide tests were conducted in a wave flume under systematic variation of three important block model parameters, the slide Froude number, the relative slide thickness, and the relative slide mass. Empirical equations for the maximum wave amplitude, height, and period as well as their evolution with propagation distance are derived. For most wave parameters, remarkably small data scatter is achieved. The combined influence of the three block model parameters affects the wave amplitude and wave height by up to a factor of two. The newly derived equations for block slides are then related to published equations for granular slides. This comparison reveals that block slides do not necessarily generate larger waves than granular slides, as often argued in the technical literature. In fact, it is shown that they may also generate significant smaller waves. The new findings can readily be integrated in existing hazard assessment methodologies, and they explain a large part of the discrepancy between previously published data.

  15. Design report on SCDAP/RELAP5 model improvements - debris bed and molten pool behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, C.M.; Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.

    1994-11-01

    the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code is designed to describe the overall reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulic response, core damage progression, and in combination with VICTORIA, fission product release and transport during severe accidents. Improvements for existing debris bed and molten pool models in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1 code are described in this report. Model improvements to address (a) debris bed formation, heating, and melting; (b) molten pool formation and growth; and (c) molten pool crust failure are discussed. Relevant data, existing models, proposed modeling changes, and the anticipated impact of the changes are discussed. Recommendations for the assessment of improved models are provided.

  16. An Improved Model of the Crustal Structure of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.; McGovern, P. J.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    The first reliable model of the structure of the crust and upper mantle of Mars from remote observations was produced using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Radio Science investigation of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). That model assumed a uniform crustal density and solved for the global variations in crustal thickness using a gravity field derived from preliminary MGS tracking. In that study, spherical harmonic potential coefficients were derived to degree and order 80, but crustal structure was interpreted cautiously to degree 60, or 360 km wavelength, owing to the presence of noise. Tracking normal equations have since been generated to degree 75, to degree 80 (supplemented by altimetric crossovers), and recently to degree 90, using new constants for the orientation of the spin pole and the rotation rate of Mars provided by the IAU2000 rotation model. Gravity models now incorporate tracking data coverage from the Primary and Extended MGS missions and the early phases of the Mars Odyssey mission. In the present study we exploit these advances in gravity modeling to present a refined crustal inversion, which we also interpret in the context of Mars' internal structure and thermal evolution.

  17. Inviscid Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulations for Improved Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikens, Kurt; Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The accuracy of an inviscid flow assumption for wall-modeled large eddy simulations (LES) is examined because of its ability to reduce simulation costs. This assumption is not generally applicable for wall-bounded flows due to the high velocity gradients found near walls. In wall-modeled LES, however, neither the viscous near-wall region or the viscous length scales in the outer flow are resolved. Therefore, the viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equations have little impact on the resolved flowfield. Zero pressure gradient flat plate boundary layer results are presented for both viscous and inviscid simulations using a wall model developed previously. The results are very similar and compare favorably to those from another wall model methodology and experimental data. Furthermore, the inviscid assumption reduces simulation costs by about 25% and 39% for supersonic and subsonic flows, respectively. Future research directions are discussed as are preliminary efforts to extend the wall model to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  18. Improved canopy reflectance modeling and scene inference through improved understanding of scene pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Janet; Simonett, David

    1988-01-01

    The Li-Strahler reflectance model, driven by LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data, provided regional estimates of tree size and density within 20 percent of sampled values in two bioclimatic zones in West Africa. This model exploits tree geometry in an inversion technique to predict average tree size and density from reflectance data using a few simple parameters measured in the field (spatial pattern, shape, and size distribution of trees) and in the imagery (spectral signatures of scene components). Trees are treated as simply shaped objects, and multispectral reflectance of a pixel is assumed to be related only to the proportions of tree crown, shadow, and understory in the pixel. These, in turn, are a direct function of the number and size of trees, the solar illumination angle, and the spectral signatures of crown, shadow and understory. Given the variance in reflectance from pixel to pixel within a homogeneous area of woodland, caused by the variation in the number and size of trees, the model can be inverted to give estimates of average tree size and density. Because the inversion is sensitive to correct determination of component signatures, predictions are not accurate for small areas.

  19. A School Nurse-Delivered Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pbert, Lori; Druker, Susan; Gapinski, Mary Ann; Gellar, Lauren; Magner, Robert; Reed, George; Schneider, Kristin; Osganian, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Models are needed for implementing weight management interventions for adolescents through readily accessible venues. This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a school nurse-delivered intervention in improving diet and activity and reducing BMI among overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS Six high schools were randomized to either a 6-session school nurse-delivered counseling intervention utilizing cognitive-behavioral techniques or nurse contact with provision of information. Eighty-four overweight or obese adolescents in grades 9 through 11 completed behavioral and physiological assessments at baseline and 2- and 6-month follow-ups. RESULTS At 2 months, intervention participants ate breakfast on more days/week (difference = 1.01 days; 95% CI 0.11, 1.92), and had a lower intake of total sugar (difference = −45.79g; 95% CI −88.34, −3.24) and added sugar (difference = −51.35g; 95% CI −92.45, −10.26) compared to control participants. At 6 months, they were more likely to drink soda ≤ one time/day (OR 4.10: 95% CI 1.19, 16.93) and eat at fast food restaurants ≤ one time/week (OR 4.62: 95% CI 1.10, 23.76) compared to control participants. There were no significant differences in BMI, activity or caloric intake. CONCLUSION A brief school nurse-delivered intervention was feasible, acceptable, and improved selected obesogenic behaviors, but not BMI. PMID:23343319

  20. Improvement of Latvian Geoid Model Using GNSS/Levelling, GOCE Data and Vertical Deflection Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janpaule, Inese; Haritonova, Diana; Balodis, Janis; Zarins, Ansis; Silabriedis, Gunars; Kaminskis, Janis

    2015-03-01

    Development of a digital zenith telescope prototype, improved zenith camera construction and analysis of experimental vertical deflection measurements for the improvement of the Latvian geoid model has been performed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (GGI), University of Latvia. GOCE satellite data was used to compute geoid model for the Riga region, and European gravimetric geoid model EGG97 and 102 data points of GNSS/levelling were used as input data in the calculations of Latvian geoid model.