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Sample records for della costa euganean

  1. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, Stéphanie; Heiri, Oliver; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Kühl, Norbert; Tinner, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation and climate during the last ice age and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼23,000-19,000 cal BP) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). Cold climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the last glaciation radically reduced forest extent in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. On the basis of paleobotanical analyses the Euganian Hills (Colli Euganei) in northeastern Italy have previously been proposed as one of the northernmost refugia of temperate trees (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus and Castanea) in Europe. In this study we provide the first quantitative, vegetation independent summer air temperature reconstruction for Northern Italy spanning the time ∼31,000-17,000 cal yr BP, which covers the coldest periods of the last glacial, including the LGM and Heinrich stadials 1 to 3. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a small lake at the south-eastern edge of the Euganean Hills, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial summer air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Chironomid and pollen evidence from Lago della Costa derives from finely stratified autochthonous organic gyttja sediments, which excludes major sediment mixing or reworking. After reconstructing paleo-temperatures, we address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of temperate tree species during the LGM and whether local expansions and pollen-inferred contractions of temperate tree taxa coincided with chironomid-inferred climatic changes. Our results suggest that chironomids at Lago della Costa have responded to major climatic fluctuations such as temperature decreases during the LGM and Heinrich stadials. The

  2. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate

  3. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent. PMID:12177991

  4. Chemistry of amphiboles and clinopyroxenes from Euganean (NE Italy) cumulitic enclaves: implications for the genesis of melts in an extensional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, O.; Meli, S.; Sassi, R.; Magaraci, D.

    2009-04-01

    The magmatism of the Euganean Volcanic District (Veneto Volcanic Province, VVP) developed in the last phases of the Alpine orogenesis; the geochemical and geophysical data are consistent with an extensional geodynamic context (Milani et al., 1999). Cumulitic gabbroic enclaves occur within the Euganean trachytes, and Bartoli et al. (2008) pointed to their cogenetic origin with the Euganean host lavas. Sr isotopic data suggest that these cumulates derived from uncontaminated mantle-derived liquids. We analysed both cumulus and intercumulus amphiboles and clinopyroxenes by electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS. The cumulus-intercumulus Cpx are diopsides and augites. The Mg#Cpx varies in a wide range (Mg#cumulus-Cpx= 0.74-0.84 and Mg#intercumulus-Cpx= 0.67-0.68). They show a MREE enrichment relative to LREE and HREE (LaN/SmN= 0.46-0.68 and TbN/YbN= 2.18-4.77). No significant Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.78-1.23) was observed. On a chondrite-normalized spiderdiagram Cpx exhibits significant Pb and Co negative anomalies, and less evident negative anomalies for Sr and Zr. La, Sm and HREE increase, whereas Ba, Ti, Li and V decrease from core to rim. These Cpx exhibit high Cr contents (701-2958 ppm). Moreover, they display trace element differences when compared to Cpx from MORB gabbros. We analyzed also amphiboles: pargasites, edenites and kaersutites. In the cumulus Amph Mg# varies in the range 0.60-0.69, whereas in the intercumulus assemblage from 0.57 to 0.63. The high K2O and TiO2 contents are distinct from that of amphiboles in MORB gabbros. LREE are enriched relative to HREE (LaN/YbN = 5.07-7.56). Moreover, TbN/YbN = 2.50-4.02 indicates a HREE depletion relative to MREE. REE patterns lack a significant Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 1.06-1.19). From core to rim Th and U decrease in cumulus crystals, but they increase in the intercumulus Amph. Ba (258-282 ppm) is enriched relative to other LILE and Nb-Ta are enriched relative to LREE. Cr varies in the range 423-594 ppm. The similar REE

  5. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Costa Rica is a country of 51,032 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 93% are literate. Independence was gained on September 15, 1821. The terrain consists of eastern and western coastal plains separated by a rugged, central massif, with a climate ranging from tropical to subtropical. Spanish and a Jamaican dialect of English are spoken by European, black, and indigenous ethnic groups who are overwhelmingly of Roman Catholic faith. Life expectancy is approximately 70 years. The gross domestic product is $5.6 billion, growing at a rate of 1%. Per capita income is $1810. Hydroelectric power is a natural resource of the country. Food processing, textiles, construction materials, and fertilizer, as well as banana, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain agriculture are areas of economic production. Manufactured goods, machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, fuel, food, and fertilizer are imported, and bananas, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the US, and names of principal US officials in the country. PMID:12178043

  6. Lessons from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene; Lobo, Irina

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the highest concentrations of computers in the Americas and is regarded as a Central American pioneer in technology development. The authors of this article describe their trip to Costa Rica, which included visits to several schools as well as to the Foundation Omar Dengo (FOD) and the Ministry of Public Education (MEP),…

  7. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  8. Binding of GID1 to DELLAs promotes dissociation of GAF1 from DELLA in GA dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Fukazawa, Jutarou; Ito, Takeshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Takahashi, Yohsuke

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are important phytohormones for plant growth and development. DELLAs are members of the plant-specific GRAS protein family and act as repressors of GA signaling. DELLAs are rapidly degraded in the presence of GAs. GA-GID1-DELLA complexes are recognized and ubiquitinated by the SCFSLY complex. The sleepy1 (sly1) F-box mutant exhibits dwarfism and low-germination phenotypes due to high accumulation of DELLAs. Overexpression of GID1 in the sly1 mutant partially rescues these phenotypes without degradation of DELLAs suggesting that proteolysis independent regulation of DELLAs exists in GA signaling. But the molecular mechanisms of non-proteolytic regulation of DELLA are largely unknown. Recently we identified a DELLA binding transcription factor, GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 (GAF1). GAF1 also interacts with co-repressor TOPLESS RELATED (TPR) in nuclei. DELLAs and TPR act as coactivator and corepressor of GAF1, respectively. GAs converts the GAF1 complex from transcriptional activator to repressor via degradation of DELLAs. The overexpression of ΔPAM, lacking of DELLAs binding region of GAF1, partially rescue dwarf phenotypes of GA deficient or GA insensitive mutant. In this study, we investigate the relationship between non-proteolytic regulation of DELLAs and GA signaling via DELLA-GAF1 complex using modified yeast two-hybrid system. PMID:26237582

  9. Fruit growth in Arabidopsis occurs via DELLA-dependent and DELLA-independent gibberellin responses.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sara; Ljung, Karin; Sorefan, Karim; Alvey, Elizabeth; Harberd, Nicholas P; Østergaard, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Fruit growth and development depend on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by inducing degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which DELLA proteins contribute to GA-mediated gynoecium and fruit development remains to be clarified. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of the role of DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana fruit growth. We show that DELLA proteins are key regulators of reproductive organ size and important for ensuring optimal fertilization. We demonstrate that the seedless fruit growth (parthenocarpy) observed in della mutants can be directly attributed to the constitutive activation of GA signaling. It has been known for >75 years that another hormone, auxin, can induce formation of seedless fruits. Using mutants with complete lack of DELLA activity, we show here that auxin-induced parthenocarpy occurs entirely through GA signaling in Arabidopsis. Finally, we uncover the existence of a DELLA-independent GA response that promotes fruit growth. This response requires GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1-mediated GA perception and a functional 26S proteasome and involves the basic helix-loop-helix protein SPATULA as a key component. Taken together, our results describe additional complexities in GA signaling during fruit development, which may be particularly important to optimize the conditions for successful reproduction. PMID:23064323

  10. Silencing of DELLA induces facultative parthenocarpy in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Martí, Cristina; Orzáez, Diego; Ellul, Philippe; Moreno, Vicente; Carbonell, Juan; Granell, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    DELLA proteins are plant nuclear factors that restrain growth and proliferation in response to hormonal signals. The effects of the manipulation of the DELLA pathway in the making of a berry-like fruit were investigated. The expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana gain-of-function DELLA allele Atgai (del) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced partially sterile dwarf plants and compacted influorescences, as expected for a constitutively activated growth repressor. In contrast, antisense silencing of the single endogenous tomato DELLA gene homologue (SlDELLA) produced slender-like plants with elongated flower trusses. Interestingly, the depletion of SlDELLA in tomato was sufficient to overcome the growth arrest normally imposed on the ovary at anthesis, resulting in parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Antisense SlDELLA-engineered fruits were smaller in size and elongated in shape compared with wild type. Cell number estimations showed that fruit set, resulting from reduced SlDELLA expression, arose from activated cell elongation at the longitudinal and lateral axes of the fruit pericarp, bypassing phase-II (post-pollination) cell divisions. Parthenocarpy caused by SlDELLA depletion is facultative, as hand pollination restored wild-type fruit phenotype. This indicates that fertilization-associated SlDELLA-independent signals are operational in ovary-fruit transitions. SlDELLA was also found to restrain growth in other reproductive structures, affecting style elongation, stylar hair primordial growth and stigma development. PMID:17883372

  11. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  12. DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Daniela S.; Levy, Julien G.; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-Δ18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-Δ18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. PMID:24297892

  13. Regulation of the gibberellin pathway by auxin and DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Damian P; Davidson, Sandra E; Clarke, Victoria C; Yamauchi, Yukika; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2010-10-01

    The synthesis and deactivation of bioactive gibberellins (GA) are regulated by auxin and by GA signalling. The effect of GA on its own pathway is mediated by DELLA proteins. Like auxin, the DELLAs promote GA synthesis and inhibit its deactivation. Here, we investigate the relationships between auxin and DELLA regulation of the GA pathway in stems, using a pea double mutant that is deficient in DELLA proteins. In general terms our results demonstrate that auxin and DELLAs independently regulate the GA pathway, contrary to some previous suggestions. The extent to which DELLA regulation was able to counteract the effects of auxin regulation varied from gene to gene. For Mendel's LE gene (PsGA3ox1) no counteraction was observed. However, for another synthesis gene, a GA 20-oxidase, the effect of auxin was weak and in WT plants appeared to be completely over-ridden by DELLA regulation. For a key GA deactivation (2-oxidase) gene, PsGA2ox1, the up-regulation induced by auxin deficiency was reduced to some extent by DELLA regulation. A second pea 2-oxidase gene, PsGA2ox2, was up-regulated by auxin, in a DELLA-independent manner. In Arabidopsis also, one 2-oxidase gene was down-regulated by auxin while another was up-regulated. Monitoring the metabolism pattern of GA(20) showed that in Arabidopsis, as in pea, auxin can promote the accumulation of bioactive GA. PMID:20706734

  14. Suicide and homicide in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1995-10-01

    Suicide and homicide rates are lower in Costa Rica than in the United States. Firearms are used less often for suicide and for murder in Costa Rica than in the United States; hanging is more common as a method for suicide in Costa Rica and cutting/piercing more common as a method for murder. Suicide rates do not increase with age in Costa Rica, while the chances of being murdered do increase with age, unlike the United States. PMID:7500855

  15. Area Handbook for Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blutstein, Howard I.; And Others

    This handbook is an attempt to provide an integrated exposition and analysis of the dominant social, political, and economic aspects of the Costa Rican society. It is designed to give readers an understanding of the dynamics of the component elements of the society and an insight into the ideas and goals of its people. Chapters contain material…

  16. Removal of DELLA repression promotes leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxun; Maodzeka, Antony; Zhou, Longhua; Ali, Essa; Wang, Zhong; Jiang, Lixi

    2014-04-01

    Leaf senescence is an integrated response of leaf cells to developmental age and various internal and environmental signals. However, the role of gibberellins (GA) in leaf senescence is not clear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of DELLA on leaf senescence. Compared with the wild type (WT), leaf senescence occurred earlier in the mutant ga1-3 gai-t6 rga-t2 rgl1-1 rgl2-1 (abbreviated as Q-DELLA/ga1-3) whose DELLA repression was removed, whereas leaf senescence was retarded in the mutant ga1-3 whose GA biosynthesis was blocked and whose DELLA proteins accumulated abnormally. During leaf senescence, SAG12 and SAG29 were upregulated in Q-DELLA/ga1-3 and downregulated in ga1-3 plants. The Q-DELLA/ga1-3 senescent leaves contained more sugar but less chlorophyll and fatty acids (FAs) than those of ga1-3 and WT. Both absolute and relative contents of C18:3 in Q-DELLA/ga1-3 senescent leaves were lower compared with those of the WT and ga1-3 leaves. The genes regulating FA β-oxidation in Q-DELLA/ga1-3, such as KAT2, LACS6, LACS7, ACX1, ACX2 and MAP2, were significantly upregulated. The removal of DELLA repression highly upregulated certain genes on various hormone pathways, suggesting that GA signaling acts upstream of the jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene pathways in regulating leaf senescence. PMID:24576761

  17. Fruit Growth in Arabidopsis Occurs via DELLA-Dependent and DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Sara; Ljung, Karin; Sorefan, Karim; Alvey, Elizabeth; Harberd, Nicholas P.; Østergaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Fruit growth and development depend on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by inducing degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which DELLA proteins contribute to GA-mediated gynoecium and fruit development remains to be clarified. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of the role of DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana fruit growth. We show that DELLA proteins are key regulators of reproductive organ size and important for ensuring optimal fertilization. We demonstrate that the seedless fruit growth (parthenocarpy) observed in della mutants can be directly attributed to the constitutive activation of GA signaling. It has been known for >75 years that another hormone, auxin, can induce formation of seedless fruits. Using mutants with complete lack of DELLA activity, we show here that auxin-induced parthenocarpy occurs entirely through GA signaling in Arabidopsis. Finally, we uncover the existence of a DELLA-independent GA response that promotes fruit growth. This response requires GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1–mediated GA perception and a functional 26S proteasome and involves the basic helix-loop-helix protein SPATULA as a key component. Taken together, our results describe additional complexities in GA signaling during fruit development, which may be particularly important to optimize the conditions for successful reproduction. PMID:23064323

  18. Montezuma Formation of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, W.H.; Sen Gupta, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The Montezuma Formation of the Nicoya Peninsula is one of the better known Neogene stratigraphic units of the Pacific side of Costa Rica. Past workers have reported its age to be Miocene-Pliocene or Miocene-Quaternary, and its environment of deposition to be inner shelf. The planktonic foraminiferal record of the unit in the type locality, however, places it firmly in the Lower Pliocene (Globorotalia margaritae zones). Furthermore, benthic such as Bolivina interjuncta var. bicostata, Epistominella exigua, and E. pacifica indicate that the sedimentation occurred at depths no shallower than the outermost shelf. No drastic faunal turnovers are observed within the formation; a cluster analysis of various Neogene samples from the Nicoya Peninsula and other Pacific areas of Costa Rica demonstrate an overall uniformity of the Montezuma fauna. The frequency trends of certain species, particularly of Epistominella exigua, however, suggest a transgression, the assemblage in the upper part of the section definitely representing upper bathyal depths. Judging by the present elevation of Montezuma outcrops, this part of Costa Rica has been uplifted at least 300 meters in the past 5 m.y.

  19. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Peat has been identified in Cost Rica, and an economic analysis of energy applications for peat has been done. About 1000 km{sup 2} of Cost Rica has the potential of being covered by peat. The Talamanca Mountains and the northeastern plains contain most of the Costa Rican peat. Specific bogs have been identified by the Medio Queso River in north-central Costa Rica and near El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport in northeastern Costa Rica. The Medio Queso bog, which is supplying peat for use as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the El Cairo bog, which has been identified as a source of horticultural peat for nearby ornamental plant farms, are of special interest. The economics of three energy applications of peat were examined -- as a fuel in large boilers, as a fuel in small boilers, and as an oil substitute in a cement plant. A facility using coal would have the same total costs as one using peat if coal prices were $45 and $30 per metric ton (used for large boilers and a cement plant, respectively). A facility using Bunker C or diesel would have the same total cost as one using peat if oil prices were $0.11, $0.08, and $0.06 per liter (used for large boilers, small boilers, and a cement plant, respectively). In all three cases, the costs for peat were comparable or less than the costs for coal and oil at 1987 prices. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  1. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  2. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Obando A, L.; Malavassi R, L.; Ramirez E, O. ); Cohen, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to locate potential peat deposits in Costa Rica; (2) to estimate as closely as possible by representative sampling the amount of peat present in each deposit, and (3) to make a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the peat in each deposit. With information from soil maps and a 3-week survey of Costa Rica, it is estimated that a potential area of about 1000 km{sup 2} is covered by peat. Most of the peat area (about 830 km{sup 2}) is in northeastern Costa Rica in the Tortuguero area. An aerial survey identified the potential peat areas by the exclusive presence of the Yolillo palm. The next largest potential area of peat (about 175 km{sup 2}) is in the cloud-covered areas of the Talamanca Mountains. Some reconnaissance has been done in the Talamanca Mountains, and samples of the peat indicate that it is very similar to the sphagnum peat moss found in Canada and the northern US. Smaller bogs have been discovered at Medio Queso, El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport. Two bogs of immediate interest are Medio Queso and El Cairo. The Medio Queso bog has been extensively sampled and contains about 182,000 metric tons (dry) of highly decomposed peat, which is being used as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The El Cairo bog is sparsely sampled and contains about 1,300,000 metric tons of slightly decomposed dry peat. Plans are to use this peat in horticultural applications on nearby farms. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Lifting DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination by nonproteolytic gibberellin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination can be lifted through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and proteolysis-independent GA signaling. GA-binding to the GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) GA receptors stimulates GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation which in turn triggers DELLA protein ubiq...

  4. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr. ); Ramirez, O. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors compare the competitive position of peat for energy with coal, oil, and cogenerative systems in gasifiers and solid-fuel boilers. They also explore the possibility for peat use in industry. To identify the major factors, they analyze costs using a Los Alamos levelized cost code, and they study parametric costs, comparing peat production in constant dollars with interest rates and return on investment. They consider costs of processing plant construction, sizes and kinds of boilers, retrofitting, peat drying, and mining methods. They examine mining requirements for Moin, Changuinola, and El Cairo and review wet mining and dewatering methods. Peat can, indeed, be competitive with other energy sources, but this depends on the ratio of fuel costs to boiler costs. This ratio is nearly constant in comparison with cogeneration in a steam-only production system. For grate boilers using Costa Rican high-ash peat, and for small nonautomatic boilers now used in Costa Rica, the authors recommend combustion tests. An appendix contains a preliminary mining plan and cost estimate for the El Cairo peat deposit. 8 refs., 43 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Hydro development in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    The initial foreign thrust of private power activities was quite naturally by large companies acquiring existing government-owned facilities in relatively large countries. Only recently, it seems, people have discovered that there are countries in Latin America other than Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, and that there is interest in having the private sector construct new (and often smaller) facilities, with an increasing emphasis on renewable energy. Costa Rica passed its private power law in 1991 and has clearly been the most progressive country in Central America in promoting greenfield development of private power projects. The country has not been exempt, however, from the cyclical nature of the support that governments, utilities and regulatory agencies give to private power producers. The initial enthusiasm and willingness to encourage private power producers inevitably give way to requirements and procedures which impair if not thwart the initial intentions of the private power laws.

  6. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%. PMID:8235511

  7. DELLA-mediated PIF degradation contributes to coordination of light and gibberellin signalling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunlun; Yu, Renbo; Fan, Liu-Min; Wei, Ning; Chen, Haodong; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Light and gibberellins (GAs) antagonistically regulate hypocotyl elongation in plants. It has been demonstrated that DELLAs, which are negative regulators of GA signalling, inhibit phytochrome-interacting factors 3 and 4 (PIF3 and PIF4) by sequestering their DNA-recognition domains. However, it is unclear whether there are other mechanisms of regulatory crosstalk between DELLAs and PIFs. Here, we demonstrate that DELLAs negatively regulate the abundance of four PIF proteins through the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Reduction of PIF3 protein abundance by DELLAs correlates closely with reduced hypocotyl elongation. Both sequestration and degradation of PIF3 by DELLAs contribute to a reduction in PIF3 binding to its target genes. Thus, we show that promotion of PIF degradation by DELLAs is required to coordinate light and GA signals, and the dual regulation of transcription factors by DELLAs by both sequestration and degradation may be a general mechanism. PMID:27282989

  8. The "Accademia della Crusca" in Italy: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An informal organisation that is becoming quite influential in the spread of Italian in Italy, as well as abroad, is the "Accademia della Crusca" which began its activities during the Renaissance, under quite different auspices. Founded in Florence in 1582-1583, this Academy was inspired by the theories of Pietro Bembo (1470-1547), a Venetian who…

  9. A DELLA in Disguise: SPATULA Restrains the Growth of the Developing Arabidopsis Seedling[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Eve-Marie; Gan, Yinbo; Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Stewart, Kelly L.; Gilday, Alison D.; Jeffree, Christopher E.; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Martínez-García, Jaime F.; Nagy, Ferenc; Graham, Ian A.; Halliday, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    The period following seedling emergence is a particularly vulnerable stage in the plant life cycle. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) subgroup of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors has a pivotal role in regulating growth during this early phase, integrating environmental and hormonal signals. We previously showed that SPATULA (SPT), a PIF homolog, regulates seed dormancy. In this article, we establish that unlike PIFs, which mainly promote hypocotyl elongation, SPT is a potent regulator of cotyledon expansion. Here, SPT acts in an analogous manner to the gibberellin-dependent DELLAs, REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 and GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE, which restrain cotyledon expansion alongside SPT. However, although DELLAs are not required for SPT action, we demonstrate that SPT is subject to negative regulation by DELLAs. Cross-regulation of SPT by DELLAs ensures that SPT protein levels are limited when DELLAs are abundant but rise following DELLA depletion. This regulation provides a means to prevent excessive growth suppression that would result from the dual activity of SPT and DELLAs, yet maintain growth restraint under DELLA-depleted conditions. We present evidence that SPT and DELLAs regulate common gene targets and illustrate that the balance of SPT and DELLA action depends on light quality signals in the natural environment. PMID:21478445

  10. (Power sector efficiency analysis in Costa Rica). [Power Sector Efficiency Analysis in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-04-10

    I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica, to review the state of the electric power utility with a team of specialists, including a transmission and distribution specialist, a hydroelectric engineering specialist, and a thermal power plant specialist. The purpose of the mission was to determine the costs and benefits of efficiency improvements to supply side technologies employed by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, the national power company in Costa Rica, and the potential contribution of these efficiency measures to the future electric power needs of Costa Rica.

  11. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and subcellular localization of four DELLA genes from hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sian; Xuan, Lei; Xu, Li-An; Huang, Minren; Xu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA) signaling regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. The DELLA repressors of GA signaling are named for an N-terminal conserved DELLA domain. In this study, four genes encoding DELLA proteins, PeRGA1, PeRGA2, PeGAI1 and PeGAI2, were isolated and characterized in poplar. A gene structural analysis revealed that the DELLA genes were all intron-free. Multiple protein sequence alignments revealed that these proteins contained seven highly conserved domains: the DELLA domain, the TVHYNP domain, leucine heptad repeat I (LHR I), the VHIID domain, leucine heptad repeat II (LHR II), the PFYRE domain, and the SAM domain. Temporal expression patterns of these genes were profiled during the adventitious root development of poplar. The four DELLA genes were expressed in root, stem and leaf in a dynamic manner. The subcellular localization demonstrated that these DELLA genes were mainly localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the four DELLA genes may play diverse regulatory roles in the adventitious root, stem and leaf development of poplar, and contribute to improving our understanding of conserved and divergent aspects of DELLA proteins that restrain GA signaling in various species. PMID:27478746

  12. A Pivotal Role of DELLAs in Regulating Multiple Hormone Signals.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Achard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenotypic plasticity is controlled by diverse hormone pathways, which integrate and convey information from multiple developmental and environmental signals. Moreover, in plants many processes such as growth, development, and defense are regulated in similar ways by multiple hormones. Among them, gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones with pleiotropic actions, regulating various growth processes throughout the plant life cycle. Previous work has revealed extensive interplay between GAs and other hormones, but the molecular mechanism became apparent only recently. Molecular and physiological studies have demonstrated that DELLA proteins, considered as master negative regulators of GA signaling, integrate multiple hormone signaling pathways through physical interactions with transcription factors or regulatory proteins from different families. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in GA signaling and its direct crosstalk with the main phytohormone signaling, emphasizing the multifaceted role of DELLA proteins with key components of major hormone signaling pathways. PMID:26415696

  13. Auxin acts independently of DELLA proteins in regulating gibberellin levels.

    PubMed

    Reid, James B; Davidson, Sandra E; Ross, John J

    2011-03-01

    Shoot elongation is a vital process for plant development and productivity, in both ecological and economic contexts. Auxin and bioactive gibberellins (GAs), such as GA1, play critical roles in the control of elongation, along with environmental and endogenous factors, including other hormones such as the brassinosteroids. The effect of auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is at least in part mediated by its effect on GA metabolism, since auxin up-regulates biosynthesis genes such as GA 3-oxidase and GA 20-oxidase and down regulates GA catabolism genes such as GA 2-oxidases, leading to elevated levels of bioactive GA 1. In our recent paper, we have provided evidence that this action of IAA is largely independent of DELLA proteins, the negative regulators of GA action, since the auxin effects are still present in the DELLA-deficient la cry-s genotype of pea. This was a crucial issue to resolve, since like auxin, the DELLAs also promote GA 1 synthesis and inhibit its deactivation. DELLAs are deactivated by GA, and thereby mediate a feedback system by which bioactive GA regulates its own level. However, our recent results, in themselves, do not show the generality of the auxin-GA relationship across species and phylogenetic groups or across different tissue types and responses. Further, they do not touch on the ecological benefits of the auxin-GA interaction. These issues are discussed below as well as the need for the development of suitable experimental systems to allow this process to be examined. PMID:21358281

  14. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María

    2008-01-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission. PMID:18760012

  15. Educational and Demographic Profile: Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Contra Costa County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  16. Proteolysis-independent down-regulation of DELLA repression by the gibberellin receptor GID1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents evidence for proteolysis-independent regulation of DELLA repression of gibberellin (GA) signaling in Arabidopsis. DELLA proteins are negative regulators of GA responses including seed germination, stem elongation, and fertility. GA can stimulate GA responses by causing proteolys...

  17. Costa Rica turns to the world for help.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Costa Rica's current financial crisis threatens to jeopardize recent gains in health indicators, especially among the low-income population. The increasing costs of developing health services and of providing social security coverage for marginal social groups can no longer be fully met by the Costa Rican government, which has steadily allocated a high percentage of the national budget to health. Given this situation, Costa Rica has appealed for international cooperation to help meet the most urgent health needs in the country. In 1985, Costa Rica's population stood at slightly under 2.6 million, with 36% aged 16 years and older. The country remains primarily rural; only 46% of the population is centered in urban areas. Costa Rica has been described as a country that maintains a strong tradition of peace and democracy. Given its political stability, Costa Rica has been the recipient of large waves of immigrants from other Central American countries in states of social political turmoil. PMID:12282166

  18. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: the phyla Sipuncula and Echiura.

    PubMed

    Dean, H K

    2001-12-01

    Fourteen species of Sipuncula belonging to 9 genera have been reported from Costa Rican waters, mostly from the Pacific coast. Three of these species are new records for Costa Rica (Phascolion strombus (Montagu 1804), Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) muelleri Diesing 1851, and Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) gracilis schnehageni (W. Fisher 1946)). One species of Echiura, Thalassema steinbecki Fisher 1946, in the order Echiuroinea, has been reported from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:15264522

  19. Recent volcano monitoring in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, R.; Brown, G.; Rymer, H.; Barritt, S.; Randal, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Costa Rican volacno Rincon de la Vieja is loosely but mysteriously translated as the "Old Lady's Corner." It consists of six volcanic centers that form a remote elongated ridge standing some 1300m above the surrounding terraine. Geologically speaking, the Guanacaste province of northern Costa Rica consists of a series of composite volcanic cones built on a shield of ignimbrites (welded and unwelded ash flows) of Pliocene-Pleistocene age (up to 2 million years old), that themselves lie on basement crust of Cretaceious-Tertiary age (up to 90 million years old). the active volcanoes are aligned on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the Middle American oceanic trench in the Pacific Ocean that is the site of subduction of hte Cocos oceanic plate underneath Central America.  

  20. Uncovering DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses by Characterizing New Tomato procera Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Livne, Sivan; Lor, Vai S.; Nir, Ido; Eliaz, Natanella; Aharoni, Asaph; Olszewski, Neil E.; Eshed, Yuval; Weiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) regulates plant development primarily by triggering the degradation/deactivation of the DELLA proteins. However, it remains unclear whether all GA responses are regulated by DELLAs. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has a single DELLA gene named PROCERA (PRO), and its recessive pro allele exhibits constitutive GA activity but retains responsiveness to external GA. In the loss-of-function mutant proΔGRAS, all examined GA developmental responses were considerably enhanced relative to pro and a defect in seed desiccation tolerance was uncovered. As pro, but not proΔGRAS, elongation was promoted by GA treatment, pro may retain residual DELLA activity. In agreement with homeostatic feedback regulation of the GA biosynthetic pathway, we found that GA20oxidase1 expression was suppressed in proΔGRAS and was not affected by exogenous GA3. In contrast, expression of GA2oxidase4 was not affected by the elevated GA signaling in proΔGRAS but was strongly induced by exogenous GA3. Since a similar response was found in Arabidopsis thaliana plants with impaired activity of all five DELLA genes, we suggest that homeostatic GA responses are regulated by both DELLA-dependent and -independent pathways. Transcriptome analysis of GA-treated proΔGRAS leaves suggests that 5% of all GA-regulated genes in tomato are DELLA independent. PMID:26036254

  1. Spatial control of flowering by DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Vinicius C; Horrer, Daniel; Küttner, Frank; Schmid, Markus

    2012-11-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive development is a central event in the plant life cycle. To time the induction of flowering correctly, plants integrate environmental and endogenous signals such as photoperiod, temperature and hormonal status. The hormone gibberellic acid (GA) has long been known to regulate flowering. However, the spatial contribution of GA signaling in flowering time control is poorly understood. Here we have analyzed the effect of tissue-specific misexpression of wild-type and GA-insensitive (dellaΔ17) DELLA proteins on the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that under long days, GA affects the floral transition by promoting the expression of flowering time integrator genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) in leaves independently of CONSTANS (CO) and GIGANTEA (GI). In addition, GA signaling promotes flowering independently of photoperiod through the regulation of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes in both the leaves and at the shoot meristem. Our data suggest that GA regulates flowering by controlling the spatial expression of floral regulatory genes throughout the plant in a day-length-specific manner. PMID:22992955

  2. GPS Monitoring of Subduction Zone Deformation in Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The subduction of the Cocos plate beneath Costa Rica is among the highest convergence rates in the world. The high subduction rate and nearness of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica to the Middle America Trench (MAT) provide a unique opportunity to map variations in interseismic strain of the crust above the seismogenic zone in response to variations in seismic coupling.

  3. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  4. Sustainability and Peace in Costa Rica: The Case of University of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segreda, Alejandrina Mata

    2002-01-01

    This article describes initiatives at the University of Costa Rica, which, in combination with national programs, have strengthened the country's commitment to sustainable development over the past 15 years. It discusses the University's role in defining a national perspective on sustainability starting in 1987, as well as the evolution of the…

  5. Genome Wide Binding Site Analysis Reveals Transcriptional Coactivation of Cytokinin-Responsive Genes by DELLA Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; Pfeiffer, Anne; Hill, Kristine; Locascio, Antonella; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Miskolczi, Pal; Grønlund, Anne L.; Wanchoo-Kohli, Aakriti; Thomas, Stephen G.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Lohmann, Jan U.; Blázquez, Miguel A.; Alabadí, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability of plants to provide a plastic response to environmental cues relies on the connectivity between signaling pathways. DELLA proteins act as hubs that relay environmental information to the multiple transcriptional circuits that control growth and development through physical interaction with transcription factors from different families. We have analyzed the presence of one DELLA protein at the Arabidopsis genome by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to large-scale sequencing and we find that it binds at the promoters of multiple genes. Enrichment analysis shows a strong preference for cis elements recognized by specific transcription factor families. In particular, we demonstrate that DELLA proteins are recruited by type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS (ARR) to the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, where they act as transcriptional co-activators. The biological relevance of this mechanism is underpinned by the necessity of simultaneous presence of DELLAs and ARRs to restrict root meristem growth and to promote photomorphogenesis. PMID:26134422

  6. DELLA proteins modulate Arabidopsis defences induced in response to caterpillar herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Bede, Jacqueline C.

    2014-01-01

    Upon insect herbivory, many plant species change the direction of metabolic flux from growth into defence. Two key pathways modulating these processes are the gibberellin (GA)/DELLA pathway and the jasmonate pathway. In this study, the effect of caterpillar herbivory on plant-induced responses was compared between wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and quad-della mutants that have constitutively elevated GA responses. The labial saliva (LS) of caterpillars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is known to influence induced plant defence responses. To determine the role of this herbivore cue in determining metabolic shifts, plants were subject to herbivory by caterpillars with intact or impaired LS secretions. In both wild-type and quad-della plants, a jasmonate burst is an early response to caterpillar herbivory. Negative growth regulator DELLA proteins are required for the LS-mediated suppression of hormone levels. Jasmonate-dependent marker genes are induced in response to herbivory independently of LS, with the exception of AtPDF1.2 that showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. Early expression of the salicylic acid (SA)-marker gene, AtPR1, was not affected by herbivory which also reflected SA hormone levels; however, this gene showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. DELLA proteins may positively regulate glucosinolate levels and suppress laccase-like multicopper oxidase activity in response to herbivory. The present results show a link between DELLA proteins and early, induced plant defences in response to insect herbivory; in particular, these proteins are necessary for caterpillar LS-associated attenuation of defence hormones. PMID:24399173

  7. The Conservation Intervention on the Porta della Mandorla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siano, S.; Giusti, A.; Pinna, D.; Porcinai, S.; Giamello, M.; Sabatini, G.; Salimbeni, R.

    We investigated the conservation problems of the Porta della Mandorla, a masterpiece of the early Florentine Renaissance. The aim of the work was the statement of practicable cleaning protocols based on laser ablation. To this goal, a thorough petrographic characterisation of the state of conservation was performed, which addressed a set of laser cleaning tests by Q-switching and short free running Nd:YAG lasers. The main optimisation problem was the yellow-orange appearance associated with laser ablation by Q-switching lasers. Following the explanation of such a cleaning result, two practicable solutions based on suitable pulse duration or wavelength selections were successfully demonstrated then different intervention protocols were proposed.

  8. Arabidopsis DELLA Protein Degradation Is Controlled by a Type-One Protein Phosphatase, TOPP4

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qianqian; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Yue, Jing; Huang, Yan; Xu, Xiufei; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2014-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of important phytohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes during normal plant growth and development. One of the major events during GA-mediated growth is the degradation of DELLA proteins, key negative regulators of GA signaling pathway. The stability of DELLA proteins is thought to be controlled by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Up to date, no phosphatase involved in this process has been identified. We have identified a dwarfed dominant-negative Arabidopsis mutant, named topp4-1. Reduced expression of TOPP4 using an artificial microRNA strategy also resulted in a dwarfed phenotype. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that TOPP4 regulates GA signal transduction mainly via promoting DELLA protein degradation. The severely dwarfed topp4-1 phenotypes were partially rescued by the DELLA deficient mutants rga-t2 and gai-t6, suggesting that the DELLA proteins RGA and GAI are required for the biological function of TOPP4. Both RGA and GAI were greatly accumulated in topp4-1 but significantly decreased in 35S-TOPP4 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. Further analyses demonstrated that TOPP4 is able to directly bind and dephosphorylate RGA and GAI, confirming that the TOPP4-controlled phosphorylation status of DELLAs is associated with their stability. These studies provide direct evidence for a crucial role of protein dephosphorylation mediated by TOPP4 in the GA signaling pathway. PMID:25010794

  9. [The health system of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, María del Rocío; Acosta, Mónica; Muiser, Jorine; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the affiliates, employers and the state, and manages three regimes: maternity and illness insurance, disability, old age and death insurance, and a non-contributive regime. CCSS provides services in its own facilities but also contracts with private providers. The private sector includes a broad set of services offering ambulatory and hospital care. These services are financed mostly out-of-pocket, but also with private insurance premiums. The Ministry of Health is the steward of the system, in charge of strategic planning, sanitary regulation, and research and technology development. Among the recent policy innovations we can mention the establishment of the basic teams for comprehensive health care (EBAIS), the de-concentration of hospitals and public clinics, the introduction of management agreements and the creation of the Health Boards. PMID:21877081

  10. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  11. False lock performance of Shuttle Costas loop receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, K. T.; Holmes, J. K.; Huth, G. K.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The false (sideband) lock problem in Shuttle Costas loop receivers, in the presence of noise, is assessed. False lock margin is defined depending on symbol signal-to-noise ratio rather than in the absence of noise. Closed-form results are given for the case where the arm filters of the Costas loop are one-pole Butterworth filters as used in the Shuttle receivers. However, the approach taken is also general enough to cover filters of arbitrary characteristics. As part of the development of the false lock margin, it is shown that the false lock phenomenon of the squaring loop is identical to that of the Costas loop.

  12. Coupled AGC-Costas loops with AM/PM conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Costas loops are invariably designed in conjunction with an automatic gain control (AGC) loop for stabilizing performance. In such systems an inherent coupling between the AGC and Costas loops develops, complicating the standard phase referencing analysis. This coupling is further emphasized if the gain control amplifier introduces an AM/PM conversion, which causes power variations to enter the Costas loop as phase variations. In this paper the coupling effect between AGC and Costas loops is developed, leading to a pair of joint, interconnected dynamical tracking loops. Some degree of solution is attainable by assuming a first order AGC loop, and resorting to quasi-stationary analysis for evaluating the phase referencing generation. Results with and without AM/PM are presented, and illustrate how an improper AGC may in fact degrade the phase referencing from the expected performance.

  13. Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G.

    1997-05-12

    The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

  14. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  15. Costa Rica: Achievements of a Heterodox Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica’s population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system. PMID:17901439

  16. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  17. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  18. Da Costa's syndrome or neurocirculatory asthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, O

    1987-01-01

    The syndrome variously called Da Costa's syndrome, effort syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, etc has been studied for more than 100 years by many distinguished physicians. Originally identified in men in wartime, it has been widely recognised as a common chronic condition in both sexes in civilian life. Although the symptoms may seem to appear after infections and various physical and psychological stresses, neurocirculatory asthenia is most often encountered as a familial disorder that is unrelated to these factors, although they may aggravate an existing tendency. Respiratory complaints (including breathlessness, with and without effort, and smothering sensations) are almost universal, and palpitation, chest discomfort, dizziness and faintness, and fatigue are common. The physical examination is normal. The aetiology is obscure but patients usually have a normal life span. Reassurance and measures to improve physical fitness are helpful. PMID:3314950

  19. The Exceptionally High Life Expectancy of Costa Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    2008-01-01

    Robust data from a voter registry show that Costa Rican nonagenarians have an exceptionally high live expectancy. Mortality at age 90 in Costa Rica is at least 14% lower than an average of 13 high-income countries. This advantage increases with age by 1% per year. Males have an additional 12% advantage. Age-90 life expectancy for males is 4.4 years, one-half year more than any other country in the world. These estimates do not use problematic data on reported ages, but ages are computed from birth dates in the Costa Rican birth-registration ledgers. Census data confirm the exceptionally high survival of elderly Costa Ricans, especially males. Comparisons with the United States and Sweden show that the Costa Rican advantage comes mostly from reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, coupled with a low prevalence of obesity, as the only available explanatory risk factor. Costa Rican nonagenarians are survivors of cohorts that underwent extremely harsh health conditions when young, and their advantage might be just a heterogeneity in frailty effect that might disappear in more recent cohorts. The availability of reliable estimates for the oldest-old in low-income populations is extremely rare. These results may enlighten the debate over how harsh early-life health conditions affect older-age mortality. PMID:18939667

  20. DELLA-mediated gibberellin signalling regulates Nod factor signalling and rhizobial infection.

    PubMed

    Fonouni-Farde, Camille; Tan, Sovanna; Baudin, Maël; Brault, Mathias; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Niebel, Andreas; Frugier, Florian; Diet, Anouck

    2016-01-01

    Legumes develop symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing nodules. Bacterial Nod factors (NFs) and plant regulatory pathways modulating NF signalling control rhizobial infections and nodulation efficiency. Here we show that gibberellin (GA) signalling mediated by DELLA proteins inhibits rhizobial infections and controls the NF induction of the infection marker ENOD11 in Medicago truncatula. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active DELLA protein in the epidermis is sufficient to promote ENOD11 expression in the absence of symbiotic signals. We show using heterologous systems that DELLA proteins can interact with the nodulation signalling pathway 2 (NSP2) and nuclear factor-YA1 (NF-YA1) transcription factors that are essential for the activation of NF responses. Furthermore, MtDELLA1 can bind the ERN1 (ERF required for nodulation 1) promoter and positively transactivate its expression. Overall, we propose that GA-dependent action of DELLA proteins may directly regulate the NSP1/NSP2 and NF-YA1 activation of ERN1 transcription to regulate rhizobial infections. PMID:27586842

  1. DELLA proteins regulate expression of a subset of AM symbiosis-induced genes in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Park, Hee-Jin; Harrison, Maria J

    2016-04-01

    The majority of the vascular flowering plants form symbiotic associations with fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota through which both partners gain access to nutrients, either mineral nutrients in the case of the plant, or carbon, in the case of the fungus. (1) The association develops in the roots and requires substantial remodeling of the root cortical cells where branched fungal hyphae, called arbuscules, are housed in a new membrane-bound apoplastic compartment. (2) Nutrient exchange between the symbionts occurs over this interface and its development and maintenance is critical for symbiosis. Previously, we showed that DELLA proteins, which are well known as repressors of gibberellic acid signaling, also regulate development of AM symbiosis and are necessary to enable arbuscule development. (3) Furthermore, constitutive overexpression of a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) is sufficient to induce transcripts of several AM symbiosis-induced genes, even in the absence of the fungal symbiont. (4) Here we further extend this approach and identify AM symbiosis genes that respond transcriptionally to constitutive expression of a dominant DELLA protein and also genes that do respond to this treatment. Additionally, we demonstrate that DELLAs interact with REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULE DEVELOPMENT 1 (RAD1) which further extends our knowledge of GRAS factor complexes that have the potential to regulate gene expression during AM symbiosis. PMID:26984507

  2. DELLA proteins are common components of symbiotic rhizobial and mycorrhizal signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Huan; Luo, Dexian; Yu, Nan; Dong, Wentao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Dai, Huiling; Yang, Jun; Wang, Ertao

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Formation of these two symbioses is regulated by a common set of signalling components that act downstream of recognition of rhizobia or mycorrhizae by host plants. Central to these pathways is the calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK)-IPD3 complex which initiates nodule organogenesis following calcium oscillations in the host nucleus. However, downstream signalling events are not fully understood. Here we show that Medicago truncatula DELLA proteins, which are the central regulators of gibberellic acid signalling, positively regulate rhizobial symbiosis. Rhizobia colonization is impaired in della mutants and we provide evidence that DELLAs can promote CCaMK-IPD3 complex formation and increase the phosphorylation state of IPD3. DELLAs can also interact with NSP2-NSP1 and enhance the expression of Nod-factor-inducible genes in protoplasts. We show that DELLA is able to bridge a protein complex containing IPD3 and NSP2. Our results suggest a transcriptional framework for regulation of root nodule symbiosis. PMID:27514472

  3. DELLA proteins are common components of symbiotic rhizobial and mycorrhizal signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Huan; Luo, Dexian; Yu, Nan; Dong, Wentao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Dai, Huiling; Yang, Jun; Wang, Ertao

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Formation of these two symbioses is regulated by a common set of signalling components that act downstream of recognition of rhizobia or mycorrhizae by host plants. Central to these pathways is the calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK)–IPD3 complex which initiates nodule organogenesis following calcium oscillations in the host nucleus. However, downstream signalling events are not fully understood. Here we show that Medicago truncatula DELLA proteins, which are the central regulators of gibberellic acid signalling, positively regulate rhizobial symbiosis. Rhizobia colonization is impaired in della mutants and we provide evidence that DELLAs can promote CCaMK–IPD3 complex formation and increase the phosphorylation state of IPD3. DELLAs can also interact with NSP2–NSP1 and enhance the expression of Nod-factor-inducible genes in protoplasts. We show that DELLA is able to bridge a protein complex containing IPD3 and NSP2. Our results suggest a transcriptional framework for regulation of root nodule symbiosis. PMID:27514472

  4. Relieving DELLA Repression of Stem Elongation and Flowering, Evidence for a Proteolysis Independent Mechanism for GA signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GA stimulates germination, stem elongation, and flowering by lifting DELLA protein repression of these responses via both proteolysis dependent and independent pathways. There are five members of the DELLA protein family in Arabidopsis with partially overlapping functions. GA biosynthesis lifts DELL...

  5. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

  6. Electronic restoration of great works of art: color analysis and reconstruction of Piero della Francesca's frescoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Lillian F.

    1994-05-01

    A computer was used to examine the surface colors and compositions of Piero della Francesca's frescoes The Resurrection of Christ, St. Julien, and a section from the panel La morte di Adamo from the Leggenda della Vera Croce to electronically analyze Piero's palettes, repair cracks in his works, replace damaged areas, and identify sections in which earlier restorers changed the original work. Electronic restoration now serves as a road map to art restorers, as well as provides the public with a closer representation of works as the artist originally intended. The analysis also reveals surprising new insights into Piero della Francesca's The Resurrection of Christ, including the thorn-based structure of a symbolic tree, and resolves a historical controversy.

  7. JUB1 suppresses Pseudomonas syringae-induced defense responses through accumulation of DELLA proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shahnejat-Bushehri, Sara; Nobmann, Barbara; Devi Allu, Annapurna; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phytohormones act in concert to coordinate plant growth and the response to environmental cues. Gibberellins (GAs) are growth-promoting hormones that recently emerged as modulators of plant immune signaling. By regulating the stability of DELLA proteins, GAs intersect with the signaling pathways of the classical primary defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), thereby altering the final outcome of the immune response. DELLA proteins confer resistance to necrotrophic pathogens by potentiating JA signaling and raise the susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens by attenuating the SA pathway. Here, we show that JUB1, a core element of the GA - brassinosteroid (BR) - DELLA regulatory module, functions as a negative regulator of defense responses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) and mediates the crosstalk between growth and immunity. PMID:27159137

  8. JUB1 suppresses Pseudomonas syringae-induced defense responses through accumulation of DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    Shahnejat-Bushehri, Sara; Nobmann, Barbara; Devi Allu, Annapurna; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-06-01

    Phytohormones act in concert to coordinate plant growth and the response to environmental cues. Gibberellins (GAs) are growth-promoting hormones that recently emerged as modulators of plant immune signaling. By regulating the stability of DELLA proteins, GAs intersect with the signaling pathways of the classical primary defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), thereby altering the final outcome of the immune response. DELLA proteins confer resistance to necrotrophic pathogens by potentiating JA signaling and raise the susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens by attenuating the SA pathway. Here, we show that JUB1, a core element of the GA - brassinosteroid (BR) - DELLA regulatory module, functions as a negative regulator of defense responses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) and mediates the crosstalk between growth and immunity. PMID:27159137

  9. A New Subgenus and Species of Neotropical Hylaeus from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Neotropical subgenus of Hylaeus, Snellingella, is described, with Hylaeus amplus new species from Costa Rica as the type species. Characteristics to separate the new species from other Costa Rican Hylaeus are provided....

  10. The Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA for Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Guadamuz, Saul; Mora, Jaime; Ansejo, Jose; Zamora, Esteban; Herrera, Julio; Chaves, Esteban; Romero, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R<0.14m, a<0.10m, BT<0.5T, Ip<40kA, 3ms pulse)[1] is in a process of donation to Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objective of MEDUSA is to train students in plasma physics /technical related issues which will help all tasks of the very low aspect ratio stellarator SCR-1(A≡R/>=3.6, under design[2]) and also the ongoing activities in low temperature plasmas. Courses in plasma physics at undergraduate and post-graduate joint programme levels are regularly conducted. The scientific programme is intend to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including transport, heating and current drive via Alfv'en wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter[3,4]. [1] G.D.Garstka, PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1997 [2] L.Barillas et al., Proc. 19^th Int. Conf. Nucl. Eng., Japan, 2011 [3] C.Ribeiro et al., IEEJ Trans. Electrical and Electronic Eng., 2012(accepted) [4] C.Ribeiro et al., Proc. 39^th EPS Conf. Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Sweden, 2012

  11. Piero della Francesca's Sky in The Dream of Constantine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, V.

    2011-06-01

    The recent restoration of the frescoes by Piero della Francesca in the Church of San Francesco in Arezzo has made to appear on the background of the scene of Constantine's dream a number of stars. They are clearly painted with the intention to illustrate a sort of "natural" sky. In 2001 Anna Maria Maetzke recognized in a group of stars the constellation of the Ursa Minor, but so far no further study has been carried on to find any relation between the painted and the true sky. In this paper I show the existence of more constellations in the fresco, which are hardly detectable due to the mirror representation of the starry sky. Such a mirror image, as the Universe was seen from the outside, has a Greek origin and this kind of representation was introduced in Western Europe not only in celestial globes but also in star maps. This discovery leads to consider that Piero had at his disposal either a globe or a map which he reproduced on the fresco. My hypothesis is that a star map might be supplied to Piero by the astronomer Regiomontanus who was in Italy since 1461 following the Cardinal Bessarion in his journey from Wien to Rome. In 1463, Cardinal Bessarion was named papal legate to Venice and in July of the same year he leaved Rome together with Regiomontanus to reach Ferrara and Venice. The road to Venice crossed Umbria nearby Sansepolcro, Piero's birthplace not far from Arezzo. The trip took more than two weeks due to a stop before crossing the Apennines because the plague in Ferrara. Bessarion and Regiomontanus might have met Piero who was painting the cycle of frescoes in Arezzo and supplied him with a star map. Unfortunately, due to the lack of the horizon and any right line in the scene it is not possible to detect the latitude of the place corresponding to the painted sky.

  12. Personality Traits Change in Adulthood: Reply to Costa and McCrae (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brent W.; Walton, Kate E.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure…

  13. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  14. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A.; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M.; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G.; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Olszewski, Neil E.; Sun, Tai-ping

    2016-01-01

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein–protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors—PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)—that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  15. Arabidopsis MYC2 Interacts with DELLA Proteins in Regulating Sesquiterpene Synthase Gene Expression[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Gao-Jie; Xue, Xue-Yi; Mao, Ying-Bo; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana flowers emit volatile terpenes, which may function in plant–insect interactions. Here, we report that Arabidopsis MYC2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, directly binds to promoters of the sesquiterpene synthase genes TPS21 and TPS11 and activates their expression. Expression of TPS21 and TPS11 can be induced by the phytohormones gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA), and both inductions require MYC2. The induction of TPS21 and TPS11 results in increased emission of sesquiterpene, especially (E)-β-caryophyllene. DELLAs, the GA signaling repressors, negatively affect sesquiterpene biosynthesis, as the sesquiterpene synthase genes were repressed in plants overaccumulating REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA), one of the Arabidopsis DELLAs, and upregulated in a penta DELLA-deficient mutant. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that DELLAs, represented by RGA, directly interact with MYC2. In yeast cells, the N terminus of MYC2 was responsible for binding to RGA. MYC2 has been proposed as a major mediator of JA signaling and crosstalk with abscisic acid, ethylene, and light signaling pathways. Our results demonstrate that MYC2 is also connected to GA signaling in regulating a subset of genes. In Arabidopsis inflorescences, it integrates both GA and JA signals into transcriptional regulation of sesquiterpene synthase genes and promotes sesquiterpene production. PMID:22669881

  16. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  17. Engineering of the Stellarator of Costa Rica: SCR-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, J.; Vargas, V. I.; Otarola, C.; Piedra, C.; Jimenez, W.; Esquivel, L.; Esquivel, R.; Sanchez, K.; Gonzalez, J.; Asenjo, J.; Fonseca, L.

    2015-03-01

    This Paper aims at briefly describing the challenge of the design and construction of the Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1) [1]. The SCR-1 is a small modular Stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma (Ro=0.238 m, =0.059 m, Ro/a>4.0, expected plasma volume ≈ 0.016 m3, 10 mm thickness 6061-T6 aluminum vacuum vessel) developed by the Plasma Laboratory for Fusion Energy and Applications of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR).

  18. N-terminal domains of DELLA proteins are intrinsically unstructured in the absence of interaction with GID1/gibberellic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolin; Jones, William T; Harvey, Dawn; Edwards, Patrick J B; Pascal, Steven M; Kirk, Christopher; Considine, Thérèse; Sheerin, David J; Rakonjac, Jasna; Oldfield, Christopher J; Xue, Bin; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2010-04-01

    The plant growth-repressing DELLA proteins (DELLAs) are known to represent a convergence point in integration of multiple developmental and environmental signals in planta, one of which is hormone gibberellic acid (GA). Binding of the liganded GA receptor (GID1/GA) to the N-terminal domain of DELLAs is required for GA-induced degradation of DELLAs via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thus derepressing plant growth. However, the conformational changes of DELLAs upon binding to GID1/GA, which are the key to understanding the precise mechanism of GID1/GA-mediated degradation of DELLAs, remain unclear. Using biophysical, biochemical, and bioinformatics approaches, we demonstrated for the first time that the unbound N-terminal domains of DELLAs are intrinsically unstructured proteins under physiological conditions. Within the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of DELLAs, we have identified several molecular recognition features, sequences known to undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to interacting proteins in intrinsically unstructured proteins. In accordance with the molecular recognition feature analyses, we have observed the binding-induced folding of N-terminal domains of DELLAs upon interaction with AtGID1/GA. Our results also indicate that DELLA proteins can be divided into two subgroups in terms of their molecular compactness and their interactions with monoclonal antibodies. PMID:20103592

  19. Contra Costa Community College District Transfer Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa Community Coll. District, Martinez, CA.

    This research report from Contra Costa Community College District (CCCCD), California, summarizes relevant findings from assessments of the performance of students receiving transfer education, and CCCCD's progress in meeting its Partnership for Excellence (PFE) goals in this area. Findings reported include the following: (1) Student Goal…

  20. The Educational System of Costa Rica. Education Around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Clark C.

    This booklet reviews Costa Rica's educational system, with emphasis on finance, philosophy, administration, and teacher education. The basic educational system consists of a preschool level of at least one year; a general basic education level of nine years (divided into three cycles of three years duration each--the first two cycles represent…

  1. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO activists,…

  2. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora meibomiae, has been reported to occur in several legume species in the tropical regions of Central and South America. In Costa Rica, this pathogen was initially reported as P. pachyrhizi; however, to our knowledge P. pachyrhizi has not been detected in the...

  3. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic education in…

  4. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    PubMed

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces. PMID:9246370

  5. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Victoria; Gomez, Carolina; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC) and the drug information services (DIS). Objective To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened. PMID:25246999

  6. The Marine Education Programme and ESD Schools in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata-Segreda, Alejandrina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share information about the Costa Rican Marine Education Programme in relation to the quality criteria for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Schools. We found that the application of these criteria is feasible, not only to the organisation and management of schools that are looking to become ESD Schools,…

  7. Costa Rica's Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Cortés, Jorge; Esquivel, María Fernanda; Salas, Eva

    2012-03-01

    With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km2 of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA), mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%), National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%), Wetlands (1.5%), Biological Reserves (1%), and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%). According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km2, corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km2. The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration. PMID:22458214

  8. A new Coelomomyces pathogenic to mosquitoes in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lichtwardt, R W; Gómez, L D

    1993-12-01

    A new species of fungus belonging to the lethal genus Coelomomyces, C. neotropicus, is described and illustrated. It was found parasitizing larvae of two species of Culicidae, Culex pilosus and Aedes sp., in a lowland tropical wet forest swamp in northeast Costa Rica. PMID:7701081

  9. First 5 Contra Costa Report on Parent Involvement. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sarah; Induni, Marta; Moiduddin, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Parental Involvement in Pre-School Telephone Interview study completed by Mathematica Policy Research for the First 5 Contra Costa Children and Families Commission. Parent involvement in children's preschool programs and learning experiences is proven to be positively associated with cognitive, academic,…

  10. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  11. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  12. Tetrodotoxin: Occurrence in atelopid frogs of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Brown, G B; Mosher, F A

    1975-07-11

    The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, which has previously been found in puffer fish of the order Tetraordontiformes, a goby (Gobius criniger), and the California newt (Taricha torosa), has now been identified in the skins of frogs of the genus Atelopus from Costa Rica. PMID:1138374

  13. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  14. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging, and diploma…

  15. Cyclical Economic Conditions and School Attendance in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Examines the importance of declining economic conditions in school attendance decision making for households with teenagers aged 12-17 in Costa Rica, using a reduced-form model. The 1981-83 economic recession coincided with a large attendance drop. Household labor market characteristics and student characteristics also significantly determine…

  16. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed. PMID:22207793

  17. Citizenship, Wealth, and Whiteness in a Costa Rican High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the democratic rhetoric taught in a Costa Rican High School and the ways in which that rhetoric clashed with school practices that revealed hierarchies based on race, ethnicity, class, and religion. This contradiction was rendered visible through student elections, the Independence Day celebration, and civic acts. Through…

  18. Rights of the Child in Costa Rica: Report Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luz Angela

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Costa Rica. The report's introduction notes that in addition to ratifying the Convention, Costa Rica's…

  19. Health without wealth? Costa Rica's health system under economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, L M

    1987-01-01

    The recent history of Costa Rica's health system is reviewed, emphasizing the health-related effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s. This economic crisis has stopped and in some instances reversed the marked health improvements Costa Rica realized during the decade of the 1970s. The effects of the economic crisis emerge in 4 areas: deterioration in health status, as poverty contributed to higher disease rates; reductions in the government's ability to maintain public health and medical services; increased reliance on foreign aid to finance the health system; and growing national debate over the role of the state in health care. The result of the economic crisis was a reduction in health services and a questioning of the Costa Rican health model. This occurred following the implementation of an expensive health infrastructure and at a time when people most needed health services. During the 1941-70 period, domestic initiative can account for much of the expansion of Costa Rica's social security system, but also at this time international agencies such as the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Inter-American Development began to assist in the expansion of the health system. In 1971 a plan was initiated to create a nationalized health system. By 1980 the success of the health sector reorganization was evident in the statistics: marked improvements in life expectancy, infant mortality, and infectious disease mortality had surpassed the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Ministry of Health. Costa Rica's success was a vindication of both policy goals and funding priorities, for it has been "proved" that primary health care was capable of improving health indices, particularly where the agencies had the active and conscientious support of the national government. By 1977, foreign contracts for aid had expired, and the Ministry declared that the rural health program would be supported totally by the government. The

  20. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  1. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  2. (Hydroelectric project in Costa Rican rural electric generation and transmission)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-11-28

    On November 6, 1989, I left for San Jose, Costa Rica. My visit was set to accomplish two activities. The first activity was a follow-on mission to gather additional information on a newly identified small hydroelectric project, in support of a rural electric generation and transmission cooperative performed for the Renewable Energy Applications and Training project. Data on stream flows, soils, geologic, and topographic information was gathered for Rio San Lorenzo, near Quesada. A reconnaissance level survey was performed for Rio Naranjillo, a river near San Marcos. The second part of the visit was dedicated to interaction with ICE, the electric utility, discussing plans to establish a comprehensive efficiency program in Costa Rica. I returned to Oak Ridge on November 16, 1989.

  3. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.L. ); Trocki, L.K. )

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica.

  4. MEDISE: A macroeconomic model for energy planning in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.R. ); Leiva, C.L. . Direccion Sectorial de Energia)

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the development and results of MEDISE, an econometric macroeconomic model for energy planning in Costa Rica. The model is a simultaneous system of 19 equations that was constructed using ENERPLAN, an energy planning tool developed by the United Nations for use in developing countries. The equations were estimated using regression analysis on a data time series of 1966 to 1984. ENERPLAN's model solution package was used to obtain forecasts of 19 economic variables from 1985 to 2005. the modeling effort was conducted jointly by Los Alamos Central American Energy and Resources Project (CAP) personnel and the Energy Sector Directorate of Costa Rica during 1986. The CAP was funded by the US Agency for International Development. 6 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Two Major Dengue Outbreaks in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Garita, Claudio; Somogyi, Teresita; Vicente-Santos, Amanda; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is a reemerging arthropod-borne virus with a worldwide circulation, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since the first detection of its main transmitting vector in 1992 and the invasion of DENV-1 in 1993, Costa Rica has faced dengue outbreaks yearly. In 2007 and 2013, Costa Rica experienced two of the largest outbreaks in terms of total and severe cases. To provide genetic information about the etiologic agents producing these outbreaks, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated from human samples. A total of 23 DENV-1 and DENV-2 sequences were characterized. These analyses signaled that DENV-1 genotype V and DENV-2 American/Asian genotype were circulating in those outbreaks. Our results suggest that the 2007 and 2013 outbreak viral strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2 originated from nearby countries and underwent in situ microevolution. PMID:27139442

  6. A preliminary survey of the epidemiology of bluetongue in Costa Rica and northern Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Homan, E. J.; Lorbacher de Ruiz, H.; Donato, A. P.; Taylor, W. P.; Yuill, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent evidence of bluetongue (BT) virus infection of livestock in scattered localities in the neotropics prompted a serologic survey of cattle in Colombia and Costa Rica. In Costa Rica 48.1% of 1435 bovine animals had BT virus antibody in the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). In Colombia 51.8% of 635 cattle were AGPT-positive for BT virus. Antibody prevalence ranged from over 50% in the lowlands to 0% in Costa Rica and 19% in Colombian cattle above 2000 m altitude. Neutralization tests indicated that Costa Rican cattle had been exposed to BT virus types 6, 12, 14 and 17. PMID:2989360

  7. Life history of Manataria maculata (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Murillo, L Ricardo; Nishida, Kenji

    2003-06-01

    The life history and early stages of the satyrine butterfly Manataria maculata are described and illustrated from Costa Rica. Eggs are laid on Lasiacis sp. (Panicoideae), a new non-bamboo host plant for the genus Manataria. The larval stage varied from 23 to 28 days, and the pupal duration was approximately 12 days when reared on Bambusa vulgaris and Guadua angustifolia in captivity at 23-24 degrees C. PMID:15162739

  8. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant. PMID:2445007

  9. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores. PMID:26967127

  10. (Findings of the Costa Rica power sector efficiency study)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-10-08

    To present findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to the Instituto Costarricense de Electridad, and to the Ministry of Energy, Natural Resources and Mining. To discuss the progress and plans for the Central American Rural Electrification Project with US Agency for International Development (USAID)/Regional Office Central American Program (ROCAP). I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica to present the findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to our counterparts in the utility and the Ministry of Energy. Discussions were held with line level managers at Instituto Costarricensede Electricidad (ICE) and Ministry of Energy Mines and Natural Resources (MIRENEM), as well as a plan of action set for the final stage of the project. Discussions were held for a one day period with both the bilateral Agency for International Development (AID) and the regional AID mission regarding the need for a similar study in Guatemala and matters directly pertaining to the Central American Rural Electrification Study (CARES) project.

  11. Socioeconomic development, health interventions and mortality decline in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica, whose life expectancy was 74 years by 1985, has reached a health level comparable to a developed country. The health achievements of this country are product of political and socioeconomic circumstances as well as of right public health policies. Until about 1970 the features of Costa Rica mortality, although somewhat better than the Latin American average, evolved in a similar way to the rest of the region. In particular, the decades of 1940s and 1950s saw dramatic improvements in life expectancy, thanks mainly to the import of low-cost, high-effectiveness health technologies. In the 1970s, however, Costa Rica departed from a regional pattern of stagnation and managed to close the gap with developed countries in terms of mortality levels. A dramatic decline in the infant mortality rate from 60 to 19 per 1,000 took place in this decade. The main determinants of this breakthrough were health interventions, notably a primary health care program, even though favorable socioeconomic conditions and a reduced fertility also played a role. Ecological data and other evidence suggest that up to three fourths of the mortality decline was accounted for contemporary improvements in public health services, with about 40 percent attributable to primary health care interventions. Furthermore, by targeting interventions on the less privileged population, these interventions had the merit of reducing geographic and socioeconomic differentials in child mortality. PMID:1805367

  12. Educational Change and Structural Adjustment: A Case Study of Costa Rica. [Working Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Torres, Carlos

    In the 1960s and 1970s, steady economic growth helped the Costa Rican government expand its education system rapidly. The 1979 oil shocks, the U.S. 1981-82 recession, and other factors ended this prosperity and exposed the fragility of Costa Rica's late 1970s debt-financed development. To restore economic growth, new economic policies were…

  13. Incidence, distribution and association of Spongospora subterranea and Potato mop-top virus in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 39 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields in Costa Rica to determine incidence and association of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea and Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV). The fields were located in Costa Rica’s two major potato production regions, and were further char...

  14. Quality Early Childhood Education in Costa Rica? Policy, Practice, Outcomes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata

    2005-01-01

    High-quality early childhood education has been shown to improve school outcomes in several developing and developed nations. The history of policy around pre-school education in Costa Rica is described as background to presenting cross-sectional data on the emergent literacy skills of low-income Costa Rican children in kindergarten, 1st and 2nd…

  15. Teacher Expectations and Students from Low Socioeconomic Background: A Perspective from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regalla, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teachers' academic expectations of students from low socioeconomic status (SES) in Costa Rica for the purpose of cross-cultural comparison. A group of 17 teachers from two different elementary schools located in a small town in Costa Rica were questioned about their expectations of low SES students enrolled in their classes.…

  16. Differences and Similarities between School Principals in Costa Rica and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The need for effective school leadership is a global concern. This paper provides a comparison of the school principal in Costa Rica to the United States. Differences and similarities are described for principals in both nations. Major differences for principals in Costa Rica include administrative salaries, selection procedures, induction, no…

  17. The Impact of Post-Secondary Privatization: The Case of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Lorelle L.; Santos, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1985 and 2000, the Central American country of Costa Rica experienced rapid and unprecedented private university growth as part of an international movement towards post-secondary privatization. Costa Rica stands apart from other developing countries in that all 50 of the nation's private universities are proprietary, resulting in a…

  18. Special Education and Severe Disabilities in Costa Rica: Developing Inclusion in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of special education in Costa Rica is provided. Costa Rica has promulgated four educational service models that extend special education expertise: consulting teachers, educational assistance teams, itinerant teams, and resource centers. Their educational classification system describes the level of modifications required by students.…

  19. Geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenes, C. L.; Lavín, M. F.; Mascarenhas, Affonso S.

    2008-05-01

    The geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America is described from CTD observations collected in two surveys: (a) The Wet Cruise in September-October 1993, and the Jet Cruise in February-March 1994. Poleward coastal flow was present on both occasions, but the transition from flow around the dome to the poleward Costa Rica Coastal Current flow was quite tortuous because of the presence of mesoscale eddies. In particular, a warm anticyclonic eddy was found off the Gulf of Fonseca during both cruises, at an almost identical position and with similar dimensions (150 m deep, 250 km in diameter) and surface speed (0.5 m s -1). In the Gulf of Panama, poleward flow was also observed, weaker in February-March 1994 than in September-October 1993, when it penetrated to 600 m depth and transported 8.5 Sv. In September-October 1993, the current between the dome and the coast was mostly ˜100 m deep and weak (˜0.15 m s -1), although in its southern side it was deeper (˜450 m) and faster at 0.3 m s -1. The poleward transport between the dome and the coast was ˜7 Sv. In February-March 1994 the Costa Rica Dome was a closed ring adjacent to the continental shelf, ˜500 km in diameter, at least 400 m deep, had geostrophic surface speeds ˜0.25 m s -1, and subsurface maximum speed (0.15-0.20 m s -1) at ˜180 m depth; the associated uplift of the isotherms was ˜150 m. The flow in the south part of the dome splits into two branches, the weakest one going around the dome and the strongest one continuing east and turning south before reaching the Gulf of Panama.

  20. The altarpieces of Della Robbia atelier in Marche region: investigations on technology and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Barcaioni, S.; Bouquillon, A.; Padeletti, G.; Pallante, P.

    2013-12-01

    Dissemination of Della Robbia glazed terracotta in the Marche (Italy) region started from the third decade of the 16th century. Numerous altarpieces, some of which no longer exist, document this artistic production. The protagonists of this diffusion phase were two of Andrea Della Robbia's sons, Marco (Fra Mattia) and Francesco (Fra Ambrogio). This paper shows the results of the scientific investigations carried out on constitutive materials of different altarpieces located in South Marche belonging to the Fra Mattia's production: the Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, dated back to 1527-1530, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano; the Annunciation, dated back to 1520, placed in the church of S. Maria del Soccorso in Arcevia; the fragmentary Crowned Madonna and saints altarpiece, probably realized after 1531, today preserved in Civic Museum of Ripatransone. The first altarpiece was made in Montecassiano using two different assembling or production techniques: the external part of the lunette and the pillar strips are made of glazed polychrome terracotta, while the altar step and the internal part are an interesting and uncommon example of polychrome painted terracotta. The provenance of the glazed Arcevia altarpiece is not clear yet: some historians hypothesize a local manufacture of Fra Mattia and some others a Roman or Florentine production. The remaining parts of Ripatransone altarpiece are partially glazed and partially not coated perhaps because they were unfinished and not yet painted. Clay body samples collected from the above mentioned altarpieces were investigated using different analytical techniques (OM, XRD, XRF, PIXE) to point out differences in chemical and mineralogical composition and to determine if the altarpieces were made by using local raw clay materials or other clays from Tuscany or Campania as in the Della Robbia previous production. A comparison has also been

  1. The Renaissance and the universal surgeon: Giovanni Andrea Della Croce, a master of traumatology.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Tarabella, Vittorio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Anna; Tomba, Patrizia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2013-12-01

    All the medical knowledge of all time in one book, the universal and perfect manual for the Renaissance surgeon, and the man who wrote it. This paper depicts the life and works of Giovanni Andrea della Croce, a 16th Century physician and surgeon, who, endowed with true spirit of Renaissance humanism, wanted to teach and share all his medical knowledge through his opus magnum, titled "Universal Surgery Complete with All the Relevant Parts for the Optimum Surgeon". An extraordinary book which truly represents a defining moment and a founding stone for traumatology, written by a lesser known historical personality, but nonetheless the Renaissance Master of Traumatology. PMID:24173678

  2. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention. PMID:2331555

  3. Human rabies: a reemerging disease in Costa Rica?

    PubMed

    Badilla, Xiomara; Pérez-Herra, Victor; Quirós, Ligia; Morice, Ana; Jiménez, Edwin; Sáenz, Elizabeth; Salazar, Fernando; Fernández, Rodrigo; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Whitfield, Sylvia; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2003-06-01

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in Costa Rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in humans. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector. PMID:12781014

  4. Human Rabies: A Reemerging Disease in Costa Rica?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Herra, Victor; Quirós, Ligia; Morice, Ana; Jiménez, Edwin; Sáenz, Elizabeth; Salazar, Fernando; Fernández, Rodrigo; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Whitfield, Sylvia; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in Costa Rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in persons. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector. PMID:12781014

  5. Hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Survey work from 1992–2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7%) followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%). The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3%) of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, Alurnus salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni. PMID:22303103

  6. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel. PMID:12848237

  7. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators. PMID:12294361

  8. Willow Flycatcher nonbreeding territory defense behavior in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.; Koronkiewicz, T.J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Durst, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the intraspecific territorial defense behavior of wintering Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) in Costa Rica using a randomized playback experiment that exposed male and female birds to recordings of Willow Flycatcher songs and calls, Lesser Ground Cuckoo (Morococcyx erythropygius) vocalizations, and random noise. Flycatchers of both sexes responded most strongly to simulated conspecific territory intrusion, and the agonistic behaviors that we observed were similar to those seen during natural intraspecific encounters in winter. Both males and females engaged in song and aggressive behaviors in defense of territories, and there was no significant difference between the sexes in scored agonistic responses. The similarity between the sexes in intraspecific territorial defense behaviors and aggressiveness may account for both sexes of flycatchers using the same habitats at our study sites in Costa Rica, and wintering females defending territories against males. The Willow Flycatcher, a sexually monomorphic species, differs in this way from a number of sexually dimorphic passerines, in which behaviorally dominant males occur in more optimal winter habitats. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in the soils and atmosphere of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Jantunen, Liisa M M; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    A survey of the contamination of the physical environment of Costa Rica with banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) relied on sampling air and soil at 23 stations acrossthe country in 2004. Average annual air concentrations, determined with XAD-based passive samplers, and surface soil concentrations were generally low when compared to values reported for North and Central America, which is consistent with relatively low historical domestic use and little atmospheric inflow from neighboring countries. Statistical analysis and concentration maps reveal three types of spatial distribution: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and p,p'-DDD had a relatively uniform distribution across the country; other DDT-related species were greatly elevated over the national average at Manuel Antonio, a National Park on the Pacific coast; and dieldrin, lindane, and chlordane-related species had higher concentrations in Costa Rica's populated Central Valley. An altitudinal transect of stations in the Central Valley shows declining air-soil concentration ratios with elevation for lindane, likely driven by atmospheric inversions and soil organic carbon content. Enantiomeric composition of chiral OCPs in air and soil was close to racemic, with slight depletion of (-)-alpha-HCH, (-)-cis-chlordane, and (+)-trans-chlordane. Estimated air-soil fugacity fractions are highly uncertain but indicate equilibrium conditions for most OCPs, net volatilization of lindane at some sites, and net deposition for p,p'-DDE. The study demonstrates an approach for quickly evaluating the spatial distribution of OCPs in an understudied area, identifying regionally important contaminants and areas of elevated concentrations. PMID:17593709

  10. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    PubMed

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone. PMID:12322449

  11. Costas loop lock detection in the advanced receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileant, A.; Hinedi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The advanced receiver currently being developed uses a Costas digital loop to demodulate the subcarrier. Previous analyses of lock detector algorithms for Costas loops have ignored the effects of the inherent correlation between the samples of the phase-error process. Accounting for this correlation is necessary to achieve the desired lock-detection probability for a given false-alarm rate. Both analysis and simulations are used to quantify the effects of phase correlation on lock detection for the square-law and the absolute-value type detectors. Results are obtained which depict the lock-detection probability as a function of loop signal-to-noise ratio for a given false-alarm rate. The mathematical model and computer simulation show that the square-law detector experiences less degradation due to phase jitter than the absolute-value detector and that the degradation in detector signal-to-noise ratio is more pronounced for square-wave than for sine-wave signals.

  12. Smoking: attitudes of Costa Rican physicians and opportunities for intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, D. W.; Knox, J. J.; Nash, C.; Jiménez, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information, using a written questionnaire, on the knowledge, smoking behaviour, and attitudes of Costa Rican physicians about smoking as a health issue. A random sample of 650 physicians was chosen from a list of active physicians; 287 of them were covered by survey between August 1993 and October 1994, and 217 (76%) responded with data for the study. While 40% of the physicians who participated were ex-smokers, 19% were current smokers; 67% of these two groups combined reported smoking in the workplace. Only 49% believed that physicians could be a nonsmoking role model; the majority (87%) had asked patients about their smoking status. The only cessation technique consistently used (90%) was counselling about the dangers of smoking. Measures such as setting a date to quit smoking and nicotine replacement were rarely recommended (< or = 2%). Nearly all the physicians (99%) considered smoking to be a major health issue. These results showed a high prevalence of smoking among Costa Rican physicians, with little recognition of the need for them to set an example as a role model. While they were knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking, they did not recommend any of the proven techniques to help their patients to quit smoking. A clear consensus for more strict tobacco regulation exists, but to date little has been done to act on this. PMID:10327710

  13. Female condom acceptability among sex workers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, J; Schifter, J; Feldblum, P J

    1998-04-01

    This study measured short-term female condom acceptability among 51 female sex workers in San José, Costa Rica. Each woman was trained in use of the female condom and was asked to use the device if clients refused to use male condoms during a 2-week study period (male condoms were also distributed). Two follow-up visits with short interviews were scheduled, including questions on general reaction to the female condom by the participants and their clients, ease and comfort of use, and preferences for male or female devices. At the first follow-up visit, 51% of the women reported they "liked the female condom very much" and 45% reported they "liked it somewhat." Similar results were reported after the second follow-up phase. Sixty-seven percent of the participants preferred the female condom over the male condom, and, according to the the women, over half of their clients liked the female condom "very much" or "somewhat." The most common problems during the first phase were difficulty to insert (61%) and discomfort (43%). However, during the second study phase a reduction in these problems (22% and 25%, respectively) and other use-related problems were noted. Although this new method is not yet available throughout Costa Rica, these results should encourage sexually transmitted diseases and HIV service organizations to make this method accessible to women. PMID:9573433

  14. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, the gray area in the center of the image. The view is toward the northwest with the Pacific Ocean in the distance and shows a portion of the Meseta Central (Central Valley), home to about a third of Costa Rica's population.

    Like much of Central America, Costa Rica is generally cloud covered, so very little satellite imagery is available. The ability of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements will allow generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. These data were used to generate the image.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using elevation data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between

  15. A transcultural nurse's adventures in Costa Rica: using Leininger's Sunrise Model for transcultural nursing discoveries.

    PubMed

    Finn, J M

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive report of a transcultural nurse's experiences as an Earthwatch volunteer working with Leatherback sea turtles in Costa Rica. While in Costa Rica the author had an opportunity to observe and experience the culture and lifeways of the people of Costa Rica. The author attempted to discover and understand aspects of the Costa Rican social structure and world view and relate these insights to Leininger's (1991) Sunrise Model and the role of transcultural nurses. Leininger's (1991) Sunrise Model depicted the relationships inherent in her theory and included: culture, world view, and social structure dimensions. The social structure dimensions included: technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways, political and legal, economic, and educational factors. The insights and understandings learned through application of Leininger's (1991) Sunrise Model were applied to transcultural nurses' role in meeting the care needs of clients from various cultures. PMID:8507431

  16. Personality traits change in adulthood: reply to Costa and McCrae (2006).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brent W; Walton, Kate E; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure of personality traits are needed and explain why the Revised NEO Personality Inventory is not the correct model for that purpose. The authors provide direct evidence refuting the hypothesis that personality traits change only because of biologically based intrinsic maturation. The authors present arguments supporting the contention that meta-analyses should be preferred to single longitudinal studies when drawing inferences about general patterns of personality development. Finally, the authors point out why the differences between their position and Costa and McCrae's are important. PMID:16435956

  17. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  18. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

  19. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  20. Tracking performance of Costas loops with hard-limited in-phase channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the tracking performance of the Costas loop used in a suppressed carrier receiver with a hard limiter of the in-phase channel arm filter output. Attention is given to assessing the penalty, if indeed it is a penalty rather than an improvement, in this performance relative to a conventional Costas loop without the hard limiter and with an analog third multiplier. In particular, for the case of single-pole Butterworth (RC) arm filters and NRZ data, the squaring loss (tracking jitter penalty relative to a linear loop) is evaluated and illustrated as a function of the ratio of arm filter bandwidth to data rate and data SNR. Also considered is the tracking performance of a hard-limited modified Costas loop wherein the quadrature arm is removed. Corresponding results for the modified Costas loop without the hard limiter are given.

  1. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lips, Karen R.; Green, D.E.; Papendick, R.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, the amphibian fauna of Las Tablas, Costa Rica, began to decline, and by 1998 approximately 50% of the species formerly present could no longer be found. Three years later, at the Reserva Forestal Fortuna, in western Panama, a site approximately 75 km east southeast of Las Tablas, KRL encountered a mass die-off of amphibians and a subsequent decline in abundance and species richness. The epidemiological features of the anuran population declines and die-offs at both sites were similar, suggesting a similar cause. Herein we document the presence of the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in dead and dying wild frogs collected at Las Tablas just prior to population declines of several anuran species.

  2. Optimum performance of suppressed carrier receivers with Costas loop tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of suppressed carrier receivers with Costas loop tracking is optimized by proper choice of loop arm filter bandwidth. In particular, it is shown that for a variety of passive arm filter types, there exists, for a given data rate and data signal-to-noise ratio, an optimum filter bandwidth in the sense of minimizing the loop's squaring loss. For the linear theory case, this is equivalent to minimizing the loop's tracking jitter. When symbol synchronization is known, it is shown that by replacing the passive arm filters with active filters, i.e., integrate-and-dump circuits, one can achieve an improvement in carrier-to-noise ratio of as much as 4 to 6 dB depending on the passive arm filter type used for comparison and the value of data signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. The chemical and hydrologic structure of Poas volcano, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, G.L., Jr.; Brantley, S.L.; Fernandez, J.F.; Borgia, A.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of the chemical characteristics of spring and river water draining the flanks of Poas Volcano, Costa Rica indicates that acid chloride sulfate springs of the northwestern flank of the volcano are derived by leakage and mixing of acid brines formed in the summit hydrothermal system with dilute flank groundwater. Acid chloride sulfate waters of the Rio Agrio drainage basin on the northwestern flank are the only waters on Poas that are affected by leakage of acid brines from the summit hydrothermal system. Acid sulfate waters found on the northwestern flank are produced by the interaction of surface and shallow groundwater with dry and wet acid deposition of SO2 and H2SO4 aerosols, respectively. The acid deposition is caused by a plume of acid gases that is released by a shallow magma body located beneath the active crater of Poas. -from Authors

  4. Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Sims, Katharine R. E.; Healy, Andrew; Holland, Margaret B.

    2010-01-01

    As global efforts to protect ecosystems expand, the socioeconomic impact of protected areas on neighboring human communities continues to be a source of intense debate. The debate persists because previous studies do not directly measure socioeconomic outcomes and do not use appropriate comparison groups to account for potential confounders. We illustrate an approach using comprehensive national datasets and quasi-experimental matching methods. We estimate impacts of protected area systems on poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand and find that although communities near protected areas are indeed substantially poorer than national averages, an analysis based on comparison with appropriate controls does not support the hypothesis that these differences can be attributed to protected areas. In contrast, the results indicate that the net impact of ecosystem protection was to alleviate poverty. PMID:20498058

  5. Olfactory communication among Costa Rican squirrel monkeys: a field study.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S

    1992-01-01

    Behaviors with a possible role in olfactory communication among troop members were investigated as part of a field study on the reproductive and foraging ecology of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica. All age classes engaged in the olfaction-related behaviors. Apart from olfactory investigation of female genitals by males during the mating season, no other potential olfaction-related behavior (urine wash, branch investigation, rump, chest, back rub and sneeze) exceeded 1% of mean behavioral samples. Assessment of reproduction condition appears to be the primary function of such olfactory investigation of the female genital region. The primary function of urine washing is suggested to be the general communication of reproductive status, possibly facilitating reproductive synchrony. Sneezing, rump, back and chest rubbing do not appear to deposit substances active in olfactory communication. PMID:1306175

  6. Arbutoid mycorrhizas of the genus Cortinarius from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kühdorf, K; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

    2016-08-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizas of Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Arbutoidea, Ericaceae) from neotropical montane forests are rarely described. To date, only mycorrhizal associations with the fungal species Leccinum monticola, Leotia lubrica and Sebacina sp. are known from literature. The genus Cortinarius is one of the most species-rich ectomycorrhizal taxa with over 2000 assumed species. In this study, two sites in the Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica were sampled, where Com. arbutoides is endemic and grows together with Quercus costaricensis. Using a combined method of rDNA sequence analysis and morphotyping, 33 sampled mycorrhizal systems of Cortinarius were assigned to the subgenera Dermocybe, Phlegmacium and Telamonia. Specific plant primers were used to identify the host plant. Here, we present the phylogenetic data of all found Cortinarii and describe four of the arbutoid mycorrhizal systems morphologically and anatomically. PMID:26968744

  7. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  8. Authigenic Carbonates off Costa Rica Margin: Archives for Dewatering History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Suess, E.; Sahling, H.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Scholten, J.; Bock, B.

    2003-04-01

    Authigenic carbonates in a variety of types and shapes characterize mud diapirs and slump scarps, the major sites of fluid venting off Costa Rica margin. A regional distribution pattern of mineral and isotope compositions exists based on 76 samples analyzed so far: The Jaco Scarp, which represents a deep plow mark left by a subducted seamount, is characterized by nodules, fluid conduit concretions and chemoherms. The dominant mineral is (proto-)dolomite, except for chemoherms which are composed of aragonite. The dolomites have δ13C and δ18O compositions in the range of -40.5 to -28.3 ppm PDB and 8.1 to 6.5 ppm PDB, respectively, while those of chemoherm are lighter (δ13C = -46.0 to -51.0 ppm PDB and δ18O = 4.8 to 5.0 ppm PDB). On the mud diapirs off northern Costa Rica, the carbonates are mainly massive micrites which are dominated by calcite (MgCO_3 = 2--10 mol-%), their δ13C and δ18O are in the range of -27.4 to -53.0 ppm PDB and 5.4 to 6.3 ppm PDB, respectively. On the mud diapirs off southern Costa Rica, aragonite dominates the chemoherms (δ13C = -40.6 to -49.2 ppm PDB, δ18O = 4.4 to 6.4 ppm PDB) and high Mg-calcite dominates the seepage-associated crusts (δ13C = -51.9 to -52.7 ppm PDB; δ18O = 4.9 to 4.8 ppm PDB), while chimneys and fluid conduit concretions are composed of calcite with relatively low Mg content (δ13C = -32.4 to -41.5 ppm PDB; δ18O = 6.4 to 5.7 ppm PDB). The calcite precipitated inside chimneys is more depleted in 13C and has higher Mg-contents than the outer chimney walls, while the concretions are enriched in 13C and depleted in Mg-contents inside compared to outside layers. These trends indicate their sequences of growth. The gas hydrate-associated carbonates are unusually heavy isotopically (δ13C = -18.6 to -29.8 ppm PDB, δ18O = 6.0 to 6.8 ppm PDB) indicating a thermal origin of the methane-C as well as 18O enriched precipitating solutions. This agrees well with the C-isotope ratio of methane recovered from gas hydrates and Cl

  9. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented. PMID:12319363

  10. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  11. Seismic reflection images of the accretionary wedge of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, T.H.; Stoffa, P.L. ); McIntosh, K.; Silver, E.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The large-scale structure of modern accretionary wedges is known almost entirely from seismic reflection investigations using single or grids of two-dimensional profiles. The authors will report on the first three-dimensional seismic reflection data volume collected of a wedge. This data set covers a 9-km-wide {times} 22-km-long {times} 6-km-thick volume of the accretionary wedge just arcward of the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica. The three-dimensional processing has improved the imaging ability of the multichannel data, and the data volume allows mapping of structures from a few hundred meters to kilometers in size. These data illustrate the relationships between the basement, the wedge shape, and overlying slope sedimentary deposits. Reflections from within the wedge define the gross structural features and tectonic processes active along this particular convergent margin. So far, the analysis shows that the subdued basement relief (horst and graben structures seldom have relief of more than a few hundred meters off Costa Rica) does affect the larger scale through going structural features within the wedge. The distribution of mud volcanoes and amplitude anomalies associated with the large-scale wedge structures suggests that efficient fluid migration paths may extend from the top of the downgoing slab at the shelf edge out into the lower and middle slope region at a distance of 50-100 km. Offscraping of the uppermost (about 45 m) sediment occurs within 4 km of the trench, creating a small pile of sediments near the trench lower slope. Underplating of parts of the 400-m-thick subducted sedimentary section begins at a very shallow structural level, 4-10 km arcward of the trench. Volumetrically, the most important accretionary process is underplating.

  12. The Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) species group in Costa Rica (Geometridae, Ennominae)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Historically, the name Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) has been applied to what is a complex of three undescribed species in Costa Rica. They are very similar in maculation, but can be differentiated by genitalic characters and barcodes. P. alajuela Sullivan, sp. n. occurs at lower altitudes in the northwestern part of Costa Rica whereas P. intermediata Sullivan, sp. n. and P. esperanza Sullivan, sp. n. are found at partially overlapping altitudes in the central mountain ranges. PMID:25061377

  13. Analysis of tracking performance of the MTDD Costas loop for UQPSK signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Y. H.

    1981-01-01

    The tracking performance of the breadboard Costas loop for the Multimegabit Telemetry Demodulator/Detector (MTDD) System using an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keyed (UQPSK) signal is considered. The particular Costas loop is a biphase polarity type with passive arm filters. The loop contains a hard limiter in front of the third multiplier, which is a chopper-type device. The rms phase jitter predictions made have also been verified experimentally.

  14. [Sterilization determinants and their demographic effect on Colombia and Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Hollerbach, P E

    1986-01-01

    This article is based on data gathered during contraceptive prevalence surveys carried out in Costa Rica and Colombia in 1978, and in 1980 in Colombia and 1981 in Costa Rica. The groups studied consisted of women aged 14-49, and ranged in population from n=3,400 to n=4,580. Colombia Ministry of Health policy limits access to sterilization to couples over 30 with at least 3 children. Profamilia, private family planning organization, has similar though less stringent norms. The majority of sterilizations are of females. Sterilization has come under some attack by the Roman Catholic church, family planning programs continue to be viable. In Costa Rica, sterilization has not been practiced as a family planning method officially, but was performed by the national social service system as well as private providers when it was medically indicated. Since 1982, sterilization has been illegal in Costa Rica. Comparing the 2 countries, the Colombian sterilization rate rose from about 17/1000 ever married women in 1970 to 19.8 in 1980. The rate for Costa Rica rose to 21.6 in 1976, after which there was an attempt to restrict the practice. The effects of the restriction had become negligible by 1980. Women married for 19-20 years were the group with the highest % of sterilizations in both countries. Women with 6 or more live children in Costa Rica, and 4 in Colombia, women 30-39 in Colombia and 35-44 in Costa Rica, women having previously used contraceptives and women in urban areas were more likely sterilized. It is projected that a high potential demand for sterilization exists in Colombia, but the demand in Costa Rica is considerably less. The acceptor characteristics (e.g. years married, age) are quite similar for the 2 countries. Generally speaking, fertility is higher among sterilized women in both countries. PMID:12267934

  15. Lungo le vie di pellegrinaggio: la lezione astronomica di Gerberto a San Michele della Chiusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladino, Laura C.

    A pilgrim on the trails of the Earth: that's how Gerbertus appears to us in the years preceding his pontificate as well in those, brief and intense, in which he was Pope. An ardent pilgrim of faith moved at the same time by vast intellectual interests that allowed him to come into contact with the most important schools of the time, of any cultural tradition; a pilgrim full of love, willing to transmit the enormous heritage of faith and knowledge of which he was custodian. The presence of the illustrious Benedictine is not explicitly documented in the Abbey of San Michele della Chiusa, but the signs of its cultural and ideological influence are evident both in historical memory as in the artistical vestiges of the Sacra: we investigate here, this presence, authoritative, original and versatile, to outline another aspect, still little investigated, of the lesson of Gerbert, monk, scientist, teacher and pastor.

  16. La meridiana di Egnazio Danti nella Torre dei Venti in Vaticano: un'icona della riforma Gregoriana del calendario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    La Torre dei Venti domina l’angolo Sud Ovest del cortile della Pigna (nell'area dei Musei Vaticani), ed è inclusa negli ambienti dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano. Non è aperta al pubblico, ma è universalmente nota per la fama che da oltre quattrocento anni la circonda, legata alle vicende della riforma Gregoriana del calendario. La meridiana tracciata da padre Egnazio Danti (1536-1586) nella torre dei Venti, fu visitata anche da Gregorio XIII, probabilmente il 21 marzo 1581 come suppone il padre Stein, per convincersi dell'anticipo ormai arrivato a dieci giorni dell'equinozio di primavera sulla data che il concilio di Nicea aveva fissato al 21 marzo per il computo pasquale. La ricognizione astrometrica del febbraio-marzo 2009 fatta dall'autore viene qui presentata.

  17. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  18. Mammals of the Braulio Carrillo- La Selva Complex, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Timm, Robert M.; Wilson, Don E.; Clauson, Barbara L.; LaVal, Richard K.; Vaughan, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Costa Rica's La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex encompasses a 60-km protected corridor of Caribbean rain and cloud forest extending from 30 m at the La Selva Biological Station to 2,906 m at the top of Volcán Barva. The 52,000-ha complex covers four life zones and two transitional zones, including tropical wet forest, tropical wet forest cool-transition, tropical premontane wet-transition rain forest, tropical premontane rain forest, lower montane rain forest, and montane rain forest. Located in the northeastern part of the country, the area is representative of Central American Caribbean slope forests that extend from Mexico to Panama. The extensive elevational gradient of the complex provides protected habitat for a variety of altitudinal migrants. With support from the National Geographic Society and Rice Foundation, the Organization for Tropical Studies organized a biological survey of the complex in early 1986. The mammal team worked at six sites along the elevational transect established by the expedition: 300 m, 700 m, 1,000 m, 1,500 m, 2,050 m, and 2,600 m. We supplemented our collecting records with unpublished records made available by colleagues, records in the published literature, and specimens in museum collections. In addition, observations recorded by a variety of observers at the La Selva Biological Station are summarized. The mammal fauna of the complex comprises 142 species including 79 bats, 23 rodents, 15 carnivores, 7 marsupials, 6 edentates, 4 artiodactyls, 3 primates, 2 rabbits, 2 shrews, and 1 perissodactyl. At least 10 additional species are likely to occur there. The only species of mammal likely to have been extirpated from the area is the giant anteater. Recognizing the importance of the area to wildlife and to mankind in general, the government of Costa Rica added 13,500 ha to the complex on 13 April 1986. This area, previously known as the “Zona Protectora,” provided the mid-elevational link between the lowlands of the La Selva

  19. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  20. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the

  1. Urban structure and dengue fever in Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Fuller, Douglas O.; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Solano, Mayra E.; Beier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most important arboviral disease globally and is usually associated with built environments in tropical areas. Remotely sensed information can facilitate the study of urban mosquito-borne diseases by providing multiple temporal and spatial resolutions appropriate to investigate urban structure and ecological characteristics associated with infectious disease. In this study, coarse, medium and fine resolution satellite imagery (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer and QuickBird respectively) and ground-based data were analyzed for the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica for the years 2002–04. The results showed that the mean normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was generally higher in the localities with lower incidence of dengue fever during 2002, although the correlation was statistically significant only in the dry season (r=−0.40; p=0.03). Dengue incidence was inversely correlated to built area and directly correlated with tree cover (r=0.75, p=0.01). Overall, the significant correlations between dengue incidence and urban structural variables (tree cover and building density) suggest that properties of urban structure may be associated with dengue incidence in tropical urban settings. PMID:20161131

  2. The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, A.; Mora, P.

    1996-08-01

    Baseline levels of {sup 137}Cs on different sites throughout the Costa Rican territory are presented in this study from local and undisturbed soils. They are believed to represent the fallout input to the land surface. Seventy samples were collected from September 1991 to December 1993, and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. The territory was divided in three regions, Caribbean, Pacific, and Central, based on meteorological and geographical conditions to study spatial distribution of cesium. The results show a higher activity in the Caribbean region perhaps due to the wind influence and higher rain precipitation throughout the year. No relevant time variation of the activity levels of reach location was found. The highest value of 17.6 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} of {sup 137}Cs is compared with it generalized derived limit, being only 1.97% of the generalized derived limit value. The mean country activity value ranges from 0.4 to 17.8 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} with an average of 3.7 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Habitat use by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyses movement patterns, habitat preferences, activity schedules, and dispersion of troop members in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in relation to seasonal changes in food abundance in a Costa Rican tropical wet forest. Secondary forest was the preferred habitat and use of primary forest and late successional forest was limited primarily to seasons when food availability was low. Range area differed between seasons, varying from 79 to 110 ha, and totaling 176 ha over 11 months. The number of hectares used, hourly rate of group movement, and proportion of time spent foraging each season were all negatively related to relative food abundance. There was a tendency to spend less time in foraging activities in the middle of the day and to spend more time exclusively in travel at dawn and dusk. In all seasons dispersion was least when the troop was travelling and it was generally greatest during seasons of low food abundance. Measures of the allocation of time by the troop to food-related activities and the extent of troop dispersion each season were consistent with estimates based on behavior sampling of individuals. PMID:3504420

  4. Meiofauna associated with a Pacific coral reef in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Héctor M.; Obando, Vilma L.; Cortés, Jorge

    1987-10-01

    The meiofauna of two coral reef habitats at Isla del Naño, Costa Rica was studied over a one year period. The dominant groups were: Foraminifera (21.2%), Copepoda (19.7%), Nematoda (19.1%), Gastropoda (16.5%), Polychaeta (7.2%) and Bivalvia (6.6%). The highest diversity was found in coarse, heterogeneous sands with the highest percentage of carbonates. The meiofauna showed a high degree of horizontal aggregation, which is a characteristic pattern for macro- and meiofauna in sediments of variable composition. No vertical variation in distribution was evident, probably due to the deep location of the Redox Potential Discontinuity layer. The total densities of organisms found in this study (99 to 575 ind/10 cm2) are low compared with densities in similar non-reefal sands (7 to 6116), and from fine sediments (80 to 17 000), but are comparable to densities found in other reef areas (39 to 609.5 ind/10 cm2). This is the first report on meiofauna from the eastern Pacific, and the first time that foraminiferans are the dominant group.

  5. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women’s health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women’s rights to life and health. PMID:26557876

  6. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  7. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    PubMed

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival. PMID:27547321

  8. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  9. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  10. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  11. Constructions of Difference and Deficit, a Case Study: Nicaraguan Families and Children on the Margins in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This analysis examines the nexus of marginalization and education, particularly the literacy potential and achievement of young children from socially and politically marginalized communities. Drawing on data from a study of literacy practice among Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica and the schooling of the Nicaraguan children in Costa Rican…

  12. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  13. The Arabidopsis DELLA RGA-LIKE3 Is a Direct Target of MYC2 and Modulates Jasmonate Signaling Responses[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Cheminant, Soizic; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Heintz, Dimitri; Baltz, Rachel; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones involved in the regulation of plant growth in response to endogenous and environmental signals. GA promotes growth by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth–repressing DELLA proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DELLAs consist of a small family of five proteins that display distinct but also overlapping functions in repressing GA responses. This study reveals that DELLA RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3) protein is essential to fully enhance the jasmonate (JA)-mediated responses. We show that JA rapidly induces RGL3 expression in a CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)– and JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/MYC2)–dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrate that MYC2 binds directly to RGL3 promoter. Furthermore, we show that RGL3 (like the other DELLAs) interacts with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, key repressors of JA signaling. These findings suggest that JA/MYC2-dependent accumulation of RGL3 represses JAZ activity, which in turn enhances the expression of JA-responsive genes. Accordingly, we show that induction of primary JA-responsive genes is reduced in the rgl3-5 mutant and enhanced in transgenic lines overexpressing RGL3. Hence, RGL3 positively regulates JA-mediated resistance to the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea and susceptibility to the hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae. We propose that JA-mediated induction of RGL3 expression is of adaptive significance and might represent a recent functional diversification of the DELLAs. PMID:22892320

  14. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America. PMID:24252963

  15. Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

  16. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape. PMID:21082485

  17. A CCaMK-CYCLOPS-DELLA Complex Activates Transcription of RAM1 to Regulate Arbuscule Branching.

    PubMed

    Pimprikar, Priya; Carbonnel, Samy; Paries, Michael; Katzer, Katja; Klingl, Verena; Bohmer, Monica J; Karl, Leonhard; Floss, Daniela S; Harrison, Maria J; Parniske, Martin; Gutjahr, Caroline

    2016-04-25

    Intracellular arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis between plants and glomeromycotan fungi leads to formation of highly branched fungal arbuscules that release mineral nutrients to the plant host. Their development is regulated in plants by a mechanistically unresolved interplay between symbiosis, nutrient, and hormone (gibberellin) signaling. Using a positional cloning strategy and a retrotransposon insertion line, we identify two novel alleles of Lotus japonicus REDUCED ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA1 (RAM1) encoding a GRAS protein. We confirm that RAM1 is a central regulator of arbuscule development: arbuscule branching is arrested in L. japonicus ram1 mutants, and ectopic expression of RAM1 activates genes critical for arbuscule development in the absence of fungal symbionts. Epistasis analysis places RAM1 downstream of CCaMK, CYCLOPS, and DELLA because ectopic expression of RAM1 restores arbuscule formation in cyclops mutants and in the presence of suppressive gibberellin. The corresponding proteins form a complex that activates RAM1 expression via binding of CYCLOPS to a cis element in the RAM1 promoter. We thus reveal a transcriptional cascade in arbuscule development that employs the promoter of RAM1 as integrator of symbiotic (transmitted via CCaMK and CYCLOPS) and hormonal (gibberellin) signals. PMID:27020747

  18. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. PMID:26002868

  19. US fossil fuel technologies for developing countries: Costa Rica country packet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-21

    Costa Rica presents long-term opportunities for US participation in the power generation sector. A growing industrial base, high economic growth, and an increasing living standard will continue to require more reliable electric generation. Although the country has depended upon hydropower to meet much of its energy needs, coal could become a more reliable form of energy in the near term, based on estimated indigenous resources and proximity to food quality imports. Thus, trade opportunities exist for the United States, in the electric power sector, for the US advanced fossil fuel technologies and related services. This report describes the Costa Rican energy situation; examines the financial, economic, and trade issues; and discusses project opportunities in Costa Rica. Costa Rica appears to have a positive climate for trade and investment activities, stimulated by the Caribbean Basin Initiative. Although the economy has recently slowed, the economic outlook appears healthy. Application for membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is pending. Due to an unexpectedly large growth in electricity demand, the Costa Rican utility Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is evaluating the need for construction of a coal-fired power plant in the size range of 60 to 125 MW, with an in-service data of the mid-1990s. A decision is expected by the end of 1988 concerning the required size, source of coal, and timing of this coal-fired plant. Based on conditions in Costa Rica, US advanced fossil-fuel technologies were chosen for continued study in conjunction with the identified potential project opportunities. These technologies are the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor and coal-water mixtures. They could play a major role in meeting the utility expansion and/or industrial conversion opportunities summarized in Table I.1. The value of such projects could approximate US $160 million.

  20. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, in the right center of the image (gray area). Rising behind it are the volcanoes Irazu, 3402 meters high (11,161 feet) and Turrialba, 3330 meters high (10,925 feet.)

    Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and is located in the Irazu Volcano National Park, established in 1955. There have been at least 23 eruptions of Irazu since 1723, the most recent during 1963 to 1965. This activity sent tephra and secondary mudflows into cultivated areas, caused at least 40 deaths, and destroyed 400 houses and some factories.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  1. Studies of fluid flow indicators, Pacific margin of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.; McAdoo, B.; Langseth, M.; Orange, D.

    1996-12-31

    Seismic reflection profiles off Costa Rica image a decrease in thickness of the underthrust sedimentary section from the Middle America Trench, implying a significant reduction of porosity in the outer 3-5 km from the trench and a source of vent water through the wedge. We encountered no evidence of discrete fluid venting over the outer 3-5 km of this margin from dives using the ALVIN submersible or from heat flow measurements (based on absence of chemosynthetic vent communities and heat flow anomalies in this zone). Vent communities occur farther upslope, associated with a series of out-of-sequence thrusts, with two mud diapirs, and a mid-slope canyon. We infer that fracture permeability dominates in the out-of-sequence thrusts, upflow of fluid-rich muds in the diapir, and focusing of fluid flow in the canyon. Over 100 heat flow observations on the wedge and incoming COCOS plate showed a broad area of anomalously low heat flow (13 mW/m{sup 2}) seaward of the frontal thrust, whereas the expected heat flow for ocean crust of early Miocene age is seven times greater. The very low regional heat flow may reflect refrigeration by vigorous sea water flow through the upper crust pillow basalts. Heat flow increases to about 30 mW/m{sup 2} throughout the lower slope to mid-slope, implying a combination of widespread fluid venting, reheating of the cooled crust and frictional heating at the base of the wedge. The lack of discrete vents over the outer 3-5 km of the margin indicates diffuse flow and likely temporal episodicity, as this region has been aseismic since 1950.

  2. Studies of fluid flow indicators, Pacific margin of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.; McAdoo, B. ); Langseth, M. ); Orange, D. )

    1996-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles off Costa Rica image a decrease in thickness of the underthrust sedimentary section from the Middle America Trench, implying a significant reduction of porosity in the outer 3-5 km from the trench and a source of vent water through the wedge. We encountered no evidence of discrete fluid venting over the outer 3-5 km of this margin from dives using the ALVIN submersible or from heat flow measurements (based on absence of chemosynthetic vent communities and heat flow anomalies in this zone). Vent communities occur farther upslope, associated with a series of out-of-sequence thrusts, with two mud diapirs, and a mid-slope canyon. We infer that fracture permeability dominates in the out-of-sequence thrusts, upflow of fluid-rich muds in the diapir, and focusing of fluid flow in the canyon. Over 100 heat flow observations on the wedge and incoming COCOS plate showed a broad area of anomalously low heat flow (13 mW/m[sup 2]) seaward of the frontal thrust, whereas the expected heat flow for ocean crust of early Miocene age is seven times greater. The very low regional heat flow may reflect refrigeration by vigorous sea water flow through the upper crust pillow basalts. Heat flow increases to about 30 mW/m[sup 2] throughout the lower slope to mid-slope, implying a combination of widespread fluid venting, reheating of the cooled crust and frictional heating at the base of the wedge. The lack of discrete vents over the outer 3-5 km of the margin indicates diffuse flow and likely temporal episodicity, as this region has been aseismic since 1950.

  3. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    PubMed

    Adamski, David

    2013-01-01

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed. PMID:25136727

  4. Accumulation of atmospheric sulfur in some Costa Rican soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the macronutrient elements whose sources to terrestrial ecosystems should shift from dominance by rock-weathering to atmospheric deposition as soils and underlying substrate undergo progressive weathering and leaching. However, the nature and timing of this transition is not well known. We investigated sources of sulfur to tropical rain forests growing on basalt-derived soils in the Osa Peninsula region of Costa Rica. Sulfur sources were examined using stable isotope ratios (δ34S) and compared to chemical indices of soil development. The most weathered soils, and the forests they supported, are dominated by atmospheric sulfur, while a less weathered soil type contains both rock-derived and atmospheric sulfur. Patterns of increasing δ34S with increasing soil sulfur concentration across the landscape suggest atmospheric sulfur is accumulating, and little rock-derived sulfur has been retained. Soil sulfur, minus adsorbed sulfate, is correlated with carbon and nitrogen, implying that sulfur accumulation occurs as plants and microbes incorporate sulfur into organic matter. Only the lower depth increments of the more weathered soils contained significant adsorbed sulfate. The evidence suggests a pattern of soil development in which sulfur-bearing minerals in rock, such as sulfides, weather early relative to other minerals, and the released sulfate is leached away. Sulfur added via atmospheric deposition is retained as organic matter accumulates in the soil profile. Adsorbed sulfate accumulates later, driven by changes in soil chemistry and mineralogy. These aspects of sulfur behavior during pedogenesis in this environment may hasten the transition to dominance by atmospheric sources.

  5. Seismo-Electromagnetic Investigation of Earthquakes in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzieran, L.; Rabbel, W.; Thorwart, M.

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate possible seismo-electromagnetic signals of local earthquakes seismological and magnetotelluric measurements were conducted on the Nicoya-Pensinsula of Costa Rica between May 2010 and August 2011. During this time 25 local earthquakes were recorded on the magnetotelluric stations. Analysis shows that the seismological and the electromagnetic data are correlated. P- and S-waves could be identified on all components. The frequency content of the B-field is similar to that of the seismic acceleration. The frequency content of the electric field is limited to 2 to 4 Hz. The waveforms and amplitudes of the seismological and electromagnetic signals correlate partially, but envelopes show up to 1 second time shifts between maxima. We estimated the dimension of different effects to find an explanation for the observed waveform of the data. The coseismoelectric effect of the incoming seismic wave produces an electric field which is in the same order of the observed electric field. But the origin for the observed narrow frequency band as well as the occurrence of a seismo-electric S-phase remain unsolved. The change of the magnetic flux through the coil by tilt induces a voltage which is large enough to explain the signal of the magnetic components. A tilt of 10-5° produces a voltage of 5 mV. Other effects such as a lateral movement of the measurement equipment can be neglected. The most surprising observation of our survey which can not be explained by the existing seismo-electromagnetic theory is that the coda appears similarly strong for seismic and seismo-electric field records. An explanation could be seismo-electric converted waves generated at fluid bearing fractures and faults of the upper crust.

  6. Four new species of Symmerista Hübner, 1816 (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Chacón, Isidro A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Symmerista Hübner (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) is reviewed for Costa Rica, based on 49 wild-caught specimens. Four species are newly described: Symmerista luisdiegogomezi Chacón, Symmerista inbioi Chacón, Symmerista minaei Chacón and Symmerista aura Chacón. All are from the cloud forests of the Talamanca moutain range, southern Costa Rica. Photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and barcodes are also provided. The species Symmerista tlotzin Schaus (1892) is removed from Symmerista and assigned to the genus Elymiotis Walker as a new combination. PMID:25061379

  7. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  8. A concavity property for the reciprocal of Fisher information and its consequences on Costa's EPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscani, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    We prove that the reciprocal of Fisher information of a log-concave probability density X in Rn is concave in t with respect to the addition of a Gaussian noise Zt = N(0 , tIn) . As a byproduct of this result we show that the third derivative of the entropy power of a log-concave probability density X in Rn is nonnegative in t with respect to the addition of a Gaussian noise Zt. For log-concave densities this improves the well-known Costa's concavity property of the entropy power (Costa, 1985).

  9. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital. PMID:27071302

  10. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  11. Arc-parallel flow in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hoernle, Kaj; Abt, David L; Fischer, Karen M; Nichols, Holly; Hauff, Folkmar; Abers, Geoffrey A; van den Bogaard, Paul; Heydolph, Ken; Alvarado, Guillermo; Protti, Marino; Strauch, Wilfried

    2008-02-28

    Resolving flow geometry in the mantle wedge is central to understanding the thermal and chemical structure of subduction zones, subducting plate dehydration, and melting that leads to arc volcanism, which can threaten large populations and alter climate through gas and particle emission. Here we show that isotope geochemistry and seismic velocity anisotropy provide strong evidence for trench-parallel flow in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua. This finding contradicts classical models, which predict trench-normal flow owing to the overlying wedge mantle being dragged downwards by the subducting plate. The isotopic signature of central Costa Rican volcanic rocks is not consistent with its derivation from the mantle wedge or eroded fore-arc complexes but instead from seamounts of the Galapagos hotspot track on the subducting Cocos plate. This isotopic signature decreases continuously from central Costa Rica to northwestern Nicaragua. As the age of the isotopic signature beneath Costa Rica can be constrained and its transport distance is known, minimum northwestward flow rates can be estimated (63-190 mm yr(-1)) and are comparable to the magnitude of subducting Cocos plate motion (approximately 85 mm yr(-1)). Trench-parallel flow needs to be taken into account in models evaluating thermal and chemical structure and melt generation in subduction zones. PMID:18223639

  12. Hunger in the Midst of Affluence: Task Force Combats Hunger in Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Mary Lavender

    1994-01-01

    Research conducted by the Hunger Task Force in Contra Costa County (California) revealed a significant increase in the number of families, especially with young children, who live in poverty and who are going hungry. A food stamp outreach program, a countywide school breakfast program, and food distribution programs have been initiated. (LP)

  13. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  14. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... the interim rule issued on July 29, 2009 (74 FR 37650) to a final rule without change. The interim... amending 48 CFR parts 225 and 252, which was published at 74 FR 37650 on July 29, 2009, is adopted as a... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY:...

  15. An Analysis of Retention and Attrition at MiraCosta College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ronald

    A study was conducted at MiraCosta College (MCC), in Del Mar, California, to investigate various aspects of retention and attrition and to make recommendations for possible program enhancements. The study sought to determine when students drop out of classes, which students drop out of school completely, and the drop out rate for various…

  16. Promoting Respect for All Forms of Life: A Model Primary School Program in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuman, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes the progress of the Costa Rican Humane Education Project after four years of work to educate children to protect the environment and to develop a genuine respect for all forms of life. Evaluation results indicate children have developed positive attitudes about animals and their environment. (MDH)

  17. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  18. Limited geographic distribution of beet pseudo-yellows virus in Costa Rican cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported the detection of beet pseudo yellows crinivirus (BPYV) in field-grown cucurbits in Costa Rica. The presence of the virus was associated with severe yellowing and chlorosis, and a large population of whiteflies was observed on symptomatic plants. To determine the prevalence and...

  19. Teaching Special Education in Costa Rica: Using a Learning Strategy in an Inclusive Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, special education in Costa Rica has seen profound changes from creating primarily segregated services to developing innovative service models that promote inclusion. This article describes those changes and takes a look at current challenges in this small country, including teacher shortages and adequate funding. (Contains…

  20. Sustainable Development in Costa Rica: An Approach to the Geography Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimbs, Judith; Heffington, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    Explores how the tools of geography can help meet some of the challenges inherent in sustainable development by looking at changes in land-use patterns among the Bribri Indians of Costa Rica. Includes a geography lesson on comparing regions and environmental issues. (CMK)

  1. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  2. First Report of Tomato Chlorosis Virus in Tomato in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In early 2007, severe yellowing and chlorosis symptoms were observed in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica. The symptoms resembled those of the genus Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae) and large populations of whiteflies were observed in the fields and...

  3. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  4. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration. PMID:12298296

  5. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  6. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  7. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  8. First North American record of the Palearctic Microplax albofasciata (Costa) (Hemiptera: Lygaeoidea: Oxycarenidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microplax albofasciata (Costa), a Palearctic (mainly Mediterranean) species of the small family Oxycarenidae, is reported from California as the first record for the New World. Adults of this little-known lygaeoid bug were found in 2012 and 2013 at the Hastings Natural History Reservation in norther...

  9. An Emerging Institution: The University for Peace in Costa Rica. Discussion Paper Series, No. 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Margaret A.

    A new United Nations college, the University for Peace in Costa Rica, is discussed. After providing a brief historical sketch on peace efforts since the Ancient Greeks, the objectives of the United Nations University are identified. The University for Peace is a new international university that is part of the United Nations University network, a…

  10. Fecal and serological survey of Neospora caninum in farm dogs in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To detect oocysts of N. caninum in dog feces and to determine the excretion pattern in dogs from specialized dairy farms in Costa Rica, a total of 265 fecal samples were collected every 15 days for 7 months from February to August, 2005. Fecal samples were examined for N. caninum oocysts microscopic...

  11. Sediment transport and deposition, Walnut and Pacheco Creeks, Contra Costa County, California, August 1965-April 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porterfield, George

    1972-01-01

    Average annual sediment discharge in Pacheco Creek basin, Contra Costa County, Calif., was larger during August 1965-April 1970 than the historical annual sediment discharge (1909-62) by a factor of about 1.3. This increas in sediment discharge is attributed primarily to an increased frequency of peak streamflows and to a larger average annual streamflow during the 1965-70 period.

  12. Environmental Education in Costa Rica: Building a Framework for Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is commonly claimed to be at the centre of efforts to achieve sustainable development. Since the 1980s, Costa Rica has been one of the acknowledged leaders in efforts to promote environmental learning, and national policy includes a three-fold national development strategy which simultaneously promotes education,…

  13. Evaluating the Impact of Different Early Literacy Interventions on Low-Income Costa Rican Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolla San Francisco, Andrea; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata; Snow, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Grade retention has been the de facto policy for children with academic difficulties in many Latin American countries [Schiefelbein, E., & Wolff, L. (1992). "Repetition and inadequate achievement in Latin America's primary schools: a review of magnitudes, causes, relationships, and strategies." Washington, DC: World Bank.]. In Costa Rica, 14.9% of…

  14. Children's National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The development of healthy national identifications in children and youth has important implications for the construction of democratic citizenries in culturally and linguistically diverse societies. In this comparative qualitative case study of two multicultural public schools-one in the United States and one in Costa Rica--I examined children's…

  15. Music Education for Social Change in the Secondary Public Schools of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a recently implemented general music curriculum in secondary public schools, whose main goal is to address social issues in Costa Rica. The author describes and discusses its context, rationale, theoretical tenets, and proposed practices with the purpose of advancing theory-practice reflection on music education practices…

  16. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  17. The Power To Change: The Experience of the Costa Atlantica Project in Colombia (1977-1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetley, Andrew

    In 1977, the Bernard van Leer Foundation began supporting a project in Colombia that had the objective of improving the quality of early childhood care and education in a small village. The Costa Atlantica project offered an approach to development that was based on community organization, social management, participation, cooperation, popular…

  18. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  19. Newly discovered natural hosts of tomato chlorosis virus in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is an emerging whitefly-transmitted crinivirus. ToCV was detected in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica in 2007, causing symptoms of severe yellowing and foliar chlorosis. To identify alternative hosts that may serve as viru...

  20. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7922). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on April... Bureau of Reclamation Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA AGENCY... Environmental Quality Act lead agency, have prepared the Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion Final EIS/EIR....

  1. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  2. West Contra Costa Unified School District Assessment and Improvement Plan: Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This report analyzes the conditions of school facilities in Contra Costa Unified School District, California. The district had been prohibited from participating in the state's school facilities funding program because of a very heavy debt burden and near-bankruptcy of the district. The report begins by summarizing findings in the areas of…

  3. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  4. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM THE KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (RAMPHASTOS SULFURATUS) FROM COSTA RICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectoral muscles from a captive keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus) from the Costa Rican were fed to a Toxoplasma gondii-free cat and the cat shed oocysts. Laboratory mice fed these oocysts developed antibodies to T. gondii in their sera and T. gondii tissue cysts in their brains. The DNA ext...

  5. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  6. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  7. Mantle source beneath Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica): a geochemical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.; Rizzo, A. L.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M. L.; Sortino, F.; De Astis, G.; Romano, C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we analysed rocks and noble gas composition of fluid inclusions (FIs) hosted in olivine crystals contained in a suite of eruptive products of the last 10ka of activity of Turrialba volcano, Cordillera Central, Costa Rica. The suite of analyzed rocks display a calc-alkaline affinity, ranging in composition from basaltic-andesite to dacite. Trace element patterns indicate a typical behavior of subduction-related magmas and also the clear contribution of an OIB-like signature at source. A group of andesites displays also adakite-like geochemical features, as evidenced by their constant depletion in HFSE elements. Sr isotope (0.703593 - 0.703678) and Nd isotope ratios (0.512960 - 0.512968) suggest that Turrialba magmas belong to one of the less contaminated mantle source of Central America. The 3He/4He ratio of fluid inclusions from the most mafic eruptive products (basaltic-andesites) varies from 7.86 to 8.07 Ra, while that from andesite lavas varies from 7.03 to 7.18 Ra. In order to understand the mantle source feeding Turrialba volcano, we performed a geochemical investigation on fumarolic gases of summit craters. The He isotope composition of dry gases of Turrialba volcano is characterized by extremely high R/Ra values (7.08-7.96 Ra). The highest 3He/4He ratios were measured at both West and Central Craters (7.93-7.96 Ra and 7.78-7.88 Ra, respectively), and are the highest values of the entire Central America. Despite the observed variability, the 3He/4He ratio of fumarolic gases and FIs from Turrialba volcano is well in the range of arc related volcanism (~7-8 Ra; Hilton et al., 2002), and represents the signature of a mantle wedge in which the contamination by crustal fluids is small to negligible. In addition the occurrence of recent adakite-like magmatism suggests the presence of an abnormal heating of the subducting lithosphere under Turrialba volcano, allowing even old or cold oceanic crust to melt.

  8. The Megalithic Complex of the ``Preta 'ru Mulacchio'' on the Monte della Stella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Ienna, D.

    2009-08-01

    The Monte della Stella is a 1131~m high mountain, belonging to the range separating the Alento Valley from the Tyrrhenian Sea, south of the city of Agropoli in Italy. At 1030~m over the sea-level, a large, isolated outcrop of the bedrock is present. This rock is well known to local people and called the ``Preta 'ru Mulacchio'', expression meaning in the local dialect ``The Bastard Child Rock''. The ``Preta'' is basically composed by three rocks that were originated along of natural reasons from a single block of arenite in its upper part and of a rough conglomerate in the lower one: between the three rocks, two galleries (thereafter F and G) were thus formed. However, it is easy to see that the ``Preta'' was deeply modified by human intervention: large stones were wedged in exact position between the three original blocks or positioned as a cover. We found that F gallery has an astronomical azimuth of 359 deg and G gallery of 240 deg. Inside the measurement precision (1 deg), the galleries are thus respectively oriented to the meridian and to the sunset of the winter solstice. Furthermore, modern folklore associated to the rock seems to remind very ancient fertility rites. From a statistical analysis of the alignments and an archaeological study of the complex, we conclude that ``Preta 'ru Mulacchio'' is most probably a monument, dated to an epoch presently unknown but possibly preceding the Greek colonization of Cilento, built in order to determine with a high precision the winter solstice because of cerimonial reasons, probably connected with fertility rites.

  9. Geometric morphometric methods for bone reconstruction: the mandibular condylar process of Pico della Mirandola.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Stansfield, Ekaterina; Kullmer, Ottmar; Fiorenza, Luca; Gruppioni, Giorgio

    2009-08-01

    The issue of reconstructing lost or deformed bone presents an equal challenge in the fields of paleoanthropology, bioarchaeology, forensics, and medicine. Particularly, within the disciplines of orthodontics and surgery, the main goal of reconstruction is to restore or create ex novo the proper form and function. The reconstruction of the mandibular condyle requires restoration of articulation, occlusion, and mastication from the functional side as well as the correct shape of the mandible from the esthetic point of view. Meeting all these demands is still problematic for surgeons. It is unfortunate that the collaboration between anthropologists and medical professionals is still limited. Nowadays, geometric morphometric methods (GMM) are routinely applied in shape analysis and increasingly in the reconstruction of missing data in skeletal material in paleoanthropology. Together with methods for three-dimensional (3D) digital model construction and reverse engineering, these methods could prove to be useful in surgical fields for virtual planning of operations and the production of customized biocompatible scaffolds. In this contribution, we have reconstructed the missing left condylar process of the mandible belonging to a famous Italian humanist of the 15th century, Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) by means of 3D digital models and GMM, having first compared two methods (a simple reflection of the opposite side and the mathematical-statistical GMM approach) in a complete human mandible on which loss of the left condyle was virtually simulated. Finally, stereolithographic models of Pico's skull were prototyped providing the physical assembly of the bony skull structures with a high fitting accuracy. PMID:19645014

  10. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    González-Maya, José F; Víquez-R, Luis R; Belant, Jerrold L; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  11. The Tobosi Fault: Source of the 2011-2012 Tobosi Earthquake Swarm in Central Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M. C.; Linkimer, L.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Rojas, W.

    2014-12-01

    The Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) is a ~100 km broad zone of deformation that marks the boundary between the Caribbean Plate and the Panama Microplate. From December 2011 to February 2012 an earthquake swarm took place on a portion of the CCRDB, near the town of Tobosi, in the Cartago province. In this study, we use data recorded by the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) to relocate 22 of these earthquakes and calculate focal mechanisms. Additionally, we analyze the Tectonic Geomorphology of the region. Our results show a transtension structure near the town of Tobosi, which comprises at least three faults, named: the Tobosi, Tablon, and Alumbre faults. This structure is located only 5 km south of the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4). The earthquake locations analyzed are aligned with the Tobosi Fault. The events varied in moment magnitude between 2.4 and 3.9 Mw and depths of 1 and 8 km. The largest events were felt mainly in the town of Tobosi and as far as San Jose, the capital city of Costa Rica. We found that the Tobosi fault is an active left-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component and is the source of the Tobosi earthquake swarm. The study of active faults in Central Costa Rica is significant as it may greatly improve seismic hazards assessment for this region where most of the population and the main economic activities are concentrated.

  12. Educational Gradients in Psychotropic Medication Use Among Older Adults in Costa Rica and the United States†

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Marisa E.; Dow, William H.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship among education, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication use has been explored in the United States, but little is known about patterns in poorer countries, despite their high documented burden of mental illness. Educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic use were estimated in the United States and Costa Rica – a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Methods Analyses were conducted using data on older adults (ages 60+) in nationally representative surveys from each country: the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (n=4788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (n=2827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of lower educational attainment, income and urban residence on diagnosis and on psychotropic medication use with and without an associated mental illness diagnosis. Results Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the U.S. (12% U.S.; n=598) than in, Costa Rica (20%; n=526), but may reflect differences in survey wording. Measures of self-reported and screened depression decreased with education in both countries. Psychotropic medication use among those with diagnoses increased with education in Costa Rica only. Conclusions We find similar patterns of educational gradients in diagnosis and screening between the U.S. and Costa Rica, but different patterns of medication use by education. Differences in stigma and access to care may play an important role in explaining differences between the countries, though we did not find evidence that insurance affected educational gradients in the U.S. These analyses increase the evidence on the role of education in the use of the health care system. PMID:24932755

  13. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  14. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  15. Impact of Deforestation on Cloud Properties and Rainfall Over the Costa Rica-Nicaraguan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.

    2002-12-01

    The Nicaraguan-Costa Rican region in Central America exhibits the typical pattern of complex deforestation now seen throughout the tropics. The region is a mixture of lowland, mostly converted to agriculture, and mountainous regions, where pristine forests still persist. At present the northern fertile plains of Costa Rica are mostly utilized for agriculture. However in the adjacent regions of southern Nicaragua lowland forests are relatively intact. The extensive agricultural areas of northern Costa Rica is a region of discontinuity in the proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor which would connect the montane forests in Costa Rica to the lowland forests in Nicaragua. The present study is part of a larger study which investigates the effects of continuing lowland deforestation and associated regional climate change in Central America on the stability of the entire proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The present work focuses on the effects of land use on the formation of cloudiness, cloud properties and rainfall in the forested regions of southern Nicaragua and the deforested regions of northern Costa Rica. Land surface and cloud properties are retrieved using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data and products. The land surface properties retrieved are land surface temperature, albedo, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Available Soil Moisture fraction and surface energy fluxes. The cloud properties retrieved are cloud optical thickness and effective radii. In addition, the frequency of cumulus cloudiness on hourly basis are derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and rainfall is studied using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite products. The correlations between the surface properties, cloud properties, cumulus cloudiness and rainfall as a function of ecosystem and topography is

  16. A functional Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) interacting motif (SIM) in the gibberellin hormone receptor GID1 is conserved in cereal crops and disrupting this motif does not abolish hormone dependency of the DELLA-GID1 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Nelis, Stuart; Conti, Lucio; Zhang, Cunjin; Sadanandom, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Plants survive adversity by modulating their growth in response to changing environmental signals. The phytohormone Gibberellic acid (GA) plays a central role in regulating these adaptive responses by stimulating the degradation of growth repressing DELLA proteins which accumulate during stress. The current model for GA signaling describes how this hormone binds to its receptor GID1 so promoting association of GID1 with DELLA, which then undergoes ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. Recent data revealed that conjugation of DELLAs to the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) protein enables plants to modulate its abundance during environmental stress. This is achieved by SUMOylated DELLAs sequestering GID1 via its SUMO interacting motif (SIM) allowing non-SUMOylated DELLAs to accumulate leading to growth restraint under stress and potential yield loss. We demonstrate that GID1 proteins across the major cereal crops contain a functional SIM able to bind SUMO1. Site directed mutagenesis and yeast 2 hybrid experiments reveal that it is possible to disrupt the SIM-SUMO interaction motif without affecting the GA dependent DELLA–GID1 interaction and thereby uncoupling SUMO–mediated inhibition from DELLA degradation. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing a SIM mutant allele of GID1 perform better at relieving DELLA restraint than wild–type GID1. This evidence suggests that manipulating the SIM motif in the GA receptor may provide a possible route to developing stress tolerant crops plants. PMID:25761145

  17. Procera is a putative DELLA mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): effects on the seed and vegetative plant.

    PubMed

    Bassel, George W; Mullen, Robert T; Bewley, J Derek

    2008-01-01

    The procera (pro) mutant of tomato exhibits a well-characterized constitutive gibberellic acid (GA) response phenotype. The tomato DELLA gene LeGAI in the pro mutant background contains a point mutation that results in an amino acid change in the conserved VHVID putative DNA-binding domain in LeGAI to VHEID. This same point mutation is in four different genetic backgrounds exhibiting the pro phenotype, suggesting that this mutation co-segregates with the pro phenotype. Complementation of the mutant with a constitutively expressed wild-type LeGAI gene sequence was not conclusive due to the infertility of transgenic plants. The pro mutation alters tomato branching architecture through differential suppression of axillary bud development, indicating a role for DELLA proteins in the regulation of plant structure. Isolated gib-1 pro double mutant embryo axes, which are unable to synthesize GA, germinate faster than their wild-type counterparts, and exert greater embryo growth potential. The pro mutation is therefore regulating GA responses within the tomato embryo. Transient expression of a LeGAI-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein in onion epidermis results in its location to the nucleus, and this protein is rapidly degraded by the proteasome in the presence of GA. PMID:18250077

  18. A Cucumber DELLA Homolog CsGAIP May Inhibit Staminate Development through Transcriptional Repression of B Class Floral Homeotic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Bin; Yang, Sen; An, Jingbo; Chen, Chunhua; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ren, Huazhong

    2014-01-01

    In hermaphroditic Arabidopsis, the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) stimulates stamen development by opposing the DELLA repression of B and C classes of floral homeotic genes. GA can promote male flower formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a typical monoecious vegetable with unisexual flowers, and the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we characterized a DELLA homolog CsGAIP in cucumber, and we found that CsGAIP is highly expressed in stem and male flower buds. In situ hybridization showed that CsGAIP is greatly enriched in the stamen primordia, especially during the hermaphrodite stage of flower development. Further, CsGAIP protein is located in nucleus. CsGAIP can partially rescue the plant height, stamen development and fertility phenotypes of Arabidopsis rga-24/gai-t6 mutant, and ectopic expression of CsGAIP in wide-type Arabidopsis results in reduced number of stamens and decreased transcription of B class floral homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI). Our data suggest that monoecious CsGAIP may inhibit staminate development through transcriptional repression of B class floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:24632777

  19. The Montessori System of Education: An Examination of Characteristic Features Set Forth in Il Metodo Della Pedagogica Scientifica. Bulletin, 1912, No. 17. Whole Number 489

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anna Tolman

    1912-01-01

    The publication of "Il metodo della pedagogica scientifica," by Dr. Maria Montessori, docent in the University of Rome, giving a full account of the inception and development of the system of education of which she is the author and the simultaneous translation of the work into English and German are events so unusual as to challenge attention.…

  20. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  1. Tracking performance of the polarity-type costas loop at low SNR for UQPSK signal. [Unbalanced Quadri-PSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Y. H.

    1981-01-01

    Carrier tracking performance of the polarity type costas loop is analyzed for unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keyed (UQPSK) signals at low SNR. Squaring losses for various SNR, IF bandwidth, and data rate ratios are presented. The RMS phase jitter for a particular loop is computed for various I and Q channel power and data rate ratios. Experimental results using a breadboard costas loop are also included.

  2. "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" - Open Source based tools for preserving and culturally exploring historical traffic routes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Colombo, Massimo; Antonovic, Milan; Cardoso, Mirko; Delucchi, Andrea; Gianocca, Giancarlo; Brovelli, Maria Antonia

    2015-04-01

    "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" (The Via Regina Paths) is an Interreg project funded within the transnational cooperation program between Italy and Switzerland 2007-2013. The aim of this project is the preservation and valorization of the cultural heritage linked to the walking historically paths crossing, connecting and serving the local territories. With the approach of leveraging the already existing tools, which generally consist of technical descriptions of the paths, the project uses the open source geospatial technologies to deploy innovative solutions which can fill some of the gaps in historical-cultural tourism offers. The Swiss part, and particularly the IST-SUPSI team, has been focusing its activities in the realization of two innovative solutions: a mobile application for the survey of historical paths and a storytelling system for immersive cultural exploration of the historical paths. The former, based on Android, allows to apply in a revised manner a consolidated and already successfully used methodology of survey focused on the conservation of the historical paths (Inventory of historical traffic routes in Switzerland). Up to now operators could rely only on hand work based on a combination of notes, pictures and GPS devices synthesized in manually drawn maps; this procedure is error prone and shows many problems both in data updating and extracting for elaborations. Thus it has been created an easy to use interface which allows to map, according to a newly developed spatially enabled data model, paths, morphological elements, and multimedia notes. When connected to the internet the application can send the data to a web service which, after applying linear referencing and further elaborating the data, makes them available using open standards. The storytelling system has been designed to provide users with cultural insights embedded in a multimedial and immersive geospatial portal. Whether the tourist is exploring physically or virtually the desired

  3. Exploring the Notion That Subduction Erosion Has Removed or Submerged Costa Rica's Early Tertiary Arc Massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2007-05-01

    Arc igneous rocks of Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene age are widely exposed in the southern, coastal region of Panama (Lissinna et al., EGU abstract, 2006). These rocks intrude or overlie mafic basement rock of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) of Late Cretaceous age that extends to the east to underlie the Caribbean Basin and form the Caribbean plate. Immediately west of Panama, in coastal Costa Rica, exposures of CLIP basement are not intruded or overlain by arc magmatic rocks of early Tertiary age. EXPLANATIONS: Potentially, the early Tertiary subduction zone that dipped beneath the Pacific margin of Panama did not extend to the west, thus no arc magmatism occurred where Costa Rica presently exists. Alternatively, the subduction zone bordering the Pacific edge of the CLIP extended below Costa Rica but former exposures of early Tertiary arc magmatic rocks piled there have been erosionally removed or buried beneath Miocene and younger arc massifs of interior mountain belts. EXPLORING A SUBDUCTION EROSION EXPLANATION Onshore and offshore evidence documents that subduction erosion thins and truncates the submerged rock framework of the Middle and South America forearc. The eroded (removed) material is transported toward and into the mantle within the subduction channel separating the upper plate of the forearc and lower plate of the subducting oceanic crust. The long-term (greater than 10 Myr) rate of truncation (i. e., migration of the trench toward a fixed, onshore reference) averages 2 to 3 km/Myr. Because of the subduction of the aseismic Cocos Ridge beneath Costa Rica, during at least the past 4 to 5 Myr the rate of truncation at this margin has been much higher. It is proposed that during the past 50 Myr subduction erosion has truncated the Costa Rica forearc by at least 100 km and either obliterated or deeply submerged arc massifs of early Tertiary age. Their exposed presence to the east in neighboring Panama reflects the circumstance that since

  4. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  5. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads <500gm), can perform valuable systematic measurements of potential eruption hazards, as well as of volcano processes. Because they are economical, flexible, and effective, such platforms promise unprecedented capabilities for researchers and responders throughout Central and South America, undertaking volcanic data acquisitions uniquely suited to such small aircraft in close proximity to known hazards, or that were previously only available using full-sized manned aircraft. This work was

  6. The growth history of the Lago Della Vacca (Southern Adamello Massive, Italy) intrusion from field observations, thermal and rheological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, A.; Annen, C.; Blundy, J. D.; Caricchi, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Lago Della Vacca granitoid is an intrusive body emplaced at about 4-6 km in up to 1 My. The core of the body is characterised by the presence of dyke-like structures, enclave-swarms and randomly distributed enclaves, which appear undeformed. Enclaves become oblate with the short axis perpendicular to the foliation, which, in turn follows the margin of the plutonic body (John and Blundy, 1993). Geothermometry and experimental data have been used to constrain the temperature of injection of the mafic component (1273-1323 K), the temperature of the host granitic magma (1173-1223), and to characterise the evolution of crystallinity with temperature for both magmas (Blundy and Sparks, 1992). Based on these data thermal and rheological modelling have been combined to interpret the growth and deformation history of the Lago della Vacca intrusive body. The pluton was modeled as a series of incrementally emplaced nested cylinders with 1D-cylindrical conductive heat transfer. The evolution of temperature and melt fraction distribution in the pluton and country rock were determined and used as input parameters for the rheological modelling. The rheology of each magma depends on the viscosity of the melt and, more importantly, on crystallinity. Field observations suggest that the mafic magma was injected as dykes. Their partial or total disaggregation produced mafic enclaves. The presence of randomly distributed enclaves in the core of Lago Della Vacca body indicates that convection was active in this portion of the intrusion. The undeformed nature of the enclaves in this region also implies that the contrast in temperature between host magma and mafic material produced a sudden (hours) rheological inversion with the mafic magma becoming more viscous than the felsic end-member. In these conditions, the enclaves would be transported passively by the felsic-host without suffering any substantial deformation. Thermal modelling indicates that to maintain the core of the pluton

  7. Costa Rican environmental service payments: The use of a financial instrument in participatory forest management.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Miriam; Dieperink, Carel; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2006-10-01

    The core element of the Costa Rican forestry policy is a financial instrument called the environmental service payment. This instrument rewards forest owners for the environmental services (the mitigation of greenhouse gases, the protection of watersheds and scenic beauty, and the development of biodiversity) their forests provide. In this article, the experiences with this new instrument are analyzed by focusing on the way interests are represented and access is granted, the openness of information exchange, whether social learning occurred, and whether decision-making authority is shared. The analysis is based on a survey conducted in the Huetar Norte Region and on in-depth interviews with the major stakeholders. The Costa Rican case indicates that financial instruments can be used to share responsibilities and that stakeholders can successfully cooperate on forest issues. It also shows that such a participatory approach is only promising if certain cultural, economic, organizational, and political conditions are met. PMID:16933086

  8. Breeding habit of the toad Bufo coccifer in Costa Rica, with a description of the tadpole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Foster, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The breeding habits of Bufo coccifer were studied in northwestern Costa Rica between 1971 and 1974. This species breeds during the rainy season, at least from May through August. Males chorus from areas of shallow water. Their calls resemble those of Mexican representatives of the species in pulse rate and duration, but are closer to those of other Costa Rican and Panamanian populations in dominant frequency. Thus, our data do not clearly support recognition of Bufo cycladen as a distinct species for the Mexican populations. Amplexus is axillary, and two strings of eggs are extruded simultaneously during oviposition. Tadpoles, described for the first time in this paper, are secretive and do not aggregate. Development to metamorphosis requires about 5 weeks.

  9. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. I - Biphase Costas loop with passive arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    Unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) is an attractive means for transmitting two digital data streams which in general have different average powers, data rates, and data formats. Previous analyses of the tracking performance of Costas loop demodulators of unbalanced QPSK have accounted only for the filtering effect produced by the loop's two arm filters on the equivalent additive noise perturbing the loop. When the bandwidth of these filters is selected on the basis of the order of the data rate, as is typical of optimum Costas loop design, the filtering degradations of the data modulations themselves and the cross-modulation noise produced by their multiplication in the loop often cannot be neglected. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate these additional filtering effects into the analysis. Many of the results obtained herein are in the form of closed-form expressions which can easily be evaluated numerically for design and performance prediction purposes.

  10. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  11. [Sighting of Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin, in Culebra Bay, Costa Rica, 1999-2000].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Sáenz, Karina; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Parallel to a zooplankton study (1999-2000) observations were made (from an inflatable boat), on the presence of dolphins along a transect (-8 km long) on the axis of Culebra Bay (24 km2), Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Dolphins were found during 20 of the 31 boat surveys conducted. The only species of cetacean found in the bay was Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin. These sightings were more frequent during the rainy season, particularly during the month of May of both years. The presence of S. attenuata in Culebra Bay might be associated to the abundances of fish and mollusks (their presumed prey: for example, squids), as evidenced by fishery statistics available for this zone of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:17465137

  12. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  13. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most

  14. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, M.A.; Reus, V.I.; Smith, L.B.; Freimer, N.B.

    1996-05-31

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP). As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, should be suitable for LD mapping; this assertion is supported by reconstruction of extended haplotypes shared by distantly related individuals in this population suffering low-frequency hearing loss (LFHL1), which has previously been mapped by linkage analysis. A sampling strategy is described for applying LD methods to map genes for BP, and clinical and demographic characteristics of an initially collected sample are discussed. This sample will provide a complement to a previously collected set of Costa Rican BP families which is under investigation using standard linkage analysis. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. False lock performance in polarity-type Costas receivers in the presence of periodic data patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James June-Ming; Lai, Dennis Teng-Tsun; Heng, Veronica Siang-Gek; Godfrey, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors address the false-lock performance of receivers which use polarity-type Costas loops for the carrier recovery of unbalanced quadrature phase-shift keyed (QPSK), asynchronous QPSK or binary PSK (BPSK) signals in the presence of periodic data patterns. The potential false-lock frequencies are first identified. Expressions for both true-lock and false-lock components are also derived, thereby allowing numerical evaluation of various key parameters for cases of practical interest.

  16. A new genus and species of Coenosiini from Costa Rica (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Márcia Souto; de Carvalho, Claudio José Barros

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Palpilongus gen. n. is herein described for one species – Palpilongus bifurcus sp. n., from Costa Rica, based on male and females. The striking morphological characters of the species – palpus very long, about as long as prementum; upper calypter truncate and very short and setae of male sternite 5 bifurcated, confirm that this new species is also a new genus in the tribe Coenosiini. Male and female terminalia were dissected and illustrated. PMID:23950688

  17. Understanding key drivers controlling daily stable isotope variations in precipitation of Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Welsh, Kristin; Birkel, Christian; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Corrales-Salazar, Jose; Boll, Jan; Brooks, Erin; Roupsard, Olivier; Katchan, Irina; Arce-Mesén, Rafael; Soulsby, Chris; Araguás-Araguás, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives direct moisture inputs from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The relatively narrow, but high relief Central American land bridge is characterized by unique mountainous and lowland microclimates. However, only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition in this tropical region. Therefore, the main scope of this study is to identify the key drivers controlling variations in meteoric waters of Costa Rica using stable isotopes based on daily sample collection for the year 2013. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ d18O up to -0.9‰ d18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ d18O). HYSPLIT back air mass trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of two main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the Colombian Low Level Jet as well as localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that Lifted Condensation Level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to enhance catchment and groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management.

  18. Chemical quality of ground water in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical water-quality conditions were investigated in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties by canvassing available wells and sampling water from 324 representative wells. Chemical water types varied, with 73 percent of the wells sampled containing either calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, or calcium-sodium bicarbonate type water. Substantial areas contain ground water exceeding water-quality standards for boron, manganese, and nitrate. Trace elements, with the exception of boron and manganese, were present in negligible amounts. (USGS)

  19. The product is progress: rural electrification in Costa Rica. Project impact evaluation No. 22

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, G.; Goddard, P.O.; Gomez, G.; Harrison, P.

    1981-10-01

    Because Costa Rica had abundant hydroelectric potential and a government which was strongly committed to equitable growth, a considerable return was reaped from a relatively small investment in rural electrification (RE). This report details this success and A.I.D.'s contribution (1965-69). Aiming to diversify agriculture, increase income, expand agroindustry, and develop replicable RE cooperatives (REC's), the project produced positive but not wholly anticipated results.

  20. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:17182086

  1. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

  2. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989–2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  3. A new species of Erythrodiplax breeding in bromeliads in Costa Rica (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Haber, William A; Wagner, David L; De La Rosa, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species, Erythrodiplax laselva (Libellulidae), that breeds in bromeliads and Cochliostema (Commelinaceae) in the eastern lowlands of Costa Rica. The closest known relative is thought to be E. castanea, widespread in Central and South America, and not E. bromeliicola, which is known to breed in bromeliads in Cuba and Jamaica. The male, female, genitalia, and larva are described and illustrated. PMID:25947743

  4. Validity of the Addiction Severity Index (adapted version) in a Costa Rican population group.

    PubMed

    Sandí Esquivel, L E; Avila Corrales, K

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, no adapted and validated instrument was available for assessing the alcohol and drug problems of individuals in Costa Rica. This article reports the results of a study performed by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence in order to test an adapted version of one such instrument, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), in a Costa Rican setting. The instrument was used to interview 100 male subjects 18 to 64 years old (51 with diagnosed alcohol or drug problems and 49 controls). In general, the subjects with previously diagnosed alcohol or drug problems were assigned substantially higher scores. More specifically, statistical analysis indicated highly significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between the type of subject (test subject or control) and the likelihood that noteworthy problems would be found in the areas of alcohol use, family/social relations, work/finances, and psychological status. Overall, the study demonstrated that the instrument was capable of distinguishing between the affected and unaffected populations, and also of gauging the severity of the problems involved and the patients' treatment needs. PMID:2331561

  5. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Christopher; Nemeth, Nicole; Marineros, Leonel

    2006-09-01

    From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. PMID:18491633

  6. Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing. PMID:18507290

  7. Economic and public policy implications of energy pricing in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgoin, L.

    1986-01-01

    The methods used in examining the role of pricing in energy policy development may apply to many oil-importing countries with foreign exchange constraints. Data are developed by economic sectors on output plus on real factor inputs and factor wages for capital (by a perpetual inventory method), labor and useful energy (adjusted for efficiencies). A constant elasticity of substitution production model using 1965-1982 aggregate energy and nonenergy inputs is used to demonstrate the energy-economy linkages in Costa Rica. Estimates are from the best linear unbiased estimator and from the nonlinear system (structural form) of simultaneous equations jointly estimated by GLS multivariate methods. The elasticity of substitution is 0.98 using only energy source costs and about 0.87-0.89 using energy system costs. The macroeconomic impacts of energy taxation or subsidization in Costa Rica for the range of likely values of the elasticity of substitution suggest that a small energy tax would result in a net national economic gain. Eight energy policy proposals demand management interventions and supply-side enhancements) are formulated for Costa Rica and qualified for five broad criteria according to their likelihood of success. These are chosen since they are believed to promote socioeconomic efficiency, to be politically feasible, and to be administratively implementable; the anticipated degree of popular acceptance and the size of the impact vary.

  8. Economics of selected energy applications of peat in Panama and Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Ramirez E., O.; Ramirez, A.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the economic competitiveness of peat in Costa Rica and Panama. The cases examined were (1) electrical production in Panama, and (2) industrial boilers and cement plants in Costa Rica. Based on estimates of peat mining costs and the end-use costs we calculated for each application, the price of coal and oil at which the levelized life cycle cost of energy using peat was the same as that when coal or oil was used. We found that a peat-fueled power plant in Panama would be economic if the price of fuel oil was above $0.10 per liter and the cost of coal was above $40.00 per metric ton delivered. In Costa Rica, peat was competitive with fuel oil for large boilers (34,000 kg of steam per hour) when the cost of oil was above $0.10 per liter. For smaller boilers (5,000 kg of steam per hour) peat was cheaper than fuel oil when oil was above $0.08 per liter. Peat would be competitive in a cement plant when fuel oil prices were above $0.075 per liter. 5 figs.

  9. Tobacco industry success in Costa Rica: The importance of FCTC Article 5.3

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze how the tobacco industry influenced tobacco control policymaking in Costa Rica. Materials and Methods Review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation, newspaper articles, and interviewing of key informants. Results During the mid-to-late 1980s, Health Ministry issued several advanced (for their time) smoking restriction decrees causing British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris International (PMI) to strengthen their political presence there, resulting in passage of a weak 1995 law, which, as of August 2011, remained in effect. Since 1995 the industry has used Costa Rica as a pilot site for Latin American programs and has dominated policymaking by influencing the Health Ministry, including direct private negotiations with the tobacco industry which violate Article 5.3’s implementing guidelines of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Conclusions The Costa Rica experience demonstrates the importance of vigorous implementation of FCTC Article 5.3 which insulates public health policymaking from industry interference. PMID:22286826

  10. Neotectonics and Paleoseismology of the Aguacaliente and Navarro Faults, Central Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero Pohly, W. K.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Henar, J. A.; Alvarez, J. A.; Ínsua-Arévalo, J.; Rojas, W.; Linkimer, L.; Alvarado-Induni, G.

    2013-05-01

    The Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB), a complex system of active faults across central Costa Rica, defines the root of the Central America forearc sliver. The CCRDB includes predominantly north to northwest trending right-lateral faults and subsidiary east-west to northeast left-lateral faults. The location and the kinematics of two of the latter, the Aguacaliente and Navarro left-lateral faults have been investigated through geomorphic, earthquake and paleoseismologic data. The geomorphic analysis allows us to define several fault segments including transtensional and transpressive relays along the aforementioned faults. Two paleoseismologic trenches excavated along the Aguacaliente fault define three ruptures within the last 1000 years, the last one consistent with the May 4, 1910 earthquake (Ms 6.4), that destroyed the city of Cartago. The Aguacaliente fault has the potential to produce maximum magnitude earthquakes between 6.5 to 6.9, with an estimated recurrence interval of 270 ± 60 years and a short-term slip rate of 0.75 ±0.15 mm/yr. The Aguacaliente and Navarro faults represent the most hazardous seismic structures to the highly populated region of San José, the capital of Costa Rica.

  11. [Harmful blooms of cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriaceae) and dinoflagellates (Gymnodiniaceae) in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Montero, Maribelle; Freer, Enrique

    2004-09-01

    Recently, the Pacific coast of Costa Rica has experienced an increase in both magnitude and frequency of harmful algae blooms (HAB). The lack of data regarding the dynamics of these events in the area, and the species of microalgae that produce them, are themes of great interest. The blooms have produced negative impacts on fishery resources and on human health in Costa Rica. In May 2002 a HAB left a large number of dead fish along the central Pacific coast. Water samples were collected using a phytoplankton net and fixed for subsequent processing by electron microscopy. In addition, a one liter sample of surface water was taken for later cell count. In the observed HAB, the dominating organisms found were the cyanobacteria Trichodesmiun erythraeum surrounded by high concentrations of Gram-bacteria and the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides. T. erythraeum, is one of the most important N2 fixing cyanobacteria in marine waters that has been associated with HAB events in diverse parts of the world as well as with symptoms that produce contact dermatitis and other discomforts. C. cf. polykrikoides is a dinoflagellete associated with fish kills; although the type of associated toxins are unknown. In a national newspaper 17 cases of intoxication in humans were reported during this same period, which presented respiratory disorders and burning of the eyes. This is the first report in Costa Rica where a cyanobacteria and a dinoflagellate were observed together producing HAB. PMID:17465125

  12. A new species of Reithrodontomys, subgenus Aporodon (Cricetidae: Neotominae), from the highlands of Costa Rica, with comments on Costa Rican and Panamanian Reithrodontomys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Alfred L.; Carleton, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of the rodent genus Reithrodontomys (Cricetidae: Neotominae) is described from Cerro Asuncion in the western Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. The long tail, elongate rostrum, bulbous braincase, and complex molars of the new species associate it with members of the subgenus Aporodon, tenuirostris species group. In its diminutive size and aspects of cranial shape, the new species (Reithrodontomys musseri, sp. nov.) most closely resembles R. microdon, a form known from highlands in Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico. In the course of differentially diagnosing the new species, we necessarily reviewed the Costa Rican and Panamanian subspecies of R. mexicanus based on morphological comparisons, study of paratypes and vouchers used in recent molecular studies, and morphometric analyses. We recognize Reithrodontomys cherrii (Allen, 1891) and R. garichensis finders and Pearson, 1940, as valid species, and allocate R. mexicanus potrerograndei Goodwin, 1945, as a subjective synonym of R. brevirostris Goodwin, 1943. Critical review of museum specimens collected subsequent to Hooper's (1952) revision is needed and would do much to improve understanding of Reithrodontomys taxonomy and distribution in Middle America.

  13. Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 (Bryozoa), a new occurrence in the archipelago of the Azores (North-Eastern Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Amat, Jaen Nieto; Tempera, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    The new occurrence of the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 is herein recorded in multiple places throughout Azores archipelago. Where introduced, this species has caused important ecological and economical damage and therefore is regarded as invasive. In the Azores, no detrimental effects have yet been noted. The species is so far restricted to marinas (Horta, Faial Island; Vila Franca do Campo, São Miguel Island) and a natural coastal pool located near a secondary harbour (Lajes do Pico, Pico Island). A total of 29 colonies were counted during a specific survey conducted in August 2008 in the marina of Horta. The distribution of the species throughout the eastern and central island groups denotes a wide dispersion area and offers control or eradication measures a low probability of success together with the lack of harbour management practices that could effectively prevent the arrival, settlement and dispersal of non-native species transported by human-assisted means. PMID:19303606

  14. The Palazzo della Ragione in Padua: Representation and Communication of Art, Architecture, and Astrology of a Civic Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgherini, M.; Garbin, E.

    2011-06-01

    Eight centuries of the history of art and of Padua's scientific and technological culture deposited on the stones and frescoes of its Palace of Law ("Palazzo della Ragione") make this great work of urban architecture a part of the city's collective identity. This "palimpsest", legible only to a restricted circle of specialists, should be accessible to a vaster public interested in understanding this object symbol of local culture. The project planned for interactive exploration on the web is a series of digital models, employing tomographic-endoscopic visualizations and, in future, multi-resolution images. The various models devised allow the visitor to superimpose the Palace's current conditions on the various transformations undergone over the centuries. Similarly, comparisons can be made between the astrological fresco cycle with maps of the heavens, cosmological hypotheses, ancient and contemporary astrological treatises, and the related exchange of knowledge between the Orient and the Occident.

  15. Molecular interactions of a soluble gibberellin receptor, GID1, with a rice DELLA protein, SLR1, and gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Katoh, Etsuko; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Asano, Kenji; Saji, Shoko; Hongyu, Xiang; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kitano, Hidemi; Yamaguchi, Isomaro; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2007-07-01

    GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) encodes a soluble gibberellin (GA) receptor that shares sequence similarity with a hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Previously, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay revealed that the GID1-GA complex directly interacts with SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor protein in GA signaling. Here, we demonstrated, by pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments, that the GA-dependent GID1-SLR1 interaction also occurs in planta. GA(4) was found to have the highest affinity to GID1 in Y2H assays and is the most effective form of GA in planta. Domain analyses of SLR1 using Y2H, gel filtration, and BiFC methods revealed that the DELLA and TVHYNP domains of SLR1 are required for the GID1-SLR1 interaction. To identify the important regions of GID1 for GA and SLR1 interactions, we used many different mutant versions of GID1, such as the spontaneous mutant GID1s, N- and C-terminal truncated GID1s, and mutagenized GID1 proteins with conserved amino acids replaced with Ala. The amino acid residues important for SLR1 interaction completely overlapped the residues required for GA binding that were scattered throughout the GID1 molecule. When we plotted these residues on the GID1 structure predicted by analogy with HSL tertiary structure, many residues were located at regions corresponding to the substrate binding pocket and lid. Furthermore, the GA-GID1 interaction was stabilized by SLR1. Based on these observations, we proposed a molecular model for interaction between GA, GID1, and SLR1. PMID:17644730

  16. Geophysic data interperetation of Passo della Morte landslide: Eastern Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppe', G.; Costa, G.; Marcato, G.; Forte, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Passo della Morte block-slide covers a relative large area in the Carnic Alps, along the left side of the Tagliamento River, between Forni di Sotto and Ampezzo (N-E of Italy). The high seismicity and the presence of the landslide increase the risk associated to the interest area. Moreover the large volume of material involved in the landslide (a few million of cubic meters), the presence of important infrastructure such as the road and two tunnels which cross the landslide, as well as the presence of the Tagliamento River that flow at the foot of the landslide, make the area very vulnerable. This study concerns with the western part of the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD). It focuses on the potential instability of a rock slope (crossed by road tunnels) and its connection with the DSGSD activity. The main objectives of this study are: monitoring the rock mass movement, studying the seismic site effect and defining the stratigraphic and geological characteristics of involved materials. Two vibration sensors have been installed inside the potential landslide: a short-period seismometer and a piezoelectric transducer. The microseismic activity recorded by the sensors has been analyzed, with particular regard to periods characterized by rapid changes in recorded seismic signals, and then correlated with the precipitation trend to evaluate the existence of a possible correlation between these phenomena. The microseismic activity study has highlighted the existence of a close link between microseisms and acoustic emissions recorded respectively by the seismometer and by the piezoelectric transducer. In addition, the comparison with the rainfall pattern has shown a direct relationship between different rainfall events and the sharp increase of microseismic activity detected by the two instruments. The correlation is good, even if acoustic emissions appear to be more sensitive than microseisms to short duration and low intensity rainfall events. The

  17. Human impact and Holocene climatic change in the archaeological site 'Piani della Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelle, Teresa; Scarciglia, Fabio; La Russa, Mauro F.; Natali, Elena; Tinè, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    A pedoarchaeological study was carried out in the archaeological site "Piani della Corona", located on a wide terrace at 500 m a.s.l. along the southwestern coast of Calabria, in southern Italy. The archaeological excavations exhumed an extensive settlement related to old to medium Bronze Age phases and traces of late Neolithic human colonization. On the basis of archaeological finds the pedostratigraphic succession can be partly dated. It consists of soils with variable features and andic properties, which include yellowish-brown (in places more reddish), deep argillic (Bt) horizons with variable amounts of clay coatings in pores and dark brown infillings of soil material rich in organic matter, in places overlaid by thin, severely truncated, brown to dark brown, organic-mineral (A) horizons. These layers include late Neolithic ceramic artefacts (Diana style facies) and typical incineration burials found in biconical vases, that can be referred to 6500-5000 years BP. The prehistoric layers are widely overlaid and strongly superimposed by a paleosurface of the early to medium Bronze age. This surface is affected by many pole holes left by large rectangular, apsidal wooden huts (not preserved), ploughed furrows, excavated cisterns, ditches and trenches, often filled by organic-rich dark brown material. Also hearths with charcoal remains, burials, vases and other diagnostic ceramic fragments occur. The upper portion of the pedostratigraphic succession consists of thicker brown A horizons, that appear cyclically ploughed during historical times (archaeologically not well dated as a consequence of their reworking for agricultural practices), with abrupt irregular boundaries often entering the underlying horizons. Micromorphological observations confirmed the presence of clay coatings within pores of Bt horizons, showing that they represent relict features (i.e. related to inactive illuvial processes, at present), as often fragmented and with smooth-banded to grainy

  18. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H

    2016-02-01

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States' poor health performance. The United States' underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica's lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica's overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension. PMID:26729886

  19. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients

    PubMed Central

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States’ poor health performance. The United States’ underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica’s lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica’s overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension. PMID:26729886

  20. Tersilochinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Costa Rica, Part 2. Genera Megalochus gen. nov. and Stethantyx Townes.

    PubMed

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Broad, Gavin R

    2013-01-01

    Two Costa Rican genera, Megalochus gen. nov. and Stethantyx Townes, are revised. These genera comprise a distinctive generic group that we refer to as the Stethantyx genus-group, veins Rs+2r and Rs angled more than 90 degrees, vein 2rs-m and abscissa of M between 2rs-m and 2m-cu not or very weakly thickened, hind wing with vein cul&cu-a (nervellus) more or less vertical, and prepectal carina with upper end not reaching anterior margin of mesopleuron, continuing above and backwards to the subtegular ridge. Both genera include medium sized to large species with body length 4.0 to 15.0 mm. Megalochus comprises only the type species, M. grandis sp. nov., occurring in Costa Rica, Ecuador and southern Brazil. It is the largest representative of the subfamily, with a body length of 10.5 to 15.0 mm. Megalochus differs from Stethantyx, besides the larger body size, by the slenderer first metasomal segment, which is round in cross-section and lacking glymmae, propodeum and metapleuron with coarse rugae, and shortened antennae with strongly transverse flagellomeres. Stethantyx is the dominant, most species-rich genus in the Costa Rican tersilochine fauna and probably in the Neotropical region. Twenty two species of this genus were discovered in Costa Rica, all are new: S. alajuela sp. nov., S. altamira sp. nov., S. aprica sp. nov., S. cacaoensis sp. nov., S. cartagoa sp. nov., S. cecilia sp. nov., S. curvator sp. nov., S. guanacasteca sp. nov., S. heredia sp. nov., S. limona sp. nov., S. mesoscutator sp. nov., S. niger sp. nov., S. nigrofemorata sp. nov., S. notaulator sp. nov., S. orosia sp. nov., S. osa sp. nov., S. propodeator sp. nov., S. pseudoorosia sp. nov., S. pseudoosa sp. nov., S. puntarenasa sp. nov., S. sanjosea sp. nov. and S. tenoriosa sp. nov. A key for distinguishing the genera Megalochus and Stethantyx, and a key to 22 Costa Rican species of Stethantyx are provided. PMID:26185846

  1. New records of benthic marine algae and Cyanobacteria for Costa Rica, and a comparison with other Central American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecker, Andrea; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of an intensive sampling program carried out from 2000 to 2007 along both coasts of Costa Rica, Central America. The presence of 44 species of benthic marine algae is reported for the first time for Costa Rica. Most of the new records are Rhodophyta (27 spp.), followed by Chlorophyta (15 spp.), and Heterokontophyta, Phaeophycea (2 spp.). Overall, the currently known marine flora of Costa Rica is comprised of 446 benthic marine algae and 24 Cyanobacteria. This species number is an under estimation, and will increase when species of benthic marine algae from taxonomic groups where only limited information is available (e.g., microfilamentous benthic marine algae, Cyanobacteria) are included. The Caribbean coast harbors considerably more benthic marine algae (318 spp.) than the Pacific coast (190 spp.); such a trend has been observed in all neighboring countries. Compared to other Central American countries, Costa Rica has the highest number of reported benthic marine algae; however, Panama may have a similarly high diversity after unpublished results from a Rhodophyta survey (Wysor, unpublished) are included. Sixty-two species have been found along both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica; we discuss this result in relation to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus.

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called “King Medicine”. Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis. PMID:26694378

  3. Dominant and pleiotropic effects of a GAI gene in wheat results from a lack of interaction between DELLA and GID1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Kong, Xiuying; Wan, Jianmin; Liu, Xueying; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Zhou, Ronghua; Zhao, Guangyao; Jing, Ruilian; Fu, Xiangdong; Jia, Jizeng

    2011-12-01

    Dominance, semidominance, and recessiveness are important modes of Mendelian inheritance. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates many plant growth and developmental processes. The previously cloned semidominant GA-insensitive (GAI) genes Reduced height1 (Rht1) and Rht2 in wheat (Triticum aestivum) were the basis of the Green Revolution. However, no completely dominant GAI gene has been cloned. Here, we report the molecular characterization of Rht-B1c, a dominant GAI allele in wheat that confers more extreme characteristics than its incompletely dominant alleles. Rht-B1c is caused by a terminal repeat retrotransposons in miniature insertion in the DELLA domain. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that Rht-B1c protein fails to interact with GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), thereby blocking GA responses and resulting in extreme dwarfism and pleiotropic effects. By contrast, Rht-B1b protein only reduces interaction with GID1. Furthermore, we analyzed its functions using near-isogenic lines and examined its molecular mechanisms in transgenic rice. These results indicated that the affinity between GID1 and DELLA proteins is key to regulation of the stability of DELLA proteins, and differential interactions determine dominant and semidominant gene responses to GA. PMID:22010107

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called "King Medicine". Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis. PMID:26694378

  5. A mineral reconnaissance sampling manual for Costa Rica: Central American energy and resoure project. Manual para muestreo en el reconocimiento mineral de Costa Rica: Proyecto Centroamericano de energia y recursos naturales

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.

    1987-06-01

    This manual describes field procedures for the collection of stream-sediment and rock samples as part of the Mineral Resource Assessment of Costa Rica. It provides guidelines to be followed by personnel collecting, treating, or otherwise handling samples taken as part of this program. The objectives of the manual are to ensure that all samples are collected uniformly and consistent techniques are employed throughout the program. If this is done, the data from this study can be used to identify areas with potential for mineralization. This manual can also be used as a guideline for future geochemical sampling programs in Costa Rica.

  6. CompCytogen of two of the smallest Amazonian fishes: Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996 and Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996 (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, E.R.; Ribeiro, L.B.; Feldberg, E.; Hrbek, I.P. Farias T.; Gross, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965is comprized of five valid species (Fluviphylax pygmaeus Myers et Carvalho, 1955, Fluviphylax zonatus, Fluviphylax simplex, Fluviphylax obscurus Costa, 1996,and Fluviphylax palikur Costa et Le Bail, 1999), which are endemic to the Amazon region. These fishes are the smallest known South American vertebrates and among the smallest know vertebrates on Earth. All species but the type Fluviphylax pygmaeus have been described in late 1990’s, and much remains unknown about the biology, taxonomy and systematics of this group of fishes. The aims of the present study were to establish the diploid and haploid number of Fluviphylax zonatus and Fluviphylax simplex, and to find species-specific markers for the discrimination of taxa. The diploid number for both species was 48 chromosomes, with no sex chromosome heteromorphism. Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited the karyotypic formula 4m+8sm+22st+14a and FN=82, and Fluviphylax simplex exhibited 4m+16sm+18st+10a and FN=86. The determination of the total mean length of the chromosomes and their grouping into five size classes demonstrated different chromosome composition of the two species. This difference was further supported by the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. The meiotic analysis revealed 24 bivalents in both species, but Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited chromosomes with late pairing of the telomeric portions in the pachytene. These data reveal that cytogenetic characterization is useful and important for the discrimination of these species. Our study further indicates that this method could be employed in the analysis of other species of small fishes that are difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological traits or are morphologically cryptic. PMID:24260645

  7. Costa Rica’s implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control. PMID:26879509

  8. Cryptic species within cryptic moths: new species of Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Isidro A; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; J Bolling Sullivan; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Based on almost 1,700 recently reared and wild-collected specimens, the genus Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaelinae) in Costa Rica is reviewed. Eight species are recorded of which seven are newly described: Dunama jessiehillae Chacón, Dunama jessiebarronae Chacón, Dunama janewaldronae Chacón, Dunama jessiebancroftae Chacón, Dunama janecoxae Chacón, Dunama biosise Chacón, Dunama indereci Chacón. Dunama angulinea Schaus is redescribed and associated with its correct genitalia. Dunama tuna (Schaus), previously listed as ocurring in Costa Rica, is restricted to Colombia. Most species are described through their distinctive CO1 barcodes, genitalia and life histories. Dunama adults and caterpillars, their foodplants, and their parasites in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica are described where known. Many life history stages are illustrated. PMID:23730176

  9. Cryptic species within cryptic moths: new species of Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Chacón, Isidro A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; J. Bolling Sullivan; Hajibabaei,  Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Based on almost 1,700 recently reared and wild-collected specimens, the genus Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaelinae) in Costa Rica is reviewed. Eight species are recorded of which seven are newly described: Dunama jessiehillae Chacón, Dunama jessiebarronae Chacón, Dunama janewaldronae Chacón, Dunama jessiebancroftae Chacón, Dunama janecoxae Chacón, Dunama biosise Chacón, Dunama indereci Chacón. Dunama angulinea Schaus is redescribed and associated with its correct genitalia. Dunama tuna (Schaus), previously listed as ocurring in Costa Rica, is restricted to Colombia. Most species are described through their distinctive CO1 barcodes, genitalia and life histories. Dunama adults and caterpillars, their foodplants, and their parasites in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica are described where known. Many life history stages are illustrated. PMID:23730176

  10. Economic characteristics of the peat deposits of Costa Rica: preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.D. Malavassi, L.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Mora, S.; Alverado, A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent field and laboratory studies have established the presence of numerous extensive peat deposits in Costa Rica. Three of these were selected for initial investigation: (1) the cloud-forest histosols of the Talamanca Mountain Range; (2) the Rio Medio Queso flood plain deposits near the northern Costa Rican border; and (3) a tropical jungle swamp deposit on the northeastern coastal plain. In the Talamanca area, 29 samples were collected from eight sites. Due to the high moisture and cool temperatures of the cloud forest, the peats in this area form blanket-like deposits (generally <1 meter thick) over a wide area (>150 km/sup 2/). These peats are all highly decomposed (avg. 28% fiber), high in ash (avg. 21%), and extensively bioturbated. Relative to all other sites visited, these peats are lowest in moisture (avg. 84%), pH (avg. 4.4), fixed carbon (avg. 23%), and sulfur (avg. 0.2%). However, they have the highest bulk densities (avg. 0.22 g/cc), volatile matter contents (avg. 55%), and nitrogen. Their heating value averaged 7700 BTUs/lb., dry. In the Rio Medio Queso area, 28 samples were collected, representing one transect of the 70 km/sup 2/ flood plain. The peats here occurred in several layers (each <1-1/2 meters thick), interfingering with river flood plain sediments. These peats have the highest calorific values (avg. 8000 BTUs/lb., dry), fixed carbon (avg. 30%), and ash (avg. 22%) and have an average pH of 5.4 and a bulk density of 0.20 g/cc. These results represent only the first part of a long-term, extensive survey of Costa Rica's peat resources. However, they suggest that large, economically-significant peat deposits may be present in this country. 5 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Breast Cancer Characteristics and Survival in a Hispanic Population of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Srur-Rivero, Nadia; Cartin-Brenes, Mayra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer characteristics may vary according to the patient’s ethnic group. The goal of this cohort study was to evaluate the characteristics of a group of Costa Rican breast cancer patients and their relationship with survival. METHODS Age, stage, tumor grade, immunohistochemistry, lymphovascular invasion, recurrence, and survival data on 199 Hispanic patients with breast cancer diagnosis, treated between January 2009 and May 2010, were collected from a single institution in San Jose, Costa Rica. The data were statistically analyzed for significance. RESULTS Median age at diagnosis was 53 years. With a median follow-up of 46.5 months, there was an 88% overall survival rate. Thirty-seven percent of the patients (p < 0.001) were at stages III and IV during diagnosis. The hormone receptor human epidermal receptor negative phenotype (HR−HER2−) (p < 0.001) was present in 17% of the cases. In a multivariate analysis, local (risk ratio, RR: 7.2; confidence interval, CI 95%: 3.8–7.6; p = 0.06) and distant recurrence (RR: 14.9; CI 95%: 7.7–28.9; p = 0.01) showed the strongest association with the probability of death from the disease. Patients with HR−HER2− phenotype tumors reported more local recurrences (p = 0.04), a higher tumor grade (p < 0.01), and lower overall survival than patients with other breast cancer phenotypes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Although this study analyzes a modest number of cases, it is an initial insight into factors that may contribute to differences in breast cancer outcomes among Hispanic women in Costa Rica. The higher proportion of triple negative tumors, advanced stage, and younger median age at diagnosis could contribute to the inferior prognostic described among Hispanic women. There may be a different distribution of tumor subtypes compared to non-Hispanic white women. Further studies are necessary to confirm such findings. PMID:25125980

  12. The annual cycle and biological effects of the Costa Rica Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Paul C.

    2002-02-01

    The Costa Rica Dome is similar to other tropical thermocline domes in several respects: it is part of an east-west thermocline ridge associated with the equatorial circulation, surface currents flow cyclonically around it, and its seasonal evolution is affected by large-scale wind patterns. The Costa Rica Dome is unique because it is also forced by a coastal wind jet. Monthly climatological fields of thermocline depth and physical forcing variables (wind stress curl and surface current divergence) were analyzed to examine the structure and seasonal evolution of the dome. The annual cycle of the dome can be explained by wind forcing in four stages: (1) coastal shoaling of the thermocline off the Gulf of Papagayo during February-April, forced by Ekman pumping on the equatorward side of the Papagayo wind jet; (2) separation from the coast during May-June when the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) moves north to the countercurrent thermocline ridge, the wind jet stops, and the North Equatorial Countercurrent extends toward the coast on the equatorward flank of the ridge; (3) countercurrent thermocline ridging during July-November, when the dome expands to the west as the countercurrent thermocline ridge shoals beneath a band of cyclonic wind stress curl on the poleward side of the ITCZ; and (4) deepening during December-January when the ITCZ moves south and strong trade winds blow over the dome. Coastal eddies may be involved in the coastal shoaling observed during February-March. A seasonally predictable, strong, and shallow thermocline makes the Costa Rica Dome a distinct biological habitat where phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass are higher than in surrounding tropical waters. The physical structure and biological productivity of the dome affect the distribution and feeding of whales and dolphins, probably through forage availability.

  13. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  14. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ERβ-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ERβ-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

  15. Effect of hydrothermal circulation on slab dehydration for the subduction zone of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; Harris, Robert N.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of subducting oceanic plates is associated with mantle wedge melting, arc volcanism, intraslab earthquakes through dehydration embrittlement, and the flux of water into the mantle. In this study, we present two-dimensional thermal models of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone to investigate dehydration reactions within the subducting Cocos plate. Seismic and geochemical observations indicate that the mantle wedge below Nicaragua is more hydrated than that below Costa Rica. These trends have been hypothesized to be due to a variation in either the thermal state or the hydration state of the subducting slab. Despite only small variations in plate age along strike, heat flow measurements near the deformation front reveal significantly lower heat flow offshore Nicaragua than offshore Costa Rica. These measurements are interpreted to reflect an along-strike change in the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. We parameterize thermal models in terms of efficient and inefficient hydrothermal circulation and explore their impact on slab temperature in the context of dehydration models. Relative to models without fluid flow, efficient hydrothermal circulation reduces slab temperature by as much at 60 °C to depths of ∼75 km and increases the predicted depth of eclogitization by ∼15 km. Inefficient hydrothermal circulation has a commensurately smaller influence on slab temperatures and the depth of eclogitization. For both regions, the change in eclogitization depth better fits the observed intraslab crustal seismicity, but there is not a strong contrast in the slab thermal structure or location of the main dehydration reactions. Consistent with other studies, these results suggest that observed along-strike differences in mantle wedge hydration may be better explained by a northwestward increase in the hydration state of the Cocos plate before it is subducted.

  16. [Phytogeography of dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas Ulate, G

    2001-03-01

    The dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica is mapped. Plant community distribution is intimately related to the type of relief, soils and humidity. In the upper parts of the meseta, characterised by soils which are stony, sandy, and acidic, herbacious vegetation such as savanna and edaphic steppe is dominant. By contrast, woodland is found on the deep and organically rich soils of the valley floors. Within the herbaceous formations dwarf varieties of Byrsonima crassifolia (nance), Curatella americana (raspa guacal) and Quercus oleoides (encino) are found because of the acid and infertile soils. PMID:11795151

  17. Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, unawareness and treatment among Costa Rican elderly

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Chacón, Ericka; Santamaría-Ulloa, Carolina; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Background Reliable information on the prevalence of hypertension is crucial in the development of health policies for prevention, control, and early diagnosis of this condition. This study describes the prevalence of hypertension among Costa Rican elderly, and identifies co-factors associated with its prevalence, unawareness and treatment. Methods The prevalence of hypertension is estimated for the Costa Rican elderly. Measurement error is assessed, and factors associated with high blood pressure are explored. Data for this study came from a nationally representative sample of about 2,800 individuals from CRELES (Costa Rica: Longevity and Healthy Aging Study). Two blood pressure measures were collected using digital monitors. Self reports of previous diagnosis, and medications taken were also recorded as part of the study. Results No evidence of information bias was found among interviewers, or over time. Hypertension prevalence in elderly Costa Ricans was found to be 65% (Males = 60%, Females = 69%). Twenty-five percent of the studied population did not report previous diagnoses of hypertension, but according to our measurement they had high blood pressure. The proportion of unaware men is higher than the proportion of unaware women (32% vs. 20%). The main factors associated with hypertension are: age, being overweight or obese, and family history of hypertension. For men, current smokers are 3 times more likely to be unaware of their condition than non smokers. Both men and women are less likely to be unaware of their condition if they have a family history of hypertension. Those women who are obese, diabetic, have suffered heart disease or stroke, or have been home visited by community health workers are less likely to be unaware of their hypertension. The odds of being treated are higher in educated individuals, those with a family history of hypertension, elderly with diabetes or those who have had heart disease. Conclusion Sex differences in terms of

  18. Organization of an information system for food and nutrition programmes in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Valverde, V; Rojas, Z; Vinocur, P; Payne, P; Thomson, A

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the information needed for multidisciplinary planning aimed at reducing nutritional deprivation in Costa Rica. In recent years, an approach has been developed for organizing data and information so as to define and described target groups of households. The development of a functional classification, a central activity of the Sistema de Información en Nutrición (SIN), is described and a preliminary description of the population groups affected by malnutrition presented. The major objectives of SIN are outlined and the possibilities of applying the same system to other countries discussed. PMID:7327298

  19. Description of Pratylenchus gutierrezi n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Coffee in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. Morgan; López Ch., Róger; Vílchez R., Hernán

    1992-01-01

    A lesion nematode, Pratylenchus gutierrezi n. sp., collected from the roots of coffee in the Central Plateau of Costa Rica, is described and illustrated. Its relationships to Pratylenchus flakkensis, P. similis, and P. gibbicaudatus, the only other species of the genus having two head annules, males, or spermatheca with sperm, and an annulated tail terminus, is discussed. Other distinctive characters are its posterior vulva (mean of 80%); its prominently rounded stylet knobs, low head, and subcylindrical tail. SEM observations provide additional details of females and males, especially face views, which show for the first time sexual dimorphism. PMID:19282999

  20. Chemical analyses for selected wells in San Joaquin County and part of Contra Costa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeter, Gail L.

    1980-01-01

    The study area of this report includes the eastern valley area of Contra Costa County and all of San Joaquin County, an area of approximately 1,600 square miles in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. Between December 1977 and December 1978, 1,489 wells were selectively canvassed. During May and June in 1978 and 1979, water samples were collected for chemical analysis from 321 of these wells. Field determinations of alkalinity, conductance, pH, and temperature were made, and individual constituents were analyzed. This report is the fourth in a series of baseline data reports on wells in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. (USGS)

  1. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae)

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro P. L.; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 – Metagovea ligiae sp. n. – is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovea ligiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family. PMID:25685003

  2. Integrated power sector efficiency analysis: A case study of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Analysis of power sector efficiency improvements for an integrated utility planning process in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Annual Proxy Records from Tropical Cloud Forest Trees in the Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Evans, M. N.; Wheelwright, N. T.; Schrag, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    The extinction of the Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) from Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest prompted research into the causes of ecological change in the montane forests of Costa Rica. Subsequent analysis of meteorological data has suggested that warmer global surface and tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures contribute to an observed decrease in cloud cover at Monteverde. However, while recent studies may have concluded that climate change is already having an effect on cloud forest environments in Costa Rica, without the context provided by long-term climate records, it is difficult to confidently conclude that the observed ecological changes are the result of anthropogenic climate forcing, land clearance in the lowland rainforest, or natural variability in tropical climate. To address this, we develop high-resolution proxy paleoclimate records from trees without annual rings in the Monteverde Cloud Forest in Costa Rica. Calibration of an age model in these trees is a fundamental prerequisite for proxy paleoclimate reconstructions. Our approach exploits the isotopic seasonality in the δ18O of water sources (fog versus rainfall) used by trees over the course of a single year. Ocotea tenera individuals of known age and measured annual growth increments were sampled in long-term monitored plantation sites in order to test this proposed age model. High-resolution (200μm increments) stable isotope measurements on cellulose reveal distinct, coherent δ18O cycles of 6 to 10‰. The calculated growth rates derived from the isotope timeseries match those observed from basal growth increment measurements. Spatial fidelity in the age model and climate signal is examined by using multiple cores from multiple trees and multiple sites. These data support our hypothesis that annual isotope cycles in these trees can be used to provide chronological control in the absence of rings. The ability of trees to record interannual climate variability in local hydrometeorology

  5. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

    2012-01-01

    The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  6. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana. PMID:17354401

  7. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M. Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  8. Characterization of volatiles in Costa Rican guava [Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg) Niedenzu] fruit.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Marbot, Rolando; Vázquez, Carlos

    2002-10-01

    Volatile compounds were isolated from Costa Rican guava fruit by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction according to the Likens-Nickerson method. Compounds were identified by capillary GC-MS and sensorially characterized by sniffing-GC. One hundred and seventy-three components were identified in the aroma concentrate, from which (E)-beta-caryophyllene, alpha-terpineol, alpha-pinene, alpha-selinene, beta-selinene, delta-cadinene, 4,11-selinadiene, and alpha-copaene were found to be the major constituents. The amounts of aliphatic esters and terpenic compounds were thought to contribute to the unique flavor of this fruit. PMID:12358475

  9. [Intellectual property rights in Costa Rica in the light of the Biodiversity Convention].

    PubMed

    Salazar, R; Cabrera, J A

    1996-04-01

    This report analyzes intellectual property rights and acquisition of biological samples in light of the Biological Diversity Convention, with emphasis on Costa Rica. It examines the legal framework which exists for the protection of biological resources in this country, especially evaluating the law regarding protection of biota, which was approved in 1992. This includes information regarding access to genetic resources, and regulation for the aforementioned law. It examines the Biological Diversity Convention which was signed at the Rio Summit in 1992, whose objectives and goals, above all, emphasize the subject of distribution of benefits to be derived from the utilization of biological resources. PMID:9213615

  10. Evaluation of stream sediments in areas of known mineralization, San Jose and Talamanca Quadrangles, Costa Rica: An orientation survey

    SciTech Connect

    Arauz, A.J.

    1986-12-01

    Costa Rica's compressional island arc-type tectonic setting and considerable geologic diversity hold great promise for future discovery of economic metallic deposits. The study constitutes an orientation investigation of stream sediment sampling techniques to establish optimum survey specifications for the regional geochemical survey coverage of the country. The study was conducted in two separate areas of known mineralization which represent distinctive tropical environments and different metallogenic provinces within Costa Rica: (1) the Esparza Area, which contains the Santa Clara Gold Mine, the largest in the country, and (2) the San Isidro Area, which contains a major copper prospect.

  11. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida) as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, G; Sánchez-Monge, A

    2015-11-01

    Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884) was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845). This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM) of the specimens are given. PMID:26628232

  12. On the false lock behavior of polarity-type Costas loops with Manchester coded input. [for Space Shuttle Orbiter communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A modification of a Costas loop is described, and the false lock behavior of this system is studied. The modified Costas loop hard limits the output of the in-phase channel, replaces the analog multiplier with a chopper-type device, and is equipped with single-pole arm filters in the loop. The false lock behavior associated with the use of Manchester coded data is investigated; the results can be applied to the assessment of the false lock margin on the Ku-band uplink to the Space Shuttle Orbiter through the TURSS.

  13. A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated

  14. DELLA Proteins and Their Interacting RING Finger Proteins Repress Gibberellin Responses by Binding to the Promoters of a Subset of Gibberellin-Responsive Genes in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongmoo; Nguyen, Khoa Thi; Park, Eunae; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Choi, Giltsu

    2013-01-01

    DELLA proteins, consisting of GA INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR OF GA1-3, RGA-LIKE1 (RGL1), RGL2, and RGL3, are central repressors of gibberellin (GA) responses, but their molecular functions are not fully understood. We isolated four DELLA-interacting RING domain proteins, previously designated as BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 INTERACTOR (BOI), BOI-RELATED GENE1 (BRG1), BRG2, and BRG3 (collectively referred to as BOIs). Single mutants of each BOI gene failed to significantly alter GA responses, but the boi quadruple mutant (boiQ) showed a higher seed germination frequency in the presence of paclobutrazol, precocious juvenile-to-adult phase transition, and early flowering, all of which are consistent with enhanced GA signaling. By contrast, BOI overexpression lines displayed phenotypes consistent with reduced GA signaling. Analysis of a gai-1 boiQ pentuple mutant further indicated that the GAI protein requires BOIs to inhibit a subset of GA responses. At the molecular level, BOIs did not significantly alter the stability of a DELLA protein. Instead, BOI and DELLA proteins are targeted to the promoters of a subset of GA-responsive genes and repress their expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the DELLA and BOI proteins inhibit GA responses by interacting with each other, binding to the same promoters of GA-responsive genes, and repressing these genes. PMID:23482857

  15. Higher survival drives the success of nitrogen-fixing trees through succession in Costa Rican rainforests.

    PubMed

    Menge, Duncan N L; Chazdon, Robin L

    2016-02-01

    Trees capable of symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation ('N fixers') are abundant in many tropical forests. In temperate forests, it is well known that N fixers specialize in early-successional niches, but in tropical forests, successional trends of N-fixing species are poorly understood. We used a long-term census study (1997-2013) of regenerating lowland wet tropical forests in Costa Rica to document successional patterns of N fixers vs non-fixers, and used an individual-based model to determine the demographic drivers of these trends. N fixers increased in relative basal area during succession. In the youngest forests, N fixers grew 2.5 times faster, recruited at a similar rate and were 15 times less likely to die as non-fixers. As succession proceeded, the growth and survival disparities decreased, whereas N fixer recruitment decreased relative to non-fixers. According to our individual-based model, high survival was the dominant driver of the increase in basal area of N fixers. Our data suggest that N fixers are successful throughout secondary succession in tropical rainforests of north-east Costa Rica, and that attempts to understand this success should focus on tree survival. PMID:26513713

  16. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  17. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Javier; Raventós, Henriette; Rodríguez, Gloriana; Leandro, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan. PMID:25563152

  18. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; Hernández Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sandí, Janet; Nuñez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths. PMID:19368244

  19. Sensitivity of Costa Rica's native cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and Simocephalus serrulatus to the organophosphate pesticide ethoprophos.

    PubMed

    Arias-Andrés, María; Torres, Freylan Mena; Vargas, Seiling; Solano, Karla

    2014-01-01

    The study of pesticide toxicity in aquatic environments is assessed with ecotoxicological tests and most research has been performed using species from temperate regions. In the present study, series of acute (48 hrs) toxicity tests to compare the sensibility of two indigenous cladocera of Costa Rica and two reference species were used in temperate regions to the organophosphate pesticide, Ethoprophos. Additionally, reproduction tests using S. serrulatus with sub lethal concentrations of ethoprophos and a control were assayed to check its sensitivity over a longer period exposure. The sensitivity of Costa Rica's native species Daphnia ambigua (EC50 48 hr: 12.9 +/- 3.0 microg(l(-1)) and Simocephalus serrulatus (10.6 +/- 2.1 microg l(-1)) to ethoprophos were higher (p < 0.05) when compared to the exotic species Daphnia magna (289.8 +/- 77.4 microg l(-1)), and were comparable to that of the more widely distributed species, Ceriodaphnia dubia (18.2 +/- 5.2 microg l(-1)). No effect on S. serrulatus reproduction was observed at concentrations between 1 and 4 microg l(-1). This study provides information that can be considered in the selection of species for ecosystem studies of pesticide toxicity in neotropical regions. PMID:24579522

  20. Registration of fatal occupational injuries in Costa Rica, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana Maria; Mora-Mora, Maria Gabriela; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Data on fatal occupational injuries (FOIs) for Latin America are controversial. Costa Rican national rates are inconsistent with estimates extrapolated from other countries. We reviewed the files for all possible FOIs in Costa Rica for 2005-2006 at the National Insurance Institute and at the Center of Forensic Sciences by formality/informality of work, sex, age, economic activity, occupation, and cause of death. The national mortality rate was estimated at 9.5/100,000 person-years (342 deaths). The informal/formal rate ratio was 1.06. Men's rates were over 10 times higher than women's and increased with age. The highest rates were found for transport, storage, and communication (32.1/100,000 person-years), and, by occupation, for messengers and delivery men (91.4). Leading causes of death were traffic injuries and gunshots. Recalculated rates are probably underestimates. Data limitations include the absence of systematic identification and registration among informal sector workers and other groups such as children and farm workers. PMID:21905393

  1. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:21665367

  2. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species. PMID:21516651

  3. Seasonal variation of peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica: a population based observational study

    PubMed Central

    Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length is increasingly being used as a biomarker of aging, but its natural variation in human populations is not well understood. Several other biomarkers show seasonal variation, as do several determinants of leukocyte telomere length. We examined whether there was monthly variation in leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica, a country with strong seasonal differences in precipitation and infection. Methods We examined a longitudinal population based cohort of 581 Costa Rican adults age 60 and above, from which blood samples were drawn between October 2006 and July 2008. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from these samples using the quantitative PCR method. Multivariate regression models were used to examine correlations between month of blood draw and leukocyte telomere length. Results Telomere length from peripheral blood leukocytes varied by as much as 200 base pairs depending on month of blood draw, and this difference is not likely to be due to random variation. A moderate proportion of this association is statistically accounted for by month and region specific average rainfall. We found shorter telomere length associated with greater rainfall. Conclusions There are two possible explanations of our findings. First, there could be relatively rapid month-to-month changes in leukocyte telomere length. This conclusion would have implications for understanding the natural population dynamics of telomere length. Second, there could be seasonal differences in constituent cell populations. This conclusion would suggest that future studies of leukocyte telomere length use methods to account for the potential impact of constituent cell type. PMID:24615938

  4. Baird's tapir density in high elevation forests of the Talamanca region of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    González-Maya, José F; Schipper, Jan; Polidoro, Beth; Hoepker, Annelie; Zárrate-Charry, Diego; Belant, Jerrold L

    2012-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is currently endangered throughout its neotropical range with an expected population decline >50% in the next 30 years. We present the first density estimation of Baird's tapir for the Talamanca mountains of Costa Rica, and one of the first for the country. Ten stations with paired cameras were established in Valle del Silencio within Parque Internacional La Amistad (PILA). Seventy-seven tapir pictures of 15 individuals comprising 25 capture-recapture events were analyzed using mark-recapture techniques. The 100% minimum convex polygon of the sampled area was 5.7 km(2) and the effective sampled area using half mean maximum distances moved by tapirs was 7.16 km(2) . We estimated a tapir density of 2.93 individuals/km(2) which represents the highest density reported for this species. Intermountain valleys can represent unique and important habitats for large mammal species. However, the extent of isolation of this population, potentially constrained by steep slopes of the cordillera, remains unknown. Further genetic and movement studies are required to understand meta-population dynamics and connectivity between lowland and highland areas for Baird's tapir conservation in Costa Rica. PMID:23253369

  5. The Nicoya region of Costa Rica: a high longevity island for elderly males

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H.; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable data show that the Nicoyan region of Costa Rica is a hot spot of high longevity. A survival follow-up of 16,300 elderly Costa Ricans estimated a Nicoya death rate ratio (DRR) for males 1990–2011 of 0.80 (0.69–0.93 CI). For a 60-year-old Nicoyan male, the probability of becoming centenarian is seven times that of a Japanese male, and his life expectancy is 2.2 years greater. This Nicoya advantage does not occur in females, is independent of socio-economic conditions, disappears in out-migrants and comes from lower cardiovascular (CV) mortality (DRR = 0.65). Nicoyans have lower levels of biomarkers of CV risk; they are also leaner, taller and suffer fewer disabilities. Two markers of ageing and stress—telomere length and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate—are also more favourable. The Nicoya diet is prosaic and abundant in traditional foods like rice, beans and animal protein, with low glycemic index and high fibre content. PMID:25426140

  6. Parameterization and quantification of recharge in crystalline fractured bedrocks in Galicia-Costa (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, J. R.; Molinero, J.; Dafonte, J.

    2012-06-01

    Quantifying groundwater recharge in crystalline rocks presents great difficulties due to the high heterogeneity of the underground medium (mainly, due to heterogeneity in fracture network, which determines hydraulic parameters of the bedrock like hydraulic conductivity or effective porosity). Traditionally these rocks have been considered to have very low permeability, and their groundwater resources have usually been neglected; however, they can be of local importance when the bedrock presents a net of well-developed fractures. The current European Water Framework Directive requires an efficient management of all groundwater resources; this begins with a proper knowledge of the aquifer and accurate recharge estimation. In this study, an assessment of groundwater resources in the Spanish hydrologic district of Galicia-Costa, dominated by granitic and metasedimentary rocks, was carried out. A water-balance modeling approach was used for estimating recharge rates in nine pilot catchments representatives of both geologic materials. These results were cross-validated with an independent technique, i.e. the chloride mass balance (CMB). A relation among groundwater recharge and annual precipitation according to two different logistic curves was found for both granites and metasedimentary rocks, thus allowing the parameterization of recharge by means of only a few hydrogeological parameters. Total groundwater resources in Galicia-Costa were estimated to be 4427 hm3 yr-1. An analysis of spatial and temporal variability of recharge was also carried out.

  7. [Seasonal diet of Tayassu pecari (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica ].

    PubMed

    Altrichter, M; Sáenz, J C; Carrillo, E; Fuller, T K

    2000-01-01

    The diet of the white-lipped peccari Tayassu pecari was studied from July 1996 to April 1997 in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica, through fecal analysis and direct observations. The feces consisted of 61.6% fruits, 37.5% vegetative parts, 0.4% invertebrates and 0.5% unidentified material. These proportions are similar to those reported for white-lipped peccaries diet in South America, but the species consumed were different. In Corcovado, the white-lipped peccary fed on parts of 57 plant species (37 of them fruits). Moraceae was the most represented family. In contrast, the diet of the Peruvian Amazon peccary primarily consists of plant parts (Arecaceae). Costa Rican peccary diet consisted of vegetative parts from Araceae and Heliconaceae. Direct observation showed that peccaries spent 30% of feeding time rooting. Samples taken from rooting sites suggest that peccaries fed on earthworms. Diet differed between months, seasons and habitats. They ate more fruits in coastal and primary forests and more vegetative parts in secondary forest. In the months Octubrer and November the consumption of vegetative parts exceeded fruit consumption. PMID:11354977

  8. Seismic swarms, fluid flow and hydraulic conductivity in the forearc offshore North Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorwart, Martin; Dzierma, Yvonne; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Hensen, Christian

    2014-10-01

    At the continental margin of north Costa Rica and Nicaragua, the strongly hydrated Cocos Plate subducts beneath the Caribbean Plate. From the downgoing Cocos plate fluids are released through extensional fractures in the overriding plate. At the seafloor, they form fluid seeps, mounds and other types of fluid expulsion. Using an offshore temporary seismic network, we investigated seismicity possibly related to these processes and observed several swarms of earthquakes located on the continental slope trenchward of the seismogenic zone of S Nicaragua. The seismicity occurred within the downgoing plate, near the plate interface and in the overriding plate. We interpret these swarm events as an expression of pore pressure propagation under critical stress conditions driven by fluid release from the downgoing plate. In order to estimate hydraulic diffusivity and permeability values, we applied a theory developed for injection test interpretation to the spatio-temporal development of the swarms. The resulting diffusivity and permeability values are in the ranges of 28-305 m²/s and 3.2 × 10-14 m²-35.1 × 10-14 m², respectively, applying to the continental and oceanic crust near the plate interface. These values are somewhat larger than observed in drill logs on the margin wedge off north Costa Rica, but of comparable magnitude to values estimated for the Antofagasta 1995 earthquake aftershock sequence.

  9. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Solórzano-Morales, Ántony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88) and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29) were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33), Amazona autumnalis (24), Amazona ochrocephala (21), and Ara ararauna (8) being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4%) birds using molecular detection (PCR). The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds. PMID:24163776

  10. Evaluation model for developing, implementing, and assessing conservation education programs: Examples from Belize and Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    1991-03-01

    Evaluation of conservation education programs can: (1) provide accountability in demonstrating a program's worth, (2) offer an opportunity for receiving feedback and improving programs, (3) further our understanding of the process of program development, and (4) promote conservation education by substantiating claims about its benefits. The Planning-Process-Product systems evaluation model provides feedback needed for making decisions about the development, implementation, and outcome of a program. Planning evaluation was useful in assessing the needs, goals, opportunities, and constraints of a number of programs in Costa Rica and Belize, such as a forestry education project and a zoo outreach program. It provided a basis for making planning decisions incorporating specific objectives, such as the reforestation of a region or a change in knowledge and attitudes in program participants. Process evaluation provided a Costa Rican sustainable development program with feedback during its implementation and enabled it to modify and improve its newsletter for local farmers and its ecology classes for school children. Product evaluation assessed project accomplishments, such as the 700,000 raised by the Children's Rainforest group and the 20 miles of riparian land under conservation management as part of the Belize Community Baboon Sanctuary project. Outcomes are compared with the programs original monetary or land management objectives to determine the success of the programs and to provide feedback for improvement.

  11. Trends and variability of climate and river flow in the region of Costa das Baleias, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Genz, F; Tanajura, C A S

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing effort by the scientific community to regionalize climate studies to support local development plans. The area of interest is the Costa das Baleias on the east coast of northeast Brazil. It is located in a transition region of precipitation trends, and so assessing the local signal and magnitude is necessary. A series of annual anomalies of surface air temperature, precipitation and river discharge were analyzed from 1946 to 2010. The modified Mann-Kendall test was applied to detect trends. Temperature anomalies showed a consistent positive trend since 1950. Precipitation anomalies tended to decrease, though not significantly. River discharge rates showed a consistent positive trend. However, from the 1980s onwards, both the precipitation and the river discharge anomalies had the same decreasing tendency. The precipitation and discharge behavior are likely due to the combined effect of human interventions in the river basins including local, synoptic and global climate effects. The inter-annual variability was characterized by spectral analysis. Cycles were identified for the precipitation and the river discharge with periods of 2-3 years, 3-4 years, 7-8 years and 11-12 years. The decadal frequency is consistent with the South Atlantic and El Niño indices. This work strongly indicates that climate is changing in Costa das Baleias and further work is needed to investigate the mechanisms that link local to large-scale variability. PMID:23128620

  12. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88) and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29) were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33), Amazona autumnalis (24), Amazona ochrocephala (21), and Ara ararauna (8) being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4%) birds using molecular detection (PCR). The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds. PMID:24163776

  13. A recent phase of accretion along the southern Costa Rican subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangs, Nathan L.; McIntosh, Kirk D.; Silver, Eli A.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Ranero, César R.

    2016-06-01

    In 2011 we acquired a 3D seismic reflection volume across the Costa Rica margin NW of the Osa Peninsula to investigate the complex structure and the development of the seismogenic zone within the Costa Rican subduction zone in the vicinity of recent International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drilling. In contrast to previous interpretations, these newly acquired seismic images show that the margin wedge is composed of a layered fabric that is consistent with clastic sediments, similar to materials recovered from IODP drilling, that have been thrust and thickened into thrust-bounded folded sequences. These structures are consistent with a balanced sequence that has been frontally accreted in the context of an accretionary model. We interpret these sequences as sediment originally deposited on the subducting crust in a trench basin created by the southward migration of the Cocos-Nazca-Caribbean triple junction, and accreted during recent margin subduction that also accelerated with passage of the triple junction. The margin is composed of relatively rapidly accreted sediment that was added to the margin during a phase of accretion within the last ∼5 Ma that was probably preceded throughout the Neogene by periods of non-accretion or erosion.

  14. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Sesnie, S. E.; Arroyo, J. P.; Walker, W.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.

    2013-09-01

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture.

  15. Haemogregarine infections of three species of aquatic freshwater turtles from two sites in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rossow, John A; Hernandez, Sonia M; Sumner, Scarlett M; Altman, Bridget R; Crider, Caroline G; Gammage, Mallory B; Segal, Kristy M; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-five black river turtles (Rhinoclemmys funerea) and eight white-lipped mud turtles (Kinosternon leucostomum) from Selva Verde, Costa Rica were examined for haemoparasites. Leeches identified as Placobdella multilineata were detected on individuals from both species. All turtles sampled were positive for intraerythrocytic haemogregarines (Apicomplexa:Adeleorina) and the average parasitemia of black river turtles (0.34% ± 0.07) was significantly higher compared to white-lipped mud turtles (0.05% ± 0.006). No correlation was found between parasitemia and relative body mass of either species or between black river turtles from the two habitats. In addition, one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides) examined from La Pacifica, Costa Rica, was positive for haemogregarines (0.01% parasitemia). Interestingly, parasites of the scorpion mud turtle were significantly smaller than those from the other two species and did not displace the erythrocyte nucleus, whereas parasites from the other two species consistently displaced host cell nuclei and often distorted size and shape of erythrocytes. This is the first report of haemogregarines in turtles from Central America and of haemogregarines in K. leucostomum, K. scorpioides, and any Rhinoclemmys species. Additional studies are needed to better characterise and understand the ecology of these parasites. PMID:24533326

  16. Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic Basin framework and petroleum potential of Panama and Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P. ); Kolarsky, R. )

    1993-02-01

    Despite its location between major petroleum provinces in northwestern South America and northern Central America, there is a widespread negative perception of the petroleum potential of Panama and Costa Rica in southern Central America. Several factors may contribute to this perception: (1) the on and offshore geology of many areas has only be studied in a reconnaissance fashion; (2) sandstone reservoirs and source rocks are likely to be of poor quality because Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic sandstones are eroded from island arc or oceanic basement rocks and because oil-prone source rocks are likely to be scarce in near-arc basins; and (3) structural traps are likely to be small and fragmented because of complex late Cenozoic thrust and strike-slip tectonics. On the other hand, onshore oil and gas seeps, shows and small production in wildcat wells, and source rocks with TOC values up to 26% suggest the possibility of future discoveries. In this talk, we present the results of a regional study using 3100 km of offshore seismic lines kindly provided by industry. Age and stratigraphic control of offshore lines is constrained by limited well data and detailed field studies of basin outcrops in coastal areas. We describe the major structures, stratigraphy, and tectonic history of the following areas: Gulf of Panama and Gulf of Chiriqui of Panama and the Pacific and Caribbean margins of Costa Rica.

  17. Prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Andrea V; Duncan, Colleen; Miles, Laura; Lappin, Michael R

    2011-12-29

    To estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in San Isidro de El General, Costa Rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. Each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for Giardia and Cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Giardia and Cryptosporidium IFA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification of specific DNA if possible. The seroprevalence rates for the vector-borne agents (Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) were estimated based on results from a commercially available ELISA. Enteric parasites were detected in samples from 75% of the dogs; Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis, Giardia, and Toxocara canis were detected. Of the cats, 67.5% harbored Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Ancylostoma tubaeforme, or Toxocara cati. Both Cryptosporidium spp. isolates that could be sequenced were Cryptosporidium parvum (one dog isolate and one cat isolate). Of the Giardia spp. isolates that were successfully sequenced, the 2 cat isolates were assemblage A and the 2 dog isolates were assemblage D. D. immitis antigen and E. canis antibodies were identified in 2.3% and 3.5% of the serum samples, respectively. The prevalence of enteric zoonotic parasites in San Isidro de El General in Costa Rica is high in companion animals and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. PMID:21846585

  18. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  19. Salmonella Isolates in the Introduced Asian House Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) with Emphasis on Salmonella Weltevreden, in Two Regions in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Randall R; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Abarca, Juan G; Porras, Laura P

    2015-09-01

    The Asian house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus has been widely introduced in Costa Rica and tends to establish in human settlements. Some studies in other invaded countries have suggested that this gecko plays a significant role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis and it is of value to public health. To our knowledge, no studies have examined Salmonella from this species in Costa Rica. Therefore, we collected 115 geckos from houses in two Costa Rican regions. We examined gut contents for Salmonella through microbiological analysis. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were sent to a reference laboratory for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular typing was also conducted with the main Salmonella isolates of zoonotic relevance in Costa Rica. H. frenatus was found in 95% of the houses surveyed. Salmonella was isolated in 4.3% of the samples, and four zoonotic serovars were detected. None of the isolates were resistant to the antibiotics most frequently used for salmonellosis treatment in Costa Rica. All Salmonella isolates from the lower gut of H. frenatus are associated with human salmonellosis. Pulsotypes from Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden were identical to the only clone previously reported from human samples in Costa Rica. Molecular typing of Salmonella Weltevreden suggested that H. frenatus harbors a serovar of public health importance in Costa Rica. Results demonstrated that H. frenatus plays a role in the epidemiology of human salmonellosis in two regions of Costa Rica. However, more detailed epidemiological studies are needed to understand better the role of the Asian house gecko with human salmonellosis, especially caused by Salmonella Weltevreden, and to quantify its risk in Costa Rica accurately. PMID:26378974

  20. First report of new phytoplasma diseases associated with soybean, sweet pepper, and passion fruit in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new soybean disease outbreak occurred in 2002 in a soybean (Glycine max) plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. Symptoms in the affected plants included general stunting, little leaf, formation of excessive buds, and aborted seed pods. Another two diseases occurred in sweet pepper (Capsicum ...

  1. Barriers to and Suggestions for a Healthful, Active Lifestyle as Perceived by Rural and Urban Costa Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…

  2. Breast Self-Examination: Attitude and Knowledge of Female College Students from USA, Thailand, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Noy S.; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Ding, Kele; Fernandez, Xinia; Encarnacion, Haydee

    2002-01-01

    Examined attitudes and knowledge among U.S., Thai, Costa Rican, and Puerto Rican female college students regarding breast self-examination (BSE). Students completed surveys before and after watching an instructional video on BSE. BSE practice was low in all four countries. Students considered BSE a necessary part of individual healthy behaviors.…

  3. Characterization of a Collective Action between Farmers' Organizations and Institutions in an Innovative Process to Face Liberalization in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faure, Guy

    2004-01-01

    In Northern Costa Rica, agricultural production conditions change very rapidly due to public policies that encourage the exportation of new crops according to the liberalization process imposed by the international context. For many years, farmers' organizations at the local, regional and national levels have taken initiatives to respond to this…

  4. Monophyly of nodA and nifH Genes across Texan and Costa Rican Populations of Cupriavidus Nodule Symbionts▿

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Mondo, Stephen J.; Parker, Matthew A.

    2007-01-01

    nodA and nifH phylogenies for Cupriavidus nodule bacteria from native legumes in Texas and Costa Rica grouped all strains into a single clade nested among neotropical Burkholderia strains. Thus, Cupriavidus symbiotic genes were not acquired independently in different regions and are derived from other Betaproteobacteria rather than from α-rhizobial donors. PMID:17526782

  5. A new species of Acleris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Tortricini) from high elevations of Costa Rica, feeding on Rubus (Rosaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acleris nishidai, new species, is described and illustrated from the central cordillera of Costa Rica. The new taxon is assigned to Acleris on the basis of the similarity of the male genitalia with other described species of the genus. The female genitalia are relatively unmodified and lack the pr...

  6. Effects of synthetic fertilizer on coffee yields and ecosystem services: Soil glomalin and parasitoids in a Costa Rican coffee agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We explored the relationships between synthetic fertilizer use, yield, and ecosystem services in a coffee agroecosystem in the Tarrazú region in the central highlands of Costa Rica. Working in nine farms ranging from 0.3 to 2.7ha in the CoopeTarrazú farmers' cooperative, we focused on two important ...

  7. Activity of Faropenem against Middle Ear Fluid Pathogens from Children with Acute Otitis Media in Costa Rica and Israel▿

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Kimberley Clawson; Dagan, Ron; Arguedas, Adriano; Leibovitz, Eugene; Wang, Elaine; Echols, Roger M.; Janjic, Nebojsa; Critchley, Ian A.

    2007-01-01

    Faropenem was tested against 1,188 middle ear fluid pathogens from children in Israel and Costa Rica. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, faropenem was the most active β-lactam, with activity that was similar to or greater than of the other oral antimicrobial classes studied. Faropenem was also active against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:17387157

  8. Activity of faropenem against middle ear fluid pathogens from children with acute otitis media in Costa Rica and Israel.

    PubMed

    Stone, Kimberley Clawson; Dagan, Ron; Arguedas, Adriano; Leibovitz, Eugene; Wang, Elaine; Echols, Roger M; Janjic, Nebojsa; Critchley, Ian A

    2007-06-01

    Faropenem was tested against 1,188 middle ear fluid pathogens from children in Israel and Costa Rica. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, faropenem was the most active beta-lactam, with activity that was similar to or greater than of the other oral antimicrobial classes studied. Faropenem was also active against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:17387157

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AS RELATED TO INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS IN CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of lung cancer incidence in Contra Costa County to ambient levels of air pollution. It was suspected that the presence of heavy industry in the county, mainly petrochemical plants and oil refineries, could be a contributin...

  10. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Contra Costa County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, Russell W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $27 million in damages were assessed in Contra Costa County.

  11. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with...

  12. First report of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in Costa Rica and detection of viruliferous whiteflies in greenhouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies are a complex that comprises multiple species and biotypes or races which are capable of affecting crops by phloem feeding, virus transmission and promotion of fungal colonization. The distribution of these pests is worldwide. In Costa Rica, a country located in the tropics, the most prob...

  13. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  14. Understanding Social Justice Leadership: An International Exploration of the Perspectives of Two School Leaders in Costa Rica and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Charles; Potter, Ian; Torres, Nancy; Briceno, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article is an examination of two social justice leaders, one in Costa Rica and one in England. It is part of the International Study of Leadership Development Network, a multi-nation study of social justice and educational leadership. A brief discussion of the philosophy of social justice and an examination of the macro and micro context in…

  15. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a two-year-old pineapple crop, a daily catch of stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans was performed. The study was done on fresh pineapple crop crushed = shredded and left on the ground on a farm at Pital, San Carlos, of Costa Rica. Four fabric black and blue traps were assessed and compared against ...

  16. AN ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO THE ORTHOCOMOTIS DOGNIN (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) OF COSTA RICA, WITH NOTES ON THEIR SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten species of Orthocomotis Dognin are reported from Costa Rica: O. ochracea Clarke; O. herbacea Clarke (=O. subolivata Clarke, new synonymy); O. longicilia Brown, new species; O. magicana (Zeller); O. chaldera (Druce); O. herbaria (Busck) (=O. cristata Clarke, new synonymy; = O. uragia Razowski & ...

  17. Upper-Plate Seismicity Remotely Triggered by the 2012 Mw-7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Arroyo, I. G.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity that takes place at distances greater than 1-2 fault lengths appears to be a frequent phenomenon after large earthquakes, including examples in Costa Rica after the large (Mw > 7.0) inter-plate earthquakes in 1941, 1950, 1983, 1990, and 1991. On September 5, 2012, an inter-plate 7.6-Mw earthquake struck the Nicoya Peninsula, triggering upper-plate seismicity in the interior of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the largest earthquakes and earthquake swarms that took place during the first nine months after the Nicoya earthquake. These swarms occurred at distances of 150 to 450 km from the Nicoya source region in different tectonic settings: the Calero Island near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border in the backarc Caribbean region, the Sixaola region near the Costa Rica-Panama border in the backarc Caribbean region, the Cartago area in the central part of Costa Rica near the active volcanic arc, and the San Vito area in the Costa Rica-Panama border region, at the southern flank of the Talamanca Cordillera in an inactive portion of the magmatic arc. The Calero swarm with 70 2.0-to-4.2 Mw earthquakes took place from September 22 to October 9, 2012. The earthquake pattern suggests a smaller-scale fault as a possible source, which is located along the inland projection of the Hess Escarpment. The Cartago swarm with 284 1.8-to-4.1 Mw earthquakes occurred from September 5 to October 31, 2012. The focal mechanism solutions suggest that strike-slip faulting predominates in this region, consistent with neotectonic observations. The San Vito earthquake swarm with 30 2.3-to-4.5 Mw earthquakes occurred between October 14, 2012 and January 28, 2013. These earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of north-south striking faults, which are located along the inland projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. The largest earthquake (5.6 Mw) occurred on the Sixaola region on 27 of May, 2013. The focal mechanism solution suggests a thrust fault that correlates with

  18. Tracking performance of a combined Costas/AFC-loop under noisy Rayleigh/Rician channel conditions with additive Gaussian noise jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine, Achim

    Models were developed to investigate the tracking behavior of combined Costas/AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) feedback loops under Rayleigh/Rician fading conditions with additive Gaussian noise jamming. A general linearized tracking model was developed for land-mobile channels. The model can be used for the nonlinearized case with sinusoidal phase detection characteristic using a standard solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. A tracking analysis for Costas/AFC loops with coherent automatic gain control, and an accuracy analysis for interferometers equipped with Costas/AFC loops are treated as examples. The tracking model is the most inaccurate in the case of quasistationary channels.

  19. Genetic diversity in Oryza glumaepatula wild rice populations in Costa Rica and possible gene flow from O. sativa

    PubMed Central

    Meneses Martínez, Allan; Calvo, Amanda; Muñoz, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Wild crop relatives are an important source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Diversity estimates are generally lacking for many wild crop relatives. The objective of the present study was to analyze how genetic diversity is distributed within and among populations of the wild rice species Oryza glumaepatula in Costa Rica. We also evaluated the likelihood of gene flow between wild and commercial rice species because the latter is commonly sympatric with wild rice populations. Introgression may change wild species by incorporating alleles from domesticated species, increasing the risk of losing original variation. Specimens from all known O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica were analyzed with 444 AFLP markers to characterize genetic diversity and structure. We also compared genetic diversity estimates between O. glumaepatula specimens and O. sativa commercial rice. Our results showed that O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica have moderately high levels of genetic diversity, comparable to those found in South American populations. Despite the restricted distribution of this species in Costa Rica, populations are fairly large, reducing the effects of drift on genetic diversity. We found a dismissible but significant structure (θ = 0.02 ± 0.001) among populations. A Bayesian structure analysis suggested that some individuals share a significant proportion of their genomes with O. sativa. These results suggest that gene flow from cultivated O. sativa populations may have occurred in the recent past. These results expose an important biohazard: recurrent hybridization may reduce the genetic diversity of this wild rice species. Introgression may transfer commercial traits into O. glumaepatula, which in turn could alter genetic diversity and increase the likelihood of local extinction. These results have important implications for in situ conservation strategies of the only wild populations of O. glumaepatula in Costa Rica. PMID:27077002

  20. Taxonomy of the freshwater crabs of Costa Rica, with a revision of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Célio; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Lara, Luis Rólier; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae Ortmann, 1893, of Costa Rica, Central America, particularly of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964, are revised. Historical materials deposited in major collections of several institutions were examined, as well as valuable collections in the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica that include abundant specimens obtained recently (2007-2010) in the southern region of the country. The pseudothelphusids of Costa Rica consists of 15 currently valid species belonging to Achlidon Smalley, 1964 (two species), Allacanthos Smalley, 1964 (two species), Potamocarcinus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (three species), and Ptychophallus (eight species). Two species seem to be restricted to the Atlantic drainage, while seven are known only from the Pacific drainage; six species occur in both drainages. Ptychophallus comprises 13 valid species; four new synonymies are proposed: P. osaensis Rodríguez, 2001, P. campylus Pretzmann, 1968, P. tumimanus ingae            Pretzmann, 1978, and P. barbillaensis Rodríguez & Hedström, 2001, as junior synonyms of P. paraxantusi (Bott, 1968), P. tristani (Rathbum 1896), P. tumimanus (Rathbun, 1898), and P. uncinatus Campos & Lemaitre, 1999, respectively. Two species, P. colombianus (Rathbun, 1896) and P. exilipes (Rathbun, 1898), are considered species inquerendae. Lectotype designations are made for P. montanus and P. colombianus. Three species of Ptychophallus are known exclusively from Costa Rica, five exclusively from Panama, and five species occur in both countries; one species appears to be exclusive of the Atlantic drainage, whereas five are known only from the Pacific drainage and seven occur in both drainages. The gonopod morphology of all species is redescribed and illustrated, and maps of their geographic distribution are furnished. A key to the species of Pseudothelphusidae from Costa Rica and to all species of

  1. Natural history of the terciopelo Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sasa, Mahmood; Wasko, Dennis K; Lamar, William W

    2009-12-01

    The terciopelo Bothrops asper is the only lancehead species widely distributed in the humid lowlands of Middle America and northwestern South America. Its large body size, relative abundance and cryptic habits contribute to the high incidence of snakebites induced by this species throughout its distribution. The terciopelo plays an important role in ecosystems, both as prey and as a generalist predator. Diet comprises a great variety of prey items, including some species that are considered nuisances. B. asper, as other lancehead species, exhibits a notable ontogenetic shift in diet, consuming ectotherms (mainly frogs and lizards) when young, and increasingly incorporating birds, rodents, and other small mammals with maturity. Adult terciopelos also consume large anurans, especially when endothermic prey availability is low. Using radiotelemetry we determined home range and movement patterns from 28 individual B. asper at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Overall home range estimates are relatively small compared with other pitvipers, averaging between 3.71ha and 5.95ha; home range size did not differ between males and females. Movement patterns are largely aseasonal and consist of short (<10 m) movements between daytime shelter and nocturnal ambush sites within a given area, interspersed with longer distance (>50 m) movements to new foraging areas. Habitat use is related to prey availability and therefore to foraging strategy. Our data support a strong preference for areas near swamps by both sexes. Reproduction in B. asper is highly seasonal, and--apparently--biannual. Reproductive cycles in Costa Rica are tightly related to rainfall patterns. Therefore, the timing of breeding differs between populations in the Caribbean and Pacific lowlands. Bothrops asper is adapted to areas with low levels of disturbance along the agricultural frontier, and consequently it is not rare to find it in or near human dwellings. However, despite popular belief, no evidence

  2. Genetic diversity of Costa Rican populations of the rice planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Myriam; Quesada, Tania; Muñoz, Claudia; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is one of the main constraints of the rice production in the Neotropics. This planthopper produces severe damages as a phloem feeder, causes mechanical injury during oviposition and vectors the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV). The main objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of T. orizicolus populations from three rice growing regions of Costa Rica, using RAPDs. Individuals from Guanacaste, Parrita, San Carlos and Cali-Colombia, as outgroup, were analyzed using the random primers. Phenetic relationships revealed that the Costa Rican populations were clearly separated from Cali-Colombia, sharing less than 25% similarity. Costa Rican populations were divided into two main branches separated at 30% similarity. The first branch included Guanacaste and San Carlos and the second displayed Parrita. In relation to similarity indexes within groups, the Guanacaste cluster showed the highest (over 50%) and Cali-Colombia was the most diverse (28%). The correspondence analysis confirmed the clusters of the phenogram and showed close interactions between the Parrita and San Carlos populations. The genetic separation observed could be the result of the geographic isolation among populations, but it could also be explained by the infection with the rickettsia Wolbachia pipientis. This bacterium causes cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host, which results in non-viable progeny when infected males mate with non-infected females, or when insects hosting different strains of Wolbachia mate. Then, a search for Wolbachia in previously described populations of T orizicolus was initiated. The presence of the bacteria was analyzed by PCR with 16S rDNA-specific primers for Wolbachia. The PCR analyses revealed infections of 86% in the population of San Carlos, 96% in Guanacaste, 37% in Parrita and 100% in Cali-Colombia. Crosses between individuals of T. orizicolus from Parrita and Guanacaste were performed for testing

  3. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases in Costa Rica: a feasibility study toward a national screening program

    PubMed Central

    Wesseling, Catharina; Román, Norbel; Quirós, Indiana; Páez, Laura; García, Vilma; María Mora, Ana; Juncos, Jorge L.; Steenland, Kyle N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The integration of mental and neurologic services in healthcare is a global priority. The universal Social Security of Costa Rica aspires to develop national screening of neurodegenerative disorders among the elderly, as part of the non-communicable disease agenda. Objective This study assessed the feasibility of routine screening for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the public healthcare system of Costa Rica. Design The population (aged ≥65) in the catchment areas of two primary healthcare clinics was targeted for motor and cognitive screening during routine annual health check-ups. The screening followed a tiered three-step approach, with increasing specificity. Step 1 involved a two-symptom questionnaire (tremor-at-rest; balance) and a spiral drawing test for motor assessment, as well as a three-word recall and animal category fluency test for cognitive assessment. Step 2 (for those failing Step 1) was a 10-item version of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Step 3 (for those failing Step 2) was a comprehensive neurologic exam with definitive diagnosis of PD, AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), other disorders, or subjects who were healthy. Screening parameters and disease prevalence were calculated. Results Of the 401 screened subjects (80% of target population), 370 (92%), 163 (45%), and 81 (56%) failed in Step 1, Step 2, and Step 3, respectively. Thirty-three, 20, and 35 patients were diagnosed with PD, AD, and MCI, respectively (7 were PD with MCI/AD); 90% were new cases. Step 1 sensitivities of motor and cognitive assessments regarding Step 2 were both 93%, and Step 2 sensitivities regarding definitive diagnosis 100 and 96%, respectively. Specificities for Step 1 motor and cognitive tests were low (23% and 29%, respectively) and for Step 2 tests acceptable (76%, 94%). Based on international data, PD prevalence was 3.7 times higher than expected; AD prevalence was as

  4. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  5. Three-Dimensional Thermal Model of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; He, Jiangheng

    2015-10-01

    The thermal structure of a subduction zone controls many key processes, including subducting plate metamorphism and dehydration, the megathrust earthquake seismogenic zone and volcanic arc magmatism. Here, we present the first three-dimensional (3D), steady-state kinematic-dynamic thermal model for the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone. The model consists of the subducting Cocos plate, the overriding Caribbean Plate, and a viscous mantle wedge in which flow is driven by interactions with the downgoing slab. The Cocos plate geometry includes along-strike variations in slab dip, which induce along-strike flow in the mantle wedge. Along-strike flow occurs primarily below Costa Rica, with a maximum magnitude of 4 cm/year (~40 % of the convergence rate) for a mantle with a dislocation creep rheology; an isoviscous mantle has lower velocities. Along-margin flow causes temperatures variations of up to 80 °C in the subducting slab and mantle wedge at the volcanic arc and backarc. The 3D effects do not strongly alter the shallow (<35 km) thermal structure of the subduction zone. The models predict that the megathrust seismogenic zone width decreases from ~100 km below Costa Rica to just a few kilometers below Nicaragua; the narrow width in the north is due to hydrothermal cooling of the oceanic plate. These results are in good agreement with previous 2D models and with the rupture area of recent earthquakes. In the models, along-strike mantle flow is induced only by variations in slab dip, with flow directed toward the south where the dip angle is smallest. In contrast, geochemical and seismic observations suggest a northward flow of 6-19 cm/year. We do not observe this in our models, suggesting that northward flow may be driven by additional factors, such as slab rollback or proximity to a slab edge (slab window). Such high velocities may significantly affect the thermal structure, especially at the southern end of the subduction zone. In this area, 3D models that

  6. Active tectonics and Quaternary landscape evolution across the western Panama block, Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jeffrey Scott

    Three aspects of active tectonism are examined across central Costa Rica: (1) fault kinematics; (2) volcanic arc retreat; and (3) spatially variable coastal uplift. Diffuse faulting along the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) defines the western margin of the Panama block and aligns with the rough-smooth boundary (RSB) on the subducting Cocos plate. Sub-horizontal subduction of rough, hotspot thickened crust (Cocos Ridge and seamounts) shifts active shortening into the volcanic arc along the CCRDB. Mesoscale faults express variable kinematics across three domains: transtension in the forearc, transcurrent motion across the volcanic arc, and transpression in the back arc. Fault kinematics agree with seismicity and GPS data, and isotopic ages confirm that faulting postdates the late Neogene onset of shallow subduction. Stratigraphic correlation augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating constrain the timing of Quaternary arc migration from the Neogene Aguacate range to the modern Cordillera Central. The Valle Central basin, between the cordilleras, filled with thick sequences of lavas, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Middle Pleistocene drainage capture across the Aguacate arc linked the Valle Central with the Pacific slope and ash flows descended onto the coastal Orotina debris fan. Arc retreat reflects slab shallowing and enhanced tectonic erosion as rough crust entered the subduction zone. Differing subduction parameters across the RSB (crustal age, slab dip, roughness) produce marked contrasts in coastal tectonism. Varying uplift rates across coastal faults reflect sub-horizontal subduction of seamount roughness. Three groups (I--III) of fluvial terraces are correlated along the coast by isotopic ages and geomorphic characteristics. Base level fluctuations and terrace genesis reflect interaction between eustatic sea level and spatially variable rock uplift. Low uplift rates (north of RSB), yield one surface per terrace group, whereas moderate rates (south of RSB

  7. He isotope ratios in the Nankai Trough and Costa Rica subduction zones - implications for volatile cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, M.; Hilton, D. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Solomon, E. A.; Spivack, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The noble gas 3He is a clear indicator of primordial volatile flux from the mantle, thus providing important insights on the interaction between Earth's interior and exterior reservoirs. Volatile cycling at ridge-crests and its impact on the evolution of seawater chemistry is rather well known as constrained by the 3He flux, whereas the impact of volatile cycling at subduction zones (SZs) on seawater chemistry is as yet poorly known. Constraining chemical and isotopic cycling at SZs is important for understanding the evolution of the mantle-crust and ocean-atmosphere systems. To gain insights on volatile cycling in SZs, pore fluids were sampled for He concentration and isotopic analyses at two tectonically contrasting SZs, Nankai Trough (offshore Japan, Muroto and Kumano transects), an accretionary SZ, and Costa Rica (Offshore Osa Peninsula), an erosional SZ. Sampling for He was achieved by rapidly subsampling core sediments, cleaning and transferring these samples into Ti squeezers in a glove bag, and storing the squeezed pore fluids in crimped Cu tubes for shore-based He concentration and isotope ratio analyses. At the Nankai Trough SZ there is a remarkable range of He isotopic values. The 3He/4He ratios relative to atmospheric ratio (RA) range from mostly crustal 0.47 RA to 4.30 RA which is ~55% of the MORB value of 8 RA. Whereas at the Costa Rica SZ, offshore Osa Peninsula, the ratios range from 0.86 to 1.14 RA, indicating the dominance of crustal radiogenic 4He that is from U and Th decay. The distribution of the He isotope values at Nankai Trough is most interesting, fluids that contain significant mantle 3He components (3He/4He >1) were sampled along and adjacent to fluid conduits that were identified by several chemical and isotopic data (i.e. Cl, B, and Li), including the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons. Whereas the fluids dominated by 4He (3He/4He ≤1) were obtained from sediment sections that were between the fluid conduits. At Costa Rica, however

  8. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, J B; van Weerd, J H; Huisman, E A; Verreth, J A J

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher amounts produced and, the potential use of these residues in fish feeds. In Costa Rica, during the 1993-1994 production season, major agricultural sectors (crop and livestock) generated a total amount of 3.15-3.25 million MT of residues (classified in by-products: used residues and wastes: not used residues). Some residues are treated to turn them into valuable items or to diminish their polluting effects (e.g., the so-called by-products). About 1.56-1.63 million MT of by-products were used for different purposes (e.g. fertilization, animal feeding, fuel, substrates in greenhouses). However, the remainder (1.59-1.62 million MT) was discharged into environment causing pollution. About 1.07-1.2 million MT wastes came from major crop systems (banana, coffee, sugarcane and oil palm) whereas the remainder came from animal production systems (porcine and poultry production, slaughtering). These data are further compared to residues estimates for the 2001-2002 production season coming from the biggest crops activities. Unfortunately, most of the studied wastes contain high levels of moisture and low levels of protein, and also contain variable amounts of antinutritional factors (e.g., polyphenols, tannins, caffeine), high fibre levels and some toxic substances and pesticides. All these reasons may limit the use of these agricultural wastes for animal feeding, especially in fish feeds. The potential use of the major vegetable and animal residues in fish feeds is discussed based on their nutritional composition, on their amount available over the year and on their pollution risks. Other constraints to use these wastes in fish feeds are the extra costs of drying and, in most cases

  9. Resumen cronoestratigráfico de las rocas ígneas de Costa Rica basado en dataciones radiométricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, G. E.; Kussmaul, S.; Chiesa, S.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Appel, H.; Wörner, G.; Rundle, C.

    1992-10-01

    Based on a recompilation of about 160 K-Ar and U-Th analyses of igneous rocks and their stratigraphic relationships, a synthesis of the magmatic evolution of Costa Rica is presented. The igneous rocks of Jurassic to Oligocene age belong principally to the tholeiitic series. Widespread calc-alkaline volcanism started in the late Miocene and culminated during the Pleistocene in the northern and central part of Costa Rica with the eruption of large volumes of andesitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites and the development of the stratovolcanoes of the Cordillera de Guanacaste and Cordillera Central; some of these volcanoes are still active. Alkaline rocks are subordinate and concentrated on the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. Plutonic intrusions, mainly of late Miocene age, are frequent in the southern part of Costa Rica. The histogram of the available data indicates some periods of more intensive volcanic activity.

  10. Mortality due to snakebite envenomation in Costa Rica (1993-2006).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Pablo; Gutiérrez, José María

    2008-09-01

    The mortality due to snakebite envenomation in Costa Rica for the period 1993-2006 was investigated by a retrospective analysis. There were 48 fatalities due to snakebites during this period. Mortality rates ranged from 0.02 per 100,000 population in 2006 to 0.19 per 100,000 population in 1993. Case fatality rates in the period 1993-2000 ranged between 0.18% (2000) and 1.15% (1993). The highest numbers of fatal cases occurred in the provinces of Puntarenas and Limón, in low-land humid regions where the species Bothrops asper ('terciopelo') is distributed and agricultural activities predominate. The most affected age groups were those of 20-29, 40-49 and 50-59 years, and fatal cases predominated in males over females by a ratio of 5:1. PMID:18625261

  11. Ultrasonic borehole televiewer investigation of oceanic crustal layer 2A, Costa Rice Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.D.; Anderson, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In situ lithostratigraphy and the distribution of fracture and void zones in oceanic layer 2A were examined with an ultrasonic borehole televiewer at IPOD sites 501 and 504B on the south flank of the Costa Rice Rift. These records indicate a decrease in the size of basalt pillows with depth and a corresponding increase in fracture and void density. The observed increase in P-wave velocity with depth in this hole, as layer 2A merges into 2B, is best explained by an increase in the degree to which clays and zeolites fill fractures and voids. This also explains the order-of-magnitude drop in permeability observed in hole 504B. An increase in alteration-filling with age could explain the transition from convective to conductive heat flow and the correlative disappearance of layer 2A on the flanks of oceanic spreading centres. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. The magma budget of Volcan Arenal, Costa Rica from 1968 to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G.

    1983-01-01

    The magma volume emitted by Volcan Arenal, Costa Rica, has been calculated to be 304 x 10 to the 6th cu m. A near-continuous rise from very deep within the crust is proposed as an explanation for Arenal's magma supply, and the long-term seismic pattern is interpreted as individual batches of magma using previously fractured pathways. During a break in activity (1973) the effusion site moved from Crater A to Crater C, approximately 400 m higher. It is maintained that the steady downward tilting of the volcano's summit was caused by the loading of the volcano's western side by about 19 x 10 to the 6th cu m of lava. Also noted is the abrupt decrease in effusion rate compatible with the increased magmatic head needed to reach Crater C. It is concluded that the constancy of magma composition and effusion rate from 1974 to 1980 indicates a homogeneous magma reservoir.

  13. Survey of wild mammal hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites in panamá and costa rica.

    PubMed

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  14. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D.; Adler, Gregory H.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  15. A hydrothermal seep on the Costa Rica margin: middle ground in a continuum of reducing ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Lisa A.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Rouse, Greg W.; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Ussler, William; Cook, Geoffrey S.; Goffredi, Shana K.; Perez, Elena M.; Waren, Anders; Grupe, Benjamin M.; Chadwick, Grayson; Strickrott, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Upon their initial discovery, hydrothermal vents and methane seeps were considered to be related but distinct ecosystems, with different distributions, geomorphology, temperatures, geochemical properties and mostly different species. However, subsequently discovered vents and seep systems have blurred this distinction. Here, we report on a composite, hydrothermal seep ecosystem at a subducting seamount on the convergent Costa Rica margin that represents an intermediate between vent and seep ecosystems. Diffuse flow of shimmering, warm fluids with high methane concentrations supports a mixture of microbes, animal species, assemblages and trophic pathways with vent and seep affinities. Their coexistence reinforces the continuity of reducing environments and exemplifies a setting conducive to interactive evolution of vent and seep biota. PMID:22398162

  16. Do Birds Select Habitat or Food Resources? Nearctic-Neotropic Migrants in Northeastern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Ralph, C. John

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover periods. Our models indicated that frugivorous migrants primarily used food abundance, while insectivorous migrants chiefly used vegetation structure as cues for habitat use during stopover. In addition to habitat use models, we documented fruiting plant phenology and found a general relationship between migrant arrival and the timing of ripe fruit availability. Our results suggest that insectivorous migrants probably rely on structural features when using habitat because it may be inherently difficult to assess cryptic-arthropod availability during a short period of time in a novel habitat, such as stopover periods. PMID:24489701

  17. Poor alkaloid sequestration by arrow poison frogs of the genus Phyllobates from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich; Alvarez, Joseph Vargas; Pogoda, Werner; Toennes, Stefan W; Köhler, Gunther

    2014-03-01

    Frogs of the genus Phyllobates from Colombia are known to contain the highly toxic alkaloid batrachotoxin, but species from Central America exhibit only very low levels or are entirely free of this toxin. In the present study alcohol extracts from 101 specimens of Phyllobates lugubris and Phyllobates vittatus and 21 of three sympatric species (Dendrobates pumilio, Dendrobates auratus, Dendrobates granuliferus) from Costa Rica were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas the extracts of the Dendrobates species exhibited typical profiles of toxic alkaloids, those of the two Phyllobates species contained low levels of few alkaloids only, batrachotoxin was not detected. Although the feeding pattern of the Dendrobates and Phyllobates species are similar as revealed by examination of their stomach content (mainly ants and mites), the Phyllobates species are poorly sequestering alkaloids from their food source in contrast to the Dendrobates frogs. PMID:24467995

  18. Secondary mineral growth in fractures in the Miravalles geothermal system, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, C.A. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Milodowski, A.E.; Savage, D. . Fluid Processes Research Group); Corella, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A mineralogical, fluid-chemical, and theoretical study of hydrothermal alteration in veins from drillcore from the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica has revealed a complex history of mineral-fluid reaction which may be used to characterize changes in temperature and fluid composition with time. Mineralogical and mineral-chemical data are consistent with hydrothermal alteration in the temperature range 200{sup 0}-270{sup 0}C, with deeper portions of the system having undergone temperatures in excess of 300{sup 0}C. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the observed alteration assemblage is not equilibrium with current well fluids, unless estimates of reservoir pH are incorrect. Fe-Al zoning of prehnite and epidote in veins is consistent with rapid, isothermal fluctuations in fluid composition at current reservoir temperatures, and may be due to changes in volatile content of the fluid due to tectonic activity.

  19. Build an oven, cook a meal: How solar energy empowered women in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, J. )

    1990-12-01

    A pilot solar cooking project in the hot, northern province of Guanacaste promises to serve as a model for community groups wanting to build their own solar ovens. An $8,000 (US) grant has been awarded by the Canadian Embassy in Costa Rica to take the Guanacaste project into a second stage in 1990-91. Two construction workshops, with twelve participants in each, are planned in communities near Oriente. Three women from the Oriente group will have paid jobs as organizational facilitators and workshop supervisors. In popular education this is called the multiplier effect - the users of solar cookers construct the ovens themselves, and then instruct others to do the same. 3 refs.

  20. Effects of Costa Concordia shipwreck on epiphytic assemblages and biotic features of Posidonia oceanica canopy.

    PubMed

    Bacci, T; Penna, M; Rende, S F; Trabucco, B; Gennaro, P; Bertasi, F; Marusso, V; Grossi, L; Cicero, A M

    2016-08-15

    This research provides first information about Posidonia oceanica canopy in the area affected by Costa Concordia wreck. Percentage cover of algal and animal taxa on the leaves was estimated and biotic features of the meadow were measured in the period just after the shipwreck until its removal from the impacted site. Changes in epiphytic assemblages and some biotic features were detected in the Disturbed site compared with Control ones, highlighting effects due to the wreck presence and activities related to its removal. A temporary decrease of encrusting macroalgae and an increase of erected macroalgae and foraminifers, as well as a temporary increase of tip erosion of the canopy were detected in the Disturbed site. The obtained results were discussed and hypotheses about possible synergic effects occurred near the wreck were commented. PMID:27289288

  1. Leaf essential oil composition of five Zanthoxylum species from Monteverde, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Setzer, William N; Noletto, Joseph A; Lawton, Robert O; Haber, William A

    2005-01-01

    The leaf essential oils from five species of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica, have been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The species examined include Z. fagara, Z. acuminatum, Z. melanostictum, Z. monophyllum, and an undescribed species. The most abundant classes of compounds found in Zanthoxylum leaf oils are acyclic and menthane monoterpenoids as well as simple alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. In terms of molecular diversity, menthane and acyclic monoterpenoids, cadinane and mesocyclic sesquiterpenoids, and simple alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones dominate the essential oils of Zanthoxylum species. Monoterpenoids make up the majority of the mass of the leaf oils of Z. monophyllum, Z. acuminatum, Z. fagara, and Zanthoxylum sp. nov. Linalool, 4-terpineol, alpha-terpineol, and trans-2-hexenol, are found in all of the Zanthoxylum species examined in this study. PMID:15789546

  2. Additive non-Gaussian noise attacks on the scalar Costa scheme (SCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzschoppe, Roman; Bauml, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Huber, Johannes; Kaup, Andre

    2005-03-01

    The additive attack public mutual information game is explicitly solved for one of the simplest quantization based watermarking schemes, the scalar Costa scheme (SCS). It is a zero-sum game played between the embedder and the attacker, and the payoff function is the mutual information. The solution of the game, a subgame perfect nash equilibrium, is found by backward induction. Therefore, the Blahut-Arimoto algorithm is employed for numerically optimizing the mutual information over noise distributions. Although the worst case distribution is in general strongly non-Gaussian, the capacity degradation compared to a suboptimal Gaussian noise attack is quite small. The loss, if the embedder optimizes SCS for a Gaussian attack but the worst case attack is employed, is negligible.

  3. [Feeding habits of the squirrel Sciurus variegatoides (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Monge, Javier; Hilje, Luko

    2006-06-01

    Food items consumed by the squirrel Sciurus variegatoides atrirufus were determined in an agricultural setting in the Nicoya Peninsula (9 degrees 47' N, 84 degrees 56' W), Costa Rica, where two life zones (Premontane Moist Forest Basal Belt Transition, and Tropical Dry Forest) predominate. By analyzing the gut contents of 120 squirrels, from February 1987 through January 1988, it was determined that coconut (Cocos nucifera), indian almond (Terminalia catappa) and flamboyant (Delonix regia) were the most common dietary items. There were differences in food consumption according to age: adults preferred coconut, whereas young individuals preferred almond. This finding can be explained in terms of fruit characteristics, as well as tree architecture and accessibility for squirrels; almendro trees provide higher protection and a more accessible food resource, so that it was better used by young individuals. PMID:18494334

  4. Costa de Cocos 11-kW wind-diesel hybrid system

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D; Bergey, M

    1997-09-01

    Costa de Cocos is a small resort located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Using the existing diesel generator, the resort`s power system was retrofitted to a wind-hybrid diesel system. The reason for this retrofit was to supply 24-hour power, to reduce diesel fuel by using wind energy, and to reduce diesel air and noise emissions in order to promote ecotourism. The wind system was installed in October 1996 with cost-shared funding from the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Agency for International Development renewable energy program in Mexico. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project. Discussed in this paper are the system design, installation, and initial performance.

  5. Landscape-Scale Canopy Complexity in and Near Braulio Carillo National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Robert G.; Blair, J. B.; Weishampel, J. F.; Clark, D. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Dubayah, R.

    1999-01-01

    Using medium-large footprint lidar sampling of approximately 500 square km of Costa Rica, we assessed the vertical and horizontal complexity of a forest-dominated tropical landscape. As expected, vertical extents of structure and canopy heights estimated from lidar waveforms were smaller in high elevation forests than in forests at lower elevations. In areas of the park and long-protected areas of La Selva Biological Station, forests typically had more consistent ratios of median height to total height than areas with other types of recent land use. Areas outside the park exhibited both stronger and weaker spatial correlations in canopy properties than most areas within the park. We also simulated the effects of these differences on data products gridded from lidar transects, like those produced by the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Mission.

  6. An approach to investigating linkage for bipolar disorder using large Costa Rican pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Freimer, N.B.; Reus, V.I.; Vinogradov, S.

    1996-05-31

    Despite the evidence that major gene effects exist for bipolar disorder (BP), efforts to map BP loci have so far been unsuccessful. A strategy for mapping BP loci is described, focused on investigation of large pedigrees from a genetically homogenous population, that of Costa Rica. This approach is based on the use of a conservative definition of the BP phenotype in preparation for whole genome screening with polymorphic markers. Linkage simulation analyses are utilized to indicate the probability of detecting evidence suggestive of linkage, using these pedigrees. These analyses are performed under a series of single locus models, ranging form recessive to nearly dominant, utilizing both lod score and affected pedigree member analyses. Additional calculations demonstrate that with any of the models employed, most of the information for linkage derives from affected rather than unaffected individuals. 26 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Serological detection of viral infections in captive wild cats from costa rica.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Kinndle; Peña, Roberto; Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez, Mauricio; Araya, Luis Nazario; Romero, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), four jaguaroundis (Herpailurus yaguaroundi), one oncilla (Leopardus tigrina), and one jaguar (Panthera onca) were obtained between January 2001 and August 2002 from the Profelis Centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of Costa Rica. Forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and p27 antigen of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), 42 samples for antibodies against feline parvovirus (FPV), and 30 for antibodies against feline calicivirus (FCV). None of the samples contained detectable antibodies against FIV or p27 antigen of FeLV, all samples contained antibodies against FPV, and one sample contained antibodies against FCV. PMID:21547230

  8. An ecological risk assessment of pesticides and fish kills in the Sixaola watershed, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Morra, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Along the southeastern coast of Costa Rica, a variety of pesticides are intensively applied to produce export-quality plantains and bananas. In this region, and in other agricultural areas, fish kills are often documented by local residents and/or in the national news. This study examines principal exposure pathways, measured environmental concentrations, and selected toxicity thresholds of the three most prevalent pesticides (chlorpyrifos, terbufos, and difenoconazole) to construct a deterministic risk assessment for fish mortality. Comparisons of observed pesticide concentrations, along with estimated biological effects and observations during actual fish kills, highlight gaps in knowledge in correlating pesticide environmental concentration and toxicity in tropical environments. Observations of fish kill events and measured pesticide concentrations in the field, along with other water quality indicators, suggest that a number of environmental conditions can interact to cause fish mortality and that current species toxicity datasets may not be applicable for estimating toxicological or other synergistic effects, especially in tropical environments. PMID:26832877

  9. Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

    1988-07-01

    A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

  10. An empirical evaluation of devolving administrative control to Costa Rican hospital and clinic directors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theodore; McKee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, Costa Rica implemented comprehensive reforms of its health care system, including devolving administrative power from the central government to some providers that remain part of the national system. In this article, we evaluate how this aspect of the reform affected clinic efficiency and population health by analyzing administrative data on regional providers and mortality rates in local areas. We compare changes in outcomes across time between areas that signed performance contracts with the central government and received limited budgetary control to those that continued to be managed directly by the central government. We believe the reform created opportunities for providers to become more efficient and effective. Our results suggest that the reform significantly decreased costs without adversely affecting quality of care or population health. PMID:25813506

  11. Costa de Cocos 11-kW wind-diesel hybrid system

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Bergey, M.

    1997-12-31

    Costa de Cocos is a small resort located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Using the existing diesel generator, the resort`s power system was retrofitted to a wind-hybrid diesel system. The reason for this retrofit was to supply 24-hour power, to reduce diesel fuel by using wind energy, and to reduce diesel air and noise emissions in order to promote ecotourism. The wind system was installed in October 1996 with cost-shared funding from the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Agency for International Development renewable energy program in Mexico. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project. Discussed in this paper are the system design, installation, and initial performance.

  12. A striking new treehopper genus Mutilifolia (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae: Telamonini), from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    A new treehopper genus from Costa Rica, Mutilifolia, based on M. nishidai, new species, is described and illustrated. Mutilifolia is considered a member of the subfamily Smiliinae, tribe Telamonini based on characteristics of the pronotum, fore- and hind wing venation, and female genitalia. This genus superficially resembles the telamonine genera Antianthe, Archasia, and Hemicardiacus due to the highly elevated, foliaceous, and largely green pronotum, but the male style clasp of Mutilifolia with two recurved teeth differs greatly from the styles of any other presently known telamonine. Further collecting of treehoppers in the mountainous regions of Central America and Mexico, areas often neglected by collectors, may yield additional new Telamonini taxa.  PMID:25661929

  13. [Attitudes of Costa Rican students and teachers on sex and population education].

    PubMed

    Stycos, J M

    1987-01-01

    Students in 34 secondary schools and the last year of primary school throughout Costa Rica were interviewed to determine the attitudes of older students toward sex and population education. The sex, grade level, and geographic region of residence were considered key study variables. To ensure an adequate number of cases in each geographic region, the sample was stratified into 4 zones: downtown San Jose, the rest of metropolitan San Jose, other cantons of the central valley, and cantons outside the central valley. Various smaller studies were also conducted, including brief intelligence tests for 190 students, interviews with 286 parents, focus group debates in 8 schools, surveys of 10 teachers in each school, and interviews with Ministry of Education and other officials. The final questionnaire was very long, consisting of 281 questions as well as data about the student's residence. Although students cooperated in filling out the questionnaires, it was too long and 27% of all students failed to complete it. The average student completed 91% of the questions, but fewer than 1/2 of the 6th year primary students were able to complete it. Costa Rican students gain at least a partial understanding of sex at an early age. Almost all secondary students and 71% of the 6th year primary students knew 1 or more contraceptive methods. Most acquired contraceptive information before the age of 12, often from the mass media. 2/3 said their parents had been important sources of information on sex. Most students said they had received some information on sex or family planning in school, but no influence was seen on knowledge or attitudes. The survey results revealed considerable misinformation about sex and family planning. The attitude of Costa Rican students toward equality of the sexes appears conservative, but it becomes less so as their grade level advances, especially for girls. The majority of students had tolerant or indifferent attitudes toward premarital fertility, the

  14. Thermal Studies at the Middle America Trench Offshore Costa Rica and Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. N.; Solomon, E. A.; Spinelli, G. A.; Scientific Team of IODP Drilling Expedition 334

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the temperature distribution at convergent margins is important to understanding physical and chemical processes such as fluid flow, diagenesis, and faulting mechanics in the forearc region. Seafloor probe measurements offer an economical method for obtaining transects of heat flow across the forearc and along strike. Because these measurements only prick the seafloor they are sensitive to near seafloor processes such as bottom water temperature variations, deformation, and shallow fluid circulation and, although important in their own right, can obfuscate thermal inferences at depth. Ocean drilling provides access to deeper environments where downhole tools, acoustic measurements, and logging technologies can provide important scientific insight. We review recent heat flow results from the Costa Rica and Nankai convergent margins emphasizing ocean drilling transects where measurements of heat flow are available from seafloor probe and ocean drilling. Heat flow measurements offshore the erosive Costa Rican margin show strong along strike variations that reflect different styles of fluid flow and have important impacts on forearc processes. Along both the Nicoya and CRISP drilling transects, heat flow from seafloor probes and ocean drilling are consistent and indicate hydrothermal circulation prior to and after subduction. Fluid flow advects heat from deeper along the subduction thrust and deposits it near the seafloor cooling and warming these regions, respectively. The accretionary Nankai trough also shows important along strike changes in heat flow related to the age of oceanic crust at the trench. Heat flow and geochemical results are consistent with basement fluid flow at the Muroto transect but are more ambiguous at the NanTroSEIZE transect.

  15. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g). PMID:8729262

  16. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, D.; Romero-Zuñiga, J.J.; Dolz, G.

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%), followed by WNV (44.2%), and IAV (41.8%). Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9%) was lower than to T. equi (38.1%). For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%), EVAV (5.0%), C. abortus (4.8%), and N. caninum (4.4%). Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV. PMID:26623349

  17. [Bacteriological quality of traditional, organic and hydroponic cultured lettuce in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Monge, Claudio; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuces commercialized in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, and cultured in different ways, in order to detect differences between the culturing methods and the risk that these products may represent for Public Health. The study was done at the Food Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, from March to July, 2010. 30 lettuce samples were analyzed (10 obtained by traditional culture, 10 by organic culture and 10 by hydropony). All samples were obtained from markets where their origin was certified. Total aerobic plate count, total and fecal coliforms count and Escherichia coli were determined to all samples, as well as the presence/abscense of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g. Results obtained show that there is no statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between the different types of cultures analyzed for any of the parameters evaluated. An important percentage of the samples presented coliforms, nevertheless, just one E. coli strain was isolated from a traditionally cultured lettuce sample. Four different Salmonella spp. strains were isolated from the samples as well as one Listeria monocytogenes strain. Data obtained show that the consumption of this product, raw or without an adequate hygiene and disinfection may represent a risk for health. Also, from the bacteriological point of view, there is no significant difference between the culturing methods evaluated, suggesting that the specific directions for each type of culture are not followed or that there is an inadequate handling of the products or post harvest contamination. PMID:22097292

  18. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Pfennig, Sascha; Van den Brink, Paul J; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Ruepert, Clemens; Castillo, Luisa E

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple plantations. In this study, acute laboratory toxicity tests with organophosphate pesticides ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos were conducted on two Costa Rican species, cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and fish Parachromis dovii. Tests showed that chlorpyrifos was more toxic than ethoprophos to D. ambigua and P. dovii and that D. ambigua was also more sensitive than P. dovii to both pesticides. Additionally, bioassays were performed by exposing D. magna and P. dovii to contaminated water collected from the field. Chemical analyses of field water revealed that fungicides were generally the most frequent pesticide group found, followed by insecticides/nematicides and herbicides. The bioassays and values obtained from the literature confirmed that D. magna was more sensitive to pesticide contamination than P. dovii and that D. ambigua was more sensitive than D. magna, suggesting that the native cladoceran is a more suitable test species than its temperate counterpart. Species sensitivity distributions showed no significant difference in sensitivity between tropical and temperate fish and the arthropod species exposed to chlorpyrifos in this study. Choline esterase activity (ChE) was measured in P. dovii in laboratory tests in order to assess the applicability of this biomarker. ChE inhibition in P. dovii was observed in the laboratory at levels below the LC10 of both ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos, confirming that ChE is an efficient biomarker of exposure. Both indigenous Costa Rican species used in this study were found to be suitable standard tropical test species. Further studies are needed to investigate how protective the safe environmental concentrations, derived from LC50 of native

  19. Late Tertiary/Quaternary volcanics of southern Costa Rica and northern Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A.; Byerly, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    The recent tectonic evolution of the Isthmus of Panama is marked by a complexity imparted by a subduction zone - magmatic arc, a transform plate boundary, and the attempted subduction of an aseismic ridge. In northern Panama andesites form the morphologically young Chiriqui stratovolcano, while in southern Costa Rica they are found interbedded with thick lahars. Two groups of andesites occur in the region. One is low in Si and K (Group I); the other high in Si and K (Group II). The Panamanian andesites belong to both the groups, while Costa Rican andesites are restricted to Group II. Group I andesites are glassy, plagioclase-phyric (An45 rims), and contain abundant augite (Wo46En46Fs8) and magnetite. Rare, resorbed olivine (Fo82) and amphibole are occasionally observed. The Group II andesites have similar mineralogy but also contain abundant pargasitic hornblende and minor orthopyroxene or pigeonite. Xenoliths are common in the Group II andesites of Chiriqui Volcano. Two types of xenoliths are recognized. Cumulate-textured, hornblende gabbro xenoliths vary from nearly pure plagioclase to nearly pure amphibole. These gabbroic xenoliths contain plagioclase (An90 cores to An53 rims), augite, and pargasitic hornblende often displaying the same reaction products as found in the andesites. These xenoliths are interpreted as cognate. These andesites are all characterized by high alkalis and alkali earths; Group II have over 1500 ppm Ba and 1000 ppm Sr. They are apparently produced by partial melting of a highly metasomatised mantle followed by high-pressure fractionation dominated by hornblende.

  20. Maternal history, sensitization to allergens, and current wheezing, rhinitis, and eczema among children in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quiros, Manuel E; Silverman, Edwin K; Hanson, Lars A; Weiss, Scott T; Celedón, Juan C

    2002-04-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in Latin American countries. We investigated the relation between potential risk factors and current wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and eczema among 208 Costa Rican children aged 10-13 years participating in phase II of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). The geometric mean ( +/- SD) serum total IgE level of children with current wheezing was significantly higher than that of children without current wheezing (533.8 +/- 5.2 vs. 144.7 +/- 6.0 IU/mL, P < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, a maternal history of asthma, skin test reactivity (STR) to house dust mites, and STR to Alternaria were significantly associated with current wheezing. Children who had a maternal history of asthma had 2.4 times higher odds of current wheezing than those without maternal history of asthma (95% CI for OR = 1.1-5.3). Sensitization to either house dust mite or Alternaria was associated with 3.3 times increased odds of current wheezing (95% CI for OR for STR to dust mite = 1.6-6.7; 95% CI for OR for STR to Alternaria = 1.1-11.0). In a multivariate analysis, STR to house dust mite and STR to cat dander were significantly associated with allergic rhinitis, and a maternal history of eczema and STR to dog dander were associated with eczema in the child. The interaction between familial factors and lifestyle changes resulting from social reforms implemented 60 years ago may explain the high prevalence of atopic diseases in Costa Rica. PMID:11921451

  1. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124

  2. Ultrastructural morphologic description of the wild rice species Oryza latifolia (Poaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Montiel, Mayra; Espinoza, Ana M

    2003-06-01

    The wild rice species Oryza latifolia is endemic to Tropical America, allotetraploid and has a CCDD genome type. It belongs to the officinalis group of the genus Oryza. This species is widely distributed throughout the lowlands of Costa Rica and it is found on different life zones, having great morphologic diversity. The purpose of this research is to perform a morphologic description of O. latifolia samples of three Costa Rican localities (Carara, Liberia and Cañas) and to see if the phenotypic diversity of the species is reflected at the ultra-structure level. Structures such as the leaf blade, ligule, auricles and spikelet were analyzed. Leaf blade morphology of the specimens from the three localities is characterized by the presence of diamond-shaped stomata with papillae, zipper-like rows of silica cells; a variety of evenly distributed epicuticular wax papillae and bulky prickle trichomes. The central vein of the leaf blade from the Cañas populations is glabrous, while those from Carara and Liberia have abundant papillae. There are also differences among the borders of the leaf blade between these locations. Cañas and Liberia present alternating large and small prickle trichomes ca. 81 and 150 microns, while Carara exhibits even sized prickle trichomes of ca. 93 microns. Auricles from Cañas are rectangular and present long trichomes along the surface ca. 1.5 mm, while those of Liberia and Carara wrap the culm and exhibit trichomes only in the borders. The ligule from the plants of Carara has an acute distal tip, while that of Cañas and Liberia is blunt. The Liberia spikelet has large lignified spines while Cañas and Carara show flexible trichomes. PMID:15162727

  3. Heat flow along the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project drilling transect: Implications for hydrothermal and seismic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, Bridget; Harris, Robert N.

    2016-06-01

    Heat flow analysis of the Costa Rica convergent margin is carried out for seven sites drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 334 and 344 as part of the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP). These expeditions are designed to better understand erosional subduction zones. Heat flow measurements were made to improve estimates of the thermal structure of this erosive margin and are located on the incoming plate, toe, lower, middle, and upper slopes of the margin. Heat flow values corrected for the effects of seafloor bathymetry and sedimentation are on average 15% higher than uncorrected values and range from approximately 158-200 mW/m2 on the incoming plate to values of approximately 50 mW/m2 on the middle and upper slopes of the margin. These values are consistent with previous estimates of heat flow showing a landward decrease in heat flow consistent with subduction of the Cocos plate. Preferred thermal models of the shallow subduction zone successfully predicting observed values of heat flow incorporate fluid flow within the upper oceanic aquifer have an uppermost permeability of 10-9.5 m2 and a plate boundary effective coefficient of friction of 0.06. These models suggest that temperatures on the subduction thrust reach 100°C at distances between 30 and 35 km landward of the deformation front. The updip limit of seismicity, as defined by aftershocks events of ML 1-4 recorded following the Mw 6.9 Quepos earthquake, occurs at 25 km landward of the deformation front at temperatures cooler than the 100-150°C typically predicted.

  4. Fishery biology of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas off Costa Rica Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjun; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Bilin; Li, Gang; Lu, Huajie

    2014-06-01

    The jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas) population was surveyed with the help of Chinese squid jigging vessels off the Costa Rica Dome (4°-11°N, 90°-100°W) in 2009 and 2010. The daily catch of D. gigas in the two survey cruises ranged from 0 to 5.5 t and was mostly obtained from the areas bounded by 6°-9°N and 91°-94°W and by 6°30'-7°30'N and 96°-97°W. The sea surface temperature in the areas yielding the most catch ranged from 27.5 to 29°C. The sex ratio of the total catch was 3.75:1 (female: male). The mantle length of the squid ranged from 211 to 355 mm (male) and from 204 to 429 mm (female) with an average of 297.9 and 306.7 mm, respectively. In the relationship of the mantle length (mm) and body weight (g) of the squid, there was no significant difference between sexes. The female and male were at a similar maturity, and most individuals are maturing or have matured with a few females being spent. The size (mantle length) and age at the first sexual maturity were 297 mm and 195 d in females, and less than 211 mm and 130 d in males, respectively. Most of the sampled stomachs (70.6%) had no food remains. The major preys of the squids were fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, with the most abundant Myctophum orientale and D. gigas. The preys in more than 65% of the non-empty sampled stomachs evidenced the cannibalism of D. gigas. The results improved current understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off the Costa Rica Dome, which may facilitate the assessment and management of relative fishery resources.

  5. The Costa Rican Jurassic to Miocene oceanic complexes: Origin, tectonics and relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denyer, Percy; Gazel, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    The occurrences of oceanic assemblages on the Pacific shore of Costa Rica are part of an intricate group of complexes with different tectonic origins. Although they are dismembered and disrupted, they are the only available inland source of information to decipher the evolution of this active margin. Six main regions are described in this paper: (1) Santa Elena Peninsula, constituted by a supra-subduction zone (Santa Elena Nappe), that is overthrusting an igneous-sedimentary Aptian-Cenomanian sequence (Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex), which includes OIB (Ocean Island Basalts) portions, (2) the Nicoya Complex, which is a Jurassic-Cretaceous chert sediment pile disrupted and detached from its original basement by multiple magmatic events that occurred during the formation of the CLIP (Caribbean Large Igneous Province), (3) the Tortugal area formed by the Tortugal Suite with OIB signature and surrounded by Nicoya Complex outcrops, (4) the Herradura Block composed of the Tulín Formation to Maastrichtian to Lower Eocene OIB accreted oceanic island and the Nicoya Complex as basement, (5) Quepos Block correlated with the Tulín Formation, (6) the Osa-Burica Block composed of the Golfito and Burica Terranes (geochemically and chronologically correlated to the Nicoya Complex), Rincón Block (Early Paleocene to Early Eocene accreted seamounts), and the Miocene Osa-Caño Accretionary Complex. The Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex together with the Tortugal Suite have OIB signatures and possibly without Galapagos hotspot geochemical affinity. These coincidences would be explained by the hypothetical existence of an "autochthonous" Cretaceous basement formed by these two regions together with the rest of the Caribbean. Costa Rican basement is constituted by several CLIP portions and seamounts accreted from the end of Cretaceous in the northwest to the Miocene in the southeast, forming the diverse oceanic occurrences of the Pacific, which are mainly connected to the Galapagos

  6. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  7. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  8. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  9. [Use and conservation of palm swamps Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in the Area de Conservación Tortuguero, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gutiérrez, Carlos M; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabián; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The swamps dominated by raffia palm Raphia taedigera are conspicuous environments in the Tortuguero floodplains and in other wet regions along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Costa Rica. However, these environments have been little studied and are exposed to numerous threats, most importantly their replacement by agricultural activities or pastureland. In this paper, we describe some applications and uses of the raffia palms and other palms that are common in these flooded swamps. We also describe the efforts that have been made in Costa Rica for the protection or raffia-dominated swamps, through the environmental law frame of the country and the establishment of a protection system based on wilderness areas under different categories of protection. We discuss issues relevant to the future of these environments in the regions where they are distributed. PMID:24459759

  10. [The view of adolescents from the rural area of Costa Rica in rehabilitation programs about drug consumption].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Castro, Ligia; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2011-06-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate the view of adolescents following rehabilitation programs about the consumption of illicit drugs. It was carried out in two Non-Governmental Organizations in Costa Rica. The focus group technique was applied, aiming to allow adolescents to express their feelings and experiences regarding illicit drug consumption. Results showed that the perception adolescents have of themselves is focused on a process of change and development of their identity and experimentation, which influence them in taking negative decisions like drug consumption. The relationships they have with their parents are conflicting, as they come from dysfunctional homes and marginal communities. Friends represent support for their difficulties and lead to drug consumption. The state of Costa Rica needs to define public policies to improve the lives of this population. PMID:21739062

  11. A new species of the Craugastor podiciferus species group (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the premontane forest of southwestern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Arias, Erick; Chaveschaves, Gerardo; Crawford, Andrew J; Parra-Olea, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe a new species of the Craugastor podiciferus species group from the premontane forest of the Pacific versant along the Costa Rican-Panamanian border. Mitochondrial DNA and karyotype analyses previously showed a marked genetic divergence between populations of the premontane forest of the Fila Costeña and the lowlands South Pacific Costa Rica near Panama. Analyses of the mitochondrial DNA sequences and the morphological variation revealed significant differences between the populations of the premontane forest relative to the other populations of C. stejnegerianus, including the type locality. We recognize these premontane populations as a new species and show that they differ from the typical C. stejnegerianus in the coloration of the venter, the head and the body proportions, and mtDNA divergence. With the addition of this new species, the C. podiciferus species group now contains nine species. PMID:27395676

  12. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  13. Sexual abuse and corporal punishment during childhood: a pilot retrospective survey of university students in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Krugman, S; Mata, L; Krugman, R

    1992-07-01

    A sample of 497 students at the University of Costa Rica completed a survey on perceptions and experiences with various forms of punishment and experiences with sexual abuse during childhood. Spanking was shown to be the most widely accepted and most common form of discipline. The majority of the students considered most types of punishment forms of abuse. This study lacks a comparison group and cannot be generalized to the entire Costa Rican population. The section on sexual abuse demonstrated that 32% of the women and 13% of the men experienced some type of sexual abuse during childhood. The abuse mainly occurred between the ages of 5 and 10, and men were most often perpetrators. PMID:1603642

  14. The Linamarin β-Glucosidase in Costa Rican Wild Lima Beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is Apoplastic 1

    PubMed Central

    Frehner, Marco; Conn, Eric E.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of mesophyll protoplasts and cell wall extracts of leaf discs of Costa Rican wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) shows that the linamarase activity is confined to the apoplast. Its substrate linamarin, together with the related enzyme hydroxynitrile lyase, is found inside the cells. This compartmentation prevents cyanogenesis from occurring in intact tissue, and suggests that linamarin has to be protected during any translocation across the linamarase rich apoplast. PMID:16665601

  15. A review of the genera Acathrito Lyneborg, Phycus Walker and Salentia Costa (Diptera: Therevidae: Phycinae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Badrawy, Haitham B M

    2013-01-01

    The Egyptian fauna of the three genera Acathrito Lyneborg, Phycus Walker and Salentia Costa of subfamily Phycinae (Therevidae) is revised. Five species are recognized, three species of Phycus (including Phycus rufofemoratus Kröber as a new record) and one species for each of Acathrito and Salentia. A key to Egyptian Phycus species is included. Illustrations, specimens examined and distributions are given for each species. PMID:26097961

  16. New species of Potamocoris Hungerford (Heteroptera, Potamocoridae) from Costa Rica and a key to the species .

    PubMed

    Herrera, Federico; Springer, Monika

    2014-01-01

    A new potamocorid species, Potamocoris sitesi NEW SPECIES, with its two wing morphs (coleopteroid and macropterous) are described from Costa Rica.  Descriptions are supported with photographs and illustrations. Parameres become progressively narrower, ending in a sharp needle-like point. This is the third species of Potamocoris known from Central America. A key to the species of the genus is provided. PMID:25543803

  17. Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of total emissions of greenhouse gases from biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.

    1997-12-31

    One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG emissions.

  18. Implementation of fuel-cost reduction measures in Costa Rican private bus and taxi fleets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-11

    The project focused on demonstrations of fuel-conservation measures in private bus and taxi fleets and a public information and awareness campaign. In Costa Rica, buses and taxis tend to be grouped into cooperatives and umbrella associations that provide convenient host organizations for such a project. The demonstrations were of a practical nature, and featured proven measures that would produce significant savings under actual operating conditions.

  19. (Visit to the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica): Foreign trip report, February 28--March 5, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, D.E.

    1988-03-17

    The traveler attended the quarterly meeting of the National Board of Governors of The Nature Conservancy held in Costa Rica to highlight their international program in Central America. The traveler used this opportunity to visit the La Selva Biological Station of the Organization for Tropical Studies and to examine their ecosystem research project on wet lowland tropical forests. Discussions were held with the co-directors, faculty, students, and visiting scientists from the United States.

  20. [Algal blooms of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Montero, Maribelle; Freer, Enrique

    2004-09-01

    Water samples were collected during a red tide event in November 2001, near San Lucas Island (Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica). Superficial temperature was 27 degrees C and water was turbid, with no fetid smell. One sample was treated with negative staining and observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM); another sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Samples had high concentrations of the diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia pungensf pungens (characterized by two rows of poroids in the external channel), and lower concentrations of Skeletonema costatum (chains joined by external microtubules) and Chaetoceros lorenzianus (oval apertures and long chains, having setae with distinctive transverse rows and spines). This is the first time that the first species was described producing red tides in Costa Rica. However, reports about red tides with high concentration of species like P. pungens (variety multiseries) are increasing. These species have been related to the production of domoic acid, a low molecular weight amino acid which in humans can cause amnesic intoxications with seafood. Previously, Costa Rican reports of toxic accidents only referred to seafood contaminated with Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and Gymnodinium catenatum dinoflagellates. The increase in the number of Pseudo-Nitzschia causing harmful algae blooms is of interest for scientists around the world and must be documented. Similarly, some Chaetoceros species have been reported to be harmful to fish. We strongly recommend the establishment of a permanent surveillance program monitoring the presence of these species new at Costa Rican Pacific coast. Since the amnesic toxin is soluble in water and heat-resistant, we want to stress the possibility of having human cases of amnesic intoxication. PMID:17465126

  1. The Influence of Time Spent in Outdoor Play on Daily and Aerobic Step Count in Costa Rican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morera Castro, Maria del Rocio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of time spent in outdoor play (i.e., on weekday and weekend days) on daily (i.e., average step count) and aerobic step count (i.e., average moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA] during the weekdays and weekend days) in fifth grade Costa Rican children. It was hypothesized that: (a)…

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Control Strategies in Central America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Niëns, Laurens M.; Zelle, Sten G.; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F. H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50–70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40–70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  3. The first astronomical hypothesis based on cinematographical observations: Costa Lobo's 1912 evidence for polar flattening of the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifácio, Vitor; Malaquias, Isabel; Fernandes, João

    2010-07-01

    Acceptance by the scientific community of results obtained with new technology can be a complex process. A particularly good example is provided by the unexpected hypothesis raised by Francisco Miranda da Costa Lobo upon examination of the cinematographic film obtained during the solar eclipse of 17 April 1912. Contrary to contemporary practice this eclipse was eagerly awaited in view of its astrometrical rather than astrophysical scientific interest. The observation of this hybrid eclipse provided, in theory, a good opportunity to improve several astrometric parameters, and in particular the Moon's apparent diameter. Observations were performed from Portugal to Russia and, for the first time, movie cameras were widely deployed to register astronomical phenomena. Upon analysing the film obtained at Ovar (Portugal), Costa Lobo realised that during totality Baily's Beads were not symmetrically distributed around the Moon. As an explanation and opposing current belief he proposed a lunar flattening in the range 1/1156 to 1/380. Initially other eclipse observers supported Costa Lobo's claim. In particular, Father Willaert obtained a flattening value of 1/2050 from his cinematographic film taken at Namur (Belgium). However, these results were quickly disregarded by the international astronomical community which favoured an explanation based upon the irregularities of the lunar profile. In this paper we recall the characteristics of the 17 April 1912 eclipse and the cinematographic observations, and review the results obtained. We conclude that the lack of attention paid by the astronomical community to the new cinematographical results and Camille Flammarion's superficial analysis of the data were instrumental in the rejection of Costa Lobo's hypothesis.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Niëns, Laurens M; Zelle, Sten G; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F H

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50-70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40-70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  5. Key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily precipitation of Costa Rica: Caribbean Sea versus Eastern Pacific Ocean moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, R.; Birkel, C.; Welsh, K.; Esquivel-Hernández, G.; Corrales-Salazar, J.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Roupsard, O.; Sáenz-Rosales, O.; Katchan, I.; Arce-Mesén, R.; Soulsby, C.; Araguás-Araguás, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives moisture inputs directly from the Caribbean Sea and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This location includes unique mountainous and lowland microclimates, but only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition. Therefore, the main scope of this project is to identify the key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily-scale precipitation of Costa Rica. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ to -0.9‰ δ18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ δ18O). HYSPLIT air mass back trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of three main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet, the Colombian Low Level Jet, and localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that lifted condensation level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to a) enhance groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management, b) improve the re-construction of paleoclimatic records in the Central American land bridge, c) calibrate and validate regional circulation models.

  6. The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Robert R; Salinas, Zenia M

    2002-06-01

    Many nations promote nature-based tourism in order to promote the dual goals of nature conservation and income generation. To be most effective in providing services that facilitate achievement of these goals, decision makers will need to understand and incorporate tourist preferences for nature appreciation, infrastructure, use restrictions, and other attributes of national parks and protected areas. This paper presents the use of choice experiments as a mechanism to analyze preferences of national and international tourists in relation to the development of Barva Volcano Area in Costa Rica. In this section of the Braulio Carrillo National Park, managers are faced with an immediate need to plan for greatly increased visitation rates due to a new road, which will greatly improve access. Choice sets were developed in collaboration with park managers. A survey was conducted of 171 Costa Rican and 271 foreign tourists who visited Poás Volcano, a well-visited alternative site to Barva Volcano. Survey data was analyzed using conditional multinomial logit models. Results of the study demonstrate, that both sets of tourists preferred: (i) improved infrastructure; (ii) aerial trams with observation towers and picnic areas; (iii) more information; and (iv) low entrance fees. Foreign tourists demonstrated strong preferences for the inclusion of restrictions in the access to some trails, whereas Costa Ricans did not show any significant preference for restrictions. Marginal willingness-to-pay for greater information was estimated to be $1.54 for foreign tourists and $1.01 for Costa Rican visitors. The study concludes that choice experiments are a useful tool in the analyses of tourist preferences for the development of protected areas in developing countries. PMID:12197077

  7. Venom of Bothrops asper from Mexico and Costa Rica: intraspecific variation and cross-neutralization by antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Segura, Alvaro; Herrera, María; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Uscanga-Reynell, Alfredo; de León-Rosales, Samuel Ponce; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Reta-Mares, José Francisco; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Bothrops asper is the species that induces the highest incidence of snakebite envenomation in southern Mexico, Central America and parts of northern South America. The intraspecies variability in HPLC profile and toxicological activities between the venoms from specimens collected in Mexico (Veracruz) and Costa Rica (Caribbean and Pacific populations) was investigated, as well as the cross-neutralization by antivenoms manufactured in these countries. Venoms differ in their HPLC profiles and in their toxicity, since venom from Mexican population showed higher lethal and defibrinogenating activities, whereas those from Costa Rica showed higher hemorrhagic and in vitro coagulant activities. In general, antivenoms were more effective in the neutralization of homologous venoms. Overall, both antivenoms effectively neutralized the various toxic effects of venoms from the two populations of B. asper. However, antivenom raised against venom from Costa Rican specimens showed a higher efficacy in the neutralization of defibrinogenating and coagulant activities, thus highlighting immunochemical differences in the toxins responsible for these effects associated with hemostatic disturbances in snakebite envenoming. These observations illustrate how intraspecies venom variation may influence antivenom neutralizing profile. PMID:22119752

  8. Rabies in Costa Rica: Documentation of the Surveillance Program and the Endemic Situation from 1985 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Sabine E; Brugger, Katharina; Sancho Vargas, Victor Hugo; González, Rocío; Aguilar, Olga; León, Bernal; Tichy, Alexander; Firth, Clair L; Rubel, Franz

    2016-05-01

    This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle outbreaks, 82% occurred between 0 and 500 meters above sea level, and seasonality could be demonstrated on the Pacific side of the country, with significantly more outbreaks occurring during the wet season. A total of 1588 animal samples, or an average of 55 samples per year, was received by the veterinary authority (SENASA) for rabies diagnostic testing at this time. Of all samples tested, 9% (143/1588) were positive. Of these, 85.6% (125/1588) were from cattle; four dogs (0.3% [4/1588]) were diagnosed with rabies in this 30-year period. Simultaneously, an extremely low number (n = 3) of autochthonous rabies cases were reported among human patients, all of which were fatal. However, given the virus' zoonotic characteristics and predominantly fatal outcome among both cattle and humans, it is extremely important for healthcare practitioners and veterinarians to be aware of the importance of adequate wound hygiene and postexpositional rabies prophylaxis when dealing with both wild and domestic animal bites. PMID:26982168

  9. Rabies in Costa Rica: Documentation of the Surveillance Program and the Endemic Situation from 1985 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Brugger, Katharina; Sancho Vargas, Victor Hugo; González, Rocío; Aguilar, Olga; León, Bernal; Tichy, Alexander; Firth, Clair L.; Rubel, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle outbreaks, 82% occurred between 0 and 500 meters above sea level, and seasonality could be demonstrated on the Pacific side of the country, with significantly more outbreaks occurring during the wet season. A total of 1588 animal samples, or an average of 55 samples per year, was received by the veterinary authority (SENASA) for rabies diagnostic testing at this time. Of all samples tested, 9% (143/1588) were positive. Of these, 85.6% (125/1588) were from cattle; four dogs (0.3% [4/1588]) were diagnosed with rabies in this 30-year period. Simultaneously, an extremely low number (n = 3) of autochthonous rabies cases were reported among human patients, all of which were fatal. However, given the virus' zoonotic characteristics and predominantly fatal outcome among both cattle and humans, it is extremely important for healthcare practitioners and veterinarians to be aware of the importance of adequate wound hygiene and postexpositional rabies prophylaxis when dealing with both wild and domestic animal bites. PMID:26982168

  10. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) nest characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Guittar, John L; Dear, Fiona; Vaughan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considdrable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica's only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%), Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%), Ceibapentandra (n=7, 14.0%) and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%). We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw's long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. PMID:19637716

  11. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed. PMID:18833996

  12. Design of a general methodology for the evaluation and categorization of an environmental program with special reference to Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Government of Costa Rica has stated the need for a formal procedure for the evaluation and categorization of an environmental program. Methodological studies were prepared as the basis for the development of the general methodology by which each government or institution can adapt and implement the procedure. The methodology was established by using different techniques according to their contribution to the evaluation process, such as: Systemic Approach, Delphi, and Saaty Methods. The methodology consists of two main parts: 1) evaluation of the environmental aspects by using different techniques; 2) categorization of the environmental aspects by applying the methodology to the Costa Rican Environmental affairs using questionnaire answers supplied by experts both inside and outside of the country. The second part of the research includes Appendixes in which is presented general information concerning institutions related to environmental affairs; description of the methods used; results of the current status evaluation and its scale; the final scale of categorization; and the questionnaires and a list of experts. The methodology developed in this research will have a beneficial impact on environmental concerns in Costa Rica. As a result of this research, a Commission Office of Environmental Affairs, providing links between consumers, engineers, scientists, and the Government, is recommended. Also there is significant potential use of this methodology in developed countries for a better balancing of the budgets of major research programs such as cancer, heart, and other research areas.

  13. Species diversity and activity of insectivorous bats in three habitats in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Pineapple farms make up 45,000 ha of Costa Rican landscape and are the second most exported crop. This is economically beneficial for the Costa Ricans, but greatly affects the natural flora and fauna because it is such a low growing crop. This study examined the differences in insectivorous bat species diversity and activity in the habitat gradient between the forest in Tirimbina Biological Reserve in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica and the nearby pineapple farm called Finca Corsicana. Over a four week period in March and April 2013, ultrasonic recorders were placed at different sites to pick up the bats' calls. Then the recordings were analyzed to identify the species. There were four families present and 19 different species. There was a significant decrease in the number of bat passes (the number of times a bat passes the recorder) in the pineapple farm (x = 22.6), in comparison to the border (x = 39.9), and the forest (x = 44.2) (p = 0.0028). Agricultural environ- ments affected and lowered bat presence. Also, a greater mean number of bats recorded between 1900-1930 hrs compared to 1730-1800 hrs, coincided with the setting of the sun and beginning of bat activity. More research is need throughout the night and the year to establish clearer patterns of bat use and activity in different habitats. PMID:25412526

  14. Biogeography of the livebearing fish Poecilia gillii in Costa Rica: are phylogeographical breaks congruent with fish community boundaries?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jared B; Johnson, Jerald B

    2009-10-01

    One of the original goals of phylogeography was to use genetic data to identify historical events that might contribute to breaks among communities. In this study, we examine the phylogeography of a common livebearing fish (Poecilia gillii) from Costa Rica. Our goal was to determine if phylogeographical breaks in this species were congruent with previously defined boundaries among four fish community provinces. We hypothesized that if abiotic factors influence both community boundaries and genetic structuring in P. gillii then we might find four clades within our focal species that were geographically separated along community boundary lines. Similarly, we expected to find most of the genetic variation in P. gillii partitioned among these four geographical regions. We generated DNA sequence data (mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear S7 small ribosomal subunit) for 260 individuals from 42 populations distributed across Costa Rica. We analysed these data using phylogenetic (parsimony and likelihood) and coalescent approaches to estimate phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes, patterns of gene flow and effective population size. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find four monophyletic groups that mapped cleanly to our geographical community provinces. However, one of our clades was restricted to a single province, suggesting that common earth history events could be responsible for both genetic structuring in P. gillii and fish community composition in this area. However, our results show a complex pattern of gene flow throughout other regions in Costa Rica where genetic structuring is not predicted by community province boundaries. PMID:19735450

  15. Biodiversity of Costa Rican salamanders: Implications of high levels of genetic differentiation and phylogeographic structure for species formation

    PubMed Central

    García-París, Mario; Good, David A.; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Wake, David B.

    2000-01-01

    Although salamanders are characteristic amphibians in Holarctic temperate habitats, in tropical regions they have diversified evolutionarily only in tropical America. An adaptive radiation centered in Middle America occurred late in the history of a single clade, the supergenus Bolitoglossa (Plethodontidae), and large numbers of species now occur in diverse habitats. Sublineages within this clade decrease in number from the northern to southern parts of Middle America, and in Costa Rica, there are but three. Despite this phylogenetic constraint, Costa Rica has many species; the number of salamander species on one local elevational transect in the Cordillera de Talamanca may be the largest for any such transect in the world. Extraordinary variation in sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b within a clade of the genus Bolitoglossa in Costa Rica reveals strong phylogeographic structure within a single species, Bolitoglossa pesrubra. Allozymic variation in 19 proteins reveals a pattern largely concordant with the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography. More species exist than are currently recognized. Diversification occurs in restricted geographic areas and involves sharp geographic and elevational differentiation and zonation. In their degree of genetic differentiation at a local scale, these species of the deep tropics exceed the known variation of extratropical salamanders, which also differ in being less restricted in elevational range. Salamanders display “tropicality” in that although speciose, they are usually local in distribution and rare. They display strong ecological and physiological differentiation that may contribute importantly to morphological divergence and species formation. PMID:10677512

  16. Preliminary review of biomass energy options in Costa Rica and the national alcohol fuel program. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.L.

    1981-01-30

    For an agricultural, oil-importing country such as Costa Rica, the use of biomass as a source of transportation fuels is a topic of great interest. This analysis is intended to assist the Costa Rican government and USAID/CR to identify possible biomass energy projects. While emphasis is on technologies for converting biomass into liquid fuels, agronomic issues and alternative energy options are also explored. Costa Rica plans to build six facilities for converting biomass (primarily sugarcane, supplemented by molasses, cassava, and banana wastes) to hydrous ethanol. The following issues relating to biomass conversion technologies are identified: use of hydroelectrically powered drives in sugarcane processing to allow use of bagasse as a fuel; possible sources and costs of energy for converting starch crops like cassava to ethanol; the optimal method for treating stillage; and the feasibility of using fermentation reactors. No definitive recommendation on the scale of ethanol production is made due to the lack of an environmental impact assessment. Finally, with regard to nonalcohol renewable energy, several ideas warrant consideration: electrically powered mass transit; electric cars; vehicle-mounted gasifiers operating on wood chips or pelletized fuels produced from excess bagasse; anaerobic digestion of animal manure and other agricultural wastes; and energy recovery from municipal solid wastes.

  17. [Teoria della Mente e funzionamento sociale nella schizofrenia: correlazione con anomalie del linguaggio figurato, sintomatologia clinica e intelligenza generale].

    PubMed

    Piovan, Cristiano; Gava, Laura; Campeol, Mara

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Negli ultimi decenni gli studi hanno mostrato come la Teoria della Mente (ToM) non sia un processo unitario, ma un sistema che include aspetti cognitivi e affettivi. Nell'ambito dei domini che definiscono la social cognition, la ToM rappresenta il miglior predittore dello scarso funzionamento sociale nella schizofrenia. Lo scopo del presente lavoro è stato di esaminare la competenza di un gruppo di pazienti ambulatoriali affetti da schizofrenia in compiti di ToM, di riconoscimento di aspetti metaforici e idiomatici del linguaggio, in una prova di rispetto di regole conversazionali e di indagarne la relazione con il funzionamento sociale. Metodi. Sono stati reclutati 30 pazienti ambulatoriali con diagnosi di schizofrenia e 24 controlli sani. Sono stati somministrati il TIB per il calcolo del QI premorboso, la PANSS, il Theory of Mind Picture Sequencing Task, un test di comprensione di metafore e idiomi e un test conversazionale. Il funzionamento sociale è stato valutato con la PSP. Risultati. Non vi era differenza significativa tra i valori medi del QI premorboso del gruppo dei pazienti e dei controlli. Ai test di ToM e di competenza pragmatica, la differenza tra i gruppi è risultata altamente significativa, con i pazienti che hanno eseguito le prove in modo peggiore. È emersa una correlazione tra la comprensione di metafore e idiomi e le false credenze di secondo ordine. La PSP è risultata correlata con la PANSS e con la quota di ToM cognitiva, ma non con la ToM affettiva. Conclusioni. I risultati hanno mostrato che i soggetti affetti da schizofrenia, in condizione clinica di stabilizzazione, hanno evidenti difficoltà nelle prove di ToM e di comprensione del linguaggio figurato. Nel nostro modello teorico, la correlazione evidenziata tra la ToM cognitiva, i deficit pragmatici, lo stato clinico e il livello di funzionamento sociale suggerisce l'utilità di interventi riabilitativi di recupero delle funzioni metacognitive e delle abilit

  18. Methane Production In Forearc Sediments At The Costa Rican Convergent Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Morris, J. D.; Peacock, A.; White, D. C.

    2004-12-01

    Plate tectonics creates suitable habitats for deep biosphere organisms, affecting the distribution of biological communities on Earth. Subduction zones, where crustal materials return to the planetary interior through plate convergence, expose active microbial communities in subducting seafloor sediments to a fresh chemical inventory as diagenesis, metamorphic reactions, and tectonically-induced fluid flow alter sediments and surrounding porewaters. The plate interface (the decollement) experiences persistent geochemical flux of light hydrocarbon- and metal-bearing fluids from depth. This project (1) examines the habitability of the decollement zone at the Costa Rican convergent margin from a geochemical perspective, (2) uses lipid biomarkers to describe biomass distribution in sediment samples adjacent to and within the decollement, and (3) cites methanogenesis as a likely metabolic strategy employed by the resident microbial community. Sterile plugs of sediment were recovered from cores taken during Leg 205 of the Ocean Drilling Program, in the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica. Samples are from the incoming carbonate section of Site 1253 at 370-437 meters below seafloor (mbsf), in the forearc sedimentary wedge at Site 1255 at 134-145 mbsf, and around an upper fault (153-220 mbsf) and in the decollement zone (305-366 mbsf) at Site 1254. Drilling mud and fluid were sampled to monitor potential microbial contamination. Samples were immediately frozen at -80ºC. Prior to analysis, samples were freeze-dried in preparation for serial extraction of DNA and lipids. DNA was identified by fluorometry in 13 of 26 samples tested. The DNA was screened for methanogens by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), employing ME1 and ME2 primers that amplify a 0.75-kb region of the alpha-subunit gene for methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Methanogen-specific genes were detected in DNA extracted from one Site 1253 sample (at 436.9 mbsf in the basal carbonates) and four Site

  19. Slip mode segmentation of the megathrust beneath Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Nick; Malservisi, Rocco; Liu, Zhen; Dixon, Timothy H.; Protti, Marino; Gonzales, Victor; Schwartz, Susan; Jiang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, overlies a section of a subduction megathrust close to the Middle America Trench. This location allows terrestrial geodetic monitoring of the surface deformation above the seismogenic zone, a region that is often underwater in many subduction zones. A continuous Global Positioning System network has operated in the Nicoya peninsula of northern Costa Rica since 2002 observing a number of deep and shallow slow slip events (SSEs) with a recurrence interval of ~21 months. On September 5th 2012, a Mw 7.6 nucleated just underneath the geodetic network. We explore the relationship between these recurrent SSEs and the large earthquake. We find that SSE recurrence interval appears constant before and after the earthquake. Using a modified version of the Extended Network Inversion Filter [e.g. McGuire and Segall, 2003] (ENIF) to identify time dependent characteristics of SSEs before and after the 2012 Nicoya earthquake, we find that slip starts updip prior to the earthquake in the shallow, 15 km depth, section of the subduction zone and then migrates to a deep patch beneath the Nicoya gulf. Following the earthquake, high slip rates initiate down dip (40 km depth) and remain downdip, a change from observations of SSEs prior to the earthquake. In this study, we also analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of the surface deformation at different temporal scales (from hours to years) after the earthquake to infer the aseismic slip due to postsiesmic response on the fault interface. We compare the portion of postseismic displacement interpreted as afterslip with our previous analysis of SSE. Our results show that the main rupture was followed by significant early afterslip for the first 3 hours after the main event followed by regular afterslip decaying exponentially. During the first few months, the afterslip has most likely filled gaps left by the coseismic rupture (in particular updip). We also show that afterslip seems to be bounded by

  20. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled

  1. Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto

    2009-09-01

    Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of bacteria presented in regular gas, premium gas and diesel from the bottom and superior part of the tanks were done; in the samples containing an aqueous phase, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were also quantified by the most probable number technique (MPN), according to the ASTM D4412-84 standard. The higher contamination was shown at the bottom of the tanks (populations up to 10(4) UFC/l), especially if there was accumulated water, in which case populations reached 10(8) UFC/l. The most contaminated fuel was diesel (counts up to 10(4) UFC/l), whereas the less contaminated was premium gas. The less contaminated fuels were from the facilities of La Garita and Barranca, whereas the most contaminated were from Ochomogo. Nevertheless, the quantified populations did not cause significant alteration in quality physicochemical parameters in the samples analyzed. A total of 149 bacterial strains were isolated, 136 (91.3%) Gram positive and 13 (8.7%) Gram negative. The most frequent genera were Staphylococcus (24.0%), Micrococcus (21.9%), Bacillus (18.8%) and Kocuria (11.5%) among Gram positive bacteria and Pseudomonas (7.3%) among Gram negative bacteria. The majority of these genera have been found as fuel contaminants or even as degraders of this kind of products; nevertheless, some species for which their appearance or growth in hydrocarbons have not been described were found with low frequencies. SRB were present in counts up to 10(5) MPN/l in 42.9% of water containing samples

  2. Long-term comparison of the fish community in a Costa Rican rocky shore marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark C; Wagner, Jonathan; Vaughan, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Despite their role in supporting diverse marine fish communities, tropical rocky shores and reefs have attracted less research and fewer targeted conservation efforts compared to coral reefs. We studied fish community composition in Playa Blanca Marine Reserve (9 degrees 40' N - 84 degrees 40' W), a rocky shore site on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We conducted visual surveys of fishes along six strip transects soon after the area was designated a marine reserve in 1995, then again in 2006 following an eleven-year period of complete protection. We recorded a total of 31 406 sightings of 72 species from 30 families. Pomacentrids (42.5%), labrids (16.6%) and haemulids (14.8%) dominated the community, accounting for > 70% of total fish abundance. In comparison to other sites in the region, the fish community was more similar to one reported from Bahia Honda, Panama (7 degrees 50' N - 81 degrees 35 W) than from the geographically more proximate Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10 degrees 45' N - 85 degrees 43 W). Sixty-one species from 26 families were recorded in 1995; sixty-nine species from 28 families in 2006. Our results suggest that the Playa Blanca Marine Reserve is fulfilling its conservation role. Average fish abundance, species richness and Shannon's index of community diversity were greater in 2006 than 1995, and fish community composition varied significantly within each transect among years. Much of the change in community composition among years resulted from spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of a few dominant species, including Abudefduf troschelli, Thalassoma lucasanum, Chromis atrilobata, and Stegastes flavilatus/acapulcoensis. Of the 48 species/species groups recorded in both years, 37 (77%) were more abundant in 2006 than 1995, and several species recorded as uncommon or rare in 1995 were more frequent and abundant in 2006. Fish community composition and the abundance of some species changed in the reserve over time, but further

  3. Distribution of physical properties and pore pressure of sediments off Costa Rica: IODP Expedition 344

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, A.; Hashimoto, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Evolution of physical properties in subduction zone is a key to understand lithification processes, location of decollement, stress distribution. In this study, we examined the physical properties of sediments using on-board data and laboratory experimental data on sediments obtained off Costa Rica margin to understand the distribution of compaction states. Target sites are in the Integrate Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344 off Costa Rica, including reference sites (U1381 and U1414), frontal prism site (U1412), mid-slope site (U1380) and upper-slope site (U1413). Laboratory experiments for velocity and porosity measurements were conducted with variation of effective pressure. Porosity ranges from about 80% to about 53% during experiments. P-wave velocity ranges from about 1.4 to about 1.7 km/s. Velocity-porosity relationships from on-board data and from laboratory experiments are comparable nicely. This comparable trend in Vp-porosity relationship suggests that the relationship between porosity and effective pressure can be applied to most of sediments. The porosity-effective pressure curves under isotropic condition were converted to the curves under uniaxial condition (Teeuw, 1971). Using the normal consolidation curves under isotropic and uniaxial stress conditions, we converted the on-board porosity to effective pressure and fluid pressure. For U1381 Unit I, hydrostatic fluid pressure was estimated as expected as a reference site. For U1414 in another reference site, hydrostatic pressure was observed in Unit I, but lower fluid pressure than hydrostatic pressure was estimated in the upper part of Unit II. Below that, the pore pressure returned along hydrostatic pressure. This boundary can be weakened by higher fluid pressure below the boundary, suggesting that this boundary is likely a precursor of decollement. For Unit 1412 in frontal prism, pore fluid pressure is lower than hydrostatic pressure, suggesting that they have lower porosity possibly

  4. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Glen; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-03-01

    Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65% of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita), and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa). In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero) Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Carara) it was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%), oval (20%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and cubic (1%), bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%). Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Rio Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed delta-endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with cry3

  5. Mapping Depth to Bedrock in a Tropical Pre-Montane Wet Forest in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oien, R. P.; Burns, J. N.; Arnott, R.; Ackerson, J. P.; Morgan, C.

    2012-12-01

    Accounting for all components of the water balance in a watershed includes an estimate of soil water storage, which in turn depends on the depth to bedrock. The soils in this transitional tropical forest contain large amounts of amorphous material from the saprolitic tuff thus classifying the soils as Andisols. Measuring the depth to bedrock in tropical montane environments is complicated by aspect, elevation, slope, landslides, slumping and other mass wasting events. As part of a larger study, Texas A& M Costa Rica REU aimed to close the water budget for a tropical pre-montane forest, the focus of this study is to generate a map of the depth to saprolitic tuff and topographical information for the purpose of estimating the volume of soil water storage in the Howler Monkey Watershed at Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research and Education, San Isidro de Peñas Blancas, Costa Rica. A map of the depth to saprolitic tuff was created using 101 hand- augured holes (over 2.63 ha) spatially distributed throughout the watershed. Saprolitic tuff was defined as being 50% of the sample and containing grittiness and cobble sized chunks. To characterize the soils throughout the watershed, soil horizons at three sites were described and 22 cores for particle size. The cores consisted of over 40-55% clay classifying them as clayey or clayey loam. The samples also ranged from 50-73% water content. A map showing the slopes within the watershed also shows the relationship of soil depth above the bedrock within the watershed. The slopes across the watershed vary from 12-65 degrees but only have a 24% correlation with the depth to saprolitic tuff. Results suggest that the depth of the saprolitic tuff is quite sensitive to small scale topographic variability. Soil with such high water content becomes an integral part of the water budget since a significant portion of the water is maintained within the soil. Depth to bedrock provides necessary data to estimate the total volume

  6. Seismic Cycle Deformation and Net Coastal Uplift at San Juanillo, Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, A. J.; Marshall, J.; Morrish, S.; Ritzinger, B.; Wellington, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica lies ~60 km inboard of the Middle America Trench where the Cocos Plate subducts under the Caribbean Plate at ~9 cm/yr. This outer fore arc peninsula overlies the seismogenic zone along a mature seismic gap, with an estimated recurrence interval of ~50 yr for large megathrust earthquakes. The last major event (M 7.7, 1950) resulted in 1.0-1.5 m of coseismic uplift along the peninsula's central coast. Since then, gradual coastal subsidence has been observed as the plate interface accumulates interseismic strain. While elastic seismic-cycle deformation produces short-term shoreline fluctuations on the Nicoya Peninsula, net tectonic uplift throughout the Quaternary results in long-term coastal emergence and the formation of marine terraces. At San Juanillo, north of Punta Guiones, emergent carbonate beachrock horizons mark former Holocene shorelines with calibrated radiocarbon ages of 0.9-1.8 ka. The position of these deposits on the upper beach face is consistent with net uplift at ~0.5 m/k.y. Tidal erosion and the undermining of beachrock and adjacent cliffs may reflect coastal inundation associated with the current phase of elastic interseismic subsidence. Inland of the beach, two uplifted marine terraces mark former late Quaternary shorelines with inner edge elevations of ~30 m and ~55 m above mean sea level. The ages of these surfaces are estimated at 80 ka and 125 ka respectively, based on correlation with OSL dated terraces ~80 km to the south and the timing of late Pleistocene sea level high stands (Oxygen Isotope Stages 5a-5e). Long-term net uplift at San Juanillo therefore occurs at a rate of 0.3-0.5 m/k.y. This is the highest uplift rate recorded among seven marine terrace study sites along the Nicoya coast, with the exception of the peninsula's southern tip (Cabo Blanco) where accelerated uplift occurs in response to seamount subduction. Since the 1950 Nicoya earthquake, Costa Rica's population and tourism industry have

  7. Non-elastic Plate Weakening at Tonga, Costa Rica and Japanese Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    Traditionally studies of plate bending in subduction zones have utilized elastic, viscous or elastic-plastic rheologies to model the deformation of subducting plates, yet they are based on averaged plate properties and do not take into account variations in plate strength. Direct measurements of plate strength at subduction zones could permit more detailed models of how plates deform during subduction and may allow differentiation between the elastic and viscous or plastic rheologies. Additionally, weakening of the subducting plate is important for understanding the degree of coupling of the surface plate to the negative buoyancy of descending slabs. To obtain quantitative measurements of changes in plate strength along profiles parallel to the trench, we use analysis of the gravity-topography admittance in three subduction zones: Tonga, Costa Rica and Japan. We show that the plate flexural rigidity decreases near and inside the trench of the Tonga and Japan subduction zones, in agreement with previous results for the Kermadec subduction zone (1). Near the trench the flexural rigidity values are consistently smaller than those predicted by an elastic rheology and the plate age (2). This degree of weakening, by up to 3 orders magnitude, suggests that the plate does not act elastically as it is subducted, possibly due to lithospheric-scale weakening by extensional faulting and plastic yielding at depth. In contrast lithospheric-scale weakening in the Costa Rica subduction zone is less clear. This may be due to the younger age of the subducting plate and the small age difference between the seamounts and surrounding plate, which limits the sensitivity of the gravity field to changes in the non-isostatic support of topographic feature. These results suggest that this technique is only applicable to older plates with large seamounts that are appreciably younger than the subducting plate. Comparison of the flexural rigidity results to the tectonic characteristics of all

  8. Promoting universal financial protection: a policy analysis of universal health coverage in Costa Rica (1940–2000)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper explores the implementation and sustenance of universal health coverage (UHC) in Costa Rica, discussing the development of a social security scheme that covered 5% of the population in 1940, to one that finances and provides comprehensive healthcare to the whole population today. The scheme is financed by mandatory, tri-partite social insurance contributions complemented by tax funding to cover the poor. Methods The analysis takes a historical perspective and explores the policy process including the key actors and their relative influence in decision-making. Data were collected using qualitative research instruments, including a review of literature, institutional and other documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants. Results Key lessons to be learned are: i) population health was high on the political agenda in Costa Rica, in particular before the 1980s when UHC was enacted and the transfer of hospitals to the social security institution took place. Opposition to UHC could therefore be contained through negotiation and implemented incrementally despite the absence of real consensus among the policy elite; ii) since the 1960s, the social security institution has been responsible for UHC in Costa Rica. This institution enjoys financial and managerial autonomy relative to the general government, which has also facilitated the UHC policy implementation process; iii) UHC was simultaneously constructed on three pillars that reciprocally strengthened each other: increasing population coverage, increasing availability of financial resources based on solidarity financing mechanisms, and increasing service coverage, ultimately offering comprehensive health services and the same benefits to every resident in the country; iv) particularly before the 1980s, the fruits of economic growth were structurally invested in health and other universal social policies, in particular education and sanitation. The social security institution became a

  9. Foraminiferal record of Oligocene-Miocene shales from the Limon Basin, eastern Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Cassell, D.T.; Sen Gupta, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Foraminiferal analysis of an unusually thick and continuous section of Tertiary shales from the western margin of the Limon Basin, Costa Rica, indicates that rocks from this section are older than similar facies elsewhere in the basin. Approximately 620 meters of silty shales from the Quebrada Terciopelo belong to zones N3 through N9 while the oldest shales from the rest of the basin are in N12 to N13. The lowermost N3 zone is characterized by the presence of the Late Oligocene larger foraminifera Lepidocyclina waylandvaughani and Heterostegina antillea associated with oncolite clasts in a siltstone. Shales above contain typical Early to Middle Miocene planktonic foraminifera, including Catapsydrax stainforthi, Globorotalia kugleri, G. sicanus, and G. peripheroronda. The first two species, used widely as Early Miocene markers and reported to have nonoverlapping stratigraphic ranges, are found together within a short interval in this section. This Quebrada Terciopelo sedimentary section shows the transition from a shallow nearshore environment in the Late Oligocene to an open marine outer shelf or upper slope in the Miocene. The biostratigraphic analysis demonstrates than an approximately 70 meter thick Late Oligocene (N3) to Early Miocene (N5) section is repeated. This is apparently related to normal faulting associated with the uplift of the Talamanca Mountains.

  10. Parental feeding styles and adolescents' healthy eating habits. Structure and correlates of a Costa Rican questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne

    2010-10-01

    This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence. PMID:20600415

  11. Using choice experiments to understand household tradeoffs regarding pineapple production and environmental management in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Robert B; Kellon, Delanie; Leon, Ramon G; Arvai, Joseph

    2013-09-30

    Choices among environmental management alternatives involve tradeoffs where, for example, the benefits of environmental protection may be offset by economic costs or welfare losses to individual agents. Understanding individual or household-level preferences regarding these tradeoffs is not always straightforward, and it often requires an analysis of choices under alternative scenarios. A household survey was used to gather data for a choice experiment, where respondents were asked to choose among pairs of alternative management scenarios about pineapple production in Costa Rica. The experimental design consisted of six attributes that varied on between two and five attribute levels, and the experiment and accompanying survey were administered orally in Spanish. The results show that respondents are willing to make tradeoffs with respect to the management attributes in order to see an overall improvement in environmental quality. Respondents were willing to accept a moderate level of pesticide application, presumably in exchange for paying a lower cost or seeing a gain in another area, such as monitoring or soil conservation. Buffer zones were significant only in the case of large farms. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to reflect public attitudes, particularly the aspects of pineapple production that matter most to people living near pineapple plantations. The study also highlights the effectiveness of the choice experiment approach in examining household preferences about environmental management in a rural development context. PMID:23807434

  12. Protist communities in a marine oxygen minimum zone off Costa Rica by 454 pyrosequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, H.; Rocke, E.; Kong, L.; Xia, X.; Liu, H.; Landry, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    Marine planktonic protists, including microalgae and protistan grazers, are an important contributor to global primary production and carbon and mineral cycles, however, little is known about their population shifts along the oxic-anoxic gradient in the water column. We used 454 pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and gene transcripts to study the community composition of whole and active protists throughout a water column in the Costa Rica Dome, where a stable oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) exists at a depth of 400~700 m. A clear shift of protist composition from photosynthetic Dinoflagellates in the surface to potential parasitic Dinoflagellates and Ciliates in the deeper water was revealed along the vertical profile at both rRNA and rDNA levels. Those protist groups recovered only at the rDNA level represent either lysed aggregates sinking from the upper waters or potential hosts for parasitic groups. UPGMA clustering demonstrated that total and active protists in the anoxic core of OMZ (550 m) were distinct from those in other water depths. The reduced community diversity and presence of a parasitic/symbiotic trophic lifestyle in the OMZ, especially the anoxic core, suggests that OMZs can exert a selective pressure on protist communities. Such changes in community structure and a shift in trophic lifestyle could result in a modulation of the microbial loop and associated biogeochemical cycling.

  13. Do Payments Pay Off? Evidence from Participation in Costa Rica’s PES Program

    PubMed Central

    Arriagada, R. A.; Sills, E. O.; Ferraro, P. J.; Pattanayak, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Payments for environmental services (PES) are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica’s PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes. PMID:26162000

  14. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Mainieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells, a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260 C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model a two-dimensional exploitation model was developed. The field has a production area of about 10 km{sup 2}, with temperatures exceeding 220 C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  15. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S. Lippmann, M.J. ); Mainieri, A. )

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260[degrees]C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model a two-dimensional exploitation model was develope. The field has a production area of about 10 km[sup 2], with temperatures exceeding 220[degrees]C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  16. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S. Lippmann, M.J.; Mainieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260{degrees}C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model a two-dimensional exploitation model was develope. The field has a production area of about 10 km{sup 2}, with temperatures exceeding 220{degrees}C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  17. Horizontal principal stress orientation in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) transect from borehole breakouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverno, A.; Saito, S.; Vannucchi, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) drilled the Pacific margin of the Middle America Trench just north of where the Cocos Ridge enters the subduction zone, resulting in basal erosion of the upper plate. Here we report the orientations of the maximum horizontal principal stress (SHmax) from borehole breakouts detected by logging-while-drilling and wireline downhole measurements. All SHmax directions were estimated in the sediment cover of the margin, above the deeper rocks of the deformed margin wedge. We observe three overall SHmax orientations: NNE-SSW (25° azimuth) in the deepest interval drilled at the upper slope Site U1379; ENE-WSW (82°) in the rest of Site U1379 and in Site U1413, also drilled in the upper slope; and NNW-SSE (157°) in the mid-slope Site U1378. Our preferred interpretation is that the deepest interval of Site U1379 records the stress conditions in the underlying margin wedge, as SHmax is parallel to the direction of the Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence and of the compressional axes of plate boundary fault earthquakes. The variable SHmax directions observed elsewhere are likely due to the effect of a network of normal faults that subdivide the sediment cover into a number of independently deforming blocks. In addition, the observed SHmax directions may be influenced by the subducting Cocos Ridge, which acts as an indenter causing oblique deformation, and by the transition to seismogenic subduction along the plate boundary fault.

  18. Dynamic Passage of Topography Beneath the Southern Costa Rica Forearc seen with Seismic Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, J. H.; Kluesner, J. W.; Silver, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    3D seismic reflection data (CRISP) collected across the southern Costa Rica margin reveals that a thick, deforming sedimentary wedge underlies the younger slope sediments (Silver et al., this meeting). The older wedge material and younger slope sediments are separated by a high-amplitude regional unconformity. Seismic stratigraphy of the sedimentary strata overlying this regional unconformity reflects a dynamic deformation history of the margin. The younger slope sediments contain series of more localized unconformities, separating sedimentary units as thick as 1 km that reveal a dynamically changing set of inverted, overlapping basins. The geometry of these overlapping, inverted basins indicate sequential uplift events. The direction of basin thickening varies upsection, and these basins are cut by both thrust and normal faults and are deformed by folding. Structural development appears to be controlled by relief on the subducting plate interface, which induces uplift and subsidence and thereby controls the pattern of erosion and deposition. We interpret the evolution of these inverted stratigraphic packages as forming from subducting topography. Correlating these seismic-stratigraphic packages to recent drilling based on preliminary magnetostratigraphy from IODP site U1413 (Expedition 344 Scientists, 2013), allows us to date the passage of the subducting plate topography beginning ~2 Ma.

  19. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini: A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John W.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Área de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Clemens, 1860, Amorbimorpha Kruse, 2011, Coelostathma Clemens, 1860, Lambertiodes Diakonoff, 1959, Paramorbia Powell & Lambert, 1986, Rhynchophyllus Meyrick, 1932, Sparganopseustis Powell & Lambert, 1986, Sparganothina Powell, 1986, and Sparganothoides Lambert & Powell, 1986. Putative autapomorphies for Sparganocosma include the extremely short uncus; the smooth (unspined) transtilla; and the upturned, free, distal rod of the sacculus. Adults of Sparganocosma docsturnerorum have been reared numerous times (>50) from larvae collected feeding on rain forest Asplundia utilis (Oerst.) Harling and Asplundia microphylla (Oerst.) Harling (Cyclanthaceae) at intermediate elevations (375–500 m) in ACG. Whereas most Sparganothini are generalists, typically feeding on two or more plant families, Sparganocosma docsturnerorum appears to be a specialist on Asplundia, at least in ACG. The solitary parasitoid wasp Sphelodon wardae Godoy & Gauld (Ichneumonidae; Banchinae) has been reared only from the larvae of Sparganocosma docsturnerorum. PMID:23794903

  20. Fatal Paratanaisia bragai (Digenea: Eucotylidae) infection in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Morales, Juan Alberto; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Santoro, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We report on four fatal cases of renal infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) from two rescue centres in Costa Rica. At necropsy, birds had severe dehydration and cachexia. Two birds had hydropericardium, oedematous lungs, and liver lipidic degeneration. All birds had enlarged kidneys with brown pale discoloration and diffuse white spots on the cortical and sliced surfaces. Ureters were filled with many specimens of P. bragai. Histopathologically, the urinary system revealed multifocal interstitial lymphocytic-plasmacytic nephritis, multifocal mineralization of renal tubules, and interstitial fibrosis associated with flukes. Death of all scarlet macaws was related to severe nephritis leading to chronic renal failure due to P. bragai infection. It is plausible that P. bragai infection of scarlet macaws was accidental due to ingestion of the gastropod intermediate host inside the cages during the rainy season when humidity is higher and gastropods are more active. This represents the second report of parasitism by Eucotylidae digeneans in birds of Psittaciformes and the first in scarlet macaws. PMID:26204012

  1. Mapping turbulent diffusivity associated with oceanic internal lee waves offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Will F. J.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Schmitt, Raymond W.

    2016-04-01

    Breaking internal waves play a primary role in maintaining the meridional overturning circulation. Oceanic lee waves are known to be a significant contributor to diapycnal mixing associated with internal wave dissipation, but direct measurement is difficult with standard oceanographic sampling methods due to the limited spatial extent of standing lee waves. Here, we present an analysis of oceanic internal lee waves observed offshore eastern Costa Rica using seismic imaging and estimate the turbulent diffusivity via a new seismic slope spectrum method that extracts diffusivities directly from seismic images, using tracked reflections only to scale diffusivity values. The result provides estimates of turbulent diffusivities throughout the water column at scales of a few hundred meters laterally and 10 m vertically. Synthetic tests demonstrate the method's ability to resolve turbulent structures and reproduce accurate diffusivities. A turbulence map of our seismic section in the western Caribbean shows elevated turbulent diffusivities near rough seafloor topography as well as in the mid-water column where observed lee wave propagation terminates. Mid-water column hotspots of turbulent diffusivity show levels 5 times higher than surrounding waters and 50 times greater than typical open-ocean diffusivities. This site has steady currents that make it an exceptionally accessible laboratory for the study of lee-wave generation, propagation, and decay.

  2. [Local health systems, strategy for the consolidation of the national health system in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Gólcher Valverde, F; López Gómez, A; Ballestero Harley, R; León Barth, M

    1990-01-01

    Costa Rica has a notable record in the field of health care and in the implementation and development of local health systems. The Ministry of Health embarked on its course of local health system development in mid-1986 with the creation of commissions on the subjects of health teams, information, control, management, community participation, and health education. At the same time, administrative decentralization got under way with the shifting of human resources and supplies, finances, accounting, and maintenance functions to the health centers. The Comprehensive Health Program, which defines the Ministry of Health's basic scope of action in the local health system, was established in 1989. A total of 86 local health systems have been established to date, and considerable progress has been made both in defining a political and structural framework for health services integration and in enlisting the community's participation in analyzing the health problems that affect it, as well as in local decision-making for the resolution of such problems. PMID:2151166

  3. Topographic Distributions of Emergent Trees in Tropical Forests of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzotti, C.; Asner, G. P.; Taylor, P.; Cole, R. J.; Osborne, B. B.; Cleveland, C. C.; Porder, S.; Townsend, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical rainforests are reservoirs of terrestrial carbon and biodiversity. Large and often emergent trees store disproportionately large amounts of aboveground carbon and greatly influence the structure and functioning of tropical rainforests. Despite their importance, controls on the abundance and distribution of emergent trees are largely unknown across tropical landscapes. Conventional field approaches are limited in their ability to characterize patterns in emergent trees across vast landscapes with varying environmental conditions and floristic composition. Here we used a high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor, aboard the Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (CAO-AToMS), to examine the abundance and distribution of tall emergent tree canopies (ETC) relative to surrounding tree canopies (STC), across the Osa Peninsula, a geologically and topographically diverse region of Costa Rica. The abundance of ETC was clearly influenced by fine-scale topographic variation, with distribution patterns that held across a variety of geologic substrates. Specifically, the density of ETC was much greater on lower slopes and in valleys, compared to upper slopes and ridges. Furthermore, using the CAO high-fidelity imaging spectrometer, ETC had a different spectral signature than that of the STC. Most notably, ETC had lower foliar N than STC, which was verified with an independent field survey of canopy leaf chemistry. The underlying mechanisms to explain the topographic-dependence of ETCs and linkages to canopy N are unknown, and remain an important area of research.

  4. Exploring Geometric Complexities of Locking Along the Megathrust Beneath Nicoya, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Newman, A. V.; Feng, L.; Withers, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    GPS measurements over the past 2 decades have illuminated a complex field of deformation on and around the Nicoya Peninsula in northern Costa Rica, due to rapid (~9 cm/yr) oblique convergence along the Middle America Trench (MAT). Using the most recent GPS results Feng et al. [JGR 2012] used a smooth 2D interface model to identify substantial discrete locking patches with rapid transitions coincident with a structural boundary along the incoming plate causing a near 5 km along-strike step at seismogenic depths. To understand the geometric as well as rheologic controls the subducted plate has on the locking, we explore here more advanced numerical modeling tools that are necessary to directly apply and test the effects of such transitions. To account for the observed features we will use 3D Finite Element models (FEM) of the Nicoya subduction interface as defined by local tomography and microseismicity. After benchmark tests for the repeatability relative to the equivalent Okada analytical dislocation solutions of Feng et al., [2012], we will transform the model to a 3D FEM that progressively implements new geophysical features of the Nicoya subduction zone, starting with geometric complexities, followed by tomographically defined changes in rheologic properties.

  5. Metal concentrations in aggregate interiors, exteriors, whole aggregates, and bulk of Costa Rican soils

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcke, W.; Kretzschmar, S.; Bundt, M.; Zech, W.

    1999-10-01

    In many temperate soils the preferential weathering and leaching of aggregate surfaces and the nonaggregated material between aggregates depletes geogenic metals. It also shifts metals from strongly to more weakly bound metal forms. Deposited metals are sorbed preferentially on aggregate surfaces and between aggregates. The authors examined whether preferential desilication under tropical climate causes an enrichment in the aggregate exteriors in oxidic forms of metals. They also studied where deposited metals are bound in these soils. Aggregates (2--20 mm) were selected manually from the A horizons of eight Oxisols, six Andisols, two Mollisols, and two Inceptisols in Costa Rica. All samples were fractionated into interior and exterior portions and treated with a seven-step sequence to extract Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn. Total concentrations of all metals except Zn were higher in the aggregate exteriors than in the interiors. The average Cd and Pb concentrations in easily extractable fractions were significantly higher in the aggregate exteriors. There were no significant differences in metal partitioning between interiors and exteriors except for Pb, which had higher proportions in extractable forms with NH{sub 2}OH {center{underscore}dot} HCl {gt} NH{sub 4} - acetate, pH 6.0 {gt} EDTA in the exteriors. There were few significant differences in metal concentrations and partitioning between bulk soil and whole aggregates. The results may be explained by (i) preferential desilication of the aggregate exteriors and (ii) preferential sorption of deposited heavy metals mainly in easily extractable forms.

  6. A brittle failure model for long-period seismic events recorded at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyre, Thomas S.; Bean, Christopher J.; De Barros, Louis; Martini, Francesca; Lokmer, Ivan; Mora, Mauricio M.; Pacheco, Javier F.; Soto, Gerardo J.

    2015-03-01

    A temporary seismic network, consisting of 23 broadband and six short-period stations, was installed in a dense network at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica, between 8 March and 4 May 2011. During this time 513 long-period (LP) events were observed. Due to their pulse-like waveforms, the hypothesis that the events are generated by a slow-failure mechanism, based on a recent new model by Bean et al. (2014), is tested. A significant number (107) of the LPs are jointly inverted for their source locations and mechanisms, using full-waveform moment tensor inversion. The locations are mostly shallow, with depths < 800 m below the active Southwest Crater. The results of the decompositions of the obtained moment tensor solutions show complex source mechanisms, composed of high proportions of isotropic and low, but seemingly significant, proportions of compensated linear vector dipole and double-couple components. It is demonstrated that this can be explained as mode I tensile fracturing with a strong shear component. The source mechanism is further investigated by exploring scaling laws within the data. The LPs recorded follow relationships very similar to those of conventional earthquakes, exhibiting frequency-magnitude and corner frequency versus magnitude relationships that can be explained by brittle failure. All of these observations indicate that a slow-failure source model can successfully describe the generation of short-duration LP events at Turrialba Volcano.

  7. Contrasting nitrate adsorption in Andisols of two coffee plantations in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M C; Graham, G R; Rudolph, D L

    2001-01-01

    Fertilizer use in coffee plantations is a suspected cause of rising ground water nitrate concentrations in the ground water-dependent Central Valley of Costa Rica. Nitrate adsorption was evaluated beneath two coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantations in the Central Valley. Previous work at one site had identified unsaturated zone nitrate retardation relative to a tritium tracer. Differences in nitrate adsorption were assessed in cores to 4 m depth in Andisols at this and one other plantation using differences in KCl- and water-extractable nitrate as an index. Significant adsorption was confirmed at the site of the previous tracer test, but not at the second site. Anion exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction data, extractable Al and Si, and soil pH in NaF corroborated that differences in adsorption characteristics were related to subtle differences in clay mineralogy. Soils at the site with significant nitrate adsorption showed an Al-rich allophane clay content compared with a more weathered, Si-rich allophane and halloysite clay mineral content at the site with negligible adsorption. At the site with significant nitrate adsorption, nitrate occupied less than 10% of the total anion adsorption capacity, suggesting that adsorption may provide long-term potential for mitigation or delay of nitrate leaching. Evaluation of nitrate sorption potential of soil at local and landscape scales would be useful in development of nitrogen management practices to reduce nitrate leaching to ground water. PMID:11577895

  8. [Diversity, natural history and conservation of mammals from San Vito de Coto Brus, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Jesús; Ceballos, Gerardo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Suzán, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Marcé, Erika

    2006-03-01

    Although Costa Rica has been biologically well studied, few areas have complete mammal inventories, which are essential for ecological studies and conservation. The San Vito region is considered among the most important for scientific research in the country because of the presence of the Wilson Botanical Garden and Las Cruces. However, the knowledge of its mammalian fauna is incomplete. We extensively studied the mammals of San Vito, compiled a checklist, and evaluated its composition, relative abundance, habitat distribution, and conservation status. We recorded 105 species, representing 85 genera, 29 families, and 10 orders. Non-volant mammals represented 62 species, 59 genera, 23 families, and 9 orders. Bats belonged to 6 families, 26 genera and 43 species. The extensive deforestation and hunting have caused the extinction of seven species, but the region still supports, surprisingly, a relatively high number of species, most of which are rare. Few species are common and abundant. Species richness was higher in forest, and forest fragments; fewer species were found in coffee plantations, induced grasslands, and secondary vegetation. Around 21% (13 species) are included in the IUCN red book. Three species are considered endangered (Saimiri oerstedii, Tapirus bairdii, and Sylvilagus dicei), and two threatened (Myrmecophaga trydactila and Caluromys derbianus), of which two (T. bairdii and M. trydactila) are locally extinct. The other species in IUCN are either of low risk (i.e. Chironectes minimus) or data deficient (Lontra longicaudis). Additionally, 24 species (39%) are included in CITES. PMID:18457190

  9. Fine-scale genetic structure and gene flow within Costa Rican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla).

    PubMed

    Lowe, A J; Jourde, B; Breyne, P; Colpaert, N; Navarro, C; Wilson, J; Cavers, S

    2003-03-01

    Fine-scale structure of genetic diversity and gene flow were analysed in three Costa Rican populations of mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla. Population differentiation estimated using AFLPs and SSRs was low (38.3 and 24%) and only slightly higher than previous estimates for Central American populations based on RAPD variation (20%). Significant fine-scale spatial structure was found in all of the surveyed mahogany populations and is probably strongly influenced by the limited seed dispersal range of the species. Furthermore, a survey of progeny arrays from selected mother trees in two of the plots indicated that most pollinations involved proximate trees. These data indicate that very little gene flow, via either pollen or seed, is occurring between blocks of mahogany within a continuous or disturbed forest landscape. Thus, once diversity is removed from a forest population of mahogany, these data suggest that recovery would be difficult via seed or pollen dispersal, and provides an explanation for mahogany's apparent susceptibility to the pressures of logging. Evidence is reviewed from other studies of gene flow and seedling regeneration to discuss alternative extraction strategies that may maintain diversity or allow recovery of genetic resources. PMID:12634811

  10. Rehabilitation of a 410-MW utility boiler at Costa Sur, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, R.; Salmeron, M.

    1995-12-31

    To increase unit reliability and availability and to meet the current and future electric power demands in Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) recently performed a scheduled outage rehabilitation of Costa Sur Power Station Unit 5. This major rehabilitation of a 23-year-old, 410 MW, oil-fired boiler was accompanied by the upgrading of the low-pressure turbine with new rotors. The boiler rehabilitation included the replacement of all waterwall floor panels from just below the burner windbox, down to the lower drum. Temporary support was provided for the lower drum and its structural system during the panel replacement. The steam drum internals were completely rehabilitated, with the installation of a new liner and cleaning and repair of other internals as required. The superheater and reheater desuperheater liners were also replaced. In addition, all major components of both the firing system and the air preheaters were replaced. The gas recirculation fan was rehabilitated, and its discharge duct was replaced.

  11. Quantifying recent pyroclastic and lava flows at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, using medium-footprint lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofton, M. A.; Malavassi, E.; Blair, J. B.

    2006-11-01

    Arenal volcano is a small, active stratovolcano in Costa Rica. In 1998 and 2005, NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to collect wide-swath 3-dimensional topographic images of the volcano. The LVIS is a full-waveform, scanning, medium-sized footprint, airborne laser altimeter system. By digitally recording the shape of the returning laser pulse (waveform), the LVIS provides a precise and accurate view of both the sub-canopy and canopy-top topographies as well as the vertical and horizontal structure of vegetation at 15-25 m horizontal resolution. By comparing georeferenced waveform data collected in 1998 and 2005, we mapped lava and pyroclastic flows deposited during this period. The active crater grew by 3.82 m yr-1. A flow volume estimate of 2.19 × 107 m3 (Dense Rock Equivalent of 1.89 × 107 m3 or 0.085 m3s-1) was obtained for the period 1998 to 2005. Precise elevation and elevation change data such as those provided by the LVIS are essential to calculate eruption volume and to study magma-supply dynamics, as well as assess the danger posed by the volcano to the local population from hazards such as pyroclastic flows.

  12. Analysis of Stress Field in Caribean Continental Plate - Southern Costa Rica zone - from CMT Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevallos, I.; Quintero, R.; Jimenez, W.

    2007-12-01

    During the of period 1984 2007, 51 earthquakes were registered with magnitudes above 5.1 mb in southern Costa Rica. Depth distribution of hypocenters shows shallow (0 20 km) earthquakes located in continental area; intermediate depth hypocenters (20 60 km) corresponding to subduction of the Coco plate under the Caribean plate; and just one earthquake have focus under 60 km depth. We choose hypocenters shallower than 100 km because our goal is to study intraplate stresses. Centroid Moment Tensor solutions for subduction zone earthquakes have inverse fault mechanism. But, in continental area there are evidences of strike slip and normal fault mechanisms. Direction of main stress (σ3) at the southern continental zone is NE-SW; in the Pacific ocean border region, the main stresses are oriented parallel to the coast line; inside the valley region, mechanisms are predominantly strike slip with σ1 in the near N-S direction. This is a complex stress field, with rotation of main stresses in a short space. σ1 is vertical in some continental areas due to influence of elevated terrain. Stress axis paralell to coast line maybe also due to gravitational body force.

  13. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dangoudoubiyam, S; Oliveira, J B; Víquez, C; Gómez-García, A; González, O; Romero, J J; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K

    2011-06-01

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America, were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii by using the surface antigen (SAG) SnSAG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti- S. neurona antibodies were found in 42.2% of the horses by using the SnSAG2 ELISA. Anti- Neospora spp. antibodies were found in only 3.5% of the horses by using the NhSAG1 ELISA, and only 1 of these horses was confirmed seropositive by Western blot. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 34.0% of the horses tested, which is higher than in previous reports from North and South America. The finding of anti- S. neurona antibodies in horses from geographical areas where Didelphis marsupialis has wide distribution suggests that D. marsupialis is a potential definitive host for this parasite and a source of infection for these horses. PMID:21506839

  14. Interannual variation and host affiliations of endophytic fungi associated with ferns at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Del Olmo-Ruiz, Mariana; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are an ancient and diverse lineage of vascular plants that differ morphologically, chemically and in growth habits from the angiosperms with which they co-occur. We used a culture-based approach coupled with phylogenetic analyses to characterize the incidence, diversity and composition of fungal endophyte assemblages in ferns, with a focus on healthy aboveground tissues of seven species of eupolypods at La Selva, Costa Rica. Endophytes were isolated from every individual plant and were similarly abundant and diverse in frond blades and stalks, in different vegetation types, in epiphytic vs. terrestrial species, and between sampling years. However, abundance, diversity and community structure differed significantly among fern species, and composition differed markedly between sampling years. Phylogenetic classification using separate and combined datasets revealed that as for many Neotropical angiosperms, the majority (95%) of endophyte taxa were Ascomycota, with particular dominance by Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes. However, our data suggest higher phylogenetic richness and stronger host affinities in fern associated endophytes relative to those studied in angiosperms thus far. PMID:24459121

  15. Volcanoes in the pre-Columbian life, legend, and archaeology of Costa Rica (Central America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Soto, Gerardo J.

    2008-10-01

    Costa Rica is located geographically in the southern part of the Central American Volcanic Front, a zone where interaction between the Mesoamerican and South American cultures occurred in pre-Columbian times. Several volcanoes violently erupted during the Holocene, when the first nomadic human hunters and later settlers were present. Volcanic rocks were the most important geo-resource in making artifacts and as construction materials for pre-Columbian inhabitants. Some pottery products are believed to resemble smoking volcanoes, and the settlements around volcanoes would seem to indicate their influence on daily life. Undoubtedly, volcanic eruptions disrupted the life of early settlers, particularly in the vicinity of Arenal and Irazú volcanoes, where archaeological remains show transient effects and displacement caused by periodical eruptions, but later resilient occupations around the volcanoes. Most native languages are extinct, with the exception of those presently spoken in areas far away from active volcanoes, where no words are related to volcanic phenomena or structures. The preserved legends are ambiguous, suggesting that they were either produced during the early Spanish conquest or were altered following the pre-Columbian period.

  16. Near-regional CMT solution for the September 5, 2012 14:42 Costa Rica earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronnie, Q.; Jiri, Z.; Sokos, E.

    2013-05-01

    We use acceleration data from the OVSICORI-UNA seismic network for a preliminary moment tensor solution of the event September 5, 2012 Mw 7.6, 14:42:03, Guanacaste, Costa Rica earthquake. The full-waveform inversion was made using the ISOLA code (Sokos and Zahradnik, 2008), with the 1D velocity model of Quintero and Kissling (2001). Acceleration records at 10 stations (43-251 km) and at 0.03 < f < 0.06 Hz were used in the inversion. The vertical grid search, resulting in the CMT solution at the depth of 25-45 km below epicenter, continued with a horizontal 10x10 km grid search of trial sources inland. The best stable CMT solution was found at Lat=10.146°, Lon=-85.478°, i.e. of about 50 km NNE from the OVSICORI epicenter. The centroid time is 14:42:21 UTC, i.e. 18 sec later relative to the location-based origin time; Mw 7.5, source time function duration 10-15 seconds. The nodal plane (strike=330°, dip=30° and rake=129°) is the fault plane, as proved by the H-C consistency test (Zahradnik et al., 2008), and in agreement with geometry of the subduction.

  17. Detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus in Costa Rican sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Villagra-Blanco, R; Dolz, G; Montero-Caballero, D; Romero-Zúñiga, J J

    2015-01-01

    A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended. PMID:26623377

  18. Detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus in Costa Rican sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    Villagra-Blanco, R.; Dolz, G.; Montero-Caballero, D.; Romero-Zúñiga, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended. PMID:26623377

  19. Distribution and biomass of arrow worms (Chaetognatha) in Golfo de Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, B

    1996-12-01

    The chaetognath species guild was analyzed from samples collected during the cruise of the German RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in December 1993 and February, 1994, finding the following ten species of the genera Sagitta and Krohnitta: S. enflata, S. hexaptera, S. pacifica, S. neglecta, S. regularis, S. bedoti, S. friderici, S. popovicii, S. pulchra and K. pacifica. Because of their distributional patterns in the study area these species were ascribed to the following ecological groups: neritic, semi-neritic and oceanic. A strong gradient in species richness from offshore to inshore waters (8 to one respectively) was found in both gulf systems. Inshore chaetognaths were dominated by juveniles and adults of S. friderici in Golfo de Nicoya and by S. popovicii in Golfo Dulce. Biomass spectra were more continuous and of wider range in the Golfo Dulce area showing a dominance of larger chaetognaths, suggesting a more general developed pelagic system in Golfo Dulce, where larger chaetognaths might structure the plankton community by strong grazing pressure from above. PMID:9393651

  20. Pesticide exposure and respiratory health of indigenous women in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fieten, Karin B; Kromhout, Hans; Heederik, Dick; van Wendel de Joode, Berna

    2009-06-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the relation between pesticide exposure and respiratory health in a population of indigenous women in Costa Rica. Exposed women (n = 69) all worked at plantain plantations. Unexposed women (n = 58) worked at organic banana plantations or other locations without pesticide exposure. Study participants were interviewed using questionnaires to estimate exposure and presence of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry tests were conducted to obtain forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Among the exposed, prevalence of wheeze was 20% and of shortness of breath was 36% versus 9% and 26%, respectively, for the unexposed. Prevalence of chronic cough, asthma, and atopic symptoms was similar for exposed and unexposed women. Among nonsmokers (n = 105), reported exposures to the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos (n = 25) and terbufos (n = 38) were strongly associated with wheeze (odd ratio = 6.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.6, 28.0; odds ratio = 5.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 25.6, respectively). For both insecticides, a statistically significant exposure-effect association was found. Multiple organophosphate exposure was common; 81% of exposed women were exposed to both chlorpyrifos and terbufos. Consequently, their effects could not be separated. All findings were based on questionnaire data. No relation between pesticide exposure and ventilatory lung function was found. PMID:19372212

  1. Evaluation of the bacteriological quality of ice cream sold at San Jose, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Windrantz, P; Arias, M L

    2000-09-01

    The presence of total and fecal coliforms, E. coli, Listeria sp and Salmonella sp. was evaluated in 65 samples of both commercial and homemade ice cream. 37.1% of homemade ice cream and 20% of commercial ice cream did not fulfill the international standard for total coliforms. At the same time 82.9% of home made samples and 56.7% of commercial ones presented fecal coliforms. E. coli was found in 51.4% of home made samples and 26.7% of commercial ones. Sixteen Listeria sp. isolates were obtained, 50% corresponded to Listeria monocytogenes and 50% to L. innocua. The overall presence of L. monocytogenes in ice cream samples was of 12.3% and it was isolated in all cases, from homemade ice cream samples. Salmonella was not isolated from the samples analyzed. Although the results obtained show an important improvement in the quality of ice cream, compared with a previous work done also in Costa Rica, further efforts shall be done, in order to offer safe products to consumers. PMID:11347303

  2. Diatoms in coal: Miocene Venado Formation, Limon Basin, Costa Rica, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.D.; Coates, D.A.; Bradbury, J.P.; Bohor, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Diatoms occur in coal in the Venado Formation on the southwest flank of the Limon Basin in Provincia Alajuela, northern Costa Rica. The Venado Formation contains more than 300 m of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, limestones, and coal beds that crop out on the northeast flank of the Cordillera de Tilaran. Coal beds of unknown extent and correlation occur mainly in the middle part of the formation. The coal deposit here named informally the Pataste coal bed. Coal samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an x-ray analyzer attachment. Part A contains abundant diatoms and macerated diatom material and rare spicules of freshwater sponges. Diatoms identified are Melosira ambigua, Pinularia, Eunotia spp. and Achnathes exigua. Parts B and C of the coal bed contain fewer diatom remains and more sponge spicules than part A. The common presence of Melosira ambigua in A implies the proximity of open-water lacustrine environments. The other diatom species are benthic or bottom-dwelling forms that lived in slightly acidic, humic-rich paludal environments. Presumably, the swamp in which the coal was formed was most extensive during the deposition of A, and became progressively restricted thereafter. The increase of sponge spicules relative to diatoms in B and C suggests progressively, shallower lacustrine or restricted swamp conditions. The comparatively great abundance of biogenic opaline material in the coal is due to the influx of silica form a volcanic source represented by the tonstein layers.

  3. Community-based approaches to strategic environmental assessment: Lessons from Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A. John Sims, Laura; Spaling, Harry

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment (SEA) using a case study of the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad's (ICE) watershed management agricultural program (WMAP) in Costa Rica. The approach focused on four highly interactive workshops that used visioning, brainstorming and critical reflection exercises. Each workshop represented a critical step in the SEA process. Through this approach, communities in two rural watersheds assessed the environmental, social and economic impacts of a proposed second phase for WMAP. Lessons from this community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment include a recognition of participants learning what a participatory SEA is conceptually and methodologically; the role of interactive techniques for identifying positive and negative impacts of the proposed program and generating creative mitigation strategies; the effect of workshops in reducing power differentials among program participants (proponent, communities, government agencies); and, the logistical importance of notice, timing and location for meaningful participation. The community-based approach to SEA offers considerable potential for assessing regional (watershed) development programs focused on sustainable resource-based livelihoods.

  4. [Paralytic shellfish poisoning by Spondylus calcifer contaminated with Pyrodinium bahamense, Costa Rica, 1989-1990].

    PubMed

    Mata, L; Abarca, G; Marranghello, L; Víquez, R

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), affecting human populations on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica in October 1989. Numbness in arms, face and legs occurred 30 to 45 minutes after ingestion of the large clam Spondylus calcifer. Paralysis of legs and respiratory symptoms followed, often persisting for one week. Large amounts of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense were found in the intestine of the mollusk. A toxin was detected in crude or filtered and heated macerates of intestine, muscle, mantle and hepatopancreas of S. calcifer, and to a lesser extent Tagelus sp., by injection of its crude or diluted extracts in white mice. The effects in mice consisted in paralysis and asphyxia generally leading to death in less than 5 minutes, compatible with saxitoxin. Mice were killed by the toxin in macerates diluted 1:100 to 1:1000. No toxin was detected in Anadara tuberculosa (Bivalvia) or in peneids. Prevention rests on intersectoral actions between state and private sectors in charge of fishing, distribution and marketing of shellfish, as well as on education of the population at large. PMID:2093952

  5. Comparative anatomy of leaflets of Zamia acuminata and Z. pseudomonticola (Zamiaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Castillo, Rafael; Marin-Méndez, Walter

    2013-06-01

    The genus Zamia is morphologically and ecologically the most diverse of the order Cycadales. Throughout its history this genus has been restricted to the New World and is presently almost entirely restricted to the Neotropics. Unusual anatomical traits of the leaflets, such as the sunken stomata and thick cuticle, are common in this and related genera. The objective of this research was to study and compare the leaflet anatomy of Zamia acuminata and Z pseudomonticola and establish possible phylogenetic relationships between the anatomical traits and the near relatives of these species. The leaf material was obtained from living plants and then processed for electron microscopy study. We found that both species are very similar to each other and to Z fairchildiana, and that they share several unusual traits with other species of the genus, such as the parenchyma morphology, the spatial distribution of tissues between the veins and the stomata morphology. The main differences between these species were seen in their fiber clusters and in the abundance oftrichome basal cells on the epidermis. The anatomical similarities between the three species could be the result of their close phylogenetic relationship and the divergences between them could be the result of recent speciation during the Pleistocene, resulting from geological changes in Southern Costa Rica. PMID:23885572

  6. Ultrastructure of the wild rice Oryza grandiglumis (Gramineae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-06-01

    Oryza grandiglumis is a wild species of rice endemic to tropical America. This species was first found in 1998 in the wetlands of Caño Negro, located in the northern part of Costa Rica. Twenty five plants of O. grandiglumis were processed for scanning electron microscope. An ultrastructural description of the leaf blade, ligule, auricles, spikelet and caryopsis, with an emphasis on structures of taxonomic value. The leaf blade has a characteristic cuticular wax pattern, composed of dense rod-like structures, and is surrounded by papillae, zipper-like silica cells, abundant bulky prickle trichomes, and hooked trichomes. The blade's edge has three rows of hooked prickle trichomes of various sizes. The auricles wrapped the culm, with long attenuated trichomes at the edges; the base was surrounded by oblong cells. The ligule is a blunt membrane covered by short prickle trichomes. Spikelet morphology is characteristic of the Poaceae family, but the sterile lemmas were nearly as long as the fertile lemmas, and they have an unique crown-like structure of lignified spines between the rachilla and the fertile lemmas. Comparison with Brazilian specimens of O. grandiglumis revealed little differences in the ultrastructural characteristics. PMID:18494308

  7. Epiphytic and terrestrial mycorrhizas in a lower montane Costa Rican cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Rains, Kai Coshow; Nadkarni, Nalini M; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2003-10-01

    The epiphyte community is the most diverse plant community in neotropical cloud forests and its collective biomass can exceed that of the terrestrial shrubs and herbs. However, little is known about the role of mycorrhizas in this community. We assessed the mycorrhizal status of epiphytic (Araceae, Clusiaceae, Ericaceae, and Piperaceae) and terrestrial (Clusiaceae, Ericaceae) plants in a lower montane cloud forest in Costa Rica. Arbuscular mycorrhizas were observed in taxa from Araceae and Clusiaceae; ericoid mycorrhizas were observed in ericaceous plants. This is the first report of intracellular hyphal coils characteristic of ericoid mycorrhizas in roots of Cavendishia melastomoides, Disterigma humboldtii, and Gaultheria erecta. Ericaceous roots were also covered by an intermittent hyphal mantle that penetrated between epidermal cells. Mantles, observed uniquely on ericaceous roots, were more abundant on terrestrial than on epiphytic roots. Mantle abundance was negatively correlated with gravimetric soil water content for epiphytic samples. Dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi colonized roots of all four families. For the common epiphyte D. humboldtii, DSE structures were most abundant on samples collected from exposed microsites in the canopy. The presence of mycorrhizas in all epiphytes except Peperomia sp. suggests that inoculum levels and environmental conditions in the canopy of tropical cloud forests are generally conducive to the formation of mycorrhizas. These may impact nutrient and water dynamics in arboreal ecosystems. PMID:14593519

  8. Social context for workplace health promotion: feasibility considerations in Costa Rica, Finland, Germany, Spain and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Peltomäki, Päivi; Johansson, Mauri; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sala, Maria; Wesseling, Catharina; Brenes, Freddy; Font, Carme; Husman, Kaj; Janer, Gemma; Kallas-Tarpila, Tarja; Kogevinas, Manolis; Loponen, Minna; Solé, Maria Dolors; Tempel, Jürgen; Vasama-Neuvonen, Kaisa; Partanen, Timo

    2003-06-01

    We constructed a simple, flexible procedure that facilitates the pre-assessment of feasibility of workplace health promotion (WHP) programmes. It evaluates cancer hazards, workers' need for hazard reduction, acceptability of WHP, and social context. It was tested and applied in 16 workplace communities and among 1085 employees in industry, construction, transport, services, teaching and municipal works in Costa Rica, Finland, Germany, Spain and Sweden. Social context is inseparable from WHP. It covers workers' organizations and representatives, management, safety committees, occupational health services, health and safety enforcement agencies, general health services, non-government organizations, insurance systems, academic and other institutions, regulatory stipulations pertaining WHP, and material resources. Priorities, risk definitions, attitudes, hazard profiles, motivations and assessment methods were highly contextual. Management preferred passive interventions, helping cover expert costs, participating in planning and granting time. Trade unions, workers' representatives, safety committees and occupational health services appeared to be important operational partners. Occupational health services may however be loaded with curative and screening functions or be non-existent. We advocate participatory, multifaceted WHP based on the needs and empowerment of the workers themselves, integrating occupational and lifestyle hazards. Workforce in irregular and shift work, in agriculture, in small enterprises, in the informal sector, and immigrant, seasonal and temporary workers represent groups in need of particular strategies such as community health promotion. In a more general framework, social context itself may become a target for intervention. PMID:12746383

  9. Aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Hernández, Giovanna; Caballero, Magaly

    2006-12-01

    Bacteriological examination of 70 nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica was performed to investigate nasal and cloacal aerobic bacteria. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were obtained, including 10 Gram-negative and three Gram-positive genera. Two hundred thirty-nine were Gram-negative and 86 were Gram-positive isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common microbe identified in turtle samples: 27/70 (38.5%) in cloacal, and 33/70 (47.1%) in nasal samples. The Enterobacteriaceae family, including Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens, was the largest Gram-negative group of bacteria recovered and comprised 127 of 239 (53.1%) of the Gram-negative isolates. Staphylococcus species was the largest Gram-positive bacteria group, including S. aureus, S. cromogenes, S. epidermis, and S. intermedius, and made up 63 of 86 (73.2%) of the Gram-positive isolates recovered. The results of this study demonstrate that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero National Park is composed of a very wide spectrum of bacteria, including several potential pathogens. PMID:17315444

  10. Genetic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders in Costa Rica: a model for the use of isolated populations.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Carol A; Reus, Victor I; Bejarano, Julio; Escamilla, Michael A; Fournier, Eduardo; Herrera, Luis Diego; Lowe, Thomas L; McInnes, L Alison; Molina, Julio; Ophoff, Roel A; Raventos, Henrietta; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A; Service, Susan K; Spesny, Mitzi; León, Pedro E; Freimer, Nelson B

    2004-03-01

    The importance of genetics in understanding the etiology of mental illness has become increasingly clear in recent years, as more evidence has mounted that almost all neuropsychiatric disorders have a genetic component. It has also become clear, however, that these disorders are etiologically complex, and multiple genetic and environmental factors contribute to their makeup. So far, traditional linkage mapping studies have not definitively identified specific disease genes for neuropsychiatric disorders, although some potential candidates have been identified via these methods (e.g. the dysbindin gene in schizophrenia; Straub et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 2003). For this reason, alternative approaches are being attempted, including studies in genetically isolated populations. Because isolated populations have a high degree of genetic homogeneity, their use may simplify the process of identifying disease genes in disorders where multiple genes may play a role. Several areas of Latin America contain genetically isolated populations that are well suited for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetic studies of several major psychiatric illnesses, including bipolar disorder, major depression, schizophrenia, Tourette Syndrome, alcohol dependence, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, are currently underway in these regions. In this paper we highlight the studies currently being conducted by our groups in the Central Valley of Costa Rica to illustrate the potential advantages of this population for genetic studies. PMID:15091311

  11. Regional warming and the thermal regimes of American crocodile nests in the Tempisque Basin, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher M; Easter, Michael; Padilla, Sergio; Marin, Mahmood Sasa; Guyer, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Spatial variation in global climate change makes population-specific responses to this enigmatic threat pertinent on a regional scale. Organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) potentially possess a unique physiological susceptibility that threatens population viability if rapid environmental effects on sex ratios render populations non-viable. A heavily male-biased sex ratio for hatchling American crocodiles of the Tempisque Basin, Costa Rica requires assessment of how nest temperature affects sex determination at this site, how females might compensate for these effects when creating nests, and how current patterns of climate change might alter future sex ratios and survival in hatchling cohorts. We demonstrate high within-nest variation in temperature but predict a female bias at hatching based on nest temperatures quantified here. Further, our data suggest that egg size and metabolic heating associated with this factor outweighs microhabitat parameters and depth in influencing nest thermal regimes. Finally, we document regional warming in the Tempisque Basin over the last 15 years and project that further heating over the next 15 years will not yield hatchling sex ratios as male biased as those currently found at this site. Thus, we find no support for nest temperature or climate change as likely explanations for male-biased American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) sex ratios in the Tempisque Basin. PMID:27503716

  12. Imaging of Cocos Plate Beneath Southern Costa Rica From Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierma, Y.; Thorwart, M.; Rabbel, W.

    2007-12-01

    A transect of 19 seismological broadband stations crossing the Talamanca Mountain Range in Southern Costa Rica was operated from March 2005 to April 2007 as a part of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 574 "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones". The aim of the seismological subproject A2 was to gain insight into the structure of the Central American subduction zone and possible pathways for fluid migration. Previous studies of active seismics and local seismicity suggested to explain the gap of volcanism in the Talamanca range with the lack of a subducting slab. They assumed that the Cocos Ridge underlies the overriding plate at a shallow dip. In contrast, our receiver function analysis of 322 teleseimic earthquakes is able to image the subducting Cocos Plate down to depths of at least 100 km. The dip angle of the slab closer to the trench is outside the network but appears to be shallow, consistent with former studies. Below 40 km, the dip increases to more than 45 deg. This is supported by accurately located seismicity from a tomography study also performed by our group. Crustal structure could also be resolved by the receiver function analysis in agreement with tomography and active seismic investigations. The existence of the subducting slab poses the question why volcanism stopped 4 Ma ago; several possible scenarios are discussed.

  13. Landscape evolution within a retreating volcanic arc, Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Idleman, Bruce D.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Fisher, Donald M.

    2003-05-01

    Subduction of hotspot-thickened seafloor profoundly affects convergent margin tectonics, strongly affecting upper plate structure, volcanism, and landscape evolution. In southern Central America, low-angle subduction of the Cocos Ridge and seamount domain largely controls landscape evolution in the volcanic arc. Field mapping, stratigraphic correlation, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology for late Cenozoic volcanic rocks of central Costa Rica provide new insights into the geomorphic response of volcanic arc landscapes to changes in subduction parameters (slab thickness, roughness, dip). Late Neogene volcanism was focused primarily along the now-extinct Cordillera de Aguacate. Quaternary migration of the magmatic front shifted volcanism northeastward to the Caribbean slope, creating a new topographic divide and forming the Valle Central basin. Stream capture across the paleo Aguacate divide led to drainage reversal toward the Pacific slope and deep incision of reorganized fluvial networks. Pleistocene caldera activity generated silicic ash flows that buried the Valle Central and descended the Tárcoles gorge to the Orotina debris fan at the coast. Growth of the modern Cordillera Central accentuated relief along the new divide, establishing the Valle Central as a Pacific slope drainage basin. Arc migration, relocation of the Pacific-Caribbean drainage divide, and formation of the Valle Central basin resulted from slab shallowing as irregular, hotspot-thickened crust entered the subduction zone. The geomorphic evolution of volcanic arc landscapes is thus highly sensitive to changes in subducting plate character.

  14. Importance of orographic precipitation to the water resources of Monteverde, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guswa, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Amy L.; Newell, Silvia E.

    2007-10-01

    Monteverde, Costa Rica harbors montane forests that exemplify the delicate balances among climate, hydrology, habitat, and development. Most of the annual precipitation to this region arrives during the wet season, but the importance of orographic precipitation during the dry and transitional seasons should not be underestimated. Development associated with ecotourism has put significant stress on water resources, and recent work has shown evidence that changes in regional land-cover and global climate may lead to reduced precipitation and cloud cover and a subsequent decline in endemic species. Precipitation samples collected from 2003 to 2005 reveal a seasonal signal in stable isotope composition, as measured by δ 18O and δ 2H, that is heaviest during the dry and transitional seasons. Attenuated versions of this signal propagate through to stream samples and provide a means of determining the importance of precipitation delivered by the trade winds during the dry and transitional seasons to water resources for the region. Results from six catchments on the leeward slope indicate that topography exerts a strong control on the importance of orographic precipitation to stream baseflow. The contributions are greatest in those catchments that are close to the Brillante Gap in the Continental Divide. Differences in the temporal variation of precipitation and streamflow isotope compositions provide insight to the hydrologic pathways that move water to the streams.

  15. Efficiency and adaptability of the benthic methane filter at Quepos Slide cold seeps, offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeb, P.; Krause, S.; Linke, P.; Hensen, C.; Dale, A. W.; Nuzzo, M.; Treude, T.

    2014-11-01

    Large amounts of methane are delivered by fluids through the erosive forearc of the convergent margin offshore Costa Rica and lead to the formation of cold seeps at the sediment surface. Besides mud extrusion, numerous cold seeps are created by landslides induced by seamount subduction or fluid migration along major faults. Most of the dissolved methane reaching the seafloor at cold seeps is oxidized within the benthic microbial methane filter by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Measurements of AOM and sulfate reduction as well as numerical modeling of porewater profiles revealed a highly active and efficient benthic methane filter at Quepos Slide site; a landslide on the continental slope between the Nicoya and Osa Peninsula. Integrated areal rates of AOM ranged from 12.9 ± 6.0 to 45.2 ± 11.5 mmol m-2 d-1, with only 1 to 2.5% of the upward methane flux being released into the water column. Additionally, two parallel sediment cores from Quepos Slide were used for in vitro experiments in a recently developed Sediment-F low-Through (SLOT) system to simulate an increased fluid and methane flux from the bottom of the sediment core. The benthic methane filter revealed a high adaptability whereby the methane oxidation efficiency responded to the increased fluid flow within 150-170 days. To our knowledge, this study provides the first estimation of the natural biogeochemical response of seep sediments to changes in fluid flow.

  16. Multiscale postseismic behavior on a megathrust: The 2012 Nicoya earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malservisi, Rocco; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Voss, Nicholas; Protti, Marino; Gonzalez, Victor; Dixon, Timothy H.; Jiang, Yan; Newman, Andy V.; Richardson, Jacob; Walter, Jacob I.; Voyenko, Denis

    2015-06-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula in northwest Costa Rica overlies a section of the subduction megathrust along the Middle America Trench. On 5 September 2012, a moment magnitude 7.6 megathrust earthquake occurred beneath a dense network of continuous GPS and seismic stations. Many of the GPS stations recorded the event at high rate, 1 Hz or better. We analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of surface deformation after the earthquake. Our results show that the main rupture was followed by significant afterslip within the first 3 h following the main event. The behavior of the surface displacement can be represented by relaxation processes with three characteristic times: 7, 70, and more than 400 days. We assume that the long relaxation time corresponds to viscoelastic relaxation and the intermediate relaxation time corresponds to afterslip on the main fault. The short relaxation time may represent a combination of rapid afterslip, poroelastic adjustment in the upper crust, or other processes. During the first few months that followed the earthquake, afterslip likely released a significant amount of slip deficit still present following the coseismic rupture, in particular updip of the rupture. Afterslip seems to be bounded updip by regions affected by slow slip events prior to the earthquake, suggesting that the two processes are influenced by different frictional properties.

  17. Diketopiperazines from Costa Rican endolichenic fungus Colpoma sp. CR1465A.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seulah; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Pang, Changhyun; Clardy, Jon; Cao, Shugeng; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-15

    Three new diketopiperazines (1-3), cyclo(l-Pro-d-trans-Hyp) (1), cyclo(l-Pro-d-Glu) (2), and cyclo(d-Pro-d-Glu) (3) and five known diketopiperazines (4-8) were isolated from the endolichenic fungus Colpoma sp. CR1465A identified from the Costa Rican plant Henriettea tuberculosa (Melatomataceae). The structures of the new compounds 1-3 were elucidated using a combination of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR and HR-MS, and their absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NOESY analysis and Marfey's method. Cyclo(l-Pro-d-allo-Thr) (4) was recently isolated from a South China Sea marine sponge Callyspongia sp., but its NMR spectroscopic data were not reported, and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Asp) (5) was previously reported but only as a synthetic product. The NMR data assignments of compounds 4 and 5 are reported for the first time. All of the isolated compounds were tested for antifungal and antimicrobial properties. PMID:27080179

  18. New species of Isospora from the blue-crowned motmot (Momotus momota) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Keeler, Shamus P; Gibbs, Samantha E J; McGraw, Sabrina N; Hernandez, Sonia M

    2009-10-01

    Two (33.3%) of 6 blue-crowned motmots (Momotus momota) sampled from Costa Rica were positive for a new species of Isospora. Oocysts of Isospora momotana n. sp. have a double, thick, yellow to orange, 2.3 microm +/- 0.5 microm (2-3 microm) wall, contain 1 to 3 globular polar granules (1-4 microm), are ovoid with heavy pitting on the outer surface, and measure 29.4 +/- 2.3 x 27.5 +/- 2.3 (25-33 x 23-31) with an average length:width ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.35). Sporocysts are ovoid, contain a residuum composed of large, equal-sized granules, and measure 19.4 +/- 1.3 x 12.2 +/- 1.1 (16-22 x 10-14) with an average length:width ratio of 1.6 (1.2-1.91). A small rounded stieda body, continuous with the sporocyst wall, and a prominent triangular substieda body are present. A second Isospora species was observed in 1 bird, but because only a few oocysts were present, a full description is not provided. This is the first report of coccidia from a motmot (Momotidae) and only the third Ispospora species described from the Coraciiformes. PMID:19469584

  19. Persistence of rock-derived nutrients in the wet tropical forests of La Selva, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Porder, Stephen; Clark, Deborah A; Vitousek, Peter M

    2006-03-01

    We used strontium isotopes and analysis of foliar and soil nutrients to test whether erosion can rejuvenate the supply of rock-derived nutrients in the lowland tropical rain forest of La Selva, Costa Rica. We expected that these nutrients would be depleted from soils on stable surfaces, a result of over one million years of weathering in situ. In fact, trees and palms in all landscape positions derive a relatively high percentage (> or =40%) of their strontium from bedrock, rather than atmospheric, sources. The fraction that is rock-derived increases on slopes, but with no detectable effect on plant macronutrient concentrations. These results differ from those in a similar ecosystem on Kauai, Hawaii, where plants on uneroded surfaces derive almost all of their foliar Sr from atmospheric, rather than bedrock, sources. The results from La Selva challenge the assumption that tropical Oxisols in general have low nutrient inputs from bedrock, and support the hypothesis that erosion can increase the supply of these nutrients in lower landscape positions. PMID:16602289

  20. Tectonic setting of Late Cenozoic gold mineralization in the gold belt of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Deruyter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Gold Belt of Costa Rica is a northwest-elongated zone 15 km wide by 120 km long containing numerous auriferous quartz veins and pyritic silicified patterns upon which abundant small mines are developed. Gold veins are related principally to northeast-southwest and north-south striking, steeply dipping faults. Higher grade ore and thicker veins invariably occur at intersections of these fracture orientations, indicating simultaneous opening at the time of gold introduction. Restriction of gold veins to the northwest-trending arc of Miocene Aguacate Group andesite volcanic rocks, a product of Cocos Plate subduction, suggested approximately coeval formation, but recognition by the writer of the important role played by 2-5 m.y. old altered, gold mineralized rhyolite dikes intruded along north-south gold vein structures and intimately involved with high grade ores at the Esperanza Mine and Rio Chiquito prospect, for example, suggest a much younger period of fracturing and gold introduction. The rhyolite intrusions are more brittle and stockwork mineralized than andesite host rocks and form bulk tonnage gold targets. Initiation of right-lateral movement along the north-south Panama Fracture Zone at 5 m.y.a. within the pattern of northeastward Cocos Plate subduction may have tapped rhyolites from subvolcanic magma chambers into new faults.