Science.gov

Sample records for delivery raw water

  1. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Mild desalination of various raw water streams.

    PubMed

    Groot, C K; van den Broek, W B P; Loewenberg, J; Koeman-Stein, N; Heidekamp, M; de Schepper, W

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4 Water project (www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m³/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale. PMID:26204068

  3. 14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  5. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. Phase I privatization - raw and potable water design requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1996-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two phases. Phase I, a `proof of concept` phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary for privatization to proceed. Once established on this relatively small scale, privatization will be expanded, through a second competition, in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. The Phase I privatization site will be located in the former Grout Disposal Site area. To prepare the site for use for the private contractors, utilities must be extended from the 200 East Area infrastructure. This document describes the design requirements for the prime water services; i.e raw, fire suppression and sanitary (potable) to be provided to the private contractors. These requirements will be used in directing the conceptual design of these proposed water services.

  7. TWRS privatization phase I - raw and potable water service

    SciTech Connect

    Shord, A.L.

    1996-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two phases. Phase 1, a `proof of concept` phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary for privatization to proceed. Once established on this relatively small scale, privatization will be expanded, through a second competition, in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. The Phase I privatization site will be located in the former Grout Disposal Site area. To prepare the site for use for the private contractors, utilities must be extended from the 200 East Area infrastructure. This study evaluates and recommends the systems to supply raw, fire suppression, and sanitary (potable) water services to the boundary of the area to be assigned to each private contractor.

  8. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-07-31

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

  9. Microbial community structures in a closed raw water distribution system biofilm as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing analysis and the effect of microbial biofilm communities on raw water quality.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianghan; Liang, Heng; Yan, Lijun; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yanling; Li, Guibai

    2013-11-01

    This is the first report on the characterization of the microbial biofilm community structure and water quality change along a closed and stable raw water distribution system. 454-pyrosequencing was employed to investigate the microbial communities in four biofilm samples. 25,426 optimized sequences were obtained. Results showed Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in each biofilm sample. The abundance of Nitrospiraes in M6 biofilm, Firmicutes in M8 biofilm, Actinobacteria in M9 biofilm were higher by comparing with other three biofilm samples. The M6 microbial biofilm community structure was similar to that of M7, dissimilar to that of M9. Dissolved oxygen and nitrogen was probably major factors to influence the microbial biofilm communities. Nitrospiraes in M6 biofilm and Firmicutes in M8 biofilm were crucial to remove ammonia nitrogen and nitrate in raw water. How to enrich functional microbes in biofilm to pretreat raw water is an important area of future research. PMID:24055963

  10. Water Delivery--It's All about Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great deal of wisdom in the old saying "water seeks its level." In fact, the concept has bearing on a very practical side of human life as well, since the public water delivery system is based on it. In this article, the author discusses the concept behind water pressure and describes how the water systems work based on this concept.…

  11. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  12. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbodi, T A; Atawodi, S E

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water. PMID:3576949

  13. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  14. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe.

  15. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

    2008-03-01

    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant. PMID:18649519

  16. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  17. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  18. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  19. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  20. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  1. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  2. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  3. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  4. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  5. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  6. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  7. Occurrence of PCBs in raw and finished drinking water at seven public water systems along the Hudson River.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Patrick M; Wilson, Lloyd R; Casey, Ann C; Wagner, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in raw and finished drinking water at seven Public Water Systems (PWSs) along the Hudson River as part of a baseline monitoring program prior to the extensive sediment dredging of the Upper Hudson River. Water samples were either analyzed using an Aroclor method (based on USEPA Method 508) or a congener method (Modified Green Bay Mass Balance Method). Using the congener-based method, raw water concentrations ranged from <9.3 to 164.3 ng/L and finished water concentrations ranged from <9.3 to 186.6 ng/L. Using the Aroclor method, finished water concentrations ranged from <5.0 to 200.9 ng/L. Most finished water samples above 73.0 ng/L were from a PWS with wells drilled near the river. Excluding the well data, total PCB concentrations in raw water at systems in the Upper River were similar to concentrations at systems in the Lower River, though the congener patterns differed. Paired comparison of total PCB concentrations using the two analytical methods showed good agreement, although raw water showed a different relationship than finished water. PMID:20556645

  8. Reliability study: raw and make-up water system, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, S.M.; Wiehle, W.E.; Walder, A.; Houk, T.C.; West, R.M.

    1981-09-01

    A reliability study for determining the ability of the raw and make-up water system to provide reliable and adequate service through the year 2000 has been completed. This study includes an evaluation of the well fields, X-608 Raw Water Pump House, X-605 Booster Station Complex, X-611 Water Treatment Complex, and the associated piping. The raw and make-up water system is in good overall condition, but to maintain this condition, the reliability study team made the following recommendations: (1) increase well field capacity; (2) replace certain speed reducers at X-611; (3) repair deteriorated poles, crossarms, and accessories on F-2 and W-1 feeders; (4) stabilize the landslide in vicinity of the 48 in. raw water main; and (5) initiate further investigation, testing, or engineering studies to correct deficiencies in the supervisory control system between well fields, pump house, and X-611, determine if the 2400 volt underground cables to X-608A wells should be replaced.

  9. Hepatic gene expression analysis of mice exposed to raw water from Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Liu, Su; Cheng, Shupei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xuxiang

    2013-12-01

    Lake water is a micro-polluted water system, and characterization of its toxicity remains difficult. Microarray-based determination of altered gene expression might be an alterative approach. We chose raw water from Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, China as the target water. Male mice were exposed to the lake water for 90 days. Total hepatic RNA was applied to interrogate the Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 array. Gene ontology analysis, pathway analysis and gene network analysis were used to identify biological effects of differently expressed genes. The results showed that the expressions of 170 genes were altered. Nine biological processes and nine biological pathways were significantly perturbed (P ≤ 0.01), mainly linked to the regulation of cell processes, DNA repair, chromatin modification, oxidative reduction and carbohydrate metabolism. Important genes, such as Prkca, Pik3r1, Fgfr1 and Zbtb16, were identified by gene network analysis. This study provided excellent insights into early toxicological effects related to raw Lake Taihu water, and illustrated that the toxicogenomic approach might be a useful tool to evaluate potential environmental health effects of raw lake water. PMID:22899542

  10. Simultaneous analysis of carbamate pesticides in tap and raw water by LC/ESI/MS.

    PubMed

    Makihata, Nobuko; Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Teranishi, Kiyoshi

    2003-04-01

    Ten carbamate pesticides including four suspected endocrine disruptors, methomyl, benomyl (carbendazim), aldicarb and carbaryl, were simultaneously analyzed by LC/ESI/MS. The influence of the matrix on the variation of the ion signal intensities of (M + H)+ and adduct ions was investigated. Although the intensities of three oxamyl ions changed depending on the matrix, the variation in the concentration calculation of oxamyl was reduced by using the sum total of the area value of two ions. The limits of the quantitation of ten pesticides without a concentration procedure were from 0.4 - 30 microg/l. The solid-phase recovery rates of ten pesticides spiked into tap water and raw water were in the range of 69-111%. Using this method, the concentrations of the pesticides in tap and raw water sampled at 14 monitoring points in Hyogo Prefecture were determined. Carbendazim in three raw water samples and carbofuran in one of these three samples were detected at low concentrations (less than 0.32 microg/l). PMID:12725389

  11. Removal of algae from raw water by ultrasonic irradiation and flocculation: a pilot scale experiment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guozhong; Zhao, Chengmei; Liu, Bing; Li, Qingfei; Gao, Hui

    2013-04-01

    Using Chl alpha removal rate as index, a 28 kHz/900w ultrasonic cleaning machine was applied to testify algal removal by ultrasonic irradiation from raw water of a pool, where Microcystis aeruginosa colonies is absolutely dominated with temperature being over 20 degrees C, and the irradiation lasted for 5 min. PAC was used as flocculant at the dose of 60 mgl(-1), jar tests were done to investigate the Chl alpha removal by flocculation. The results showed that ultrasound raised the water temperature instantly but did not lead to a regular pH change pattern in all the treated samples. Ultrasound could remove more than 90% of Chl alpha from raw water with temperature over 31 degrees C, but less than 20% of Chl alpha or even increased Chl alpha concentration in some samples with temperature lower than 31 degrees C. Compared with the algal removal effects by direct raw water flocculation with PAC, ultrasound did not enhance markedly the flocculation effects on algae removal, which was not in agreement with the findings reported. The reason might be due to morphology and characteristics of natural algae differed greatly from that of algae cultured in laboratory. PMID:24620602

  12. Potential risk and control strategy of biofilm pretreatment process treating raw water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Fei; Zhou, Jia-Heng; Guo, Cai-Rong; Xia, Tian; Sun, Wen-Xiong; Jiang, Yue-Jie; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Lian; Xu, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Liang

    2015-12-01

    An enhanced lab-scale biofilm pretreatment process treating raw water obtained from eutrophicated water bodies was established and started up with a novel strategy of low-level nutrients addition and effluent recirculation. Results showed that the startup strategy was useful for biofilm formation and pollutants removal, but it had the risks of increasing substrate affinity constant (Ks) and biofilm decay in treating raw water. Fortunately, the increased Ks value did not affected the NH4(+)-N removal performance via keeping the NH4(+)-N loading rate larger than 6.29 mg L(-1)d(-1). In addition, lower hydraulic retention time (HRT) favored the removal of organic matters, and the maximum TOC removal rate of 76.5 mg L(-1)d(-1) were achieved at HRT of 2h. After long-term acclimatization at oligotrophic niche, the decrease of Ks value and increase of biomass, extracellular polymeric substances, bioactivity were achieved. Finally, the stable operation of biofilm pretreatment process was realized in treating polluted raw water. PMID:26413896

  13. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway)

    PubMed Central

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources. PMID:25658685

  14. On-line monitoring of Escherichia coli in raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant, Oslo (Norway).

    PubMed

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-02-01

    The fully automated Colifast ALARM™ has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources. PMID:25658685

  15. DEMINERALIZER BUILDING, TRA608. CAMERA IS ON RAW WATER TOWER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEMINERALIZER BUILDING, TRA-608. CAMERA IS ON RAW WATER TOWER AND FACES WEST. STEAM PLANT, TRA-609, AT UPPER EDGE OF VIEW. ABSENCE OF ROOF EXPOSES FIVE-BAY STRUCTURE AND INTERIOR DIVISION OF SPACE. CORRIDOR AT WEST END OF BUILDING WILL SEPARATE LABORATORY AND OFFICE SPACE FROM POTABLE WATER TANKS. ALONG NORTH WALL ARE SPACES FOR CATION AND ANION EXCHANGE UNITS. PENTHOUSE WILL ENCLOSE DEGASSIFIER. TANK AT LEFT (SOUTH) OF BUILDING STORES DEMINERALIZED WATER. NOTE BRINE STORAGE PIT, TRA-631, AT RIGHT OF VIEW, ABOVE PAIR OF CAUSTIC STORAGE TANKS. NOTE TRENCHES FOR BURIED WATER PIPES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2732. Unknown Photographer, 6/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. [Migration of main odorous compounds in a water supply system with Huangpu River as raw water in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Ming-De; Jia, Cheng-Shen

    2011-01-01

    Migration and variation of odorous compounds as geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and residual chlorine in drinking water taken from Huangpu River were studied by using headspace solid phase microextraction procedure (HSPME) and gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry. The results showed that, raw water, processed water, pipe water (taken from pump station) and secondary-supply water all contained MIB and geosmin ranging from 2 ng/L to 18 ng/L and 2.68 ng/L to 5.06 ng/L respectively and decreased dramatically during the water processing and distribution system. MIB is proved to be a kind of the odorous compounds in drinking water of Shanghai by comparing the concentrations of MIB and GSM with their odor threshold. The concentration of residual chlorine declined greatly in the distribution system, but because of the high value at the outlet of waterworks, it still may exceeded the influence of MIB and cause the odour problems. PMID:21404674

  17. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Lora, Fabiana; Zuluaga, Juan David; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the presence of DNA of Giardia, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium by PCR, and of Giardia and Cryptosporidium genera by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), in water samples, before, during, and after plant treatment for drinkable water. We applied this method in 38 samples of 10 l of water taken from each of the water treatment steps and in 8 samples taken at home (only for Toxoplasma PCR) in Quindio region in Colombia. There were 8 positive samples for Cryptosporidium parvum (21 %), 4 for Cryptosporidium hominis (10.5 %), 27 for Toxoplasma gondii (58.6 %), 2 for Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (5.2 %), and 5 for G. duodenalis assemblage B (13.1 %). By IFAT, 23 % were positive for Giardia and 21 % for Cryptosporidium. An almost perfect agreement was found between IFAT and combined results of PCR, by Kappa composite proportion analysis. PCR positive samples were significantly more frequent in untreated raw water for C. parvum (p = 0.02). High mean of fecal coliforms, high pH values, and low mean of chlorine residuals were strongly correlated with PCR positivity for G. duodenalis assemblage B. High pH value was correlated with PCR positivity for C. parvum. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences was possible, showing water and human clinical sequences for Toxoplasma within the same phylogenetic group for B1 repeated sequence. PCR assay is complementary to IFAT assay for monitoring of protozoa in raw and drinkable water, enabling species identification and to look for phylogenetic analysis in protozoa from human and environmental sources. PMID:26779921

  18. Removal of fluoride from contaminated ground water using raw and modified bauxite.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Ayse Dilek; Yesilnacar, Mehmet Irfan; Sahin, Muge Ozdemir

    2013-11-01

    Endemic fluorosis affects millions of people worldwide. Fluorosis arises from the consumption of fluorine (F) contaminated water and was observed also in some parts of Turkey with volcanic rocks and geothermal resources. In the present study the removal of F from drinking water by raw and modified bauxite at the laboratory scale was investigated using a batch mode. Modified bauxite was prepared by using Na and Mg incorporated (B-Na, B-Mg) bauxite and calcination of Mg incorporated bauxite at 500°C (B-Mg-500). The equilibration time for F between bauxite and water was identified to be 3 h. Adsorption of F increased with increasing adsorbent dose. Moreover, F adsorption isotherms fitted well with the Freundlich model. Low F adsorption was obtained onto the raw and incorporated bauxite. In contrast, maximum F adsorption was found for B-Mg-500, with Kf value of 0.247. This observation may be explained by the meaningfully stabilized and elevated number of positively charged sites in B-Mg-500. PMID:24072259

  19. Comparative study of water quality of rivers used for raw water supply & ex-mining lakes in Perak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orji, K. U.; Sapari, N.; Yusof, K. W.; Asadpour, R.; Olisa, E.

    2013-06-01

    Ex-mining lakes are seldom used as sources of raw water for the treatment of public water supply due to the general view that they are highly polluted. This study examined the water quality of these lakes, compared and contrasted them to the water quality of the rivers used for Perak drinking water supply. Ten water samples were analyzed from different ex-mining lakes. Two water samples were from Kinta and Perak rivers. They were analyzed for physico-chemical properties such as temperature, pH, EC, TDS, SO42- COD, Cl- Na+ Fe, As, and Pb. The results showed that temperature varied from 28.1°C to 34.1°C, pH 6.2 to 9.0, EC 55 to 400 μs/cm, turbidity 5.6 to 74.2 NTU, TDS 36.8 to 268mg/l, Cl- 0.483 to 3.339mg/l, SO42- 0.051 to 15.307mg/l, Na 0.669 to 3.668mg/l, Fe 0 to 0.14mg/l, As 0 to 0.004mg/l, and Pb 0.019 to 0.075mg/l. All the samples were highly turbid, had slightly high concentration of Pb, and had common water quality problem. The ex-mining lakes can also be used to supply water after treatment since these rivers are already being used by the Metropolitan Utilities Corporation for water treatment. The ex-mining pools can be used as alternative sources of drinking water supply to the people of Perak.

  20. Raw Water Ammonia: Implications on Water Quality, Regulatory Compliance, and Management Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the talk will be to present engineering design considerations associated with the biological reduction of ammonia from source water. Also, the application of ion exchange softening to address elevated ammonia is presented.

  1. Contamination risk of raw drinking water caused by PFOA sources along a river reach in south-western Finland.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Maiju; Koivusalo, Harri; Malve, Olli; Perkola, Noora; Juntunen, Janne; Huttula, Timo

    2016-01-15

    Transport of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was simulated in the beginning of River Kokemäenjoki in Finland using one-dimensional SOBEK river model. River Kokemäenjoki is used as a raw water source for an artificial groundwater recharge plant, and the raw water intake plant is located near the downstream end of the model application area. Measured surface water and wastewater concentrations were used to determine the PFOA input to the river and to evaluate the simulation results. The maximum computed PFOA concentrations in the river at the location of the raw water intake plant during the simulation period Dec. 1, 2011-Feb. 16, 2014 were 0.92 ng/l and 3.12 ng/l for two alternative modeling scenarios. These concentration values are 2.3% and 7.8%, respectively, of the 40 ng/l guideline threshold value for drinking water. The current annual median and maximum PFOA loads to the river were calculated to be 3.9 kg/year and 10 kg/year respectively. According to the simulation results, the PFOA load would need to rise to a level of 57 kg/year for the 40 ng/l guideline value to be exceeded in river water at the raw water intake plant during a dry season. It is thus unlikely that PFOA concentration in raw water would reach the guideline value without the appearance of new PFOA sources. The communal wastewater treatment plants in the study area caused on average 11% of the total PFOA load. This raises a concern about the origin of the remaining 89% of the PFOA load and the related risk factors. PMID:26398453

  2. Modelling geosmin concentrations in three sources of raw water in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Parinet, Julien; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sérodes, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The presence of off-flavour compounds such as geosmin, often found in raw water, significantly reduces the organoleptic quality of distributed water and diverts the consumer from its use. To adapt water treatment processes to eliminate these compounds, it is necessary to be able to identify them quickly. Routine analysis could be considered a solution, but it is expensive and delays associated with obtaining the results of analysis are often important, thereby constituting a serious disadvantage. The development of decision-making tools such as predictive models seems to be an economic and feasible solution to counterbalance the limitations of analytical methods. Among these tools, multi-linear regression and principal component regression are easy to implement. However, due to certain disadvantages inherent in these methods (multicollinearity or non-linearity of the processes), the use of emergent models involving artificial neurons networks such as multi-layer perceptron could prove to be an interesting alternative. In a previous paper (Parinet et al., Water Res 44: 5847-5856, 2010), the possible parameters that affect the variability of taste and odour compounds were investigated using principal component analysis. In the present study, we expand the research by comparing the performance of three tools using different modelling scenarios (multi-linear regression, principal component regression and multi-layer perceptron) to model geosmin in drinking water sources using 38 microbiological and physicochemical parameters. Three very different sources of water, in terms of quality, were selected for the study. These sources supply drinking water to the Québec City area (Canada) and its vicinity, and were monitored three times per month over a 1-year period. Seven different modelling methods were tested for predicting geosmin in these sources. The comparison of the seven different models showed that simple models based on multi-linear regression provide sufficient

  3. Improving Spectral Crop Coefficient Approach with Raw Image Digital Count Data to Estimate Crop Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafian, S.; Maas, S. J.; Rajan, N.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources and agricultural applications require knowledge of crop water use (CWU) over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Due to the spatial density of meteorological stations, the resolution of CWU estimates based on these data is fairly coarse and not particularly suitable or reliable for water resources planning, irrigation scheduling and decision making. Various methods have been developed for quantifying CWU of agricultural crops. In this study, an improved version of the spectral crop coefficient which includes the effects of stomatal closure is applied. Raw digital count (DC) data in the red, near-infrared, and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral bands of Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 imaging sensors are used to construct the TIR-ground cover (GC) pixel data distribution and estimate the effects of stomatal closure. CWU is then estimated by combining results of the spectral crop coefficient approach and the stomatal closer effect. To test this approach, evapotranspiration was measured in 5 agricultural fields in the semi-arid Texas High Plains during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons and compared to corresponding estimated values of CWU determined using this approach. The results showed that the estimated CWU from this approach was strongly correlated (R2 = 0.79) with observed evapotranspiration. In addition, the results showed that considering the stomatal closer effect in the proposed approach can improve the accuracy of the spectral crop coefficient method. These results suggest that the proposed approach is suitable for operational estimation of evapotranspiration and irrigation scheduling where irrigation is used to replace the daily CWU of a crop.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_023 isolated from raw fish storage water.

    PubMed

    Chung, Han Young; Na, Eun Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Ryu, Sangryeol; Yoon, Hyunjin; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Kim, Heebal; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticusis a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes food-borne gastroenteritis in humans who consumeV. parahaemolyticus-contaminated seafood.The FORC_023 strain was isolated from raw fish storage water, containing live fish at a sashimi restaurant. Here, we aimed to sequence and characterize the genome of the FORC_023 strain. The genome of the FORC_023 strain showed two circular chromosomes, which contained 4227 open reading frames (ORFs), 131 tRNA genes and 37 rRNA genes. Although the genome of FORC_023 did not include major virulence genes, such as genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), it contained genes encoding other hemolysins, secretion systems, iron uptake-related proteins and severalV. parahaemolyticusislands. The highest average nucleotide identity value was obtained between the FORC_023 strain and UCM-V493 (CP007004-6). Comparative genomic analysis of FORC_023 with UCM-V493 revealed that FORC_023 carried an additional genomic region encoding virulence factors, such as repeats-in-toxin and type II secretion factors. Furthermore,in vitrocytotoxicity testing showed that FORC_023 exhibited a high level of cytotoxicity toward INT-407 human epithelial cells. These results suggested that the FORC_023 strain may be a food-borne pathogen. PMID:27073252

  5. Startup pattern and performance enhancement of pilot-scale biofilm process for raw water pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    The quality of raw water is getting worse in developing countries because of the inadequate treatment of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. Aiming at the biofilm enrichment and pollutant removal, two pilot-scale biofilm reactors were built with different biological carriers. Results showed that compared with the blank carrier, the biofilm was easily enriched on the biofilm precoated carrier and less nitrite accumulation occurred. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, DOC and UV254 increased under the aeration condition, and a optimum DO level for the adequate nitrification was 1.0-2.6mgL(-1) with the suitable temperature range of 21-22°C. Study on the trihalomethane prediction model indicated that the presentence of algae increased the risk of disinfection by-products production, which could be effectively controlled via manual algae removing and light shading. In this study, the performance of biofilm pretreatment process could be enhanced under the optimized condition of DO level and biofilm carrier. PMID:25233473

  6. Algae consumption and nitrate removal in a raw water transport system by Limnoperna fortunei and its associated microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijian; Cui, Bin; Huang, Shaobin

    2014-12-01

    This laboratory-scale study investigated the effect of Limnoperna fortunei on chlorophyll a, phosphates, ammonia, and nitrates in a simulated raw water transport system, with a special focus on the isolation and identification of microbes in the biofilm attached to the shell surface. These microbes appear to be involved in the decreased concentration of nitrates observed in the water. The microbial communities in the raw water and on the surface of the mussel's shell were investigated through various methods, including a 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, which revealed significant diversity in terms of the structure and abundance of microbial species present. Two aerobic denitrifying bacteria (I-N38 and I-N45) were identified in shell biofilm that were capable of removing 95.5 and 100% of nitrates, respectively, within 24 hours. PMID:25654932

  7. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems. Volume 1. Correlation of bivalve biological characteristics and raw-water system design

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, K.I.; Page, T.L.; Young, J.S.; Daling, P.M.

    1984-12-01

    Fouling of raw-water systems in nuclear power plants in the US can affect the safe operation of a power plant. This report describes correlations between the biology of bivalve organisms and the design and operation of power plants that allow bivalves to enter and reside in nuclear power plants. Discussions are focused on safety-related raw-water systems subject to fouling by the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Score sheets to rate fouling potential of power plant systems and components are provided.

  8. Performance and enhanced mechanism of a novel bio-diatomite biofilm pretreatment process treating polluted raw water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-feng; Feng, Li-juan; Wang, Sha-fei; Yang, Qi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang

    2015-09-01

    A lab-scale novel bio-diatomite biofilm process (BDBP) was established for the polluted raw water pretreatment in this study. Results showed that a shorter startup period of BDBP system was achieved under the completely circulated operation mode, and the removal efficiencies of nitrogen and disinfection by-product precursor were effective at low hydraulic retention time of 2-4 h due to high biomass attached to the carrier and diatomite. A maximum NH4(+)-N oxidation potential predicted by modified Stover-Kincannon model was 333.3 mg L(-1) d(-1) in the BDBP system, which was 4.7 times of that in the control reactor. Results demonstrated that the present of bio-diatomite favors the accumulation of functional microbes in the oligotrophic niche, and the pollutants removal performance of this novel process was enhanced for polluted raw water pretreatment. PMID:26000837

  9. Simulated Water Delivery to Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John

    2015-11-01

    A set of Monte Carlo simulations was run to examine water diffusion across the lunar surface and specifically to the Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). This work extends the results of Schorghofer (2014) to latitudes above 5º from the pole and to specific PSRs and is accomplished using a separately derived model to independently test Schorghofer’s (2014) results. The model was validated using the results of Schorghofer (2014) at the 5º latitude line, replicating all of the behaviors of that model, but with slightly different values for the total number of tracer particles arriving and their fractionation.25 times fewer particles were able to survive to arrive within 1º of the pole, as compared to those that were able to arrive within 5º of the pole. For the PSRs themselves, 1.87% of particles were eventually sequestered within the PSRs by the end of our simulations. Examining the amount of water which could be transported over geological time reveals that sufficient water moves via migration to (1) supply the hydrogen signals observed by LEND, (Mitrofanov et al., 2012), (2) the frost at Haworth Crater (Gladstone et al., 2012) as well as to explain (3) the high level of water seen in the soils of Cabeus Crater in the LCROSS experiment (Colaprete et al., 2010) without the need to invoke another water supply mechanism.In all cases, the average time required for migration was small with average arrival times of less than a lunar day following an impact. Substantial differences were observed in the amount of water accreted by the different PSRs with Cabeus Crater accreting by far the most water per square meter. Faustini and the Haworth Lowlands have the next highest delivery, receiving ~60% each as much water as Cabeus per square meter. Shackleton has the lowest water delivery, receiving only ~5% as much water per square meter as Cabeus. The simulated results show a clear latitudinal trend with more water emplaced at lower latitudes. Yet, the data show very

  10. A comparison of surface water natural organic matter in raw filtered water samples, XAD, and reverse osmosis isolates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurice, P.A.; Pullin, M.J.; Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Namjesnik-Dejanovic, K.; Aiken, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    This research compared raw filtered waters (RFWs), XAD resin isolates (XAD-8 and XAD-4), and reverse osmosis (RO) isolates of several surface water samples from McDonalds Branch, a small freshwater fen in the New Jersey Pine Barrens (USA). RO and XAD-8 are two of the most common techniques used to isolate natural organic matter (NOM) for studies of composition and reactivity; therefore, it is important to understand how the isolates differ from bulk (unisolated) samples and from one another. Although, any comparison between the isolation methods needs to consider that XAD-8 is specifically designed to isolate the humic fraction, whereas RO concentrates a broad range of organic matter and is not specific to humics. The comparison included for all samples: weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity (??), absorbance at 280nm normalized to moles C (??280) (RFW and isolates); and for isolates only: elemental analysis, % carbon distribution by 13C NMR, and aqueous FTIR spectra. As expected, RO isolation gave higher yield of NOM than XAD-8, but also higher ash content, especially Si and S. Mw decreased in the order: RO>XAD-8>RFW>XAD-4. The Mw differences of isolates compared with RFW may be due to selective isolation (fractionation), or possibly in the case of RO to condensation or coagulation during isolation. 13C NMR results were roughly similar for the two methods, but the XAD-8 isolate was slightly higher in 'aromatic' C and the RO isolate was slightly higher in heteroaliphatic and carbonyl C. Infrared spectra indicated a higher carboxyl content for the XAD-8 isolates and a higher ester:carboxyl ratio for the RO isolates. The spectroscopic data thus are consistent with selective isolation of more hydrophobic compounds by XAD-8, and also with potential ester hydrolysis during that process, although further study is needed to determine whether ester hydrolysis does indeed occur. Researchers choosing between XAD and RO

  11. A comparison of surface water natural organic matter in raw filtered water samples, XAD, and reverse osmosis isolates.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Patricia A; Pullin, Michael J; Cabaniss, Stephen E; Zhou, Qunhui; Namjesnik-Dejanovic, Ksenija; Aiken, George R

    2002-05-01

    This research compared raw filtered waters (RFWs), XAD resin isolates (XAD-8 and XAD-4), and reverse osmosis (RO) isolates of several surface water samples from McDonalds Branch, a small freshwater fen in the New Jersey Pine Barrens (USA). RO and XAD-8 are two of the most common techniques used to isolate natural organic matter (NOM) for studies of composition and reactivity; therefore, it is important to understand how the isolates differ from bulk (unisolated) samples and from one another. Although, any comparison between the isolation methods needs to consider that XAD-8 is specifically designed to isolate the humic fraction, whereas RO concentrates a broad range of organic matter and is not specific to humics. The comparison included for all samples: weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity (rho), absorbance at 280 nm normalized to moles C (epsilon280) (RFW and isolates); and for isolates only: elemental analysis, % carbon distribution by 13C NMR, and aqueous FTIR spectra. As expected, RO isolation gave higher yield of NOM than XAD-8, but also higher ash content, especially Si and S. Mw decreased in the order: RO > XAD-8 > RFW > XAD-4. The Mw differences of isolates compared with RFW may be due to selective isolation (fractionation), or possibly in the case of RO to condensation or coagulation during isolation. 13C NMR results were roughly similar for the two methods, but the XAD-8 isolate was slightly higher in 'aromatic' C and the RO isolate was slightly higher in heteroaliphatic and carbonyl C. Infrared spectra indicated a higher carboxyl content for the XAD-8 isolates and a higher ester:carboxyl ratio for the RO isolates. The spectroscopic data thus are consistent with selective isolation of more hydrophobic compounds by XAD-8, and also with potential ester hydrolysis during that process, although further study is needed to determine whether ester hydrolysis does indeed occur. Researchers choosing between

  12. Template-directed hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite as a drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug carvedilol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qinfu; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Li; Jiang, Tongying; Cheng, Gang; Wang, Siling

    2011-09-01

    In order to improve the dissolution rate and increase the bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, intended to be administered orally, the biocompatible and bioactive mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) was successfully synthesized. In the present study, mesoporous HA nanoparticles were produced using Pluronic block co-polymer F127 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as templates by the hydrothermal method. The obtained mesoporous HA was employed as a drug delivery carrier to investigate the drug storage/release properties using carvedilol (CAR) as a model drug. Characterizations of the raw CAR powder, mesoporous HA and CAR-loaded HA were carried out by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The results demonstrated that CAR was successfully incorporated into the mesoporous HA host. In vitro drug release studies showed that mesoporous HA had a high drug load efficiency and provided immediate release of CAR compared with micronized raw drug in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and intestinal fluid (pH 6.8). Consequently, mesoporous HA is a good candidate as a drug carrier for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  13. Water delivery to the Moon by asteroidal and cometary impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetsov, V. V.; Shuvalov, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    Recent spacecraft missions detected presence of hydroxyl or water over large areas on the lunar surface. Several craters near the lunar poles have increased concentrations of hydrogen suggesting impact delivery of water. Using a numerical model, we have carried out computer simulations of the impacts of asteroids and comets in order to estimate the fate of water that can be contained in the projectiles. We find that at impact velocities below ~10 km/s a significant fraction of a stony projectile remains in the crater and is heated to temperatures below 1000 K. At these velocities hydrated minerals contained in carbonaceous projectiles decompose only partly. We conclude that the impacts of water-bearing carbonaceous asteroids could produce deposits of free and chemically bound water inside some lunar craters. The relative number of these craters may reach several percent. In contrast to asteroids, water from cometary impacts, even at low velocities, is vaporized, and vapor plume expands and disperses over the lunar surface.

  14. Raw materials.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dietmar

    2007-01-01

    Industrial fermentations need raw materials that fulfill the requirements of the organism (suitable carbon and nitrogen source, minerals and specific nutrients) and that are available in a high quantity and quality. This contribution gives a comprehensive overview, including the new trends and progress of recent years. The use of feedstock based on several raw materials such as sugar, starch, inulin and lignocellulose is discussed. Biomass-based raw materials are by far the most applied feedstocks for fermentation. However, there are also raw materials for fermentations derived from the petrochemical industry. These substrates are especially hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. Some applications are given in this chapter. PMID:17408080

  15. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area. PMID:26774770

  16. Reconciling IWRM and water delivery in Ghana - The potential and the challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokye, Nana Amma; Gupta, Joyeeta

    The key elements of integrated water resources management include a holistic integrated approach and the main principles of public participation, the role of gender and the notion of recognising the economic value of water. This paper investigates how these notions play out in the context of providing water to the rural communities in the Densu basin in Ghana. This investigation is based on a content analysis of the relevant policy documents and interviews with state agencies and local stakeholders. The paper concludes that there is a conflict between the IWRM goal of integrating all water uses and sectors in the management of water resources and focusing on the prioritisation of water delivery services. However, three of the IWRM principles can be used in implementing water delivery. While Ghana has adopted IWRM, it clearly prioritises water delivery. At basin level, the IWRM planning process does not take water delivery into account and water delivery is conducted independent of the IWRM process. Although the participatory and gender approaches are being implemented relatively successfully, if slowly, the ‘water as an economic good’ principle is given less priority than the notion of the human right to water as local communities pay only 5% of the capital costs of water delivery services. The impact of the rural water delivery services has been positive in the Densu basin in seven different ways; and if this helps the rural community out of the poverty trap, it may lead to economically viable water facilities in the long-term.

  17. The spatial distribution of behavior under varying frequencies of temporally scheduled water delivery.

    PubMed

    Ribes-Iñesta, E; Torres, C

    2000-03-01

    Two studies evaluated the effects of response-independent water deliveries on the location (on the floor of the experimental chamber) and position (height) of rats' behavior. In both experiments, fixed-time schedules delivered water in two dispensers that were located at opposite ends of the chamber. In Experiment 1, the two schedules provided complementary frequencies of water deliveries while the overall number of deliveries stayed constant. In Experiment 2, one of the schedules delivered water twice as frequently as the other; this proportion was kept constant while the overall density of water deliveries changed systematically. In both experiments, a single position (height) of behavior was dominant. Also, the percentage of time allocated to each dispenser was roughly proportional to the percentage of water deliveries associated with the dispensers. These data and additional considerations support the importance of examining the spatial properties and patterning of behavior. PMID:10784009

  18. The spatial distribution of behavior under varying frequencies of temporally scheduled water delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Ribes-Iñesta, E; Torres, C

    2000-01-01

    Two studies evaluated the effects of response-independent water deliveries on the location (on the floor of the experimental chamber) and position (height) of rats' behavior. In both experiments, fixed-time schedules delivered water in two dispensers that were located at opposite ends of the chamber. In Experiment 1, the two schedules provided complementary frequencies of water deliveries while the overall number of deliveries stayed constant. In Experiment 2, one of the schedules delivered water twice as frequently as the other; this proportion was kept constant while the overall density of water deliveries changed systematically. In both experiments, a single position (height) of behavior was dominant. Also, the percentage of time allocated to each dispenser was roughly proportional to the percentage of water deliveries associated with the dispensers. These data and additional considerations support the importance of examining the spatial properties and patterning of behavior. PMID:10784009

  19. The study of interrelationship between raw water quality parameters, chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Yee, Lim Fang; Ata, Sadia; Abdullah, Abass; Ishak, Basar; Abidin, Khairul Nidzham Zainal

    Disinfection is the most crucial process in the treatment of drinking water supply and is the final barrier against bacteriological impurities in drinking water. Chlorine is the primary disinfectant used in the drinking water treatment process throughout Malaysia. However, the occurrence of various disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids created a major issue on the potential health hazards which may pose adverse health effects in both human and animals. To simulate real water treatment conditions and to represent the conditions inherent in a tropical country, this study was performed at an urbanized water treatment plant with a daily production of about 549,000 m 3 of treated water. The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between the water quality parameters in the raw water with chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products. This study also investigated the possibility of the statistical model applications for the prediction of chlorine demand and the THM formation. Two models were developed to estimate the chlorine demand and the THM formation. For the statistical evaluation, correlation and simple linear regression analysis were conducted using SPSS. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the estimation of goodness-of-fit of the dependent variables of the models to the normal distribution showed that all the dependent variables followed the normal distribution at significance level of 0.05. Good linear correlations were observed between the independent parameters and formation of THM and the chlorine demand. This study also revealed that ammonia and the specific ultraviolet absorbent (SUVA) were the function of chlorine consumption in the treatment process. Chlorine dosage and SUVA increase the yield of THM. Chlorine demand and THM formation was moderately sensitive, but significant to the pH. The level of significance ( α) for the statistical tests and the inclusion of a variable in the

  20. Inactivation of natural microflora and Listeria innocua on raw whole shrimp by ozonated water, antimicrobial coatings, and cryogenic freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. A survey was conducted to investigate the microbiological safety and quality of frozen raw whole shrimp in local US markets. Results from 32 brands of raw whole shrimp samples available in local retail markets representing 9 countries of ...

  1. Human-Associated Fecal Quantitative Polymerase Chain ReactionMeasurements and Simulated Risk of Gastrointestinal Illness in Recreational Waters Contaminated with Raw Sewage

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to estimate the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness associated with swimming in recreational waters containing different concentrations of human-associated fecal qPCR markers from raw sewage– HF183 and HumM2. The volume/volu...

  2. EFFECTS OF NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER AND THE RAW WATER MATRIX ON THE REJECTION OF ATRAZINE BY PRESSURE-DRIVEN MEMBRANES. (R825513C026)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work explores the role of the raw water matrix, particularly natural organic matter (NOM), in determining the removal of atrazine by nanofiltration membranes. The nature and relative concentration of NOM, the presence of calcium and ionic strength affected atrazine reject...

  3. Human-associated fecal qPCR measurements and predicted risk of gastrointestinal illness in recreational waters contaminated with raw sewage

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to estimate the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness associated with swimming in recreational waters containing different concentrations of human-associated fecal qPCR markers from raw sewage– HF183 and HumM2. The volume/volu...

  4. A Prototype Educational Delivery System Using Water Quality Monitoring as a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Richard B.

    This report describes the model educational delivery system used by Ulster County Community College in its water quality monitoring program. The educational delivery system described in the report encompasses the use of behavioral objectives as its foundation and builds upon this foundation to form a complete system whose outcomes can be measured,…

  5. Combination of powdered activated carbon and powdered zeolite for enhancing ammonium removal in micro-polluted raw water.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhen-Liang; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Bai-Rong; Li, Huai-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Even zeolite is promising in ammonia pollution disposing, its removal efficiency is frequently interfered by organics. As activated carbon has good removal efficiency on organic contaminants, combination of two adsorbents may allow their respective adsorption characteristics into full play. This paper provides a performance assessment of the combination for enhancing ammonium removal in micro-polluted raw water. Gel-filtration chromatography (GFC) was carried out to quantify the molecular weight (MW) range of organic contaminants that powdered activated carbon (PAC) and powdered zeolite (PZ) can remove. The polydispersity difference which also calculated from GFC may indicate the wider organic contaminants removal range of PAC and the relatively centralized removal range of PZ. The jar tests of combination dosing confirm a synergistic effect which promotes ammonium removing. Nevertheless, it also shows an antagonism hindering the due removal performance of the two adsorbents on CODMn, while it is not much evident on UV254. Furthermore, a comparison study with simulated coagulation-sedimentation process was conducted to evaluate the optimum dosing points (spatial and temporal) of PAC and PZ among follows: suction well, pipeline mixer, early and middle phase of flocculation. We suggest to dose both two adsorbents into the early phase of flocculation to maximize the versatile removal efficiency on turbidity, ammonium and organic contaminants. PMID:25929873

  6. About Prospects of Enrichment of Mineral Raw Materials and Chemical Activation of Water Suspensions by Electroexplosive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordunov, S. V.; Galtseva, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments is conducted on laboratory and pilot-production installation for the application of high-voltage pulsed discharge in the processes of enrichment of goldbearing mineral raw materials with a relatively low energy electrical discharge in the pulse of 120 J. At the same time the conglomerates of clay components are breaking down to micron and submicron sizes completely. Solid minerals such as quartz are simultaneously destroyed by defects and grains and withdrawn from the installation with water, thus increasing degree of enrichment of concentrate. The results of the processing by high-voltage pulsed discharges of building sand from the Ob riverbed are given. Discharge energy is 45 J. Relations of fractions in the original sand and in the sand after electroexplosive process show the uniform crushing of sand particles with splitting off particles with size of less than 0.045 mm. A content of chipped particles is 18%. The results of particle-size and X-ray structural analyses are shown.

  7. Associations between Perceptions of Drinking Water Service Delivery and Measured Drinking Water Quality in Rural Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Wedgworth, Jessica C.; Brown, Joe; Johnson, Pauline; Olson, Julie B.; Elliott, Mark; Forehand, Rick; Stauber, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Although small, rural water supplies may present elevated microbial risks to consumers in some settings, characterizing exposures through representative point-of-consumption sampling is logistically challenging. In order to evaluate the usefulness of consumer self-reported data in predicting measured water quality and risk factors for contamination, we compared matched consumer interview data with point-of-survey, household water quality and pressure data for 910 households served by 14 small water systems in rural Alabama. Participating households completed one survey that included detailed feedback on two key areas of water service conditions: delivery conditions (intermittent service and low water pressure) and general aesthetic characteristics (taste, odor and color), providing five condition values. Microbial water samples were taken at the point-of-use (from kitchen faucets) and as-delivered from the distribution network (from outside flame-sterilized taps, if available), where pressure was also measured. Water samples were analyzed for free and total chlorine, pH, turbidity, and presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Of the 910 households surveyed, 35% of participants reported experiencing low water pressure, 15% reported intermittent service, and almost 20% reported aesthetic problems (taste, odor or color). Consumer-reported low pressure was associated with lower gauge-measured pressure at taps. While total coliforms (TC) were detected in 17% of outside tap samples and 12% of samples from kitchen faucets, no reported water service conditions or aesthetic characteristics were associated with presence of TC. We conclude that consumer-reported data were of limited utility in predicting potential microbial risks associated with small water supplies in this setting, although consumer feedback on low pressure—a risk factor for contamination—may be relatively reliable and therefore useful in future monitoring efforts. PMID:25046635

  8. The interaction between natural organic matter in raw waters and pesticide residues: a three dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence investigation.

    PubMed

    Beale, David J; Porter, Nichola A; Roddick, Felicity A

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction between dissolved natural organic matter and pesticide residues, both of which are found in raw water sources, using three dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. It was observed that pesticide residue at 0.1 mg L(-1) formed a complex with humic-like fluorophores that are commonly found in raw water samples. Applying 3DEEM fluorescence to investigate the humic fractions, it was found that identification of changes in water sources was possible, and, importantly, the presence of a number of pesticides was able to be determined. In addition, the formation of this complex, and the influence of soluble cations and anions upon it, was shown to impact the efficiency of analytical extraction procedures for pesticides; however, 3DEEM fluorescence could be an approach to account for such losses. PMID:23752373

  9. Optimization of Fenton's reagent coupled to Dissolved Air Flotation to remove cyanobacterial odorous metabolites and suspended solids from raw surface water.

    PubMed

    Elías-Maxil, Jorge A; Rigas, Fotis; Orta de Velásquez, María Teresa; Ramírez-Zamora, Rosa-María

    2011-01-01

    Ferrous salts are commonly used as coagulants in Water Treatment Plants (WTPs). When these salts are combined with hydrogen peroxide in acidic conditions - besides coagulation - an additional Advanced Oxidation Process (Fenton's reagent) can take place. Using a response surface methodology, this paper presents the optimization of a novel treatment system constituted by Fenton's reagent (FE) and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) for removing 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), geosmin and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) from raw water. FE was proven able to remove completely both micro pollutants found in the influent of a drinking water treatment plant. Moreover, higher clarification rate was achieved by coupling FE-DAF with respect FE-Sedimentation. PMID:22335110

  10. Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:23852646

  11. Fast, rugged and sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of cyanotoxins in raw water and drinking water--First findings of anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins and microcystin variants in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds.

    PubMed

    Pekar, Heidi; Westerberg, Erik; Bruno, Oscar; Lääne, Ants; Persson, Kenneth M; Sundström, L Fredrik; Thim, Anna-Maria

    2016-01-15

    Freshwater blooms of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in source waters are generally composed of several different strains with the capability to produce a variety of toxins. The major exposure routes for humans are direct contact with recreational waters and ingestion of drinking water not efficiently treated. The ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analytical method presented here allows simultaneous analysis of 22 cyanotoxins from different toxin groups, including anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularin and microcystins in raw water and drinking water. The use of reference standards enables correct identification of toxins as well as precision of the quantification and due to matrix effects, recovery correction is required. The multi-toxin group method presented here, does not compromise sensitivity, despite the large number of analytes. The limit of quantification was set to 0.1 μg/L for 75% of the cyanotoxins in drinking water and 0.5 μg/L for all cyanotoxins in raw water, which is compliant with the WHO guidance value for microcystin-LR. The matrix effects experienced during analysis were reasonable for most analytes, considering the large volume injected into the mass spectrometer. The time of analysis, including lysing of cell bound toxins, is less than three hours. Furthermore, the method was tested in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds resulting in evidence of presence of anatoxin, homo-anatoxin, cylindrospermopsin and several variants of microcystins for the first time in Sweden, proving its usefulness. PMID:26755412

  12. Targeted delivery of a poorly water-soluble compound to hair follicles using polymeric nanoparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Morgen, Michael; Lu, Guang Wei; Du, Daniel; Stehle, Randall; Lembke, Franz; Cervantes, Jessica; Ciotti, Susan; Haskell, Roy; Smithey, Dan; Haley, Kevin; Fan, Conglin

    2011-09-15

    This study explored the utility of topically applied polymeric nanoparticle suspensions to target delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs to hair follicles. Several formulations of amorphous drug/polymer nanoparticles were prepared from ethyl cellulose and UK-157,147 (systematic name (3S,4R)-[6-(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-(2-methyl-3-oxo-2,3-dihydropyridazin-6-yloxy)-3-chromanol), a potassium channel opener, using sodium glycocholate (NaGC) as a surface stabilizer. Nanoparticle suspensions were evaluated to determine if targeted drug delivery to sebaceous glands and hair follicles could be achieved. In in vitro testing with rabbit ear tissue, delivery of UK-157,147 to the follicles was demonstrated with limited distribution to the surrounding dermis. Delivery to hair follicles was also demonstrated in vivo, based on stimulation of hair growth in tests of 100-nm nanoparticles with a C3H mouse model. The nanoparticles were well-tolerated, with no visible skin irritation. In vivo tests of smaller nanoparticles with a hamster ear model also indicated targeted delivery to sebaceous glands. The nanoparticles released drug rapidly in in vitro nonsink dissolution tests and were stable in suspension for 3 months. The present results show selective drug delivery to the follicle by follicular transport of nanoparticles and rapid release of a poorly water-soluble drug. Thus, nanoparticles represent a promising approach for targeted topical delivery of low-solubility compounds to hair follicles. PMID:21722722

  13. Generation and delivery device for ozone gas and ozone dissolved in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Craig C. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides an ozone generation and delivery system that lends itself to small scale applications and requires very low maintenance. The system preferably includes an anode reservoir and a cathode phase separator each having a hydrophobic membrane to allow phase separation of produced gases from water. The hydrogen gas, ozone gas and water containing ozone may be delivered under pressure.

  14. Evaluation of an ultra low-flow water delivery system for small experimental tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultra low-flow water delivery system was developed and tested for use in research studies requiring low-flow in small water volumes. Small test systems save on the amount of fish, chemicals, and biologics needed in disease challenge and treatment experiments. The ultra low-flow system, comprise...

  15. Estimation of arsenic intake from drinking water and food (raw and cooked) in a rural village of northern Chile. Urine as a biomarker of recent exposure.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8-92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day⁻¹) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL⁻¹. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  16. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  17. Contaminated water delivery as a simple and effective method of experimental Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Hope; Pham, Oanh H.; Benoun, Joseph M.; Ravesloot-Chávez, Marietta M.; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In most infectious disease models, it is assumed that gavage needle infection is the most reliable means of pathogen delivery to the gastrointestinal tract. However, this methodology can cause esophageal tearing and induces stress in experimental animals, both of which have the potential to impact early infection and the subsequent immune response. Materials and Methods C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with virulent Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 either by intragastric gavage preceded by sodium bicarbonate, or by contamination of drinking water. Results We demonstrate that water contamination delivery of Salmonella is equivalent to gavage inoculation in providing a consistent model of infection. Furthermore, exposure of mice to contaminated drinking water for as little as 4 hours allowed maximal mucosal and systemic infection, suggesting an abbreviated window exists for natural intestinal entry. Conclusions Together, these data question the need for gavage delivery for infection with oral pathogens. PMID:26439708

  18. Estimation of disaggregated canal water deliveries in Pakistan using geomatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mobin-ud-Din; Stein, Alfred; Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M.

    2004-11-01

    Lack of accurate information on water distribution within an irrigation system is a major roadblock for effective management of scarce water resources. Numerical techniques to estimate canal water distribution require large amounts of data with respect to hydraulic parameters and operation of the hydraulic structures; such data are absent in large irrigation systems. In this study, six quantitative geomatic models, with varying complexity and physical representation, were formulated. They all use high-spatial resolution Landsat-7 images and a canal network stored in a GIS. The models require only the flow rates at the head of the distribution system to calculate downstream water distribution. Results were compared with discharge measurements for three tertiary canals (watercourses) within two selected secondary canals (distributaries), Gajiana and Ghour Dour, in Rechna Doab, Pakistan. The model that computed canal water distribution using the shape of the irrigated area was the most accurate at the watercourse scale. The overall deviation was 28% and the standard deviation of differences between modelled and measured flow was 10%. The model that relates canal water distribution directly to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has the lowest accuracy with a 32% absolute deviation and 16% standard deviation. We conclude that geo-information techniques can be used to compute water distribution in large irrigation systems with a minimum of field data if an appropriate geomatic model is selected.

  19. Biochar from Sugarcane Filtercake Reduces Soil CO2 Emissions Relative to Raw Residue and Improves Water Retention and Nutrient Availability in a Highly-Weathered Tropical Soil

    PubMed Central

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S.; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  20. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    PubMed

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  1. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF RODENT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE: SOLVENT TOXICITY AND WATER INSOLUBLE COMPOUND DELIVERY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to study the in vitro embryotoxicity and dysmorphogenesis of water insoluble compounds, solvents or chemical delivery systems of low toxicity and teratogenicity to the developing embryo must be found. Therefore, day 10.5 rat embryos were cultured for 2 days in whole rat ...

  2. Impact of diatomite on the slightly polluted algae-containing raw water treatment process using ozone oxidation coupled with polyaluminum chloride coagulation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde; Jia, Aiyin; Zhang, Zhilin; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The impact of adding diatomite on the treatment performance of slightly polluted algae-containing raw water using ozone pre-oxidation and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation was investigated. Results demonstrated that the addition of diatomite is advantageous due to reduction of the PAC dose (58.33%) and improvement of the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in raw water. When the ozone concentration was 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and the PAC dosage was 2.5 mg L⁻¹, the removal rates of algae, turbidity, UV254, and TOC were improved by 6.39%, 7.06%, 6.76%, and 4.03%, respectively, with the addition of 0.4 g L⁻¹ diatomite. It has been found that the DOM presented in the Pearl River raw water mainly consisted of small molecules (<1 kDa) and large ones (> 50 kDa). After adding diatomite (0.4 g L⁻¹), the additional removal of 5.77% TOC and 14.82% UV254 for small molecules (<1 kDa) of DOM, and 8.62% TOC and 7.33% UV254 for large ones (>50 kDa) could be achieved, respectively, at an ozone concentration of 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and a PAC dose of 2.5 mg L⁻¹. The growth of anabaena flos-aquae (A.F.) was observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after adding diatomite. AFM images demonstrate that diatomite may have a certain adsorption on A.F. PMID:25176300

  3. A Comparison of Mothers’ Quality of Life after Normal Vaginal, Cesarean, and Water Birth Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Kavosi, Zahra; Keshtkaran, Ali; Setoodehzadeh, Fatemeh; Kasraeian, Maryam; Khammarnia, Mohammad; Eslahi, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of quality of life (QOL) is of paramount importance for improving postpartum QOL which will in turn enhance QOL of mothers, children, individuals, and the community. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare postpartum QOL after Cesarean Section (CS), Normal Vaginal Delivery (NVD), and water birth delivery. Methods This descriptive analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted on postpartum women referred to urban health centers and two public hospitals in 2012-13 in Shiraz, Iran. Overall, 59 women with NVD, 39 with CS, and 39 with water birth, all at 2 months postpartum, were recruited into the study through multi-stage sampling. Postpartum QOL was measured using Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) which hadbeen adapted previously in Iran. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SPSS, version 18. Results The results showed that the NVD group had the highest mean score in physical health domains; the women with water birth had the highest mean score in mental health domains and total QOL. Regarding postpartum QOL the results of one-way ANOVA showed no statistically significant differences between the three modes of delivery. Conclusion Women with water birth and NVD had the highest and second highest total QOL mean scores, respectively; women with NVD and water birth experienced better physical health. Thus, providing more information to pregnant women to encourage them to use NVD and water birth is suggested. PMID:26171408

  4. Promoting Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Solubilization and Depolymerization of Cellulose from Raw Biomass Materials in Water.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhicheng; Yi, Jian; Li, Jianmei; He, Ting; Hu, Changwei

    2015-06-01

    The development of a green system to solubilize cellulose from raw biomass is important, yet it is challenging because of the insolubility of cellulose in most solvents. Herein, a green NaCl-H2 O system is developed in which NaCl significantly enhances the dissolution and depolymerisation of cellulose from raw biomass. Nearly all the cellulose in the selected biomass types was dissolved and degraded into oligomers with molecular weights of 200-400 Da under relatively mild conditions. Cl(-) could interact strongly with the end OH group of the glucose unit in a 1:1 ratio, which resulted in the enhanced breaking of both inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. In particular, the intermolecular hydrogen bond with an FTIR band at approximately v=3200 cm(-1) was disrupted significantly by Cl(-) . The FTIR band for a hydrogen bond between hemicellulose and lignin might appear at v=1636 cm(-1) , whereas this bond could be almost totally broken under hydrothermal conditions at 220 °C. PMID:25916895

  5. Iontophoretic transdermal delivery of salicylic acid dissolved in ethanol-water mixture in rats.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Ihara, C; Kiyonaka, G; Yumoto, R; Shigeki, S; Ikuta, Y; Yata, N

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of iontophoresis is restricted to highly water-soluble compounds, since drugs are generally applied as an aqueous solution in a drug electrode. In the present study, salicylic acid (SA) dissolved in ethanol-water mixture was loaded in a drug electrode, and the effect of ethanol on the iontophoretic transdermal delivery of SA was evaluated. Ethanol at a concentration of 10 or 30% showed no significant effect on the iontophoretic transdermal delivery of SA compared to that in the absence of ethanol, but 40 or 70% ethanol increased it significantly. The current density passing through in vivo during iontophoretic treatment decreased with increase in ethanol concentrations. These results suggested that the enhanced transdermal absorption of SA iontophoretically by the presence of ethanol in a drug solution is not due to the increased current density in vivo, but probably due to the direct action of ethanol on the stratum corneum. In conclusion, addition of ethanol to a drug solution at an appropriate concentration was proved to enhance the iontophoretic transdermal delivery of SA. A mixture of ethanol and water can dissolve many poorly water-soluble drugs, and therefore it would be able to expand the application of iontophoresis to include many drugs that are poorly soluble in water. PMID:10420142

  6. Water Delivery and Giant Impacts in the 'Grand Tack' Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, David P.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.; Mandell, Avi M.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for terrestrial planet formation has explored accretion in a truncated protoplanetary disk, and found that such a configuration is able to reproduce the distribution of mass among the planets in the Solar System, especially the Earth/Mars mass ratio, which earlier simulations have generally not been able to match. Walsh et al. tested a possible mechanism to truncate the disk-a two-stage, inward-then-outward migration of Jupiter and Saturn, as found in numerous hydrodynamical simulations of giant planet formation. In addition to truncating the disk and producing a more realistic Earth/Mars mass ratio, the migration of the giant planets also populates the asteroid belt with two distinct populations of bodies-the inner belt is filled by bodies originating inside of 3 AU, and the outer belt is filled with bodies originating from between and beyond the giant planets (which are hereafter referred to as 'primitive' bodies). One implication of the truncation mechanism proposed in Walsh et al. is the scattering of primitive planetesimals onto planet-crossing orbits during the formation of the planets. We find here that the planets will accrete on order 1-2% of their total mass from these bodies. For an assumed value of 10% for the water mass fraction of the primitive planetesimals, this model delivers a total amount of water comparable to that estimated to be on the Earth today. The radial distribution of the planetary masses and the dynamical excitation of their orbits are a good match to the observed system. However, we find that a truncated disk leads to formation timescales more rapid than suggested by radiometric chronometers. In particular, the last giant impact is typically earlier than 20 Myr, and a substantial amount of mass is accreted after that event. This is at odds with the dating of the Moon-forming impact and the estimated amount of mass accreted by Earth following that event. However, 5 of the 27 planets larger than half an Earth mass formed in

  7. Integrating irrigation water demand, supply, and delivery management in a stochastic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Scott, Bradley W.

    1993-09-01

    Previously developed suites of models integrate irrigation water supply and demand management for simplified surface reservoir supply systems. A central stochastic dynamic programming model is supported by simulation models, including a soil water-plant growth model. That modeling is extended herein to include decisions about timing and quantity of reservoir water releases into the delivery system, resulting in the integration of supply, demand, and delivery management. Irrigators have rights to percentages of reservoir capacity, reservoir inflows, and downstream tributary flows. Natural rivers are the supply channels in the study area. Large on-farm water storages exist for storing regulated and unregulated river flows available to the irrigators. Farms can be many days flow from the reservoir, requiring orders for reservoir releases to be lodged before the arrival of a previous order. The probability of unregulated flows from tributaries downstream of the reservoir further complicates ordering decisions. Abandonment of irrigated area to rain-fed status occurs at two levels, forced abandonment if insufficient water is available at the farm when the irrigation-trigger soil water deficit is reached, and planned abandonment to save water for possible later use. The need for forced abandonment is determined by simulation models; planned abandonment decisions are derived by stochastic dynamic programming. Results show annual net revenue means and standard deviations as functions of different capacities of the on-farm storages and water supplies from either regulated or unregulated flows, or both.

  8. Water-based preparation of spider silk films as drug delivery matrices.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Elisa; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2015-09-10

    The main focus of this work was to obtain a drug delivery matrix characterized by biocompatibility, water insolubility and good mechanical properties. Moreover the preparation process has to be compatible with protein encapsulation and the obtained matrix should be able to sustain release a model protein. Spider silk proteins represent exceptional natural polymers due to their mechanical properties in combination with biocompatibility. As both hydrophobic and slowly biodegrading biopolymers, recombinant spider silk proteins fulfill the required properties for a drug delivery system. In this work, we present the preparation of eADF4(C16) films as drug delivery matrices without the use of any organic solvent. Water-based spider silk films were characterized in terms of protein secondary structure, thermal stability, zeta-potential, solubility, mechanical properties, and water absorption and desorption. Additionally, this study includes an evaluation of their application as a drug delivery system for both small molecular weight drugs and high molecular weight molecules such as proteins. Our investigation focused on possible improvements in the film's mechanical properties including plasticizers in the film matrix. Furthermore, different film designs were prepared, such as: monolayer, coated monolayer, multilayer (sandwich), and coated multilayer. The release of the model protein BSA from these new systems was studied. Results indicated that spider silk films are a promising protein drug delivery matrix, capable of releasing the model protein over 90days with a release profile close to zero order kinetic. Such films could be used for several pharmaceutical and medical purposes, especially when mechanical strength of a drug eluting matrix is of high importance. PMID:26100366

  9. Spatio-temporal distribution of cell-bound and dissolved geosmin in Wahnbach Reservoir: Causes and potential odour nuisances in raw water.

    PubMed

    Jähnichen, Sabine; Jäschke, Kathrin; Wieland, Falk; Packroff, Gabriele; Benndorf, Jürgen

    2011-10-15

    In many lakes and reservoirs, problems caused by off-flavours are known to be particularly associated with the occurrence of planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria. Frequently observed objectionable taste and odorous products of cyanobacteria are geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol. Investigations focused on the littoral zone of Wahnbach Reservoir (Germany) revealed that benthic cyanobacteria were present in this oligotrophic drinking water reservoir. Benthic cyanobacteria were found in the depth horizon between 1.75 m and 11 m, particularly on south-exposed slopes. This spatial distribution indicates a possible key role of the underwater light climate. Moreover, cell-bound and dissolved geosmin were detected in corresponding littoral samples. Both fractions were subjected to spatial and primarily temporal variations with maximum concentrations at the end of summer. However, a substantial lowering of the water level caused a diminution of cyanobacterial growth. Due to the drawdown of the water level concentrations of cell-bound geosmin and pigments (as a proxy of cyanobacterial biomass) were remarkably reduced, and dissolved geosmin was never detected during this phase. Except for the influence of water level fluctuation no other abiotic variables had a significant influence on pigment and geosmin concentrations. From geosmin concentrations detected in the littoral zone, the probability of serious episodes of odour events in the raw water of the Wahnbach Reservoir was estimated. Hence, the probability that the raw water was affected by geosmin was minor, which was supported by routine flavour profiles. Nevertheless, the study shows that odorous episodes caused by benthic cyanobacteria are likely to develop even in an oligotrophic lake or reservoir when these cyanobacteria, and consequently odorous production, proliferate. In principle, such a proliferation cannot be excluded as nutrients are available from the sediment pore water, and underwater light at the sediment

  10. GC-MS/MS measurement of natural and synthetic estrogens in receiving waters and mussels close to a raw sewage ocean outfall.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Helleur, Robert; Hellou, Jocelyne

    2009-08-01

    In recent times, there has been an increased concern over the appearance of human estrogens in marine ecosystem and their effects on the marine habitat. Discharge of raw sewage has been identified as one of the most important sources of human estrogens in the marine environment. Therefore, we have developed a gas chromatography-(ion-trap) mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of natural estrogens estrone (E1), and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and synthetic estrogens 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) in sewage effluents, seawater and mussels. Recovery of target analytes from mussels (n=3) was above 60% with RSD ranging from 8% to 13%. For aqueous samples (n=3) recoveries were above 80% with RSD ranging from 3% to 7%. Method detection limits for the target analytes ranged from 0.1ngg(-1) to 1.0ng/g for mussel sample analysis and from 0.5ngL(-1) to 1.2ngL(-1) for water sample analysis. The usefulness of the method was demonstrated by analyzing environmental samples from St. John's and Halifax, Canada, where raw sewage is directly discharged into the harbors. Estrone and 17 beta-estradiol were found at 1.5ngL(-1) and 1.8ngL(-1) in seawater samples collected from St. John's harbor, while trace amounts of estrone was measured in some mussels collected from Halifax harbor. PMID:19435639

  11. Raw liquid waste treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, which is suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter is dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material absorbs organic matter and heavy metal ions, it is believed, are dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter current flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. The used carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  12. Hydrogel patches for transdermal drug delivery; in-vivo water exchange and skin compatibility.

    PubMed

    Boddé, H E; Van Aalten, E A; Junginger, H E

    1989-03-01

    Hydrogel patches based on water swellable polyacrylates have been developed for long-term transdermal drug delivery. Two properties, relevant to the performance of hydrogel patches in-vivo have been investigated in humans over five days. These were: (i) the kinetics of water exchange between the skin and the patches; (ii) the skin compatibility of the patches. It was found that initially there was a gradually increasing uptake of water from the skin by the patches, but after about 20 h the water exchange followed a regular fluctuating pattern, peaking once a day and once a night. The skin compatibility of the patches was satisfactory, in that no redness or pustulation was noticed throughout the five days. This was most likely due to the capability of the patches to exchange water with the skin. PMID:2568439

  13. Generation and delivery device for ozone gas and ozone dissolved in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Craig C. (Inventor); Rogers, Thomas D. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an ozone generation and delivery system that lends itself to small scale applications and requires very low maintenance. The system includes an anode reservoir and a cathode phase separator each having a hydrophobic membrane to allow phase separation of produced gases from water. The system may be configured to operate passively with no moving parts or in a self-pressurizing manner with the inclusion of a pressure controlling device or valve in the gas outlet of the anode reservoir. The hydrogen gas, ozone gas and water containing ozone may be delivered under pressure.

  14. Generation and delivery device for ozone gas and ozone dissolved in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Craig C. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides an ozone generation and delivery system that lends itself to small scale applications and requires very low maintenance. The system includes an anode reservoir and a cathode phase separator each having a hydrophobic membrane to allow phase separation of produced gases from water. The system may be configured to operate passively with no moving parts or in a self-pressurizing manner with the inclusion of a pressure controlling device or valve in the gas outlet of the anode reservoir. The hydrogen gas, ozone gas and water containing ozone may be delivered under pressure.

  15. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  16. Feed-Back Moisture Sensor Control for the Delivery of Water to Plants Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Prenger, Jessica J.; Rouzan, Donna T.; Spinale, April C.; Murdoch, Trevor; Burtness, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a spaceflight-rated Porous Tube Insert Module (PTIM) nutrient delivery tray has facilitated a series of studies evaluating various aspects of water and nutrient delivery to plants as they would be cultivated in space. We report here on our first experiment using the PTIM with a software-driven feedback moisture sensor control strategy for maintaining root zone wetness level set-points. One-day-old wheat seedlings (Tritium aestivum cv Apogee; N=15) were inserted into each of three Substrate Compartments (SCs) pre-packed with 0.25-1 . mm Profile(TradeMark) substrate and maintained at root zone relative water content levels of 70, 80 and 90%. The SCs contained a bottom-situated porous tube around which a capillary mat was wrapped. Three Porous Tubes. were planted using similar protocols (but without the substrate) and also maintained at these three moisture level set-points. Half-strength modified Hoagland's nutrient solution was used to supply water and nutrients. Results on hardware performance, water usage rates and wheat developmental differences between the different experimental treatments are presented.

  17. Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, D.S.; Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.G.; Bertke, E.E.; Kephart, C.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Mailot, B.E.; Schaefer, F. W., III; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. DELIVERY OF WATER-SOLUBLE DRUGS USING ACOUSTICALLY-TRIGGERED, PERFLUOROCARBON DOUBLE EMULSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Lee, James A.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Ultrasound can be used to release a therapeutic payload encapsulated within a perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion via acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), a process whereby the PFC phase is vaporized and the agent is released. ADV-generated microbubbles have been previously used to selectively occlude blood vessels in vivo. The coupling of ADV-generated drug delivery and occlusion has therapeutically, synergistic potentials. Methods Micron-sized, water-in-PFC-in-water (W1/PFC/W2) emulsions were prepared in a two-step process using perfluoropentane (PFP) or perfluorohexane (PFH) as the PFC phase. Fluorescein or thrombin was contained in the W1 phase. Results Double emulsions containing fluorescein in the W1 phase displayed a 5.7±1.4 fold and 8.2±1.3 fold increase in fluorescein mass flux, as measured using a Franz diffusion cell, after ADV for the PFP and PFH emulsions, respectively. Thrombin was stably retained in four out of five double emulsions. For three out of five formulations tested, the clotting time of whole blood decreased, in a statistically significant manner (p < 0.01), when incubated with thrombin-loaded emulsions exposed to ultrasound compared to emulsions not exposed to ultrasound. Conclusions ADV can be used to spatially and temporally control the delivery of water-soluble compounds formulated in PFC double emulsions. Thrombin release could extend the duration of ADV-generated, microbubble occlusions. PMID:20872050

  19. The effects of immersion in water on labor, birth and newborn and comparison with epidural analgesia and conventional vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mollamahmutoğlu, Leyla; Moraloğlu, Özlem; Özyer, Şebnem; Su, Filiz Akın; Karayalçın, Rana; Hançerlioğlu, Necati; Uzunlar, Özlem; Dilmen, Uğur

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the practice of labour in water, to assess the effects of water immersion during labor and/or birth (labour stages 1, 2 and 3) on maternal, fetal and neonatal wellbeing and to compare the outcomes and safety with conventional vaginal deliveries and deliveries with epidural analgesia. Material and Methods Two-hundred and seven women electing for waterbirth (n=207) were compared with women having conventional vaginal deliveries (n=204) and vaginal deliveries with epidural analgesia (n=191). Demographic data, length of 1st, 2nd and 3rd stage of labor, induction and episiotomy requirements, perineal trauma, apgar scores, NICU requirements and VAS scores were noted. Results The 1st stage of labor was shorter in waterbirths compared with vaginal delivery with epidural analgesia but the 2nd and 3rd stage of labor were shortest in patients having waterbirth compared with conventional vaginal delivery and vaginal delivery with epidural analgesia. Patients having waterbirth had less requirement for induction and episiotomy but had more perineal laceration. All women having waterbirths had reduced analgesia requirements and had lower scores on VAS. There was no difference in terms of NICU admission between the groups. Apgar scores were comparable in both groups. There were no neonatal deaths or neonatal infections during the study. Conclusion The study demonstrates the advantages of labor in water in terms of reduction in 2nd and 3rd stage of labor, reduction in pain and obstetric intervention such as induction or amniotomy. PMID:24627674

  20. Direct absorbed dose to water determination based on water calorimetry in scanning proton beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, A.; Clasie, B.; Chung, E.; Lu, H. M.; Flanz, J.; Cascio, E.; Engelsman, M.; Paganetti, H.; Seuntjens, J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this manuscript is to describe the direct measurement of absolute absorbed dose to water in a scanned proton radiotherapy beam using a water calorimeter primary standard. Methods: The McGill water calorimeter, which has been validated in photon and electron beams as well as in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy, was used to measure the absorbed dose to water in double scattering and scanning proton irradiations. The measurements were made at the Massachusetts General Hospital proton radiotherapy facility. The correction factors in water calorimetry were numerically calculated and various parameters affecting their magnitude and uncertainty were studied. The absorbed dose to water was compared to that obtained using an Exradin T1 Chamber based on the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. Results: The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on absorbed dose to water amounts to 0.4% and 0.6% in scattered and scanned proton water calorimetry, respectively. This compares to an overall uncertainty of 1.9% for currently accepted IAEA TRS-398 reference absorbed dose measurement protocol. The absorbed dose from water calorimetry agrees with the results from TRS-398 well to within 1-sigma uncertainty. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that a primary absorbed dose standard based on water calorimetry is feasible in scattered and scanned proton beams.

  1. Water impact studies. [impact of remote sensing techniques on management storage, flow, and delivery of California water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has begun into the potential impact of using modern remote sensing techniques as an aid in managing, even on a day-to-day basis, the storage, flow, and delivery of water made available through the California Water Project. It is obvious that the amount of this impact depends upon the extent to which remote sensing is proven to be useful in improving predictions of both the amount of water that will be available and the amount that will be needed. It is also proposed to investigate the potential impact of remote sensing techniques as an aid in monitoring, and perhaps even in directing, changes in land use and life style being brought about through the increased availability of water in central and southern California as a result of the California Water Project. The impact of remote sensing can be of appreciable significance only if: (1) the induced changes are very substantial ones; (2) remote sensing is found, in this context, to be very useful and potentially very cost effective; and (3) resource managers adopt this new technology. Analyses will be conducted of the changing economic bases and the new land use demands resulting from increased water availability in central and southern California.

  2. Cometary Delivery of Lunar Water: Transient Atmosphere Dynamics and Deposition Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prem, Parvathy; Artemieva, N. A.; Pierazzo, E.; Stewart, B. D.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2012-10-01

    Several missions have yielded observations that could indicate the presence of water ice in lunar polar regions. Our work aims to investigate cometary impacts as a mechanism for the delivery of water to permanently shadowed craters (‘cold traps’) at the lunar poles. Of particular interest is the influence of parameters such as impact angle, velocity and location on the long-term retention of cometary water. Our 3D, unsteady simulations use the SOVA hydrocode to model the impact and vaporization of a cometary nucleus composed of pure water ice, 2km in diameter, impacting at 30 km/s. Subsequently, a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code, designed to handle rarefied planetary flows, is used to simulate the transient water vapor atmosphere that develops. Molecules in this atmosphere collide and migrate across the lunar surface, driven by diurnal variations in surface temperature, and may land in permanently shadowed craters, cold enough to trap water over geological time scales. Here, we discuss the dynamic development of the transient atmosphere and compare initial deposition patterns as gravitationally bound water vapor begins to fall back to the lunar surface, for two different impact angles: 45° and 60° from the horizontal. A greater fraction of water remains gravitationally bound to the Moon in the 60° case, and a less pronounced downrange focusing of the vapor results in a more symmetric initial deposition pattern. On the cold night-side of the Moon, water simply sticks to the surface. However, on the warm day-side, where residence times are much shorter, we observe the development of a relatively dense, low-speed, surface-hugging flow. A particularly interesting depositional feature is the concentration of mass at a point almost antipodal to the point of impact, where a convergence of streamlines results in a shock that channels water to the surface.

  3. Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Kumboj, Ritu; Paul, Devosmita

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat + 2% salt), II.BHT (meat + 2% salt + 0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4 ± °C). The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per 10 g peel in BPE and SPE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively. Banana peel extract had significantly (P < 0.05) higher reducing activity (1.6) as compared to sapodilla peel extract (0.91). During refrigerated storage period, all color parameters decreased significantly in all treatments. Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher TBARS values in control than other three treatments. The increase in TBARS from initial day of storage to last day of storage was highest in control (514.3%) as compared to BHT (387.7%), BPE (370.6%) and SPE (383.7%). Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly decreased the TBARS. The average decrease in TBARS values during 8 days of storage was 56.8%, 38.3% and 37.2% values in BHT, BPE and SPE treatments respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that water extracts obtained from banana and sapodilla peels could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products. PMID:24493901

  4. Determination of regularly distributed plant protectants in raw and drinking waters, using a multiresidue method with cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stutz, H; Malissa, H

    1999-01-01

    Eighteen plant protectant compounds were separated and determined by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in a multiclass/multiresidue method. The pesticides included are those dispersed in the greatest amounts today over agricultural acreage, and they represent 8 different classes of compounds (azoles, benzoic acids, chloroacetanilides, phenoxy acids, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, thiocarbamates, and triazines) covering a wide range of chemical reactivities and physicochemical properties. A 500 mL sample of tap water is preconcentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with 300 mg combined polystyrene-divinylbenzene and methacrylate macroporous resins. Trapped analytes are eluted collectively with diethyl ether. Concentration and solvent change yield 250 microL of an acetone "concentrate," which is further worked up and concentrated 1:10 to produce the MEKC injection solution containing 10 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. For MEKC, 2 phosphate/SDS buffer systems were designed, each allowing complete separation of all pesticides in a single run. Sensitivity was enhanced by a self-etched bubble cell and an injection procedure which employs stacking at reversed polarity. The ability of MEKC to determine plant protectants in raw and drinking waters at the 0.1 microgram/L level, as demanded by the guidelines of the European Union, was demonstrated with spiked tap waters. Recoveries were between 75 and 110%, and limits of quantification, evaluated as method detection limits according to guidelines of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ranged between 0.03 and 0.10 microgram/L. The precisions of the relative migration times were all below 0.5%. PMID:10589502

  5. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins. PMID:25899288

  6. Determining transit losses for water deliveries by use of stream-aquifer models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livingston, Russell K.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrologic modeling of stream-aquifer interaction commonly has been used to quantify transit losses associated with water deliveries, such as those from reservoir storage. This technique requires estimation of model parameters that include stage-discharge relations, channel-storage coefficient, aquifer transmissivity, and aquifer-storage coefficient. Because data to reliably estimate or calibrate these parameters often may be lacking, it is beneficial to know how parameter errors will affect the determination of transit losses. In addition, transit loss varies considerably depending on the duration of the recovery period (time allowed for water to leave channel and bank storage) used in the calculation of hydrograph volume. Sensitivity analysis indicates that recovery period typically is more important to the determination of total transit loss than are errors in the estimated values of channel and aquifer characteristics.

  7. Water-dilutable microemulsions for transepithelial ocular delivery of riboflavin phosphate.

    PubMed

    Lidich, Nina; Wachtel, Ellen J; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-02-01

    Riboflavin phosphate (RFP) is an essential compound in the treatment of keratoconus - a degenerative, non-inflammatory disease of the cornea. Currently, the quantitative and efficient transport of riboflavin to the cornea is possible after mechanical removal of the epithelium. To avoid surgical intervention, it is therefore important to develop a method for quantitatively transporting riboflavin across the intact epithelium. In the present study, an RFP-loaded microemulsion was prepared, which could potentially function as an ocular drug delivery system crossing the eye epithelium. The specially designed water-dilutable microemulsion was based on a mixture of nonionic surfactants. Propylene glycol and glycerol acted as cosurfactant and cosolvent assisting in the solubilization of the RFP. The glycerol-rich water-free concentrate consisted of direct micelles for which glycerol served as the hydrophilic phase. In formulations with up to 40wt% water, the hydrophilic surfactant headgroups and glycerol strongly bind water molecules (DSC and SD-NMR). Above 60wt% water, globular, O/W nanodroplets, ∼14nm in diameter, are formed (SAXS, cryo-TEM, and SD-NMR). The structure of microemulsions loaded with 0.14-4.25wt% RFP (0.29-8.89mmol per 100g formulation) is not significantly influenced by the presence of the RFP. However, in the microemulsions containing 10-80wt% water, the mobility of RFP in the microemulsion is constrained by strong interactions with the surfactants and cosurfactant, and therefore free transport of the molecule can be achieved only upon higher (>80wt%) water dilutions. PMID:26614391

  8. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  9. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  10. Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    To reveal corrosion behavior of stainless steel delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scale and corroded passive film. Corrosion scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless steel corrosion scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed corrosion scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, corrosion scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless steel passive film is damaged by localized corrosion. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless steel corrosion scale and the process of localized corrosion. The localized corrosion behavior of stainless steel is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals. PMID:26605686

  11. Dialysate purification after introduction of automated hot water disinfection system to central dialysis fluid delivery system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tomonari; Matsuda, Akihiko; Yamaguchi, Yumiko; Sasaki, Yusuke; Kanayama, Yuki; Maeda, Tadaaki; Noiri, Chie; Hasegawa, Hajime; Matsumura, Osamu; Mitarai, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Most dialysis clinics in Japan have mainly adopted the central dialysis fluid delivery system (CDDS) to provide constant treatment to many patients. Chemical disinfection is the major maintenance method of the CDDS. Our clinic introduced an automated hot water disinfection system that used the heat conduction effect to disinfect a reverse osmosis (RO) device and dialysis fluid supply equipment. Endotoxin level and the amount of viable bacteria often showed abnormal values before introduction of this system. After its introduction, weekly disinfection resulted in endotoxin levels and the amount of viable bacteria lower than measurement sensitivity. In hot water disinfection, water heated to 90°C in the RO tank flows into the dialysis fluid supply equipment. The maximum temperature inside the tank of the supply equipment is 86.3°C. (We confirmed that the temperature was maintained at 80°C or more for 10 minutes or more during the monitoring.) Dialysate purification was maintained even after introduction of the automated hot water disinfection system and the dialysate could be supplied stably by the CDDS. Therefore, this disinfection system might be very useful in terms of both cost and safety, and can be used for dialysis treatment of multiple patients. PMID:22370682

  12. Hybrid aerogel preparations as drug delivery matrices for low water-solubility drugs.

    PubMed

    Veres, Peter; López-Periago, Ana M; Lázár, István; Saurina, Javier; Domingo, Concepción

    2015-12-30

    A comprehensive study of 14 hybrid aerogels of different composition with applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The overall objective was to modulate the release behavior of drug-impregnated aerogels, from an almost instantaneous release to a semi-retarded delivery prolonged during several hours, through internal surface functionalization. The designed hybrid aerogels were composed of silica and gelatin and functionalized with either phenyl, long (16) hydrocarbon chain or methyl moiety. As model systems, three class II active agents (pKa<5.5), ibuprofen, ketoprofen and triflusal, were chosen to impregnate the aerogels. The work relied on the use of supercritical fluid technology for both the synthesis and functionalization of the hybrid aerogels, as well as for the impregnation with an active agent using supercritical CO2 as a solvent. For the impregnated aerogels, in vitro release profiles were recorded under gastric and intestinal pH-conditions using HPLC techniques. The release behavior observed for the three studied drugs was explained considering the measured dissolution profiles of the crystalline drugs, the aerogel composition and its functionalization. Such features are considered of great interest to tailor the bioavailability of drugs with low water solubility. PMID:26484894

  13. Elucidating Sources and Factors Affecting Delivery of Nitrogen to Surface Waters of New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Boyer, E. W.; Burns, D. A.; Elliott, E.; Kendall, C.; Butler, T.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid changes in power generation, transportation, and agriculture have appreciably altered nitrogen (N) cycling at regional scales, increasing N inputs to landscapes and surface waters. Numerous studies have linked this surplus N to a host of concerns, including eutrophication and violations in drinking water standards. Inputs of N nation-wide have increased during recent decades, primarily from the production and use of fertilizers, the planting of N-fixing crops, and the combustion of fossil fuels. The role of atmospheric N sources is of particular concern in New York, as rates of atmospheric N deposition in the northeast are among the highest in the nation. Our work aims to quantify nitrogen sources and fate in watersheds throughout the state. Further, we intend to elucidate factors controlling the retention and release of N to surface waters. We quantify nitrogen inputs through both measurement data (e.g., from wet and dry atmospheric deposition, precipitation, streamflow, water quality, and isotopic tracers) and from synoptic spatial databases (e.g., of terrain, land use, and fertilizer inputs). We present preliminary results from large catchments in contrasting spatial settings across the state (different land use configurations and atmospheric deposition gradients), illustrating the contribution of nitrogen sources to each region and factors affecting delivery to surface waters. Further, we present 30 years of temporal data from a large watershed (Fall Creek) in the Finger Lakes region of the state to demonstrate how hydrological and biogeochemical factors, over seasons and under varying hydrological regimes, combine to control N dynamics in surface waters. Our collective work provides information that is necessary to develop sound strategies for understanding and managing nutrients at regional scales.

  14. Adapting to a Changing Colorado River: Making Future Water Deliveries More Reliable Through Robust Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, D.; Bloom, E.; Fischbach, J. R.; Knopman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and water management agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States initiated the Colorado River Basin Study in January 2010 to evaluate the resiliency of the Colorado River system over the next 50 years and compare different options for ensuring successful management of the river's resources. RAND was asked to join this Basin Study Team in January 2012 to help develop an analytic approach to identify key vulnerabilities in managing the Colorado River basin over the coming decades and to evaluate different options that could reduce this vulnerability. Using a quantitative approach for planning under uncertainty called Robust Decision Making (RDM), the RAND team assisted the Basin Study by: identifying future vulnerable conditions that could lead to imbalances that could cause the basin to be unable to meet its water delivery objectives; developing a computer-based tool to define 'portfolios' of management options reflecting different strategies for reducing basin imbalances; evaluating these portfolios across thousands of future scenarios to determine how much they could improve basin outcomes; and analyzing the results from the system simulations to identify key tradeoffs among the portfolios. This talk will describe RAND's contribution to the Basin Study, focusing on the methodologies used to to identify vulnerabilities for Upper Basin and Lower Basin water supply reliability and to compare portfolios of options. Several key findings emerged from the study. Future Streamflow and Climate Conditions Are Key: - Vulnerable conditions arise in a majority of scenarios where streamflows are lower than historical averages and where drought conditions persist for eight years or more. - Depending where the shortages occur, problems will arise for delivery obligations for the upper river basin and the lower river basin. The lower river basin is vulnerable to a broader range of plausible future conditions. Additional Investments in

  15. Highly water-soluble, porous, and biocompatible boron nitrides for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qunhong; Wang, Binju; Wang, Xuebin; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Li, Xia; Liu, Dequan; Wang, Xi; Jiang, Xiangfen; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-06-24

    Developing materials for "Nano-vehicles" with clinically approved drugs encapsulated is envisaged to enhance drug therapeutic effects and reduce the adverse effects. However, design and preparation of the biomaterials that are porous, nontoxic, soluble, and stable in physiological solutions and could be easily functionalized for effective drug deliveries are still challenging. Here, we report an original and simple thermal substitution method to fabricate perfectly water-soluble and porous boron nitride (BN) materials featuring unprecedentedly high hydroxylation degrees. These hydroxylated BNs are biocompatible and can effectively load anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, DOX) up to contents three times exceeding their own weight. The same or even fewer drugs that are loaded on such BN carriers exhibit much higher potency for reducing the viability of LNCaP cancer cells than free drugs. PMID:24797563

  16. Hydrogel-swelling driven delivery device for corrosion resistance of metal in water.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Yang, Li-Ming; Chen, Jie; Wang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion on steel and copper pipes in industry can trigger pollution and weakness due to undesired chemical and biochemical reactions. Too much or too little inhibitor can decrease its efficiency, even causing waste and pollution. In this contribution, an innovative delivery device driven by hydrogel swelling, mainly consisting of a semi-permeable membrane, a hydrogel-swelling force drive and a release orifice, was developed to control the release of inhibitor in a water system at a constant rate, leading the amount of inhibitor to maintain a proper concentration. The effects of hydrogel mass and orifice dimension on release property were studied for controlling release rate. Moreover, a weight loss experiment on carbon steels was carried out to show the incredible anti-corrosion function of the system. PMID:26676016

  17. The water delivery system affects the rate of weight gain in C57BL/6J mice during the first week after weaning.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Alexander; Wyatt, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Facility planners, IACUCs, veterinary staff, and researchers make choices on water delivery systems for rodents on the basis of cost effectiveness, water quality, risk of malfunction, and potential effect on animal health and welfare. Here we compare biometrics, including weight trends, of newly arrived mice unfamiliar with automated watering; weight trends of weanlings; fecundity of mice; and risk of malfunction among 3 water delivery techniques: water bottle only, combination of automated delivery and water bottle, and automated system only. There was no statistically significant difference among the 3 experimental groups with respect to fecundity, mortality, and delivery malfunction. On the basis of body weight trends, the health and wellbeing of the mice used in these studies were not affected by the water delivery system or housing density after the first week; however, there was a significant difference in the growth rate at 21 to 28 d of age among the 3 groups of pups. The mice receiving both automated delivery and water bottles experienced higher growth rates from 21 to 28 d of age than did the other experimental groups. However, after 35 d of age, weight trends did not differ among the groups. Our results suggest that mice weaned into the same method of water delivery as their respective dams thrive equally well among the 3 tested water delivery systems. PMID:21333161

  18. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-31

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

  19. Local authorities, community and Private Operators Partnerships in small towns water service delivery in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyarko, K. B.; Oduro-Kwarteng, S.; Owusu-Antwi, P.

    This paper examines the performance of partnerships between local authorities (District Assemblies) and private operators (POs) in the community managed small towns’ water service delivery in Ghana. Since 2002, partnerships in the form of management contracts are increasing especially for towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants but there has been no systematic analysis of the partnerships. Using a case study approach based on five selected community managed piped systems; three under private operator partnerships and two under direct Community Ownership and Management as study controls, the study focused on the partnership development, partnership relationship between stakeholders and the outcome of the service. The study revealed that the partnership emerged as a result of the relatively large communities and/or the complexity of the systems. Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDBs) are community representatives with the responsibility of overseeing the management contracts with private operators or directly managing the water systems through hired operating staff. With time the management contracts have improved as some earlier defects have been corrected in subsequent contracts. Yet some contracts suffered post-contract opportunism, weak monitoring and regulation by the District Assembly (DA), political interference in tariffs setting and removal of WSDBs members after change of government. Conflicts between the DAs and the Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDBs) were common resulting in direct management by the District Assembly. The success or failure of the partnership is linked to degree of conflict resolution amongst the stakeholders as well as external factors. The study also discusses the outcome of the partnerships in relation to the quality of water service delivered.

  20. A Trial of the Efficacy and Cost of Water Delivery Systems in San Francisco Bay Area Middle Schools, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grummon, Anna H.; Hampton, Karla E.; Oliva, Ariana; McCulloch, Charles E.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction US legislation requires that schools offer free drinking water where meals are served. However, little information is available about what types of water delivery systems schools should install to meet such requirements. The study objective was to examine the efficacy and cost of 2 water delivery systems (water dispensers and bottleless water coolers) in increasing students’ lunchtime intake of water in low-income middle schools. Methods In 2013, twelve middle schools in the San Francisco Bay Area participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial in which they received 6 weeks of promotional activities, received provision of cups, and were assigned to 1 of 2 cafeteria water delivery systems: water dispensers or bottleless water coolers (or schools served as a control). Student surveys (n = 595) and observations examined the interventions’ effect on students’ beverage intake and staff surveys and public data assessed intervention cost. Results Analysis occurred from 2013 through 2015. Mixed-effects logistic regression, accounting for clustering and adjustment for student sociodemographic characteristics, demonstrated a significant increase in the odds of students drinking water in schools with promotion plus water dispensers and cups (adjusted odds ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–6.7; P = .004) compared with schools with traditional drinking fountains and no cups or promotion. The cost of dispenser and bottleless water cooler programs was similar ($0.04 per student per day). Conclusion Instead of relying on traditional drinking fountains, schools should consider installing water sources, such as plastic dispensers with cups, as a low-cost, effective means for increasing students’ water intake. PMID:27390074

  1. Quantifying Organic Matter in Surface Waters of the United States and Delivery to the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J.

    2012-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in surface waters. It is an important component of the energy balance and food chains in freshwater and estuarine aquatic ecosystems, is significant in the mobilization and transport of contaminants along flow paths, and is associated with the formation of known carcinogens in drinking water supplies. The importance of OC dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing processes controlling OC fluxes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context, and considering upstream-downstream linkages along flow paths. Here, we: 1) quantified lateral OC fluxes in rivers, streams, and reservoirs across the nation from headwaters to the coasts; 2) partitioned how much organic carbon that is stored in lakes, rivers and streams comes from allochthonous sources (produced in the terrestrial landscape) versus autochthonous sources (produced in-stream by primary production); 3) estimated the delivery of dissolved and total forms of organic carbon to coastal estuaries and embayments; and 4) considered seasonal factors affecting the temporal variation in OC responses. To accomplish this, we developed national-scale models of organic carbon in U.S. surface waters using the spatially referenced regression on watersheds (SPARROW) technique. The modeling approach uses mechanistic formulations, imposes mass balance constraints, and provides a formal parameter estimation structure to statistically estimate sources and fate of OC in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We calibrated and evaluated the model with statistical estimates of OC loads that were observed at a network of monitoring stations across the nation, and further explored factors controlling seasonal dynamics of OC based on these long term monitoring data. Our results illustrate spatial patterns and magnitudes OC loadings in rivers, highlighting hot spots and suggesting origins of the OC to each location

  2. Transporting and shielding photosensitisers by using water-soluble organometallic cages: a new strategy in drug delivery and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Bruno

    2013-06-24

    Skin photosensitivity remains one of the main limitations in photodynamic therapy. In this Concept article a strategy to overcome this limitation is described, in which the photosensitizer is hidden inside the hydrophobic cavity of a water-soluble organometallic cage. The metallacage not only protects the photosensitizer from light, it also facilitates its delivery to cancer cells. PMID:23737435

  3. COMBINED USE OF A WATER-INSOLUBLE CHEMICAL DELIVERY SYSTEM AND A METABOLIC ACTIVATION SYSTEM IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated water insoluble chemical delivery/metabolic activation/rat embryo culture system is described. In initial studies corn oil was used as the solvent and diallate as the substrate. Increasing concentrations of diallate dissolved in corn oil caused embryonic growth reta...

  4. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Food Safety and Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a completely different person ...

  5. Light-triggered CO delivery by a water-soluble and biocompatible manganese photoCORM.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jorge; Chakraborty, Indranil; Carrington, Samantha J; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2016-08-16

    The discovery of salutary effects of low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) has spurred interest in designing exogenous molecules that can deliver CO to biological targets under controlled conditions. Herein we report a water-soluble photosensitive manganese carbonyl complex [MnBr(CO)3(pyTAm)] (2) (pyTAm = 2-(pyridyl)imino-triazaadamantane) that can be triggered to release CO upon exposure to visible light. Inclusion of a triazaadamantyl pharmacophore into the coligand of 2 improves its stability and solubility in water. Change in the coligand from 2-(pyridyl)imino-triazaadamantane to 2-(pyridyl)iminoadamantane (pyAm) or 2-(quinonyl)imino-triazaadamantane (qyTAm) dramatically alters these desired properties of the photoCORM. In addition to structures and CO-releasing properties of the three analogous complexes 1-3 from these three α-diimine ligands, theoretical calculations have been performed to determine the origin of Mn-CO bond labilization upon illumination. Rapid delivery of CO to myoglobin under physiological conditions attests the potential of 2 as a biocompatible photoCORM. PMID:27417419

  6. Hydrotropism in pea roots in a porous-tube water delivery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Brown, C. S.; Dreschel, T. W.; Scott, T. K.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Orientation of root growth on earth and under microgravity conditions can possibly be controlled by hydrotropism--growth toward a moisture source in the absence of or reduced gravitropism. A porous-tube water delivery system being used for plant growth studies is appropriate for testing this hypothesis since roots can be grown aeroponically in this system. When the roots of the agravitropic mutant pea ageotropum (Pisum sativum L.) were placed vertically in air of 91% relative humidity and 2 to 3 mm from the water-saturated porous tube placed horizontally, the roots responded hydrotropically and grew in a continuous arch along the circular surface of the tube. By contrast, normal gravitropic roots of Alaska' pea initially showed a slight transient curvature toward the tube and then resumed vertical downward growth due to gravitropism. Thus, in microgravity, normal gravitropic roots could respond to a moisture gradient as strongly as the agravitropic roots used in this study. Hydrotropism should be considered a significant factor responsible for orientation of root growth in microgravity.

  7. Hydrotropism in pea roots in a porous-tube water delivery system.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Brown, C S; Dreschel, T W; Scott, T K

    1992-05-01

    Orientation of root growth on earth and under microgravity conditions can possibly be controlled by hydrotropism--growth toward a moisture source in the absence of or reduced gravitropism. A porous-tube water delivery system being used for plant growth studies is appropriate for testing this hypothesis since roots can be grown aeroponically in this system. When the roots of the agravitropic mutant pea ageotropum (Pisum sativum L.) were placed vertically in air of 91% relative humidity and 2 to 3 mm from the water-saturated porous tube placed horizontally, the roots responded hydrotropically and grew in a continuous arch along the circular surface of the tube. By contrast, normal gravitropic roots of Alaska' pea initially showed a slight transient curvature toward the tube and then resumed vertical downward growth due to gravitropism. Thus, in microgravity, normal gravitropic roots could respond to a moisture gradient as strongly as the agravitropic roots used in this study. Hydrotropism should be considered a significant factor responsible for orientation of root growth in microgravity. PMID:11537612

  8. Vitamin B12 loaded polycaprolactone nanofibers: a novel transdermal route for the water soluble energy supplement delivery.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Kalaipriya; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-02-28

    Biocompatible PCL polymer nanofiber mediated sustained release of hydrophilic drug and applicability as transdermal delivery system is attempted. This new attempt to investigate water soluble vitamin delivery with hydrophobic polymer nanofiber sustained the release of the vitamin and the method is suited for the transdermal patch applications. The drug loaded fibers were characterized with SEM for morphology, porometer for pore size measurements, mechanical strength calculation and FT-IR for drug load characterization. The contact angle measurement showed surface wettability and controlled release of drug was quantified with UV absorption measurements. To further enhance the release of vitamin, the polymer fiber was plasma treated at different time intervals and made hydrophilic gradually. Since the increased surface area and drug encapsulation in nano-reservoirs can able to release drug in small quantities and in a sustained manner we attempted the release of the energy supplement with nanofibrous delivery mode. PMID:23370432

  9. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    PubMed

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research. PMID:27289151

  10. Water soluble biocompatible vesicles based on polysaccharides and oligosaccharides inclusion complexes for carotenoid delivery.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, Nikolay E; Kispert, Lowell D

    2015-09-01

    Since carotenoids are highly hydrophobic, air- and light-sensitive hydrocarbon compounds, developing methods for increasing their bioavailability and stability towards irradiation and reactive oxygen species is an important goal. Application of inclusion complexes of "host-guest" type with polysaccharides and oligosaccharides such as arabinogalactan, cyclodextrins and glycyrrhizin minimizes the disadvantages of carotenoids when these compounds are used in food processing (colors and antioxidant capacity) as well as for production of therapeutic formulations. Cyclodextrin complexes which have been used demonstrated enhanced storage stability but suffered from poor solubility. Polysaccharide and oligosaccharide based inclusion complexes play an important role in pharmacology by providing increased solubility and stability of lipophilic drugs. In addition they are used as drug delivery systems to increase absorption rate and bioavailability of the drugs. In this review we summarize the existing data on preparation methods, analysis, and chemical reactivity of carotenoids in inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin, arabinogalactan and glycyrrhizin. It was demonstrated that incorporation of carotenoids into the "host" macromolecule results in significant changes in their physical and chemical properties. In particular, polysaccharide complexes show enhanced photostability of carotenoids in water solutions. A significant decrease in the reactivity towards metal ions and reactive oxygen species in solution was also detected. PMID:26005157

  11. β-cyclodextrin nanosponges as multifunctional ingredient in water-containing semisolid formulations for skin delivery.

    PubMed

    Conte, Claudia; Caldera, Fabrizio; Catanzano, Ovidio; D'Angelo, Ivana; Ungaro, Francesca; Miro, Agnese; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; Trotta, Francesco; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2014-12-01

    A β-cyclodextrin nanosponge cross-linked with pyromellitic dianhydride (βNS-PYRO) is reported for the first time as multifunctional ingredient in semisolid formulations for drug delivery to the skin. The role of βNS-PYRO on solubilization and stabilization of the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid ring A (BPDMA) and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) as well as its effect on skin permeation of diclofenac (DIC) was investigated. Aqueous solutions, gels, and cream-gels were prepared from mixtures of βNS-PYRO with a conventional gelling agent at specific ratios. The incorporation of BPDMA in βNS-PYRO water solutions prevented its aggregation and gave kinetically stable complexes with high photostability and singlet oxygen generation upon irradiation. atRA incorporated in the βNS-PYRO-containing gel demonstrated a remarkable stability as compared with the formulation without βNS-PYRO, resulting in an eightfold increase of its lifetime. Skin permeation studies highlighted that βNS-PYRO in gels and cream-gels containing DIC significantly decreased the amount of drug permeated through the skin while increasing its amount in stratum corneum and viable epidermis. Overall, swellable βNS-PYRO turns to be a multifunctional coingredient with potential in topical monophasic and biphasic formulations to stabilize light-sensitive drugs and to localize the action of highly penetrating drugs in the external layers of skin. PMID:25322671

  12. Synthesis of water-based cationic polyurethane for antibacterial and gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geng-Hsi; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Cationic polymers are often used as antimicrobial materials and transfection reagents. Water-based process could reduce environmental pollution and prevent the risk of solvent residue in the final product. In this study, waterborne biodegradable cationic polyurethane (WCPU) was synthesized by reacting polycaprolactone (PCL diol), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), and N-methyldiethanolamine (N-MDEA) under 75°C. An aqueous dispersion of WCPU nanoparticles (NPs) could be acquired by vigorous stirring under acidic condition. The particles in the dispersion had an average size of ∼80nm and a zeta potential of ∼60mV. When cast into films, the contact angle of the film was ∼67° and the zeta potential was ∼16mV. WCPU NPs demonstrated excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (100% inhibition with a contact time of 3h). Meanwhile, the antibacterial ratio of WCPU films to E. coli and S. aureus reached 100% after 24h of contact. Moreover, WCPU NPs could be used as a transfection reagent without significant toxicity for concentrations less than 1000μg/mL and showed the ability to condensate plasmid DNA. The transfection efficiency for HEK293T cells and hBMSCs was ∼60% and ∼30% at 48h, respectively, after the transfection. Therefore, the WCPU synthesized in this study has potential antibacterial and gene delivery applications. PMID:27451371

  13. Peristaltic transport of magneto-nanoparticles submerged in water: Model for drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, F. M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent development in biomedical engineering has enabled the use of the magnetic nanoparticles in modern drug delivery systems with great utility. Nanofluids composed of magnetic nanoparticles have the characteristics to be manipulated by external magnetic field and are used to guide the particles up the bloodstream to a tumor with magnets. In this study we examine the mixed convective peristaltic transport of copper-water nanofluid under the influence of constant applied magnetic field. Nanofluid is considered in an asymmetric channel. Aside from the effect of applied magnetic field on the mechanics of nanofluid, its side effects i.e. the Ohmic heating and Hall effects are also taken into consideration. Heat transfer analysis is performed in presence of viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption. Mathematical modeling is carried out using the lubrication analysis. Resulting system of equations is numerically solved. Impact of embedded parameters on the velocity, pressure gradient, streamlines and temperature of nanofluid is examined. Effects of applied magnetic field in presence and absence of Hall effects are studied and compared. Results depict that addition of copper nanoparticles reduces the velocity and temperature of fluid. Heat transfer rate at the boundary enhances by increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction. Increase in the strength of applied magnetic field tends to decrease/increase the velocity/temperature of nanofluid. Further presence of Hall effects reduces the variations brought in the state of fluid when strength of applied magnetic field is increased.

  14. Standardization of water purification in the central dialysis fluid delivery system: validation and parametric method.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Tadashi; Shinoda, Tosiho

    2009-01-01

    The central dialysis fluid delivery system (CDDS) has been mainly used for hemodialysis therapy in Japan. Validation and a parametric method are necessary for the quality control of dialysis fluid in CDDS. Validation is a concept for the assurance of system compatibility and product quality, and is defined as follows: the manufacturing and quality control methods including the system design and equipment of the manufacturing facility, manufacturing procedure and processes. Confirmed results must be kept within acceptable limits and they must be documented in a record. Important parameters for validating CDDS include: (1) setting the sterilized area; (2) decision of sterilization level; (3) confirmation of the maximum bio-burden; (4) performance of endotoxin retentive filter and reverse osmosis (RO) module, and (5) checkpoints of purity of dialysis water in the system. Taking the concept of validation and a parametric method in the management of CDDS into consideration enables the supply the purified dialysis fluid or the online prepared substitution fluid that meet the 2008 standards of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. PMID:19556762

  15. Intrinsically water-stable keratin nanoparticles and their in vivo biodistribution for targeted delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Helan; Shi, Zhen; Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2014-09-17

    Highly water-stable nanoparticles of around 70 nm and capable of distributing with high uptake in certain organs of mice were developed from feather keratin. Nanoparticles could provide novel veterinary diagnostics and therapeutics to boost efficiency in identification and treatment of livestock diseases to improve protein supply and ensure safety and quality of food. Nanoparticles could penetrate easily into cells and small capillaries, surpass detection of the immune system, and reach targeted organs because of their nanoscale sizes. Proteins with positive and negative charges and hydrophobic domains enable loading of various types of drugs and, hence, are advantageous over synthetic polymers and carbohydrates for drug delivery. In this research, the highly cross-linked keratin was processed into nanoparticles with diameters of 70 nm under mild conditions. Keratin nanoparticles were found supportive to cell growth via an in vitro study and highly stable after stored in physiological environments for up to 7 days. At 4 days after injection, up to 18% of the cells in kidneys and 4% of the cells in liver of mice were penetrated by the keratin nanoparticles. PMID:25174826

  16. Hydrogen emission in meteors as a potential marker for the exogenous delivery of organics and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Mandell, Avram M.

    2004-01-01

    We detected hydrogen Balmer-alpha (H(alpha)) emission in the spectra of bright meteors and investigated its potential use as a tracer for exogenous delivery of organic matter. We found that it is critical to observe the meteors with high enough spatial resolution to distinguish the 656.46 nm H(alpha) emission from the 657.46 nm intercombination line of neutral calcium, which was bright in the meteor afterglow. The H(alpha) line peak stayed in constant ratio to the atmospheric emissions of nitrogen during descent of the meteoroid. If all of the hydrogen originates in the Earth's atmosphere, the hydrogen atoms are expected to have been excited at T = 4400 K. In that case, we measured an H(2)O abundance in excess of 150 +/- 20 ppm at 80-90 km altitude (assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium in the air plasma). This compares with an expected <20 ppm from H(2)O in the gas phase. Alternatively, meteoric refractory organic matter (and water bound in meteoroid minerals) could have caused the observed H(alpha) emission, but only if the line is excited in a hot T approximately 10000 K plasma component that is unique to meteoric ablation vapor emissions such as Si(+). Assuming that the Si(+) lines of the Leonid spectrum would need the same hot excitation conditions, and a typical [H]/[C] = 1 in cometary refractory organics, we calculated an abundance ratio [C]/[Si] = 3.9 +/- 1.4 for the dust of comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. This range agreed with the value of [C]/[Si] = 4.4 measured for comet 1P/Halley dust. Unless there is 10 times more water vapor in the upper atmosphere than expected, we conclude that a significant fraction of the hydrogen atoms in the observed meteor plasma originated in the meteoroid.

  17. Hydrogen emission in meteors as a potential marker for the exogenous delivery of organics and water.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Mandell, Avram M

    2004-01-01

    We detected hydrogen Balmer-alpha (H(alpha)) emission in the spectra of bright meteors and investigated its potential use as a tracer for exogenous delivery of organic matter. We found that it is critical to observe the meteors with high enough spatial resolution to distinguish the 656.46 nm H(alpha) emission from the 657.46 nm intercombination line of neutral calcium, which was bright in the meteor afterglow. The H(alpha) line peak stayed in constant ratio to the atmospheric emissions of nitrogen during descent of the meteoroid. If all of the hydrogen originates in the Earth's atmosphere, the hydrogen atoms are expected to have been excited at T = 4400 K. In that case, we measured an H(2)O abundance in excess of 150 +/- 20 ppm at 80-90 km altitude (assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium in the air plasma). This compares with an expected <20 ppm from H(2)O in the gas phase. Alternatively, meteoric refractory organic matter (and water bound in meteoroid minerals) could have caused the observed H(alpha) emission, but only if the line is excited in a hot T approximately 10000 K plasma component that is unique to meteoric ablation vapor emissions such as Si(+). Assuming that the Si(+) lines of the Leonid spectrum would need the same hot excitation conditions, and a typical [H]/[C] = 1 in cometary refractory organics, we calculated an abundance ratio [C]/[Si] = 3.9 +/- 1.4 for the dust of comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. This range agreed with the value of [C]/[Si] = 4.4 measured for comet 1P/Halley dust. Unless there is 10 times more water vapor in the upper atmosphere than expected, we conclude that a significant fraction of the hydrogen atoms in the observed meteor plasma originated in the meteoroid. PMID:15104908

  18. [Water in oil microemulsions containing NaCl for transdermal delivery of fluorouracil].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan-Yu; Liu, Fang; Chen, Zhi-Peng; Ping, Qi-Neng

    2011-06-01

    This study is to prepare the W/O microemulsion containing NaCl and fluorouracil (5-Fu) as a model drug to investigate the transdermal characteristics and skin irritation of the microemulsion in vitro. Isopropylmyristate (IPM) acting as oil phase, Aerosol-OT (AOT) as surfactant, Tween 85 as cosurfactant, NaCl solution was added dropwise to the oil phase to prepare W/O microemulsion at room temperature using magnetic stirring, and then 5-Fu powder was added. According to the area of microemulsion based on the pseudo-tertiary phase diagrams, the optimum formulation was screened initially. And the permeation flux of fluorouracil across excised mice skin was determined in vitro using Franz diffusion cells to study the influence of the amount of water and the drug loading capacity and optimize the formulation further. Refer to 5-Fu cream, the irritation of microemulsion on the rat skin was studied. The optimum formulation was composed of 0.7% (w/v) 5-Fu, 50% NaCl solution (0.05 mol x L(-1)), 20% mix-surfactant (AOT/Tween 85, K(m) = 2) and 29.3% oil (IPM). The cumulative amount of fluorouracil permeated in 12 h was (2 013.4 +/- 41.6) microg x cm(-2), 20.23 folds and 10.38 folds more than 0.7% fluorouracil aqueous solution and 2.5% (w/w) fluorouracil cream, respectively. Microemulsion exhibited some irritation, but could be reversed after drug withdrawal. The addition of NaCl significantly increased the content of water and the drug loading in microemulsion systems. The NaCl/AOT-Tween 85/IPM microemulsion system promoted the permeation of fluorouracil greatly, which may be a promising vehicle for the transdermal delivery of fluorouracil and other hydrophilic drug. PMID:21882535

  19. Selective and simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions in leaching process waters for ceramics glaze raw materials of narutal origin by ion-exclusion chromatography coupled with UV-detection after postcolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Kurachi, Kazumasa; Hu, Wenzhi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    The selective and simultaneous ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with UV-detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column in the H+ -form (TSKgel Super IC-A/C) was developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions as the water quality parameters required for optimizing the water-leaching process for ceramics glaze raw materials of natural origin including feldspar, woods-ash, and straw-ash. Phosphate and silicate ions in these water-leaching process water samples were separated selectively from the coexisting anions such as sulfate, chloride, nitrate and carbonate ions, based on the ion-exclusion separation mechanism. They were detected selectively and simultaneously by a postcolumn derivatization with molybdenum-yellow using the UV-detector. Under the optimized separation and detection conditions (eluent, 0-1 mM sulfuric acid; reactant, 10 mM sodium molybdate-25 mM sulfuric acid; detector, UV at 370 nm; temperature, 45 degrees C), the linearity of calibration was in the range 0.1 - 10 ppm for both phosphate and silicate ions, and the detection limits at S/N = 3 were 2.58 ppb for silicate ions and 4.75 ppb for phosphate ions. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated in practical applications to the water-leaching process for some ceramics glaze raw materials. PMID:16429785

  20. Electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers as a potential oromucosal delivery system for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Potrč, Tanja; Baumgartner, Saša; Roškar, Robert; Planinšek, Odon; Lavrič, Zoran; Kristl, Julijana; Kocbek, Petra

    2015-07-30

    nanodelivery system compared to the drug-loaded polymer films that were used as the reference formulation. As a result, electrospinning was shown to be a very promising nanotechnology-based approach to the formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs in order to enhance their dissolution. In addition, the great potential of the produced drug-loaded PCL nanofiber mats for subsequent formulation as oromucosal drug delivery systems for children and the elderly was confirmed. PMID:25910438

  1. High-resolution simulations of the final assembly of Earth-like planets. 2. Water delivery and planetary habitability.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Sean N; Quinn, Thomas; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2007-02-01

    The water content and habitability of terrestrial planets are determined during their final assembly, from perhaps 100 1,000-km "planetary embryos " and a swarm of billions of 1-10-km "planetesimals. " During this process, we assume that water-rich material is accreted by terrestrial planets via impacts of water-rich bodies that originate in the outer asteroid region. We present analysis of water delivery and planetary habitability in five high-resolution simulations containing about 10 times more particles than in previous simulations. These simulations formed 15 terrestrial planets from 0.4 to 2.6 Earth masses, including five planets in the habitable zone. Every planet from each simulation accreted at least the Earth's current water budget; most accreted several times that amount (assuming no impact depletion). Each planet accreted at least five water-rich embryos and planetesimals from the past 2.5 astronomical units; most accreted 10-20 water-rich bodies. We present a new model for water delivery to terrestrial planets in dynamically calm systems, with low-eccentricity or low-mass giant planets-such systems may be very common in the Galaxy. We suggest that water is accreted in comparable amounts from a few planetary embryos in a " hit or miss " way and from millions of planetesimals in a statistically robust process. Variations in water content are likely to be caused by fluctuations in the number of water-rich embryos accreted, as well as from systematic effects, such as planetary mass and location, and giant planet properties. PMID:17407404

  2. Raw Liquid Waste Treatment System and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter remains dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material adsorbs the organic matter dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to at least facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. Carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  3. Surface-functionalized diatom microcapsules for drug delivery of water-insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Aw, Moom Sinn; Bariana, Manpreet; Yu, Yang; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Losic, Dusan

    2013-08-01

    Naturally available and biocompatible materials are potential substitutes for synthetic mesoporous materials as suitable drug carriers for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems. This work investigates the application of a porous silica material derived from diatoms, also known as diatomaceous earth. The aim is to explore the surface functionalization of diatom microcapsules and their impact on the drug loading and release characteristics of water-insoluble drugs. Indomethacin was used as the model for poorly soluble drug. The surface modification on diatoms was performed with two organosilanes; 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine and phosphonic acids (2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid and 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid) providing organic surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. Extensive characterizations using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry was performed to confirm covalent grafting of monolayer aminosilane and phosphonic acid on the diatom surfaces. Differences in loading capacity of diatoms (15-24%) and release time (6-15 days) were observed which is due to the presence of different functional groups on the surface. It was found that 2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid, 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine render diatom surfaces hydrophilic, due to polar carboxyl functional group (COOH) and active amine species (NH and NH2) that favor drug adsorption; better encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release of drugs, over the hydrophobic surface created by 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid. This work demonstrates diatom porous silica as a promising drug carrier, with possibility to further improve their performances by tailoring their surface functionalities to achieve the required drug loading and release characteristics for different therapeutic conditions. PMID:22457043

  4. In vitro delivery of a sparingly water soluble compound from PLA50 microparticles.

    PubMed

    Mallard, C; Coudane, J; Rault, I; Vert, M

    2000-01-01

    The administration of a sparingly soluble drug is always problematic, especially when the drug has to be released from the degradable matrix of a polymeric drug delivery system. Attempts were made to achieve the complete release of 1-[2-(fluorobenzoyl) aminoethyl]-4-(7-methoxynaphtyl)piperazine (FAMP), a potential anxiolytic and antidepressor hydrophobic compound, from racemic poly(lactic acid) (PLA50)-based microparticles, 100% release was required at a low rate in order to allow monthly repeated S.C. or I.M. injections of this potent compound. FAMP-polymer combinations were made in the form of microspheres by the solvent evaporation technique. Release profiles were investigated under dynamic conditions by using a constant flow rate of pH 7.4 0.15 M phosphate buffer, used as a model of body fluids. Under these conditions, none of the microsphere compositions led to total release within a month, even when hydrophilic excipients, namely fructose and PEG were added. PLA50-FAMP microparticles with compositions and sizes similar to those of the microspheres, were then made by direct blending in dichloromethane, evaporation of the solvent, grinding and sieving. These formulations also failed in providing total drug release within 30 days, even at a high drug load. FAMP/PLA50/water-soluble additive, ternary grounded particles were finally prepared with fructose, PLA50 oligomers or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as the additive. Only PLA50 grounded particles with percolating FAMP-PEG microdomains allowed 100% release of FAMP over a 30 day period, at a quasi constant rate which depended primarily on solubility and channelling provided the flow was slow enough. Data are discussed in terms of the accessibility of the entrapped drug to the aqueous medium. PMID:10670937

  5. Lunar water migration in the interval between large impacts: Heterogeneous delivery to Permanently Shadowed Regions, fractionation, and diffusive barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.

    2016-01-01

    The migration of water molecules across the lunar surface from sources sufficiently small, so as to not generate a transient collisional atmosphere, was examined using a Monte Carlo simulation. Previous work using similar models is extended by examining a realistic distribution of large south polar Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs) to examine the heterogeneities observed in their water content—frost in Haworth and the nearby lowlands, but not in neighboring Shoemaker, and anomalously high hydrogen abundances from neutron data—and to determine how the pattern of water delivery can be distinguished from that predicted for transient collisional atmospheres. While the Haworth lowlands were seen to accumulate 3.9 times as much water as Shoemaker, the additional water delivered to Haworth crater was only 47% greater than Shoemaker, possibly due to shielding by Faustini and the lowlands. This relatively small difference is likely inadequate to explain the difference in frosting. More broadly, latitudinal trends in delivery dominate over meridional trends. Despite the heterogeneity in water delivery, fractionation effects from ballistic migration were small for the PSRs with equal D/H ratios seen in all PSRs within confidence limits. Finally, a diffusive barrier was observed starting at approximately 15° from each pole that hampers the poleward progress of equatorial particles. This barrier is the result of a reduction in the migration diffusivity from 1.0 × 107 m2 s-1 near the equator to 5.5 × 105 m2 s-1 within 10° of the pole and finally to 6.8 × 103 m2 s-1 within 4° of the pole.

  6. New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw water tank T4. Distribution pump house can be seen at the center of building. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  7. Potato growth in a porous tube water and nutrient delivery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. 'Norland', vegetative growth and tuber productivity grown in the porous water and nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics were compared with the vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown in a peat:vermiculite potting mixture (PT/VR). The plants were grown at 12, 16, and 24-h light periods, 18 degrees C constant temperature, 70% relative humidity, and 300 micromol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux. Canopy height of plants grown in the PT/VR system was taller than that of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Canopy height differences were greatest when the plants were grown under a 24-h photoperiod. Leaf and stem dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24-h photoperiod, leaf and stem dry masses of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than 3 times those of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Tuber dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24 h-photoperiod, tuber dry weights of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than twice those of plants grown in the PTNDS system. A slightly higher harvest index (ratio of tuber weight to leaf plus stem weight) was noted for the plants grown in the PTNDS than for the plants grown in the PT/VR system. Plants grown in the PTNDS system at the 24-h photoperiod matured earlier than plants grown at this photoperiod in the PT/VR system. Vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown under the 16-h photoperiod generally were intermediate to those noted for plants grown under the 12 and 24-h photoperiods. These results indicate that potato plants grown in a PTNDS system may require less plant growing volume, mature in a shorter time, and likely produce more tubers per unit area compared with plants grown in the PT/VR system. These plant characteristics are a distinct advantage for a plant growing unit of

  8. Potato growth in a porous tube water and nutrient delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. `Norland', vegetative growth and tuber productivity grown in the porous water and nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics were compared with the vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown in a peat:vermiculite potting mixture (PT/VR). The plants were grown at 12, 16, and 24-h light periods, 18 degC constant temperature, 70% relative humidity, and 300 mumol.m^-2.s^-1 photosynthetic photon flux. Canopy height of plants grown in the PT/VR system was taller than that of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Canopy height differences were greatest when the plants were grown under a 24-h photoperiod. Leaf and stem dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24-h photoperiod, leaf and stem dry masses of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than 3 times those of plants grown in the PTDNS system. Tuber dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24 h-photoperiod, tuber dry weights of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than twice those of plants grown in the PTDNS system. A slightly higher harvest index (ratio of tuber weight to leaf plus stem weight) was noted for the plants grown in the PTNDS than for the plants grown in the PT/VR system. Plants grown in the PTNDS system at the 24-h photoperiod matured earlier than plants grown at this photoperiod in the PT/VR system. Vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown under the 16-h photoperiod generally were intermediate to those noted for plants grown under the 12 and 24-h photoperiods. These results indicate that potato plants grown in a PTNDS system may require less plant growing volume, mature in a shorter time, and likely produce more tubers per unit area compared with plants grown in the PT/VR system. These plant characteristics are a distinct advantage for a plant growing unit of a

  9. Exposure to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Delivery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive exposure assessment, results suggest that residential THM exposure during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554

  10. Functional properties of raw and processed pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) flour.

    PubMed

    Okpala, L C; Mamah, E N

    2001-07-01

    Emulsification capacity, foam capacity, foam stability, fat and water absorption of raw and processed pigeonpea flour were investigated and compared with those of raw soy flour. The processing methods included soaking in water, soaking and blanching in water and soaking and blanching with trona, a sodium sesquicarbonate salt. Soaking in water was found to reduce the water absorption capacity of pigeonpea flour while soy flour had a slightly higher water absorption capacity than the other processed flours. All the processing treatments increased the fat absorption capacity of pigeonpea flour and the values were also higher than the value obtained for raw soy flour. Data on the emulsifying activities showed that the trona-treated pigeonpea flour had the highest emulsification capacity and was even higher than that of raw soy flour. Soy flour was found to have higher foaming capacity than all the pigeonpea flour samples. PMID:11474899

  11. Improving service delivery of water, sanitation, and hygiene in primary schools: a cluster-randomized trial in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kelly T; Dreibelbis, Robert; Freeman, Matthew C; Ojeny, Betty; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs in schools have been shown to improve health and reduce absence. In resource-poor settings, barriers such as inadequate budgets, lack of oversight, and competing priorities limit effective and sustained WASH service delivery in schools. We employed a cluster-randomized trial to examine if schools could improve WASH conditions within existing administrative structures. Seventy schools were divided into a control group and three intervention groups. All intervention schools received a budget for purchasing WASH-related items. One group received no further intervention. A second group received additional funding for hiring a WASH attendant and making repairs to WASH infrastructure, and a third group was given guides for student and community monitoring of conditions. Intervention schools made significant improvements in provision of soap and handwashing water, treated drinking water, and clean latrines compared with controls. Teachers reported benefits of monitoring, repairs, and a WASH attendant, but quantitative data of WASH conditions did not determine whether expanded interventions out-performed our budget-only intervention. Providing schools with budgets for WASH operational costs improved access to necessary supplies, but did not ensure consistent service delivery to students. Further work is needed to clarify how schools can provide WASH services daily. PMID:23981878

  12. Delivery methods for LVSD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasner, James H.; Brower, Bernard V.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present formats and delivery methods of Large Volume Streaming Data (LVSD) systems. LVSD systems collect TBs of data per mission with aggregate camera sizes in the 100 Mpixel to several Gpixel range at temporal rates of 2 - 60 Hz. We present options and recommendations for the different stages of LVSD data collection and delivery, to include the raw (multi-camera) data, delivery of processed (stabilized mosaic) data, and delivery of user-defined region of interest windows. Many LVSD systems use JPEG 2000 for the compression of raw and processed data. We explore the use of the JPEG 2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) for interactive client/server delivery to thick-clients (desktops and laptops) and MPEG-2 and H.264 to handheld thin-clients (tablets, cell phones). We also explore the use of 3D JPEG 2000 compression, defined in ISO 15444-2, for storage and delivery as well. The delivery of raw, processed, and region of interest data requires different metadata delivery techniques and metadata content. Beyond the format and delivery of data and metadata we discuss the requirements for a client/server protocol that provides data discovery and retrieval. Finally, we look into the future as LVSD systems perform automated processing to produce "information" from the original data. This information may include tracks of moving targets, changes of the background, snap shots of targets, fusion of multiple sensors, and information about "events" that have happened.

  13. Navigating the human gastrointestinal tract for oral drug delivery: Uncharted waters and new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Koziolek, Mirko; Grimm, Michael; Schneider, Felix; Jedamzik, Philipp; Sager, Maximilian; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Siegmund, Werner; Weitschies, Werner

    2016-06-01

    Many concepts of oral drug delivery are based on our comprehension of human gastrointestinal physiology. Unfortunately, we tend to oversimplify the complex interplay between the various physiological factors in the human gut and, in particular, the dynamics of these transit conditions to which oral dosage forms are exposed. Recent advances in spatial and temporal resolution of medical instrumentation as well as improved access to these technologies have facilitated clinical trials to characterize the dynamic processes within the human gastrointestinal tract. These studies have shown that highly relevant parameters such as fluid volumes, dosage form movement, and pH values in the lumen of the upper GI tract are very dynamic. As a result of these new insights into the human gastrointestinal environment, some common concepts and ideas of oral drug delivery are no longer valid and have to be reviewed in order to ensure efficacy and safety of oral drug therapy. PMID:27037063

  14. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    PubMed

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality. PMID:26506549

  15. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-04-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  16. Phase transition water-in-oil microemulsions as ocular drug delivery systems: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Judy; Maghraby, Gamal M M El; Craig, Jennifer P; Alany, Raid G

    2007-01-01

    Microemuslion (ME)-based phase transition systems were evaluated for ocular delivery of pilocarpine hydrochloride (model hydrophilic drug). These used two non-ionic surfactants, sorbitan mono laurate and polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate with ethyl oleate (oil component) and water. These systems undergo phase change from ME to liquid crystalline (LC) and to coarse emulsion (EM) with a change in viscosity depending on water content. This study selected five formulations containing aqueous phase at 5% (w/w) (ME 5%), 10% (w/w) (ME 10%), 26% (w/w) (LC), 85% (w/w) (O/W EM) and 100% (solution) with the model drug at 1% (w/w). Incorporation of pilocarpine hydrochloride did not affect the phase behaviour. The viscosity was increased initially with dilution from ME 5% to ME 10% then LC, indicating structuring of the system, before being reduced in the EM formulation. Drug release depended on the viscosity with lower release rates obtained from formulations with high viscosity. The miotic response and duration of action were greatest in case of ME and LC formulations indicating high ocular bioavailability. Thus, phase transition ME is promising for ocular drug delivery as it provides the fluidity with its viscosity being increased after application increasing ocular retention while retaining the therapeutic efficiency. PMID:17092668

  17. Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds: Influence of formulation parameters on Polymethoxyflavone crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Jinkai; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2012-01-01

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) extracted from citrus peel exhibit potent anti-cancer activity, but are highly hydrophobic molecules with poor solubility in both water and oil at ambient and body temperature, which limits their bioavailability. The possibility of encapsulating PMFs within nanoemulsion-based delivery systems to facilitate their application in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products was investigated. The influence of oil type (corn oil, MCT, orange oil), emulsifier type (β-lactoglobulin, lyso-lecithin, Tween, and DTAB), and neutral cosolvents (glycerol and ethanol) on the formation and stability of PMF-loaded nanoemulsions was examined. Nanoemulsions (r < 100 nm) could be formed using high pressure homogenization for all emulsifier types, except DTAB. Lipid droplet charge could be altered from highly cationic (DTAB), to near neutral (Tween), to highly anionic (β-lactoglobulin, lyso-lecithin) by varying emulsifier type. PMF crystals formed in all nanoemulsions after preparation, which had a tendency to sediment during storage. The size, morphology, and aggregation of PMF crystals depended on preparation method, emulsifier type, oil type, and cosolvent addition. These results have important implications for the development of delivery systems for bioactive components that have poor oil and water solubility at application temperatures. PMID:22685367

  18. Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds: Influence of formulation parameters on Polymethoxyflavone crystallization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Jinkai; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2012-06-01

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) extracted from citrus peel exhibit potent anti-cancer activity, but are highly hydrophobic molecules with poor solubility in both water and oil at ambient and body temperature, which limits their bioavailability. The possibility of encapsulating PMFs within nanoemulsion-based delivery systems to facilitate their application in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products was investigated. The influence of oil type (corn oil, MCT, orange oil), emulsifier type (β-lactoglobulin, lyso-lecithin, Tween, and DTAB), and neutral cosolvents (glycerol and ethanol) on the formation and stability of PMF-loaded nanoemulsions was examined. Nanoemulsions (r < 100 nm) could be formed using high pressure homogenization for all emulsifier types, except DTAB. Lipid droplet charge could be altered from highly cationic (DTAB), to near neutral (Tween), to highly anionic (β-lactoglobulin, lyso-lecithin) by varying emulsifier type. PMF crystals formed in all nanoemulsions after preparation, which had a tendency to sediment during storage. The size, morphology, and aggregation of PMF crystals depended on preparation method, emulsifier type, oil type, and cosolvent addition. These results have important implications for the development of delivery systems for bioactive components that have poor oil and water solubility at application temperatures. PMID:22685367

  19. Past, present, and future of water data delivery from the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Fisher, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of national water databases managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, including surface-water, groundwater, water-quality, and water-use data. These are readily accessible to users through web interfaces and data services. Multiple perspectives of data are provided, including search and retrieval of real-time data and historical data, on-demand current conditions and alert services, data compilations, spatial representations, analytical products, and availability of data across multiple agencies.

  20. Design Packing to Safely Mail Raw Spaghetti. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    This activity is designed to build creative skills based on an everyday problem. The scenario that sometimes packages are dropped and letters get bent is used. How can a special delivery be protected from such unfortunate mishaps? Students use their creative skills to determine a way to mail raw spaghetti. A way to safely package the raw spaghetti…

  1. Raw Dough's a Raw Deal and Could Make You Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... even though there are websites devoted to “flour crafts,” don’t give your kids raw dough or ... care or kindergarten, a common pastime may be art using “play” clay that is homemade from raw ...

  2. Combination of ozone with nano TiO2 supported by zeolite for the decontamination of raw water from Songhua River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-Xin; Ma, Jun; Wang, Sheng-jun; Zhang, Jing

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, nanosized TiO2 supported by zeolite was used in the ozonation of Songhua River as catalyst. The catalytic activity of TiO2/Zeolite for ozonation was testified by nitrobenzene removal, which is one kind of representatively resistant organic contaminant. And the removal of some organic and inorganic compounds existing in the Songhua River by TiO2/Zeolite catalyzed ozonation was investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that the Songhua River was obviously polluted by organic contaminants. Catalytic ozonation can remove about 30 kinds of organic matters from water and reduce the total organic peak area of feed water by 62.5%.

  3. Measurement of water-holding capacity in raw and freeze-dried broiler breast meat with visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (vis/NIR) to segregate broiler breast fillets by water-holding capacity (WHC) was determined. Broiler breast fillets (n = 72) were selected from a commercial deboning line based on visual color assessment. Meat color (L*a*b*), pH (2 and 2...

  4. Infrared Pasteurization of raw almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with whole raw almonds, an infrared (IR) pasteurization process was investigated for its efficacy in improving the safety of raw almonds. After almonds were heated to 100, 110 and 120°C with IR, they were cooled at ambient temperature to a holding tempera...

  5. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity and incidence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance among enterococcal populations from raw fruit and vegetable foods, water and soil, and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Molinos, Antonio Cobo; López, Rosario Lucas; Grande, Maria José; Martínez-Viedma, Pilar; Ortega, Elena; Cañamero, Magdalena Martínez; Galvez, Antonio

    2008-03-31

    A comparative study was carried out among enterococci isolated from fruits and vegetable foods, water and soil, and clinical samples. Results indicate strong differences in the numbers of enterococcal species found in different environments as well as their abundance. While Enterococcus faecalis was clearly the predominant species in clinical samples, Enterococcus faecium predominated in vegetables, and it slightly outnumbered E. faecalis in water samples. Other species (Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus) were found more frequently in vegetables, water, and specially in soil. Isolates from vegetable foods showed a lower incidence of antibiotic resistance compared to clinical isolates for most antimicrobials tested, especially erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin for E. faecalis, and quinupristin/dalfopristin, ampicillin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, rifampicin, choramphenicol, gentamicin and nitrofurantoin for E. faecium. E. faecium isolates from vegetable foods and water showed an average lower number of antibiotic resistance traits (2.95 and 3.09 traits for vegetable and water isolates, respectively) compared to clinical samples (7.5 traits). Multi-resistant strains were also frequent among clinical E. faecalis isolates (5.46 traits on average). None of E. faecalis or E. faecium isolates from vegetable foods, water and soil showed beta-haemolytic activity, while 25.64% of clinical E. faecalis did. A 51.28% of E. faecalis clinical isolates tested positive for the cylA, cylB, cylM set of genes, while some or all of these genes were missing in the rest of isolates. In clinical E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, the genetic determinants for the enterococcal surface protein gene (esp), the collagen adhesin gene (ace) and the sex pheromone gene ccf (as well as cob in E. faecalis) showed a clearly higher

  6. WATER LEVEL AND OXYGEN DELIVERY/UTILIZATION IN POROUS SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing terrestrial nutrient inputs to coastal waters is a global water quality issue worldwide, and salt marshes may provide a valuable nutrient buffer, either by direct removal or by smoothing out pulse inputs between sources and sensitive estuarine habitats. A major challen...

  7. Water-soluble carbon nanotube compositions for drug delivery and medicinal applications

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James M.; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine; Hudson, Jared L.; Conyers, Jr., Jodie L.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Milas, Zvonimir L.; Mason, Kathy A.; Milas, Luka

    2014-07-22

    Compositions comprising a plurality of functionalized carbon nanotubes and at least one type of payload molecule are provided herein. The compositions are soluble in water and PBS in some embodiments. In certain embodiments, the payload molecules are insoluble in water. Methods are described for making the compositions and administering the compositions. An extended release formulation for paclitaxel utilizing functionalized carbon nanotubes is also described.

  8. Sediment delivery estimates in water quality models altered by resolution and source of topographic data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate resolution (30 m) digital elevation models (DEMs) are normally used to estimate slope for the parameterization of non-point source process-based water quality models. These models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, utilize the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Modified USLE...

  9. Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles As an Alternative Platform for Targeted Drug-Delivery of Water Insoluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luciane França; Bouchmella, Karim; Gonçalves, Kaliandra de Almeida; Bettini, Jefferson; Kobarg, Jörg; Cardoso, Mateus Borba

    2016-04-01

    The selective action of drugs in tumor cells is a major problem in cancer therapy. Most chemotherapy drugs act nonspecifically and damage both cancer and healthy cells causing various side effects. In this study, the preparation of a selective drug delivery system, which is able to act as a carrier for hydrophobic and anticancer drugs is reported. Amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles loaded with curcumin were successfully synthesized via sol-gel approach and duly characterized. Thereafter, the targeting ligand, folate, was covalently attached to amino groups of nanoparticle surface through amide bond formation. The cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles on prostate cancer cells line was evaluated and compared to normal cells line (prostate epithelial cell). Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that folate-functionalized nanoparticles were significantly cytotoxic to tumor cells, whereas normal cells were much less affected by the presence of these structures. PMID:26930039

  10. Contribution of water, bread, and vegetables (raw and cooked) to dietary intake of inorganic arsenic in a rural village of Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Oscar Pablo; Leyton, Irma; Muñoz, Ociel; Núñez, Nelson; Devesa, Vicenta; Súñer, Maria Angeles; Vélez, Dinoraz; Montoro, Rosa

    2004-03-24

    Total and inorganic As contents of cooked vegetables obtained from an arsenic endemic area of Chile were analyzed. Inorganic As intake from those foods, bread, and water was estimated. The study was performed in two different periods, in which the water used by the population for drinking and cooking purposes contained 0.572 (first period) or 0.041 microg mL(-)(1) (second period). In the first period, the FAO/WHO reference intake was exceeded by all of the persons interviewed. In the second period, the reference intake was exceeded by all of the persons interviewed ages 13-15. The foods studied contributed 4% (first period) or 25% (second period) of the inorganic As intake. The results show the contribution of food to inorganic As intake and the risk to which those ages 15 or younger are exposed. PMID:15030245

  11. Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Azrague, Kamal; Bell, Stig; Eikebrokk, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    There could be several options a water treatment plant (WTP) can select from, if an improvement in treated water quality (WQ) is desired. This paper outlines a methodology to test a variety of approaches to accomplish pre-set goals as regards WQ, while adopting a triple bottom line approach. This approach, in a nutshell, takes into consideration economic, environmental and social aspects in decision-making. The methodology has been applied to the Stangasen WTP in the town of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. Among the seven alternative approaches compared were the use, as coagulant, of five different dosages of granulated aluminium sulphate, liquid aluminium sulphate (48%) and liquid ferric chloride (40%). Using the set of weighting factors obtained from experts, it was determined that increasing the dosage of granulated aluminium sulphate by 20% over the current one would be the most sustainable option from a triple bottom line point of view. PMID:25672761

  12. In-line fine mesh filteration to remove all early life stages of mollusks from raw water carrying high suspended loads

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, A.G.; Short, T.M.; Lange, C.L.

    1995-06-01

    An in-line filter, fitted with 70-, 40-, and 25-micron absolute filter elements, was tested for zebra mussel exclusion efficiency. The study was conducted over a two-week period; one week in September and one in November, 1994. A commercial filter was placed within a specifically-designed test stand constructed at a Mississippi Power & Light facility. Zebra mussel infested water for the study was drawn from the Mississippi River north of Vicksburg.

  13. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  14. Process for increasing the water discharge of water delivering drilled wells, previously used for water delivery, and having decreased water discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gomory, P.; Hegedus, J.; Kiss, F.; Simon, A.

    1985-09-17

    Process for increasing the water discharge of water delivering drilled wells, which can be characterized in that into the filter section of the well weak acids with a dissociation constant being less than K /SUB d/ =10/sup -3/ are introduced. After a dwelling period of longer duration, expediently 10 to 48 hours, as well as compressing, flushing is performed by means of a scavenging pump. Thereafter the solution of sodium bicarbonate and/or sodium hypochlorite is introduced into the filter section. After a longer dwelling period, expediently one to thirty-six hours, flushing is performed by means of the scavenging pump. As weak acids with a dissociation constant being less than K /SUB d/ =10/sup -3/ acetic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, metaboric and/or tetraboric acid is used.

  15. Data Delivery and Mapping Over the Web: National Water-Quality Assessment Data Warehouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Richard W.; Williamson, Alex K.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991, systematically collecting chemical, biological, and physical water-quality data from study units (basins) across the Nation. In 1999, the NAWQA Program developed a data warehouse to better facilitate national and regional analysis of data from 36 study units started in 1991 and 1994. Data from 15 study units started in 1997 were added to the warehouse in 2001. The warehouse currently contains and links the following data: -- Chemical concentrations in water, sediment, and aquatic-organism tissues and related quality-control data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), -- Biological data for stream-habitat and ecological-community data on fish, algae, and benthic invertebrates, -- Site, well, and basin information associated with thousands of descriptive variables derived from spatial analysis, like land use, soil, and population density, and -- Daily streamflow and temperature information from NWIS for selected sampling sites.

  16. [Qualitative and quantitative determination of bacterial populations in an aquatic environment. 7. Development of bacterial growth on raw materials exposed to potable water].

    PubMed

    Dott, W; Schoenen, D

    1985-05-01

    Refined steel plates coated with different materials that contained available organic compounds led to a microbial growth on the surface. Even plastics and bitumen which were used in the sphere of drinking water showed after an exposure time of three months up to 192 ml slime per square meter. The number of viable bacteria within the Aufwuchs was in the range of 10(7) cfu/ml. The production of slime increased with time. The relation of carbohydrate and protein content significantly changed from 2 at the beginning to 30 after 12 months of incubation the bitumen coating test plates. This indicates an increase synthesis of carbohydrate containing extracellular polymeric substances during the late phase of growth. The bacteria isolated from the Aufwuchs mainly belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, Caulobacter, sheated bacteria and other gramnegative physiologically nonreactiv roads. During exposure of the plates the relation changed within the bacterial communities of the main groups. Comparing the bacteria communities of inlet and outflow water it became evident that the later one was influenced by bacteria of the Aufwuchs. PMID:4024773

  17. Biopolymer Production Kinetics of Mixed Culture Using Wastewater Sludge as a Raw Material and the Effect of Different Cations on Biopolymer Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2016-05-01

    Thirteen extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains were cultivated (as mixed culture) in the sterilized sludge (suspended solids of 25 g/L) and the batch fermentation was carried out. Mixed culture revealed a high specific growth rate of 0.35/hr. The EPS production rate was higher up to 24 hours, which gradually decreased with further incubation. The kinetic estimates demonstrated growth-associated EPS production. Broth EPS revealed higher flocculation activity when combined with different cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+)) in river water (≥90%), municipal wastewater (≥90%), and brewery wastewater (≥80%), respectively. A low dose (5 to 40 mg/L) of trivalent cations was required to achieve higher flocculation compared to the divalent cations (50 to 250 mg/L). Flocculation performance of EPS was comparable to Magnafloc-155 (chemical polymer) and, hence, it could be used as a flocculant. PMID:27131306

  18. Atmospheric Rivers Enhanced Water Delivery to Southwestern North America at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, J. M.; Mitchell, J.; Risi, C. M.; Tripati, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Proxy reconstructions of the late Pleistocene paleoclimate indicate that southwestern North America was significantly more wet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 ka) than in the present. Pluvial paleolakes were abundant throughout the Great Basin and as far south as the modern Mojave Desert. The source of precipitation that fed these lakes and the role of evaporation in the hydrologic balance are debated. A leading hypothesis is increased Pacific winter storm frequency as a result of the jet stream being split or shifted south by the North American ice sheets. Alternative hypotheses include enhanced monsoonal precipitation, a re-routing of the storm track across the continent, and/or reduced evaporation. Using LGM simulations from the PMIP3 ensemble and the LMDZ general circulation model, and comparing to proxy records of LGM precipitation in the region, we find that atmospheric rivers, narrow filaments of humid tropical air, were strengthened over the eastern Pacific during glacial intervals and directed into southern California. A strengthened Aleutian Low and a weakened North Pacific High produced a mean state conducive to this strong, south-shifted atmospheric river system, which enhanced moisture delivery into the southwestern part of the Great Basin.

  19. An automated system for oxygen-18 water recovery and fluorine-18 delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueller, Michael J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.

    2005-12-01

    BNL has recently purchased an EBCO TR-19 cyclotron for routine isotope production. A system has been built to recover oxygen-18 enriched water from the fluorine-18 target, and then transport the F-18 a distance of 50 m to a shielded dose splitter. The remotized system provides the operator with feedback on flow rates and radiation levels during processing. Recovery of the 2.6 mL of enriched water and transport of the F-18 to the radiochemistry labs takes under 10 min, with more than 80% of the activity arriving in the chemistry lab.

  20. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  1. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-09-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  2. An Instructional Delivery System for Manpower Management: A Report for Water Pollution Control Agencies. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

    This report contains information to assist organizations and personnel responsible for the quality and quantity of operators available for water quality control efforts. The text discusses in detail the current developments in operator instructional programs. Each of the seven sections of this report deals with a specific aspect of manpower…

  3. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled. PMID:24157507

  4. IMPACT OF CANAL DESIGN LIMITATIONS ON WATER DELIVERY OPERATIONS AND AUTOMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation canals are often designed for water transmission. The design engineer simply ensures that the canal will pass the maximum design discharge. However, irrigation canals frequently operated far below design capacity. Because demands and the distribution of flow at bifurcations (branch points...

  5. Atrazine in municipal drinking water and risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age status

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, C; Durand, G; Coutte, M; Chevrier, C; Cordier, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Atrazine is a herbicide used extensively worldwide. Bioassays have shown that it is embryotoxic and embryolethal. Evidence of adverse reproductive outcomes from exposure in the general population is sparse. Aims: To evaluate the association between atrazine levels in municipal drinking water and the following adverse reproductive outcomes: increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status. Methods: A total of 3510 births that took place from 1 October 1997, to 30 September 1998 were analysed. Atrazine measurements were available for 2661 samples from water treatment plants over the past decade. A seasonal pattern was identified, with atrazine peaking from May to September. The geometric mean of the atrazine level for this period was calculated for each water distribution unit and merged with the individual data by municipality of residence. Results: Atrazine levels in water were not associated with an increased risk of LBW or SGA status and were slightly associated with prematurity. There was an increased risk of SGA status in cases in which the third trimester overlapped in whole or in part with the May–September period, compared with those in which the third trimester occurred totally from October to April (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.81). If the entire third trimester took place from May to September, the OR was 1.54 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.13). Conclusions: Low levels of atrazine, a narrow exposure range, and limitations in the exposure assessment partly explain the lack of associations with atrazine. Findings point to the third trimester of pregnancy as the potential vulnerable period for an increased risk of SGA birth. Exposures other than atrazine and also seasonal factors may explain the increased risk. PMID:15901888

  6. An ionic liquid-in-water microemulsion as a potential carrier for topical delivery of poorly water soluble drug: Development, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Goindi, Shishu; Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kaur, Randeep

    2015-11-30

    In this paper, we report an ionic liquid-in-water (IL/w) microemulsion (ME) formulation which is able to solubilize etodolac (ETO), a poorly water soluble drug for topical delivery using BMIMPF6 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) as IL, Tween 80 as surfactant and ethanol as co-surfactant. The prepared ME was characterized for physicochemical parameters, subjected to ex-vivo permeation studies as well as in-vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation. The ex-vivo drug permeation studies through rat skin was performed using Franz-diffusion cell and the IL/w based ME showed maximum mean cumulative percent permeation of 99.030±0.921% in comparison to oil-in-water (o/w) ME (61.548±1.875%) and oily solution (48.830±2.488%) of ETO. In-vivo anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activities of the prepared formulations were evaluated using different rodent models and the results revealed that ETO loaded IL/w based ME was found to be more effective in controlling inflammation than oily solution, o/w ME and marketed formulation of ETO. Histopathological studies also demonstrated that IL/w based ME caused no anatomical and pathological changes in the skin. PMID:26456294

  7. Rational formulation development and in vitro assessment of SMEDDS for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Sprunk, Angela; Strachan, Clare J; Graf, Anja

    2012-08-15

    The aims of this study were to formulate a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) by a rational formulation approach using mixture experimental design and to derive general concepts that make the development of such systems more feasible. Various types of oils and surfactants were systematically combined and the phase behaviour upon dilution with simulated gastric fluid examined by construction of phase diagrams. The systems solubilising the highest amount of simulated gastric fluid in the continuous microemulsion area were selected for investigation and optimisation of drug solubility. Simvastatin was added as a poorly water-soluble, lipophilic model drug. Two different mixture experimental designs using D-optimal design were set up and used to investigate the solubility of simvastatin in the SMEDDS before and after dilution with simulated gastric fluid respectively. The solubility in each mixture region was analysed by fitting quadratic models using partial least squares analysis. The established models revealed the influence of mixture components on phase behaviour and drug solubility and gave the rationale for formulation optimisation. This study demonstrated that the development of complex self-emulsifying formulations with sufficient solubilisation capacity for poorly water-soluble drugs upon oral administration can be more feasible when using experimental design. PMID:22521277

  8. Water-soluble photoluminescent fullerene capped mesoporous silica for pH-responsive drug delivery and bioimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lei; Wu, Tao; Tang, Zhao-Wen; Xiao, Jian-Yun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Shi, Bin; Liu, Chuan-Jun

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a biocompatible and water-soluble fluorescent fullerene (C60-TEG-COOH) coated mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) was successfully fabricated for pH-sensitive drug release and fluorescent cell imaging. The MSN was first reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to obtain an amino-modified MSN, and then the water-soluble C60 with a carboxyl group was used to cover the surface of the MSN through electrostatic interaction with the amino group in PBS solution (pH = 7.4). The release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) could be triggered under a mild acidic environment (lysosome, pH = 5.0) due to the protonation of C60-TEG-COO‑, which induced the dissociation of the C60-TEG-COOH modified MSN (MSN@C60). Furthermore, the uptake of nanoparticles by cells could be tracked because of the green fluorescent property of the C60-modified MSN. In an in vitro study, the prepared materials showed excellent biocompatibility and the DOX-loaded nanocarrier exhibited efficient anticancer ability. This work offered a simple method for designing a simultaneous pH-responsive drug delivery and bioimaging system.

  9. Current Trends in Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDSs) to Enhance the Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    Karwal, Rohit; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Markandeywar, Tanmay S

    2016-01-01

    The main object of the self-emulsifying drug-delivery system (SEDDS) is oral bioavailability (BA) enhancement of a poorly water-soluble drug. Low aqueous solubility and low oral BA are major concerns for formulation scientists. As many drugs are lipophilic in nature, their lower solubility and dissolution are major drawbacks for their successful formulation into oral dosage forms. More than 60% of drugs have a lipophilic nature and exhibit poor aqueous solubility. Various strategies are reported in the literature to improve the solubility and enhance BA of lipophilic drugs, including the formation of a cyclodextrin complex, solid dispersions, and micronization. SEDDSs are ideally isotropic mixtures of drug, oil, surfactant, and/or cosurfactant. SEDDSs have gained increasing attention for enhancing oral BA and reducing drug dose. SEDDSs also provide an effective and excellent solution to the various issues related to the formulation of hydrophobic drugs that have limited solubility in gastrointestinal fluid. Our major focus of this review is to highlight the importance of SEDDSs in oral BA enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:27279337

  10. Formulation and comparative evaluation of HPMC and water soluble chitosan-based sparfloxacin nanosuspension for ophthalmic delivery.

    PubMed

    Ambhore, Nitin Prabhakar; Dandagi, Panchaxari Mallapa; Gadad, Anand Panchakshari

    2016-02-01

    Ophthalmic nanosuspensions (ONS) have shown a potential for ophthalmic delivery over the conventional ocular formulations. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of surfactants and polymers on particle size and drug release. Sparfloxacin ONS were prepared by optimizing the concentration of HPMC E5 and water soluble chitosan by using solvent diffusion method followed by probe sonication. The Poloxamer 407 and Kolliphor P188 were used as a surfactant. The produced nanosuspensions were characterized for particle size, shape, zeta potential and drug release. The average particle size of the nanosuspension was 300 to 500 nm. The in vitro drug release study showed that the optimized nanosuspension of water soluble chitosan sustained drug release up to 9 h compared to 6 h for the hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) nanosuspension. Further, the sparfloxacin ONS formulation showed excellent ocular tolerance and biocompatibility as determined by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane (HET CAM) and resazurin assay on Vero cell lines. Moreover, optimized formulation was found to be stable, isotonic, non-toxic with higher in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial potential. PMID:26545605

  11. Preparation of starch nanoparticles in water in oil microemulsion system and their drug delivery properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinge; Chen, Haiming; Luo, Zhigang; Fu, Xiong

    2016-03-15

    In this research, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide C16mimBr/butan-1-ol/cyclohexane/water ionic liquid microemulsion was prepared. The effects of n-alkyl alcohols, alkanes, water content and temperature on the properties of microemulsion were studied by dilution experiment. The microregion of microemulsion was identified by pseudo-ternary phase diagram and conductivity measurement. Then starch nanoparticles were prepared by water in oil (W/O) microemulsion-cross-linking methods with C16mimBr as surfactant. Starch nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 94.3nm and narrow size distribution (SD=3.3) were confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) data revealed that starch nanoparticles were spherical granules with the size about 60nm. Moreover the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated the formation of cross-linking bonds in starch molecules. Finally, the drug loading and releasing properties of starch nanoparticles were investigated with methylene blue (MB) as drug model. This work may provide an efficient pathway to synthesis starch nanoparticles. PMID:26794752

  12. Co-delivery of hydrophobic curcumin and hydrophilic catechin by a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion.

    PubMed

    Aditya, N P; Aditya, Sheetal; Yang, Hanjoo; Kim, Hye Won; Park, Sung Ook; Ko, Sanghoon

    2015-04-15

    Curcumin and catechin are naturally occurring phytochemicals with extreme sensitivity to oxidation and low bioavailability. We fabricated a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsion encapsulating hydrophilic catechin and hydrophobic curcumin simultaneously. The co-loaded emulsion was fabricated using a two-step emulsification method, and its physicochemical properties were characterised. Volume-weighted mean size (d43) of emulsion droplets was ≈3.88 μm for blank emulsions, whereas it decreased to ≈2.8-3.0 μm for curcumin and/or catechin-loaded emulsions, which was attributed to their capacity to act as emulsifiers. High entrapment efficiency was observed for curcumin and/or catechin-loaded emulsions (88-97%). Encapsulation of catechin and curcumin within an emulsion increased their stability significantly in simulated gastrointestinal fluid, which resulted in a four-fold augmentation in their bioaccessibility compared to that of freely suspended curcumin and catechin solutions. Co-loading of curcumin and catechin did not have adverse effects on either compound's stability or bioaccessibility. PMID:25465989

  13. The Delivery of Water to the Lunar Mantle by Late Planetesimal Accretion (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Walker, R. J.; Day, J.; Nesvorny, D.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    via turbulent concentration mechanisms in the gas disk. Using a q ~ 2 size distribution and HSE constraints, we predict the largest late accretion impactors to strike the Earth and Moon, on average, were D = 2,500-3,000 km and 250-300 km, respectively. If true, it is possible that the same projectile that delivered most of the Moon's HSE may have also have provided it with water. The Moon's interior was once thought to be largely dry, with bulk water estimates of less than 1 part per billion (ppb). New sample measurements, however, suggest the water content in the lunar mantle is between 200 and several thousand ppb. Assuming that our inferred D = 250-300 km lunar projectile could reach and mix itself into a spherical shell that is 100 to 500 km deep within the Moon, and that the projectile had a minimum bulk water content of 0.05-0.2 wt% (i.e., conservative values similar to those measured from “dry rocks” like ordinary and enstatite chondrites), we estimate that 400-3000 ppb water could be delivered to the lunar interior by late accretion. This finding could help sidestep a difficult problem, namely explaining how the water in the lunar mantle could migrate from a “wet” primordial Earth to a growing Moon through a very hot and largely vaporized protolunar disk.

  14. Sediment delivery estimates in water quality models altered by resolution and source of topographic data.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Peter C; Sadeghi, Ali M; Lang, Megan W; Tomer, Mark D; Daughtry, Craig S T

    2014-01-01

    Moderate-resolution (30-m) digital elevation models (DEMs) are normally used to estimate slope for the parameterization of non-point source, process-based water quality models. These models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Modified USLE to estimate sediment loss. The slope length and steepness factor, a critical parameter in USLE, significantly affects sediment loss estimates. Depending on slope range, a twofold difference in slope estimation potentially results in as little as 50% change or as much as 250% change in the LS factor and subsequent sediment estimation. Recently, the availability of much finer-resolution (∼3 m) DEMs derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data has increased. However, the use of these data may not always be appropriate because slope values derived from fine spatial resolution DEMs are usually significantly higher than slopes derived from coarser DEMs. This increased slope results in considerable variability in modeled sediment output. This paper addresses the implications of parameterizing models using slope values calculated from DEMs with different spatial resolutions (90, 30, 10, and 3 m) and sources. Overall, we observed over a 2.5-fold increase in slope when using a 3-m instead of a 90-m DEM, which increased modeled soil loss using the USLE calculation by 130%. Care should be taken when using LiDAR-derived DEMs to parameterize water quality models because doing so can result in significantly higher slopes, which considerably alter modeled sediment loss. PMID:25602537

  15. On the water delivery to terrestrial embryos by ice pebble accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takao; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Standard accretion disk models suggest that the snow line in the solar nebula migrated interior to the Earth's orbit in a late stage of nebula evolution. In this late stage, a significant amount of ice could have been delivered to 1 AU from outer regions in the form of mm to dm-sized pebbles. This raises the question why the present Earth is so depleted of water (with the ocean mass being as small as 0.023% of the Earth mass). Here we quantify the amount of icy pebbles accreted by terrestrial embryos after the migration of the snow line assuming that no mechanism halts the pebble flow in outer disk regions. We use a simplified version of the coagulation equation to calculate the formation and radial inward drift of icy pebbles in a protoplanetary disk. The pebble accretion cross section of an embryo is calculated using analytic expressions presented by recent studies. We find that the final mass and water content of terrestrial embryos strongly depends on the radial extent of the gas disk, the strength of disk turbulence, and the time at which the snow lines arrives at 1 AU. The disk's radial extent sets the lifetime of the pebble flow, while turbulence determines the density of pebbles at the midplane where the embryos reside. We find that the final water content of the embryos falls below 0.023 wt% only if the disk is compact (<100 AU), turbulence is strong at 1 AU, and the snow line arrives at 1 AU later than 2-4 Myr after disk formation. If the solar nebula extended to 300 AU, initially rocky embryos would have evolved into icy planets of 1-10 Earth masses unless the snow-line migration was slow. If the proto-Earth contained water of ~1 wt% as might be suggested by the density deficit of the Earth's outer core, the formation of the proto-Earth was possible with weaker turbulence and with earlier (>0.5-2 Myr) snow-line migration.

  16. On the water delivery to terrestrial embryos by ice pebble accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takao; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Standard accretion disk models suggest that the snow line in the solar nebula migrated interior to the Earth's orbit in a late stage of nebula evolution. In this late stage, a significant amount of ice could have been delivered to 1 AU from outer regions in the form of mm to dm-sized pebbles. This raises the question why the present Earth is so depleted of water (with the ocean mass being as small as 0.023% of the Earth mass). Here we quantify the amount of icy pebbles accreted by terrestrial embryos after the migration of the snow line assuming that no mechanism halts the pebble flow in outer disk regions. We use a simplified version of the coagulation equation to calculate the formation and radial inward drift of icy pebbles in a protoplanetary disk. The pebble accretion cross section of an embryo is calculated using analytic expressions presented by recent studies. We find that the final mass and water content of terrestrial embryos strongly depends on the radial extent of the gas disk, the strength of disk turbulence, and the time at which the snow lines arrives at 1 AU. The disk's radial extent sets the lifetime of the pebble flow, while turbulence determines the density of pebbles at the midplane where the embryos reside. We find that the final water content of the embryos falls below 0.023 wt% only if the disk is compact (<100 AU), turbulence is strong at 1 AU, and the snow line arrives at 1 AU later than 2-4 Myr after disk formation. If the solar nebula extended to 300 AU, initially rocky embryos would have evolved into icy planets of 1-10 Earth masses unless the snow-line migration was slow. If the proto-Earth contained water of ~1 wt% as might be suggested by the density deficit of the Earth's outer core, the formation of the proto-Earth was possible with weaker turbulence and with earlier (>0.5-2 Myr) snow-line migration.

  17. Remedial Amendment Delivery near the Water Table Using Shear Thinning Fluids: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Zhong, Lirong; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Wietsma, Thomas W.

    2014-08-19

    The use of shear thinning fluids (STFs) containing xanthan is a potential enhancement for emplacing a solute amendment near the water table and within the capillary fringe. Most research to date related to STF behavior has involved saturated and confined conditions. A series of flow cell experiments were conducted to investigate STF emplacement in variable saturated homogeneous and layered heterogeneous systems. Besides flow visualization using dyes, amendment concentrations and pressure data were obtained at several locations. The experiments showed that injection of STFs considerably improved the subsurface distribution near the water table by mitigating preferential flow through higher permeability zones compared to no-polymer injections. The phosphate amendment migrated with the xanthan SFT without retardation. Despite the high viscosity of the STF, no excessive mounding or preferential flow were observed in the unsaturated zone. The STOMP simulator was able to predict the experimentally observed fluid displacement and amendment concentrations reasonably well. Cross flow between layers could be interpreted as the main mechanism to transport STFs into lower permeability layers based on the observed pressure gradient and concentration data in layers of differing hydraulic conductivity.

  18. Cyclodextrin and Meglumine-Based Microemulsions as a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Aloisio, Carolina; G de Oliveira, Anselmo; Longhi, Marcela

    2016-09-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) and meglumine (MEG) are pharmaceutical excipients widely used to improve solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of CDs or MEG on the internal microstructure of soya oil-based O/W microemulsions (MEs) and on the modulation of the solubility and release rate of Class II model hydrophobic drugs, sulfamerazine and indomethacin. The pseudoternary phase diagrams revealed that higher proportions of oil phase, as well as the presence of β-cyclodextrin (ßCD), methyl-ßCD, and MEG, favored the incorporation of the drugs. The conductivity studies, particle size, and zeta potential analysis showed that the O/W ME structure remained unaffected and that the ME presented reduced droplet sizes after the incorporation of the ligands. The drug-component interactions were assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies. The highest incorporations of sulfamerazine (35.6 mg/mL) and indomethacin (73.1 mg/mL) were obtained with the ME with W = 5%, MEG and W = 1.8% ßCD in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 8, respectively. In addition, the ligands in ME significantly enhanced the released amount of the drugs, probably due to a solubilizing effect that facilitates the drug to penetrate the unstirred water layer adjacent to membranes. PMID:26886337

  19. Novel branched poly(ethylenimine)-cholesterol water-soluble lipopolymers for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-an; Narang, Ajit S; Kotb, Malak; Gaber, A Osama; Miller, Duane D; Kim, Sung Wan; Mahato, Ram I

    2002-01-01

    A novel water-soluble lipopolymer was synthesized by linking cholesteryl chloroformate to the secondary amino groups of branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) of 1,800 and 10,000 Da. Conjugation through PEI secondary amines gives this newly synthesized lipopolymer (abbreviated as PEI-Chol) special advantage over our previously synthesized lipopolymers, which utilized the primary amino groups for conjugation, as the primary amino groups have a significant role in DNA condensation. Also, significantly, only one cholesterol molecule was grafted onto each PEI molecule (confirmed by (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry), leaving enough space for the steric interactions of the PEI's primary amines with the DNA. The PEI-Chol lipopolymer was characterized for the critical micellar concentration (cmc), buffer capacity, DNA condensation (by band retardation and circular dichroism), in vitro transfection efficiency, and cell viability. The cmcs of PEI-Chol 1,800 and PEI-Chol 10,000 were 496.6 and 1,330.5 microg/mL, respectively. The acid-base titration indicated high buffering capacity of the polymers around the pH range of 5-7, which indicated their potential for buffering in the acidic pH environment of the endosomes. The band retardation studies indicated that efficient condensation of the plasmid DNA could be achieved using these lipopolymers. The circular dichroism spectra indicated a change in DNA conformation and adoption of lower energy state upon condensation with these lipopolymers when an N/P ratio of 2.5/1 or above was formulated. The mean particle size of these complexes was in the range 110-205 nm, except for the complexes prepared using PEI of 1,800 Da, which had a mean particle size of 384 +/- 300 nm. The zeta potential of DNA complexes prepared using PEI-Chol 1,800, PEI-Chol 10,000 and PEI of 1,800, 10,000, and 25,000 Da at an N/P ratio of 15/1 was in the range 23-30 mV and was dependent on the N/P ratios. The in vitro transfection of PEI

  20. Delivery of floxuridine derivatives to cancer cells by water-soluble organometallic cages.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jeong Wu; Barry, Nicolas P E; Furrer, Mona A; Zava, Olivier; Dyson, Paul J; Therrien, Bruno; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2012-03-21

    The self-assembly of 2,4,6-tris(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (tpt) triangular panels with p-cymene (pPr(i)C(6)H(4)Me) ruthenium building blocks and 2,5-dioxydo-1,4-benzoquinonato (dobq) or 5,8-dioxydo-1,4-naphthoquinonato (donq) bridges, in the presence of a pyrenyl-nucleoside derivatives (pyreneR), affords the triangular prismatic host-guest compounds [(pyrene-R)⊂Ru(6)(pPr(i)C(6)H(4)Me)(6)(tpt)(2)(dobq)(3)](6+) ([(pyrene-R)⊂1](6+)) and [(pyrene-R)⊂Ru(6)(pPr(i)C(6)H(4)Me)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+) ([(pyrene-R)⊂2](6+)), respectively. The inclusion of six monosubstitutedpyrenyl-nucleosides (pyrene-R1 = 5'-(1-pyrenyl butanoate)-2'-deoxyuridine, pyrene-R2 = 5-fluoro-5'-(1-pyrenyl butanoate)-2'-deoxyuridine, pyrene-R3 = 5'-{N-[1-oxo-4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-glycyl}-2'-deoxyuridine, pyrene-R4 = 5-fluoro-5'-{N-[1-oxo-4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-glycyl}-2'-deoxyuridine, pyrene-R5 = 5-fluoro-5'-{N-[1-oxo-4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-phenylalanyl}-2'-deoxyvuridine, pyrene-R6 = 5-fluoro-5'-{N-[1-oxo-4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-phenylalanyl}-2'-deoxyuridine) has been accomplished. The carceplex nature of [(pyrene-R)⊂1](6+) with the pyrenyl moiety firmly encapsulated in the hydrophobic cavity of the cage with the nucleoside groups pointing outward was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), while the host-guest nature of [(pyrene-R)⊂2](6+) was studied in solution by NMR techniques. In contrast to the floxuridine compounds used in the clinic, the host-guest complexes are highly water-soluble. Consequently, the cytotoxicities of these water-soluble compounds have been established using human ovarian A2780 and A2780cisR cancer cells. All the host-guest systems are more cytotoxic than the empty cages alone [1][CF(3)SO(3)](6) (IC(50) = 23 μM) and [2][CF(3)SO(3)](6) (IC(50) = 10 μM), the most active compound [pyrene-R4⊂1][CF(3)SO(3)](6)being 2 orders of magnitude more cytotoxic (IC(50) = 0.3 μM) on these human ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780 and A2780

  1. Miktoarm star polymer based multifunctional traceable nanocarriers for efficient delivery of poorly water soluble pharmacological agents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ghareb M; Redon, Rocio; Sharma, Anjali; Mejía, Diana; Maysinger, Dusica; Kakkar, Ashok

    2014-09-01

    A versatile methodology to develop an inherently fluorescent and thus traceable multifunctional nanodelivery platform based on miktoarm polymers is reported. Miktoarm stars containing covalently linked tetraiodofluorescein dye, polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone self-assemble into micelles, and integrate multiple functions including fluorescent tags for imaging, a hydrophobic core for drug incorporation, and a hydrophilic corona for micelle stabilization. Curcumin, a pleiotropic but very poorly water-soluble drug, is loaded into these micelles with an efficiency of 25-60 wt%. It leads to a 25 000-fold increase in its aqueous solubility, and a sustained release over a period of 7 d. These micelles are rapidly internalized into murine J774A.1 macrophages, and accumulated into discrete cellular compartments, whereas the free and physically encapsulated dye is diffused in the cytoplasm. Curcumin-loaded micelles reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide release. The studies establish miktoarm star based nanocarriers as highly efficient in tracking their fate and expanding the scope of pharmacological agents with limited utility in experimental medicine. PMID:24903981

  2. Benefits of cetalkonium chloride cationic oil-in-water nanoemulsions for topical ophthalmic drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Daull, Philippe; Lallemand, Frédéric; Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Topical ocular administration is the most convenient route of administration of drugs for the treatment of eye diseases. However, the bioavailability of drugs following eye instillations of eye drops is very low. Over the past 20 years, extensive efforts have been put into research to improve drug bioavailability without compromising treatment compliance and patients' quality of life. Key findings One of the most efficient ways to improve drug bioavailability is to increase the precorneal residence time of the eye drop formulations. As a result, new eye drops, with bioadhesive properties, have been developed based on the cationic oil-in-water (o/w) nanoemulsion technology. These low viscosity eye drop nanoemulsions have improved precorneal residence time through the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged oil nanodroplets and the negatively charged ocular surface epithelium. Summary This review is the first to present the benefits of this new strategy used to improve ocular drug bioavailability. The roles of the cationic agent in the stabilization of a safe cationic o/w nanoemulsion have been discussed, as well as the unexpected benefits of the cationic o/w nanoemulsion for the protection and restoration of a healthy tear film and corneal epithelium. PMID:24001405

  3. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  4. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  5. Design and synthesis of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolan; Fan, Rongrong; Wang, Wenlong; Wang, Jiexin; Le, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    pH-sensitive polymer poly (polylactide-co-methacrylic acid)-b-poly (acrylic acid) was synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization and ring-opening polymerization and characterized by gel permeation chromatography and (1)H NMR. The polymers can self-assemble to form micelles in aqueous medium, which respond rapidly to pH change within the gastrointestinal relevant pH range. Critical micelle concentrations and pH response behavior of the polymeric micelle were investigated. Water-insoluble drug nifedipine was loaded and the drug-loading content can be controlled by tuning the composition of the polymers. The in vitro release studies indicate pH sensitivity enabled rapid drug release at the environment of simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.36), the cumulative released amount of NFD reached more than 80% within 24 h, while only 35% in the simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.35). All the results showed that the pH-sensitive P(PLAMA-co-MAA)-b-PAA micelle may be a prospective candidate as oral drug delivery carrier for hydrophobic drugs with controlled release behavior. PMID:27342342

  6. Preliminary Studies on Two Vegetable Oil Based Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) for the Delivery of Metronidazole, A Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obitte, N. C.; Ezeiruaku, H.; Onyishi, V. I.

    A preliminary evaluation was carried out on metronidazole-loaded Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) using two vegetable oils-Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) and Palm Oil (PO). Purification of oils, drug solubility in the oils, pre/post formulation isotropicity tests, emulsification times and release studies of metronidazole from the SEDDS were carried out. Results indicated solubility values of 4.441 and 4.654%w/w, respectively for metronidazole in PKO and PO. Preformulation isotropicity test revealed that out of the 24 batches evaluated 10 of the SEDDS formulations containing different oil: surfactant ratios and PKO:PO admixtures were found to be isotropic after 5 h. However when the SEDDS were loaded with metronidazole there was a reduction in the number (to 7) of formulations that maintained isotropicity and stability after 72 h. All the batches had emulsification times of less than two minutes except batch 4D with oil:surfactant concentration of 50:50. The release profile showed that most of the formulations released 50% of drug in less than 8 min and 85% of drug in less than 30 min. We therefore conclude that SEDDS containing the two vegetable oils are potential alternatives when immediate release and delivery of metronidazole is the primary motivation.

  7. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  8. Development of novel mesoporous nanomatrix-supported lipid bilayers for oral sustained delivery of the water-insoluble drug, lovastatin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhang, Heran; Che, Erxi; Zhang, Lihua; Han, Jin; Yang, Yihua; Wang, Siling; Zhang, Miao; Gao, Cunqiang

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a core/shell structured nanocomposite, mesoporous nanomatrix-supported lipid bilayer (MN-SLB), as an oral drug nanocarrier, on the dissolution behavior and in vivo absorption of a water-insoluble drug, lovastatin (LOV). The formulation strategy was based on the use of drug-loaded mesoporous silica as the core for the fusion of liposomes. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and nitrogen adsorption were used to systematically characterize the drug carrier and drug-loaded MN-SLB formulation, confirming the successful inclusion of LOV into the nano-pores of MN-SLB. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that the incorporated drug in the carrier was in an amorphous state. An in vitro dissolution study showed that LOV-loaded MN-SLB exhibited a sustained drug release behavior. Compared with the LOV-loaded mesoporous silica particles, LOV-loaded MN-SLB markedly suppressed the burst release. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of the LOV-loaded MN-SLB formulation was studied in beagle dogs after oral administration and using a commercially available immediate release formulation (Sandoz Lovastatin®) as a reference. It was found that the relative bioavailability of LOV and LOV β-hydroxy acid (LOVA) for the LOV-loaded MN-SLB formulation was 207.2% and 192.1%, respectively. In addition, MN-SLB exhibited negligible toxicity against Caco-2 and HT-29 cells in cytotoxicity assays. The results of this study indicate that the MN-SLB nanocomposite is a promising candidate as a novel oral drug delivery nanovehicle for controlling the dissolution rate and improving the oral absorption of water-insoluble drugs. PMID:25731096

  9. pH-Sensitive micelles self-assembled from amphiphilic copolymer brush for delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Yang, You Qiang; Zheng, Ling Shan; Guo, Xin Dong; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Li Juan

    2011-01-10

    A novel pH-sensitive amphiphilic copolymer brush poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether monomethacrylate) [P(MMA-co-MAA)-b-PPEGMA] was defined and synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique. The molecular structures and characteristics of this copolymer and its precursors were confirmed by (1)H NMR, FT-IR, and GPC. The CMC of P(MMA-co-MAA)-b-PPEGMA in aqueous medium was determined to be 1-4 mg/L. This copolymer could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution with an average size of 120-250 nm determined by DLS. The morphologies of the micelles were found to be spherical by SEM and TEM. Ibuprofen (IBU), a poorly water-soluble drug, was selected as the model drug and wrapped into the core of micelles via dialysis method. Drug entrapment efficiency reached to 90%. The in vitro release behavior of IBU from these micelles was pH-dependent. The cumulative release percent of IBU was less than 20% of the initial drug content in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) over 12 h, but 90% was released in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.4) within 6 h. The release profiles showed that the P(MMA-co-MAA)-b-PPEGMA micelles could inhibit the premature burst drug release under the intestinal conditions. All the results indicate that the P(MMA-co-MAA)-b-PPEGMA micelle may be a potential oral drug delivery carrier for poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:21121600

  10. Comets as Messengers from the Early Solar System - Emerging Insights on Delivery of Water, Nitriles, and Organics to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The question of exogenous delivery of water and organics to Earth and other young planets is of critical importance for understanding the origin of Earth's volatiles, and for assessing the possible existence of exo-planets similar to Earth. Viewed from a cosmic perspective, Earth is a dry planet, yet its oceans are enriched in deuterium by a large factor relative to nebular hydrogen and analogous isotopic enrichments in atmospheric nitrogen and noble gases are also seen. Why is this so? What are the implications for Mars? For icy Worlds in our Planetary System? For the existence of Earth-like exoplanets? An exogenous (vs. outgassed) origin for Earth's atmosphere is implied, and intense debate on the relative contributions of comets and asteroids continues - renewed by fresh models for dynamical transport in the protoplanetary disk, by revelations on the nature and diversity of volatile and rocky material within comets, and by the discovery of ocean-like water in a comet from the Kuiper Belt (cf., Mumma & Charnley 2011). Assessing the creation of conditions favorable to the emergence and sustenance of life depends critically on knowledge of the nature of the impacting bodies. Active comets have long been grouped according to their orbital properties, and this has proven useful for identifying the reservoir from which a given comet emerged (OC, KB) (Levison 1996). However, it is now clear that icy bodies were scattered into each reservoir from a range of nebular distances, and the comet populations in today's reservoirs thus share origins that are (in part) common. Comets from the Oort Cloud and Kuiper Disk reservoirs should have diverse composition, resulting from strong gradients in temperature and chemistry in the proto-planetary disk, coupled with dynamical models of early radial transport and mixing with later dispersion of the final cometary nuclei into the long-term storage reservoirs. The inclusion of material from the natal interstellar cloud is probable

  11. Cordilleran Ice Sheet meltwater delivery to the coastal waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, I. L.; Taylor, M.; Gombiner, J. H.; Hemming, S. R.; Bryce, J. G.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) delivered meltwater to the NE Pacific Ocean off BC and WA via glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), ice rafting and subglacial meltwater discharge. A deglacial glaciomarine sedimentation record is preserved in the well dated ~50-kyr core MD02-2496 (48˚58.47' N, 127˚02.14' W, water depth 1243 m), collected off Vancouver Island. To understand the history of the relationship between the CIS, climate and meltwater discharge, high resolution, multi-proxy geochemical records from the interval that captures the Fraser Glaciation (~30-10 ka) were generated. These proxies include Mg/Ca temperatures and δ18Oseawater from planktonic foraminiferal sp. N. pachyderma and G. bulloides, elemental and organic carbon (Corg) geochemistry of bulk sediments, ɛNd and K/Ar dating of the <63µm fraction. A detailed reconstruction of CIS retreat has been generated based on the source of glaciomarine sediments and ice rafted debris (IRD), as well as evidence for processes such as GLOF events and iceberg discharge. At the Fraser Glaciation initiation (~30 ka) <63µm glaciomarine sediments deposited at MD02-2496 had a ~100 Ma volcanic rock source. The CIS passed over the Vancouver Island continental shelf at Tofino at ~20 ka ~75 km from the site dramatically increasing sedimentation. From ~19 to 17.3 ka GLOFs created cyclic (~80 year) sedimentary packages of ~300 Ma (ɛNd of ~-8) shale associated with terrestrial Corg, and ~100 Ma (ɛNd of ~-3) volcanic sediment associated with marine Corg. The GLOFs were likely to be associated with glacial lake Missoula outburst flooding, occurring during the interval of the coolest ocean temperatures (2-4°C) and most depleted δ18Oseawater (-1.75‰). At 17.3 ka as ocean temperatures increased by ~3°C and δ18Oseawater increased to ~0‰, IRD deposition increased dramatically at the site, terminating abruptly at 16.2 ka. At the Bølling, ocean temperatures rose by > 3°C to 10-12°C in association with an additional IRD

  12. Raw milk consumption and health.

    PubMed

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. PMID:25845259

  13. 43 CFR 418.11 - Valid headgate deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valid headgate deliveries. 418.11 Section... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.11 Valid headgate deliveries. The valid water deliveries at the headgate... accordance with §§ 418.8 and 418.10. The District will regularly monitor all water deliveries and report...

  14. Oil components modulate the skin delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its ester prodrug from oil-in-water and water-in-oil nanoemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Fang, Jia-You

    2011-01-01

    The study evaluated the potential of nanoemulsions for the topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl ALA (mALA). The drugs were incorporated in oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) formulations obtained by using soybean oil or squalene as the oil phase. The droplet size, zeta potential, and environmental polarity of the nanocarriers were assessed as physicochemical properties. The O/W and W/O emulsions showed diameters of 216–256 and 18–125 nm, which, respectively, were within the range of submicron- and nano-sized dispersions. In vitro diffusion experiments using Franz-type cells and porcine skin were performed. Nude mice were used, and skin fluorescence derived from protoporphyrin IX was documented by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The loading of ALA or mALA into the emulsions resulted in slower release across cellulose membranes. The release rate and skin flux of topical drug application were adjusted by changing the type of nanocarrier, the soybean oil O/W systems showing the highest skin permeation. This formulation increased ALA flux via porcine skin to 180 nmol/cm2/h, which was 2.6-fold that of the aqueous control. The CLSM results showed that soybean oil systems promoted mALA permeation to deeper layers of the skin from ∼100 μm to ∼140 μm, which would be beneficial for treating subepidermal and subcutaneous lesions. Drug permeation from W/O systems did not surpass that from the aqueous solution. An in vivo dermal irritation test indicated that the emulsions were safe for topical administration of ALA and mALA. PMID:21556344

  15. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41/sup 0/C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  16. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41 degrees C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  17. 43 CFR 418.4 - Prohibited deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited deliveries. 418.4 Section 418.4... § 418.4 Prohibited deliveries. The District must not deliver Project water or permit its use except as... delivered to ineligible lands. Delivery of water to land in excess of established water duties is prohibited....

  18. The concept of the use of recycled uranium for increasing the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel for light-water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Ivanov, E. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Rumyantsev, A. N.; Shmelev, V. M.; Borisevich, V. D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.; Sulaberidze, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    The present paper deals with investigation of the possibilities for reducing the risk of proliferation of fissionable materials by means of increasing the degree of protection of fresh fuel intended for light-water reactors against unsanctioned use in the case of withdrawal of a recipient country of deliveries from IAEA safeguards. It is shown that the use of recycled uranium for manufacturing export nuclear fuel makes transfer of nuclear material removed from the fuel assemblies for weapons purposes difficult because of the presence of isotope 232U, whose content increases when one attempts to enrich uranium extracted from fresh fuel. In combination with restricted access to technologies for isotope separation by means of establishing international centers for uranium enrichment, this technical measure can significantly reduce the risk of proliferation associated with export deliveries of fuel made of low-enriched uranium. The assessment of a maximum level of contamination of nuclear material being transferred by isotope 232U for the given isotope composition of the initial fuel is obtained. The concept of further investigations of the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel assemblies with recycled uranium intended for light-water reactors is suggested.

  19. 43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... deliveries. If water is delivered to ineligible land or in excess of the appropriate water duty then: (1) The... year to determine the amount of water required to enable the delivery of full entitlements at... District or individual water users....

  20. 43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... deliveries. If water is delivered to ineligible land or in excess of the appropriate water duty then: (1) The... year to determine the amount of water required to enable the delivery of full entitlements at... District or individual water users....

  1. 43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... deliveries. If water is delivered to ineligible land or in excess of the appropriate water duty then: (1) The... year to determine the amount of water required to enable the delivery of full entitlements at... District or individual water users....

  2. 43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... deliveries. If water is delivered to ineligible land or in excess of the appropriate water duty then: (1) The... year to determine the amount of water required to enable the delivery of full entitlements at... District or individual water users....

  3. Influence of raw materials composition on firing shrinkage, porosity, heat conductivity and microstructure of ceramic tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurovics, E.; Buzimov, A. Y.; Gömze, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work some new raw material compositions from alumina, conventional brick-clays and sawdust were mixed, compacted and heat treated by the authors. Depending on raw material compositions and firing temperatures the specimens were examined on shrinkage, water absorption, heat conductivity and microstructures. The real raised experiments have shown the important role of firing temperature and raw material composition on color, heat conductivity and microstructure of the final product.

  4. Synchronized delivery of Er:YAG-laser pulses into water studied by a laser beam transmission probe for enhanced endodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorčič, P.; Lukač, N.; Možina, J.; Jezeršek, M.

    2016-04-01

    We examine the effects of the synchronized delivery of multiple Er:YAG-laser pulses during vapor-bubble oscillations into water. For this purpose, we used a laser beam transmission probe that enables monitoring of the bubble's dynamics from a single shot. To overcome the main drawbacks of this technique, we propose and develop an appropriate and robust calibration by simultaneous employment of shadow photography. By using the developed experimental method, we show that the resonance effect is obtained when the second laser pulse is delivered at the end or slightly after the first bubble's collapse. In this case, the resonance effect increases the mechanical energy of the secondary bubble's oscillations and prolongs their duration. The presented laser method for synchronized delivery of Er:YAG-laser pulses during bubble oscillations has great potential for further improvement of laser endodontic treatment, especially upon their safety and efficiency.

  5. 'Genipin' - the natural water soluble cross-linking agent and its importance in the modified drug delivery systems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Balamurugan; Sreedharan, Rajesh; Elumalai, Manogaran

    2014-01-01

    One of the popular approaches in controlling drug delivery from the polymeric carriers is suitably achieved by the inclusion of crosslinking agents into the formulations at different concentrations. Nevertheless, addition of the chemical crosslinkers such as glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde etc, used in the drug delivery systems causes very serious cytotoxic reactions. These chemical crosslinking agents did not offer any significant advantageous effects when compared to the natural crosslinking agents for instance genipin, which is quite less toxic, biocompatible and offers very stable crosslinked products. Based on the earlier reports the safety of this particular natural crosslinker is very well established, since it has been widely used as a Chinese traditional medicine for long-time, isolated from fruits of the plant Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. This concise article largely portrayed the value of this unique natural crosslinker, utilized in controlling the drug delivery from the various formulations. PMID:24041312

  6. Spectroscopic analysis of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine in binary water/ethanol systems for the design of a new drug delivery system for photodynamic therapy cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayme, Cristiano Ceron; Calori, Italo Rodrigo; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the behavior of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine in a binary water/ethanol mixture using electronic absorption spectroscopy and static and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The electronic absorption spectra, resonance light scattering and fluorescence quenching of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine in water/ethanol mixtures were studied at several concentrations. The electronic absorption spectra and fluorescence quenching changed significantly at approximately 50% water (v/v). Below 50% water, the dimerization constant values were negative (- 2609.2 M- 1 and - 506.5 M- 1 at 30% and 40% of water, respectively), indicating that the formation of aggregates under these conditions is not favored. However, at 50% water, the dimerization constant value was estimated to be 559.7 M- 1, which indicates the presence of dimers. Above 60% water, the aggregation process was responsible for the balance between large complexes (such as trimers, tetramers or oligomers) formed in the medium under these conditions. The appearance of new absorption bands at 387 nm and 802 nm and their bathochromic shift relative to the monomer bands suggested that some J-type aggregates form. These results are relevant to understanding the behavior and use of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine in the design of new drug delivery systems for clinical application in photodynamic therapy as a new approach to treat skin cancer.

  7. Functionalized carbon nanomaterials as nanocarriers for loading and delivery of a poorly water-soluble anticancer drug: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Bao, Hongqian; Pan, Yongzheng; Pal, Mintu; Kakran, Mitali; Cheng, Henry Kuo Feng; Li, Lin; Tan, Lay Poh

    2011-05-14

    Carbon nanomaterials such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) have been functionalized by highly hydrophilic and biocompatible poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for loading and delivery of an anticancer drug, camptothecin (CPT). For the first time, CPT was loaded onto MWCNT-PVA and GO-PVA through π-π interactions and its capability to kill human breast and skin cancer cells was investigated. PMID:21451845

  8. Polycations-functionalized water-soluble gold nanoclusters: a potential platform for simultaneous enhanced gene delivery and cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Li, Zhenhua; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2013-06-01

    Noble metal nanoclusters have emerged as a fascinating area of widespread interest in nanomaterials. Herein, we report the synthesis of the PEI-templated gold nanoclusters (PEI-AuNCs) as an efficient carrier for gene delivery. The PEI-AuNCs integrate the advantages of PEI and AuNCs: the presence of AuNCs can effectively decrease the cytotoxicity of PEI, making it possible to apply them in biological systems, while the cationic polymer layer PEI with positive charges is essential for enhanced gene transfection efficiency. In addition, with excellent photoluminescent properties, the AuNCs also endow our system with the versatility of fluorescent imaging, indicating a great potential as an ideal fluorescent probe to track the transfection behavior. Our studies provide strong evidence that the PEI-AuNCs can be utilized as efficient gene delivery agents.Noble metal nanoclusters have emerged as a fascinating area of widespread interest in nanomaterials. Herein, we report the synthesis of the PEI-templated gold nanoclusters (PEI-AuNCs) as an efficient carrier for gene delivery. The PEI-AuNCs integrate the advantages of PEI and AuNCs: the presence of AuNCs can effectively decrease the cytotoxicity of PEI, making it possible to apply them in biological systems, while the cationic polymer layer PEI with positive charges is essential for enhanced gene transfection efficiency. In addition, with excellent photoluminescent properties, the AuNCs also endow our system with the versatility of fluorescent imaging, indicating a great potential as an ideal fluorescent probe to track the transfection behavior. Our studies provide strong evidence that the PEI-AuNCs can be utilized as efficient gene delivery agents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01326j

  9. Aquagrams of raw milk for oestrus detection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Takemura, G; Bázár, G; Ikuta, K; Yamaguchi, E; Ishikawa, S; Furukawa, A; Kubota, Y; Kovács, Z; Tsenkova, R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop rapid and cost-effective method for oestrus detection in dairy cows by means of near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics, using raw milk from individual cows. We found that aquaphotomics approach showed consistent specific water spectral pattern of milk at the oestrus periods of the investigated Holstein cows. Characteristic changes were detected especially in foremilk collected at morning milking. They were reflected in calculated aquagrams of milk spectra where distinctive spectral pattern of oestrus showed increased light absorbance of strongly hydrogen-bonded water. Results showed that monitoring of raw milk near infrared spectra provides an opportunity for analysing hormone levels indirectly, through the changes of water spectral pattern caused by complex physiological changes related to fertile periods. PMID:25704193

  10. Water-Soluble Cationic Polyphosphazenes Grafted with Cyclic Polyamine and Imidazole as an Effective Gene Delivery Vector.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunying; Zhang, Xiao; Du, Changguo; Zhao, Baojing; He, Chunhua; Li, Chao; Qiao, Renzhong

    2016-04-20

    Gene therapy holds immense potential as a future therapeutic strategy for the treatment of numerous genetic diseases which are incurable to date. Nevertheless, safe and efficient gene delivery remains the most challenging aspects of gene therapy. In this study, a series of polyphosphazenes (PPZ) bearing cyclic polyamine and imidazole groups were synthesized and investigated for gene delivery. Agarose gel electrophoresis assays showed that poly(imidazole/1,4,7,10-tetraazyclodocane)phosphazene (Im-PPZ-cyclen) had good binding ability with plasmid DNA (pDNA), yielding positively charged particles with a size around 120-140 nm from a ratio of 10:1 to 5:1 (Im-PPZ-cyclen/pDNA, w/w). The cytotoxicity of Im-PPZ-cyclen assayed by MTT was lower than that of PEI 25 kDa, and was similar to that reported for poly(di-2-dimethylaminoethylamine)phosphazene (poly(di-DMAEA)phosphazene) to some degree. The maximum transfection efficiency of Im-PPZ-cyclen/pDNA complexes against 293 T cells at the ratio of 5:1 (Im-PPZ-cyclen/pDNA, w/w) is close to that of Lipofectamine 2000. The present work may provide a strategy for the design of new cationic polymers with reduced cytotoxicity and be applied to gene delivery as an efficient nonviral vector. PMID:26942629

  11. In vivo study of an instantly formed lipid-water cubic phase formulation for efficient topical delivery of aminolevulinic acid and methyl-aminolevulinate.

    PubMed

    Evenbratt, Hanne; Jonsson, Charlotte; Faergemann, Jan; Engström, Sven; Ericson, Marica B

    2013-08-16

    We demonstrate a rapidly formed cubic liquid crystalline phase, i.e. typically 1g cubic phase in less than 1 min confirmed by X-ray diffraction, consisting of an ether lipid, 1-glyceryl monooleyl ether (GME), an aprotic solvent (propylene glycol or pentane-1,5-diol) and water. The efficacy of the cubic formulation was tested in vivo by administrating formulations containing 3% (w/w) of the HCl salts of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methylaminolevulinate (MAL) to hairless mice. The endogenous formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was monitored spectrophotometrically as a marker for cellular uptake of active compound. As reference, a commercial product containing 16% (w/w) MAL in an oil-in-water emulsion (Metvix(®)), and a cubic phase based on an ester lipid (glyceryl monooleate, GMO), previously shown to facilitate topical delivery of both ALA and MAL, were applied. It was found that in general the cubic phases gave rise to higher fluorescence levels than the mice exposed to the commercial product. The instantly formed cubic formulations based on GME demonstrated the same efficiency as the GMO based formulations. The results imply that instantly formed cubic formulations opens up new opportunities, particularly for transdermal drug delivery of substances subject to stability problems in, e.g. aqueous environments. PMID:23727140

  12. Source and Delivery of Nutrients to Receiving Waters in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic Regions of the United States1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard B; Johnston, Craig M; Smith, Richard A; Milstead, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates nutrient sources and transport to receiving waters, in order to provide spatially detailed information to aid water-resources managers concerned with eutrophication and nutrient management strategies. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) nutrient models were developed for the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic (NE US) regions of the United States to represent source conditions for the year 2002. The model developed to examine the source and delivery of nitrogen to the estuaries of nine large rivers along the NE US Seaboard indicated that agricultural sources contribute the largest percentage (37%) of the total nitrogen load delivered to the estuaries. Point sources account for 28% while atmospheric deposition accounts for 20%. A second SPARROW model was used to examine the sources and delivery of phosphorus to lakes and reservoirs throughout the NE US. The greatest attenuation of phosphorus occurred in lakes that were large relative to the size of their watershed. Model results show that, within the NE US, aquatic decay of nutrients is quite limited on an annual basis and that we especially cannot rely on natural attenuation to remove nutrients within the larger rivers nor within lakes with large watersheds relative to the size of the lake. PMID:22457578

  13. Coating solid dispersions on microneedles via a molten dip coating method: development and in vitro evaluation for transdermal delivery of a water insoluble drug

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder S.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates for the first time the ability to coat solid dispersions on microneedles as a means to deliver water-insoluble drugs through the skin. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was selected as the hydrophilic matrix, and lidocaine base was selected as the model hydrophobic drug to create the solid dispersion. First, thermal characterization and viscosity measurements of the PEG-lidocaine mixture at different mass fractions were performed. The results show that lidocaine can remain stable at temperatures up to ~130 °C, and that viscosity of the PEG-lidocaine molten solution increases as the mass fraction of lidocaine decreases. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that at lidocaine mass fraction less than or equal to 50%, lidocaine is well dispersed in the PEG-lidocaine mixture. Uniform coatings were obtained on microneedle surfaces. In vitro dissolution studies in porcine skin showed that microneedles coated with PEG-lidocaine dispersions resulted in significantly higher delivery of lidocaine in just 3 min compared to 1 h topical application of 0.15 g EMLA®, a commercial lidocaine-prilocaine cream. In conclusion, the molten coating process we introduce here offers a practical approach to coat water-insoluble drugs on microneedles for transdermal delivery. PMID:25213295

  14. Self-Assembled Thermoresponsive Nanogels Prepared by Reverse Micelle → Positive Micelle Method for Ophthalmic Delivery of Muscone, a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Nie, Qixia; Zang, Chen; Zhang, Baoxian; Zhu, Qiong; Luo, Gan; Wang, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to design a nanocarrier ophthalmic delivery system of muscone, a poorly water-soluble drug. The muscone thermoresponsive nanogels were self-assembled by reverse micelle → positive micelle method. Muscone was demonstrated to have uniform narrow particle size distribution in nanogel by the dynamic light scattering test. The developed nanocomposite hydrogel had a high muscone loading, and the rheology results showed that the phase transition temperature was 34.05°C. Thixotropy test indicated that the nanogel was able to resist the blinking of eyes because of the thixotropy recovery time, which is <5 s. Compared with muscone eye drops, muscone nanogels showed longer retention time on the corneal surface using fluorescent labeling technology and produced a 3.4-fold increase in apparent permeability coefficients (Papp). Draize testing showed that the developed nanogel caused no eye irritation. In vivo pharmacokinetic study indicated that the nanogel could significantly increase the bioavailability of muscone after administration compared with eye drops. These results indicate that self-assembled thermoresponsive nanogel prepared by reverse micelle → positive micelle method has potential for the ophthalmic delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:27041413

  15. Coating solid dispersions on microneedles via a molten dip-coating method: development and in vitro evaluation for transdermal delivery of a water-insoluble drug.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder S

    2014-11-01

    This study demonstrates for the first time the ability to coat solid dispersions on microneedles as a means to deliver water-insoluble drugs through the skin. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was selected as the hydrophilic matrix, and lidocaine base was selected as the model hydrophobic drug to create the solid dispersion. First, thermal characterization and viscosity measurements of the PEG-lidocaine mixture at different mass fractions were performed. The results show that lidocaine can remain stable at temperatures up to ∼130°C and that viscosity of the PEG-lidocaine molten solution increases as the mass fraction of lidocaine decreases. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that at lidocaine mass fraction less than or equal to 50%, lidocaine is well dispersed in the PEG-lidocaine mixture. Uniform coatings were obtained on microneedle surfaces. In vitro dissolution studies in porcine skin showed that microneedles coated with PEG-lidocaine dispersions resulted in significantly higher delivery of lidocaine in just 3 min compared with 1 h topical application of 0.15 g EMLA®, a commercial lidocaine-prilocaine cream. In conclusion, the molten coating process we introduce here offers a practical approach to coat water-insoluble drugs on microneedles for transdermal delivery. PMID:25213295

  16. The influence of the structure and the composition of water/AOT-Tween 85/IPM microemulsion system on transdermal delivery of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Yanyu, Xiao; Fang, Liu; Qineng, Ping; Hao, Cai

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the structure and the composition of water/Aerosol-OT (AOT)-Tween 85/isopropylmyristate (IPM) microemulsion system (WATI) on transdermal delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The structure of WATI was characterized by measuring surface tension, density, viscosity, electric conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of the drug loading, water content, component compositions and the amount of mixed surfactant on permeation of 5-FU through mice skin was evaluated by using Franz-type diffusion cells. The results in vitro implied that WATI was W/O microemulsion when the water content was below 20 wt% at fixed 20 wt% of mixed surfactant at 25°C, then might be transformed to a bicontinuous structure, finally, formed O/W microemulsion with water content over 30 wt%. Increase of the drug loading can directly facilitate the penetration of the drug across the skin. Drug diffusion after 12 h from the bicontinuous microemulsion (795.1 ± 22.3 µg·cm(-2)) would be fastest compared to that from the W/O microemulsion (650.2 ± 11.7 µg·cm(-2)) and the O/W microemulsion (676.6 ± 14.8 µg·cm(-2)). The combination of AOT and IPM could bring about synergistic effect on the skin enhancement, however, Tween 85 in WATI decreased the cumulative permeation amount of 5-FU. The content of mixed surfactant had no effect on the permeation of 5-FU at fixed surfactant/cosurfactant ratio (K(m) = 2). Thus, the increased transdermal delivery the hydrophilic drug of 5-FU was found to be concerned with both of the structure and the composition of WATI. PMID:22324326

  17. A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

  18. A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity sutdies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drinki...

  19. Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuente, David; Gakii Gatua, Josephine; Ikiara, Moses; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Mwaura, Mbutu; Whittington, Dale

    2016-06-01

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is due in part to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households' socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the IBT in Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that high-income residential and nonresidential customers receive a disproportionate share of subsidies and that subsidy targeting is poor even among households with a private metered connection. We also find that stated expenditure on water, a commonly used means of estimating water use, is a poor proxy for metered use and that previous studies on subsidy incidence underestimate the magnitude of the subsidy delivered through water tariffs. These findings have implications for both the design and evaluation of water tariffs in developing countries.

  20. 7 CFR 29.2543 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.2543 Section 29.2543 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2543 Raw. Freshly harvested tobacco...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3051 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.3051 Section 29.3051 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Raw. Freshly harvested tobacco or tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and...

  2. 7 CFR 29.6033 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.6033 Section 29.6033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6033 Raw. Tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1052 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.1052 Section 29.1052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1052 Raw. Tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and the beginning of...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3540 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.3540 Section 29.3540 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3540 Raw. Freshly harvested tobacco or tobacco as it appears between the time...

  5. Future Sources of Organic Raw Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Irving S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the need for industrial organization, academic institutions, and national governments to agree on cooperative roles in planning the future raw materials demands of the chemical industry. Political and social concerns, as well as technical and economic considerations, are important to the raw material future of the industry. (MA)

  6. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk. PMID:23212008

  7. Poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles coated with combined WGA and water-soluble chitosan for mucosal delivery of β-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; He, Hongjun; Zou, Hui

    2014-08-01

    A combinatorial design, physical adsorption of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) to particle surface and covalent conjugation of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to WSC, was applied to surface modification of poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted delivery of β-galactosidase to the intestinal mucosa. All the surface-engineered NPs in the size range of 500-600 nm were prepared by a w/o/w solvent diffusion/evaporation technique. β-Galactosidase encapsulated in these NPs was well protected from external proteolysis and exerted high hydrolytic activity on the permeable lactose. The presence of WSC coating, whether alone or with WGA, highly improved the suspension stability of NPs and tailored the particle surface positively charged. In comparison to NPs modified with WGA or WSC alone, the synergistic action of WGA and WSC greatly enhanced the NP-mucin interactions in vitro. The highest amount of NPs was found in the small intestine at 24 h after oral administration in rats. Notably, calculated half-life of WGA-WSC-NPs in the small intestine was 6.72 h, resulting in 2.1- and 4.3-fold increase when compared to WGA-polyvinylalcohol (PVA)-NPs and WSC-NPs, much longer than that of control PVA-NPs (6.9-fold). These results suggest that NPs with the combined WGA and WSC coating represent promising candidates for efficient mucosal drug delivery as well as biomimetic treatment of lactose intolerance. PMID:24797098

  8. Water/carbonate stripping for CO.sub.2 capture adsorber regeneration and CO.sub.2 delivery to photoautotrophs

    DOEpatents

    Chance, Ronald; Koros, William J.; McCool, Benjamin; Noel, James

    2015-08-11

    The invention provides systems and methods for the delivery of carbon to photoautotrophs. The invention utilizes low energy regeneration of adsorbent for CO.sub.2 capture and provides for effective CO.sub.2 loading into liquids useful for photoautotroph growth and/or production of photosynthetic products, such as biofuels, via photoautotrophic culture media. The inventive system comprises a fluid/membrane/fluid contactor that provides selective transfer of molecular CO.sub.2 via a dense (non-porous) membrane from a carbonate-based CO.sub.2 snipping solution to a culture medium where the CO.sub.2 is consumed by a photoautotroph for the production of biofuels, biofuel precursors or other commercial products.

  9. Q-PCR based bioburden assessment of drinking water throughout treatment and delivery to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcombe, David; Stuecker, Tara; La Duc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicated evidence of opportunistic pathogens samples obtained during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). This study utilized TaqMan quantitative PCR to determine specific gene abundance in potable and non-potable ISS waters. Probe and primer sets specific to the small subunit rRNA genes were used to elucidate overall bacterial rRNA gene numbers. while those specific for Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were optimized and used to probe for the presence of these two opportunistic pathogens. This research builds upon previous microbial diversity studies of ISS water and demonstrates the utility of Q-PCR tool to examine water quality.

  10. 77 FR 76512 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Water Delivery for the Operation of Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... of information for Water Request, 25 CFR 171, authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0141. This... review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0141....