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Sample records for delta-opioid receptor endocytosis

  1. Purification and mass spectrometric analysis of the delta opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Christoffers, Keith H; Li, Hong; Howells, Richard D

    2005-05-20

    A mouse delta opioid receptor was engineered to contain a FLAG epitope at the amino-terminus and a hexahistidine tag at the carboxyl terminus to facilitate purification. Selection of transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells yielded a cell line that expressed the receptor with a B(max) of 10.5 pmol/mg protein. [3H]Bremazocine exhibited high affinity binding to the epitope-tagged delta opioid receptor with a K(D) of 1.4 nM. The agonists DADL, morphine, and DAMGO competitively inhibited bremazocine binding to the tagged delta receptor with K(I)'s of 0.9, 370, and 620 nM, respectively. Chronic treatment of cells expressing the epitope-tagged delta receptor with DADL resulted in downregulation of the receptor, indicating that the tagged receptor retained the capacity to mediate signal transduction. The delta receptor was solubilized from HEK 293 cell membranes with n-dodecyl-beta-d-maltoside in an active form that maintained high affinity bremazocine binding. Sequential use of Sephacryl S300 gel filtration chromatography, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-agarose chromatography, immobilized metal affinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography, and SDS/PAGE permitted purification of the receptor. The purified delta opioid receptor was a glycoprotein that migrated on SDS/PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 65 kDa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify and characterize peptides derived from the delta opioid receptor following in-gel digestion with trypsin, and precursor-derived ms/ms confirmed the identity of peptides derived from enzymatic digestion of the delta opioid receptor. PMID:15893587

  2. [Structure of mu and delta opioid receptors].

    PubMed

    Granier, Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    The opioid receptor family is composed of three members, the µ, δ and κ opioid receptors, that respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. I will discuss new insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition and structural features associated with ligand subtype selectivity based on the crystal structures we obtained for µ-OR and δ-OR. These data also provide a structural explanation and validation for the "message-address" model of opioid receptor pharmacology in which distinct "message" (efficacy) and "address" (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the "address" region of the OR with other GPCRs reveals this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well. Finally, I will discuss the µ-OR oligomeric arrangement in the crystal structure and its potential implication in opioid receptor function. PMID:23067419

  3. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    SciTech Connect

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  4. Proteasome involvement in agonist-induced down-regulation of mu and delta opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, K; Bandari, P; Chinen, N; Howells, R D

    2001-04-13

    This study investigated the mechanism of agonist-induced opioid receptor down-regulation. Incubation of HEK 293 cells expressing FLAG-tagged delta and mu receptors with agonists caused a time-dependent decrease in opioid receptor levels assayed by immunoblotting. Pulse-chase experiments using [(35)S]methionine metabolic labeling indicated that the turnover rate of delta receptors was accelerated 5-fold following agonist stimulation. Inactivation of functional G(i) and G(o) proteins by pertussis toxin-attenuated down-regulation of the mu opioid receptor, while down-regulation of the delta opioid receptor was unaffected. Pretreatment of cells with inhibitors of lysosomal proteases, calpain, and caspases had little effect on mu and delta opioid receptor down-regulation. In marked contrast, pretreatment with proteasome inhibitors attenuated agonist-induced mu and delta receptor down-regulation. In addition, incubation of cells with proteasome inhibitors in the absence of agonists increased steady-state mu and delta opioid receptor levels. Immunoprecipitation of mu and delta opioid receptors followed by immunoblotting with ubiquitin antibodies suggested that preincubation with proteasome inhibitors promoted accumulation of polyubiquitinated receptors. These data provide evidence that the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway plays a role in agonist-induced down-regulation and basal turnover of opioid receptors. PMID:11152677

  5. Src promotes delta opioid receptor (DOR) desensitization by interfering with receptor recycling

    PubMed Central

    Archer-Lahlou, Elodie; Audet, Nicolas; Amraei, Mohammad Gholi; Huard, Karine; Paquin-Gobeil, Mélanie; Pineyro, Graciela

    2009-01-01

    Abstract An important limitation in the clinical use of opiates is progressive loss of analgesic efficacy over time. Development of analgesic tolerance is tightly linked to receptor desensitization. In the case of delta opioid receptors (DOR), desensitization is especially swift because receptors are rapidly internalized and are poorly recycled to the membrane. In the present study, we investigated whether Src activity contributed to this sorting pattern and to functional desensitization of DORs. A first series of experiments demonstrated that agonist binding activates Src and destabilizes a constitutive complex formed by the spontaneous association of DORs with the kinase. Src contribution to DOR desensitization was then established by showing that pre-treatment with Src inhibitor PP2 (20 μM; 1 hr) or transfection of a dominant negative Src mutant preserved DOR signalling following sustained exposure to an agonist. This protection was afforded without interfering with endocytosis, but suboptimal internalization interfered with PP2 ability to preserve DOR signalling, suggesting a post-endocytic site of action for the kinase. This assumption was confirmed by demonstrating that Src inhibition by PP2 or its silencing by siRNA increased membrane recovery of internalized DORs and was further corroborated by showing that inhibition of recycling by monensin or dominant negative Rab11 (Rab11S25N) abolished the ability of Src blockers to prevent desensitization. Finally, Src inhibitors accelerated recovery of DOR-Gαl3 coupling after desensitization. Taken together, these results indicate that Src dynamically regulates DOR recycling and by doing so contributes to desensitization of these receptors. PMID:18363847

  6. Delta opioid receptors presynaptically regulate cutaneous mechanosensory neuron input to the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C; Mennicken, Françoise; O'Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Woodbury, C Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I; MacDermott, Amy B; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-03-19

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  7. Dimerization with Cannabinoid Receptors Allosterically Modulates Delta Opioid Receptor Activity during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, Steven D.; Miller, Lydia K.; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of receptor signaling is increased by receptor heteromerization leading to dynamic regulation of receptor function. While a number of studies have demonstrated that family A G-protein-coupled receptors are capable of forming heteromers in vitro, the role of these heteromers in normal physiology and disease has been poorly explored. In this study, direct interactions between CB1 cannabinoid and delta opioid receptors in the brain were examined. Additionally, regulation of heteromer levels and signaling in a rodent model of neuropathic pain was explored. First we examined changes in the expression, function and interaction of these receptors in the cerebral cortex of rats with a peripheral nerve lesion that resulted in neuropathic pain. We found that, following the peripheral nerve lesion, the expression of both cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) are increased in select brain regions. Concomitantly, an increase in CB1R activity and decrease in DOR activity was observed. We hypothesize that this decrease in DOR activity could be due to heteromeric interactions between these two receptors. Using a CB1R-DOR heteromer-specific antibody, we found increased levels of CB1R-DOR heteromer protein in the cortex of neuropathic animals. We subsequently examined the functionality of these heteromers by testing whether low, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands influenced DOR signaling in the cortex. We found that, in cortical membranes from animals that experienced neuropathic pain, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands significantly enhanced DOR activity. Moreover, this activity is selectively blocked by a heteromer-specific antibody. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for CB1R-DOR heteromers in altered cortical function of DOR during neuropathic pain. Moreover, they suggest the possibility that a novel heteromer-directed therapeutic strategy for enhancing DOR activity, could potentially be employed to reduce anxiety associated with chronic pain. PMID:23272051

  8. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  9. Disruption of the mu-delta opioid receptor heteromer.

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Brian F; Ji, Xiaodong; O'Dowd, Paul B; Nguyen, Tuan; George, Susan R

    2012-06-15

    The crystal structure of the mu and kappa opioid receptors has revealed dimeric structural arrangements. Mu-delta receptors heteromers also exist and we have identified discrete cytoplasmic regions in each receptor required for oligomer formation. In the carboxyl tail of the delta receptor we identified three glycine residues (-GGG), substitution of any of these residues prevented heteromer formation. In intracellular loop 3 of both mu and delta receptors we identified three residues (-SVR), substitution of any of these residues prevented heteromer formation. PMID:22583900

  10. Delta Opioid Receptors: The Link between Exercise and Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliana P.; Verdoorn, Karine S.; Daliry, Anissa; Powers, Scott K.; Ortenzi, Victor H.; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of opioid receptor (OR) subtypes as a mechanism by which endurance exercise promotes cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Wistar rats were randomly divided into one of seven experimental groups: 1) control; 2) exercise-trained; 3) exercise-trained plus a non-selective OR antagonist; 4) control sham; 5) exercise-trained plus a kappa OR antagonist; 6) exercise-trained plus a delta OR antagonist; and 7) exercise-trained plus a mu OR antagonist. The exercised animals underwent 4 consecutive days of treadmill training (60 min/day at ∼70% of maximal oxygen consumption). All groups except the sham group were exposed to an in vivo myocardial IR insult, and the myocardial infarct size (IS) was determined histologically. Myocardial capillary density, OR subtype expression, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity were measured in the hearts of both the exercised and control groups. Exercise training significantly reduced the myocardial IS by approximately 34%. Pharmacological blockade of the kappa or mu OR subtypes did not blunt exercise-induced cardioprotection against IR-mediated infarction, whereas treatment of animals with a non-selective OR antagonist or a delta OR antagonist abolished exercise-induced cardioprotection. Exercise training enhanced the activities of myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase but did not increase the left ventricular capillary density or the mRNA levels of HSP72, SOD, and catalase. In addition, exercise significantly reduced the protein expression of kappa and delta ORs in the heart by 44% and 37%, respectively. Together, these results indicate that ORs contribute to the cardioprotection conferred by endurance exercise, with the delta OR subtype playing a key role in this response. PMID:25415192

  11. Effect of delta opioid receptor activation on spatial cognition and neurogenesis in cerebral ischemic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Yan; Duan, Ya-Le; Zhao, Bing; Wang, Xiang-Rui; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Guang-Ming

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether a selective delta opioid receptor agonist, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-Enkephalin (DADLE), regulates neurogenesis in the hippocampus of ischemic rats. Using an intracerebral cannula, rats were subjected to cerebral ischemia using the standard four-vessel occlusion. DADLE (2.5nmol), DADLE (2.5nmol) with naltrindole (NAL) (2.5nmol), or vehicle was administered at the onset of reperfusion. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 100mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was used to label newly formed cells from days 1 to 7 after ischemia. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate cell proliferation and apoptosis and differentiation 7days 28 days, respectively, after ischemia. Morris water maze test was conducted to test spatial learning and memory 23-27 days after ischemia. We found that DADLE treatment improved performance in the Morris water maze test, promoted proliferation and differentiation of newly formed neurons, and inhibited differentiation into astrocytes in a rat model of cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the protective effects of DADLE were significantly reversed by co-administration of NAL (P<0.05), a highly potent and selective delta opioid receptor antagonist. Our findings suggest that DADLE promotes spatial cognitive function recovery and regulates neurogenesis after ischemia, which may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia. PMID:27016387

  12. The stimulatory effect of mu- and delta-opioid receptors on bovine pinealocyte melatonin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chuchuen, Uayart; Ebadi, Manuchair; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2004-11-01

    Mammalian pinealocytes synthesize and secrete melatonin. The synthesis of melatonin is regulated by several biogenic amine, amino acid and peptide transmitters. In our previous study, the delta- and mu-opioid receptors have been identified and characterized in bovine pinealocytes. In order to elaborate the function of different types of opioid receptors in regulating melatonin synthesis, we used a selective mu-opioid receptor agonist, Tyr-[D-Ala(2), N-methyl-phe(4), glycol(5)] (DAMGO), a selective delta-opioid receptor agonist, Enkephalin [D-Pen(2), D-Pen(5)], (DPDPE) and a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, ((+)-(5alpha, 7alpha, 8beta)-N-methyl-N-[7- (1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro [4,5] dec-8-yl]-benzene acetamide) (U69593) to investigate the activity of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and melatonin secretion. The results of the present study show that both DAMGO and DPDPE stimulated NAT activity and increased the level of melatonin in cultured bovine pinealocytes. These stimulatory effects were blocked by naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. However, the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 was unable to alter either the activity of NAT or the level of melatonin. In order to clarify the mechanism of how the activation of mu- and delta-opioid receptors in bovine pinealocytes leads to an increase in NAT activity, cyclic AMP levels were measured after bovine pinealocytes were treated with morphine, DAMGO and DPDPE. The results indicated that these stimulatory effects acted via induction of cAMP production. This study reveals that the stimulatory effect of opioid receptor on melatonin synthesis is mediated via the activation of adenylate cyclase system. PMID:15485547

  13. Differential desensitization of mu- and delta- opioid receptors in selected neural pathways following chronic morphine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Noble, F.; Cox, B. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. Morphine produces a plethora of pharmacological effects and its chronic administration induces several side-effects. The cellular mechanisms by which opiates induce these side-effects are not fully understood. Several studies suggest that regulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by opioids and other transmitters plays an important role in the control of neural function. 2. The aim of this study was to evaluate desensitization of mu- and delta- opioid receptors, defined as a reduced ability of opioid agonists to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity, in four different brain structures known to be involved in opiate drug actions: caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Opiate regulation of adenylyl cyclase in these regions has been studied in control and morphine-dependent rats. 3. The chronic morphine treatment used in the present study (subcutaneous administration of 15.4 mg morphine/rat/day for 6 days via osmotic pump) induced significant physical dependence as indicated by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. 4. Basal adenylyl cyclase in the four brain regions was not modified by this chronic morphine treatment. In the PAG and the thalamus, a desensitization of mu- and delta-opioid receptors was observed, characterized by a reduced ability of Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-(NMe)Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO; mu), Tyr-D-Pen-Gly-Phe-D-Pen (DPDPE; delta) and [D-Ala2]-deltorphin-II (DT-II; delta) to inhibit adenylyl cyclase, activity following chronic morphine treatment. 5. The opioid receptor desensitization in PAG and thalamus appeared to be heterologous since the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists, L-AP4 and glutamate, and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptor agonist, R(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), also showed reduced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity following chronic morphine treatment. 6. In the nucleus accumbens and the caudate putamen, desensitization of delta-opioid receptor-mediated inhibition without modification of mu-opioid receptor-mediated inhibition was observed. An indirect mechanism probably involving dopaminergic systems is proposed to explain the desensitization of delta-mediated responses and the lack of mu-opioid receptor desensitization after chronic morphine treatment in caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens. 7. These results suggest that adaptive responses occurring during chronic morphine administration are not identical in all opiate-sensitive neural populations. PMID:8825358

  14. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

    2013-02-01

    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus. PMID:22795872

  15. Impaired Hippocampus-Dependent and Facilitated Striatum-Dependent Behaviors in Mice Lacking the Delta Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Le Merrer, Julie; Rezai, Xavier; Scherrer, Grégory; Becker, Jérôme A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological data suggest that delta opioid receptors modulate learning and memory processes. In the present study, we investigated whether inactivation of the delta opioid receptor modifies hippocampus (HPC)- and striatum-dependent behaviors. We first assessed HPC-dependent learning in mice lacking the receptor (Oprd1−/− mice) or wild-type (WT) mice treated with the delta opioid antagonist naltrindole using novel object recognition, and a dual-solution cross-maze task. Second, we subjected mutant animals to memory tests addressing striatum-dependent learning using a single-solution response cross-maze task and a motor skill-learning task. Genetic and pharmacological inactivation of delta opioid receptors reduced performance in HPC-dependent object place recognition. Place learning was also altered in Oprd1−/− animals, whereas striatum-dependent response and procedural learning were facilitated. Third, we investigated the expression levels for a large set of genes involved in neurotransmission in both HPC and striatum of Oprd1−/− mice. Gene expression was modified for several key genes that may contribute to alter hippocampal and striatal functions, and bias striatal output towards striatonigral activity. To test this hypothesis, we finally examined locomotor effects of dopamine receptor agonists. We found that Oprd1−/− and naltrindole-treated WT mice were more sensitive to the stimulant locomotor effect of SKF-81297 (D1/D5), supporting the hypothesis of facilitated striatonigral output. These data suggest, for the first time, that delta receptor activity tonically inhibits striatal function, and demonstrate that delta opioid receptors modulate learning and memory performance by regulating the HPC/striatum balance. PMID:23303070

  16. Potent cyclic enkephalin analogues for delta opioid receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, G.; Kao, J.; Hruby, V.; Morelli, M.; Gulya, K.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-03-01

    (/sup 3/H) (D-Pen/sup 2/,D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin ((/sup 3/H)DPDPE) and (/sup 3/H) (D-Pen/sup 2/, L-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin ((/sup 3/H)DPLPE) characterization studies showed high affinity binding of these radioligands to rat brain membranes with dissociation constants of 1.8 and 1.0 nM, respectively, while a similar number of receptor density was found with both radiolabeled ligands (77 fmoles/mg protein). Unlabeled DPDPE inhibited both radioligands with high affinity (IC50 = 7 nM0 while morphine (IC50 = 80 nM), DAGO (IC50 = 250 nM) and PLO17 (no inhibition at 1000 nM) were less effective in inhibiting the binding, thus, illustrating the selective action of these radiolabeled ligands at the delta opioid receptor. A series of conformationally restricted D-penicillamine containing cyclic enkephalin analogues were synthesized using standard solid phase methods and their ability to inhibit (/sup 3/H)DPDPE and (/sup 3/H)DPLPE were examined in rat brain radioreceptor assays. Substitutions in the DPDPE molecule were made in phe/sup 4/. These substitutions were pNO/sub 2/-phe/sup 4/, beta-methyl-phe/sup 4/, pNO/sub 2/-beta-methyl-phe/sub 4/, pNO/sub 2/-beta-methyl-phe/sup 4/ (three isomeric forms: A,B,D). The IC50 values for the above enkephalin analogues were 3.7, 16, 7, 7, 200 nM, respectively. Thus, these potent analogues of DPDPE should be useful in determining the structure activity relationships of the delta opioid receptor in rat brain.

  17. Impact of chronic morphine on delta opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Erbs, E; Faget, L; Ceredig, R A; Matifas, A; Vonesch, J-L; Kieffer, B L; Massotte, D

    2016-01-28

    Delta opioid (DOP) receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. To better appreciate the impact of repeated drug exposure on their modulatory activity, we used fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxy-terminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. We then tested the impact of chronic morphine treatment on the density and distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus. A decrease in delta receptor-positive cell density was observed in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus without alteration of the distribution across the different GABAergic populations that mainly express delta receptors. This effect partly persisted after four weeks of morphine abstinence. In addition, we observed increased DOP receptor expression at the cell surface compared to saline-treated animals. In the hippocampus, chronic morphine administration thus induces DOP receptor cellular redistribution and durably decreases delta receptor-expressing cell density. Such modifications are likely to alter hippocampal physiology, and to contribute to long-term cognitive deficits. PMID:26480813

  18. Inhibition of mu and delta opioid receptor ligand binding by the peptide aldehyde protease inhibitor, leupeptin.

    PubMed

    Christoffers, Keith H; Khokhar, Arshia; Chaturvedi, Kirti; Howells, Richard D

    2002-04-15

    We reported recently that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in agonist-induced down regulation of mu and delta opioid receptors [J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 12345]. While evaluating the effects of various protease inhibitors on agonist-induced opioid receptor down regulation, we observed that while the peptide aldehyde, leupeptin (acetyl-L-Leucyl-L-Leucyl-L-Arginal), did not affect agonist-induced down regulation, leupeptin at submillimolar concentrations directly inhibited radioligand binding to opioid receptors. In this study, the inhibitory activity of leupeptin on radioligand binding was characterized utilizing human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell lines expressing transfected mu, delta, or kappa opioid receptors. The rank order of potency for leupeptin inhibition of [3H]bremazocine binding to opioid receptors was mu > delta > kappa. In contrast to the effect of leupeptin, the peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitor, MG 132 (carbobenzoxy-L-Leucyl-L-Leucyl-L-Leucinal), had significantly less effect on bremazocine binding to mu, delta, or kappa opioid receptors. We propose that leupeptin inhibits ligand binding by reacting reversibly with essential sulfhydryl groups that are necessary for high-affinity ligand/receptor interactions. PMID:11853866

  19. In vivo visualization of delta opioid receptors upon physiological activation uncovers a distinct internalization profile

    PubMed Central

    FAGET, Lauren; ERBS, Eric; LE MERRER, Julie; SCHERRER, Gregory; MATIFAS, Audrey; BENTURQUIA, Nadia; NOBLE, Florence; DECOSSAS, Marion; KOCH, Marc; KESSLER, Pascal; VONESCH, Jean-Luc; SCHWAB, Yannick; KIEFFER, Brigitte L.; MASSOTTE, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate numerous physiological functions and represent prime therapeutic targets. Receptor trafficking upon agonist stimulation is critical for GPCR function, but examining this process in vivo remains a true challenge. Using knock-in mice expressing functional fluorescent delta opioid receptors under the control of the endogenous promoter, we visualized in vivo internalization of this native GPCR upon physiological stimulation. We developed a paradigm in which animals were made dependent to morphine in a drug-paired context. When re-exposed to this context in a drug-free state, mice showed context-dependent withdrawal signs and activation of the hippocampus. Receptor internalization was transiently detected in a subset of CA1 neurons, uncovering regionally restricted opioid peptide release. Importantly, a pool of surface receptors always remained, which contrasts with the in vivo profile previously established for exogenous drug-induced internalization. Therefore, a distinct response is observed at the receptor level upon a physiological or pharmacological stimulation. Altogether, direct in vivo GPCR visualization enables mapping receptor stimulation promoted by a behavioral challenge, and represents a powerful approach to study endogenous GPCR physiology. PMID:22623675

  20. Lack of renal tubular and hemodynamic effects of non-selective and delta-opioid receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Barrett, R J; Turpin, J A; McGuirk, B A; Kau, S T

    1985-01-01

    The renal pharmacological actions of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the selective delta (delta)-opioid receptor antagonist ICI 154,129 were examined in conscious dogs. Neither naloxone nor ICI 154,129 altered glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, blood pressure, heart rate, or renal excretion of water, Na+, K+, or Cl-. In addition, urine and plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations and hematocrit were unchanged, suggesting that neither agent produced physiologically significant alteration in plasma vasopressin levels. These data suggest that (a) naloxone and ICI 154,129 exert no renal pharmacological effects in dogs and (b) under resting physiological conditions, delta-opioid receptors, as well as other opioid receptor subtypes, probably are not involved in the tonic regulation of renal hemodynamics or tubular function. PMID:3983226

  1. Nerve Growth Factor-Regulated Emergence of Functional Delta-Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Bihua; Zhang, Zhi; Cai, You-Qing; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Dai, Jaile; Lowenstein, Charles J.; Weinman, Edward J.; Pan, Zhizhong Z.

    2010-01-01

    Sorting of intracellular G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) either to lysosomes for degradation or to plasma membrane for surface insertion and functional expression is a key process regulating signaling strength of GPCRs across the plasma membrane in adult mammalian cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms governing the dynamic process of receptor sorting to the plasma membrane for functional expression under normal and pathological conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that delta-opioid receptor (DOPr), a GPCR constitutively targeted to intracellular compartments, is driven to the surface membrane of central synaptic terminals and becomes functional by the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) in native brainstem neurons. The NGF-triggered DOPr translocation is predominantly mediated by the signaling pathway involving the tyrosine receptor kinase A, Ca++-mobilizing phospholipase C and Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Importantly, it requires interactions with the cytoplasmic sorting protein Na+/H+ exchange regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) and N-Ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor-regulated exocytosis. In addition, this NGF-mediated mechanism is likely responsible for the emergence of functional DOPr induced by chronic opioids. Thus, NGF may function as a key molecular switch that redirects the sorting of intracellularly targeted DOPr to plasma membrane, resulting in new functional DOPr on central synapses under chronic opioid conditions. PMID:20410114

  2. Delta-opioid receptor expression in the ventral tegmental area protects against elevated alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Elyssa B; Fields, Howard L; Hjelmstad, Gregory O; Mitchell, Jennifer M

    2008-11-26

    Alcoholism is a complex and debilitating syndrome affecting approximately 140 million people worldwide. However, not everyone who consumes ethanol develops abuse, raising the possibility that some individuals have a protective mechanism that inhibits elevated alcohol consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the delta-opioid receptor (DOR) plays such a protective role. Here we show that DOR activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) robustly decreases ethanol consumption in rats and that these effects depend on baseline ethanol consumption. Intra-VTA microinjection of the DOR agonist DPDPE decreases drinking, particularly in low-drinking animals. Furthermore, VTA microinjection of the DOR selective antagonist TIPP-Psi increases drinking in low, but not high, drinkers and this increase is blocked by comicroinjection of the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline. Using electrophysiological techniques we found that in VTA brain slices from drinking rats DPDPE presynaptically inhibits GABA(A) receptor mediated IPSCs in low drinkers, but not in high drinkers or naive animals, most likely through activation of DORs on GABA terminals. This DOR-mediated inhibition of IPSCs also correlates inversely with behavioral correlates of anxiety measured in the elevated plus maze. In contrast, presynaptic inhibition of VTA GABA(A) IPSCs by the mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO is significantly reduced in both high- and low-drinking rats (<30%) compared with age-matched nondrinking controls (>70%). Together, our findings demonstrate the protective nature of VTA DORs and identify an important new target for therapeutic intervention for alcoholism. PMID:19036960

  3. Primary afferent neurons express functional delta opioid receptors in inflamed skin.

    PubMed

    Brederson, Jill-Desiree; Honda, Christopher N

    2015-07-21

    Peripherally-restricted opiate compounds attenuate hyperalgesia in experimental models of inflammatory pain, but have little discernable effect on nociceptive behavior in normal animals. This suggests that activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory axons contributes to decreased afferent activity after injury. Previously, we reported that direct application of morphine to cutaneous receptive fields decreased mechanical and heat-evoked responses in a population of C-fiber nociceptors in inflamed skin. Consistent with reported behavioral studies, direct application of morphine had no effect on fiber activity in control skin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether mechanical responsiveness of nociceptors innervating inflamed skin was attenuated by direct activation of delta opioid receptors (DORs) on peripheral terminals. An ex vivo preparation of rat plantar skin and tibial nerve was used to examine effects of a selective DOR agonist, deltorphin II, on responsiveness of single fibers innervating inflamed skin. Electrical recordings were made eighteen hours after injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the hindpaw. Deltorphin II produced an inhibition of the mechanical responsiveness of single fibers innervating inflamed skin; an effect blocked by the DOR-selective antagonist, naltrindole. The population of units responsive to deltorphin II was identified as consisting of C fiber mechanical nociceptors. PMID:25911583

  4. Ethanol Disinhibits Dorsolateral Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons Through Activation of A Presynaptic Delta Opioid Receptor.

    PubMed

    Patton, Mary H; Roberts, Bradley M; Lovinger, David M; Mathur, Brian N

    2016-06-01

    The dorsolateral striatum mediates habit formation, which is expedited by exposure to alcohol. Across species, alcohol exposure disinhibits the DLS by dampening GABAergic transmission onto this structure's principal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs), providing a potential mechanistic basis for habitual alcohol drinking. However, the molecular and circuit components underlying this disinhibition remain unknown. To examine this, we used a combination of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and optogenetics to demonstrate that ethanol potently depresses both MSN- and fast-spiking interneuron (FSI)-MSN GABAergic synaptic transmission in the DLS. Concentrating on the powerfully inhibitory FSI-MSN synapse, we further show that acute exposure of ethanol (50 mM) to striatal slices activates delta opioid receptors that reside on FSI axon terminals and negatively couple to adenylyl cyclase to induce a long-term depression of GABA release onto both direct and indirect pathway MSNs. These findings elucidate a mechanism through which ethanol may globally disinhibit the DLS. PMID:26758662

  5. Making Structural Sense of Dimerization Interfaces of Delta Opioid Receptor Homodimers†

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Opioid receptors, like other members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, have been shown to associate to form dimers and/or oligomers at the plasma membrane. Whether this association is stable or transient is not known. Recent compelling evidence suggests that at least some GPCRs rapidly associate and dissociate. We have recently calculated binding affinities from free energy estimates to predict transient association between mouse delta opioid receptor (DOR) protomers at a symmetric interface involving the fourth transmembrane (TM4) helix (herein termed “4” dimer). Here we present disulfide cross-linking experiments with DOR constructs with cysteines substituted at the extracellular ends of TM4 or TM5 that confirm the formation of DOR complexes involving these helices. Our results are consistent with the involvement of TM4 and/or TM5 at the DOR homodimer interface, but possibly with differing association propensities. Coarse-grained (CG) well-tempered metadynamics simulations of two different dimeric arrangements of DOR involving TM4 alone or with TM5 (herein termed “4/5” dimer) in an explicit lipid−water environment confirmed the presence of two structurally and energetically similar configurations of the 4 dimer, as previously assessed by umbrella sampling calculations, and revealed a single energetic minimum of the 4/5 dimer. Additional CG umbrella sampling simulations of the 4/5 dimer indicated that the strength of association between DOR protomers varies depending on the protein region at the interface, with the 4 dimer being more stable than the 4/5 dimer. PMID:21261298

  6. A novel anxiogenic role for the delta opioid receptor expressed in GABAergic forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Paul Chu Sin; Keyworth, Helen L.; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Charbogne, Pauline; Darcq, Emmanuel; Bailey, Alexis; Filliol, Dominique; Matifas, Audrey; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire; Befort, Katia; Maldonado, Rafael; Kitchen, Ian; Kieffer, Brigitte L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The delta opioid receptor (DOR) is broadly expressed throughout the nervous system and regulates chronic pain, emotional responses, motivation and memory. Neural circuits underlying DOR activities have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we used conditional mouse mutagenesis to elucidate receptor function in GABAergic neurons of the forebrain. Methods We characterized DOR distribution in the brain of Dlx5/6-CreXOprd1fl/fl (Dlx-DOR) mice, and tested main central DOR functions through behavioral testing. Results DORs proteins were strongly deleted in olfactory bulb and striatum, and remained intact in cortex and basolateral amygdala. Olfactory perception, circadian activity and despair-like behaviors were unchanged. In contrast, locomotor stimulant effects of SNC80 (DOR agonist) and SKF81297 (D1 agonist) were abolished and increased, respectively. Furthermore, Dlx-DOR mice showed lower levels of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze, opposing the known high anxiety in constitutive DOR knockout animals. Also Dlx-DOR mice reached the food more rapidly in a novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) task, despite their lower motivation for food reward observed in an operant paradigm. Finally, c-fos staining after NSF was strongly reduced in amygdala, concordant with the low anxiety phenotype of Dlx-DOR mice. Conclusion Here we demonstrate that DORs expressed in the forebrain mediate the described locomotor effect of SNC80 and inhibit D1-stimulated hyperactivity. Our data also reveal an unanticipated anxiogenic role for this particular DOR subpopulation, with a potential novel adaptive role. DORs therefore exert dual anxiolytic/anxiogenic roles in emotional responses, which may both have implications in the area of anxiety disorders. PMID:25444168

  7. Long-term sensitization to the activation of cerebral delta-opioid receptors by the deltorphin Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Glu-Val-Val-Gly-NH2 in rats exposed to morphine.

    PubMed Central

    Melchiorri, P; Maritati, M; Negri, L; Erspamer, V

    1992-01-01

    In experiments to evaluate responses to the activation of cerebral delta-opioid receptors, repeated daily injection of the selective delta-opioid agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Glu-Val-Val-Gly-NH2 ([D-Ala2]deltorphin II) into rat brain resulted in the development of tolerance, whereas repeated daily injection or continuous infusion of morphine resulted in sensitization to the behavioral activating effects of the delta-opioid agonist. Although the rats did not modify their spontaneous locomotor activity after morphine withdrawal, they became markedly hyperresponsive to the locomotor and stereotypy-producing effects of a challenge dose of the delta-opioid agonist. Sensitization to activation of delta-opioid receptors persisted for at least 60 days after discontinuing morphine treatment. These results show that the development of tolerance and long-term sensitization to opioids involves delta-opioid as well as mu-opioid receptors. PMID:1315033

  8. Dual efficacy of delta opioid receptor-selective ligands for ethanol drinking and anxiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Richard M; Brissett, Daniela I; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2010-10-01

    Alcoholism and anxiety disorders have a huge impact on society and afflict 17.6 million and 40 million people in the United States, respectively. A strong comorbidity exists between alcoholism and anxiety disorders. Indeed, alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety is a primary contributing factor for relapse, and anxiolytics are a common adjuvant therapy prescribed for treatment-seeking alcoholics. It is thought that the use of alcohol to self-medicate and relieve anxiety contributes to the development of addiction. Treatment for anxiety disorders and alcoholism exist but are not universally effective. The delta opioid receptor (DOR) plays a role in both alcohol consumption and anxiety, making it a very interesting clinical target. Two pharmacologically distinct DORs have been described: DOR1 and DOR2. We find here that the relative specificity of DOR agonists for DOR1 or DOR2 can greatly affect the effects they exert on ethanol consumption and anxiety. The DOR1 agonist 2-methyl-4aα-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,12,12aα-octahydro-quinolino[2,3,30g]isoquinoline (TAN-67), although not effective in decreasing anxiety-like behavior in naive mice, has anxiolytic-like properties in ethanol-withdrawn mice. In contrast, a less subtype-selective agonist, (+)-4-[(αR)-α-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC80), while also reducing anxiety-like behavior, increases ethanol consumption. In addition, we found that the conical anxiolytic diazepam [DZ; 7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one] is a less effective anxiolytic in ethanol-withdrawn mice than in naive mice. Together, our findings suggest that selective DOR agonists can decrease anxiety-like behavior and are more effective than diazepam at reducing ethanol consumption. We believe the dual efficacy of DOR1 agonists makes these receptors an interesting therapeutic target for treatment-seeking alcoholics. PMID:20605909

  9. Central delta-opioid receptor interactions and the inhibition of reflex urinary bladder contractions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dray, A; Nunan, L; Wire, W

    1985-07-01

    The in vivo effects of a number of opioid agonists and antagonists were studied on the spontaneous reflex contractions of the urinary bladder recorded isometrically in the rat anesthetized with urethane. All substances were administered into the central nervous system by the intracereboventricular (i.c.v.) or spinal intrathecal (i.t.) route. The conformationally restricted enkephalin analogues [2-D-penicillamine, 5-L-cysteine] enkephalin (DPLCE), [2-D-penicillamine, 5-L-penicillamine] enkephalin (DPLPE) and [2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine] enkephalin (DPDPE) produced dose-related inhibition of reflex bladder contractions when administered by the i.c.v. or i.t. route. Both the novel delta-opioid receptor antagonist ICI 154,129 (200-600 micrograms) [N,N-bisallyl-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Psi-(CH2S)-Phe-Leu-OH) and ICI 174,864 (1-3 micrograms) [N,N-dially-Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu-OH: Aib = alpha-aminoisobutyric acid] attenuated or abolished the effects of DPLCE, DPLPE and DPDPE when administered by the i.c.v. or i.t. route. The antagonism observed was selective since the equipotent inhibition produced by the mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, Me-Phe4, Gly(ol)5] enkephalin (DAGO) was unaffected. Overall, ICI 154,129 was considerably weaker than ICI 174,864 and both antagonists inhibited bladder activity at doses higher than those required to demonstrate delta-receptor antagonism. Further studies of the agonistic effect of ICI 174,864 showed that it was insensitive to low doses of naloxone (2 micrograms, i.c.v. or i.t.) but could be abolished by higher (10-15 micrograms) doses of naloxone. These observations suggested that the agonistic effect of ICI 174,864 was not mediated by mu-opioid receptor. beta-Endorphin (0.2-1.0 micrograms, i.c.v.) inhibited bladder contractions but following recovery from this effect, appeared to prevent the expression of delta-receptor antagonism by ICI 174,864. In addition a previously subthreshold dose of ICI 174,864 now exhibited marked agonistic activity. The inhibitory effect of a submaximal dose of DPDPE was also potentiated by beta-endorphin under these circumstances. These observations suggest that supra-spinal and spinal delta-opioid receptors are involved in the opioid-mediated inhibition of reflex bladder contractions in the rat. Moreover beta-endorphin may be important in regulating central delta-opioid receptors. PMID:2992671

  10. A commonly carried genetic variant in the delta opioid receptor gene, OPRD1, is associated with smaller regional brain volumes: replication in elderly and young populations.

    PubMed

    Roussotte, Florence F; Jahanshad, Neda; Hibar, Derrek P; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Kohannim, Omid; Barysheva, Marina; Hansell, Narelle K; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-04-01

    Delta opioid receptors are implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. These receptors play a key role in the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, and polymorphisms in OPRD1 (the gene encoding delta opioid receptors) are associated with drug addiction. Delta opioid receptors are also involved in protecting neurons against hypoxic and ischemic stress. Here, we first examined a large sample of 738 elderly participants with neuroimaging and genetic data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We hypothesized that common variants in OPRD1 would be associated with differences in brain structure, particularly in regions relevant to addictive and neurodegenerative disorders. One very common variant (rs678849) predicted differences in regional brain volumes. We replicated the association of this single-nucleotide polymorphism with regional tissue volumes in a large sample of young participants in the Queensland Twin Imaging study. Although the same allele was associated with reduced volumes in both cohorts, the brain regions affected differed between the two samples. In healthy elderly, exploratory analyses suggested that the genotype associated with reduced brain volumes in both cohorts may also predict cerebrospinal fluid levels of neurodegenerative biomarkers, but this requires confirmation. If opiate receptor genetic variants are related to individual differences in brain structure, genotyping of these variants may be helpful when designing clinical trials targeting delta opioid receptors to treat neurological disorders. PMID:23427138

  11. [Cys(O2NH2)2]enkephalin analogues and dalargin: selectivity for delta-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, N; Bocheva, A; Dimitrov, E; Ivancheva, C; Radomirov, R

    1996-05-23

    To investigate the structure-activity relationships for potent and selective action of enkephalins at the delta-opioid receptors, two newly synthesized analogues, [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5]enkephalin and [Cys(O2NH2)2, Met5] enkephalin and the hexapeptide [D-Ala2,Leu5]enkephalyl-Arg (dalargin) were tested and compared with [Leu5]enkephalin and [Met5]enkephalin, for their effectiveness to inhibit electrically evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens (predominantly enkephalin-selective delta-opioid receptors) and the guinea pig ileum (mu- and kappa-opioid receptors). The mouse vas deferens assays included evaluation of the effects of opioid agonists on the first, purinergic, and the second, adrenergic, components of electrically evoked biphasic responses (10 Hz and 20 Hz) and on ATP- or noradrenaline-evoked, tetrodotoxin-resistant responses. The opioids tested inhibited in a similar manner: (i) the purinergic and the adrenergic components of the electrically evoked contractions; and (ii) the ATP- and noradrenaline-induced postjunctional responses of the mouse vas deferens. Extremely low IC50 values (of 2-5 orders) were found for [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5] enkephalin, whose relative potency was between 239 and 1316 times higher than that of [Leu5]enkephalin. The order of potency for the other peptides in this tissue was: [Cys(O2NH2)2,Met5]enkephalin > [Leu5]enkephalin > dalargin > [Met5]enkephalin. The highest IC50 values in the guinea pig ileum assays, indicating the lowest affinity for mu-/kappa-opioid receptors, were obtained for the cysteine sulfonamide analogues, while dalargin showed a potency four times higher than that of [Met5]enkephalin. The order of potency in this tissue was: dalargin > [Met5]enkephalin > [Leu5]enkephalin > [Cys(O2NH2)2,Met5]enkephalin > [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5]enkephalin. The ratio, IC50 in guinea pig ileum: IC50 in mouse vas deferens, indicating selectivity of the respective peptide for delta-opioid receptors, was extremely high for [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5]enkephalin and especially for the adrenergic component of the responses. This ratio for [Cys(O2NH2)2,Met5]enkephalin was higher than the ratios for dalargin, [Leu5]enkephalin and [Met5]enkephalin, which were about 3 orders of magnitude lower. The results suggest that incorporation of hydrophilic Cys(O2NH2) in the enkephalin molecule greatly increases the potency and selectivity of the analogues at delta-opioid receptors, while both D-Ala2 substitution and lengthening of the peptide chain by Arg6 in the molecule of [Leu5]enkephalin decrease them. PMID:8813590

  12. Autoradiographic comparison of the distribution of the neutral endopeptidase enkephalinase and of. mu. and delta opioid receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, G.; Hamel, E.; Fournie-Zaluski, M.C.; Roques, B.P.

    1986-03-01

    The neutral endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11, also designated enkephalinase, has been visualized by in vitro autoradiography using the tritiated inhibitor (/sup 3/H)-N-((2RS)-3-hydroxyaminocarbonyl-2-benzyl-1-oxopropyl)glycine, ((/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly). Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly corresponding to 85% of the total binding to brain slices was inhibited by 1 ..mu..M thiorphan, a selective inhibitor of enkephalinase, but remained unchanged in the presence of captopril, a selective inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Very high levels of (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly binding were found in the choroid plexus and the substantia nigra. High levels were present in the caudate putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord. The distribution of enkephalinase was compared to that of ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors, selectively labeled with (/sup 3/H)Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-glycinol and (/sup 3/H)Try-D-Thr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr, respectively. In the caudate putamen, (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly binding overlapped the clustered ..mu.. sites but appeared more closely related to the diffusely distributed delta sites. The association of enkephalinase with delta and ..mu.. opioid receptors in these areas is consistent with the observed role of the enzyme in regulating the effects of opioid peptides in striatal dopamine release and analgesia, respectively. Except for the choroid plexus and the cerebellum, the close similarity observed in numerous rat brain areas between the distribution of enkephalinase and that of ..mu.. and/ or delta opioid binding sites could account for most of the pharmacological effects elicited by enkephalinase inhibitors.

  13. Studies on mu and delta opioid receptor selectivity utilizing chimeric and site-mutagenized receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W W; Shahrestanifar, M; Jin, J; Howells, R D

    1995-01-01

    Opioid receptors are members of the guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor family. Three types of opioid receptors have been cloned and characterized and are referred to as the delta, kappa and mu types. Analysis of receptor chimeras and site-directed mutant receptors has provided a great deal of information about functionally important amino acid side chains that constitute the ligand-binding domains and G-protein-coupling domains of G-protein-coupled receptors. We have constructed delta/mu opioid receptor chimeras that were express in human embryonic kidney 293 cells in order to define receptor domains that are responsible for receptor type selectivity. All chimeric receptors and wild-type delta and mu opioid receptors displayed high-affinity binding of etorphine (an agonist), naloxone (an antagonist), and bremazocine (a mixed agonist/antagonist). In contrast, chimeras that lacked the putative first extracellular loop of the mu receptor did not bind the mu-selective peptide [D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO). Chimeras that lacked the putative third extracellular loop of the delta receptor did not bind the delta-selective peptide, [D-Ser2,D-Leu5]enkephalin-Thr (DSLET). Point mutations in the putative third extracellular loop of the wild-type delta receptor that converted vicinal arginine residues to glutamine abolished DSLET binding while not affecting bremazocine, etorphine, and naltrindole binding. We conclude that amino acids in the putative first extracellular loop of the mu receptor are critical for high-affinity DAMGO binding and that arginine residues in the putative third extracellular loop of the delta receptor are important for high-affinity DSLET binding. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8618916

  14. Dark chocolate receptors: epicatechin-induced cardiac protection is dependent on delta-opioid receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Mathivadhani; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Bonds, Jacqueline A; Horikawa, Yousuke T; Saldana, Michelle; Dalton, Nancy D; Head, Brian P; Patel, Piyush M; Roth, David M; Patel, Hemal H

    2010-11-01

    Epicatechin, a flavonoid, is a well-known antioxidant linked to a variety of protective effects in both humans and animals. In particular, its role in protection against cardiovascular disease has been demonstrated by epidemiologic studies. Low-dose epicatechin, which does not have significant antioxidant activity, is also protective; however, the mechanism by which low-dose epicatechin induces this effect is unknown. Our laboratory tested the hypothesis that low-dose epicatechin mediates cardiac protection via opioid receptor activation. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 10 groups: control, epicatechin, naloxone (nonselective opioid receptor antagonist), epicatechin + naloxone, naltrindole (δ-specific opioid receptor antagonist), epicatechin + naltrindole, norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI, κ-specific opioid receptor antagonist), epicatechin + nor-BNI, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid [5-HD, ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist], and epicatechin + 5-HD. Epicatechin (1 mg/kg) or other inhibitors (5 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage or intraperitoneal injection, respectively, daily for 10 days. Mice were subjected to 30 min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion, and infarct size was determined via planimetry. Whole heart homogenates were assayed for downstream opioid receptor signaling targets. Infarct size was significantly reduced in epicatechin- and epicatechin + nor-BNI-treated mice compared with control mice. This protection was blocked by naloxone, naltrindole, and 5-HD. Epicatechin and epicatechin + nor-BNI increased the phosphorylation of Src, Akt, and IκBα, while simultaneously decreasing the expression of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and caspase-activated DNase. All signaling effects are consistent with opioid receptor stimulation and subsequent cardiac protection. Naloxone, naltrindole, and 5-HD attenuated these effects. In conclusion, epicatechin acts via opioid receptors and more specifically through the δ-opioid receptor to produce cardiac protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:20833967

  15. Contribution of mu and delta opioid receptors to the pharmacological profile of kappa opioid receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Brissett, D.I.; Whistler, J.L.; van Rijn, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular cloning has identified three opioid receptors: mu (MOR), delta (DOR) and kappa (KOR). Yet, cloning of these receptor types has offered little clarification to the diverse pharmacological profiles seen within the growing number of novel opioid ligands, which has led to the proposal of multiple subtypes. In the present study, utilizing in vitro and in vivo methods including the use of opioid receptor knockout mice, we find that certain antinociceptive effects of the KOR-1 and KOR-2 subtype-selective ligands (+)-(5α,7α,8β)-N-Methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]-benzene-acetamide (U69, 593) and 4-[(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)acetyl]-3-(1-pyrrolidinylmethyl)-1-piperazine-carboxylic acid methyl ester fumarate (GR89, 696), respectively, are potentiated by antagonism of MOR and DOR receptors. We believe that our findings can be best explained by the existence of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. We only find evidence for the existence of these heteromers in neurons mediating mechanical nociception, but not thermal nociception. These findings have important clinical ramifications as they reveal new drug targets that may provide avenues for more effective pain therapies. PMID:22337177

  16. Interaction between the mu-agonist dermorphin and the delta-agonist [D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin in supraspinal antinociception and delta-opioid receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Negri, L.; Improta, G.; Lattanzi, R.; Potenza, R. L.; Luchetti, F.; Melchiorri, P.

    1995-01-01

    1. In rats, the interaction between the mu-opioid agonist dermorphin and the delta-opioid agonist [D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin was studied in binding experiments to delta-opioid receptors and in the antinociceptive test to radiant heat. 2. When injected i.c.v., doses of [D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin higher than 20 nmol produced antinociception in the rat tail-flick test to radiant heat. Lower doses were inactive. None of the doses tested elicited the maximum achievable response. This partial antinociception was accomplished with an in vivo occupancy of more than 97% of brain delta-opioid receptors and of 17% of mu-opioid receptors. Naloxone (0.1 mg kg-1, s.c.), and naloxonazine (10 mg kg-1, i.v., 24 h before), but not the selective delta-opioid antagonist naltrindole, antagonized the antinociception. 3. In vitro competitive inhibition studies in rat brain membranes showed that [D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin displaced [3H]-naltrindole from two delta-binding sites of high and low affinity. The addition of 100 microM Gpp[NH]p produced a three fold increase in the [D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin Ki value for both binding sites. The addition of 10 nM dermorphin increased the Ki value of the delta-agonist for the high affinity site five times. When Gpp[NH]p was added to the incubation medium together with 10 nM dermorphin, the high affinity Ki of the delta-agonist increased 15 times. 4. Co-administration into the rat brain ventricles of subanalgesic doses of dermorphin and [D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin resulted in synergistic antinociceptive responses. 5. Pretreatment with naloxone or with the non-equilibrium mu-antagonists naloxonazine and beta-funaltrexamine completely abolished the antinociceptive response of the mu-delta agonist combinations. 6. Pretreatment with the delta-opioid antagonists naltrindole and DALCE reduced the antinociceptive response of the dermorphin-[D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin combinations to a value near that observed after the mu-agonist alone. At the dosage used, naltrindole occupied more than 98% of brain delta-opioid receptors without affecting mu-opioid-receptors. 7. These data suggest that in the rat tail-flick test to radiant heat, mu- and delta-opioid agonists co-operate positively in evoking an antinociceptive response. Although interactions between different opioid pathways cannot be excluded, in vitro binding results indicate that this co-operative antinociception is probably mediated by co-activation of the delta-opioid receptors at the cellular level by the mu- and delta-agonist. PMID:8680727

  17. Comparison between delta-opioid receptor functional response and autoradiographic labeling in rat brain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Amynah Amir Ali; Clarke, Paul Brian Sydenham

    2005-01-24

    The distribution of delta-opioid receptors (DORs) in the rat central nervous system has been previously characterized by radioligand binding and immunohistochemistry. However, the functional neuroanatomy of DORs has not been mapped in any detail; this is potentially important, because these receptors appear to be primarily cytosolic. Opioid receptors can couple to G(i/o) G proteins, a process that is detected by agonist-stimulated [35S]guanylyl-5'-O-(gamma-thio)-triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the distribution of functional DORs, as assessed by [35S]GTPgammaS autoradiographic labeling in response to the DOR agonist deltorphin II. For comparison, adjacent sections were labeled with [125I]deltorphin II or the DOR antagonist [125I]AR-M100613. In all three assays, mu-opioid receptors were blocked pharmacologically. The distributions of [125I]deltorphin II and [125I]AR-M100613 were highly correlated but not identical. Deltorphin II increased [35S]GTPgammaS binding in a concentration-dependent and naltrindole-sensitive manner. The regional [35S]GTPgammaS response to deltorphin II was only moderately predicted by agonist or antagonist radioligand binding (r = 0.67 and 0.50, respectively). [35S]GTPgammaS responses to deltorphin II were strongest in the extended striatum (caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle) and cerebral cortex. In contrast, some areas reported to mediate DOR analgesia (brainstem, spinal cord) possessed a much lower [35S]GTPgammaS response. These findings demonstrate the existence of a partial mismatch between DOR radioligand binding and [35S]GTPgammaS response. This divergence possibly reflects regional heterogeneity in G-protein receptor coupling, or in the subcellular localization of DOR. PMID:15593339

  18. Activation of mu-opioid receptors in rat ventrolateral medulla selectively blocks baroreceptor reflexes while activation of delta opioid receptors blocks somato-sympathetic reflexes.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, T; Goodchild, A K; Pilowsky, P M

    2002-01-01

    The effects of activation of mu and delta-opioid receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on somato-sympathetic, baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes, as well as respiratory rhythmicity in sympathetic nerves, were examined in urethane anaesthetized (1.1-1.2 g/kg) and artificially ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats. Microinjection of the delta-opioid receptor agonist [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 8 mM, 50 nl) bilaterally into the RVLM potently inhibited the post-inspiratory-related burst discharges of lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) but had only limited effects on splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and phrenic nerve discharge. Injection of DPDPE into the RVLM strongly attenuated the somato-sympathetic reflex (approximately 50-80%) evoked in the lumbar sympathetic nerve and splanchnic sympathetic nerve by tibial nerve stimulation but had no effect on baroreceptor reflexes and chemoreceptor reflexes evoked by aortic nerve stimulation and brief hypoxia, respectively. Injection of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, [D-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO; 4 mM, 50 nl), also elicited a greater inhibition of LSNA than SSNA accompanied by an abolition of phrenic nerve discharge. Injection of DAMGO inhibited the baroreceptor reflex without significant effect on either the somato-sympathetic or the chemoreceptor reflexes. We propose that opioid peptides diminish specific excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the presympathetic neurons in RVLM via distinct presynaptic receptor subclasses. PMID:11784705

  19. Role of kappa and delta opioid receptors in mediating morphine-induced antinociception in morphine tolerant infant rats

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Dawn C.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Smith, Forrest L.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously noted that the antinociceptive efficacy of morphine was significantly decreased in rat pups chronically infused with morphine from implanted osmotic minipumps. In this study, morphine was fully efficacious (i.e., 100% maximum possible effect, %MPE) in the 52 ºC tail-immersion test after a 72-h infusion from implanted saline-filled osmotic minipumps. However, administration of up to 1000 mg/kg s.c. morphine failed to elicit greater than a 27% MPE in rats infused with morphine at 2 mg/kg/h. Morphine was more efficacious when the water bath temperature was decreased to 49 ºC. Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanisms whereby chronic morphine administration leads to a decrease in antinociceptive efficacy. The kappa-opioid antagonist nor-binalorphimine completely blocked the antinociceptive effects of morphine in morphine-infused rat pups. The kappa agonist U50,488 elicited antinociception however, the requirement to use higher doses in morphine- than saline-infused rats indicates that kappa cross-tolerance was present. Thus, in tolerant rats the antinociceptive effects of high doses of morphine appear to be mediated through kappa-opioid receptors. The delta-opioid antagonist naltrindole was inactive in both treatment groups. DAMGO-stimulated [35S]GTPγS and [3H]naloxone binding reveal that the anatomical distribution of the mu-opioid receptor was consistent with that of the adult rat brain. In adult rats, the mu-opioid receptor is desensitized during morphine tolerance. However, desensitization was not evident in P17 rats based on the lack of significant decreases in [35S]GTPγS binding. Furthermore, [3H]naloxone binding indicated a lack of mu receptor downregulation in morphine-tolerant rat pups. PMID:17300766

  20. Activation of peripheral delta opioid receptors eliminates cardiac electrical instability in a rat model of post-infarction cardiosclerosis via mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Maslov, L N; Lishmanov, Yu B; Solenkova, N V; Gross, G J; Stefano, G B; Tam, S W

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the selective delta-1 (delta(1)) opioid receptor agonist, DPDPE, and the selective delta(2) opioid receptor agonist, DSLET, have been studied on the ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) in rats with an experimental post-infarction cardiosclerosis (CS). It has been found that CS induced a significant decrease in VFT. This CS-induced decrease in VFT was significantly reversed by intravenous administration of DPDPE (0.1 mg/kg) 10 min before VFT measurement. On the contrary, intravenous injection of DSLET (0.5 mg/kg) exacerbated the CS-induced cardiac electrical instability. Pretreatment with the selective delta opioid receptor antagonist, ICI 174,864 (0.5 mg/kg), completely abolished the changes in VFT produced by both DPDPE and DSLET. Previous administration of a nonselective peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone methiodide (5 mg/kg) also completely reversed the antifibrillatory action of DPDPE. Naloxone methiodide and ICI 174,864 alone had no effect on VFT. Pretreatment with the nonselective K(ATP) channel blocker, glibenclamide (0.3 mg/kg), or with the mitochondrial selective K(ATP) channel blocker, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD, 5 mg/kg), completely abolished the DPDPE-induced increase in cardiac electrical stability. Glibenclamide and 5-HD alone had no effect on VFT. These results demonstrate that the delta opioid receptor plays an important role in the regulation of electrical stability in rats with post-infarction cardiosclerosis. We propose that peripheral delta(1) opioid receptor stimulation reverses CS-induced electrical instability via mitochondrial K(ATP) channels. On the contrary, delta(2) opioid receptor stimulation may exacerbate the CS-induced decrease in VFT. Further studies are necessary to determine the delta opioid receptor subtype which mediates the antifibrillatory effect of DPDPE and pro-fibrillatory effect of DSLET. PMID:12798419

  1. A mu-delta opioid receptor brain atlas reveals neuronal co-occurrence in subcortical networks.

    PubMed

    Erbs, Eric; Faget, Lauren; Scherrer, Gregory; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Vonesch, Jean-Luc; Koch, Marc; Kessler, Pascal; Hentsch, Didier; Birling, Marie-Christine; Koutsourakis, Manoussos; Vasseur, Laurent; Veinante, Pierre; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Massotte, Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Opioid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate brain function at all levels of neural integration, including autonomic, sensory, emotional and cognitive processing. Mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors functionally interact in vivo, but whether interactions occur at circuitry, cellular or molecular levels remains unsolved. To challenge the hypothesis of MOR/DOR heteromerization in the brain, we generated redMOR/greenDOR double knock-in mice and report dual receptor mapping throughout the nervous system. Data are organized as an interactive database offering an opioid receptor atlas with concomitant MOR/DOR visualization at subcellular resolution, accessible online. We also provide co-immunoprecipitation-based evidence for receptor heteromerization in these mice. In the forebrain, MOR and DOR are mainly detected in separate neurons, suggesting system-level interactions in high-order processing. In contrast, neuronal co-localization is detected in subcortical networks essential for survival involved in eating and sexual behaviors or perception and response to aversive stimuli. In addition, potential MOR/DOR intracellular interactions within the nociceptive pathway offer novel therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24623156

  2. Effects of DPDPE (a specific delta-opioid receptor agonist) and naloxone on hypothalamic monoamine concentrations during the pre-ovulatory LH surge in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, B; Gilmore, D P; Wilson, C A

    1998-11-01

    We have investigated the inter-relationship between the opioid and aminergic systems in the control of secretion of the pro-oestrous LH surge and the involvement of delta-opioid receptor subtypes in this process. Conscious female rats bearing a cannula in the femoral artery were injected i.p. with a selective delta-opioid receptor agonist (DPDPE) either alone or with the opioid antagonist (naloxone) at 1300 h on the day of pro-oestrus. Blood samples were collected hourly between 1500 h and 1900 h, and plasma LH levels were measured by RIA. At the end of this period (1900 h), the animals were autopsied and the concentrations of the amines (noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)) and their metabolites (dihydroxyphenolglycol (DHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), metabolites of NA and 5HT respectively) were determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection in the medial preoptic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, median eminence and arcuate nucleus. DPDPE abolished the LH surge and concomitantly decreased hypothalamic NA and DHPG concentrations in all the areas examined. The levels of DA, 5HT and 5HIAA were also reduced in all hypothalamic regions studied, except DA and 5HIAA in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Naloxone reversed these inhibitory effects of the delta-agonist. We conclude that activation of delta-opioid receptors may exert an inhibitory effect on LH release. The effect is probably an indirect one mediated by the monoaminergic systems, as they are suppressed by DPDPE in nearly all the hypothalamic regions studied. PMID:9849821

  3. Autoradiographic localization of delta opioid receptors within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system using radioiodinated (2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine)enkephalin ( sup 125 I-DPDPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, R.P.; Kalivas, P.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The enkephalin analog (2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine)enkephalin was radioiodinated (125I-DPDPE) and shown to retain a pharmacological selectivity characteristic of the delta opioid receptor in in vitro binding studies. The distributions of 125I-DPDPE binding, using in vitro autoradiographic techniques, were similar to those previously reported for the delta opioid receptor. The nucleus accumbens, striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex contain dense gradients of 125I-DPDPE binding in regions known to receive dopaminergic afferents emanating from the mesencephalic tegmentum. Selective chemical lesions of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra were employed to deduce the location of the 125I-DPDPE binding within particular regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Unilateral lesions of dopamine perikarya (A9 and A10) within the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra produced by mesencephalic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in significant (20-30%) increases in 125I-DPDPE binding contralateral to the lesion within the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Lesions of the perikarya (dopaminergic and nondopaminergic) of the ventral tegmental area, induced by quinolinic acid injections, caused increases of less magnitude within these same nuclei. No significant alterations in 125I-DPDPE binding were observed within the mesencephalon as a result of either treatment. The specificity of the lesions was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase. These results suggest that the enkephalins and opioid agonists acting through delta opioid receptors do not directly modulate dopaminergic afferents but do regulate postsynaptic targets of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system.

  4. Opioid Peptidomimetics: Leads for the Design of Bioavailable Mixed Efficacy Mu Opioid Receptor (MOR) Agonist/Delta Opioid Receptor (DOR) Antagonist Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Mosberg, Henry I.; Yeomans, Larisa; Harland, Aubrie A.; Bender, Aaron M.; Sobczyk-Kojiro, Katarzyna; Anand, Jessica P.; Clark, Mary J.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Traynor, John R.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously described opioid peptidomimetic, 1, employing a tetrahydroquinoline scaffold and modeled on a series of cyclic tetrapeptide opioid agonists. We have recently described modifications to these peptides that confer a mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonist, delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist profile, which has been shown to reduce the development of tolerance to the analgesic actions of MOR agonists. Several such bifunctional ligands have been reported, but none has been demonstrated to cross the blood brain barrier. Here we describe the transfer of structural features that evoked MOR agonist/DOR antagonist behavior in the cyclic peptides to the tetrahydroquinoline scaffold and show that the resulting peptidomimetics maintain the desired pharmacological profile. Further, the 4R diastereomer of 1 was fully efficacious and approximately equipotent to morphine in the mouse warm water tail withdrawal assay following intraperitoneal administration and thus a promising lead for the development of opioid analgesics with reduced tolerance. PMID:23419026

  5. Morphine stimulates cell migration of oral epithelial cells by delta-opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Charbaji, Nada; Schfer-Korting, Monika; Kchler, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of chemoradiation regimens and manifestation can be dose-limiting for the therapy, can impair the patient's nutritional condition and quality of life due to severe pain. The therapeutic options are limited; often only an alleviation of the symptoms such as pain reduction by using systemic opioids is possible. Stimulating opioid receptors on peripheral neurons and dermal tissue, potent analgesic effects are induced e.g. in skin grafted patients. Advantageous effects on the cell migration and, thus, on the wound healing process are described, too. In this study, we investigated whether opioid receptors are also expressed on oral epithelial cells and if morphine can modulate their cell migration behavior. The expression of the opioid receptors MOR, DOR and KOR on primary human oral epithelial cells was verified. Furthermore, a significantly accelerated cell migration was observed following incubation with morphine. The effect even slightly exceeded the cell migration stimulating effect of TGF-: After 14 h of morphine treatment about 86% of the wound area was closed, whereas TGF- application resulted in a closed wound area of 80%. With respect to morphine stimulated cell migration we demonstrate that DOR plays a key role and we show the involvement of the MAPK members Erk 1/2 and p38 using Western blot analysis.Further studies in more complex systems in vitro and in vivo are required. Nevertheless, these findings might open up a new therapeutic option for the treatment of oral mucositis. PMID:22900034

  6. Molecular characterization of eluxadoline as a potential ligand targeting mu-delta opioid receptor heteromers

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Wakako; Gomes, Ivone; Dove, Leonard S.; Prohaska, David; McIntyre, Gail; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    Eluxadoline, an orally active mixed μ opioid receptor (μOR) agonist δ opioid receptor (δOR) antagonist developed for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, normalizes gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation under conditions of novel environment stress or post-inflammatory altered GI function. Furthermore, compared to loperamide, which is used to treat non-specific diarrhea, the effects of eluxadoline on GI transit occur over a wider dosage range. However, the mechanisms of action of eluxadoline are unclear. In this study, we compared the ability of eluxadoline and loperamide to activate G-protein- and β-arrestin-mediated signaling at μOR homomers or μOR-δOR heteromers in heterologous cells. We also examined the ability of both compounds to reduce castor oil induced diarrhea in wild type (WT) and mice lacking δOR. We find that eluxadoline is more potent than loperamide in eliciting G-protein activity and β-arrestin recruitment in μOR expressing cells. However, in cells expressing μOR-δOR heteromers, the potency of eluxadoline is higher, but its maximal effect is lower than that of loperamide. Moreover, in these cells the signaling mediated by eluxadoline but not loperamide is reduced by μOR-δOR heteromer-selective antibodies. We find that in castor oil-induced diarrhea eluxadoline is more efficacious compared to loperamide in WT mice, and δOR appears to play a role in this process. Taken together these results indicate that eluxadoline behaves as a potent μOR agonist in the absence of δOR, while in the presence of δOR eluxadoline’s effects are mediated through the μOR-δOR heteromer. PMID:25261794

  7. Dopamine-opioid interactions in the rat striatum: a modulatory role for dopamine D1 receptors in delta opioid receptor-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Unterwald, E M; Cuntapay, M

    2000-01-28

    Dopaminergic and opioidergic systems interact in the striatum to modulate locomotor and motivated behaviors. The present study investigated the molecular interactions of these two systems by determining the role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the modulation of opioid receptor-mediated signal transduction. Male Fischer rats were injected daily for 10 days with either saline, the D1 receptor agonist SKF 82958, the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole, or both SKF 82958 and quinpirole. Administration of SKF 82958 alone or together with quinpirole attenuated the ability of the delta receptor agonist D-Pen2,D-Pen5-enkephalin (DPDPE) to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens. Quinpirole administration alone had no effect. The efficacy and potency of the mu opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity was unaltered following administration of either dopamine receptor agonist. Administration of SKF 82958 had no affect on delta receptor binding, forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, or G protein/adenylyl cyclase coupling. However, the ability of DPDPE to stimulate binding of [35S]GTPgammaS to inhibitory G proteins was attenuated in animals that received SKF 82958. These results suggest that repeated activation of D1 receptors attenuates the functional coupling of delta opioid receptors with adenylyl cyclase due to decreased coupling between delta receptors and G proteins. PMID:10698003

  8. Cellular localization and adaptive changes of the cardiac delta opioid receptor system in an experimental model of heart failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Treskatsch, Sascha; Feldheiser, Aarne; Shaqura, Mohammed; Dehe, Lukas; Habazettl, Helmut; Röpke, Torsten K; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Schäfer, Michael; Spies, Claudia D; Mousa, Shaaban A

    2016-02-01

    The role of the cardiac opioid system in congestive heart failure (CHF) is not fully understood. Therefore, this project investigated the cellular localization of delta opioid receptors (DOR) in left ventricle (LV) myocardium and adaptive changes in DOR and its endogenous ligand, the precursor peptide proenkephalin (PENK), during CHF. Following IRB approval, DOR localization was determined by radioligand binding using [H(3)]Naltrindole and by double immunofluorescence confocal analysis in the LV of male Wistar rats. Additionally, 28 days following an infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF) the extent of CHF and adaptions in left ventricular DOR and PENK expression were examined by hemodynamic measurements, RT-PCR, and Western blot. DOR specific membrane binding sites were identified in LV myocardium. DOR were colocalized with L-type Ca(2+)-channels (Cav1.2) as well as with intracellular ryanodine receptors (RyR) of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum. Following ACF severe congestive heart failure developed in all rats and was accompanied by up-regulation of DOR and PENK on mRNA as well as receptor proteins representing consecutive adaptations. These findings might suggest that the cardiac delta opioid system possesses the ability to play a regulatory role in the cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis, especially in response to heart failure. PMID:25552382

  9. Quantification of delta-opioid receptors in human brain with N1'-([11C]methyl) naltrindole and positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Smith, J S; Zubieta, J K; Price, J C; Flesher, J E; Madar, I; Lever, J R; Kinter, C M; Dannals, R F; Frost, J J

    1999-09-01

    The regional binding of N1'-([11C]methyl)naltrindole (MeNTI), a selective delta-opioid antagonist, was studied in healthy human subjects with positron emission tomography (PET). After the bolus intravenous administration of high specific activity [11C]MeNTI, PET was performed over 90 minutes. Arterial plasma samples were obtained during the scanning period and assayed for the presence of radiolabeled metabolites. The data were analyzed with various kinetic (two- and three-compartment models, Patlak graphical analysis) and nonkinetic (apparent volume of distribution and activity at a late scanning time) approaches. This tracer showed irreversible binding characteristics during the scanning period used. The results of the analyses also were compared with the density and distribution of delta-opioid receptors in the human brain in vitro. Additionally, computer simulations were performed to assess the effects of changes in receptor binding and tracer transport changes on the perceived binding parameters obtained with the models. A constrained three-compartment kinetic model was demonstrated to be superior to other quantification models for the description of MeNTI kinetics and quantification of delta receptor binding in the human brain with 11C-labeled MeNTI. PMID:10478647

  10. Discrete mapping of brain Mu and delta opioid receptors using selective peptides: Quantitative autoradiography, species differences and comparison with kappa receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, N.A.; Hughes, J. )

    1989-05-01

    The opioid peptides, (3H)DAGO and (3H)DPDPE, bound to rat and guinea pig brain homogenates with a high, nanomolar affinity and to a high density of mu and delta receptors, respectively. (3H)DAGO binding to mu receptors was competitively inhibited by unlabelled opioids with the following rank order of potency: DAGO greater than morphine greater than DADLE greater than naloxone greater than etorphine much greater than U50488 much greater than DPDPE. In contrast, (3H)DPDPE binding to delta receptors was inhibited by compounds with the following rank order of potency: DPDPE greater than DADLE greater than etorphine greater than dynorphin(1-8) greater than naloxone much greater than U50488 much greater than DAGO. These profiles were consistent with specific labelling of the mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively. In vitro autoradiographic techniques coupled with computer-assisted image analyses revealed a discrete but differential anatomical localization of mu and delta receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain. In general, mu and delta receptor density in the rat exceeded that in the guinea pig brain and differed markedly from that of kappa receptors in these species. However, while mu receptors were distributed throughout the brain with hotspots in the fore-, mid- and hindbrain of the two rodents, the delta sites were relatively diffusely distributed, and were mainly concentrated in the forebrain with particularly high levels within the olfactory bulb (OB), n. accumbens and striatum. Notable regions of high density of mu receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain were the accessory olfactory bulb, striatal patches and streaks, amygdaloid nuclei, ventral hippocampal subiculum and dentate gyrus, numerous thalamic nuclei, geniculate bodies, central grey, superior and inferior colliculi, solitary and pontine nuclei and s. nigra.

  11. [D-Ala2]deltorphin I binding and pharmacological evidence for a special subtype of delta opioid receptor on human and invertebrate immune cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, G B; Melchiorri, P; Negri, L; Hughes, T K; Scharrer, B

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the opioid neuropeptide [D-Ala2]deltorphin I, isolated from amphibian skin, on immunoregulatory activities were studied in representatives of vertebrates and invertebrates. The high potency of this compound parallels that of [Met]enkephalin, which was previously demonstrated in vertebrate plasma and invertebrate hemolymph. The addition of [D-Ala2]deltorphin I at 10(-11) M to human granulocytes or immunocytes of the mollusc Mytilus edulis resulted in cellular adherence and conformational changes indicative of cellular activation. This value is in line with the concentrations obtained with [Met]enkephalin, tested in the presence of the specific neutral endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor phosphoramidon, and this opioid's synthetic analog [D-Ala2, Met5]enkephalin which, like [D-Ala2]deltorphin I, is resistant to proteolytic degradation. Both ligands appear to be acting on the same population of immunocytes. The same relationship was estimated to exist in the insect Leucophaea maderae, in which the high viscosity of the hemolymph makes the quantification of reactive cells more difficult than in Mytilus. In addition, [D-Ala2]deltorphin I is as potent as beta-endorphin in affecting the proliferation of lymphocytes in response to mitogen. Saturation experiments with unlabeled ligands and the radioligands [3H][D-Ala2]deltorphin I and [3H][D-Ala2,Met5]enkephalinamide revealed the presence of two high-affinity binding sites on human granulocytes, one sensitive to the nonequilibrium delta opioid antagonist [D-Ala2,Leu5,Cys6]enkephalinamide and the other relatively insensitive. The results obtained with [D-Ala2]deltorphin I support the view that the special role played by endogenous [Met]enkephalin in immunobiological activities of vertebrates and invertebrates is mediated by a special subtype of delta opioid receptor. PMID:1329092

  12. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays reveal ligand-specific conformational changes within preformed signaling complexes containing delta-opioid receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins.

    PubMed

    Audet, Nicolas; Gals, Cline; Archer-Lahlou, Elodie; Vallires, Marc; Schiller, Peter W; Bouvier, Michel; Pineyro, Graciela

    2008-05-30

    Heptahelical receptors communicate extracellular information to the cytosolic compartment by binding an extensive variety of ligands. They do so through conformational changes that propagate to intracellular signaling partners as the receptor switches from a resting to an active conformation. This active state has been classically considered unique and responsible for regulation of all signaling pathways controlled by a receptor. However, recent functional studies have challenged this notion and called for a paradigm where receptors would exist in more than one signaling conformation. This study used bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays in combination with ligands of different functional profiles to provide in vivo physical evidence of conformational diversity of delta-opioid receptors (DORs). DORs and alpha(i1)beta(1)gamma(2) G protein subunits were tagged with Luc or green fluorescent protein to produce bioluminescence resonance energy transfer pairs that allowed monitoring DOR-G protein interactions from different vantage points. Results showed that DORs and heterotrimeric G proteins formed a constitutive complex that underwent structural reorganization upon ligand binding. Conformational rearrangements could not be explained by a two-state model, supporting the idea that DORs adopt ligand-specific conformations. In addition, conformational diversity encoded by the receptor was conveyed to the interaction among heterotrimeric subunits. The existence of multiple active receptor states has implications for the way we conceive specificity of signal transduction. PMID:18381293

  13. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  14. Interaction between Mu and Delta Opioid Receptor Agonists in an Assay of Capsaicin-Induced Thermal Allodynia in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Negus, S. Stevens; Morrissey, Ember M.; Folk, John E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    Delta opioid agonists enhance antinociceptive effects of mu-opioid agonists in many preclinical assays of acute nociception, but delta/mu interactions in preclinical models of inflammation-associated pain have not been examined. This study examined interactions between the delta agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[(αR)-α-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] and the mu agonist analgesics methadone, morphine, and nalbuphine in an assay of capsaicin-induced thermal allodynia in rhesus monkeys. Thermal allodynia was produced by topical application of capsaicin to the tail. Antiallodynic effects of methadone, morphine, and nalbuphine were evaluated alone or in combination with fixed proportions of SNC80 identical to proportions previously shown to enhance acute thermal antinociceptive effects of these mu agonists in rhesus monkeys (0.9 : 1 SNC80/methadone; 0.29 : 1 SNC80/morphine; 3.6 : 1 SNC80/nalbuphine). Methadone, morphine, and nalbuphine each produced dose-dependent antiallodynia. SNC80 produced partial antiallodynia up to the highest dose tested (5.6 mg/kg). SNC80 produced a modest, enantioselective, and naltrindole-reversible enhancement of methadone-induced antiallodynia. However, SNC80 did not enhance morphine antiallodynia and only weakly enhanced nalbuphine antiallodynia. Overall, SNC80 produced modest or no enhancement of the antiallodynic effects of the three mu agonists evaluated. These results suggest that delta agonist-induced enhancement of mu agonist antiallodynia may be weaker and less reliable than previously demonstrated enhancement of mu agonist acute thermal nociception. PMID:22666579

  15. Synergistic activity between the delta-opioid agonist SNC80 and amphetamine occurs via a glutamatergic NMDA-receptor dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Kelly E.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Schultz, Kristin N.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Gnegy, Margaret E.; Traynor, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is known to cause the release of dopamine through a Ca2+-sensitive mechanism that involves activation of NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the delta opioid agonist SNC80 acts indirectly, via the glutamatergic system, to enhance both amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux from striatal preparations and amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity. SNC80 increased extracellular glutamate content, which was accompanied by a concurrent decrease in GABA levels. Inhibition of NMDA signaling with the selective antagonist MK801 blocked the enhancement of both amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux and hyperlocomotion observed with SNC80 pretreatment. Addition of exogenous glutamate also potentiated amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux in a Mg2+- and MK801-sensitive manner. After removal of Mg2+ to relieve the ion conductance inhibition of NMDA receptors, SNC80 both elicited dopamine release alone and produced a greater enhancement of amphetamine-evoked dopamine efflux. The action of SNC80 to enhance amphetamine-evoked dopamine efflux was mimicked by the GABAB antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen. These cumulative findings suggest SNC80 modulates amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux through an intra-striatal mechanism involving inhibition of GABA transmission leading to the local release of glutamate followed by subsequent activation of NMDA receptors. PMID:24035916

  16. Control of the efficiency of agonist-induced information transfer and stability of the ternary complex containing the delta opioid receptor and the alpha subunit of G(i1) by mutation of a receptor/G protein contact interface.

    PubMed

    Moon, H E; Bahia, D S; Cavalli, A; Hoffmann, M; Milligan, G

    2001-09-01

    Fusion proteins were constructed between the delta opioid receptor and forms of the alpha subunit of G(i1) in which cysteine(351) was mutated to a range of amino acids. GDP reduced the binding of the agonist [(3)H]DADLE but not the antagonist [(3)H]naltrindole to both the receptor alone and all the delta opioid receptor-Cys(351)XaaG(i1)alpha fusion proteins. For the fusion proteins the pEC(50) for GDP was strongly correlated with the n-octanol/H(2)O partition co-efficient of G protein residue(351). Fusion proteins in which this residue was either isoleucine or glycine had similar observed binding kinetics for [(3)H]DADLE. However, the rate of dissociation of [(3)H]DADLE was substantially greater for the glycine-containing fusion protein than that containing isoleucine, indicating that more hydrophobic residues imbued greater stability to the agonist-receptor-G protein ternary complex. This resulted in a higher affinity of binding of [(3)H]DADLE to the fusion protein containing isoleucine(351). In expectation with the binding data, maximal DADLE-stimulated GTP hydrolysis by the isoleucine(351)-containing fusion protein was two-fold greater and the potency of DADLE seven-fold higher than for the version containing glycine. These results demonstrate that the stability of the ternary complex between delta opioid receptor, G(i1)alpha and an agonist (but not antagonist) ligand is dependent upon the nature of residue(351) of the G protein and that this determines the effectiveness of information flow from the receptor to the G protein. PMID:11522323

  17. CO-EXPRESSION OF ALPHA-2A-ADRENERGIC AND DELTA-OPIOID RECEPTORS IN SUBSTANCE P TERMINALS IN RAT DORSAL HORN

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Maureen S.; Schnell, Stephen A.; Overland, Aaron C.; Chabot-Doré, Anne-Julie; Taylor, Anna M.; Ribeiro-Da-Silva, Alfredo; Elde, Robert P.; Wilcox, George L.; Stone, Laura S.

    2009-01-01

    Agonists acting at α2-adrenergic and opioid receptors (α2ARs and ORs, respectively) inhibit pain transmission in the spinal cord. When co-administered, agonists activating these receptors interact in a synergistic manner. Although the existence of α2AR/OR synergy has been well characterized, its mechanism remains poorly understood. The formation of hetero-oligomers has been proposed as a molecular basis for interactions between neuronal G-protein-coupled receptors. The relevance of hetero-oligomer formation to spinal analgesic synergy requires demonstration of the expression of both receptors within the same neuron as well as the localization of both receptors in the same neuronal compartment. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the spatial relationship between α2ARs and ORs in the rat spinal cord to determine if co-expression could be demonstrated between these receptors. We observed extensive co-localization between α2A-adrenergic and delta-opioid receptors (DOP) on substance P (SP)-immunoreactive (ir) varicosities in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord and in peripheral nerve terminals in the skin. α2AAR- and DOP-ir elements were co-localized in subcellular structures of 0.5 μm or less in diameter in isolated nerve terminals. Furthermore, co-incubation of isolated synaptosomes with α2AR and DOP agonists resulted in a greater-than-additive increase in the inhibition of K+-stimulated neuropeptide release. These findings suggest that co-expression of the synergistic receptor pair α2AAR-DOP on primary afferent nociceptive fibers may represent an anatomical substrate for analgesic synergy, perhaps due to protein-protein interactions such as hetero-oligomerization. PMID:19180644

  18. Preparation and Evaluation at the Delta Opioid Receptor of a Series of Linear Leu-Enkephalin Analogues Obtained by Systematic Replacement of the Amides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leu-enkephalin analogues, in which the amide bonds were sequentially and systematically replaced either by ester or N-methyl amide bonds, were prepared using classical organic chemistry as well as solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The peptidomimetics were characterized using competition binding, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, receptor internalization, and contractility assays to evaluate their pharmacological profile over the delta opioid receptor (DOPr). The lipophilicity (LogD7.4) and plasma stability of the active analogues were also measured. Our results revealed that the last amide bond can be successfully replaced by either an ester or an N-methyl amide bond without significantly decreasing the biological activity of the corresponding analogues when compared to Leu-enkephalin. The peptidomimetics with an N-methyl amide function between residues Phe and Leu were found to be more lipophilic and more stable than Leu-enkephalin. Findings from the present study further revealed that the hydrogen-bond donor properties of the fourth amide of Leu-enkephalin are not important for its biological activity on DOPr. Our results show that the systematic replacement of amide bonds by isosteric functions represents an efficient way to design and synthesize novel peptide analogues with enhanced stability. Our findings further suggest that such a strategy can also be useful to study the biological roles of amide bonds. PMID:23650868

  19. (D-Pen2,4 prime -125I-Phe4,D-Pen5)enkephalin: A selective high affinity radioligand for delta opioid receptors with exceptional specific activity

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.J.; Sharma, S.D.; Toth, G.; Duong, M.T.; Fang, L.; Bogert, C.L.; Weber, S.J.; Hunt, M.; Davis, T.P.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1991-09-01

    (D-Pen2,4{prime}-125I-Phe4,D-Pen5)enkephalin ((125I)DPDPE) is a highly selective radioligand for the delta opioid receptor with a specific activity (2200 Ci/mmol) that is over 50-fold greater than that of tritium-labeled DPDPE analogs. (125I)DPDPE binds to a single site in rat brain membranes with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) value of 421 {plus minus} 67 pM and a receptor density (Bmax) value of 36.4 {plus minus} 2.7 fmol/mg protein. The high affinity of this site for delta opioid receptor ligands and its low affinity for mu or kappa receptor-selective ligands are consistent with its being a delta opioid receptor. The distribution of these sites in rat brain, observed by receptor autoradiography, is also consistent with that of delta opioid receptors. Association and dissociation binding kinetics of 1.0 nM (125I) DPDPE are monophasic at 25 degrees C. The association rate (k + 1 = 5.80 {plus minus} 0.88 {times} 10(7) M-1 min-1) is about 20- and 7-fold greater than that measured for 1.0 nM (3H) DPDPE and 0.8 nM (3H) (D-Pen2,4{prime}-Cl-Phe4, D-Pen5)enkephalin, respectively. The dissociation rate of (125I)DPDPE (0.917 {plus minus} 0.117 {times} 10(-2) min-1) measured at 1.0 nM is about 3-fold faster than is observed for either of the other DPDPE analogs. The rapid binding kinetics of (125I)DPDPE is advantageous because binding equilibrium is achieved with much shorter incubation times than are required for other cyclic enkephalin analogs. This, in addition to its much higher specific activity, makes (125I)DPDPE a valuable new radioligand for studies of delta opioid receptors.

  20. Chromosomal localization of the [delta] opioid receptor gene to human 1p34. 3-36. 1 and mouse 4D bands by in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Befort, K.; Kieffer, B. ); Mattei, M.G.; Roeckel, N. )

    1994-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the precise localization of this gene in the murine as well as human genome by in situ hybridization. Southern analysis, using the noncoding part of the cDNA as a probe (NotI-BamHI fragment, 1040 bp) under high-stringency conditions, shows the existence of a single-copy gene in the murine genome. In a similar analysis performed on human genomic DNA, the coding part of the cDNA (PstI-NotI fragment, 976 bp) clearly detected a single gene in the human genome (not shown). The authors therefore used these two probes for the chromosomal localization of the murine gene and its human counterpart, respectively. Chromosome spread preparations from concanavalin A (mouse) or phytohemagglutinin (human)-stimulated lymphocytes were hybridized with tritium-labeled cDNAs, exposed for 15 days, and developed, as described previously. For the murine assignment, a total of 100 metaphase cells were examined, and 149 silver grains were found. Forty-two grains were associated with chromosome 4, and 73.8% of them mapped to the D1-D3 region of the chromosome. In the 120 metaphase human cells analyzed, 197 silver grains were found, 25.8% of which were located on chromosome 1. The distribution of grains allowed mapping of the human [delta] opioid receptor gene to the p34.3-p36.1 region of the short arm with a maximum in the p35 band.

  1. Expression of delta opioid receptor mRNA and protein in the rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum is decreased by growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Persson, Anders I; Aberg, N David; Oscarsson, Jan; Isaksson, Olle G P; Rönnbäck, Lars; Frick, Fredrik; Sonesson, Christian; Eriksson, Peter S

    2003-02-15

    Hormones released from the pituitary have been shown to regulate the expression of different proteins in the central nervous system. We wanted to examine whether peripheral administration of bovine growth hormone (bGH) regulates the expression of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Expression of the DOR protein was quantified using Western blot densitometry. DOR mRNA was quantified with a solution hybridization RNase protection assay. Hypophysectomized (Hx) and untreated normal female rats were included in the study. All Hx rats were hormonally treated with cortisol (400 microg/kg/day) and L-thyroxine (10 microg/kg/day) for 19 days. Hypophysectomy resulted in a threefold increase in cerebral cortex and a twofold increase in cerebellum of the DOR protein compared with normal rats. One subgroup of Hx rats received bGH (1 mg/kg body weight) as a daily subcutaneous injection for 19 days. This treatment normalized the levels of DOR protein in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Immunohistochemical experiments showed that GH decreased DOR expression especially in layers II-VI in cerebral cortex and in stratum moleculare in cerebellum. Quantification of DOR mRNA by solution hybridization RNase protection assay corresponded to the DOR protein measurements. We conclude that the expression of DORs in cerebral cortex and cerebellum is regulated by GH. PMID:12548705

  2. Delta-Opioid Receptor (δOR) Targeted Near-Infrared Fluorescent Agent for Imaging of Lung Cancer: Synthesis and Evaluation In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Allison S; Patek, Renata; Enkemann, Steven A; Johnson, Joseph O; Chen, Tingan; Toloza, Eric; Vagner, Josef; Morse, David L

    2016-02-17

    In the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and ranks second in the number of new cases annually among all types of cancers. Better methods or tools for diagnosing and treating this disease are needed to improve patient outcomes. The delta-opioid receptor (δOR) is reported to be overexpressed in lung cancers and not expressed in normal lung. Thus, we decided to develop a lung cancer-specific imaging agent targeting this receptor. We have previously developed a δOR-targeted fluorescent imaging agent based on a synthetic peptide antagonist (Dmt-Tic) conjugated to a Cy5 fluorescent dye. In this work, we describe the synthesis of Dmt-Tic conjugated to a longer wavelength near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye, Li-cor IR800CW. Binding affinity of Dmt-Tic-IR800 for the δOR was studied using lanthanide time-resolved fluorescence (LTRF) competitive binding assays in cells engineered to overexpress the δOR. In addition, we identified lung cancer cell lines with high and low endogenous expression of the δOR. We confirmed protein expression in these cell lines using confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging and used this technique to estimate the cell-surface receptor number in the endogenously expressing lung cancer cell lines. The selectivity of Dmt-Tic-IR800 for imaging of the δOR in vivo was shown using both engineered cell lines and endogenously expressing lung cancer cells in subcutaneous xenograft models in mice. In conclusion, the δOR-specific fluorescent probe developed in this study displays excellent potential for imaging of lung cancer. PMID:26488422

  3. Effects of the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole on antinociceptive responses to selective delta-agonists in post-weanling rats.

    PubMed Central

    Crook, T. J.; Kitchen, I.; Hill, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    1. Antagonism, by the selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole, of the antinociceptive effects of [D-Pen2, D-Pen5] enkephalin (DPDPE), [D-Ser2, Leu5, Thr6] enkephalin (DSLET) and D-Ala2 deltorphin I (DELT I) has been studied in 25 day old rats. 2. Antinociception was measured by the 50 degrees C tail immersion test following i.p. administration of agonists and/or antagonists. 3. Dose-related antinociception was observed with DPDPE, DSLET and DELT I and ED75 doses were computed (0.66 mg kg-1, 0.65 mg kg-1, 0.032 mg kg-1 respectively) and used for antagonism studies. 4. Naltrindole (0.01 mg kg-1) significantly attenuated the antinociceptive effects of DPDPE and DSLET with 0.1 mg kg-1 producing complete reversal of the effects of the ED75 dose. In contrast, naltrindole at 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg-1 did not alter antinociceptive responses to DELT I. Naltrindole at 1 mg kg-1 significantly attenuated DELT I antinociception. 5. Naloxone (1 mg kg-1) produced equivalent degrees of antagonism of the antinociceptive effects of DPDPE, DSLET and DELT I. ICI 174,864 (1 mg kg-1) also antagonized antinociception with a differential degree of attenuation (DSLET > DPDPE > DELT I). 6. Naltrindole (1 mg kg-1) had no effect on the antinociception induced by the selective mu-agonist alfentanil (60 micrograms kg-1). Naltrindole, naloxone or ICI 174,864 had no effect on nociceptive latencies. 7. The differential antagonism by naltrindole of the effects of three selective delta-agonists suggests delta-receptor heterogeneity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1330187

  4. Activation of peripheral kappa/delta opioid receptors mediates 15-deoxy-(Delta12,14)-prostaglandin J2 induced-antinociception in rat temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Pena-dos-Santos, D R; Severino, F P; Pereira, S A L; Rodrigues, D B R; Cunha, F Q; Vieira, S M; Napimoga, M H; Clemente-Napimoga, J T

    2009-11-10

    This study assessed the effect of the agonist 15d-PGJ(2) administered into the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on nociceptive behavioral and the anti-inflammatory potential of this prostaglandin on TMJ. It was observed that 15-deoxy-(Delta12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) significantly reduced formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in a dose dependent manner, however injection of 15d-PGJ(2) into the contralateral TMJ failed to reduce such effects. This antinociceptive effect is dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma (PPAR-gamma) since pre-treatment with GW9662 (PPAR-gamma receptor antagonist) blocked the antinociceptive effect of 15d-PGJ(2) in the TMJ. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of 15d-PGJ(2) was also blocked by naloxone suggesting the involvement of peripheral opioids in the process. Confirming this hypothesis pre-treatment with kappa, delta, but not mu receptor antagonists significantly reduced the antinociceptive effect of 15d-PGJ(2) in the TMJ. Similarly to opioid agonists, the 15d-PGJ(2) antinociceptive action depends on the nitric oxide (NO)/guanilate cyclase (cGMP)/ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker(K(+)(ATP)) channel pathway since it was prevented by the pre-treatment with the inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS; aminoguanidine), cGMP (ODQ), or the K(+)(ATP) (glibenclamide). In addition, 15d-PGJ(2) (100 ng/TMJ) inhibits 5-HT-induced TMJ hypernociception. Besides, TMJ treated with 15d-PGJ(2) showed lower vascular permeability, assessed by Evan's Blue extravasation, and also lower neutrophil migration induced by carrageenan administration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 15d-PGJ(2) has a potential peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect in the TMJ via PPAR-gamma activation. The results also suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) induced-peripheral antinociceptive response in the TMJ is mediated by kappa/delta opioid receptors by the activation of the intracellular l-arginine/NO/cGMP/K(+)(ATP) channel pathway. The pharmacological properties of the peripheral administration of 15d-PGJ(2) highlight the potential use of this PPAR-gamma agonist on TMJ inflammatory pain conditions. PMID:19647045

  5. Involvement of mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the effects of systemic and locally perfused morphine on extracellular levels of dopamine, DOPAC and HVA in the nucleus accumbens of the halothane-anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Borg, P J; Taylor, D A

    1997-05-01

    The effects of systemic and intra-accumbens infusion of morphine on the extracellular level of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, DOPAC and HVA, were investigated in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of halothane-anaesthetized rats using in vivo microdialysis. Morphine in a dose of 1 or 5 mg/kg i.v. produced a significant increase (60-100% of baseline levels) in the extracellular level of DA for at least 3 h. Morphine at 5, but not 1 mg/kg, produced a small (10-15%) but significant reduction in the level of DOPAC when compared with saline in the first h following injection. Pretreatment with the preferential mu-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone in a dose of 1 or 3 mg/kg i.p. significantly blocked the morphine-induced changes in the extracellular levels of DA and DOPAC. Pretreatment with the selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole, at 1 mg/kg i.p. blocked only the morphine-induced decrease in DA metabolism. Furthermore, in the presence of naltrindole, systemic morphine induced a large and long-lasting increase in the level of DOPAC and HVA, which was significantly higher than in rats receiving combinations of saline/water + saline, saline/water + morphine and naltrindole + saline. When applied directly into the NAcc, morphine at concentrations of 125, 250 and 500 ng infused over 10 min produced a dose-related increase in the extracellular level of accumbens DA with either no effect or a small reduction in the level of DOPAC and HVA. The effects of intra-accumbens morphine on DA levels were significantly blocked by pretreatment with i.p. naltrindole but not naloxone. These results indicate that, while systemic morphine probably increases DA via activation of mu-opioid receptors, local perfusion of morphine increases DA in the NAcc via activation of delta-opioid receptors located in the NAcc. Furthermore, under the conditions of the study, it appears that activation of mu- and delta-opioid receptors by morphine respectively increases and decreases DA metabolism. PMID:9151296

  6. ( sup 3 H)(D-PEN sup 2 , D-PEN sup 5 ) enkephalin binding to delta opioid receptors on intact neuroblastoma-glioma (NG 108-15) hybrid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.J.; Yamamura, H.I. )

    1990-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5})enkephalin binding to intact NG 108-15 cells has been measured under physiological conditions of temperature and medium. The dissociation constant, receptor density, and Hill slope values measured under these conditions are consistent with values obtained by others using membranes prepared from these cells. Kinetic analysis of the radioligand binding to these cells show biphasic association and monophasic dissociation processes suggesting the presence of different receptor affinity states for the agonist. The data show that the binding affinity of ({sup 3}H)(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5})enkephalin under physiological conditions is not substantially different to that measured in 50 mM Tris buffer using cell membrane fractions. Unlike DPDPE, the {mu} opioid agonists morphine, normorphine, PL-17, and DAMGO, have much lower affinity for the {delta} receptor measured under these conditions than is observed by studies using 50 mM Tris buffer. The results described here suggest that this assay may serve as a useful model of {delta} opioid receptor binding in vivo.

  7. Comparison of transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis and drug-induced endocytosis in human neonatal and adult RBCs.

    PubMed

    Thatte, H S; Schrier, S L

    1988-11-01

    Neonatal RBCs can undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis; normal adult RBCs cannot. Previously, we showed that drug-induced endocytosis, which can occur in adult RBCs exposed to amphipathic cations like primaquine, is greatly enhanced in all density-defined fractions of neonatal RBCs. To investigate the similarities and differences between receptor-mediated endocytosis and drug-induced endocytosis, we characterized transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis in neonatal RBCs and compared it with drug-induced endocytosis. Primaquine drug-induced endocytosis is dependent on RBC ATP levels, is invariably preceded by stomatocytosis, and is inhibited by vanadate. In contrast, receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin is not preceded by stomatocytosis, is not nearly so dependent on ATP levels as is drug-induced endocytosis, and is not inhibited by vanadate. Furthermore, receptor-mediated endocytosis is quantitatively blocked by preincubation of neonatal RBCs with sodium cyanide, whereas cyanide does not inhibit drug-induced endocytosis in either adult or neonatal RBCs. Morphologic observation of the neonatal RBCs established the fact that only puckered RBCs that exhibited brilliant cresyl blue staining reticulum were capable of undergoing receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin. These characteristics identify them as motile R-1 reticulocytes. Reticulocytes in normal adult RBCs were incapable of exhibiting this phenomenon. Thus, receptor-mediated endocytosis, a property of motile reticulocytes in neonatal RBCs, differs from drug-induced endocytosis in its energy requirements, response to inhibitors, and morphologic concomitants. PMID:3179445

  8. Modulation of MDMA-induced behavioral and transcriptional effects by the delta opioid antagonist naltrindole in mice

    PubMed Central

    Belkaï, Emilie; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Noble, Florence; Marie-Claire, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The delta opioid system is involved in the behavioral effects of various drugs of abuse. However, only few studies have focused on the possible interactions between the opioid system and the effects of MDMA. In order to examine the possible role of the delta opioid system in MDMA-induced behaviors in mice, locomotor activity and conditioned place preference were investigated in the presence of naltrindole, a selective delta opioid antagonist. Moreover, the consequences of acute and chronic MDMA administration on Penk (pro-enkephalin) and Pomc (pro-opioimelanocortin) gene expression were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that, after acute MDMA administration (9mg/kg; i.p.), naltrindole (5mg/kg, s.c.) was able to totally block MDMA-induced hyperlocomotion. Penk expression gene was not modulated by acute MDMA but a decrease of Pomc gene expression was observed that was not antagonized by naltrindole. Administration of the antagonist prevented the acquisition of MDMA-induced conditioned place preference, suggesting an implication of the delta opioid receptors in this behavior. Following chronic MDMA treatment only the level of Pomc was modulated. The observed increase was totally blocked by naltrindole pretreatment. All these results confirm the interactions between the delta opioid system (receptors and peptides) and the effects of MDMA. PMID:19523041

  9. Receptor-mediated Endocytosis in the Caenorhabditis elegans Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Barth; Hirsh, David

    1999-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte is a highly amenable system for forward and reverse genetic analysis of receptor-mediated endocytosis. We describe the use of transgenic strains expressing a vitellogenin::green fluorescent protein (YP170::GFP) fusion to monitor yolk endocytosis by the C. elegans oocyte in vivo. This YP170::GFP reporter was used to assay the functions of C. elegans predicted proteins homologous to vertebrate endocytosis factors using RNA-mediated interference. We show that the basic components and pathways of endocytic trafficking are conserved between C. elegans and vertebrates, and that this system can be used to test the endocytic functions of any new gene. We also used the YP170::GFP assay to identify rme (receptor-mediated endocytosis) mutants. We describe a new member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily, RME-2, identified in our screens for endocytosis defective mutants. We show that RME-2 is the C. elegans yolk receptor. PMID:10588660

  10. Differential stereochemical requirements of mu vs. delta opioid receptors for ligand binding and signal transduction: development of a class of potent and highly delta-selective peptide antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, P W; Nguyen, T M; Weltrowska, G; Wilkes, B C; Marsden, B J; Lemieux, C; Chung, N N

    1992-01-01

    Opioid peptide analogs consisting entirely of aromatic amino acid residues and containing conformationally restricted phenylalanine derivatives in position 2 of the peptide sequence were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized in vitro. Both diastereoisomers of H-Tyr-(D or L)-NMePhe-Phe-Phe-NH2 (NMePhe is N alpha-methylphenylalanine) were mu-receptor-selective, were full agonists in the mu-receptor-representative guinea pig ileum assay, and were partial agonists in the mouse vas deferens assay, with the L-NMePhe2 analog displaying somewhat higher intrinsic activity than the D-NMePhe2 analog. Further conformational restriction at position 2 in the sequence, as achieved through substitution of D- or L-tetrahydro-3-isoquinoline carboxylic acid (Tic), produced a configuration-dependent differential effect on receptor selectivity and intrinsic activity, leading to a potent mu-selective mu agonist (the D-Tic2 analog) with increased intrinsic activity in the mouse vas deferens assay and to a potent delta-selective delta antagonist (the L-Tic2 analog). These results demonstrate that imposition of conformational constraints in a peptide not only may alter receptor selectivity but also may decrease, totally abolish, or even enhance intrinsic activity. The tetrapeptide H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-NH2 was a moderately potent full agonist in the guinea pig ileum assay and, thus, represents a compound with mixed mu-agonist/delta-antagonist properties. The corresponding peptide with a free C-terminal carboxyl group H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH showed high delta-receptor affinity (Ki delta = 1.2 nM), unprecedented delta selectivity (Ki mu/Ki delta = 1410), high potency as delta antagonist (Ke = 3-8 nM against various delta agonists in the mouse vas deferens assay) and, unlike other delta antagonists, had no mu-antagonist properties. The tripeptides H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-OH and H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-NH2 were also delta antagonists. PMID:1334552

  11. Kappa and delta opioid receptor stimulation affects cardiac myocyte function and Ca2+ release from an intracellular pool in myocytes and neurons.

    PubMed

    Ventura, C; Spurgeon, H; Lakatta, E G; Guarnieri, C; Capogrossi, M C

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor stimulation on the contractile properties and cytosolic Ca2+ (Cai) of adult rat left ventricular myocytes. Cells were field-stimulated at 1 Hz in 1.5 mM bathing Ca2+ at 23 degrees C. The mu-agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (10(-5) M) had no effect on the twitch. The delta-agonists methionine enkephalin and leucine enkephalin (10(-10) to 10(-6) M) and the kappa-agonist (trans-(dl)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclo-hexyl]- benzeneacetamide)methanesulfonate hydrate (U-50,488H; 10(-7) to 2 x 10(-5) M) had a concentration-dependent negative inotropic action. The sustained decrease in twitch amplitude due to U-50,488H was preceded by a transient increase in contraction. The effects of delta- and kappa-receptor stimulation were antagonized by naloxone and (-)-N-(3-furyl-methyl)-alpha-normetazocine methanesulfonate, respectively. In myocytes loaded with the Ca2+ probe indo-1, the effects of leucine enkephalin (10(-8) M) and U-50,488H (10(-5) M) on the twitch were associated with similar directional changes in the Cai transient. Myofilament responsiveness to Ca2+ was assessed by the relation between twitch amplitude and systolic indo-1 transient. Leucine enkephalin (10(-8) M) had no effect, whereas U-50,488H (10(-5) M) increased myofilament responsiveness to Ca2+. We subsequently tested the hypothesis that delta and kappa opioid receptor stimulation may cause sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ depletion. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in myocytes and in a caffeine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ store in neurons was probed in the absence of electrical stimulation via the rapid addition of a high concentration of caffeine from a patch pipette above the cell. U-50,488H and leucine enkephalin slowly increased Cai or caused Cai oscillations and eventually abolished the caffeine-triggered Cai transient. These effects occurred in both myocytes and neuroblastoma-2a cells. In cardiac myocyte suspensions U-50,488H and leucine enkephalin both caused a rapid and sustained increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Thus, delta and kappa but not mu opioids have a negative inotropic action due to a decreased Cai transient. The decreased twitch amplitude due to kappa-receptor stimulation is preceded by a transient increase in contractility, and it occurs despite an enhanced myofilament responsiveness to Ca2+. The effects of delta and kappa opioids appear coupled to phosphatidylinositol turnover and, at least in part, may be due to sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ depletion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1309318

  12. Cytoplasmic transport of Stat3 by receptor-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Bild, Andrea H.; Turkson, James; Jove, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are cytoplasmic transcription factors that translocate to the nucleus and regulate gene expression upon activation of cytokine or growth factor receptors. While this translocation event is essential for gene regulation by STATs, their mechanism of transport through the cytoplasm to the nucleus has remained elusive. We now report that cytoplasmic transport of Stat3 is an active process that requires receptor-mediated endocytosis. Stat3 co-localizes with endocytic vesicles in transit from the cell membrane to the perinuclear region in response to growth factor stimulation. Consistent with a role for receptor endocytosis in growth factor signaling, disruption of endocytosis with specific inhibitors blocks Stat3 nuclear translocation and Stat3-dependent gene regulation. These results indicate that receptor-mediated endocytosis may be a general mechanism of transport through the cytoplasm for a subset of cytoplasmic signaling proteins destined for the nucleus. PMID:12093727

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  14. Syndapins integrate N-WASP in receptor-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta

    2002-01-01

    Syndapins are potential links between the cortical actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis because this family of dynamin-associated proteins can also interact with the Arp2/3 complex activator N-WASP. Here we provide evidence for involvement of N-WASP interactions in receptor-mediated endocytosis. We reveal that the observed dominant-negative effects of N-WASP are dependent exclusively on the proline-rich domain, the binding interface of syndapins. Our results therefore suggest that syndapins integrate N-WASP functions in endocytosis. Both proteins co-localize in neuronal cells. Consistent with a crucial role for syndapins in endocytic uptake, co-overexpression of syndapins rescued the endocytosis block caused by N-WASP. An in vivo reconstitution of the syndapinN-WASP interaction at cellular membranes triggered local actin polymerization. Depletion of endogenous N-WASP by sequestering it to mitochondria or by introducing anti-N-WASP antibodies impaired endocytosis. Our data suggest that syndapins may act as important coordinators of N-WASP and dynamin functions during the different steps of receptor-mediated endocytosis and that local actin polymerization induced by syndapinN-WASP interactions may be a mechanism supporting clathrin-coated vesicle detachment and movement away from the plasma membrane. PMID:12426380

  15. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase endocytosis in endothelium: biology and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Simons, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are involved in regulation of key process in roles in endothelial biology including proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. It is now generally accepted that RTK signaling occurs intracellularly as well as on the plasma membrane although many important details remain to be worked out. Endocytosis and subsequent intracellular trafficking spatiotemporally regulate RTK signaling while “signaling endosomes” provide a platform for the compartmentalization of signaling events. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of endothelial RTK endocytosis and signaling using vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 as a paradigm. PMID:24925972

  16. Pyrrolo- and pyridomorphinans: non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Clark, M J; Traynor, J R; Lewis, J W; Husbands, S M

    2014-08-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse. PMID:24973818

  17. Pyrrolo- and Pyridomorphinans: Non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Clark, M.J.; Traynor, J.R.; Lewis, J.W.; Husbands, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse. PMID:24973818

  18. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ockenga, Wymke; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles. PMID:25985102

  19. Evidence for lack of modulation of mu-opioid agonist action by delta-opioid agonists in the mouse vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J; Traynor, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. There is evidence from in vivo studies for an interaction of mu- and delta-opioid ligands. In the present work this concept has been investigated using the mouse vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum myenteric plexus-longitudinal preparations. 2. In field stimulated vasa deferentia of the mouse, co-administration of sub-effective concentrations of the delta-opioid agonist [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and [Met5]- or [Leu5]enkephalin had no effect on the dose-response curves of the mu-agonists [D-Ala2,MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine. Similarly, the delta-opioid agonists did not alter the potency of morphine and DAMGO when added at different times prior to the mu-opioid agonists, or when EC50 concentrations of delta-opioid ligands were co-administered. Compounds with preferred activity for the putative delta 1-(DPDPE) or delta 2-([D-Ala2,Glu4]deltorphin II (Delt II)) opioid receptors were ineffective in this respect. 3. The guinea-pig ileum contains delta-opioid receptors. No function of these receptors in mediating blockage of field-stimulated contractions was observed with ligands having affinity for the putative delta 1 or delta 2 subtypes nor were the agonists able to modulate responses to mu-opioid ligands in this tissue. 4. The results demonstrate the modulation of mu-opioid agonists by delta-opioid agonists does not occur in the isolated peripheral tissues examined. Thus the findings do not support the concept of a functional coupling of opioid receptors, though the results may be explained by differences between opioid systems in the brain and peripheral tissues examined. PMID:7780641

  20. Delta opioid modulation of hypothalamic serotonergic neurotransmission in the ovariectomized and steroid-primed rat.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Bayram; Gilmore, Desmond P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We have investigated the modulating effects of DPDPE (a delta opioid agonist) and opioid receptor antagonists on both LH release and indoleamine concentrations in specific hypothalamic regions of the ovx and steroid-primed rat. METHODS: DPDPE was intracerebroventricularly infused alone or with either ICI 154129 (a delta opioid antagonist) or naloxone under ketamine anesthesia. Blood samples were collected at hourly intervals on the afternoon of the anticipated LH surge. The rats were then decapitated and the medial preoptic area (MPOA), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), median eminence (ME) and arcuate nucleus (ARN) surgically isolated by micropunch. Concentrations of 5-HT and its metabolite (5-HIAA) in these samples were determined by HPLC with ECD. Plasma LH levels were measured by RIA. RESULTS: The delta-agonist significantly reduced 5-HT concentrations in the SCN, ME and ARN, but not in the MPOA. 5-HIAA levels were decreased, but these changes were significant in only the MPOA and ARN compared to the control group. ICI 154129 had no significant effects on 5-HT release and turnover in any of the hypothalamic regions examined. However, co-administration of DPDPE with naloxone resulted in significant increases in 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in the MPOA, SCN, ME and ARN compared to the DPDPE-treated group. Plasma LH levels were either low or undetectable in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that delta-opioid receptors are involved in the opioid inhibition of the serotonergic neurotransmission in the hypothalamus. It is thought that the ketamine anesthesia interfered with LH secretory systems. PMID:11455339

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis. PMID:26711579

  2. An ultrasensitive sorting mechanism for EGF Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Vacheva, Ivayla; Hoeller, Daniela; Dikic, Ivan; Eils, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Background The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor has been shown to internalize via clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) in a ligand concentration dependent manner. From a modeling point of view, this resembles an ultrasensitive response, which is the ability of signaling networks to suppress a response for low input values and to increase to a pre-defined level for inputs exceeding a certain threshold. Several mechanisms to generate this behaviour have been described theoretically, the underlying assumptions of which, however, have not been experimentally demonstrated for the EGF receptor internalization network. Results Here, we present a mathematical model of receptor sorting into alternative pathways that explains the EGF-concentration dependent response of CIE. The described mechanism involves a saturation effect of the dominant clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway and implies distinct steady-states into which the system is forced for low vs high EGF stimulations. The model is minimal since no experimentally unjustified reactions or parameter assumptions are imposed. We demonstrate the robustness of the sorting effect for large parameter variations and give an analytic derivation for alternative steady-states that are reached. Further, we describe extensibility of the model to more than two pathways which might play a role in contexts other than receptor internalization. Conclusion Our main result is that a scenario where different endocytosis routes consume the same form of receptor corroborates the observation of a clear-cut, stimulus dependent sorting. This is especially important since a receptor modification discriminating between the pathways has not been found experimentally. The model is not restricted to EGF receptor internalization and might account for ultrasensitivity in other cellular contexts. PMID:18394191

  3. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Brain Delivery of Therapeutic Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guangqing

    2013-01-01

    Transport of macromolecules across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) requires both specific and nonspecific interactions between macromolecules and proteins/receptors expressed on the luminal and/or the abluminal surfaces of the brain capillary endothelial cells. Endocytosis and transcytosis play important roles in the distribution of macromolecules. Due to the tight junction of BBB, brain delivery of traditional therapeutic proteins with large molecular weight is generally not possible. There are multiple pathways through which macromolecules can be taken up into cells through both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins/receptors on the cell surface. This review is focused on the current knowledge of receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis and brain delivery using the Angiopep-2-conjugated system and the molecular Trojan horses. In addition, the role of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in regulating the efflux of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from brain to blood, and approaches to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic biologics by generating Fc fusion proteins, and increasing the pH dependent binding affinity between Fc and FcRn, are discussed. PMID:23840214

  4. Receptor-mediated endocytosis and brain delivery of therapeutic biologics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guangqing; Gan, Liang-Shang

    2013-01-01

    Transport of macromolecules across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) requires both specific and nonspecific interactions between macromolecules and proteins/receptors expressed on the luminal and/or the abluminal surfaces of the brain capillary endothelial cells. Endocytosis and transcytosis play important roles in the distribution of macromolecules. Due to the tight junction of BBB, brain delivery of traditional therapeutic proteins with large molecular weight is generally not possible. There are multiple pathways through which macromolecules can be taken up into cells through both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins/receptors on the cell surface. This review is focused on the current knowledge of receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis and brain delivery using the Angiopep-2-conjugated system and the molecular Trojan horses. In addition, the role of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in regulating the efflux of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from brain to blood, and approaches to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic biologics by generating Fc fusion proteins, and increasing the pH dependent binding affinity between Fc and FcRn, are discussed. PMID:23840214

  5. Stimulation of mu and delta opioid receptors induces hyperalgesia while stimulation of kappa receptors induces antinociception in the hot plate test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Towett, Philemon Kipkemoi; Kanui, Titus Ikusya; Juma, Francis D

    2006-12-11

    The antinociceptive effects of highly selective mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE) and kappa (U-50488 and U-69593) opioid agonists were evaluated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in the naked mole-rat. A hot plate test set at 60 degrees C was used as a nociceptive test and the latency to the stamping of the right hind paw (response latency) was used as the end-point. DAMGO (5-10 mg/kg) and DPDPE (2.5-5 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant decrease in the mean response latency. Subcutaneous injection of naloxonazine (20 mg/kg) 24h prior to the administration of DAMGO (5 mg/kg) also blocked the reduction in the response latency observed when DAMGO was injected alone. On the contrary, U-50488 (2.5-5 mg/kg) or U-69593 (0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant increase in the mean response latency. These results showed that activation of mu or delta receptors caused hyperalgesia, whereas activation of kappa receptors caused antinociception in the hot plate test in naked mole-rat. This suggests that mu and delta receptors modulate thermal pain in a different way than kappa receptors in the naked mole-rat. It is not possible at the moment to point out how they modulate thermal pain as little is known about the neuropharmacology of the naked mole-rat. PMID:17113929

  6. Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Erspamer, V; Melchiorri, P; Falconieri-Erspamer, G; Negri, L; Corsi, R; Severini, C; Barra, D; Simmaco, M; Kreil, G

    1989-01-01

    Deltorphins are endogenous linear heptapeptides, isolated from skin extracts of frogs belonging to the genus Phyllomedusa, that have a higher affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites than any other natural compound known. Two deltorphins with the sequence Tyr-Ala-Phe-Asp(or Glu)-Val-Val-Gly-NH2 have been isolated from skin extracts of Phyllomedusa bicolor. The alanine in position 2 is in the D configuration. These peptides, [D-Ala2]deltorphins I and II, show an even higher affinity for delta receptors than the previously characterized deltorphin, which contains D-methionine as the second amino acid. These peptides show some similarity to another constituent of Phyllomedusa skin, dermorphin, which is highly selective for mu-opioid receptors. These peptides all have the N-terminal sequence Tyr-D-Xaa-Phe, where D-Xaa is either D-alanine or D-methionine. While this structure seems to be capable of activating both mu and delta opioid receptors, differences in the C-terminal regions of these peptides are probably responsible for the observed high receptor selectivity of dermorphin and deltorphin. PMID:2544892

  7. A luminescent assay for real-time measurements of receptor endocytosis in living cells.

    PubMed

    Robers, Matthew B; Binkowski, Brock F; Cong, Mei; Zimprich, Chad; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Otto, George; Eggers, Christopher T; Hartnett, Jim; Machleidt, Thomas; Fan, Frank; Wood, Keith V

    2015-11-15

    Ligand-mediated endocytosis is a key autoregulatory mechanism governing the duration and intensity of signals emanating from cell surface receptors. Due to the mechanistic complexity of endocytosis and its emerging relevance in disease, simple methods capable of tracking this dynamic process in cells have become increasingly desirable. We have developed a bioluminescent reporter technology for real-time analysis of ligand-mediated receptor endocytosis using genetic fusions of NanoLuc luciferase with various G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This method is compatible with standard microplate formats, which should decrease work flows for high-throughput screens. This article also describes the application of this technology to endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), demonstrating potential applicability of the method beyond GPCRs. PMID:26278171

  8. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X.; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  9. Spinal mu and delta opioids inhibit both thermal and mechanical pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Normandin, Audrey; Luccarini, Philippe; Molat, Jean-Louis; Gendron, Louis; Dallel, Radhouane

    2013-01-01

    The expression and contribution of mu (MOPR) and delta opioid receptors (DOPR) in polymodal nociceptors have been recently challenged. Indeed, MOPR and DOPR were shown to be expressed in distinct subpopulation of nociceptors where they respectively inhibit pain induced by noxious heat and mechanical stimuli. In the present study, we used electrophysiological measurements to assess the effect of spinal MOPR and DOPR activation on heat- and mechanically-induced diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). We recorded from wide-dynamic range neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of anesthetized rats. Trains of 105 electrical shocks were delivered to the excitatory cutaneous receptive field. DNIC were triggered either by immersion of the hindpaw in 49°C water or application of 300 g of mechanical pressure. To study the involvement of peptidergic primary afferents in the activation of DNIC by noxious heat and mechanical stimulations, substance P release was measured in the spinal cord by visualizing neurokinin type 1 (NK1) receptor internalization. We found that the activation of spinal MOPR and DOPR similarly attenuates the DNIC and NK1 receptor internalization induced either by heat or mechanical stimuli. Our results therefore reveal that the activation of spinal MOPR and DOPR relieves both heat- and mechanically-induced pain with similar potency and suggest that these receptors are expressed on polymodal, substance P-expressing neurons. PMID:23843537

  10. Role of protein kinase C in desensitization of spinal delta-opioid-mediated antinociception in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Narita, M.; Mizoguchi, H.; Kampine, J. P.; Tseng, L. F.

    1996-01-01

    1. Receptor phosphorylation and down-regulation by protein kinases may be a key event initiating desensitization. The present studies were designed to investigate the effect of a potent protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), on antinociception induced by intrathecal (i.t.) administration of a selective delta-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2] deltorphin II in the male ICR mouse and on the specific binding of [3H]-[D-Ser2, Leu5]enkephalin-Thr6 (DSLET), a delta-opioid receptor ligand, in the crude synaptic membrane of the spinal cord. 2. Intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PDBu at low doses, which injected alone did not affect the basal tail-flick latency, dose-dependently attenuated the antinociception induced by i.t. administration of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II. The attenuation of i.t.-administered [D-Ala2] deltorphin II-induced antinociception by PDBu was reversed in a dose-dependent manner by i.t. concomitant pretreatment with a specific PKC inhibitor, calphostin C. 3. In the binding experiment, incubation of the crude synaptic membrane of the spinal cord for 2 h at 25 degrees C with PDBu (0.03 to 10 microM) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the [3H]-DSLET binding. Scatchard analysis of [3H]-DSLET binding revealed that PDBu at 10 microM displayed a 30.7% reduction in the number of [3H]-DSLET binding sites with no significant change in affinity, compared with the non-treatment control, indicating that the activation of membrane-bound PKC by PDBu causes a decrease in the number of specific delta-opioid agonist binding sites. 4. An i.t. injection of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II produced an acute antinociceptive tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of a subsequent i.t. challenge of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II. Concomitant pretreatment with calphostin C markedly prevented the development of acute tolerance to the i.t.-administered [D-Ala2]deltorphin II-induced antinociception. On the other hand, a highly selective protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720, did not have any effect on the development of acute tolerance to [D-Ala2]deltorphin II antinociception. 5. These findings suggest that a loss of specific delta-agonist binding by the activation of PKC by PDBu is involved in the PDBu-induced antinociceptive unresponsiveness to delta-opioid receptor agonist in the mouse spinal cord. Based on the acute tolerance studies, we propose that PKC, but not PKA, plays an important role in the process of homologous desensitization of the spinal delta-opioid receptor-mediated antinociception. PMID:8842450

  11. Size and shape effects on receptor-mediated endocytosis of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlei

    2012-01-01

    We present a thermodynamic approach to elucidate the effects of the size and shape of nanoparticles (NPs) on endocytosis. It is found that endocytosis needs to surmount a thermodynamic energy barrier and has a minimum radius of NPs for endocytosis. Through referring to the concept of "diffusion length of receptors," we obtain a simple and analytical expression for the optimal size of NPs. Furthermore, a phase diagram has been constructed, which can clarify the interrelated effects of the radius and the aspect ratio of NPs. We can identify from the phase the relation between the geometry of NP and its endocytosis rate. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental observations and reveal physical mechanisms involved in the effects of the size and shape of NPs on endocytosis, which implies that these studies may provide useful guidance to the conscious design of NPs for diagnostic agents and drug delivery applications.

  12. Endocytosis as a Biological Response in Receptor Pharmacology: Evaluation by Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Varela, María J.; de la Rocha, Arlet M. Acanda; Fernandez-Troyano, Juan C.; Barreiro, R. Belén; Lopez-Gimenez, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    The activation of G-protein coupled receptors by agonist compounds results in diverse biological responses in cells, such as the endocytosis process consisting in the translocation of receptors from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm within internalizing vesicles or endosomes. In order to functionally evaluate endocytosis events resulted from pharmacological responses, we have developed an image analysis method –the Q-Endosomes algorithm– that specifically discriminates the fluorescent signal originated at endosomes from that one observed at the plasma membrane in images obtained from living cells by fluorescence microscopy. Mu opioid (MOP) receptor tagged at the carboxy-terminus with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and permanently expressed in HEK293 cells was used as experimental model to validate this methodology. Time-course experiments performed with several agonists resulted in different sigmoid curves depending on the drug used to initiate MOP receptor endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis resulting from the simultaneous activation of co-expressed MOP and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors by morphine plus serotonin was significantly different, in kinetics as well as in maximal response parameters, from the one caused by DAMGO, sufentanyl or methadone. Therefore, this analytical tool permits the pharmacological characterization of receptor endocytosis in living cells with functional and temporal resolution. PMID:25849355

  13. Endocytosis as a biological response in receptor pharmacology: evaluation by fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Campa, Vctor M; Capilla, Almudena; Varela, Mara J; de la Rocha, Arlet M Acanda; Fernandez-Troyano, Juan C; Barreiro, R Beln; Lopez-Gimenez, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    The activation of G-protein coupled receptors by agonist compounds results in diverse biological responses in cells, such as the endocytosis process consisting in the translocation of receptors from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm within internalizing vesicles or endosomes. In order to functionally evaluate endocytosis events resulted from pharmacological responses, we have developed an image analysis method -the Q-Endosomes algorithm- that specifically discriminates the fluorescent signal originated at endosomes from that one observed at the plasma membrane in images obtained from living cells by fluorescence microscopy. Mu opioid (MOP) receptor tagged at the carboxy-terminus with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and permanently expressed in HEK293 cells was used as experimental model to validate this methodology. Time-course experiments performed with several agonists resulted in different sigmoid curves depending on the drug used to initiate MOP receptor endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis resulting from the simultaneous activation of co-expressed MOP and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors by morphine plus serotonin was significantly different, in kinetics as well as in maximal response parameters, from the one caused by DAMGO, sufentanyl or methadone. Therefore, this analytical tool permits the pharmacological characterization of receptor endocytosis in living cells with functional and temporal resolution. PMID:25849355

  14. Dual single-scission event analysis of constitutive transferrin receptor (TfR) endocytosis and ligand-triggered ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR) or Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Marko; Pierre, Fabienne; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Krasel, Cornelius; Merrifield, Christien J.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic relationship between constitutive and ligand-triggered clathrin-mediated endocytosis is only poorly characterized, and it remains controversial whether clathrin-coated pits specialize to internalize particular receptor cargo. Here we analyzed the ligand-triggered endocytosis of the model G-proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR) and Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) at the level of individual endocytic events using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM)based assay. Similar to the constitutive endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR), ligand- triggered endocytosis of ?2AR occurs via quantized scission events hosted by clathrin spots and plaques of variable size and persistence. To address whether clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) specialize to internalize particular GPCRs, we adapted the TIRFM imaging assay to simultaneously quantify the internalization of TfR and the ligand- triggered endocytosis of the ?2AR or MOR. Agonist-triggered ?2AR or MOR endocytosis extended the maturation time of CCSs, as shown previously, but did not affect the rate of constitutive TfR endocytosis or loading of TfR into individual endocytic vesicles. Both the ?2AR and the MOR receptors entered cells in the same vesicles as TfR, and the overall evidence for CCS specialization was weak. These data support a simple model in which different cargoes internalize through common CCSs. PMID:25079691

  15. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis.

  16. AMPA Receptor Endocytosis in Rat Perirhinal Cortex Underlies Retrieval of Object Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazakoff, Brittany N.; Howland, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms consistent with long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) play a fundamental role in object recognition memory; however, whether AMPA receptor endocytosis is involved in distinct phases of recognition memory is not known. To address this question, we used local PRh infusions of the cell membrane-permeable Tat-GluA2[subscript

  17. Interleukin-2 receptor-gamma -dependent endocytosis depends on biotin in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Camporeale, Gabriela; Griffin, Jacob B; Zempleni, Janos

    2003-02-01

    Biotin has been credited with having beneficial effects on immune function despite observations that biotin supplementation causes decreased secretion of interleukin-2. Here this paradox was addressed by determining whether receptor-dependent internalization of interleukin-2 by immune cells depends on biotin. Theoretically, this would be consistent with both decreased net secretion of interleukin-2 by biotin-supplemented cells (causing increased endocytosis) and beneficial effects of biotin on immune function (causing increased receptor signaling). Jurkat cells were cultured in biotin-defined media (25, 250, or 10,000 pM). Secretion of interleukin-2 correlated negatively with biotin supply, but transcriptional activity of the interleukin-2 gene correlated positively with biotin supply, suggesting that decreased secretion of interleukin-2 by biotin-supplemented cells was not caused by decreased gene expression. Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor-gamma gene was greater at 10,000 pM than 25 pM biotin, mediating increased endocytosis of interleukin-2 in biotin-supplemented medium. Inhibition of endocytosis by genistein and overexpression of interleukin-2 receptor-gamma abolished the effect of biotin. These findings suggest that endocytosis of interleukin-2 depends on biotin. PMID:12388078

  18. Membrane protrusion powers clathrin-independent endocytosis of interleukin-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Basquin, Cyril; Trichet, Michaël; Vihinen, Helena; Malardé, Valérie; Lagache, Thibault; Ripoll, Léa; Jokitalo, Eija; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Gautreau, Alexis; Sauvonnet, Nathalie

    2015-08-13

    Endocytosis controls many functions including nutrient uptake, cell division, migration and signal transduction. A clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis pathway is used by important physiological cargos, including interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R). However, this process lacks morphological and dynamic data. Our electron microscopy (EM) and tomography studies reveal that IL-2R-pits and vesicles are initiated at the base of protrusions. We identify the WAVE complex as a specific endocytic actor. The WAVE complex interacts with IL-2R, via a WAVE-interacting receptor sequence (WIRS) present in the receptor polypeptide, and allows for receptor clustering close to membrane protrusions. In addition, using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF) and automated analysis we demonstrate that two timely distinct bursts of actin polymerization are required during IL-2R uptake, promoted first by the WAVE complex and then by N-WASP. Finally, our data reveal that dynamin acts as a transition controller for the recruitment of Arp2/3 activators required for IL-2R endocytosis. Altogether, our work identifies the spatio-temporal specific role of factors initiating clathrin-independent endocytosis by a unique mechanism that does not depend on the deformation of a flat membrane, but rather on that of membrane protrusions. PMID:26124312

  19. AMPA Receptor Endocytosis in Rat Perirhinal Cortex Underlies Retrieval of Object Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazakoff, Brittany N.; Howland, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms consistent with long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) play a fundamental role in object recognition memory; however, whether AMPA receptor endocytosis is involved in distinct phases of recognition memory is not known. To address this question, we used local PRh infusions of the cell membrane-permeable Tat-GluA2[subscript…

  20. Effects of particle size and ligand density on the kinetics of receptor-mediated endocytosis of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongyan; Zhang, Sulin

    2010-01-01

    We elucidate, from thermodynamic arguments, the governing factors of receptor-mediated endocytosis of nanoparticles (NPs). We show that the endocytic energetics specifies a minimal particle size and a minimal ligand density below which endocytosis is not possible. Due to the entropic penalty involved in ligand-receptor binding, endocytosis may occur with a large fraction of ligands unbound with receptors. Our analyses suggest that the endocytic time depends interrelatedly on the particle size and ligand density. There exists an optimal condition at which the endocytic time minimizes. These findings may provide valuable guidance to the rational designs of NP-based biomarkers and anticancer bioagents.

  1. Age-Related Changes in Scavenger ReceptorMediated Endocytosis in Rat Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Santamaria, Jaione; Malovic, Ivana; Warren, Alessandra; Oteiza, Ana; Le Couteur, David; Smedsrd, Brd; McCourt, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) play an essential role in systemic waste clearance by effective endocytosis of blood-borne waste macromolecules. We aimed to study LSECs scavenger function during aging, and whether age-related morphological changes (eg, defenestration) affect this function, in F344/BN F1 rats. Endocytosis of the scavenger receptor ligand formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was significantly reduced in LSECs from old rats. Ligand degradation, LSEC protein expression of the major scavenger receptors for formaldehyde-treated serum albumin endocytosis, stabilin-1 and stabilin-2, and their staining patterns along liver sinusoids, was similar at young and old age, suggesting that other parts of the endocytic machinery are affected by aging. Formaldehyde-treated serum albumin uptake per cell, and cell porosity evaluated by electron microscopy, was not correlated, indicating that LSEC defenestration is not linked to impaired endocytosis. We report a significantly reduced LSEC endocytic capacity at old age, which may be especially important in situations with increased circulatory waste loads. PMID:20576648

  2. Cortactin Is a Component of Clathrin-Coated Pits and Participates in Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hong; Orth, James D.; Chen, Jing; Weller, Shaun G.; Heuser, John E.; McNiven, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is believed to contribute to the formation of clathrin-coated pits, although the specific components that connect actin filaments with the endocytic machinery are unclear. Cortactin is an F-actin-associated protein, localizes within membrane ruffles in cultured cells, and is a direct binding partner of the large GTPase dynamin. This direct interaction with a component of the endocytic machinery suggests that cortactin may participate in one or several endocytic processes. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test whether cortactin associates with clathrin-coated pits and participates in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Morphological experiments with either anti-cortactin antibodies or expressed red fluorescence protein-tagged cortactin revealed a striking colocalization of cortactin and clathrin puncta at the ventral plasma membrane. Consistent with these observations, cells microinjected with these antibodies exhibited a marked decrease in the uptake of labeled transferrin and low-density lipoprotein while internalization of the fluid marker dextran was unchanged. Cells expressing the cortactin Src homology three domain also exhibited markedly reduced endocytosis. These findings suggest that cortactin is an important component of the receptor-mediated endocytic machinery, where, together with actin and dynamin, it regulates the scission of clathrin pits from the plasma membrane. Thus, cortactin provides a direct link between the dynamic actin cytoskeleton and the membrane pinchase dynamin that supports vesicle formation during receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:12612086

  3. Endocytosis and Trafficking of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A: Potential Role of Short Sequence Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2015-01-01

    The targeted endocytosis and redistribution of transmembrane receptors among membrane-bound subcellular organelles are vital for their correct signaling and physiological functions. Membrane receptors committed for internalization and trafficking pathways are sorted into coated vesicles. Cardiac hormones, atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) bind to guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) and elicit the generation of intracellular second messenger cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which lowers blood pressure and incidence of heart failure. After ligand binding, the receptor is rapidly internalized, sequestrated, and redistributed into intracellular locations. Thus, NPRA is considered a dynamic cellular macromolecule that traverses different subcellular locations through its lifetime. The utilization of pharmacologic and molecular perturbants has helped in delineating the pathways of endocytosis, trafficking, down-regulation, and degradation of membrane receptors in intact cells. This review describes the investigation of the mechanisms of internalization, trafficking, and redistribution of NPRA compared with other cell surface receptors from the plasma membrane into the cell interior. The roles of different short-signal peptide sequence motifs in the internalization and trafficking of other membrane receptors have been briefly reviewed and their potential significance in the internalization and trafficking of NPRA is discussed. PMID:26151885

  4. Expression of folate receptors in nasopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma and folate receptor-mediated endocytosis by molecular targeted nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Xie, M; Zhang, H; Xu, Y; Liu, T; Chen, S; Wang, J; Zhang, T

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry and an immunofluorescence technique was used to detect folate receptor expression in tissue samples and cell lines of head and neck squamous carcinoma, including 20 tissue samples of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 16 tissue samples of laryngeal carcinoma, and HNE-1, HNE-2, CNE-1, CNE-2, SUNE-1, 5-8F, and Hep-2 cell lines. Iron staining, electron microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging were used to observe endocytosis of folate-conjugated cisplatin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (CDDP-FA-ASA-MNP) in cultured cells and transplanted tumors. As shown by immunohistochemistry, 83.3% (30/36) of the head and neck squamous carcinomas expressed the folate receptor versus none in the control group (0/24). Only the HNE-1 and Hep-2 cell lines expressed the folate receptor, and the other five cell lines did not. Endocytosis of CDDP-FA-ASA-MNP was seen in HNE-1 and Hep-2 cells by iron staining and electron microscopy. A similar result was seen in transplanted tumors in nude mice. Magnetic resonance imaging showed low signal intensity of HNE-1 cells and HNE-1 transplanted tumors on T2-weighted images after uptake of CDDP-FA-ASA-MNP, and this was not seen in CNE-2 transplanted tumors. In conclusion, head and neck squamous carcinoma cell strongly expressed the folate receptor, while normal tissue did not. The folate receptor can mediate endocytosis of folate-conjugated anticancer nanomedicines, and lays the foundation for molecular targeted treatment of cancer. PMID:23874095

  5. Endocytosis of a Functionally Enhanced GFP-Tagged Transferrin Receptor in CHO Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chong; Jiang, Qing; Zhu, Huifen; He, Yong; Yue, Tingting; Wang, Ruibo; Lei, Ping; Shen, Guanxin

    2015-01-01

    The endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR) has served as a model to study the receptor-targeted cargo delivery system for cancer therapy for many years. To accurately evaluate and optically measure this TfR targeting delivery in vitro, a CHO cell line with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged human TfR was established. A chimera of the hTfR and EGFP was engineered by fusing EGFP to the amino terminus of hTfR. Data were provided to demonstrate that hTfR-EGFP chimera was predominantly localized on the plasma membrane with some intracellular fluorescent structures on CHO cells and the EGFP moiety did not affect the endocytosis property of hTfR. Receptor internalization occurred similarly to that of HepG2 cells expressing wild-type hTfR. The internalization percentage of this chimeric receptor was about 81±3% of wild type. Time-dependent co-localization of hTfR-EGFP and PE-conjugated anti-hTfR mAb in living cells demonstrated the trafficking of mAb-receptor complexes through the endosomes followed by segregation of part of the mAb and receptor at the late stages of endocytosis. The CHO-hTfR cells preferentially took up anti-hTfR mAb conjugated nanoparticles. This CHO-hTfR cell line makes it feasible for accurate evaluation and visualization of intracellular trafficking of therapeutic agents conjugated with transferrin or Abs targeting the hTfRs. PMID:25803700

  6. Behavioral pharmacology of the mu/delta opioid glycopeptide MMP2200 in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo, Gail Pereira; Polt, Robin; Bilsky, Edward J; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens

    2008-09-01

    H(2)N-Tyr-D-Thr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Ser-(O-beta-D-lactose)-CONH(2) (MMP2200) is a novel glycopeptide opioid agonist with similar affinities for mu and delta receptors. Glycosylation promoted brain penetration and production of centrally mediated behavioral effects in mice; however, it is unknown whether the magnitude of enhanced brain penetration is sufficient to permit central mediation of drug effects and production of synergistic mu/delta antinociceptive interactions after systemic administration in primates. To address this issue, the present study compared the effects of MMP2200 and the mu-agonist morphine in four behavioral procedures in rhesus monkeys. In an assay of thermal nociception, morphine (1.0-5.6 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent antinociception, whereas MMP2200 (10-56 mg/kg) was ineffective. In an assay of capsaicin-induced thermal allodynia, both morphine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg) and MMP2200 (0.032-3.2 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent antiallodynic effects. MMP2200-induced antiallodynia was blocked by the moderately mu-selective antagonist naltrexone (0.01 mg/kg), the delta-selective antagonist naltrindole (1.0 mg/kg), and the peripherally selective opioid antagonist quaternary naltrexone (0.32 mg/kg). In an assay of schedule-controlled behavior, both morphine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg) and MMP2200 (10-56 mg/kg) decreased response rates. Morphine effects were antagonized by naltrexone (0.001-0.01 mg/kg); however, the effects of MMP2200 were not antagonized by either naltrexone (0.01 mg/kg) or naltrindole (1.0 mg/kg). In an assay of drug self-administration, morphine (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg/injection) produced reinforcing effects, whereas MMP2200 (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/injection) did not. These results suggest that systemically administered MMP2200 acted as a peripheral, mu/delta-opioid agonist with limited distribution to the central nervous system in rhesus monkeys. These results also suggest the existence of species differences in the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of glycopeptides. PMID:18511649

  7. Sustained cyclic AMP production by parathyroid hormone receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrandon, Sébastien; Feinstein, Timothy N; Castro, Marian; Wang, Bin; Bouley, Richard; Potts, John T; Gardella, Thomas J; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cell signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 (PTHR) is fundamental to bone and kidney physiology. It has been unclear how the two ligand systems—PTH, endocrine and homeostatic, and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), paracrine—can effectively operate with only one receptor and trigger different durations of the cAMP responses. Here we analyze the ligand response by measuring the kinetics of activation and deactivation for each individual reaction step along the PTHR signaling cascade. We found that during the time frame of G protein coupling and cAMP production, PTHrP1–36 action was restricted to the cell surface, whereas PTH1–34 had moved to internalized compartments where it remained associated with the PTHR and Gαs, potentially as a persistent and active ternary complex. Such marked differences suggest a mechanism by which PTH and PTHrP induce differential responses, and these results indicate that the central tenet that cAMP production originates exclusively at the cell membrane must be revised. PMID:19701185

  8. Effects of mu and delta opioid agonists and antagonists on affective vocal and reflexive pain responses during social stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Vivian, J A; Miczek, K A

    1998-10-01

    The present experiments evaluated the influence of intraventricular mu and delta opioid receptors on affective vocal and reflexive responses to aversive stimuli in socially inexperienced, as well as defensive and submissive responses in defeated, adult male Long-Evans rats. Defeat stress consisted of: (1) an aggressive confrontation in which the experimental intruder rat exhibited escape, defensive and submissive behaviors [i.e., upright, supine postures and ultrasonic vocalizations (USV)], and subsequently, (2) protection from the resident stimulus rat with a wire mesh screen for 10-20 min. Defeat stress was immediately followed by an experimental session with tactile startle (20 psi). The mu opioid receptor agonists morphine (0.1-0.6 microg i.c.v.) and [D-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO; 0.01-0.3 microg i.c.v.), and the delta opioid receptor agonist [D-Pen2,5]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 10-100 microg i.c.v.) dose-dependently decreased startle-induced USV and increased tail-flick latencies in socially inexperienced and defeated rats. Of greater interest, morphine, DAMGO and DPDPE increased the occurrence of the submissive crouch posture, and defeated rats were more sensitive than socially inexperienced rats to the startle-induced USV-suppressive and antinociceptive effects of morphine and DPDPE. The antinociceptive effects of DAMGO were likewise obtained at lower doses in defeated rats. Finally, the USV-suppressive effects of morphine and DAMGO were reversed with the mu receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg i.p.), but the USV-suppressive effects produced by DPDPE were not reversed with the delta receptor antagonist naltrindole (1 mg/kg i.p.). These results confirm mu, but not delta opioid receptor activation as significant in affective vocal, passive-submissive behavior, as well as reflexive antinociception. Furthermore, similar to previous studies with restraint and electric shock stress, the facilitation of mu opioid effects on vocal responses and antinociception is consistent with the proposal that defeat stress activated endogenous opioid mechanisms. PMID:9809857

  9. Regulation of signaling interactions and receptor endocytosis in growing blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Pitulescu, Mara E; Adams, Ralf H

    2014-01-01

    Blood vessels and the lymphatic vasculature are extensive tubular networks formed by endothelial cells that have several indispensable functions in the developing and adult organism. During growth and tissue regeneration but also in many pathological settings, these vascular networks expand, which is critically controlled by the receptor EphB4 and the ligand ephrin-B2. An increasing body of evidence links Eph/ephrin molecules to the function of other receptor tyrosine kinases and cell surface receptors. In the endothelium, ephrin-B2 is required for clathrin-dependent internalization and full signaling activity of VEGFR2, the main receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor. In vascular smooth muscle cells, ephrin-B2 antagonizes clathrin-dependent endocytosis of PDGFRβ and controls the balanced activation of different signal transduction processes after stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor. This review summarizes the important roles of Eph/ephrin molecules in vascular morphogenesis and explains the function of ephrin-B2 as a molecular hub for receptor endocytosis in the vasculature. PMID:25482636

  10. CIN85 regulates dopamine receptor endocytosis and governs behaviour in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Noriaki; Haglund, Kaisa; Hölter, Sabine M; Grabbe, Caroline; Kirkin, Vladimir; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Schultz, Christian; Rozman, Jan; Hoeller, Daniela; Qiu, Chun-Hong; Londoño, Marina B; Ikezawa, Jun; Jedlicka, Peter; Stein, Birgit; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Wolfer, David P; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Heuchel, Rainer; Nezis, Ioannis; Brech, Andreas; Schmidt, Mirko H H; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Klingenspor, Martin; Bogler, Oliver; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deller, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Dikic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Despite extensive investigations of Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa (CIN85) in receptor trafficking and cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about its functions in vivo. Here, we report the study of a mouse deficient of the two CIN85 isoforms expressed in the central nervous system, exposing a function of CIN85 in dopamine receptor endocytosis. Mice lacking CIN85 exon 2 (CIN85Δex2) show hyperactivity phenotypes, characterized by increased physical activity and exploratory behaviour. Interestingly, CIN85Δex2 animals display abnormally high levels of dopamine and D2 dopamine receptors (D2DRs) in the striatum, an important centre for the coordination of animal behaviour. Importantly, CIN85 localizes to the post-synaptic compartment of striatal neurons in which it co-clusters with D2DRs. Moreover, it interacts with endocytic regulators such as dynamin and endophilins in the striatum. Absence of striatal CIN85 causes insufficient complex formation of endophilins with D2DRs in the striatum and ultimately decreased D2DR endocytosis in striatal neurons in response to dopamine stimulation. These findings indicate an important function of CIN85 in the regulation of dopamine receptor functions and provide a molecular explanation for the hyperactive behaviour of CIN85Δex2 mice. PMID:20551902

  11. Afr1p regulates the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor receptor by a mechanism that is distinct from receptor phosphorylation and endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C; Dube, P; Konopka, J B

    1998-01-01

    The alpha-factor pheromone receptor activates a G protein signaling pathway that induces the conjugation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our previous studies identified AFR1 as a gene that regulates this signaling pathway because overexpression of AFR1 promoted resistance to alpha-factor. AFR1 also showed an interesting genetic relationship with the alpha-factor receptor gene, STE2, suggesting that the receptor is regulated by Afr1p. To investigate the mechanism of this regulation, we tested AFR1 for a role in the two processes that are known to regulate receptor signaling: phosphorylation and down-regulation of ligand-bound receptors by endocytosis. AFR1 overexpression diminished signaling in a strain that lacks the C-terminal phosphorylation sites of the receptor, indicating that AFR1 acts independently of phosphorylation. The effects of AFR1 overexpression were weaker in strains that were defective in receptor endocytosis. However, AFR1 overexpression did not detectably influence receptor endocytosis or the stability of the receptor protein. Instead, gene dosage studies showed that the effects of AFR1 overexpression on signaling were inversely proportional to the number of receptors. These results indicate that AFR1 acts independently of endocytosis, and that the weaker effects of AFR1 in strains that are defective in receptor endocytosis were probably an indirect consequence of their increased receptor number caused by the failure of receptors to undergo ligand-stimulated endocytosis. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of the receptor showed that AFR1 overexpression did not alter the number of cell-surface receptors or the affinity for alpha-factor. Thus, Afr1p prevents alpha-factor receptors from activating G protein signaling by a mechanism that is distinct from other known pathways. PMID:9504911

  12. Macrophage Receptor with Collagenous Structure (MARCO) Is Processed by either Macropinocytosis or Endocytosis-Autophagy Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Seishiro; Kanno, Sanae

    2015-01-01

    The Macrophage Receptor with COllagenous structure (MARCO) protein is a plasma membrane receptor for un-opsonized or environmental particles on phagocytic cells. Here, we show that MARCO was internalized either by ruffling of plasma membrane followed by macropinocytosis or by endocytosis followed by fusion with autophagosome in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with GFP-MARCO. The macropinocytic process generated large vesicles when the plasma membrane subsided. The endocytosis/autophagosome (amphisome) generated small fluorescent puncta which were visible in the presence of glutamine, chloroquine, bafilomycin, ammonia, and other amines. The small puncta, but not the large vesicles, co-localized with LC3B and lysosomes. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio increased in the presence of glutamine, ammonia, and chloroquine in various cells. The small puncta trafficked between the peri-nuclear region and the distal ends of cells back and forth at rates of up to 2–3 μm/sec; tubulin, but not actin, regulated the trafficking of the small puncta. Besides phagocytosis MARCO, an adhesive plasma membrane receptor, may play a role in incorporation of various extracellular materials into the cell via both macropinocytic and endocytic pathways. PMID:26545255

  13. Endocytosis via coated pits mediated by glycoprotein receptor in which the cytoplasmic tail is replaced by unrelated sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Verrey, F; Gilbert, T; Mellow, T; Proulx, G; Drickamer, K

    1990-01-01

    Rat 6 fibroblast cell lines expressing wild-type chicken liver glycoprotein receptor (CHL) or chimeric receptors with alternate cytoplasmic tails were produced to study the role of the cytoplasmic tail in mediating receptor localization in coated pits and endocytosis of ligand. Cells expressing CHL or cells expressing a hybrid receptor that contains the cytoplasmic tail of the asialoglycoprotein receptor display high-efficiency endocytosis of N-acetylglucosamine-conjugated bovine serum albumin in experiments designed to measure an initial internalization step, as well as in studies of continuous uptake and degradation. Substitution of the cytoplasmic tail by the equivalent domain of rat Na,K-ATPase beta subunit or by a stretch of Xenopus laevis globin beta chain does not abolish endocytosis but decreases the endocytosis rate constant from 15%-16%/min to 2.4% and 6.5%/min, respectively. Electron microscopy was used to visualize the glycoprotein binding sites at the surface of Rat 6 cells transfected with the various receptors. The percentage of receptors found in coated areas ranged from 32% for CHL to 9% for the Na,K-ATPase hybrid, indicating that clustering in coated pits correlates with efficiency of endocytosis. We concluded that replacement of the CHL cytoplasmic tail with unrelated sequences does not prevent, but decreases to varying extents, coated-pit localization and endocytosis efficiency. The construct with NH2-terminal globin tail lacks a signal for high-efficiency localization in coated pits but nevertheless is directed to the pits by an alternative mechanism. Images PMID:1963794

  14. Dopamine D3 receptors regulate GABAA receptor function through a phospho-dependent endocytosis mechanism in nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guojun; Kittler, Josef T; Moss, Stephen J; Yan, Zhen

    2006-03-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor, which is highly enriched in nucleus accumbens (NAc), has been suggested to play an important role in reinforcement and reward. To understand the potential cellular mechanism underlying D3 receptor functions, we examined the effect of D3 receptor activation on GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated current and inhibitory synaptic transmission in medium spiny neurons of NAc. Application of PD128907 [(4aR,10bR)-3,4a,4,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano-[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol hydrochloride], a specific D3 receptor agonist, caused a significant reduction of GABAAR current in acutely dissociated NAc neurons and miniature IPSC amplitude in NAc slices. This effect was blocked by dialysis with a dynamin inhibitory peptide, which prevents the clathrin/activator protein 2 (AP2)-mediated GABAA receptor endocytosis. In addition, the D3 effect on GABAAR current was prevented by agents that manipulate protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Infusion of a peptide derived from GABAAR beta subunits, which contains an atypical binding motif for the clathrin AP2 adaptor complex and the major PKA phosphorylation sites and binds with high affinity to AP2 only when dephosphorylated, diminished the D3 regulation of IPSC amplitude. The phosphorylated equivalent of the peptide was without effect. Moreover, PD128907 increased GABAAR internalization and reduced the surface expression of GABAA receptor beta subunits in NAc slices, which was prevented by dynamin inhibitory peptide or cAMP treatment. Together, our results suggest that D3 receptor activation suppresses the efficacy of inhibitory synaptic transmission in NAc by increasing the phospho-dependent endocytosis of GABAA receptors. PMID:16510729

  15. Understanding magnetic nanoparticle osteoblast receptor-mediated endocytosis using experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Webster, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for controlling drug delivery through an external magnetic force to treat a wide range of diseases, including osteoporosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, osteoblast (or bone forming cell) proliferation and long-term functions (such as calcium deposition) were significantly enhanced. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of bone. As a further attempt to understand why, in the current study, the uptake of such nanoparticles into osteoblasts was experimentally investigated and mathematically modeled. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and were coated with hydroxyapatite. A cellular uptake experiment at low temperatures indicated that receptor-mediated endocytosis contributed to the internalization of the magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts. A model was further developed to explain the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts using receptor-mediated endocytosis. This model may explain the internalization of hydroxyapatite into osteoblasts to elevate intracellular calcium levels necessary to promote osteoblast functions to treat a wide range of orthopedic problems, including osteoporosis.

  16. Endocytosis of lutropin by Leydig cells through a pathway distinct from the high-affinity receptor.

    PubMed

    Bozon, V; Pajot-Augy, E; Vignon, X; Salesse, R

    1998-08-25

    In porcine Leydig cells in primary culture, 95% of the internalization of [125I]porcine lutropin ([125I]pLH, which bears sulfated GalNAc) could not be ascribed to the high-affinity LH receptor (LHR). In contrast, >40% of [125I]human choriogonadotropin (hCG, with sialylated sugar chains) uptake was performed by the LHR itself. When the LHR was down-regulated by excess unlabeled hormone, the LHR-independent incorporation of [125I]pLH could be inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by sulfated polysaccharides such as fucoidan or chondroitin-(4 or 6)-sulfate, but not by other polyanionic compounds, nor by sulfated chondroitin disaccharides. Endocytosis occurred through a clathrin-dependent pathway and was inhibited by low temperature, endocytosis inhibitors, increased ionic strength, or by EDTA and dithiothreitol. Taken together, these results suggest that a Leydig cell membrane protein (possibly a lectin, or a glycosaminoglycan receptor) could perform specific LH clearance in the testis via recognition of its sulfated sugars. PMID:9806348

  17. Administration of pyrene lipids by receptor-mediated endocytosis and their degradation in skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Agmon, V.; Dinur, T.; Cherbu, S.; Dagan, A.; Gatt, S. )

    1991-10-01

    Sphingomyelin and seven glycosphingolipids were labeled with the fluorescent probe pyrene and administered into cultured fibroblasts by receptor-mediated endocytosis. For this purpose pyrene sphingomyelin or mixtures of pyrene glycolipid and unlabeled sphingomyelin were dispersed as small, unilamellar liposomes. Apolipoprotein E was then added and the receptor for this ligand on the cell surface was utilized for uptake of the liposomes and their transport to the lysosomes, where the respective pyrene lipids were degraded. Following incubation with each of the respective pyrene lipids, only the administered compound and the pyrene ceramide were present; intermediate hydrolysis products were not detected. This indicated that, in skin fibroblasts, the lysosomal ceramidase was limiting and controlled the rate of total degradation of the pyrene sphingolipids.

  18. Functional roles of short sequence motifs in the endocytosis of membrane receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2009-01-01

    Internalization and trafficking of cell-surface membrane receptors and proteins into subcellular compartments is mediated by specific short-sequence signal motifs, which are usually located within the cytoplasmic domains of these receptor and protein molecules. The signals usually consist of short linear amino acid sequences, which are recognized by adaptor coat proteins along the endocytic and sorting pathways. The complex arrays of signals and recognition proteins ensure the dynamic movement, accurate trafficking, and designated distribution of transmembrane receptors and ligands into intracellular compartments, particularly to the endosomal-lysosomal system. This review summarizes the new information and concepts, integrating them with the current and established views of endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and sorting of membrane receptors and proteins. Particular emphasis has been given to the functional roles of short-sequence signal motifs responsible for the itinerary and destination of membrane receptors and proteins moving into the subcellular compartments. The specific characteristics and functions of short-sequence motifs, including various tyrosine-based, dileucine-type, and other short-sequence signals in the trafficking and sorting of membrane receptors and membrane proteins are presented and discussed. PMID:19482617

  19. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of the Rat 175-kDa Hyaluronan Receptor for Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Weigel, Janet A.; Saxena, Amit; Weigel, Paul H.

    2002-01-01

    We recently purified the rat liver hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (HARE) and found abundant expression of 175- and ∼300-kDa HARE species in sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. We report herein the first cloning and functional expression of the rat 175-kDa HARE. Peptide sequences were obtained from the purified 175-kDa HARE, and degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and cDNA cloning. Results of 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Northern analysis, N-terminal sequence, and antibody reactivity analyses indicated the absence of mRNA directly encoding the 175-kDa HARE. This protein is most likely derived from a larger precursor. Accordingly, we constructed an artificial 4.7-kb cDNA encoding the 1431 amino acid 175-kDa HARE. The predicted type I membrane protein has a mass of 156,393 Da and a pI of 7.86. The 175-kDa HARE cDNA, fused to the N-terminal leader sequence of the Ig κ-chain, was transfected transiently into COS-7 cells and stably into SK-Hep-1 cells, respectively, to assess hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding activity and endocytosis. In both cases, HARE expression and HA-binding activity were detected. Furthermore, stable SK-175HARE cells demonstrated specific endocytosis of 125I-HA and receptor recycling. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis confirmed that recombinant HARE was expressed on the cell surface and that fluorescent HA uptake was inhibited by a specific blocking monoclonal antibody against HARE. Additionally, HARE was substantially colocalized with clathrin, but not with internalized HA that was delivered to lysosomes. The results confirm that recombinant 175-kDa HARE is an authentic endocytic receptor for HA and that this receptor can function independently of the ∼300-kDa HARE. HARE is the first functionally identified member of a protein family that shares a similar organization of Fasciclin, epidermal growth factor-like, Xlink, and transmembrane domains. PMID:12181351

  20. The Novel Caspase-3 Substrate Gap43 is Involved in AMPA Receptor Endocytosis and Long-Term Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Meng-Hsuan; Jiao, Song; Jia, Jie-Min; Chen, Yong; Chen, Cai Yun; Gucek, Marjan; Markey, Sanford P.; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The cysteine protease caspase-3, best known as an executioner of cell death in apoptosis, also plays a non-apoptotic role in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent long-term depression of synaptic transmission (NMDAR-LTD) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor endocytosis in neurons. The mechanism by which caspase-3 regulates LTD and AMPA receptor endocytosis, however, remains unclear. Here, we addressed this question by using an enzymatic N-terminal peptide enrichment method and mass spectrometry to identify caspase-3 substrates in neurons. Of the many candidates revealed by this proteomic study, we have confirmed BASP1, Dbn1, and Gap43 as true caspase-3 substrates. Moreover, in hippocampal neurons, Gap43 mutants deficient in caspase-3 cleavage inhibit AMPA receptor endocytosis and LTD. We further demonstrated that Gap43, a protein well-known for its functions in axons, is also localized at postsynaptic sites. Our study has identified Gap43 as a key caspase-3 substrate involved in LTD and AMPA receptor endocytosis, uncovered a novel postsynaptic function for Gap43 and provided new insights into how long-term synaptic depression is induced. PMID:24023391

  1. Effect of the anti-receptor ligand-blocking 225 monoclonal antibody on EGF receptor endocytosis and sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, Maria L. . E-mail: maria.jaramillo@nrc.ca; Leon, Zully; Grothe, Suzanne; Paul-Roc, Beatrice; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; O'Connor McCourt, Maureen

    2006-09-10

    The anti-receptor antibody, 225 mAb, is known to block binding of ligand to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the effect of this neutralizing antibody on EGFR endocytosis, trafficking and degradation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endocytosis of {sup 125}I-225 mAb occurs, albeit with a slower rate than that of EGF. Using pulse chase assays, we show that internalized {sup 125}I-225 mAb is recycled to the surface much more efficiently than internalized {sup 125}I-EGF. Also, we found that internalization of {sup 125}I-225 mAb, in contrast to that of EGF, is independent of receptor tyrosine kinase activity, as evidenced by its insensitivity to AG1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Analysis of the levels of cell surface and total EGFR showed that treatment with 225 mAb results in a 30-40% decrease in surface EGFR and a relatively slow downregulation of total EGFR. Taken together, these data indicate that 225 mAb induces internalization and downregulation of EGFR via a mechanism distinct from that underlying EGF-induced EGFR internalization and downregulation.

  2. Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling by Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Patrick; Schooler, Kevin; Wiley, H S.

    2001-06-01

    Ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leads to its rapid internalization and eventual delivery to lysosomes. This process is thought to be a mechanism to attenuate signaling, but signals could potentially be generated following endocytosis. To directly evaluate EGFR signaling during receptor trafficking, we developed a technique to rapidly and selectively isolate internalized EGFR and associated molecules using reversibly-biotinylated anti-EGFR antibodies. In addition, we developed antibodies specific to tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR. Using a combination of fluorescence imaging and affinity precipitation approaches, we evaluated the state of EGFR activation and substrate association during trafficking in epithelial cells. We found that following internalization, EGFR remained active in the early endosomes. However, receptors were inactivated prior to degradation, apparently due to ligand removal from endosomes. Adapter molecules, such as Shc, were associated with EGFR both at the cell surface and within endosomes. Some molecules, such as Grb2, were primarily found associated with surface EGFR, while others, such as Eps8, were only found with intracellular receptors. During the inactivation phase, c-Cbl became EGFR-associated, consistent with its postulated role in receptor attenuation. We conclude that the association of the EGFR with different proteins is compartment-specific . In addition, ligand loss is the proximal cause of EGFR inactivation. Thus, regulated trafficking could potentially influence the pattern as well as the duration of signal transduction.

  3. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on receptor mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.A.; Kragskow, S.L.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have previously shown that acute and chronic ethanol administration decreases hepatic glycoprotein secretion and membrane biogenesis. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of chronic ethanol feeding on receptor-mediated endocytosis using the endocytosis of ASOR as a model system. Rats were fed either rat chow ad lib or pair-fed with Lieber-DeCarli diet (ethanol or isocaloric glucose as 36% of total calories) for 5 to 7 weeks. Binding of /sup 125/I ASOR to isolated hepatocytes was studied at 0-4/sup 0/C. Internalization (cell-associated acid precipitable radioactivity) and degradation (acid soluble radioactivity) were determined at 37/sup 0/C for periods up to 240 min. Results were expressed as pmoles ASOR bound, degraded or internalized/10/sup 6/ cells. In ethanol-fed rats the number of pmoles ASOR bound/10/sup 6/ cells was decreased by 40-50% (p< 0.01) as compared to pair-fed and chow-fed animals. Rates of degradation and internalization of the ligand were also 50-70% lower (p< 0.01) in chronic ethanol-treated animals. No significant differences were observed for either binding or internalization of ASOR between chow-fed and pair-fed animals. These results indicate that chronic ethanol feeding decreases internalization and degradation of ASOR in rat hepatocytes.

  4. Differential endocytosis and signaling dynamics of insulin receptor variants IR-A and IR-B.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Jimena; Leskow, Federico Coluccio; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J; Jovin, Thomas M; Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A

    2011-03-01

    Insulin signaling comprises a complex cascade of events, playing a key role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and cellular growth. Impaired response to insulin is the hallmark of diabetes, whereas upregulated insulin activity occurs in many cancers. Two splice variants of the insulin receptor (IR) exist in mammals: IR-A, lacking exon 11, and full-length IR-B. Although considerable biochemical data exist on insulin binding and downstream signaling, little is known about the dynamics of the IR itself. We created functional IR transgenes fused with visible fluorescent proteins for use in combination with biotinamido-caproyl insulin and streptavidin quantum dots. Using confocal and structured illumination microscopy, we visualized the endocytosis of both isoforms in living and fixed cells and demonstrated a higher rate of endocytosis of IR-A than IR-B. These differences correlated with higher and sustained activation of IR-A in response to insulin and with distinctive ERK1/2 activation profiles and gene transcription regulation. In addition, cells expressing IR-B showed higher AKT phosphorylation after insulin stimulation than cells expressing IR-A. Taken together, these results suggest that IR signaling is dependent on localization; internalized IRs regulate mitogenic activity, whereas metabolic balance signaling occurs at the cell membrane. PMID:21303927

  5. Ligand-induced mu opioid receptor endocytosis and recycling in enteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Minnis, J G; Patierno, S; Kohlmeier, S E; Brecha, N C; Tonini, M; Sternini, C

    2003-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to investigate endocytosis and recycling of the native mu opioid receptor (muOR) in enteric neurons. Isolated segments of the guinea-pig ileum were exposed to increasing concentrations of muOR agonists at 4 degrees C to allow ligand binding and warming to 37 degrees C for 0 min (baseline) to 6 h in ligand-free medium to allow receptor internalization and recycling. The endogenous ligand, [Met]enkephalin, and [D-Ala(2),MePhe(4),Gly-ol(5)] enkephalin (DAMGO), an opioid analog, and the alkaloids, etorphine and fentanyl, induced rapid internalization of muOR immunoreactivity in enteric neurons, whereas morphine did not. muOR internalization was prevented by muOR antagonists. Basal levels of muOR immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm were 10.52+/-2.05%. DAMGO (1 nM-100 microM) induced a concentration-dependent increase of muOR immunofluorescence density in the cytoplasm to a maximum of 84.37+/-2.26%. Translocation of muOR immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm was detected at 2 min, reached the maximum at 15-30 min, remained at similar levels for 2 h, began decreasing at 4 h, and was at baseline values at 6 h. A second exposure to DAMGO (100 nM) following recovery of internalized muOR immunoreactivity at the cell surface induced a translocation of muOR immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm comparable to the one observed following the first exposure (46.89+/-3.11% versus 43.31+/-3.80%). muOR internalization was prevented by hyperosmolar sucrose, phenylarsine oxide or potassium depletion, which inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis. muOR recycling was prevented by pre-treatment with bafilomycin A1, an acidotropic agent that inhibits endosomal acidification, but not by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. This study shows that native muOR in enteric neurons undergoes ligand-selective endocytosis, which is primarily clathrin-mediated, and recycles following endosomal acidification. Following recycling, muOR is activated and internalized by DAMGO indicating that recycled receptors are functional. PMID:12763066

  6. Ligand-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of the insulin-like growth factor receptor I and insulin receptor modulate receptor function.

    PubMed

    Morcavallo, Alaide; Stefanello, Manuela; Iozzo, Renato V; Belfiore, Antonino; Morrione, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor system and its two major receptors, the IGF receptor I (IGF-IR) and IR, plays a central role in a variety of physiological cellular processes including growth, differentiation, motility, and glucose homeostasis. The IGF-IR is also essential for tumorigenesis through its capacity to protect cancer cells from apoptosis. The IR is expressed in two isoforms: the IR isoform A (IR-A) and isoform B (IR-B). While the role of the IR-B in the regulation of metabolic effects has been known for several years, more recent evidence suggests that the IR, and in particular the IR-A, may be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Ligand-mediated endocytosis of tyrosine-kinases receptors plays a critical role in modulating the duration and intensity of receptors action but while the signaling pathways induced by the IGF-IR and IR are quite characterized, very little is still known about the mechanisms and proteins that regulate ligand-induced IGF-IR and IR endocytosis and trafficking. In addition, how these processes affect receptor downstream signaling has not been fully characterized. Here, we discuss the current understanding of the mechanisms and proteins regulating IGF-IR and IR endocytosis and sorting and their implications in modulating ligand-induced biological responses. PMID:25566192

  7. Ligand-Mediated Endocytosis and Trafficking of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor I and Insulin Receptor Modulate Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Morcavallo, Alaide; Stefanello, Manuela; Iozzo, Renato V.; Belfiore, Antonino; Morrione, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor system and its two major receptors, the IGF receptor I (IGF-IR) and IR, plays a central role in a variety of physiological cellular processes including growth, differentiation, motility, and glucose homeostasis. The IGF-IR is also essential for tumorigenesis through its capacity to protect cancer cells from apoptosis. The IR is expressed in two isoforms: the IR isoform A (IR-A) and isoform B (IR-B). While the role of the IR-B in the regulation of metabolic effects has been known for several years, more recent evidence suggests that the IR, and in particular the IR-A, may be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Ligand-mediated endocytosis of tyrosine-kinases receptors plays a critical role in modulating the duration and intensity of receptors action but while the signaling pathways induced by the IGF-IR and IR are quite characterized, very little is still known about the mechanisms and proteins that regulate ligand-induced IGF-IR and IR endocytosis and trafficking. In addition, how these processes affect receptor downstream signaling has not been fully characterized. Here, we discuss the current understanding of the mechanisms and proteins regulating IGF-IR and IR endocytosis and sorting and their implications in modulating ligand-induced biological responses. PMID:25566192

  8. Endocytosis and trafficking of BMP receptors: Regulatory mechanisms for fine-tuning the signaling response in different cellular contexts.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2016-02-01

    Signaling by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors is regulated at multiple levels in order to ensure proper interpretation of BMP stimuli in different cellular settings. As with other signaling receptors, regulation of the amount of exposed and signaling-competent BMP receptors at the plasma-membrane is predicted to be a key mechanism in governing their signaling output. Currently, the endocytosis of BMP receptors is thought to resemble that of the structurally related transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors, as BMP receptors are constitutively internalized (independently of ligand binding), with moderate kinetics, and mostly via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Also similar to TGF-β receptors, BMP receptors are able to signal from the plasma membrane, while internalization to endosomes may have a signal modulating effect. When at the plasma membrane, BMP receptors localize to different membrane domains including cholesterol rich domains and caveolae, suggesting a complex interplay between membrane distribution and internalization. An additional layer of complexity stems from the putative regulatory influence on the signaling and trafficking of BMP receptors exerted by ligand traps and/or co-receptors. Furthermore, the trafficking and signaling of BMP receptors are subject to alterations in cellular context. For example, genetic diseases involving changes in the expression of auxiliary factors of endocytic pathways hamper retrograde BMP signals in neurons, and perturb the regulation of synapse formation. This review summarizes current understanding of the trafficking of BMP receptors and discusses the role of trafficking in regulation of BMP signals. PMID:26776724

  9. A simple method to evaluate the optimal size of nanoparticles for endocytosis based on kinetic diffusion of receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlei; Xing, Da

    2010-10-01

    We have presented an analytic thermodynamic model to elucidate the mechanism of receptor-mediated endocytosis of nanoparticles (NPs) and provided a simple method to evaluate the optimal size of NPs by minimizing the kinetic diffusion time of the free receptors around the bound region toward the contact surface with NPs. It is found that the average density of receptors and chemical energy release upon the binding of a ligand-receptor pair determine the optimal size of NPs if the bending modulus of membranes and the cross-sectional area of the receptor are constants. The optimal radius of NPs can be calculated based on our model.

  10. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human {beta}-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3{percent} of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of {beta}-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14{percent} the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

  11. Systemic blockade of the hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis prevents lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Melanie A; Weigel, Janet A; Weigel, Paul H

    2012-09-01

    Tumor progression and metastasis are promoted by the remodeling of organized tissue architecture and engagement of molecular interactions that support tumor cell passage through endothelial barriers. Prostate tumor cells that secrete and turn over excessive quantities of pericellular hyaluronan (HA) exhibit accelerated growth kinetics and spontaneous lymph node metastasis in mice. The HA receptor for endocytosis (HARE) is an endocytic clearance receptor for HA in the liver that is also highly expressed in sinusoidal endothelium of lymph nodes and bone marrow, which are frequent sites of prostate cancer metastasis. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that HARE can act as an endothelial receptor for metastatic tumor cells with pericellular HA. In an orthotopic mouse model of prostate cancer, we delivered a monoclonal antibody against HARE that specifically blocks HA binding and internalization. This treatment fully blocked the formation of metastatic tumors in lymph nodes. No effects on primary tumor growth were observed and the antibody did not induce toxic outcomes in any other tissue. Our results implicate HARE for the first time in potentiation of tumor metastasis and suggest a novel mechanism by which tumor cell-associated HA could promote tissue-specific dissemination. "Published 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a US Government work, and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America." PMID:22234863

  12. Lipid Raft-Dependent FcεRI Ubiquitination Regulates Receptor Endocytosis through the Action of Ubiquitin Binding Adaptors

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Laura; Piccoli, Mario; Frati, Luigi; Santoni, Angela; Paolini, Rossella

    2009-01-01

    The best characterized role for ubiquitination of membrane receptors is to negatively regulate signaling by targeting receptors for lysosomal degradation. The high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) expressed on mast cells and basophils is rapidly ubiquitinated upon antigen stimulation. However, the nature and the role of this covalent modification are still largelly unknown. Here, we show that FcεRI subunits are preferentially ubiquitinated at multiple sites upon stimulation, and provide evidence for a role of ubiquitin as an internalization signal: under conditions of impaired receptor ubiquitination a decrease of receptor entry is observed by FACS analysis and fluorescence microscopy. We also used biochemical approaches combined with fluorescence microscopy, to demonstrate that receptor endocytosis requires the integrity of specific membrane domains, namely lipid rafts. Additionally, by RNA interference we demonstrate the involvement of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors in FcεRI internalization and sorting. Notably, the triple depletion of Eps15, Eps15R and Epsin1 negatively affects the early steps of Ag-induced receptor endocytosis, whereas Hrs depletion retains ubiquitinated receptors into early endosomes and partially prevents their sorting into lysosomes for degradation. Our results are compatible with a scenario in which the accumulation of engaged receptor subunits into lipid rafts is required for receptor ubiquitination, a prerequisite for efficient receptor internalization, sorting and delivery to a lysosomal compartment. PMID:19440386

  13. Endocytosis and ligand dissociation and degradation mediated by the hepatic galactosyl receptor occur via two different pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, P.H.; Clarke, B.L.; Oka, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Isolated rat hepatocytes express two distinct populations of surface Galactosyl receptor activity, measured by the binding of /sup 125/I-asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR), which they designate State 1 and State 2. Freshly isolated cells express only state 1 receptors. Cells equilibrated at 37/sup 0/C also express State 2 receptors, which represent 50-80% of the total surface activity. In the absence of ligand, State 2 receptor activity is reversibly decreased by metabolic energy poisons, low temperature and microtubule drugs, whereas State 1 receptor activity is unaffected. Endocytosis of /sup 125/I-ASOR by State 1 receptors is followed by a slow dissociation of /sup 125/I-ASOR from receptor but the immediate release of acid soluble degradation products. In contrast, State 2 receptors mediate endocytosis which involves a rapid dissociation step but a 20 min lag, prior to the release of degradation products. Both pathways follow first order kinetics and are functional under steady state conditions indicating coordinated receptor recycling. Degradation mediated by both pathways is inhibited by leupeptin and chloroquine. The State 1 and 2 pathways can be further differentiated by the greater sensitivity of the latter to microtubule drugs. These results suggest that there are either structurally different native receptors or that identical receptors are directed into two different functional pathways, for example by interaction with different types of coated pits.

  14. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria.

    PubMed

    Seliverstova, E V; Prutskova, N P

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes), and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals. PMID:26150156

  15. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Lysozyme in Renal Proximal Tubules of the Frog Rana Temporaria

    PubMed Central

    Seliverstova, E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endo-somes), and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intra-cellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals. PMID:26150156

  16. [Functional dissociation between apelin receptor signaling and endocytosis: implications for the effects of apelin on arterial blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Iturrioz, X; El Messari, S; De Mota, N; Fassot, C; Alvear-Perez, R; Maigret, B; Llorens-Cortes, C

    2007-08-01

    Apelin is a peptide involved in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions, that was recently isolated as the endogenous ligand for the human orphan APJ receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor which shares 31% amino-acid sequence identity with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. The predominant molecular forms of apelin naturally occuring in vivo are apelin 36, apelin 17 (K17F) and the pyroglutamyl form of apelin 13 (pE13F). We investigated the structure-activity relationships of apelin at the rat apelin receptor, tagged at its C-terminal end with enhanced green fluorescent protein and stably expressed in CHO cells. We compared the abilities of N- and C-terminal deleted fragments of K17F (KFRRQRPRLSHKGPMPF) to bind with high affinity to the apelin receptor, to inhibit cAMP production and to induce apelin receptor internalization. The first five N-terminal and the last two C-terminal amino acids of K17F were not essential for apelin binding or cAMP response. In contrast, deletion of the arginine in position 6 drastically decreased binding and cAMP response. The full-length sequence of K17F was the most potent inducer of apelin receptor internalization because successive N-terminal amino-acid deletions progressively reduced internalization and the removal of a single amino acid, the phenylalanine in position 17 at the C-terminus of K17F abolished this process. Thus, K16P binds with high affinity to the apelin receptor and strongly inhibits cAMP production, but does not induce apelin receptor endocytosis. These data indicate that apelin receptor signaling (coupling to Gi) and endocytosis are functionally dissociated, possibly reflecting the existence of several conformational states of this receptor, stabilized by the binding of different apelin fragments to the receptor. We then investigated the consequences for biological activity of this functional dissociation by evaluating the effects of various apelin fragments, injected iv, on arterial blood pressure in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats. We showed that apelin fragments, that did not induce receptor internalization in vitro but kept their ability to activate receptor coupling to Gi, did not decrease arterial blood pressure. Our data showed that hypotensive actions of apelin peptides correlate with the ability of those ligands to internalize. Thus, the depressor response of apelin may be controlled by apelin receptor endocytosis, which is probably required for initiation of a second wave of signal transduction. The development of biaised agonists of the apelin receptor capable of promoting only one specific signal transduction pathway may therefore offer new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:17928781

  17. Scavenger Receptor Mediated Endocytosis of Silver Nanoparticles into J774A.1 Macrophages is Heterogeneous

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyun; Wu, Linxi; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the scavenger receptor mediated uptake and subsequent intracellular spatial distribution and clustering of 57.7 ± 6.9 nm diameter silver nanoparticles (zeta-potential = −28.4 mV) in the murine macrophage cell line J774A.1 through colorimetric imaging. The NPs exhibited an overall red-shift of the plasmon resonance wavelength in the cell ensemble as function of time and concentration, indicative of intracellular NP agglomeration. A detailed analysis of the NP clustering in individual cells revealed a strong phenotypic variability in the intracellular NP organization on the single cell level. Throughout the observation time of 24h cells containing non- or low-agglomerated NPs with a characteristic blue color coexisted with cells containing NPs with varying degrees of agglomeration, as evinced by distinct spectral shifts of their resonance wavelengths. Pharmacological inhibition studies indicated that the observed differences in intracellular NP organization resulted from coexisting actin- and clathrin-dependent endocytosis mechanisms in the macrophage population. Correlation of intracellular NP clustering with macrophage maturity marker (F4/80, CD14) expression revealed that differentiated J774A.1 cells preferentially contained compact NP agglomerates, whereas monocyte-like macrophages contained non-agglomerated NPs. PMID:22799499

  18. Low temperature blocks fluid-phase pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, R C; Soares, M J

    2000-05-01

    Gold-labeled albumin and transferrin were used to follow at the ultrastructural level the early events and the effect of low temperature on protein uptake by Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. In parasites incubated for 5 min at 28 degrees C with protein-gold complexes, extracellular markers were found only at the cytostome and/or the flagellar pocket regions, whereas intracellular gold particles were detected inside small uncoated vesicles located nearby. Within 10 min, labeling was also observed in uncoated vesicles close to the nucleus. Only after 30 min could the tracers be detected in the reservosomes. Weak labeling in the cytostome and flagellar pocket of parasites incubated at 4 degrees C with the albumin-gold solution indicated that albumin uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis. On the other hand, intense labeling at the cytostome was observed in parasites incubated at 4 degrees C with gold-labeled transferrin, showing that receptor-mediated endocytosis occurs mainly at this site. Both proteins were absent from the cells at 4 degrees C and 12 degrees C. Raising the temperature from 12 degrees C to 28 degrees C led to transferrin labeling in intracellular vesicles dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, but not in reservosomes. Our results suggest that low temperatures affect the transport and pinching of endocytic vesicles as well as the rate of delivery of transferrin to reservosomes. PMID:10836515

  19. Endocytosis separates EGF receptors from endogenous fluorescently labeled HRas and diminishes receptor signaling to MAP kinases in endosomes.

    PubMed

    Pinilla-Macua, Itziar; Watkins, Simon C; Sorkin, Alexander

    2016-02-23

    Signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to extracellular-stimuli-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is proposed to be transduced not only from the cell surface but also from endosomes, although the role of endocytosis in this signaling pathway is controversial. Ras is the only membrane-anchored component in the EGFR-ERK signaling axis, and therefore, its location determines intracellular sites of downstream signaling. Hence, we labeled endogenous H-Ras (HRas) with mVenus fluorescent protein using gene editing in HeLa cells. mVenus-HRas was primarily located at the plasma membrane, and in small amounts in tubular recycling endosomes and associated vesicles. EGF stimulation resulted in fast but transient activation of mVenus-HRas. Although EGF:EGFR complexes were rapidly accumulated in endosomes together with the Grb2 adaptor, very little, if any, mVenus-HRas was detected in these endosomes. Interestingly, the activities of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 remained high beyond the point of the physical separation of HRas from EGF:EGFR complexes and down-regulation of Ras activity. Paradoxically, this sustained MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation was dependent on the active EGFR kinase. Cell surface biotinylation and selective inactivation of surface EGFRs suggested that a small fraction of active EGFRs remaining in the plasma membrane is responsible for continuous signaling to MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. We propose that, under physiological conditions of cell stimulation, EGFR endocytosis serves to spatially separate EGFR-Grb2 complexes and Ras, thus terminating Ras-mediated signaling. However, sustained minimal activation of Ras by a small pool of active EGFRs in the plasma membrane is sufficient for extending MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activities. PMID:26858456

  20. HDL endocytosis and resecretion☆

    PubMed Central

    Röhrl, Clemens; Stangl, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    HDL removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and delivers it to the liver and steroidogenic tissues via selective lipid uptake without catabolism of the HDL particle itself. In addition, endocytosis of HDL holo-particles has been debated for nearly 40 years. However, neither the connection between HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake, nor the physiological relevance of HDL uptake has been delineated clearly. This review will focus on HDL endocytosis and resecretion and its relation to cholesterol transfer. We will discuss the role of HDL endocytosis in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in tissues and cell types involved in atherosclerosis, focusing on liver, macrophages and endothelium. We will critically summarize the current knowledge on the receptors mediating HDL endocytosis including SR-BI, F1-ATPase and CD36 and on intracellular HDL transport routes. Dependent on the tissue, HDL is either resecreted (retro-endocytosis) or degraded after endocytosis. Finally, findings on HDL transcytosis across the endothelial barrier will be summarized. We suggest that HDL endocytosis and resecretion is a rather redundant pathway under physiologic conditions. In case of disturbed lipid metabolism, however, HDL retro-endocytosis represents an alternative pathway that enables tissues to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:23939397

  1. Avr4 promotes Cf-4 receptor-like protein association with the BAK1/SERK3 receptor-like kinase to initiate receptor endocytosis and plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Postma, Jelle; Liebrand, Thomas W H; Bi, Guozhi; Evrard, Alexandre; Bye, Ruby R; Mbengue, Malick; Kuhn, Hannah; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-04-01

    The first layer of plant immunity is activated by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and proteins (RLPs) that detect infectious pathogens. Constitutive interaction with the SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1 (SOBIR1) RLK contributes to RLP stability and kinase activity. As RLK activation requires transphosphorylation with a second associated RLK, it remains elusive how RLPs initiate downstream signaling. We employed live-cell imaging, gene silencing and coimmunoprecipitation to investigate the requirement of associated kinases for functioning and ligand-induced subcellular trafficking of Cf RLPs that mediate immunity of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum. Our research shows that after elicitation with matching effector ligands Avr4 and Avr9, BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1/SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE 3 (BAK1/SERK3) associates with Cf-4 and Cf-9. BAK1/SERK3 is required for the effector-triggered hypersensitive response and resistance of tomato against C. fulvum. Furthermore, Cf-4 interacts with SOBIR1 at the plasma membrane and is recruited to late endosomes upon Avr4 trigger, also depending on BAK1/SERK3. These observations indicate that RLP-mediated resistance and endocytosis require ligand-induced recruitment of BAK1/SERK3, reminiscent of BAK1/SERK3 interaction and subcellular fate of the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) RLK. This reveals that diverse classes of cell surface immune receptors share common requirements for initiation of resistance and endocytosis. PMID:26765243

  2. MAP1B-dependent Rac activation is required for AMPA receptor endocytosis during long-term depression

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, Marion; Palenzuela, Rocío; Rozas, Carlos; Rojas, Patricio; Tortosa, Elena; Morales, Bernardo; González-Billault, Christian; Ávila, Jesús; Esteban, José A

    2013-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) plays critical roles in neurite growth and synapse maturation during brain development. This protein is well expressed in the adult brain. However, its function in mature neurons remains unknown. We have used a genetically modified mouse model and shRNA techniques to assess the role of MAP1B at established synapses, bypassing MAP1B functions during neuronal development. Under these conditions, we found that MAP1B deficiency alters synaptic plasticity by specifically impairing long-term depression (LTD) expression. Interestingly, this is due to a failure to trigger AMPA receptor endocytosis and spine shrinkage during LTD. These defects are accompanied by an impaired targeting of the Rac1 activator Tiam1 at synaptic compartments. Accordingly, LTD and AMPA receptor endocytosis are restored in MAP1B-deficient neurons by providing additional Rac1. Therefore, these results indicate that the MAP1B-Tiam1-Rac1 relay is essential for spine structural plasticity and removal of AMPA receptors from synapses during LTD. This work highlights the importance of MAPs as signalling hubs controlling the actin cytoskeleton and receptor trafficking during plasticity in mature neurons. PMID:23881099

  3. The human hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (HARE/Stabilin-2) is a systemic clearance receptor for heparin.

    PubMed

    Harris, Edward N; Weigel, Janet A; Weigel, Paul H

    2008-06-20

    The hyaluronic acid receptor for endocytosis (HARE; also designated Stabilin-2) mediates systemic clearance of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates from the vascular and lymphatic circulations. The internalized glycosaminoglycans are degraded in lysosomes, thus completing their normal turnover process. Sinusoidal endothelial cells of human liver, lymph node, and spleen express two HARE isoforms of 315 and 190 kDa. Here we report that the 190- and 315-kDa HARE isoforms, expressed stably either in Flp-In 293 cell lines or as soluble ectodomains, specifically bind heparin (Hep). The K(d) for Hep binding to purified 190- and 315-kDa HARE ectodomains was 17.2 +/- 4.9 and 23.4 +/- 5.3 nm, respectively. Cells expressing HARE readily and specifically internalized (125)I-streptavidin-biotin-Hep complexes, which was inhibited >70% by hyperosmolar conditions, confirming that uptake is mediated by the clathrin-coated pit pathway. Internalization of Hep occurred for many hours with an estimated HARE recycling time of approximately 12 min. Internalized fluorescent streptavidin-biotin-Hep was present in a typical endocytic vesicular pattern and was delivered to lysosomes. We conclude that HARE in the sinusoidal endothelial cells of lymph nodes and liver likely mediates the efficient systemic clearance of Hep and many different Hep-binding protein complexes from the lymphatic and vascular circulations. PMID:18434317

  4. Dynamin 2-dependent endocytosis sustains T-cell receptor signaling and drives metabolic reprogramming in T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Willinger, Tim; Staron, Matthew; Ferguson, Shawn M.; De Camilli, Pietro; Flavell, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling is required for the proliferation of T lymphocytes. Ligation of the TCR activates signaling, but also causes internalization of the TCR from the cell surface. How TCR signaling is sustained for many hours despite lower surface expression is unknown. Using genetic inhibition of endocytosis, we show here that TCR internalization promotes continued TCR signaling and T-lymphocyte proliferation. T-cell–specific deletion of dynamin 2, an essential component of endocytosis, resulted in reduced TCR signaling strength, impaired homeostatic proliferation, and the inability to undergo clonal expansion in vivo. Blocking endocytosis resulted in a failure to maintain mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and to stably induce the transcription factor myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc), which led to metabolic stress and a defect in cell growth. Our results support the concept that the TCR can continue to signal after it is internalized from the cell surface, thereby enabling sustained signaling and cell proliferation. PMID:25831514

  5. Mechanism-Based Tumor-Targeting Drug Delivery System. Validation of Efficient Vitamin Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Drug Release

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Wong, S.; Zhao, X.; Chen, J.; Chen, J.; Kuznetsova, L.; Ojima, I.

    2010-05-01

    An efficient mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system, based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis, has been developed. The tumor-targeting drug delivery system is a conjugate of a tumor-targeting molecule (biotin: vitamin H or vitamin B-7), a mechanism-based self-immolative linker and a second-generation taxoid (SB-T-1214) as the cytotoxic agent. This conjugate (1) is designed to be (i) specific to the vitamin receptors overexpressed on tumor cell surface and (ii) internalized efficiently through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by smooth drug release via glutathione-triggered self-immolation of the linker. In order to monitor and validate the sequence of events hypothesized, i.e., receptor-mediated endocytosis of the conjugate, drug release, and drug-binding to the target protein (microtubules), three fluorescent/fluorogenic molecular probes (2, 3, and 4) were designed and synthesized. The actual occurrence of these processes was unambiguously confirmed by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and flow cytometry using L1210FR leukemia cells, overexpressing biotin receptors. The molecular probe 4, bearing the taxoid linked to fluorescein, was also used to examine the cell specificity (i.e., efficacy of receptor-based cell targeting) for three cell lines, L1210FR (biotin receptors overexpressed), L1210 (biotin receptors not overexpressed), and WI38 (normal human lung fibroblast, biotin receptor negative). As anticipated, the molecular probe 4 exhibited high specificity only to L1210FR. To confirm the direct correlation between the cell-specific drug delivery and anticancer activity of the probe 4, its cytotoxicity against these three cell lines was also examined. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the two methods. In the same manner, excellent cell-specific cytotoxicity of the conjugate 1 (without fluorescein attachment to the taxoid) against the same three cell lines was confirmed. This mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system will find a range of applications.

  6. Mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system. Validation of efficient vitamin receptor-mediated endocytosis and drug release.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuyi; Zhao, Xianrui; Chen, Jingyi; Chen, Jin; Kuznetsova, Larisa; Wong, Stanislaus S; Ojima, Iwao

    2010-05-19

    An efficient mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system, based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis, has been developed. The tumor-targeting drug delivery system is a conjugate of a tumor-targeting molecule (biotin: vitamin H or vitamin B-7), a mechanism-based self-immolative linker and a second-generation taxoid (SB-T-1214) as the cytotoxic agent. This conjugate (1) is designed to be (i) specific to the vitamin receptors overexpressed on tumor cell surface and (ii) internalized efficiently through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by smooth drug release via glutathione-triggered self-immolation of the linker. In order to monitor and validate the sequence of events hypothesized, i.e., receptor-mediated endocytosis of the conjugate, drug release, and drug-binding to the target protein (microtubules), three fluorescent/fluorogenic molecular probes (2, 3, and 4) were designed and synthesized. The actual occurrence of these processes was unambiguously confirmed by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and flow cytometry using L1210FR leukemia cells, overexpressing biotin receptors. The molecular probe 4, bearing the taxoid linked to fluorescein, was also used to examine the cell specificity (i.e., efficacy of receptor-based cell targeting) for three cell lines, L1210FR (biotin receptors overexpressed), L1210 (biotin receptors not overexpressed), and WI38 (normal human lung fibroblast, biotin receptor negative). As anticipated, the molecular probe 4 exhibited high specificity only to L1210FR. To confirm the direct correlation between the cell-specific drug delivery and anticancer activity of the probe 4, its cytotoxicity against these three cell lines was also examined. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the two methods. In the same manner, excellent cell-specific cytotoxicity of the conjugate 1 (without fluorescein attachment to the taxoid) against the same three cell lines was confirmed. This mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system will find a range of applications. PMID:20429547

  7. Mechanisms of Toll-like Receptor 4 Endocytosis Reveal a Common Immune-Evasion Strategy Used by Pathogenic and Commensal Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yunhao; Zanoni, Ivan; Cullen, Thomas W; Goodman, Andrew L; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2015-11-17

    Microbe-induced receptor trafficking has emerged as an essential means to promote innate immune signal transduction. Upon detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), CD14 induces an inflammatory endocytosis pathway that delivers Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to endosomes. Although several regulators of CD14-dependent TLR4 endocytosis have been identified, the cargo-selection mechanism during this process remains unknown. We reveal that, in contrast to classic cytosolic interactions that promoted the endocytosis of transmembrane receptors, TLR4 was selected as cargo for inflammatory endocytosis entirely through extracellular interactions. Mechanistically, the extracellular protein MD-2 bound to and dimerized TLR4 in order to promote this endocytic event. Our analysis of LPS variants from human pathogens and gut commensals revealed a common mechanism by which bacteria prevent inflammatory endocytosis. We suggest that evasion of CD14-dependent endocytosis is an attribute that transcends the concept of pathogenesis and might be a fundamental feature of bacteria that inhabit eukaryotic hosts. PMID:26546281

  8. Delta and kappa opioid receptors as suitable drug targets for pain.

    PubMed

    Vanderah, Todd W

    2010-01-01

    Similar to mu opioid receptors, kappa and delta opioid receptors reside in the periphery, the dorsal root ganglion, the spinal cord, and in supraspinal regions associated with pain modulation. Both delta and kappa opioid agonists have been shown to activate pain inhibitory pathways in the central nervous system. Yet, currently there are only a few pharmacologic agents that target kappa receptors, and none that target delta receptors. Spurred by the need for an efficacious analgesic without the unwanted side effects associated with the typical clinical profile of mu opioid agonists, new research has provided insight into why the development of effective kappa and delta opioid receptor agonists has remained elusive thus far, and importantly, how these obstacles may be overcome. For example, for delta opioid agonists to be effective, a state of inflammation may be required as this induces delta opioid receptors to migrate to the surface of neuronal cells and thereby become accessible to delta opioid agonists. Studies have shown that delta opioid agonists can provide relief of inflammatory pain and malignant bone pain. Meanwhile, peripherally restricted kappa opioid agonists have been developed to target kappa opioid receptors located on visceral and somatic afferent nerves for relief of inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic chronic pain. The recently shown efficacy of these analgesics combined with a possible lower abuse potential and side effect burden than mu opioid receptor agonists makes delta and peripherally restricted kappa opioid receptor agonists promising targets for treating pain. PMID:20026960

  9. Zonal differences in ethanol-induced impairments in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.A.; Kragskow, S.L.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J. )

    1991-02-01

    We have shown previously that ethanol-induced defects in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid occurred as early as 1 wk after ethanol feeding. This study was undertaken as an initial attempt to establish a possible role of defective receptor-mediated endocytosis in liver injury by investigating whether differences exist in the effects of ethanol on receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatocytes isolated from different regions of the liver. Perivenule cells, present in the distal half of the liver, are thought to be more susceptible to ethanol-induced liver injury than are the periportal cells located in the proximal half of the liver acini. For these studies, we fed male Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days with liquid diets containing either ethanol (36% of calories) or isocaloric carbohydrate. Perivenule and periportal hepatocytes were then isolated using a digitonin-collagenase perfusion method. In control animals, cells isolated from the perivenule region bound significantly more ligand than did cells from the periportal region. Amounts of ligand internalized and degraded were also greater in perivenule than in periportal cells in these animals. After ethanol feeding, cells isolated from both the perivenule and periportal regions bound significantly less ligand than their respective controls. This impairment in surface and total binding was more pronounced in perivenule than in periportal cells. Internalization and degradation of the ligand were also more adversely affected in the centrilobular region as shown by decreases of greater than 60% in perivenule cells and by only 20% to 30% in periportal cells of ethanol-fed animals compared with controls.

  10. Syndecan-4 Is a Receptor for Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis of Arginine-Rich Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshimasa; Takeuchi, Toshihide; Kuwata, Keiko; Chiba, Junya; Hatanaka, Yasumaru; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Futaki, Shiroh

    2016-04-20

    Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) such as Tat and oligoarginine peptides have been widely used as carriers for intracellular delivery of bioactive molecules. Despite accumulating evidence for involvement of endocytosis in the cellular uptake of arginine-rich CPPs, the primary cell-surface receptors for these peptide carriers that would initiate endocytic processes leading to intracellular delivery of bioactive cargoes have remained poorly understood. Our previous attempt to identify membrane receptors for octa-arginine (R8) peptide, one of the representative arginine-rich CPPs, using the photo-cross-linking probe bearing a photoreactive diazirine was not successful due to considerable amounts of cellular proteins nonspecifically bound to the affinity beads. To address this issue, here we developed a photo-cross-linking probe in which a cleavable linker of a diazobenzene moiety was employed to allow selective elution of cross-linked proteins by reducing agent-mediated cleavage. We demonstrated that introduction of the diazobenzene moiety into the photoaffinity probe enables efficient purification of cross-linked proteins with significant reduction of nonspecific binding proteins, leading to successful identification of 17 membrane-associated proteins that would interact with R8 peptide. RNAi-mediated knockdown experiments in combination with the pharmacological inhibitors revealed that, among the proteins identified, syndecan-4, one of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, is an endogenous membrane-associated receptor for the cellular uptake of R8 peptide via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This syndecan-4-dependent pathway was also involved in the intracellular delivery of bioactive proteins mediated by R8 peptide. These results reveal that syndecan-4 is a primary cell-surface target for R8 peptide that allows intracellular delivery of bioactive cargo molecules via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PMID:27019270

  11. Transferrin receptor number, synthesis, and endocytosis during erythropoietin-induced maturation of Friend virus-infected erythroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, S.T.; Krantz, S.B.

    1986-07-15

    Erythropoietin (EP) responsive Friend virus-infected erythroid cells had 200,000 steady-state binding sites for transferrin at 37/sup 0/C when isolated from the spleens of Friend virus-infected mice. Upon culture of these cells with EP, the synthesis of transferrin receptors increased 4- to 7-fold and the number of transferrin-binding sites per cell doubled after 24 h. However, the rate of uptake of /sup 59/Fe from transferrin remained constant at approximately 35,000 atoms of /sup 59/Fe per minute per cell during this period in culture. The amount of /sup 125/I-transferrin internalized during the steady-state binding did not change during this culture period while the transferrin bound to the surface increased 3-fold. At all stages of erythroid maturation, the maximum rate of endocytosis was determined to be 18,000 molecules of transferrin per minute per cell, and the interval that /sup 125/I-transferrin remains in the interior of the cell was calculated to be 6.9 min. After 48 h of culture with EP, the number of steady-state transferrin-binding sites was reduced in part due to the sequestration of surface receptors within the cell. The uptake of iron from transferrin was limited by the level of endocytosis of transferrin during the initial phase of culture and the number of transferrin receptors at the cell surface during the latter stages of erythroid maturation of these cells.

  12. Antibody-Enhanced, Fc Gamma Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Clostridium difficile Toxin A▿

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiangyun; Sun, Xingmin; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Quanshun; Tzipori, Saul; Feng, Hanping

    2009-01-01

    Toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile. These two toxins intoxicate cultured cells by similar mechanisms, and TcdB generally is more potent than TcdA in cultured cells. The exact reason for this difference is unclear. Here, we report that the cellular effects of TcdA can be substantially enhanced via an opsonizing antibody through Fc gamma receptor I (FcγRI)-mediated endocytosis. A TcdA-specific monoclonal antibody, A1H3, was found to significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of TcdA to macrophages and monocytes. The A1H3-dependent enhancement of glucosyltransferase activity, cytoskeleton disruption, and tumor necrosis factor alpha production induced by TcdA was further demonstrated using RAW 264.7 cells. Subsequent experiments indicated that the interaction of FcγRI with A1H3 underlays the antibody-dependent enhancement of the cellular effects of TcdA. While blocking FcγRII and FcγRIII with anti-CD16/32 antibodies did not affect the TcdA-mediated glucosylation of Rac1 in RAW 264.7 cells, presaturation of FcγRI with anti-CD64 antibodies in THP1 cells significantly reduced this activity. Incubation of a TcdA-A1H3 immune complex with recombinant mouse CD64 completely abrogated the A1H3-mediated enhancement of the glucosyltransferase activity of TcdA in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, expression of FcγRI in CHO cells strikingly enhanced the sensitivity of these cells to TcdA complexed with A1H3. We showed that the presence of A1H3 facilitated cell surface recruitment of TcdA, contributing to the antibody-dependent, FcγRI-mediated enhancement of TcdA activity. Finally, studies using chlorpromazine and endosomal acidification inhibitors revealed an important role of the endocytic pathway in the A1H3-dependent enhancement of TcdA activity. PMID:19307220

  13. Adaptor protein 2 regulates receptor-mediated endocytosis and cyst formation in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Maria R; Vranych, Cecilia V; Bisbal, Mariano; Maletto, Belkys A; Ropolo, Andrea S; Touz, Maria C

    2010-05-15

    The parasite Giardia lamblia possesses PVs (peripheral vacuoles) that function as both endosomes and lysosomes and are implicated in the adaptation, differentiation and survival of the parasite in different environments. The mechanisms by which Giardia traffics essential proteins to these organelles and regulates their secretion have important implications in the control of parasite dissemination. In the present study, we describe the participation of the heterotetrameric clathrin-adaptor protein gAP2 (Giardia adaptor protein 2) complex in lysosomal protein trafficking. A specific monoclonal antibody against the medium subunit (gmu2) of gAP2 showed localization of this complex to the PVs, cytoplasm and plasma membrane in the growing trophozoites. gAP2 also co-localized with clathrin in the PVs, suggesting its involvement in endocytosis. Uptake experiments using standard molecules for the study of endocytosis revealed that gAP2 specifically participated in the endocytosis of LDL (low-density lipoprotein). Targeted down-regulation of the gene encoding gmu2 in growing and encysting trophozoites resulted in a large decrease in the amount of cell growth and cyst wall formation, suggesting a distinct mechanism in which gAP2 is directly involved in both endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. PMID:20199400

  14. Corticosterone suppresses vasotocin-enhanced clasping behavior in male rough-skinned newts by novel mechanisms interfering with V1a receptor availability and receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Audrey; Abraham, Emily; McEvoy, Erin; Sonnenfeld, Sarah; Lewis, Christine; Hubbard, Catherine S; Dolence, E Kurt; Rose, James D; Coddington, Emma

    2015-03-01

    In rough-skinned newts, Taricha granulosa, exposure to an acute stressor results in the rapid release of corticosterone (CORT), which suppresses the ability of vasotocin (VT) to enhance clasping behavior. CORT also suppresses VT-induced spontaneous activity and sensory responsiveness of clasp-controlling neurons in the rostromedial reticular formation (Rf). The cellular mechanisms underlying this interaction remain unclear. We hypothesized that CORT blocks VT-enhanced clasping by interfering with V1a receptor availability and/or VT-induced endocytosis. We administered a physiologically active fluorescent VT conjugated to Oregon Green (VT-OG) to the fourth ventricle 9 min after an intraperitoneal injection of CORT (0, 10, 40 ?g/0.1mL amphibian Ringers). The brains were collected 30 min post-VT-OG, fixed, and imaged with confocal microscopy. CORT diminished the number of endocytosed vesicles, percent area containing VT-OG, sum intensity of VT-OG, and the amount of VT-V1a within each vesicle; indicating that CORT was interfering with V1a receptor availability and VT-V1a receptor-mediated endocytosis. CORT actions were brain location-specific and season-dependent in a manner that is consistent with the natural and context-dependent expression of clasping behavior. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the Rf to CORT was much higher in animals during the breeding season, arguing for ethologically appropriate seasonal variation in CORT's ability to prevent VT-induced endocytosis. Our data are consistent with the time course and interaction effects of CORT and VT on clasping behavior and neurophysiology. CORT interference with VT-induced endocytosis may be a common mechanism employed by hormones across taxa for mediating rapid context- and season-specific behavioral responses. PMID:25528549

  15. CPG2 Recruits Endophilin B2 to the Cytoskeleton for Activity-Dependent Endocytosis of Synaptic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Loebrich, Sven; Benoit, Marc Robert; Konopka, Jaclyn Aleksandra; Cottrell, Jeffrey Richard; Gibson, Joanne; Nedivi, Elly

    2016-02-01

    Internalization of glutamate receptors at the postsynaptic membrane via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key mechanism for regulating synaptic strength. A role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in CME is well established, and recently, PKA-dependent association of candidate plasticity gene 2 (CPG2) with the spine-cytoskeleton has been shown to mediate synaptic glutamate receptor internalization. Yet, how the endocytic machinery is physically coupled to the actin cytoskeleton to facilitate glutamate receptor internalization has not been demonstrated. Moreover, there has been no distinction of endocytic-machinery components that are specific to activity-dependent versus constitutive glutamate receptor internalization. Here, we show that CPG2, through a direct physical interaction, recruits endophilin B2 (EndoB2) to F-actin, thus anchoring the endocytic machinery to the spine cytoskeleton and facilitating glutamate receptor internalization. Regulation of CPG2 binding to the actin cytoskeleton by protein kinase A directly impacts recruitment of EndoB2 and clathrin. Specific disruption of EndoB2 or the CPG2-EndoB2 interaction impairs activity-dependent, but not constitutive, internalization of both NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These results demonstrate that, through direct interactions with F-actin and EndoB2, CPG2 physically bridges the spine cytoskeleton and the endocytic machinery, and this tripartite association is critical specifically for activity-dependent CME of synaptic glutamate receptors. PMID:26776730

  16. Towards predicting the lung fibrogenic activity of MWCNT: Key role of endocytosis, kinase receptors and ERK 1/2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Vietti, Giulia; Ibouraadaten, Saloua; Palmai-Pallag, Mihaly; Yakoub, Yousof; Piret, Jean-Pascal; Marbaix, Etienne; Lison, Dominique; van den Brule, Sybille

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been reported to induce lung inflammation and fibrosis in rodents. We investigated the direct and indirect cellular mechanisms mediating the fibrogenic activity of multi-wall (MW) CNT on fibroblasts. We showed that MWCNT indirectly stimulate lung fibroblast (MLg) differentiation, via epithelial cells and macrophages, whereas no direct effect of MWCNT on fibroblast differentiation or collagen production was detected. MWCNT directly stimulated the proliferation of fibroblasts primed with low concentrations of growth factors, such as PDGF, TGF-β or EGF. MWCNT prolonged ERK 1/2 phosphorylation induced by low concentrations of PDGF or TGF-β in fibroblasts. This phenomenon and the proliferative activity of MWCNT on fibroblasts was abrogated by the inhibitors of ERK 1/2, PDGF-, TGF-β- and EGF-receptors. This activity was also reduced by amiloride, an endocytosis inhibitor. Finally, the lung fibrotic response to several MWCNT samples (different in length and diameter) correlated with their in vitro capacity to stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and to prolong ERK 1/2 signaling in these cells. Our findings point to a crosstalk between MWCNT, kinase receptors, ERK 1/2 signaling and endocytosis which stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts. The mechanisms of action identified in this study contribute to predict the fibrogenic potential of MWCNT. PMID:26444902

  17. Delta opioid receptors: reflexive, defensive and vocal affective responses in female rats.

    PubMed

    Haney, M; Miczek, K A

    1995-09-01

    Ultrasonic vocalizations may be an expression of the affective pain response in laboratory animals. The present experiment compares the effects of morphine to the delta agonist, DPDPE (D-Pen2,D-Pen5 enkephalin) on a range of reflexive, behavioral and affective responses during an aggressive interaction. In experiment 1, naive female Long-Evans rats received morphine (0, 1, 3, 6, 10 micrograms ICV), or DPDPE (0, 30, 60, 100 micrograms ICV). In experiment 2, female rats were treated with naltrindole (1.0 mg/kg IP) 20 min before DPDPE (0, 60, 100 micrograms ICV). The following endpoints were measured: (1) latency to tail flick in response to heat stimuli; (2) high (33-65 kHz) and low (20-32 kHz) frequency ultrasonic and audible vocalizations; (3) defensive behavior; and (4) motoric activity. Following a brief exposure to attack, rats were threatened by the aggressor but protected from further attack by a large, wire mesh cage, thereby allowing for continued behavioral and vocal measurement without the risk of physical injury; video and audio recordings were made during the attack and then during a portion of the protected encounter (2 min). Morphine suppressed pain reactions varying in complexity from a spinal reflex, to an organized escape reaction, to an affective vocal response. The delta agonist, DPDPE, attenuated high frequency ultrasonic calling and tail flick responding. Defensive behaviors were also modulated by DPDPE at doses that had no effect on walking or rearing, indicating behavioral specificity. By contrast, doses of morphine that decreased defensive upright and escape also decreased motor activity. In female rats, morphine and DPDPE share a common profile of effects on a range of functional end-points, but DPDPE appears to modulate more selectively the reactions related to aversiveness without exerting sedative effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8545526

  18. Restoration of Physiologically Responsive Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis in Genetically Deficient Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Venkat M.; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Tien, Kevin T.; McKinley, Thomas R.; Bocard, Braden R.; Maijub, John G.; Burchell, Patrick O.; Williams, Stuart K.; Morris, Marvin E.; Hoying, James B.; Wade-Martins, Richard; West, Franklin D.; Boyd, Nolan L.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring sufficient amounts of high-quality cells remains an impediment to cell-based therapies. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) may be an unparalleled source, but autologous iPSC likely retain deficiencies requiring correction. We present a strategy for restoring physiological function in genetically deficient iPSC utilizing the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficiency Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) as our model. FH fibroblasts were reprogrammed into iPSC using synthetic modified mRNA. FH-iPSC exhibited pluripotency and differentiated toward a hepatic lineage. To restore LDLR endocytosis, FH-iPSC were transfected with a 31 kb plasmid (pEHZ-LDLR-LDLR) containing a wild-type LDLR (FH-iPSC-LDLR) controlled by 10 kb of upstream genomic DNA as well as Epstein-Barr sequences (EBNA1 and oriP) for episomal retention and replication. After six months of selective culture, pEHZ-LDLR-LDLR was recovered from FH-iPSC-LDLR and transfected into Ldlr-deficient CHO-a7 cells, which then exhibited feedback-controlled LDLR-mediated endocytosis. To quantify endocytosis, FH-iPSC ± LDLR were differentiated into mesenchymal cells (MC), pretreated with excess free sterols, Lovastatin, or ethanol (control), and exposed to DiI-LDL. FH-MC-LDLR demonstrated a physiological response, with virtually no DiI-LDL internalization with excess sterols and an ~2-fold increase in DiI-LDL internalization by Lovastatin compared to FH-MC. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of functionalizing genetically deficient iPSC using episomal plasmids to deliver physiologically responsive transgenes. PMID:26307169

  19. Endocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae via the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor of epithelial cells relies on clathrin and caveolin dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Asmat, Tauseef M; Agarwal, Vaibhav; Saleh, Malek; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2014-11-01

    Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) is a prerequisite for bacterial dissemination and their capability to enter the bloodstream. Pneumococci have evolved various successful strategies to colonize the mucosal epithelial barrier of humans. A pivotal mechanism of host cell invasion implicated with invasive diseases is promoted by the interaction of pneumococcal PspC with the polymeric Ig-receptor (pIgR). However, the mechanism(s) of pneumococcal endocytosis and the intracellular route of pneumococci upon uptake by the PspC-pIgR-interaction are not known. Here, we demonstrate by using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors and genetics interference approaches the involvement of active dynamin-dependent caveolae and clathrin-coated vesicles for pneumococcal uptake via the PspC-pIgR mechanism. Depleting cholesterol from host cell membranes and disruption of lipid microdomains impaired pneumococcal internalization. Moreover, chemical inhibition of clathrin or functional inactivation of dynamin, caveolae or clathrin by RNA interference significantly affected pneumococcal internalization suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and caveolae are involved in the bacterial uptake process. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of pIgR-expressing epithelial cells infected with pneumococci or heterologous Lactococcus lactis expressing PspC demonstrated bacterial co-localization with fluorescent-tagged clathrin and early as well as recycling or late endosomal markers such as Lamp1, Rab5, Rab4, and Rab7, respectively. In conclusion these data suggest that PspC-promoted uptake is mediated by both CME and caveolae. After endocytosis pneumococci are routed via the endocytic pathway into early endosomes and are then sorted into recycling or late endosomes, which can result in pneumococcal killing in phagolysosomes or transcytosis via recycling endosomes. PMID:25455218

  20. Adenosine A1 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of AMPA Receptors Contributes to Impairments in Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) in the Middle-Aged Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhicheng; Stockwell, Jocelyn; Cayabyab, Francisco S

    2016-05-01

    Aging causes multiple changes in the mammalian brain, including changes in synaptic signaling. Previous reports have shown increased extracellular adenosine in the aging brain, and we recently reported that activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) induces AMPA receptor (AMPAR) internalization in rat hippocampus. This study investigated whether aging-related changes in the rat hippocampus include altered surface expression of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, and whether these changes correspond to changes in AMPAR surface expression and altered synaptic plasticity. We found reduced A1R surface expression in middle-aged rat hippocampus, and also reduced GluA1 and GluA2 AMPAR subunit surface expression. Using a chemically-induced LTP (cLTP) experimental protocol, we recorded fEPSPs in young (1 month old) and middle-aged (7-12 month old) rat hippocampal slices. There were significant impairments in cLTP in middle-aged slices, suggesting impaired synaptic plasticity. Since we previously showed that the A1R agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) reduced both A1Rs and GluA2/GluA1 AMPARs, we hypothesized that the observed impaired synaptic plasticity in middle-aged brains is regulated by A1R-mediated AMPAR internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Following cLTP, we found a significant increase in GluA1 and GluA2 surface expression in young rats, which was blunted in middle-aged brains or in young brains pretreated with CPA. Blocking A1Rs with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine or AMPAR endocytosis with either Tat-GluA2-3Y peptide or dynasore (dynamin inhibitor) similarly enhanced AMPAR surface expression following cLTP. These data suggest that age-dependent alteration in adenosine receptor expression contributes to increased AMPAR endocytosis and impaired synaptic plasticity in aged brains. PMID:26700433

  1. Receptors, Endocytosis, and Trafficking: the Biological Basis of Targeted Delivery of Antisense and siRNA Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, R.L.; Carver, K.; Cao, C.; Ming, X.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of targeted delivery of antisense and siRNA oligonucleotides can be resolved into two distinct aspects. The first concerns devising ligand-oligonucleotide or ligand-carrier moieties that bind with high selectivity to receptors on the cell type of interest and that are efficiently internalized by endocytosis. The second concerns releasing oligonucleotides from pharmacologically inert endomembrane compartments so that they can access RNA in the cytosol or nucleus. In this review we will address both of these aspects. Thus we present information on three important receptor families, the integrins, the receptor tyrosine kinases, and the G protein-coupled receptors in terms of their suitability for targeted delivery of oligonucleotides. This includes discussion of receptor abundance, internalization and trafficking pathways, and the availability of suitable high affinity ligands. We also consider the process of oligonucleotide uptake and intracellular trafficking and discuss approaches to modulating these processes in a pharmacologically productive manner. Hopefully the basic information presented in this review will be of value to investigators involved in designing delivery approaches for oligonucleotides. PMID:23163768

  2. Domains of the Rsp5 Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Required for Receptor-mediated and Fluid-Phase Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Rebecca; Hicke, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Yeast Rsp5p and its mammalian homologue, Nedd4, are hect domain ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) required for the ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins. Because ubiquitination is sufficient to induce internalization, E3-mediated ubiquitination is a key regulatory event in plasma membrane protein endocytosis. Rsp5p is an essential, multidomain protein containing an amino-terminal C2 domain, three WW protein-protein interaction domains, and a carboxy-terminal hect domain that carries E3 activity. In this study, we demonstrate that Rsp5p is peripherally associated with membranes and provide evidence that Rsp5p functions as part of a multimeric protein complex. We define the function of Rsp5p and its domains in the ubiquitin-dependent internalization of the yeast α-factor receptor, Ste2p. Temperature-sensitive rsp5 mutants were unable to ubiquitinate or to internalize Ste2p at the nonpermissive temperature. Deletion of the entire C2 domain had no effect on α-factor internalization; however, point mutations in any of the three WW domains impaired both receptor ubiquitination and internalization. These observations indicate that the WW domains play a role in the important regulatory event of selecting phosphorylated proteins as endocytic cargo. In addition, mutations in the C2 and WW1 domains had more severe defects on transport of fluid-phase markers to the vacuole than on receptor internalization, suggesting that Rsp5p functions at multiple steps in the endocytic pathway. PMID:11179425

  3. The Ankrd 13 family of UIM-bearing proteins regulates EGF receptor endocytosis from the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Tanno, Hidetaka; Yamaguchi, Teppei; Goto, Eiji; Ishido, Satoshi; Komada, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of cell surface proteins is not completely understood. Here we examine the role of the ankyrin repeat domain (Ankrd) 13A, 13B, and 13D proteins, which constitute a functionally unknown family of ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM)–bearing proteins, in the process. Stimulation of human HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) rapidly induced direct binding of Ankrd 13 proteins to ubiquitinated EGF receptor (EGFR) via the UIMs. The binding was inhibited when the Ankrd 13 proteins underwent UIM-dependent monoubiquitination, suggesting that their activity is regulated by ubiquitination of themselves. Ankrd 13 proteins bound specifically to Lys-63–linked ubiquitin chains, which was consistent with a previous report that EGFR mainly undergoes Lys-63–linked polyubiquitination. Ankrd 13 proteins were anchored, via the central region and UIMs, to the plasma membrane, where they colocalized with EGFR. Finally, overexpression of wild-type as well as truncated-mutant Ankrd 13 proteins strongly inhibited rapid endocytosis of ubiquitinated EGFR from the surface in EGF-treated cells. We conclude that by binding to the Lys-63–linked polyubiquitin moiety of EGFR at the plasma membrane, Ankrd 13 proteins regulate the rapid internalization of ligand-activated EGFR. PMID:22298428

  4. Sprouty2 attenuates epidermal growth factor receptor ubiquitylation and endocytosis, and consequently enhances Ras/ERK signalling.

    PubMed

    Wong, Esther Sook Miin; Fong, Chee Wai; Lim, Jormay; Yusoff, Permeen; Low, Boon Chuan; Langdon, Wallace Y; Guy, Graeme R

    2002-09-16

    Drosophila Sprouty (dSpry) was genetically identified as a novel antagonist of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Sevenless signalling, ostensibly by eliciting its response on the Ras/MAPK pathway. Four mammalian sprouty genes have been cloned, which appear to play an inhibitory role mainly in FGF- mediated lung and limb morphogenesis. Evidence is presented herein that describes the functional implications of the direct association between human Sprouty2 (hSpry2) and c-Cbl, and its impact on the cellular localization and signalling capacity of EGFR. Contrary to the consensus view that Spry2 is a general inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling, hSpry2 was shown to abrogate EGFR ubiquitylation and endocytosis, and sustain EGF-induced ERK signalling that culminates in differentiation of PC12 cells. Correlative evidence showed the failure of hSpry2DeltaN11 and mSpry4, both deficient in c-Cbl binding, to instigate these effects. hSpry2 interacts specifically with the c-Cbl RING finger domain and displaces UbcH7 from its binding site on the E3 ligase. We conclude that hSpry2 potentiates EGFR signalling by specifically intercepting c-Cbl-mediated effects on receptor down-regulation. PMID:12234920

  5. Differential regulation of translation and endocytosis of alternatively spliced forms of the type II bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor

    PubMed Central

    Amsalem, Ayelet R.; Marom, Barak; Shapira, Keren E.; Hirschhorn, Tal; Preisler, Livia; Paarmann, Pia; Knaus, Petra; Henis, Yoav I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The expression and function of transforming growth factor-β superfamily receptors are regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms. The type II BMP receptor (BMPRII) is expressed as two alternatively spliced forms, a long and a short form (BMPRII-LF and –SF, respectively), which differ by an ∼500 amino acid C-terminal extension, unique among TGF-β superfamily receptors. Whereas this extension was proposed to modulate BMPRII signaling output, its contribution to the regulation of receptor expression was not addressed. To map regulatory determinants of BMPRII expression, we compared synthesis, degradation, distribution, and endocytic trafficking of BMPRII isoforms and mutants. We identified translational regulation of BMPRII expression and the contribution of a 3’ terminal coding sequence to this process. BMPRII-LF and -SF differed also in their steady-state levels, kinetics of degradation, intracellular distribution, and internalization rates. A single dileucine signal in the C-terminal extension of BMPRII-LF accounted for its faster clathrin-mediated endocytosis relative to BMPRII-SF, accompanied by mildly faster degradation. Higher expression of BMPRII-SF at the plasma membrane resulted in enhanced activation of Smad signaling, stressing the potential importance of the multilayered regulation of BMPRII expression at the plasma membrane. PMID:26739752

  6. Differential regulation of translation and endocytosis of alternatively spliced forms of the type II bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor.

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Ayelet R; Marom, Barak; Shapira, Keren E; Hirschhorn, Tal; Preisler, Livia; Paarmann, Pia; Knaus, Petra; Henis, Yoav I; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2016-02-15

    The expression and function of transforming growth factor-β superfamily receptors are regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms. The type II BMP receptor (BMPRII) is expressed as two alternatively spliced forms, a long and a short form (BMPRII-LF and -SF, respectively), which differ by an ∼500 amino acid C-terminal extension, unique among TGF-β superfamily receptors. Whereas this extension was proposed to modulate BMPRII signaling output, its contribution to the regulation of receptor expression was not addressed. To map regulatory determinants of BMPRII expression, we compared synthesis, degradation, distribution, and endocytic trafficking of BMPRII isoforms and mutants. We identified translational regulation of BMPRII expression and the contribution of a 3' terminal coding sequence to this process. BMPRII-LF and -SF differed also in their steady-state levels, kinetics of degradation, intracellular distribution, and internalization rates. A single dileucine signal in the C-terminal extension of BMPRII-LF accounted for its faster clathrin-mediated endocytosis relative to BMPRII-SF, accompanied by mildly faster degradation. Higher expression of BMPRII-SF at the plasma membrane resulted in enhanced activation of Smad signaling, stressing the potential importance of the multilayered regulation of BMPRII expression at the plasma membrane. PMID:26739752

  7. Epidermal growth factor–stimulated Akt phosphorylation requires clathrin or ErbB2 but not receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Garay, Camilo; Judge, Gurjeet; Lucarelli, Stefanie; Bautista, Stephen; Pandey, Rohan; Singh, Tanveer; Antonescu, Costin N.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding to its receptor (EGFR) activates several signaling intermediates, including Akt, leading to control of cell survival and metabolism. Concomitantly, ligand-bound EGFR is incorporated into clathrin-coated pits—membrane structures containing clathrin and other proteins—eventually leading to receptor internalization. Whether clathrin might regulate EGFR signaling at the plasma membrane before vesicle scission is poorly understood. We compared the effect of clathrin perturbation (preventing formation of, or receptor recruitment to, clathrin structures) to that of dynamin2 (allowing formation of clathrin structures but preventing EGFR internalization) under conditions in which EGFR endocytosis is clathrin dependent. Clathrin perturbation by siRNA gene silencing, with the clathrin inhibitor pitstop2, or knocksideways silencing inhibited EGF-simulated Gab1 and Akt phosphorylation in ARPE-19 cells. In contrast, perturbation of dynamin2 with inhibitors or by siRNA gene silencing did not affect EGF-stimulated Gab1 or Akt phosphorylation. EGF stimulation enriched Gab1 and phospho-Gab1 within clathrin structures. ARPE-19 cells have low ErbB2 expression, and overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that robust ErbB2 expression bypassed the requirement for clathrin for EGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Thus clathrin scaffolds may represent unique plasma membrane signaling microdomains required for signaling by certain receptors, a function that can be separated from vesicle formation. PMID:26246598

  8. Chronic morphine-induced loss of the facilitative interaction between vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and delta-opioid: involvement of protein kinase C and phospholipase Cbetas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nai-Jiang; Chakrabarti, Sumita; Gintzler, Alan R

    2004-06-01

    This laboratory recently demonstrated a multiplicative interaction between the pelvic visceral afferent transmitter vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and the delta-opioid receptor (DOR)-selective agonist [D-Pen2,5] enkephalin (DPDPE) to regulate cAMP levels in spinal cord [Brain Res. 959 (2003) 103]. Although DOR activation is required for the manifestation of the VIP-DPDPE facilitative interaction, its relevance to opioid antinociception remains unclear. The current study investigates whether or not the VIP-DPDPE facilitation of cAMP formation is subject to tolerance formation, a hallmark characteristic of opioid antinociception. Chronic morphine exposure abolishes the VIP-DPDPE facilitative interaction, consistent with its relevance to DOR antinociception. However, acute in vitro inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) reinstates the VIP-DPDPE multiplicative interaction characteristic of opioid naïve spinal tissue. This suggests that its chronic morphine-induced loss requires a PKC phosphorylation. PKC phosphorylation negatively modulates phospholipase C (PLC)beta, enzymes intimately associated with phosphoinositide turnover and calcium trafficking. These are essential determinants of acute and chronic opioid effects. Accordingly, the effect of chronic morphine on their state of phosphorylation was also investigated. Central nervous system opioid tolerance is associated with the reciprocal phosphorylation (regulation) of two PLCbeta isoforms, PLCbeta1 and PLCbeta3. However, although chelerythrine reinstates the chronic morphine-induced loss of the multiplicative VIP-DPDPE interaction, it does not alter the associated changes in PLCbeta phosphorylation, possibly indicating different time courses of restitution of function and/or involvement of different kinases for different components of tolerance. These results could provide a mechanistic rubric for understanding positive modulation of opioid antinociception by afferent transmission. PMID:15126111

  9. Synergistic antidepressant-like effects between a kappa opioid antagonist (LY2444296) and a delta opioid agonist (ADL5859) in the mouse forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Tunis, Julia; Parry, Christopher; Tallarida, Ronald; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2016-06-15

    Kappa opioid (KOP) receptor antagonists and delta opioid (DOP) receptor agonists have antidepressant-like effects in animal tests and may be useful for treatment-resistant depression in humans. In this study, we examined whether the combination of a KOP receptor antagonist and a DOP receptor agonist would produce a better than additive effect (i.e. synergy). LY2444296 is a short-acting selective nonpeptide KOP receptor antagonist. ADL5859 is a selective nonpeptide DOP receptor agonist which does not produce seizures and EEG disturbances. Each compound and combinations of the two were examined in the forced swim test (FST) one h post injection, a screening test for antidepressant-like effect, in male adult C57BL/6J mice (Jackson Lab). LY2444296 [subcutaneous (s.c.) injection] at 10 and 30mg/kg, but not 3mg/kg, significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of ADL5859 also reduced immobility time dose-dependently at doses of 3 and 10mg/kg, but not at 1mg/kg. An analysis was conducted using the method of Tallarida and Raffa (2010), which employed dose equivalence. The relative potency of the drugs was determined to be LY2444296: ADL5859=1:0.28, which was the dose ratio for combination studies. Six combinations of the two compounds were tested in mice at a fixed dose ratio. We found that LY2444296 and ADL5859 yielded significant synergistic effects for the antidepressant-like effect at the combined dose ranging from 3.84mg/kg to 9.0mg/kg. ADL5859 (10mg/kg), LY2444296 (30mg/kg) and their combined dose (3.84mg/kg) had no effects on locomotor activities. Since the two drugs have distinct pharmacological profiles, such a synergism will allow use of lower doses of both drugs to achieve desired antidepressant effects with fewer side effects. PMID:27044434

  10. Mannose 6-phosphate receptor-dependent endocytosis of lysosomal enzymes is increased in sulfatide-storing kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Klein, Diana; Yaghootfam, Afshin; Matzner, Ullrich; Koch, Bettina; Braulke, Thomas; Gieselmann, Volkmar

    2009-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a lysosomal disorder caused by the deficiency of arylsulfatase A (ASA). This leads to the storage of the sphingolipid 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (sulfatide) in various cell types, such as renal tubular cells. Examination of mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR300)-dependent endocytosis revealed that uptake of lysosomal enzymes is more than two-fold increased in sulfatide-storing kidney cells. Expression of MPR300 and its internalization rate is increased in these cells, whereas the recycling rate is decreased. Similar alterations can be found for the transferrin receptor, indicating that sulfatide storage leads to a general alteration of the endocytotic pathway. These data allow calculating that the endosomal pool from which receptors can recycle is 1.4- to 2-fold increased in lipid-storing cells. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates that the MPR300 in lipid-storing cells does not co-localize with accumulated sulfatide, suggesting that the kinetics of internalization and recycling appear to be altered indirectly. PMID:19007310

  11. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials Undergoes Flat Vesiculation and Occurs by Revolution and Self-Rotation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian; Chen, Pengyu; Liang, Junshi; Guo, Ruohai; Yan, Li-Tang

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene and transitional metal dichalcogenide nanosheets, are promising materials for the development of antimicrobial surfaces and the nanocarriers for intracellular therapy. Understanding cell interaction with these emerging materials is an urgently important issue to promoting their wide applications. Experimental studies suggest that two-dimensional nanomaterials enter cells mainly through receptor-mediated endocytosis. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and kinetic pathways of such processes remain unknown. Here, we combine computer simulations and theoretical derivation of the energy within the system to show that the receptor-mediated transport of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene nanosheet across model lipid membrane, experiences a flat vesiculation event governed by the receptor density and membrane tension. The graphene nanosheet is found to undergo revolution relative to the membrane and, particularly, unique self-rotation around its normal during membrane wrapping. We derive explicit expressions for the formation of the flat vesiculation, which reveals that the flat vesiculation event can be fundamentally dominated by a dimensionless parameter and a defined relationship determined by complicated energy contributions. The mechanism offers an essential understanding on the cellular internalization and cytotoxicity of the emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials. PMID:26741298

  12. Internalization of type 1 complement receptors and de novo multivesicular body formation during chemoattractant-induced endocytosis in human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M; Wetzler, E; August, J T; Tartakoff, A M

    1994-01-01

    Upon activation of human neutrophils by chemoattractants, functionally important proteins are rapidly transported from intracellular granules and storage vesicles to the plasma membrane. This is accompanied by a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis and by ligand-independent internalization of type 1 complement receptors (CR1). To define the pathway of endocytosis, we used gold-conjugated BSA in a pulse-chase protocol. This tracer was initially internalized into small endocytic vesicles which rapidly traversed the cytoplasm and coalesced to form large, conspicuous multivesicular bodies. Within 5 min after addition of the chemoattractant, multivesicular bodies contained > 60% of the cell-associated BSA-gold. CR1 colocalized with the endocytic tracer in both the early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. In unstimulated cells, there was much less uptake of BSA-gold and multivesicular bodies were rarely seen. Using the acidotropic amine, DAMP, and anti-DNP antibodies, we found that the multivesicular bodies were acidified but the early endosomes did not concentrate DAMP. Neither the early endosomes nor the multivesicular bodies initially contained the lysosomal membrane antigens hLAMP 1 or 2, but hLAMP-positive structures subsequently joined the multivesicular bodies. The rapid activation of the endocytic pathway upon stimulation of neutrophils allowed us to visualize the de novo formation and maturation of multivesicular bodies. Our observations suggest that vesicles containing ion pumps and acid hydrolases fuse with multivesicular bodies, giving them characteristics of lysosomes, and that these are the probable sites of degradation of CR1. The observations do not support models which would require transport of CR1 from multivesicular bodies to defined, pre-existing lysosomes for degradation. Images PMID:8083352

  13. THE AP-2 CLATHRIN ADAPTOR MEDIATES ENDOCYTOSIS OF AN INHIBITORY KILLER CELL Ig-LIKE RECEPTOR (KIR) IN HUMAN NK CELLS1

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Amanda K.; Alvarez-Arias, Diana A.; Oshinsky, Jennifer; James, Ashley M.; Serebriiskii, Ilya; Campbell, Kerry S.

    2014-01-01

    Stable surface expression of human inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) is critical for controlling NK cell function and maintaining NK cell tolerance toward normal MHC-I+ cells. Our recent experiments, however, have found that antibody-bound KIR3DL1 (3DL1) readily leaves the cell surface and undergoes endocytosis to early/recycling endosomes and subsequently to late endosomes. We found that 3DL1 internalization is at least partially mediated by an interaction between the μ2 subunit of the AP-2 clathrin adaptor complex and ITIM tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of 3DL1. Disruption of the 3DL1/μ2 interaction, either by mutation of the ITIM tyrosines in 3DL1 or mutation of μ2, significantly diminished endocytosis and increased surface expression of 3DL1 in human primary NK cells and cell lines. Furthermore, we found that the 3DL1/AP-2 interaction is diminished upon antibody engagement with the receptor, as compared to untreated cells. Thus, we have identified AP-2-mediated endocytosis as a mechanism regulating the surface levels of inhibitory KIR though their ITIM domains. Based upon our results, we propose a model in which non-engaged KIR are internalized by this mechanism, whereas engagement with MHC-I ligand would diminish AP-2 binding, thereby prolonging stable receptor surface expression and promoting inhibitory function. Furthermore, this ITIM-mediated mechanism may similarly regulate the surface expression of other inhibitory immune receptors. PMID:25238755

  14. The endocytosis of epidermal growth factor in A431 cells: A pH of microenvironment and the dynamics of receptor complex dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, A.D.; Teslenko, L.V.; Nikolsky, N.N. )

    1988-03-01

    The endocytosis and intracellular fate of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were studied in A431 cells. After 15-20 min of internalization at 37{degree}C, rhodomaine-labeled ({sup 125}-I) EGF (EGR-Rh) accumulated into large juxtanuclear compartment consisting of closely related vesicles. This structure was shown to be localized in the para-Golgi region. Fluorescein-labeled transferrin (Tr-FITC) was observed in the same region when added to the cell simultaneously with EGF-Rh. Using microscopy spectrofluorometer, the authors determined that the Tr-FITC-containing para-Golgi structures have a pH of 6.1{plus minus}0.3 while lysosomes containing dextran-fluorescein have a pH of 5.0{plus minus}0.2. To study the dynamics of EGF-receptor dissociation during endocytosis a mild detergent treatment of living cells was used for extraction of an intracellular receptor-unbound EGF. These results suggest that EGF remains associated with receptors during endocytosis in A431 cells until it is transferred to lysosomes where the pH of the EGF microenvironment is dropped to 5. A prolonged presence of EGF-receptor complexes in the para-Golgi region might be of importance in mitotic signaling.

  15. Proteomic analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interactome and post-translational modifications associated with receptor endocytosis in response to EGF and stress.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jiefei; Taylor, Paul; Moran, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    Aberrant expression, activation, and stabilization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are causally associated with several human cancers. Post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions directly modulate the signaling and trafficking of the EGFR. Activated EGFR is internalized by endocytosis and then either recycled back to the cell surface or degraded in the lysosome. EGFR internalization and recycling also occur in response to stresses that activate p38 MAP kinase. Mass spectrometry was applied to comprehensively analyze the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and protein-protein interactions of wild type and endocytosis-defective EGFR variants before and after internalization in response to EGF ligand and stress. Prior to internalization, EGF-stimulated EGFR accumulated ubiquitin at 7 K residues and phosphorylation at 7 Y sites and at S(1104). Following internalization, these modifications diminished and there was an accumulation of S/T phosphorylations. EGFR internalization and many but not all of the EGF-induced S/T phosphorylations were also stimulated by anisomycin-induced cell stress, which was not associated with receptor ubiquitination or elevated Y phosphorylation. EGFR protein interactions were dramatically modulated by ligand, internalization, and stress. In response to EGF, different E3 ubiquitin ligases became maximally associated with EGFR before (CBL, HUWE1, and UBR4) or after (ITCH) internalization, whereas CBLB was distinctively most highly EGFR associated following anisomycin treatment. Adaptin subunits of AP-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptor complexes also became EGFR associated in response to EGF and anisomycin stress. Mutations preventing EGFR phosphorylation at Y(998) or in the S(1039) region abolished or greatly reduced EGFR interactions with AP-2 and AP-1, and impaired receptor trafficking. These results provide new insight into spatial, temporal, and mechanistic aspects of EGFR regulation. PMID:24797263

  16. Dynamics of Virus-Receptor Interactions in Virus Binding, Signaling, and Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Boulant, Steeve; Stanifer, Megan; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    During viral infection the first challenge that viruses have to overcome is gaining access to the intracellular compartment. The infection process starts when the virus contacts the surface of the host cell. A complex series of events ensues, including diffusion at the host cell membrane surface, binding to receptors, signaling, internalization, and delivery of the genetic information. The focus of this review is on the very initial steps of virus entry, from receptor binding to particle uptake into the host cell. We will discuss how viruses find their receptor, move to sub-membranous regions permissive for entry, and how they hijack the receptor-mediated signaling pathway to promote their internalization. PMID:26043381

  17. Calcium-Sensing Receptor: Trafficking, Endocytosis, Recycling, and Importance of Interacting Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kausik

    2015-01-01

    The cloning of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) provided a new paradigm in G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in which principal physiological ligand is a cation, namely, extracellular calcium (Ca(o)(2+)). A wealth of information has accumulated in the past two decades about the CaSR's structure and function, its contribution to pathology in disorders of calcium in humans, and CaSR-based therapeutics. The CaSR unlike many other GPCRs must function in the presence of its ligand, thus understanding the mechanisms such as anterograde trafficking and endocytic pathways of this receptor are complex and fallen behind other classical GPCRs. Factors controlling CaSR signaling include various proteins affecting the expression of the CaSR as well as modulation of its trafficking to and from the cell surface. The dimeric cell-surface CaSR links to various heterotrimeric G-proteins (G(q/11), G(i/o), G(12/13), and G(s)) to regulate intracellular second messengers, lipid kinases, various protein kinases, and transcription factors that are part of the machinery enabling the receptor to modulate the functions of the wide variety of cells in which it is expressed. This chapter describes key features of CaSR structure and function and discusses novel mechanisms by which the level of cell-surface receptor expression can be regulated including forward trafficking during biosynthesis, desensitization, internalization and recycling from the cell surface, and degradation. These processes are impacted by its interactions with several proteins in addition to signaling molecules per se (i.e., G-proteins, protein kinases, inositol phosphates, etc.) and include small molecular weight G-proteins (Sar1, Rabs, ARF, P24A, RAMPs, filamin A, 14-3-3 proteins, calmodulin, and caveolin-1). Moreover, CaSR signaling seems compartmentalized in cell-type-specific manner, and caveolin and filamin A likely act as scaffolds that bind signaling components and other key cellular elements (e.g., the cytoskeleton) to facilitate the interaction of the receptor with its signaling pathways. Regulatory mechanisms are still evolving to understand how defects in trafficking of CaSR contribute to pathology in disorders of calcium homeostasis. PMID:26055057

  18. Identification of factors regulating MET receptor endocytosis by high-throughput siRNA screening.

    PubMed

    Gaziova, Ivana; Davey, Robert A; Elferink, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase MET, a receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, is a key regulator for normal development and organ renewal via stem cell maintenance. Dysregulated MET signaling contributes to tumor progression and metastasis and is considered a potent therapeutic target for a growing number of malignancies. Toward that goal it is critical to develop high-throughput assays to identify candidate regulators for the termination of MET signaling. We describe here a rapid and efficient method for identifying cellular factors required for MET ubiquitination, which utilizes high-throughput RNA interference screening (HT-siRNA) with a receptor internalization assay and an In-Cell ELISA in a 96-well format. The assay is amenable to a large array of cell surface proteins as well as genome-wide siRNA libraries, with high signal-to-background ratio and low well-to-well variability. PMID:25702130

  19. Receptor role of the annexin A2 in the mesothelial endocytosis of crocidolite fibers.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kyoko; Nagai, Hirotaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-07-01

    Asbestos-induced mesothelioma is a worldwide problem. Parietal mesothelial cells internalize asbestos fibers that traverse the entire lung parenchyma, an action that is linked to mesothelial carcinogenesis. Thus far, vitronectin purified from serum reportedly enhances the internalization of crocidolite by mesothelial cells via integrin ?v?5. To reveal another mechanism by which mesothelial cells endocytose (phagocytose) asbestos, we first evaluated the effects of serum on asbestos uptake, which proved to be nonessential. Thereafter, we undertook a study to identify proteins on the surface of mesothelial cells (MeT5A) that act as receptors for asbestos uptake based on the assumption that receptors bind to asbestos with physical affinity. To this end, we incubated the membrane fraction of MeT5A cells with crocidolite or chrysotile and evaluated the adsorbed proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel analysis. Next, we extensively identified the proteins using an in-solution or in-gel digestion coupled with mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, annexin A2 (ANXA2) and transferrin receptor protein 1 (TFRC) were distinguished because of their high score and presence at the cell surface. Crocidolite uptake by MeT5A cells was significantly decreased by shRNA (short hairpin RNA)-induced knockdown of ANXA2 and direct blockade of cell surface ANXA2 using anti-ANXA2 antibody. In addition, abundant ANXA2 protein was present on the cell membrane of mesothelial cells, particularly facing the somatic cavity. These findings demonstrate that ANXA2 has a role in the mesothelial phagocytosis of crocidolite and may serve as its receptor. PMID:25915724

  20. Acute cross-tolerance to opioids in heroin delta-opioid-responding Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Rady, J J; Fujimoto, J M

    2000-01-01

    It is generally thought that the mu receptor actions of metabolites, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6MAM) and morphine, account for the pharmacological actions of heroin. However, upon intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration in Swiss Webster mice, heroin and 6MAM act on delta receptors while morphine acts on mu receptors. Swiss Webster mice made tolerant to subcutaneous (s.c.) morphine by morphine pellet were not cross-tolerant to s.c. heroin (at 20 min in the tail flick test). Now, opioids were given in combination, s.c. (6.5 h) and i.c.v. (3 h) preceding testing the challenging agonist i.c.v. (at 10 min in the tail flick test). The combination (s.c. + i.c.v.) morphine pretreatment induced tolerance to the mu action of morphine but no cross-tolerance to the delta action of heroin, 6MAM and DPDPE and explained why morphine pelleting did not produce cross-tolerance to s.c. heroin above. Heroin plus heroin produced tolerance to delta agonists but not to mu agonists. Surprisingly, all combinations of morphine with the delta agonists produced tolerance to morphine which now acted through delta receptors (inhibited by i.c.v. naltrindole), an unusual change in receptor selectivity for morphine. PMID:10810246

  1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of polypeptide hormones is a regulated process: inhibition of (125I)iodoinsulin internalization in hypoinsulinemic diabetes of rat and man

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentier, J.L.; Robert, A.; Grunberger, G.; van Obberghen, E.; Freychet, P.; Orci, L.; Gorden, P.

    1986-07-01

    Much data suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis is regulated in states of hormone excess. Thus, in hyperinsulinemic states there is an accelerated loss of cell surface insulin receptors. In the present experiments we addressed this question in hypoinsulinemic states, in which insulin binding to cell surface receptors is generally increased. In hepatocytes obtained from hypoinsulinemic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, (/sup 125/I)iodoglucagon internalization was increased, while at the same time (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin internalization was decreased. The defect in (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin internalization was corrected by insulin treatment of the animal. In peripheral blood monocytes from patients with type I insulinopenic diabetes, internalization of (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin was impaired; this defect was not present in insulin-treated patients. These data in the hypoinsulinemic rat and human diabetes suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis is regulated in states of insulin deficiency as well as insulin excess. Delayed or reduced internalization of the insulin-receptor complex could amplify the muted signal caused by deficient hormone secretion.

  2. Comparative binding, endocytosis, and biodistribution of antibodies and antibody-coated carriers for targeted delivery of lysosomal enzymes to ICAM-1 versus transferrin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Papademetriou, Jason; Garnacho, Carmen; Serrano, Daniel; Bhowmick, Tridib; Schuchman, Edward H.; Muro, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Targeting lysosomal enzymes to receptors involved in transport into and across cells holds promise to enhance peripheral and brain delivery of enzyme replacement therapies for lysosomal storage disorders. Receptors being explored include those associated with clathrin-mediated pathways, yet other pathways seem also viable. Well characterized examples are that of transferrin receptor (TfR) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), involved in iron transport and leukocyte extravasation, respectively. TfR and ICAM-1 support ERT delivery via clathrin- vs. cell adhesion molecule-mediated mechanisms, displaying different valency and size restrictions. To comparatively assess this, we used antibodies vs. larger multivalent antibody-coated carriers and evaluated TfR vs. ICAM-1 binding and endocytosis in endothelial cells, as well as in vivo biodistribution and delivery of a model lysosomal enzyme required in peripheral organs and brain: acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), deficient in types A–B Niemann Pick disease. We found similar binding of antibodies to both receptors under control conditions, with enhanced binding to activated endothelium for ICAM-1, yet only anti-TfR induced endocytosis efficiently. Contrarily, antibody-coated carriers showed enhanced binding, engulfment, and endocytosis for ICAM-1. In mice, anti-TfR enhanced brain targeting over anti-ICAM, with an opposite outcome in the lungs, while carriers enhanced ICAM-1 targeting over TfR in both organs. Both targeted carriers enhanced ASM delivery to the brain and lungs vs. free ASM, with greater enhancement for anti-ICAM carriers. Therefore, targeting TfR or ICAM-1 improves lysosomal enzyme delivery. Yet, TfR targeting may be more efficient for smaller conjugates or fusion proteins, while ICAM-1 targeting seems superior for multivalent carrier formulations. PMID:22968581

  3. Agonist-induced changes in RalA activities allows the prediction of the endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiaohan; Guo, Shuohan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Min, Chengchun; Cheon, Seung Hoon; Oak, Min-Ho; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2016-01-01

    GTP binding proteins are classified into two families: heterotrimeric large G proteins which are composed of three subunits, and one subunit of small G proteins. Roles of small G proteins in the intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were studied. Among various small G proteins tested, GTP-bound form (G23V) of RalA inhibited the internalization of dopamine D2 receptor independently of the previously reported downstream effectors of RalA, such as Ral-binding protein 1 and PLD. With high affinity for GRK2, active RalA inhibited the GPCR endocytosis by sequestering the GRK2 from receptors. When it was tested for several GPCRs including an endogenous GPCR, lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1, agonist-induced conversion of GTP-bound to GDP-bound RalA, which presumably releases the sequestered GRK2, was observed selectively with the GPCRs which have tendency to undergo endocytosis. Conversion of RalA from active to inactive state occurred by translocation of RGL, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, from the plasma membrane to cytosol as a complex with Gβγ. These results suggest that agonist-induced Gβγ-mediated conversion of RalA from the GTP-bound form to the GDP-bound form could be a mechanism to facilitate agonist-induced internalization of GPCRs. PMID:26477566

  4. Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, A.S.; Goodman, R.R.

    1984-05-01

    Much work has been done on opioid systems in the rat CNS. Although the mouse is widely used in pharmacological studies of opioid action, little has been done to characterize opioid systems in this species. In the present study the distribution of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse CNS was examined using a quantitative in vitro autoradiography procedure. Tritiated dihydromorphine was used to visualize mu sites and (3H-d-Ala2-d-Leu5)enkephalin with a low concentration of morphine was used to visualize delta sites. Mu and delta site localizations in the mouse are very similar to those previously described in the rat (Goodman, R.R., S.H. Snyder, M.J. Kuhar, and W.S. Young, 3d (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:6239-6243), with certain exceptions and additions. Mu and delta sites were observed in sensory processing areas, limbic system, extrapyramidal motor system, and cranial parasympathetic system. Differential distributions of mu and delta sites were noted in many areas. Mu sites were prominent in laminae I, IV, and VI of the neocortex, in patches in the striatum, and in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, medial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord. In contrast, delta sites were prominent in all laminae of the neocortex, olfactory tubercle, diffusely throughout the striatum, and in the basal, lateral, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. The determination of the differential distributions of opioid binding sites should prove useful in suggesting anatomical substrates for the actions of opiates and opioids.

  5. Hyaluronic acid receptor for endocytosis (HARE)-mediated endocytosis of hyaluronan, heparin, dermatan sulfate, and acetylated low density lipoprotein (AcLDL), but not chondroitin sulfate types A, C, D, or E, activates NF-?B-regulated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Madhu S; Weigel, Paul H

    2014-01-17

    The hyaluronan (HA) receptor for endocytosis (HARE; Stab2) clears 14 systemic ligands, including HA and heparin. Here, we used NF-?B promoter-driven luciferase reporter assays to test HARE-mediated intracellular signaling during the uptake of eight ligands, whose binding sites in the HARE ectodomain were mapped by competition studies (Harris, E. N., and Weigel, P. H. (2008) Glycobiology 18, 638-648). Unique intermediate size Select-HA(TM), heparin, dermatan sulfate, and acetylated LDL stimulated dose-dependent HARE-mediated NF-?B activation of luciferase expression, with half-maximal values of 10-25 nM. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate types A, C, D, and E did not stimulate NF-?B activation. Moreover, degradation of endogenous IkB-? (an NF-?B inhibitor) was stimulated only by the signaling ligands. The stimulatory activities of pairwise combinations of the four signaling ligands were additive. The four nonstimulatory chondroitin sulfate types, which compete for HA binding, also effectively blocked HA-stimulated signaling. Clathrin siRNA decreased clathrin expression by ?50% and completely eliminated NF-?B-mediated signaling by all four ligands, indicating that activation of signaling complexes occurs after endocytosis. These results indicate that HARE not only binds and clears extracellular matrix degradation products (e.g. released normally or during infection, injury, tumorigenesis, or other stress situations) but that a subset of ligands also serves as signaling indicator ligands. HARE may be part of a systemic tissue-stress sensor feedback system that responds to abnormal tissue turnover or damage as a danger signal; the signaling indicator ligands would reflect the homeostatic status, whether normal or pathological, of tissue cells and biomatrix components. PMID:24247245

  6. Real-time observation of the effect of iron on receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin conjugated with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2010-07-01

    The optical properties of antiphotobleaching and the advantage of long-term fluorescence observation of quantum dots are fully adopted to study the effects of iron on the endocytosis of transferrin. Quantum dots are labeled for transferrin and endocytosis of transferrin in HeLa cells is observed under the normal state, iron overloading, and an iron-deficient state. In these three states, the fluorescence undergoes a gradual process of first dark, then light, and finally dark, indicating the endocytosis of transferrin. The fluorescence intensity analysis shows that a platform emerges when fluorescence changes to a certain degree in the three states. Experienced a same period of time after platform, the fluorescence strength of cells in the normal state is 1.2 times the first value, and the iron-deficiency state is 1.4 times, but the iron overloading state was 0.85 times. We also find that the average fluorescence intensity in cells detected by the spectrophotometer in the iron-deficiency state is almost 7 times than that in a high iron state. All this proves that iron overloading would slow the process, but iron deficiency would accelerate endocytosis. We advance a direct observational method that may contribute to further study of the relationship of iron and transferrin.

  7. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I B; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M E; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  8. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  9. Ethanol-induced impairments in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid in isolated rat hepatocytes: Time course of impairments and recovery after ethanol withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.A.; Kragskow, S.L.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    Chronic ethanol administration markedly impairs the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) of a representative asialoglycoprotein, asialoorosomucoid (ASOR), by the liver. In this study, we further characterized these impairments by identifying the time of onset for ethanol-induced changes in RME as well as establishing the time course for recovery to normal endocytotic values after ethanol withdrawal. Ethanol administration for 3 days did not alter any aspect of endocytosis examined in this study. After feeding ethanol to rats for 7 days, however, significant decreases in amounts of ligand bound, internalized, and degraded were apparent. These impairments persisted throughout the 5-week feeding study although the effects were somewhat attenuated with more prolonged ethanol feeding. In addition, an accumulation of intracellular receptors was observed in ethanol-fed animals relative to controls after 7 days of ethanol feeding. In all cases, recovery of endocytotic values to control levels was partially completed after 2 to 3 days of refeeding control diet and was fully completed after 7 days of refeeding. These results indicate that ethanol feeding for as little as 7 days profoundly impairs the process of RME by the liver. These impairments can be reversed after refeeding control diet for 7 days.

  10. The role of endocytosis in the uptake and intracellular trafficking of PepFect14-nucleic acid nanocomplexes via class A scavenger receptors.

    PubMed

    Juks, Carmen; Padari, Kärt; Margus, Helerin; Kriiska, Asko; Etverk, Indrek; Arukuusk, Piret; Koppel, Kaida; Ezzat, Kariem; Langel, Ülo; Pooga, Margus

    2015-12-01

    Cell penetrating peptides are efficient tools to deliver various bioactive cargos into cells, but their exact functioning mechanism is still debated. Recently, we showed that a delivery peptide PepFect14 condenses oligonucleotides (ON) into negatively charged nanocomplexes that are taken up by cells via class A scavenger receptors (SR-As). Here we unraveled the uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PF14-ON nanocomplexes in HeLa cells. Macropinocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis are responsible for the intracellular functionality of nucleic acids packed into nanocomplexes. However, only a negligible fraction of the complexes were trafficked to endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus - the common destinations of caveolar endocytosis. Neither were the PF14-SCO nanocomplexes routed to endo-lysosomal pathway, and they stayed in vesicles with slightly acidic pH, which were not marked with LysoSensor. "Naked" ON, in contrary, was rapidly targeted to acidic vesicles and lysosomes. The transmission electron microscopy analysis of interactions between SR-As and PF14-ON nanocomplexes on ultrastructural level revealed that nanocomplexes localized on the plasma membrane in close proximity to SR-As and their colocalization is retained in cells, suggesting that PF14-ON complexes associate with targeted receptors. PMID:26409186

  11. Delta-opioid stimulation by BW373U86 promotes autonomic reactivity to stressors and alters attention-related cardiac responses in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hernández, L L; Singha, A K

    1998-02-01

    The nonpeptide delta-opioid agonist BW373U86 (3 to 300 micrograms/kg) was tested in rabbits for effects on heart rate, cardiac orienting and Pavlovian conditioned responses to tones, and unconditioned cardiac and somatomotor responses to signaled and unsignaled shocks. BW373U86 did not alter shock-evoked somatomotor reflexes and had few effects on the development or retention of Pavlovian conditioned heart rate discrimination. However, BW373U86 appeared to modulate cardiac conditioning indirectly, by facilitating sympathetic reflexes evoked by the signaled stressor, and the dose effect was U-shaped within the dose range tested. The pronounced tachycardiac effect of BW373U86 was completely blocked, or rapidly reversed, by the selective delta-opiate antagonist naltrindole. BW373U86 was more potent in increasing signaled than unsignaled shock-evoked tachycardia, suggesting release of an endogenous substance (e.g., a delta-opioid) because of the Pavlovian conditioning contingency. PMID:9526142

  12. Endocytosis of GABA(C) receptors depends on subunit composition and is regulated by protein kinase C-ζ and protein phosphatase 1.

    PubMed

    Linck, Lisa; Binder, Jasmin; Haynl, Christian; Enz, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Neuronal excitability depends on the surface concentration of neurotransmitter receptors. Type C gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(C)R) are composed of ρ subunits that are highly expressed in the retina. Molecular mechanisms that guide the surface concentration of this receptor type are largely unknown. Previously, we reported physical interactions of GABA(C)R ρ subunits with protein kinase C-ζ (PKCζ) via adapter proteins of the ZIP protein family, as well as of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) via PNUTS. Here, we demonstrate that co-expressing ρ1 with ZIP3 and PKCζ enhanced basal internalization of GABA(C)R, while receptor internalization was reduced in the presence of PNUTS and PP1. Co-expression of ρ1 with individual binding partners showed no alterations, except for PP1. Heterooligomeric GABA(C)R composed of ρ1 and ρ2 subunits had a significant higher endocytosis rate than ρ1 containing homooligomeric receptors. Mutant constructs lacking binding sites for protein interactions ensured the specificity of our data. Finally, substitution of serine and threonine residues with alanines indicated that GABA(C)R internalization depends on serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases, but not on tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that GABA(C)R internalization is reciprocally regulated by PKCζ and PP1 that are anchored to the receptor via ZIP3 or PNUTS respectively. PMID:25868914

  13. Tritiation of delta opioid-receptor selective antagonist dipeptide ligands with extraordinary affinity containing 2', 6'dimethyltyrosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, I.; Tóth, G.; Balboni, G.; Guerrini, R.; Salvadori, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently a new class of δ opioid antagonists has been discovered by using Tyr-Tic sequence. The substitution of Tyr1 by Dmt resulted in a new analogue (H-Dmt-Tic-OH) with enhanced affinity and selectivity. Because of its excellent property we chose it for labelling with tritium. At the same time peptides containing Tic at position 2 undergo spontaneous diketopiperazine formation in some solvents, and they lose some of their binding ability. To avoid this unwanted side-reaction we synthetized the N-methylated analogue (N,N(Me)2-Dmt-Tic-OH), and it was more stable under storage condition, but δ affinity declined moderately. On the basis of this information we prepared diiodinated analogues of these dipeptides. Catalytic dehalotritiation of precursors resulted in tritiated peptides. High specific radioactivity, 44.67 Ci/mmol with [3H]Dmt-Tic-OH and 59.88 Ci/mmol with N,N(Me)2-[3H]Dmt-Tic-OH were achieved.

  14. Tritiation of delta opioid-receptor selective antagonist dipeptide ligands with extraordinary affinity containing 2‧, 6‧dimethyltyrosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, I.; Tóth, G.; Balboni, G.; Guerrini, R.; Salvadori, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently a new class of δ opioid antagonists has been discovered by using Tyr-Tic sequence. The substitution of Tyr1 by Dmt resulted in a new analogue (H-Dmt-Tic-OH) with enhanced affinity and selectivity. Because of its excellent property we chose it for labelling with tritium. At the same time peptides containing Tic at position 2 undergo spontaneous diketopiperazine formation in some solvents, and they lose some of their binding ability. To avoid this unwanted side-reaction we synthetized the N-methylated analogue (N,N(Me)2-Dmt-Tic-OH), and it was more stable under storage condition, but δ affinity declined moderately. On the basis of this information we prepared diiodinated analogues of these dipeptides. Catalytic dehalotritiation of precursors resulted in tritiated peptides. High specific radioactivity, 44.67 Ci/mmol with [3H]Dmt-Tic-OH and 59.88 Ci/mmol with N,N(Me)2-[3H]Dmt-Tic-OH were achieved.

  15. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E. . E-mail: aaust@cc.usu.edu

    2006-01-15

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changes in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.

  16. The CD20 homologue MS4A4 directs trafficking of KIT toward clathrin-independent endocytosis pathways and thus regulates receptor signaling and recycling

    PubMed Central

    Cruse, Glenn; Beaven, Michael A.; Music, Stephen C.; Bradding, Peter; Gilfillan, Alasdair M.; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2015-01-01

    MS4A family members differentially regulate the cell cycle, and aberrant, or loss of, expression of MS4A family proteins has been observed in colon and lung cancer. However, the precise functions of MS4A family proteins and their mechanistic interactions remain unsolved. Here we report that MS4A4 facilitates trafficking of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT through endocytic recycling rather than degradation pathways by a mechanism that involves recruitment of KIT to caveolin-1–enriched microdomains. Silencing of MS4A4 in human mast cells altered ligand-induced KIT endocytosis pathways and reduced receptor recycling to the cell surface, thus promoting KIT signaling in the endosomes while reducing that in the plasma membrane, as exemplified by Akt and PLCγ1 phosphorylation, respectively. The altered endocytic trafficking of KIT also resulted in an increase in SCF-induced mast cell proliferation and migration, which may reflect altered signaling in these cells. Our data reveal a novel function for MS4A family proteins in regulating trafficking and signaling, which could have implications in both proliferative and immunological diseases. PMID:25717186

  17. 2,8-Diazaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl)pyrimidin-4-amine potent CCR4 antagonists capable of inducing receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Lena; Ajram, Laura A; Begg, Malcolm; Evans, Brian; Graves, Rebecca H; Hodgson, Simon T; Lynn, Sean M; Miah, Afjal H; Percy, Jonathan M; Procopiou, Panayiotis A; Richards, Stephen A; Slack, Robert J

    2016-06-10

    A number of potent 2,8-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl)pyrimidin-4-amine CCR4 antagonists binding to the extracellular allosteric site were synthesised. (R)-N-(2,4-Dichlorobenzyl)-2-(2-(pyrrolidin-2-ylmethyl)-2,8-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl)pyrimidin-4-amine (R)-(18a) has high affinity in both the [(125)I]-TARC binding assay with a pKi of 8.8, and the [(35)S]-GTPγS functional assay with a pIC50 of 8.1, and high activity in the human whole blood actin polymerisation assay (pA2 = 6.7). The most potent antagonists were also investigated for their ability to induce endocytosis of CCR4 and were found to internalise about 60% of the cell surface receptors, a property which is not commonly shared by small molecule antagonists of chemokine receptors. PMID:26991939

  18. Quantum dots implementation as a label for analysis of early stages of EGF receptor endocytosis: a comparative study on cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Salova, Anna V; Belyaeva, Tatiana N; Leontieva, Ekaterina A; Zlobina, Maria V; Kharchenko, Marianna V; Kornilova, Elena S

    2016-02-01

    EGF complexed to fluorescent photostable quantum dots by biotin-streptavidin system (bEGF-savQD) is attractive for both the basic research and therapeutic application such as targeted drug delivery in EGF-receptor (EGFR) expressing cancers. However, compared to native EGF, the large size of QD and its quasi-multivalency can have unpredictable effects on EGFR endocytosis changing the internalization portal and/or endosomal processing tightly bound to EGF signaling. We have found that bEGF-savQDs enter HeLa cells via the temperature-dependent clathrin-mediated EGF-receptor-specific pathway characteristic for native EGF. We also found that EGF-to-QD concentration ratios used for the complex preparation and the level of EGF receptor expression affect the number and integral densities of the formed endosomes. So, at EGF-to-QD ratio from 4:1 to 12:1 (at nanomolar bEGF concentrations) on average 100 bright endosomes per HeLa cell were formed 15 min after the complex addition, while 1:1 ratio resulted in formation of very few dim endosomes. However, in A431 cells overexpressing EGFR 1:1 ratio was effective. Using dynamin inhibition and Na-acidic washout we showed that bEGF-savQDs bind surface receptors and enter clathrin-coated pits slower than the same ligands without QD. Yet, the bEGF-savQD demonstrated similar to native EGF and bEGF-savCy3 co-localization dynamics with tethering protein EEA1 and HRS, the key component of sorting ESCRT0 complex. In conclusion, our comparative study reveals that in respect to entrapment into coated pits, endosomal recruitment, endosome fusions, and the initial steps of endosomal maturation, bEGF-savQD behaves like native EGF and QD implementation does not affect these important events. PMID:26716513

  19. A single lysine of the two-lysine recognition motif of the D3 domain of receptor-associated protein is sufficient to mediate endocytosis by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Sellink, Erica; Klein Gebbinck, Jacqueline W T M; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2011-03-01

    Ligand binding of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family is mediated by complement-type repeats (CR) each comprising a binding pocket for a single basic amino acid residue. It has been proposed that at least two CRs are required for high-affinity interaction by utilising two spatially distinct lysine residues on the ligand surface. LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) mediates the cellular uptake of a multitude of ligands, some of which bind LRP with a relatively low affinity suggesting a suboptimal positioning of the two critical lysines. We now addressed the role of the two critical lysines not only in LRP binding but also in LRP-dependent endocytosis. Variants of the third domain (D3) of receptor-associated protein (RAP) were created carrying lysine to alanine or arginine replacements at the putative contact residues K253, K256 and K270. Surface plasmon resonance revealed that replacement of K253 did not affect high-affinity LRP binding at all, whereas replacement of either K256 or K270 markedly reduced the affinity by approximately 10-fold. Binding was abolished when both lysines were replaced. Substitution by either alanine or arginine exerted an almost identical effect on LRP binding. This suggests that despite their positive charge, arginine residues do not support receptor binding at all. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry studies surprisingly revealed that the single mutants were still taken up and still competed for the uptake of full length RAP despite their receptor binding defect. We therefore propose that the presence of only one of the two critical lysines is sufficient to drive endocytosis. PMID:21144910

  20. Interleukin-18 Primes the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils in Response to Formyl-Peptides: Role of Cytochrome b558 Translocation and N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Elbim, Carole; Guichard, Cécile; Dang, Pham M. C.;  Fay, Michèle; Pedruzzi, Eric; Demur, Hélène; Pouzet, Cécile; El Benna, Jamel; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne

    2005-01-01

    Using flow cytometry, we observed that interleukin-18 (IL-18) primed human neutrophils (PMNs) in whole blood to produce superoxide anion (O2°−) in response to N-formyl peptide (fMLP) stimulation, whereas IL-18 alone had no significant effect. In contrast to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which is a cytokine known to strongly prime O2°− production, IL-18 did not induce either p47phox phosphorylation or its translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. However, IL-18 increased PMN degranulation, as shown by increased levels of cytochrome b558 and CD11b expression at the PMN surface. Moreover, addition of IL-18 to whole blood for 45 min reduced the ability of PMNs to bind to fMLP, suggesting endocytosis of fMLP receptors, as visualized by confocal microscopy. 2,3-Butanedione 2-monoxime, which inhibits endosomal recycling of plasma membrane components back to the cell surface, concomitantly accentuated the diminution of fMLP binding at the PMN surface and increased IL-18 priming of O2°− production by PMNs in response to fMLP. This suggests that fMLP receptor endocytosis could account, at least in part, for the priming of O2°− production. In addition, genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and SB203580, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) inhibitor, completely reversed the decreased level of fMLP binding and increased the level of CD11b expression after IL-18 treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of intact PMNs in whole blood showed that IL-18 increased p38MAPK phosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation. In particular, IL-18 induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (p125FAK), which has been implicated in cytoskeleton reorganization. Taken together, our findings suggest several mechanisms that are likely to regulate cytokine-induced priming of the oxidative burst in PMNs in their blood environment. PMID:15753257

  1. Endocytosis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mellman, Ira; Yarden, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis entails selective packaging of cell-surface proteins, such as receptors for cytokines and adhesion components, in cytoplasmic vesicles (endosomes). The series of sorting events that determines the fate of internalized proteins, either degradation in lysosomes or recycling back to the plasma membrane, relies on intrinsic sequence motifs, posttranslational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation and ubiquitination), and transient assemblies of both Rab GTPases and phosphoinositide-binding proteins. This multicomponent process is enhanced and skewed in cancer cells; we review mechanisms enabling both major drivers of cancer, p53 and Ras, to bias recycling of integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Likewise, cadherins and other junctional proteins of cancer cells are constantly removed from the cell surface, thereby disrupting tissue polarity and instigating motile phenotypes. Mutant forms of RTKs able to evade Cbl-mediated ubiquitination, along with overexpression of the wild-type forms and a variety of defective feedback regulatory loops, are frequently detected in tumors. Finally, we describe pharmacological attempts to harness the peculiar endocytic system of cancer, in favor of effective patient treatment. PMID:24296170

  2. Mobility of tethering factor EEA1 on endosomes is decreased upon stimulation of EGF receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Kosheverova, Vera V; Kamentseva, Rimma S; Gonchar, Ilya V; Kharchenko, Marianna V; Kornilova, Elena S

    2016-04-22

    Tethering factor EEA1, mediating homotypic fusion of early endosomes, was shown to be localized in membrane-bound state both in serum-deprived and stimulated for EGF receptor endocytosis cells. However, it is not known whether dynamics behavior of EEA1 is affected by EGF stimulation. We investigated EEA1 cytosol-to-membrane exchange rate in interphase HeLa cells by FRAP analysis. The data obtained fitted two-states binding model, with the bulk of membrane-associated EEA1 protein represented by the mobile fraction both in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated cells. Fast recovery state had similar half-times in the two cases: about 1.6 s and 2.8 s, respectively. However, the recovery half-time of slowly cycled EEA1 fraction significantly increased in EGF-stimulated comparing to serum-starved cells (from 21 to 99 s). We suppose that the retardation of EEA1 fluorescence recovery upon EGF-stimulation may be due to the increase of activated Rab5 on endosomal membranes, the growth of the number of tethering events between EEA1-positive vesicles and their clustering. PMID:26993163

  3. Inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis block the entry of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase toxin but not that of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, V M; Leppla, S H; Hewlett, E L

    1988-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis and Bacillus anthracis produce extracytoplasmic adenylate cyclase toxins (AC toxins) with shared features including activation by calmodulin and the ability to enter target cells and catalyze intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) production from host ATP. The two AC toxins were evaluated for sensitivities to a series of inhibitors of known uptake mechanisms. Cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of microfilament function, abrogated the cAMP response to B. anthracis AC toxin (93%) but not the cAMP response elicited by B. pertussis AC toxin. B. anthracis-mediated intoxication of CHO cells was completely inhibited by ammonium chloride (30 mM) and chloroquine (0.1 mM), whereas the cAMP accumulation produced by B. pertussis AC toxin remained unchanged. The block of target cell intoxication by cytochalasin D could be bypassed when cells were first treated with anthrax AC toxin and then exposed to an acidic medium. These data indicate that despite enzymatic similarities, these two AC toxins intoxicate target cells by different mechanisms, with anthrax AC toxin entering by means of receptor-mediated endocytosis into acidic compartments and B. pertussis AC toxin using a separate, and as yet undefined, mechanism. PMID:2895741

  4. The Matricellular Receptor LRP1 Forms an Interface for Signaling and Endocytosis in Modulation of the Extracellular Tumor Environment.

    PubMed

    Van Gool, Bart; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé; Roebroek, Anton J M

    2015-01-01

    The membrane protein low-density lipoprotein receptor related-protein 1 (LRP1) has been attributed a role in cancer. However, its presumably often indirect involvement is far from understood. LRP1 has both endocytic and signaling activities. As a matricellular receptor it is involved in regulation, mostly by clearing, of various extracellular matrix degrading enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases, serine proteases, protease inhibitor complexes, and the endoglycosidase heparanase. Furthermore, by binding extracellular ligands including growth factors and subsequent intracellular interaction with scaffolding and adaptor proteins it is involved in regulation of various signaling cascades. LRP1 expression levels are often downregulated in cancer and some studies consider low LRP1 levels a poor prognostic factor. On the contrary, upregulation in brain cancers has been noted and clinical trials explore the use of LRP1 as cargo receptor to deliver cytotoxic agents. This mini-review focuses on LRP1's role in tumor growth and metastasis especially by modulation of the extracellular tumor environment. In relation to this role its diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential will be discussed. PMID:26617523

  5. The Matricellular Receptor LRP1 Forms an Interface for Signaling and Endocytosis in Modulation of the Extracellular Tumor Environment

    PubMed Central

    Van Gool, Bart; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé; Roebroek, Anton J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The membrane protein low-density lipoprotein receptor related-protein 1 (LRP1) has been attributed a role in cancer. However, its presumably often indirect involvement is far from understood. LRP1 has both endocytic and signaling activities. As a matricellular receptor it is involved in regulation, mostly by clearing, of various extracellular matrix degrading enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases, serine proteases, protease inhibitor complexes, and the endoglycosidase heparanase. Furthermore, by binding extracellular ligands including growth factors and subsequent intracellular interaction with scaffolding and adaptor proteins it is involved in regulation of various signaling cascades. LRP1 expression levels are often downregulated in cancer and some studies consider low LRP1 levels a poor prognostic factor. On the contrary, upregulation in brain cancers has been noted and clinical trials explore the use of LRP1 as cargo receptor to deliver cytotoxic agents. This mini-review focuses on LRP1’s role in tumor growth and metastasis especially by modulation of the extracellular tumor environment. In relation to this role its diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential will be discussed. PMID:26617523

  6. Impaired endocytosis in proximal tubule from subchronic exposure to cadmium involves angiotensin II type 1 and cubilin receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to low cadmium (Cd) levels produces urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins, which is considered the critical effect of Cd exposure. However, the mechanisms involved in Cd-induced proteinuria are not entirely clear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of megalin and cubilin (important endocytic receptors in proximal tubule cells) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor on Cd-induced microalbuminuria. Methods Four groups of female Wistar rats were studied. Control (CT) group, vehicle-treated rats; LOS group, rats treated with losartan (an AT1 antagonist) from weeks 5 to 8 (10 mg/kg/day by gavage); Cd group, rats subchronically exposed to Cd (3 mg/kg/day by gavage) during 8 weeks, and Cd + LOS group, rats treated with Cd for 8 weeks and LOS from weeks 5–8. Kidney Cd content, glomerular function (evaluated by creatinine clearance and plasma creatinine), kidney injury and tubular function (evaluated by Kim-1 expression, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and glucose, and microalbuminuria), oxidative stress (measured by lipid peroxidation and NAD(P)H oxidase activity), mRNA levels of megalin, expressions of megalin and cubilin (by confocal microscopy) and AT1 receptor (by Western blot), were measured in the different experimental groups. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test using GraphPad Prism 5 software (Version 5.00). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Administration of Cd (Cd and Cd + LOS groups) increased renal Cd content. LOS-treatment decreased Cd-induced microalbuminuria without changes in: plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance, urinary NAG and glucose, oxidative stress, mRNA levels of megalin and cubilin, neither protein expression of megalin nor AT1 receptor, in the different experimental groups studied. However, Cd exposure did induce the expression of the tubular injury marker Kim-1 and decreased cubilin protein levels in proximal tubule cells whereas LOS-treatment restored cubilin levels and suppressed Kim-1 expression. Conclusion LOS treatment decreased microalbuminuria induced by Cd apparently through a cubilin receptor-dependent mechanism but independent of megalin. PMID:24093454

  7. Endocytosis via galactose receptors in vivo. Ligand size directs uptake by hepatocytes and/or liver macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Schlepper-Schaefer, J.; Huelsmann, D.; Djovkar, A.; Meyer, H.E.; Herbertz, L.; Kolb, H.; Kolb-Bachofen, V.

    1986-01-01

    The intrahepatic binding and uptake of variously sized ligands with terminal galactosyl residues is rat liver was followed. The ligands were administered to prefixed livers in binding studies and in vivo and in situ (serum-free perfused livers) in uptake studies. Gold sols with different particle diameters were prepared: 5 nm (Au/sub 5/), 17 nm (Au/sub 17/), 50 nm (Au/sub 50/) and coated with galactose exposing glycoproteins (asialofetuin (ASF) or lactosylated BSA (LacBSA)). Electron microscopy of mildly prefixed livers perfused with LacBSA-Au/sub 5/ in serum-free medium showed ligand binding to liver macrophages, hepatocytes and endothelial cells. Ligands bound to prefixed cell surfaces reflect the initial distribution of receptor activity: pre-aggregated clusters of ligands are found on liver macrophages, single particles statistically distributed on hepatocytes and pre-aggregated clusters of particles restricted to coated pits on endothelial cells. Ligand binding is prevented in the presence of 80 mM N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), while N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is without effect. Electron microscopy of livers after ligand injection into the tail vein shows that in vivo uptake of electron-dense galactose particles by liver cells is size-dependent. In vivo uptake by liver macrophages is mediated by galactose-specific recognition as shown by inhibition with GalNAc.

  8. Windpipe Controls Drosophila Intestinal Homeostasis by Regulating JAK/STAT Pathway via Promoting Receptor Endocytosis and Lysosomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Wu, Longfei; Wang, Guolun; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun; You, Jia; Li, Zhouhua; Lin, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    The adult intestinal homeostasis is tightly controlled by proper proliferation and differentiation of intestinal stem cells. The JAK/STAT (Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) signaling pathway is essential for the regulation of adult stem cell activities and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Currently, it remains largely unknown how JAK/STAT signaling activities are regulated in these processes. Here we have identified windpipe (wdp) as a novel component of the JAK/STAT pathway. We demonstrate that Wdp is positively regulated by JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila adult intestines. Loss of wdp activity results in the disruption of midgut homeostasis under normal and regenerative conditions. Conversely, ectopic expression of Wdp inhibits JAK/STAT signaling activity. Importantly, we show that Wdp interacts with the receptor Domeless (Dome), and promotes its internalization for subsequent lysosomal degradation. Together, these data led us to propose that Wdp acts as a novel negative feedback regulator of the JAK/STAT pathway in regulating intestinal homeostasis. PMID:25923769

  9. Structure-activity relationship studies of carboxamido-biaryl ethers as opioid receptor antagonists (OpRAs). Part 1.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kumiko; Holloway, William G; McKinzie, Jamie H; Suter, Todd M; Statnick, Michael A; Surface, Peggy L; Emmerson, Paul J; Thomas, Elizabeth M; Siegel, Miles G; Matt, James E; Wolfe, Chad N; Mitch, Charles H

    2007-10-01

    A structurally unique and new class of opioid receptor antagonists (OpRAs) that bear no structural resemblance with morphine or endogenous opioid peptides has been discovered. A series of carboxamido-biaryl ethers were identified as potent receptor antagonists against mu, kappa and delta opioid receptors. The structure-activity relationship indicated para-substituted aryloxyaryl primary carboxamide bearing an amine tether on the distal phenyl ring was optimal for potent in vitro functional antagonism against three opioid receptor subtypes. PMID:17720493

  10. Enhanced Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Cytotoxicity of a Folic Acid-Desacetylvinblastine Monohydrazide Conjugate in a Pemetrexed-Resistant Cell Line Lacking Folate-Specific Facilitative Carriers but with Increased Folate Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The reduced folate carrier (RFC), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), and folate receptors (FR) are folate-specific transporters. Antifolates currently in the clinic, such as pemetrexed, methotrexate, and pralatrexate, are transported into tumor cells primarily via RFC. Folic acid conjugated to cytotoxics, a new class of antineoplastics, are transported into cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. To better define the role of PCFT in antifolate resistance, a methotrexate-resistant cell line, M160-8, was selected from a HeLa subline in which the RFC gene was deleted and PCFT was highly overexpressed. These cells were cross-resistant to pemetrexed. PCFT function and the PCFT mRNA level in M160-8 cells were barely detectable, and FR-? function and mRNA level were increased as compared with the parent cells. While pemetrexed rapidly associated with FR and was internalized within endosomes in M160-8 cells, consistent with FR-mediated transport, subsequent pemetrexed and (6S)-5-formyltetrahydrofolate export into the cytosol was markedly impaired. In contrast, M160-8 cells were collaterally sensitive to EC0905, a folic aciddesacetylvinblastine monohydrazide conjugate also transported by FR-mediated endocytosis. However, in this case a sulfhydryl bond is cleaved to release the lipophilic cytotoxic moiety into the endosome, which passively diffuses out of the endosome into the cytosol. Hence, resistance to pemetrexed in M160-8 cells was due to entrapment of the drug within the endosome due to the absence of PCFT under conditions in which the FR cycling function was intact. PMID:24249723

  11. [Clathrin-independent endocytosis: free the way!].

    PubMed

    Blouin, Cédric M

    2013-10-01

    Along the years, the interest paid to the study of endocytosis has never wavered as this process plays such an essential role in many cellular functions. Cell growth, adhesion and differentiation, regulation of signaling induced by membrane receptors or infection by viral particles are all dependent on the entry of molecules into the cell. Once the clathrin-dependent endocytosis well characterized, it has become apparent that other entry pathways also existed in the cell. This review is intended to provide an update on recent advances that establish with certainty the existence of endocytic pathways independent of clathrin and highlight their specific regulators. PMID:24148128

  12. Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Adaptor Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Popova, N.V.; Deyev, I.E.; Petrenko, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Macromolecules gain access to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells using one of several ways of which clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the most researched. Although the mechanism of clathrin-mediated endocytosis is well understood in general, novel adaptor proteins that play various roles in ensuring specific regulation of the mentioned process are being discovered all the time. This review provides a detailed account of the mechanism of clathrin-mediated internalization of activated G protein-coupled receptors, as well as a description of the major proteins involved in this process. PMID:24307937

  13. Apo- and holo-lactoferrin are both internalized by lactoferrin receptor via clathrin-mediated endocytosis but differentially affect ERK-signaling and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rulan; Lopez, Veronica; Kelleher, Shannon L.; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a major iron-binding and multi-functional protein in exocrine fluids such as breast milk and mucosal secretions. The functions of Lf appear dependent upon the iron-saturation of the Lf protein and are postulated to be mediated through Lf internalization by a Lf receptor (LfR). However, mechanisms by which LfR mediates Lf internalization in enterocytes are unknown. We now demonstrate that a LfR previously cloned from the small intestine mediates Lf endocytosis in a human enterocyte model (Caco-2 cells). LfR was detected at the plasma membrane by cell surface biotinylation; both apo-Lf and holo-Lf uptake were significantly inhibited in cells transfected with LfR siRNA. Treatments of hypertonic sucrose and clathrin siRNA and co-immunoprecipitation of LfR with clathrin adaptor AP2 indicate that LfR regulates Lf endocytosis via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Although both iron-free Lf (apo-Lf) and iron-saturated Lf (holo-Lf) enter Caco-2 cells via a similar mechanism and no significant differences were observed in the binding and uptake of apo- and holo-Lf in Caco-2 cells, apo-Lf but not holo-Lf stimulates proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, apo-Lf stimulated extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) cascade to a significantly greater extent than holo-Lf and the apo-Lf induced proliferation was significantly inhibited by an ERK cascade inhibitor (U0126) and clathrin siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that LfR is a major pathway through which Lf is taken up by enterocytes, which occurs independently of iron saturation through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The differential effects of apo- and holo-Lf are not due to differences in cellular internalization mechanisms. PMID:21935933

  14. Truncation of the peptide sequence in bifunctional ligands with mu and delta opioid receptor agonist and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist activities

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Padma; Yamamoto, Takashi; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Cowell, Scott; Kulkarni, Vinod; Moye, Sharif; Navratilova, Edita; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-Wu; Vanderah, Todd W.; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The optimization and truncation of our lead peptide-derived ligand TY005 possessing eight amino-acid residues was performed. Among the synthesized derivatives, NP30 (Tyr1-DAla2-Gly3-Phe4-Gly5-Trp6-O-[3′,5′-Bzl(CF3)2]) showed balanced and potent opioid agonist as well as substance P antagonist activities in isolated tissue-based assays, together with significant antinociceptive and antiallodynic activities in vivo. PMID:23899615

  15. The glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor C terminus modulates beta-arrestin-2 association but is dispensable for ligand-induced desensitization, endocytosis, and G-protein-dependent effector activation.

    PubMed

    Estall, Jennifer L; Koehler, Jacqueline A; Yusta, Bernardo; Drucker, Daniel J

    2005-06-10

    Classic models of receptor desensitization and internalization have been largely based on the behavior of Family A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor (GLP-2R) is a member of the Family B glucagon-secretin GPCR family, which exhibit significant sequence and structural differences from the Family A receptors in their intracellular and extracellular domains. To identify structural motifs that regulate GLP-2R signaling and cell surface receptor expression, we analyzed the functional properties of a series of mutant GLP-2Rs. The majority of the C-terminal receptor tail was dispensable for GLP-2-induced cAMP accumulation, ERK1/2 activation, and endocytosis in transfected cells. However, progressive truncation of the C terminus reduced cell surface receptor expression, altered agonist-induced GLP-2R trafficking, and abrogated protein kinase A-mediated heterologous receptor desensitization. Elimination of the distal 21 amino acids of the receptor was sufficient to promote constitutive receptor internalization and prevent agonist-induced recruitment of beta-arrestin-2. Site-directed mutagenesis identified specific amino acid residues within the distal GLP-2R C terminus that mediate the stable association with beta-arrestin-2. Surprisingly, although the truncated mutant receptors failed to interact with beta-arrestin-2, they underwent homologous desensitization and subsequent resensitization with kinetics similar to that observed with the wild-type GLP-2R. Our data suggest that, although the GLP-2R C terminus is not required for coupling to cellular machinery regulating signaling or desensitization, it may serve as a sorting signal for intracellular trafficking. Taken together with the previously demonstrated clathrin and dynamin-independent, lipid-raft-dependent pathways for internalization, our data suggest that GLP-2 receptor signaling has evolved unique structural and functional mechanisms for control of receptor trafficking, desensitization, and resensitization. PMID:15817468

  16. Modifications of the cyclic mu receptor selective tetrapeptide Tyr-c[D-Cys-Phe-D-Pen]NH2 (Et): effects on opioid receptor binding and activation.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, I J; Ho, J C; Mosberg, H I; Traynor, J R

    2000-03-01

    The previously described cyclic mu opioid receptor-selective tetrapeptide Tyr-c[D-Cys-Phe-D-Pen]NH2 (Et) (JOM-6) was modified at residues 1 and 3 by substitution with various natural and synthetic amino acids, and/or by alteration of the cyclic system. Effects on mu and delta opioid receptor binding affinities, and on potencies and efficacies as measured by the [35S]-GTPgammaS assay, were evaluated. Affinities at mu and delta receptors were not influenced dramatically by substitution of Tyr1 with conformationally restricted phenolic amino acids. In the [35S]-GTPgammaS assay, all of the peptides tested exhibited a maximal response comparable with that of fentanyl at the mu opioid receptor, and all showed high potency, in the range 0.4-9nM. However, potency changes did not always correlate with affinity, suggesting that the conformation required for binding and the conformation required for activation of the opioid receptors are different. At the delta opioid receptor, none of the peptides were able to produce a response equivalent to that of the full delta agonist BW 373,U86 and only one had an EC50 value of less than 100nM. Lastly, we have identified a peptide, D-Hat-c[D-Cys-Phe-D-Pen]NH2 (Et), with high potency and > 1,000-fold functional selectivity for the mu over delta opioid receptor as measured by the [35S]-GTPgammaS assay. PMID:10727108

  17. Discovery of tripeptide-derived multifunctional ligands possessing delta/mu opioid receptor agonist and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist activities.

    PubMed

    Nair, Padma; Yamamoto, Takashi; Cowell, Scott; Kulkarni, Vinod; Moye, Sharif; Navratilova, Edita; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-Wu; Vanderah, Todd W; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J

    2015-09-01

    Several bifunctional peptides were synthesized and characterized based on the pentapeptide-derived ligand NP30 (1: Tyr-DAla-Gly-Phe-Gly-Trp-O-[3',5'-Bzl(CF3)2]). Modification and truncation of amino acid residues were performed, and the tripeptide-derived ligand NP66 (11: Dmt-DAla-Trp-NH-[3',5'-(CF3)2-Bzl]) was obtained based on the overlapping pharmacophore concept. The Trp(3) residue of ligand 11 works as a message residue for both opioid and NK1 activities. The significance lies in the observation that the approach of appropriate truncation of peptide sequence could lead to a tripeptide-derived chimeric ligand with effective binding and functional activities for both mu and delta opioid and NK1 receptors with agonist activities at mu and delta opioid and antagonist activity at NK1 receptors, respectively. PMID:26212775

  18. Effects of the delta-opioid agonist SNC80 on the abuse liability of methadone in rhesus monkeys: a behavioral economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L.; Roma, Peter G.; Folk, John E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Delta-opioid agonists enhance the antinociceptive efficacy of methadone and other mu-opioid agonists. However, relatively little is known about the degree to which delta agonists might enhance the abuse-related effects of mu agonists. Objective This study used a behavioral economic approach to examine effects of the delta agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[(αR)-α-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxy-benzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] on the reinforcing effects of methadone in a drug self-administration assay. Interactions between SNC80 and cocaine were also examined for comparison. Methods Rhesus monkeys (n=4), surgically implanted with indwelling intravenous catheters, were tested in two phases. In phase 1, drug self-administration dose-effect curves for methadone (0.0032–0.1 mg/kg/injection (inj)) and cocaine (0.0032–0.32 mg/kg/inj) alone were determined under a fixed-ratio 10 (FR 10) schedule of reinforcement. In phase 2, FR values were increased every 3 days (FR 1–FR 1800) during availability of methadone alone (0.032 mg/kg/inj) and in combination with varying proportions of SNC80 (0.1:1, 0.3:1, and 0.9:1 SNC80/methadone) or of cocaine alone (0.032 mg/kg/inj) and in combination with varying proportions of SNC80 (0.33:1, 1:1, and 3:1 SNC80/ cocaine). Demand curves related drug intake to FR price, and measures of reinforcement were derived. Results Methadone and cocaine alone each functioned as a reinforcer. SNC80 did not alter measures of reinforcement for either methadone or cocaine. Conclusions SNC80 at proportions previously shown to enhance methadone-induced antinociception did not enhance the abuse-related effects of methadone. These results support the proposition that delta agonists may selectively enhance mu agonist analgesic effects without enhancing mu agonist abuse liability. PMID:21369752

  19. Adapting for endocytosis: roles for endocytic sorting adaptors in directing neural development

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Chan Choo; Winckler, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Proper cortical development depends on the orchestrated actions of a multitude of guidance receptors and adhesion molecules and their downstream signaling. The levels of these receptors on the surface and their precise locations can greatly affect guidance outcomes. Trafficking of receptors to a particular surface locale and removal by endocytosis thus feed crucially into the final guidance outcomes. In addition, endocytosis of receptors can affect downstream signaling (both quantitatively and qualitatively) and regulated endocytosis of guidance receptors is thus an important component of ensuring proper neural development. We will discuss the cell biology of regulated endocytosis and the impact on neural development. We focus our discussion on endocytic accessory proteins (EAPs) (such as numb and disabled) and how they regulate endocytosis and subsequent post-endocytic trafficking of their cognate receptors (such as Notch, TrkB, β-APP, VLDLR, and ApoER2). PMID:25904845

  20. Endocytosis and Signaling during Development

    PubMed Central

    Bökel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms relies on an intricate choreography of intercellular communication events that pattern the embryo and coordinate the formation of tissues and organs. It is therefore not surprising that developmental biology, especially using genetic model organisms, has contributed significantly to the discovery and functional dissection of the associated signal-transduction cascades. At the same time, biophysical, biochemical, and cell biological approaches have provided us with insights into the underlying cell biological machinery. Here we focus on how endocytic trafficking of signaling components (e.g., ligands or receptors) controls the generation, propagation, modulation, reception, and interpretation of developmental signals. A comprehensive enumeration of the links between endocytosis and signal transduction would exceed the limits of this review. We will instead use examples from different developmental pathways to conceptually illustrate the various functions provided by endocytic processes during key steps of intercellular signaling. PMID:24591521

  1. An immersed boundary method for endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Hau; Huang, Huaxiong

    2014-09-01

    Endocytosis is one of the cellular functions for capturing (engulfing) vesicles or microorganisms. Understanding the biophysical mechanisms of this cellular process is essential from a bioengineering point of view since it will provide guidance for developing effective targeted drug delivery therapies. In this paper, we propose an immersed boundary (IB) method that can be used to simulate the dynamical process of this important biological function. In our model, membranes of the vesicle and the cell are treated as Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian interfaces. The membrane-bound molecules are modeled as insoluble surfactants such that the molecules after binding are regarded as a product of a “chemical” reaction. Our numerical examples show that the immersed boundary method is a useful simulation tool for studying endocytosis, where the roles of interfacial energy, fluid flow and viscous dissipation in the success of the endocytosis process can be investigated in detail. A distinct feature of our IB method is the treatment of the two binding membranes that is different from the merging of fluid-fluid interfaces. Another important feature of our method is the strict conservation of membrane-borne receptors and ligands, which is important for predicting the dynamics of the endocytosis process.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Action of an Antimicrobial Model Peptide That Suppresses the TRIF-Dependent Signaling Pathway via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Do-Wan; Heo, Kang-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Kyu; Sim, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Choi, Jae-Wan; Sim, Dae-Won; Cheong, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hong; Bang, Jeong-Kyu; Won, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, particularly those with amphipathic helical structures, are emerging as target molecules for therapeutic development due to their immunomodulatory properties. Although the antimicrobial activity of AMPs is known to be exerted primarily by permeation of the bacterial membrane, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity remains to be elucidated. We report potent anti-inflammatory activity of WALK11.3, an antimicrobial model peptide with an amphipathic helical conformation, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This peptide inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, INF-β, and TNF-α. Although WALK11.3 did not exert a major effect on all downstream signaling in the MyD88-dependent pathway, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- mediated pro-inflammatory signals were markedly attenuated in the TRIF-dependent pathway due to inhibition of the phosphorylation of STAT1 by attenuation of IRF3 phosphorylation. WALK11.3 specifically inhibited the endocytosis of TLR4, which is essential for triggering TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophage cells. Hence, we suggest that specific interference with TLR4 endocytosis could be one of the major modes of the anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. Our designed WALK11 peptides, which possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, may be promising molecules for the development of therapies for infectious inflammation. PMID:26017270

  3. Exploiting Endocytosis for Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Akinc, Akin; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we briefly review the endocytic pathways used by cells, pointing out their defining characteristics and highlighting physical limitations that may direct the internalization of nanoparticles to a subset of these pathways. A more detailed description of these pathways is presented in the literature. We then focus on the endocytosis of nanomedicines and present how various nanomaterial parameters impact these endocytic processes. This topic is an area of active research, motivated by the recognition that an improved understanding of how nanomaterials interact at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism level will lead to the design of better nanomedicines in the future. Next, we briefly review some of the important nanomedicines already on the market or in clinical development that serve to exemplify how endocytosis can be exploited for medical benefit. Finally, we present some key unanswered questions and remaining challenges to be addressed by the field. PMID:24186069

  4. Exploiting endocytosis for nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Akinc, Akin; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we briefly review the endocytic pathways used by cells, pointing out their defining characteristics and highlighting physical limitations that may direct the internalization of nanoparticles to a subset of these pathways. A more detailed description of these pathways is presented in the literature. We then focus on the endocytosis of nanomedicines and present how various nanomaterial parameters impact these endocytic processes. This topic is an area of active research, motivated by the recognition that an improved understanding of how nanomaterials interact at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism level will lead to the design of better nanomedicines in the future. Next, we briefly review some of the important nanomedicines already on the market or in clinical development that serve to exemplify how endocytosis can be exploited for medical benefit. Finally, we present some key unanswered questions and remaining challenges to be addressed by the field. PMID:24186069

  5. Synaptic actions of neuropeptide FF in the rat parabrachial nucleus: interactions with opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zidichouski, J A; Harris, K H; Jhamandas, J H

    2000-08-01

    The pontine parabrachial nucleus (PBN) receives both opioid and Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) projections from the lower brain stem and/or the spinal cord. Because of this anatomical convergence and previous evidence that NPFF displays both pro- and anti-opioid activities, this study examined the synaptic effects of NPFF in the PBN and the mechanisms underlying these effects using an in vitro brain slice preparation and the nystatin-perforated patch-clamp recording technique. Under voltage-clamp conditions, NPFF reversibly reduced the evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect was not accompanied by apparent changes in the holding current, the current-voltage relationship or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-induced inward currents in the PBN cells. When a paired-pulse protocol was used, NPFF increased the ratio of these synaptic currents. Analysis of miniature EPSCs showed that NPFF caused a rightward shift in the frequency-distribution curve, whereas the amplitude-distribution curve remained unchanged. Collectively, these experiments indicate that NPFF reduces the evoked EPSCs through a presynaptic mechanism of action. The synaptic effects induced by NPFF (5 microM) could not be blocked by the specific mu-opioid receptor antagonist, D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2) (1 microM), but application of delta-opioid receptor antagonist Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe (5 microM) almost completely prevented effects of NPFF. Moreover, the delta-opioid receptor agonist, Deltorphin (1 microM), mimicked the effects as NPFF and also occluded NPFF's actions on synaptic currents. These results indicate that NPFF modulates excitatory synaptic transmission in the PBN through an interaction with presynaptic delta-opioid receptors. These observations provide a cellular basis for NPFF enhancement of the antinociceptive effects consequent to central activation of delta-opioid receptors. PMID:10938301

  6. Rapid agonist-induced loss of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin opioid receptor sites in NG108-15, but not SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, R.I.; Lameh, J.; Sadee, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites on intact SK-N-SH and NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells, respectively, in culture. Use of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin ({beta}E) as a tracer, together with {beta}E(6-31) to block high-affinity non-opioid binding in both cell lines, permitted the measurement of cell surface {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites. Labeling was at {delta} sites in NG108-15 cells and predominantly at {mu} sites in SK-N-SH cells. Pretreatment with the {mu} and {delta} agonist, DADLE, caused a rapid loss of cell surface {delta} receptor sites in NG108-15 cells, but failed to reduce significantly {mu} receptor density in SK-N-SH cells.

  7. Rapid quantification of the delta-opioid receptor selective enkephalin DPDPE in canine cerebrospinal fluid by liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Steven; Yaksh, Tony

    2002-05-25

    An atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay was developed and validated for the determination of D-penicillamine(2,5) enkephalin (DPDPE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from dog. DPDPE and internal standard (D-Ala(2),D-Leu(5) enkephalin=DADLE) were isolated from CSF by reversed-phase C(18) solid-phase extraction with ZipTip micro-cartridges. Aliquots of extracted eluate were injected onto an Agilent Zorbax SB C(18) column (30 x 2.2 mm; 3.5 microm) at a flow-rate of 0.4 ml/min. The isocratic mobile phase of methanol-10 mM ammonium formate (pH 3) (75:25, v/v) was then diverted to waste for 45 s after injection, after which time flow was directed to the single quadrupole mass spectrometer. DPDPE was detected by positive mode selected ion monitoring. Standard curves were linear (r(2)> or =0.991) over the concentration range 1-1000 ng/ml. The efficiency of extraction recovery was greater than 97%, and the intra-assay and inter-assay precisions were within 9% relative standard deviation. DPDPE and the internal standard were stable in the injection solvent at 4 degrees C for at least 48 h. The assay was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of intrathecal DPDPE administration in the dog animal model. PMID:12016017

  8. Endocytosis and Endosomal Trafficking in Plants.

    PubMed

    Paez Valencia, Julio; Goodman, Kaija; Otegui, Marisa S

    2016-04-29

    Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking are essential processes in cells that control the dynamics and turnover of plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors, transporters, and cell wall biosynthetic enzymes. Plasma membrane proteins (cargo) are internalized by endocytosis through clathrin-dependent or clathrin-independent mechanism and delivered to early endosomes. From the endosomes, cargo proteins are recycled back to the plasma membrane via different pathways, which rely on small GTPases and the retromer complex. Proteins that are targeted for degradation through ubiquitination are sorted into endosomal vesicles by the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery for degradation in the vacuole. Endocytic and endosomal trafficking regulates many cellular, developmental, and physiological processes, including cellular polarization, hormone transport, metal ion homeostasis, cytokinesis, pathogen responses, and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that mediate the recognition and sorting of endocytic and endosomal cargos, the vesiculation processes that mediate their trafficking, and their connection to cellular and physiological responses in plants. PMID:27128466

  9. Catching Up with Ultrafast Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Marisa M; Rosenmund, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The mechanism and speed of endocytosis at central synapses after neurotransmitter release is still under debate. In this issue of Neuron,Delvendahl et al. (2016) propose an ultrafast form of endocytosis after single action potentials (APs) at physiological temperature. PMID:27151632

  10. Endocytosis of Integrin-Binding Human Picornaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Merilahti, Pirjo; Koskinen, Satu; Heikkilä, Outi; Karelehto, Eveliina; Susi, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9), echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1) has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses. PMID:23227048

  11. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  12. STAT6 transcription factor binding sites with mismatches within the canonical 5'-TTC...GAA-3' motif involved in regulation of delta- and mu-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Brner, Christine; Wltje, Michael; Hllt, Volker; Kraus, Jrgen

    2004-12-01

    Opioid receptors are expressed in neuronal and immune cells and regulated in response to immunological processes. Herein, we demonstrate up-regulation of the delta-opioid receptor gene by interleukin-4 in immune cells (primary T and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Jurkat E6 T cells), and in NG 108-15 neuronal cells. We identified an interleukin-4-responsive element at nt -671 on the murine gene promoter, to which the transcription factor STAT6 binds, as shown by reporter gene analysis and STAT6/DNA interaction studies in living cells with transcription factor decoy oligonucleotides. STAT6 normally binds to palindromic DNA motifs with a 5'-TTC...GAA-3' core. Notably, the delta-opioid receptor STAT6 site (5'-TTC...GGA-3') is an imperfect palindrome with a mismatch within this core sequence. A systematic analysis of possible mismatch 5'-TTC...GAA-3' motifs revealed that STAT6 also binds to the sequence 5'-TTA...GAA-3'. This motif occurs as a polymorphism in the human mu-opioid receptor gene (Kraus et al. 2001 J. Biol. Chem 276, 43901-43908). We show that this mutated element has a significantly reduced STAT6 binding activity which correlates to its reduced interleukin (IL)-4 inducibility. In contrast, the non-canonical STAT6 site of the delta-opioid receptor binds STAT6 with similar high activity as a perfectly palindromic STAT6 site and is strongly inducible by IL-4. PMID:15584925

  13. Actin-Regulator Feedback Interactions during Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinxin; Galletta, Brian J; Cooper, John A; Carlsson, Anders E

    2016-03-29

    Endocytosis mediated by clathrin, a cellular process by which cells internalize membrane receptors and their extracellular ligands, is an important component of cell signaling regulation. Actin polymerization is involved in endocytosis in varying degrees depending on the cellular context. In yeast, clathrin-mediated endocytosis requires a pulse of polymerized actin and its regulators, which recruit and activate the Arp2/3 complex. In this article, we seek to identify the main protein-protein interactions that 1) cause actin and its regulators to appear in pulses, and 2) determine the effects of key mutations and drug treatments on actin and regulator assembly. We perform a joint modeling/experimental study of actin and regulator dynamics during endocytosis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We treat both a stochastic model that grows an explicit three-dimensional actin network, and a simpler two-variable Fitzhugh-Nagumo type model. The models include a negative-feedback interaction of F-actin onto the Arp2/3 regulators. Both models explain the pulse time courses and the effects of interventions on actin polymerization: the surprising increase in the peak F-actin count caused by reduced regulator branching activity, the increase in F-actin resulting from slowing of actin disassembly, and the increased Arp2/3 regulator lifetime resulting from latrunculin treatment. In addition, they predict that decreases in the regulator branching activity lead to increases in accumulation of regulators, and we confirmed this prediction with experiments on yeast harboring mutations in the Arp2/3 regulators, using quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Our experimental measurements suggest that the regulators act quasi-independently, in the sense that accumulation of a particular regulator is most strongly affected by mutations of that regulator, as opposed to the others. PMID:27028652

  14. Notch1 endocytosis is induced by ligand and is required for signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G; Major, J A; Iyer, K; James, A C; Pursglove, S E; Moreau, J L M; Dunwoodie, S L

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signalling pathway is widely utilised during embryogenesis in situations where cell-cell interactions are important for cell fate specification and differentiation. DSL ligand endocytosis into the ligand-expressing cell is an important aspect of Notch signalling because it is thought to supply the force needed to separate the Notch heterodimer to initiate signal transduction. A functional role for receptor endocytosis during Notch signal transduction is more controversial. Here we have used live-cell imaging to examine trafficking of the Notch1 receptor in response to ligand binding. Contact with cells expressing ligands induced internalisation and intracellular trafficking of Notch1. Notch1 endocytosis was accompanied by transendocytosis of ligand into the Notch1-expressing signal-receiving cell. Ligand caused Notch1 endocytosis into SARA-positive endosomes in a manner dependent on clathrin and dynamin function. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis in the receptor-expressing cell impaired ligand-induced Notch1 signalling. Our findings resolve conflicting observations from mammalian and Drosophila studies by demonstrating that ligand-dependent activation of Notch1 signalling requires receptor endocytosis. Endocytosis of Notch1 may provide a force on the ligand:receptor complex that is important for potent signal transduction. PMID:26522918

  15. On the modeling of endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Sknepnek, Rastko; Schwarz, Jennifer; Bowick, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Endocytosis is the primary mechanism by which extracellular material enters the cell. During endocytosis, the cell membrane deforms to surround the extracellular material and draw it into the cell, followed by a pinch-off to produce an internal vesicle. Recent experiments on clathrin-mediated endocytosis all agree that the actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in the deformation of the cell membrane. The actin cytoskeleton is a crosslinked network of filaments exerting active forces. However, competing ideas remain as to precisely how the actin cytoskeleton organizes itself to help drive the deformation. To begin to resolve this controversy, we mathematically model clathrin-mediated endocytosis using variational methods and Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we investigate how the deformation of the cell membrane depends on the organization of the actin cytoskeletal network, and its associated active forces, to rule out one or more of the competing ideas.

  16. CD14 mediates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) endocytosis and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and interferon regulatory transcription factor 3 (IRF3) activation in epithelial cells and impairs neutrophil infiltration and Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanhita; Karmakar, Mausita; Pearlman, Eric

    2014-01-10

    In the current study, we examined the role of CD14 in regulating LPS activation of corneal epithelial cells and Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infection. Our findings demonstrate that LPS induces Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) internalization in corneal epithelial cells and that blocking with anti-CD14 selectively inhibits TLR4 endocytosis, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and IRF3 phosphorylation, and production of CCL5/RANTES and IFN-β, but not IL-8. Using a murine model of P. aeruginosa corneal infection, we show that although infected CD14(-/-) corneas produce less CCL5, they exhibit significantly increased CXC chemokine production, neutrophil recruitment to the corneal stroma, and bacterial clearance than C57BL/6 mice. We conclude that CD14 has a critical role in mediating TLR4 signaling through IRF3 in resident corneal epithelial cells and macrophages and thereby modulates TLR4 cell surface activation of the MyD88/NF-κB/AP-1 pathway and production of CXC chemokines and neutrophil infiltration to infected tissues. PMID:24275652

  17. CD14 Mediates Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Endocytosis and Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) and Interferon Regulatory Transcription Factor 3 (IRF3) Activation in Epithelial Cells and Impairs Neutrophil Infiltration and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Killing in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanhita; Karmakar, Mausita; Pearlman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of CD14 in regulating LPS activation of corneal epithelial cells and Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infection. Our findings demonstrate that LPS induces Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) internalization in corneal epithelial cells and that blocking with anti-CD14 selectively inhibits TLR4 endocytosis, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and IRF3 phosphorylation, and production of CCL5/RANTES and IFN-?, but not IL-8. Using a murine model of P. aeruginosa corneal infection, we show that although infected CD14?/? corneas produce less CCL5, they exhibit significantly increased CXC chemokine production, neutrophil recruitment to the corneal stroma, and bacterial clearance than C57BL/6 mice. We conclude that CD14 has a critical role in mediating TLR4 signaling through IRF3 in resident corneal epithelial cells and macrophages and thereby modulates TLR4 cell surface activation of the MyD88/NF-?B/AP-1 pathway and production of CXC chemokines and neutrophil infiltration to infected tissues. PMID:24275652

  18. Bile Acids Reduce Endocytosis of High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other. PMID:25010412

  19. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other. PMID:25010412

  20. Quantitative Analysis of HER2-mediated Effects on HER2 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Endocytosis: DISTRIBUTION OF HOMO- AND HETERODIMERS DEPENDS ON RELATIVE HER2 LEVELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, Bart S.; Opresko, Lee ); Wiley, H Steven ); Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2003-05-15

    Endocytic trafficking plays an important role in the regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Many cell types express multiple EGFR family members (including EGFR, HER2, HER3 and/or HER4) that interact to form an array of homo- and hetero-dimers. Differential trafficking of these receptors should strongly affect signaling through this system by changing substrate access and heterodimerization efficiency. Because of the complexity of these dynamic processes we used a quantitative, computational model to understand this system. As a test case, parameters characterizing EGFR and HER2 interactions were derived using experimental data obtained from mammary epithelial cells constructed to express different levels of HER2. With this data we were able to estimate receptor-specific internalization rate constants and dimer uncoupling rate constants. These parameters were not otherwise experimentally accessible due to the complex system interplay. Our models indicated that HER2:EGFR heterodimers traffic as single entities. Direct experiments using EGF and anti-HER2 and anti-EGFR antibodies using independently derived cell lines confirmed many of the predictions of the model. Furthermore, our model could predict the relationship between HER2 expression levels and the transient distribution of EGFR homodimers and heterodimers. Our results suggest that the levels of HER2 found on normal cells are barely at the threshold necessary to drive efficient heterodimerization. Thus, altering local HER2 concentrations in membrane microdomains could serve as an effective mechanism for regulating HER2 heterodimerization and could explain why HER2 overexpression found in some cancers have such a profound effect on cell physiology.

  1. Nexus of signaling and endocytosis in oncogenesis driven by non-small cell lung cancer-associated epidermal growth factor receptor mutants.

    PubMed

    Chung, Byung Min; Tom, Eric; Zutshi, Neha; Bielecki, Timothy Alan; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2014-12-10

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls a wide range of cellular processes, and aberrant EGFR signaling as a result of receptor overexpression and/or mutation occurs in many types of cancer. Tumor cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that harbor EGFR kinase domain mutations exhibit oncogene addiction to mutant EGFR, which confers high sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). As patients invariably develop resistance to TKIs, it is important to delineate the cell biological basis of mutant EGFR-induced cellular transformation since components of these pathways can serve as alternate therapeutic targets to preempt or overcome resistance. NSCLC-associated EGFR mutants are constitutively-active and induce ligand-independent transformation in nonmalignant cell lines. Emerging data suggest that a number of factors are critical for the mutant EGFR-dependent tumorigenicity, and bypassing the effects of TKIs on these pathways promotes drug resistance. For example, activation of downstream pathways such as Akt, Erk, STAT3 and Src is critical for mutant EGFR-mediated biological processes. It is now well-established that the potency and spatiotemporal features of cellular signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR, as well as the specific pathways activated, is determined by the nature of endocytic traffic pathways through which the active receptors traverse. Recent evidence indicates that NSCLC-associated mutant EGFRs exhibit altered endocytic trafficking and they exhibit reduced Cbl ubiquitin ligase-mediated lysosomal downregulation. More recent work has shown that mutant EGFRs undergo ligand-independent traffic into the endocytic recycling compartment, a behavior that plays a key role in Src pathway activation and oncogenesis. These studies are beginning to delineate the close nexus between signaling and endocytic traffic of EGFR mutants as a key driver of oncogenic processes. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss the links between mutant EGFR signaling and endocytic properties, and introduce potential mechanisms by which altered endocytic properties of mutant EGFRs may alter signaling and vice versa as well as their implications for NSCLC therapy. PMID:25493220

  2. Nexus of signaling and endocytosis in oncogenesis driven by non-small cell lung cancer-associated epidermal growth factor receptor mutants

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Byung Min; Tom, Eric; Zutshi, Neha; Bielecki, Timothy Alan; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls a wide range of cellular processes, and aberrant EGFR signaling as a result of receptor overexpression and/or mutation occurs in many types of cancer. Tumor cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that harbor EGFR kinase domain mutations exhibit oncogene addiction to mutant EGFR, which confers high sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). As patients invariably develop resistance to TKIs, it is important to delineate the cell biological basis of mutant EGFR-induced cellular transformation since components of these pathways can serve as alternate therapeutic targets to preempt or overcome resistance. NSCLC-associated EGFR mutants are constitutively-active and induce ligand-independent transformation in nonmalignant cell lines. Emerging data suggest that a number of factors are critical for the mutant EGFR-dependent tumorigenicity, and bypassing the effects of TKIs on these pathways promotes drug resistance. For example, activation of downstream pathways such as Akt, Erk, STAT3 and Src is critical for mutant EGFR-mediated biological processes. It is now well-established that the potency and spatiotemporal features of cellular signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR, as well as the specific pathways activated, is determined by the nature of endocytic traffic pathways through which the active receptors traverse. Recent evidence indicates that NSCLC-associated mutant EGFRs exhibit altered endocytic trafficking and they exhibit reduced Cbl ubiquitin ligase-mediated lysosomal downregulation. More recent work has shown that mutant EGFRs undergo ligand-independent traffic into the endocytic recycling compartment, a behavior that plays a key role in Src pathway activation and oncogenesis. These studies are beginning to delineate the close nexus between signaling and endocytic traffic of EGFR mutants as a key driver of oncogenic processes. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss the links between mutant EGFR signaling and endocytic properties, and introduce potential mechanisms by which altered endocytic properties of mutant EGFRs may alter signaling and vice versa as well as their implications for NSCLC therapy. PMID:25493220

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulation of fluid phase endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Clague, M J; Thorpe, C; Jones, A T

    1995-07-01

    Endocytosis of the fluid phase marker, horse radish peroxidase, into baby hamster kidney cells is inhibited by treatment of cells with the fungal metabolite wortmannin. The IC50 of approximately 5 nM is consistent with the well-described action of wortmannin upon phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. Analysis of the kinetics of uptake indicates a > 50% decrease in the initial rate of marker internalisation, a concomitant decrease in the volume of the early endosome and an increased efficiency of recycling of that marker which is internalised. As PI 3-kinase binds to activated growth factor receptors our data suggest that receptor activation can be coupled to receptor internalisation (down regulation) by localising PI 3-kinase stimulation of endocytosis. PMID:7607321

  4. Facilitative interactions between vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and receptor type-selective opioids: implications for sensory afferent regulation of spinal opioid action.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nai Jiang; Gintzler, Alan R

    2003-01-01

    Afferent tone is known to influence spinal opioid antinociception but the underlying neurochemical events are not well defined. This study investigates the consequence on cAMP formation of the coincident activation of signal transduction sequelae initiated by an afferent transmitter and opioid using dissociated spinal cord tissue. Afferent transmission was simulated via the addition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a pelvic visceral afferent transmitter. Individually, mu, delta-, or kappa-selective opioids (1 microM each) did not alter basal spinal content of cAMP. However, VIP (1 microM) and the delta-opioid selective agonist, [D-Pen(2,5)] enkephalin (DPDPE; 1 microM), in combination, manifest a striking facilitative interaction to augment spinal levels of cAMP. Facilitative interactions between VIP and kappa- or mu-opioids were of a reduced magnitude or not observed, respectively. Blockade of delta-opioid or VIP receptors using naltrindole or VIP6-28, respectively antagonized the VIP-DPDPE facilitative interaction, as did pertussis toxin treatment. The VIP-DPDPE facilitative interaction was also eliminated by phospholipase Cbeta inhibition and inositol trisphosphate receptor blockade. This suggests that modulation of Ca(2+) trafficking by VIP and delta-opioid agonists is a point of convergence of their respective signal transduction cascades, the concomitant action at which achieves cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations that are now sufficient for the activation of signaling molecules, e.g. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase isoforms. These data underscore the plasticity of spinal delta-opioid neurochemical sequelae and their dependence on concomitant afferent transmitter-initiated neurochemical events. PMID:12480163

  5. The sequence NPFXD defines a new class of endocytosis signal in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The yeast membrane protein Kex2p uses a tyrosine-containing motif within the cytoplasmic domain for localization to a late Golgi compartment. Because Golgi membrane proteins mislocalized to the plasma membrane in yeast can undergo endocytosis, we examined whether the Golgi localization sequence or other sequences in the Kex2p cytoplasmic domain mediate endocytosis. To assess endocytic function, the Kex2p cytoplasmic domain was fused to an endocytosis-defective form of the alpha-factor receptor. Ste2p. Like intact Ste2p, the chimeric protein, Stex22p, undergoes rapid endocytosis that is dependent on clathrin and End3p. Uptake of Stex22p does not require the Kex2p Golgi localization motif. Instead, the sequence NPFSD, located 37 amino acids from the COOH terminus, is essential for Stex22p endocytosis. Internalization was abolished when the N, P, or F residues were converted to alanine and severely impaired upon conversion of D to A. NPFSD restored uptake when added to the COOH terminus of an endocytosis-defective Ste2p chimera lacking lysine-based endocytosis signals present in wild-type Ste2p. An NPF sequence is present in the cytoplasmic domain of the a- factor receptor, Ste3p. Mutation of this sequence prevented pheromone- stimulated endocytosis of a truncated form of Ste3p. Our results identify NPFSD as a clathrin-dependent endocytosis signal that is distinct from the aromatic amino acid-containing Golgi localization motif and lysine-based, ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis signals in yeast. PMID:8991091

  6. Clathrin- and Dynamin-Independent Endocytosis of FGFR3 – Implications for Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Haugsten, Ellen Margrethe; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Brech, Andreas; Pust, Sascha; Olsnes, Sjur; Sandvig, Kirsten; Wesche, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Endocytosis of tyrosine kinase receptors can influence both the duration and the specificity of the signal emitted. We have investigated the mechanisms of internalization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and compared it to that of FGFR1 which is internalized predominantly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, we observed that FGFR3 was internalized at a slower rate than FGFR1 indicating that it may use a different endocytic mechanism than FGFR1. Indeed, after depletion of cells for clathrin, internalization of FGFR3 was only partly inhibited while endocytosis of FGFR1 was almost completely abolished. Similarly, expression of dominant negative mutants of dynamin resulted in partial inhibition of the endocytosis of FGFR3 whereas internalization of FGFR1 was blocked. Interfering with proposed regulators of clathrin-independent endocytosis such as Arf6, flotillin 1 and 2 and Cdc42 did not affect the endocytosis of FGFR1 or FGFR3. Furthermore, depletion of clathrin decreased the degradation of FGFR1 resulting in sustained signalling. In the case of FGFR3, both the degradation and the signalling were only slightly affected by clathrin depletion. The data indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is required for efficient internalization and downregulation of FGFR1 while FGFR3, however, is internalized by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. PMID:21779335

  7. The mechanosensitive APJ internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis: A new molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    He, Lu; Chen, Linxi; Li, Lanfang

    2016-05-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor APJ elicits cellular response to diverse extracellular stimulus. Accumulating evidence reveals that APJ receptor plays a prominent role in the cardiomyocyte adapting to hypertrophic stimulation. At present, it remains obscure that the regulatory mechanism of APJ receptor in myocardial hypertrophy. The natural endogenous ligands apelin and Elabela as well as agonists maintain high affinity for the APJ receptor and drive its internalization. Ligand-activated receptor internalization is mainly performed by clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Simultaneously, clathrin-mediated endocytosis takes participate in the occurrence and development of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we hypothesize that natural ligands and agonists induce the mechanosensitive APJ internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. APJ internalization may contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The mechanosensitive APJ internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis may be a new molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27063076

  8. High-density lipoprotein endocytosis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Pavelka, Margit; Bittman, Robert; Kovacs, Werner J; Walter, Katharina M; Röhrl, Clemens; Stangl, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the way stations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) uptake and its lipid exchange in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: A combination of fluorescence microscopy using novel fluorescent cholesterol surrogates and electron microscopy was used to analyze HDL endocytosis in great detail in primary human endothelial cells. Further, HDL uptake was quantified using radio-labeled HDL particles. To validate the in vitro findings mice were injected with fluorescently labeled HDL and particle uptake in the liver was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: HDL uptake occurred via clathrin-coated pits, tubular endosomes and multivesicular bodies in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. During uptake and resecretion, HDL-derived cholesterol was exchanged at a faster rate than cholesteryl oleate, resembling the HDL particle pathway seen in hepatic cells. In addition, lysosomes were not involved in this process and thus HDL degradation was not detectable. In vivo, we found HDL mainly localized in mouse hepatic endothelial cells. HDL was not detected in parenchymal liver cells, indicating that lipid transfer from HDL to hepatocytes occurs primarily via scavenger receptor, class B, type I mediated selective uptake without concomitant HDL endocytosis. CONCLUSION: HDL endocytosis occurs via clathrin-coated pits, tubular endosomes and multivesicular bodies in human endothelial cells. Mouse endothelial cells showed a similar HDL uptake pattern in vivo indicating that the endothelium is one major site of HDL endocytosis and transcytosis. PMID:24340136

  9. Endocytosis in the mouse oocyte and its contribution to cAMP signaling during meiotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Katie M; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Mehlmann, Lisa M

    2011-06-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I of meiosis until a preovulatory surge of LH stimulates them to resume meiosis. Prior to the LH surge, high levels of cAMP within the oocyte maintain meiotic arrest; this cAMP is generated in the oocyte through the activity of the constitutively active, G(s)-coupled receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3) or GPR12. Activated GPRs are typically targeted for desensitization through receptor-mediated endocytosis, but a continuously high level of cAMP is needed for meiotic arrest. The aim of this study was to examine whether receptor-mediated endocytosis occurs in the mouse oocyte and whether this could affect the maintenance of meiotic arrest. We found that constitutive endocytosis occurs in the mouse oocyte. Inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis, monodansylcadaverine and dynasore, inhibited the formation of early endosomes and completely inhibited spontaneous meiotic resumption. A red fluorescent protein-tagged GPR3 localized in the plasma membrane and within early endosomes in the oocyte, demonstrating that GPR3 is endocytosed. However, overexpression of G-protein receptor kinase 2 and β-arrestin-2 had only a modest effect on stimulating meiotic resumption, suggesting that these proteins do not play a major role in GPR3 endocytosis. Inhibition of endocytosis elevated cAMP levels within oocytes, suggesting that there is an accumulation of GPR3 at the plasma membrane. These results show that endocytosis occurs in the oocyte, leading to a decrease in cAMP production, and suggest that there is a balance between cAMP production and degradation in the arrested oocyte that maintains cAMP levels at an appropriate level during the maintenance of meiotic arrest. PMID:21411693

  10. Rostral ventrolateral medullary opioid receptor subtypes in the inhibitory effect of electroacupuncture on reflex autonomic response in cats.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Tjen-A-Looi, S; Longhurst, J C

    2001-06-20

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat arrhythmias, hypertension and myocardial ischemia. Our previous work suggests that the inhibitory effect of EA on the pressor reflex induced by bradykinin (BK) applied to the gallbladder is due, in part, to the activation of opioid receptors, most likely located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM). However, specific opioid receptor subtypes, and hence the neurotransmitters. responsible for this inhibition are unknown. Therefore, in anesthetized cats, BK (10 microg/ml) was applied to the gallbladder to induce transient reflex increases in arterial blood pressure (BP). EA (1-2 mA, 5 Hz, 0.5 ms pulses) was delivered through acupuncture needles inserted bilaterally into Neiguan and Jianshi acupoints on forelimbs, overlying the median nerves. EA attenuated the BK-induced pressor response by 39%. Opioid receptor subtype antagonists or agonists were microinjected unilaterally into the rVLM. The mu- and delta-receptor antagonists CTOP and ICI 174,864, respectively, significantly attenuated the EA-induced inhibition for at least 30 min. The K-receptor antagonist (nor-BNI) was less effective and was shorter acting. Like EA, microinjection of mu- and delta-opioid agonists, DAGO and DADLE, respectively, into the rVLM significantly decreased the pressor responses. In contrast, the kappa-opioid agonist, U50,488, failed to alter the BK-induced pressor response. We conclude that a significant portion of inhibition of the gallbladder pressor response by EA is related to activation of mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the rVLM. The endogenous neurotransmitters for mu- and delta-opioid receptors, beta-endorphins and enkephalins, in the rVLM, therefore appear to play a role in the EA-related modulation of cardiovascular reflex responses. Conversely, dynorphin is less likely to be involved in this response. PMID:11474645

  11. Caveolar Endocytosis Is Required for Human PSGL-1-Mediated Enterovirus 71 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiang-Yin; Yang, Ya-Ting; Yu, Shu-Ling; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Liu, Chia-Chyi

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease and severe neurological disorders in children. Human scavenger receptor class B member 2 (hSCARB2) and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) are identified as receptors for EV71. The underling mechanism of PSGL-1-mediated EV71 entry remains unclear. The endocytosis required for EV71 entry were investigated in Jurkat T and mouse L929 cells constitutively expressing human PSGL-1 (PSGL-1-L929) or human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells displaying high SCARB2 but no PSGL-1 by treatment of specific inhibitors or siRNA. We found that disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis prevented EV71 infection in RD cells, while there was no influence in Jurkat T and PSGL-1-L929 cells. Disturbing caveolar endocytosis by specific inhibitor or caveolin-1 siRNA in Jurkat T and PSGL-1-L929 cells significantly blocked EV71 infection, whereas it had no effect on EV71 infection in RD cells. Confocal immunofluorescence demonstrated caveola, and EV71 was directly colocalized. pH-dependent endosomal acidification and intact membrane cholesterol were important for EV71 infection, as judged by the pretreatment of inhibitors that abrogated the infection. A receptor-dominated endocytosis of EV71 infection was observed: PSGL-1 initiates caveola-dependent endocytosis and hSCARB2 activates clathrin-dependent endocytosis. PMID:23760234

  12. Entry of aminoglycosides into renal tubular epithelial cells via endocytosis-dependent and endocytosis-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Junya; Takano, Mikihisa

    2014-08-15

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin and amikacin are well recognized as a clinically important antibiotic class because of their reliable efficacy and low cost. However, the clinical use of aminoglycosides is limited by their nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Nephrotoxicity is induced mainly due to high accumulation of the antibiotics in renal proximal tubular cells. Therefore, a lot of studies on characterization of the renal transport system for aminoglycosides so far reported involved various in-vivo and in-vitro techniques. Early studies revealed that aminoglycosides are taken up through adsorptive endocytosis in renal epithelial cells. Subsequently, it was found that megalin, a multiligand endocytic receptor abundantly expressed on the apical side of renal proximal tubular cells, can bind aminoglycosides and that megalin-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in renal accumulation of aminoglycosides. Therefore, megalin has been suggested to be a promising molecular target for the prevention of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity. On the other hand, recently, some reports have indicated that aminoglycosides are transported via a pathway that does not require endocytosis, such as non-selective cation channel-mediated entry, in cultured renal tubular cells as well as cochlear outer hair cells. In this commentary article, we review the cellular transport of aminoglycosides in renal epithelial cells, focusing on endocytosis-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:24881578

  13. Opioid, cannabinoid, and transient receptor potential (TRP) systems: effects on body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Rawls, Scott M.; Benamar, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid and opioid drugs produce marked changes in body temperature. Recent findings have extended our knowledge about the thermoregulatory effects of cannabinoids and opioids, particularly as related to delta opioid receptors, endogenous systems, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although delta opioid receptors were originally thought to play only a minor role in thermoregulation compared to mu and kappa opioid receptors, their activation has been shown to produce hypothermia in multiple species. Endogenous opioids and cannabinoids also regulate body temperature. Mu and kappa opioid receptors are thought to be in tonic balance, with mu and kappa receptor activation producing hyperthermia and hypothermia, respectively. Endocannabinoids participate in the febrile response, but more studies are needed to determine if a cannabinoid CB1 receptor tone exerts control over basal body temperature. A particularly intense research focus is TRP channels, where TRPV1 channel activation produces hypothermia whereas TRPA1 and TRPM8 channel activation causes hyperthermia. The marked hyperthermia produced by TRPV1 channel antagonists suggests these warm channels tonically control body temperature. A better understanding of the roles of cannabinoid, opioid, and TRP systems in thermoregulation may have broad clinical implications and provide insights into interactions among neurotransmitter systems involved in thermoregulation. PMID:21622235

  14. Human SCARB2-Mediated Entry and Endocytosis of EV71

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Chitra, Ebenezer; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Sia, Charles; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus (EV) 71 infection is known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and in severe cases, induces neurological disorders culminating in fatality. An outbreak of EV71 in South East Asia in 1997 affected over 120,000 people and caused neurological disorders in a few individuals. The control of EV71 infection through public health interventions remains minimal and treatments are only symptomatic. Recently, human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) has been reported to be a cellular receptor of EV71. We expressed human SCARB2 gene in NIH3T3 cells (3T3-SCARB2) to study the mechanisms of EV71 entry and infection. We demonstrated that human SCARB2 serves as a cellular receptor for EV71 entry. Disruption of expression of SCARB2 using siRNAs can interfere EV71 infection and subsequent inhibit the expression of viral capsid proteins in RD and 3T3-SCARB2 but not Vero cells. SiRNAs specific to clathrin or dynamin or chemical inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis were all capable of interfering with the entry of EV71 into 3T3-SCARB2 cells. On the other hand, caveolin specific siRNA or inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect, confirming that only clathrin-mediated pathway was involved in EV71 infection. Endocytosis of EV71 was also found to be pH-dependent requiring endosomal acidification and also required intact membrane cholesterol. In summary, the mechanism of EV71 entry through SCARB2 as the receptor for attachment, and its cellular entry is through a clathrin-mediated and pH-dependent endocytic pathway. This study on the receptor and endocytic mechanisms of EV71 infection is useful for the development of effective medications and prophylactic treatment against the enterovirus. PMID:22272359

  15. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 mediates inhibition of LeEix2 endocytosis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Sharfman, Miya; Schuster, Silvia; Avni, Adi

    2009-01-01

    Endocytosis has been suggested to be crucial for the induction of plant immunity in several cases. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and LeEix2. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the importance of the various domains in EHDs but, to date, the domains of plant EHD2 that are required for its inhibitory activity on endocytosis remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain of EHD2 is crucial for the ability of EHD2 to inhibit endocytosis in plants, as mutant EHD2 forms lacking the coiled-coil lost the ability to inhibit endocytosis and signaling of LeEix2. The coiled-coil was also required for binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor. It is therefore probable that binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor is required for inhibition of LeEix2 internalization. We also show herein that the P-loop of EHD2 is important for EHD2 to function properly. The EH domain of AtEHD2 does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. Moreover, AtEHD2 influences actin organization and may exert its inhibitory effect on endocytosis through actin re-distribution. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 functions in inhibition of endocytosis, while the EH domain does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. PMID:19936242

  16. Transferrin: Endocytosis and Cell Signaling in Parasitic Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Reyes-López, Magda; Piña-Vázquez, Carolina; Serrano-Luna, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element on Earth and the most abundant metal in the human body. This element is crucial for life because almost all organisms need iron for several biological activities. This is the case with pathogenic organisms, which are at the vanguard in the battle with the human host for iron. The latest regulates Fe concentration through several iron-containing proteins, such as transferrin. The transferrin receptor transports iron to each cell that needs it and maintains it away from pathogens. Parasites have developed several strategies to obtain iron as the expression of specific transferrin receptors localized on plasma membrane, internalized through endocytosis. Signal transduction pathways related to the activation of the receptor have functional importance in proliferation. The study of transferrin receptors and other proteins with action in the signaling networks is important because these proteins could be used as therapeutic targets due to their specificity or to differences with the human counterpart. In this work, we describe proteins that participate in signal transduction processes, especially those that involve transferrin endocytosis, and we compare these processes with those found in T. brucei, T. cruzi, Leishmania spp., and E. histolytica parasites. PMID:26090431

  17. Transferrin: Endocytosis and Cell Signaling in Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Luna, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element on Earth and the most abundant metal in the human body. This element is crucial for life because almost all organisms need iron for several biological activities. This is the case with pathogenic organisms, which are at the vanguard in the battle with the human host for iron. The latest regulates Fe concentration through several iron-containing proteins, such as transferrin. The transferrin receptor transports iron to each cell that needs it and maintains it away from pathogens. Parasites have developed several strategies to obtain iron as the expression of specific transferrin receptors localized on plasma membrane, internalized through endocytosis. Signal transduction pathways related to the activation of the receptor have functional importance in proliferation. The study of transferrin receptors and other proteins with action in the signaling networks is important because these proteins could be used as therapeutic targets due to their specificity or to differences with the human counterpart. In this work, we describe proteins that participate in signal transduction processes, especially those that involve transferrin endocytosis, and we compare these processes with those found in T. brucei, T. cruzi, Leishmania spp., and E. histolytica parasites. PMID:26090431

  18. The architectural relationship of components controlling mast cell endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cleyrat, Cédric; Darehshouri, Anza; Anderson, Karen L.; Page, Christopher; Lidke, Diane S.; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic cells use multiple routes for receptor internalization. Here, we examine the topographical relationships of clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic structures on the plasma membranes of leukemia-derived mast cells. The high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) utilizes both pathways, whereas transferrin receptor serves as a marker for the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Both receptors were tracked by live-cell imaging in the presence or absence of inhibitors that established their differential dependence on specific endocytic adaptor proteins. The topology of antigen-bound FcεRI, clathrin, dynamin, Arf6 and Eps15-positive structures were analyzed by 2D and 3D immunoelectron microscopy techniques, revealing their remarkable spatial relationships and unique geometry. We conclude that the mast cell plasma membrane has multiple specialized domains for endocytosis. Their close proximity might reflect shared components, such as lipids and adaptor proteins, that facilitate inward membrane curvature. Intersections between these specialized domains might represent sorting stations that direct cargo to specific endocytic pathways. PMID:23986485

  19. Opioid receptor heteromers in analgesia.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Cristina M; Gomes, Ivone; Stockton, Steven D; Lim, Maribel P; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2012-01-01

    Opiates such as morphine and fentanyl, a major class of analgesics used in the clinical management of pain, exert their effects through the activation of opioid receptors. Opioids are among the most commonly prescribed and frequently abused drugs in the USA; however, the prolonged use of opiates often leads to the development of tolerance and addiction. Although blockade of opioid receptors with antagonists such as naltrexone and naloxone can lessen addictive impulses and facilitate recovery from overdose, systemic disruption of endogenous opioid receptor signalling through the use of these antagonistic drugs can have severe side effects. In the light of these challenges, current efforts have focused on identifying new therapeutic targets that selectively and specifically modulate opioid receptor signalling and function so as to achieve analgesia without the adverse effects associated with chronic opiate use. We have previously reported that opioid receptors interact with each other to form heteromeric complexes and that these interactions affect morphine signalling. Since chronic morphine administration leads to an enhanced level of these heteromers, these opioid receptor heteromeric complexes represent novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction. In this review, we discuss the role of heteromeric opioid receptor complexes with a focus on mu opioid receptor (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) heteromers. We also highlight the evidence for altered pharmacological properties of opioid ligands and changes in ligand function resulting from the heteromer formation. PMID:22490239

  20. The function of EHD2 in endocytosis and defense signaling is affected by SUMO.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Schuster, Silvia; Leibman, Meirav; Ezer, Ran; Avni, Adi

    2014-03-01

    Post-translational modification of target proteins by the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO) regulates many cellular processes. SUMOylation has been shown to regulate cellular localization and function of a variety of proteins, in some cases affecting nuclear import or export. We have previously characterized two EHDs (EH domain containing proteins) in Arabidospis and showed their involvement in plant endocytosis. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and the leucine rich repeat receptor like protein LeEix2, an effect that requires and intact coiled-coil domain. Inhibition of endocytosis of LeEix2 by EHD2 is effective in inhibiting defense responses mediated by the LeEix2 receptor in response to its ligand EIX. In the present work we demonstrate that SUMOylation of EHD2 appears to be required for EHD2-induced inhibition of LeEix2 endocytosis. Indeed, we found that a mutant form of EHD2, possessing a defective SUMOylation site, has an increased nuclear abundance, can no longer be SUMOylated and is no longer effective in inhibiting LeEix2 endocytosis or defense signaling in response to EIX. PMID:24154852

  1. Ca2+ and calmodulin initiate all forms of endocytosis during depolarization at a nerve terminal

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianhua; Fan, Junmei; Xue, Lei; Melicoff, Ernestina; Adachi, Roberto; Bai, Li; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although endocytosis maintains synaptic transmission, how endocytosis is initiated is unclear. We found that calcium influx initiated all forms of endocytosis at a single nerve terminal in rodents, including clathrin-dependent slow endocytosis, bulk endocytosis, rapid endocytosis and endocytosis overshoot (excess endocytosis), with each being evoked with a correspondingly higher calcium threshold. As calcium influx increased, endocytosis gradually switched from very slow endocytosis to slow endocytosis to bulk endocytosis to rapid endocytosis and to endocytosis overshoot. The calcium-induced endocytosis rate increase was a result of the speeding up of membrane invagination and fission. Pharmacological experiments suggested that the calcium sensor mediating these forms of endocytosis is calmodulin. In addition to its role in recycling vesicles, calcium/calmodulin-initiated endocytosis facilitated vesicle mobilization to the readily releasable pool, probably by clearing fused vesicle membrane at release sites. Our findings provide a unifying mechanism for the initiation of various forms of endocytosis that are critical in maintaining exocytosis. PMID:19633667

  2. Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom.

    PubMed

    Babu, Kavita M; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W

    2008-02-01

    Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa ("Kratom"), two unscheduled dietary supplements whose active agents are opioid receptor agonists, have discrete psychoactive effects that have contributed to their increasing popularity. Salvia divinorum contains the highly selective kappa- opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A; this compound produces visual hallucinations and synesthesia. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid identified from Kratom, has been reported as a partial opioid agonist producing similar effects to morphine. An interesting minor alkaloid of Kratom, 7-hydroxymitragynine, has been reported to be more potent than morphine. Both Kratom alkaloids are reported to activate supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors, explaining their use by chronic narcotics users to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Despite their widespread Internet availability, use of Salvia divinorum and Kratom represents an emerging trend that escapes traditional methods of toxicologic monitoring. The purpose of this article is to familiarize toxicologists and poison control specialists with these emerging psychoactive dietary supplements. PMID:18259963

  3. Spatial encoding of cyclic AMP signalling specificity by GPCR endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetanova, Nikoleta G.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to signal via cyclic AMP (cAMP) production at the plasma membrane, but it is now clear that various GPCRs also signal after internalization. Apart from its temporal impact through prolonging the cellular response, does the endosome-initiated signal encode any discrete spatial information? Using the beta2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) as a model, we show that endocytosis is required for the full repertoire of downstream cAMP-dependent transcriptional control. Next, we describe an orthogonal optogenetic approach to definitively establish that the location of cAMP production is indeed the critical variable determining the transcriptional response. Finally, our results suggest that this spatial encoding scheme helps cells functionally discriminate chemically distinct β2-AR ligands according to differences in their ability to promote receptor endocytosis. These findings reveal a discrete principle for achieving cellular signalling specificity, based on endosome-mediated spatial encoding of intracellular second messenger production and ‘location aware’ downstream transcriptional control. PMID:25362359

  4. Biotinylated human. beta. -endorphins as probes for the opioid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhaus, G.; Gibson, B.W.; Sadee, W.

    1988-01-05

    The reaction of human ..beta..-endorphin and biotinyl N-hydroxysuccinimide with or without spacer arm, afforded a series of products that were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry of the biotinylated products and their tryptic digests produced abundant protonated molecular ions (MH/sup +/), which specified the number and location of biotinylation. Between 1 and 4 biotinyl residues were incorporated per human ..beta..-endorphin molecule, at Lys-9, -19, -24, -28, and -29, but not at the amino-terminal Try-1. Three HPLC fractions were isolated for receptor binding studies monobiotinylation of Lys-9, Lys-19, and a mixture of Lys-24, Lys-28, and Lys-29 derivatives. IC/sub 50/ values for binding to ..mu.. and delta opioid receptor sites were 3-8 times higher for monobiotinylated derivatives than for the parent human ..beta..-endorphin. Association with avidin decreased opioid receptor affinities for the C/sub 6/ spacer derivative biotinylated at position Lys-9, which is close to the (1-5) enkephalin receptor region. In contrast, avidin did not affect or even increased apparent affinities to ..mu.. and delta sites for derivatives biotinylated at the ..cap alpha..-helical part of the molecule (Lys-19, -24, -28, and -29). Biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphins also bound to low affinity nonopioid binding sites on NG-108-15 cells; however, affinities to these sites were considerably reduced when derivatives were bound to avidin. The ability of biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphin to cross-link the ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors to avidin allows application of the biotin-avidin system as a molecular probe of the opioid receptor.

  5. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-15

    A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand-receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand-receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts. PMID:25236598

  6. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J.; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand–receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand–receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts. PMID:25236598

  7. Ultrafast endocytosis at mouse hippocampal synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Rost, Benjamin R.; Camacho-Pérez, Marcial; Davis, M. Wayne; Söhl-Kielczynski, Berit; Rosenmund, Christian; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2013-12-01

    To sustain neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles and their associated proteins must be recycled locally at synapses. Synaptic vesicles are thought to be regenerated approximately 20s after fusion by the assembly of clathrin scaffolds or in approximately 1s by the reversal of fusion pores via `kiss-and-run' endocytosis. Here we use optogenetics to stimulate cultured hippocampal neurons with a single stimulus, rapidly freeze them after fixed intervals and examine the ultrastructure using electron microscopy--`flash-and-freeze' electron microscopy. Docked vesicles fuse and collapse into the membrane within 30ms of the stimulus. Compensatory endocytosis occurs within 50 to 100ms at sites flanking the active zone. Invagination is blocked by inhibition of actin polymerization, and scission is blocked by inhibiting dynamin. Because intact synaptic vesicles are not recovered, this form of recycling is not compatible with kiss-and-run endocytosis; moreover, it is 200-fold faster than clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It is likely that `ultrafast endocytosis' is specialized to restore the surface area of the membrane rapidly.

  8. Regulatory mechanisms of dynamin-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Takei, Kohji; Yoshida, Yumi; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    Extensive studies on endocytosis in the last decade have resulted in identification of several key molecules that function in clathrin- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Most endocytic molecules contain multiple binding motifs that mediate protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions, which must be modulated spatially and temporally during endocytosis. Regulation of these interactions is the molecular basis of regulatory mechanisms involved in endocytosis. This review first describes current models of the mechanism of dynamin-dependent fission, then introduces several mechanisms that modulate dynamin GTPase activity and dynamin-dependent vesicle formation. Such mechanisms include regulation by inositol phospholipids, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)], and their metabolism. It concludes by describing the regulation of dynamin 1 by its binding partner, amphiphysin 1, and regulation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5)-dependent phosphorylation of dynamin 1 and amphiphysin 1. These mechanisms help endocytic molecules to function properly, and cooperatively regulate dynamin-dependent endocytosis. PMID:15809324

  9. 3D modeling, ligand binding and activation studies of the cloned mouse delta, mu; and kappa opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Filizola, M; Laakkonen, L; Loew, G H

    1999-11-01

    Refined 3D models of the transmembrane domains of the cloned delta, mu and kappa opioid receptors belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) were constructed from a multiple sequence alignment using the alpha carbon template of rhodopsin recently reported. Other key steps in the procedure were relaxation of the 3D helix bundle by unconstrained energy optimization and assessment of the stability of the structure by performing unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations of the energy optimized structure. The results were stable ligand-free models of the TM domains of the three opioid receptors. The ligand-free delta receptor was then used to develop a systematic and reliable procedure to identify and assess putative binding sites that would be suitable for similar investigation of the other two receptors and GPCRs in general. To this end, a non-selective, 'universal' antagonist, naltrexone, and agonist, etorphine, were used as probes. These ligands were first docked in all sites of the model delta opioid receptor which were sterically accessible and to which the protonated amine of the ligands could be anchored to a complementary proton-accepting residue. Using these criteria, nine ligand-receptor complexes with different binding pockets were identified and refined by energy minimization. The properties of all these possible ligand-substrate complexes were then examined for consistency with known experimental results of mutations in both opioid and other GPCRs. Using this procedure, the lowest energy agonist-receptor and antagonist-receptor complexes consistent with these experimental results were identified. These complexes were then used to probe the mechanism of receptor activation by identifying differences in receptor conformation between the agonist and the antagonist complex during unconstrained dynamics simulation. The results lent support to a possible activation mechanism of the mouse delta opioid receptor similar to that recently proposed for several other GPCRs. They also allowed the selection of candidate sites for future mutagenesis experiments. PMID:10585498

  10. Clathrin-Independent Pathways of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Satyajit; Parton, Robert G.; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2014-01-01

    There are many pathways of endocytosis at the cell surface that apparently operate at the same time. With the advent of new molecular genetic and imaging tools, an understanding of the different ways by which a cell may endocytose cargo is increasing by leaps and bounds. In this review we explore pathways of endocytosis that occur in the absence of clathrin. These are referred to as clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here we primarily focus on those pathways that function at the small scale in which some have distinct coats (caveolae) and others function in the absence of specific coated intermediates. We follow the trafficking itineraries of the material endocytosed by these pathways and finally discuss the functional roles that these pathways play in cell and tissue physiology. It is likely that these pathways will play key roles in the regulation of plasma membrane area and tension and also control the availability of membrane during cell migration. PMID:24890511

  11. Mitotic inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Andrew B.; Royle, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Endocytosis and mitosis are fundamental processes in a cell’s life. Nearly fifty years of research suggest that these processes are linked and that endocytosis is shut down as cells undergo the early stages of mitosis. Precisely how this occurs at a molecular level is an open question. In this review, we summarize the early work characterizing the inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and discuss recent challenges to this established concept. We also set out four proposed mechanisms for the inhibition: mitotic phosphorylation of endocytic proteins, altered membrane tension, moonlighting of endocytic proteins and a mitotic spindle-dependent mechanism. Finally, we speculate the functional consequences of endocytic shutdown during mitosis and where an understanding of the mechanism of inhibition will lead us in the future. PMID:23307073

  12. Ultrafast endocytosis at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Liu, Qiang; Davis, M Wayne; Hollopeter, Gunther; Thomas, Nikita; Jorgensen, Nels B; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles can be released at extremely high rates, which places an extraordinary demand on the recycling machinery. Previous ultrastructural studies of vesicle recycling were conducted in dissected preparations using an intense stimulation to maximize the probability of release. Here, a single light stimulus was applied to motor neurons in intact Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes expressing channelrhodopsin, and the animals rapidly frozen. We found that docked vesicles fuse along a broad active zone in response to a single stimulus, and are replenished with a time constant of about 2 s. Endocytosis occurs within 50 ms adjacent to the dense projection and after 1 s adjacent to adherens junctions. These studies suggest that synaptic vesicle endocytosis may occur on a millisecond time scale following a single physiological stimulus in the intact nervous system and is unlikely to conform to current models of endocytosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00723.001 PMID:24015355

  13. Fluorogenic Probe for Constitutive Cellular Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Michael N.; Hoang, Trish T.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Endocytosis is a fundamental process of eukaryotic cells that is critical for nutrient uptake, signal transduction, and growth. We have developed a molecular probe to quantify endocytosis. The probe is a lipid conjugated to a fluorophore that is masked with an enzyme-activatable moiety known as the trimethyl lock. The probe is not fluorescent when incorporated into the plasma membrane of human cells but becomes fluorescent upon internalization into endosomes, where cellular esterases activate the trimethyl lock. Using this probe, we found that human breast cancer cells undergo constitutive endocytosis more rapidly than do matched noncancerous cells. These data reveal a possible phenotypic distinction of cancer cells that could be the basis for chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:23601650

  14. The clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 mediates endocytosis of brassinosteroid insensitive1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Di Rubbo, Simone; Irani, Niloufer G; Kim, Soo Youn; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Gadeyne, Astrid; Dejonghe, Wim; Vanhoutte, Isabelle; Persiau, Geert; Eeckhout, Dominique; Simon, Sibu; Song, Kyungyoung; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Friml, Jirí; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Damme, Daniël; Hwang, Inhwan; Russinova, Eugenia

    2013-08-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) regulates many aspects of plant development, including hormone signaling and responses to environmental stresses. Despite the importance of this process, the machinery that regulates CME in plants is largely unknown. In mammals, the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2) is required for the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the plasma membrane (PM). Although the existence of AP-2 has been predicted in Arabidopsis thaliana, the biochemistry and functionality of the complex is still uncharacterized. Here, we identified all the subunits of the Arabidopsis AP-2 by tandem affinity purification and found that one of the large AP-2 subunits, AP2A1, localized at the PM and interacted with clathrin. Furthermore, endocytosis of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase, brassinosteroid insensitive1 (BRI1), was shown to depend on AP-2. Knockdown of the two Arabidopsis AP2A genes or overexpression of a dominant-negative version of the medium AP-2 subunit, AP2M, impaired BRI1 endocytosis and enhanced the brassinosteroid signaling. Our data reveal that the CME machinery in Arabidopsis is evolutionarily conserved and that AP-2 functions in receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:23975899

  15. Erinacine E as a kappa opioid receptor agonist and its new analogs from a basidiomycete, Hericium ramosum.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Aoki, F; Hirai, H; Inagaki, T; Matsunaga, Y; Sakakibara, T; Sakemi, S; Suzuki, Y; Watanabe, S; Suga, O; Sujaku, T; Smogowicz, A A; Truesdell, S J; Wong, J W; Nagahisa, A; Kojima, Y; Kojima, N

    1998-11-01

    A kappa opioid receptor binding inhibitor was isolated from the fermentation broth of a basidiomycete, Hericium ramosum CL24240 and identified as erinacine E (1). Three analogs of 1 were produced by fermentation in other media and by microbial biotransformation. Of these compounds, 1 was shown to be the most potent binding inhibitor. Preliminary SAR studies of these compounds indicated that all functional groups and side chains were required for the activity. Compound 1 was a highly-selective binding inhibitor for the kappa opioid receptor: 0.8 microM (IC50) for kappa, >200 microM for mu, and >200 microM for delta opioid receptor. Compound 1 suppressed electrically-stimulated twitch responses of rabbit vas deferens with an ED50 of 14 microM. The suppression was recovered by adding a selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine, indicating that 1 is a kappa opioid receptor agonist. PMID:9918390

  16. Zero tolerance: amphipathic helices in endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura A; Royle, Stephen J

    2015-04-20

    Endocytosis is the physical battle to form a new vesicle in the face of counteracting forces, such as membrane tension. Skruzny et al. (2015) and Miller et al. (2015) now shed light on endocytic proteins that bear a "Helix 0" and on the proteins' role in the struggle to make clathrin-coated vesicles. PMID:25898162

  17. METHODS TO QUANTIFY ENDOCYTOSIS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocytosis is a process whereby extracellular matter is transported in bulk to the cell's interior. To accomplish this the cell extends portions of the plasma membrane which surround the mass to be ingested. As these cytoplasmic projections meet, they fuse. The endocytic vacuole...

  18. Hyaluronic acid binding, endocytosis and degradation by sinusoidal liver endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    McGary, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The binding, endocytosis, and degradation of {sup 125}I-hyaluronic acid ({sup 125}I-HA) by liver endothelial cells (LEC) was studied under several conditions. The dissociation of receptor-bound {sup 125}I-HA was rapid, with a half time of {approx}31 min and a K{sub off} of 6.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}/sec. A large reversible increase in {sup 125}I-HA binding to LEC at pH 5.0 was due to an increase in the observed affinity of the binding interaction. Pronase digestion suggested the protein nature of the receptor and the intracellular location of the digitonin exposed binding activity. Binding and endocytosis occur in the presence of 10 mM EGTA indicating that divalent cations are not required for receptor function. To study the degradation of {sup 125}I-HA by LEC, a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) precipitation assay was characterized. The minimum HA length required for precipitation was elucidated. The fate of the LEC HA receptor after endocytosis was examined.

  19. Proneurotrophins require endocytosis and intracellular proteolysis to induce TrkA activation.

    PubMed

    Boutilier, Jacqueline; Ceni, Claire; Pagdala, Promila C; Forgie, Alison; Neet, Kenneth E; Barker, Philip A

    2008-05-01

    The uncleaved, pro-form of nerve growth factor (proNGF) functions as a pro-apoptotic ligand for the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). However, some reports have indicated that proneurotrophins bind and activate Trk receptors. In this study, we have examined proneurotrophin receptor binding and activation properties in an attempt to reconcile these findings. We show that proNGF readily binds p75NTR expressed in HEK293T cells but does not interact with TrkA expressed under similar circumstances. Importantly, proNGF activates TrkA tyrosine phosphorylation, induces Erk and Akt activation, and causes PC12 cell differentiation. We show that inhibiting endocytosis or furin activity reduced TrkA activation induced by proNGF but not that induced by mature NGF and that proNGF123, a mutant form of NGF lacking dibasic cleavage sites in the prodomain, does not induce TrkA phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Therefore, endocytosis and cleavage appear to be prerequisites for proNGF-induced TrkA activity. We also found that proBDNF induces activation of TrkB in cerebellar granule neurons and that proBDNF cleavage by furin and metalloproteases facilitates this effect. Taken together, these data indicate that under physiological conditions, proneurotrophins do not directly bind or activate Trk receptors. However, endocytosis and cleavage of proneurotrophins produce processed forms of neurotrophins that are capable of inducing Trk activation. PMID:18299325

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of B Cell Antigen Gathering and Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hoogeboom, Robbert; Tolar, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Generation of high-affinity, protective antibodies requires B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, as well as antigen internalization and presentation to helper T cells. B cell antigen internalization is initiated by antigen capture, either from solution or from immune synapses formed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, and proceeds via clathrin-dependent endocytosis and intracellular routing to late endosomes. Although the components of this pathway are still being discovered, it has become clear that antigen internalization is actively regulated by BCR signaling at multiple steps and, vice versa, that localization of the BCR along the endocytic pathway modulates signaling. Accordingly, defects in BCR internalization or trafficking contribute to enhanced B cell activation in models of autoimmune diseases and in B cell lymphomas. In this review, we discuss how BCR signaling complexes regulate each of the steps of this endocytic process and why defects along this pathway manifest as hyperactive B cell responses in vivo. PMID:26336965

  1. Lack of effect of perinatal lead exposure on kappa-opioid receptor function.

    PubMed

    Jackson, H C; Kitchen, I

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lead exposure have been studied upon the behavioural and diuretic responses to the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-50488H in neonatal rats. Lead was administered in the maternal drinking water (100, 300 and 1000 ppm) from conception to postnatal day 14. The hyperactivity, wall climbing behaviours and diuretic effects of U-50488H (0.1-30 mg/kg, i.p.) in 5- and 20-day-old rat pups were unaffected at all 3 lead dose levels. Lead treatment per se produced a decrease in activity at 20 days. These results contrast with our previously reported disruption of mu- and delta-opioid receptor systems following perinatal lead exposure and suggest that the toxic effects of this metal may be confined to particular types of opioid receptor. PMID:2153320

  2. Microtubule Motors Power Plasma Membrane Tubulation in Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Day, Charles A; Baetz, Nicholas W; Copeland, Courtney A; Kraft, Lewis J; Han, Bing; Tiwari, Ajit; Drake, Kimberly R; De Luca, Heidi; Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Davidson, Michael W; Holmes, Randall K; Jobling, Michael G; Schroer, Trina A; Lencer, Wayne I; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    How the plasma membrane is bent to accommodate clathrin-independent endocytosis remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest Shiga and cholera toxin induce membrane curvature required for their uptake into clathrin-independent carriers by binding and cross-linking multiple copies of their glycosphingolipid receptors on the plasma membrane. But it remains unclear if toxin-induced sphingolipid crosslinking provides sufficient mechanical force for deforming the plasma membrane, or if host cell factors also contribute to this process. To test this, we imaged the uptake of cholera toxin B-subunit into surface-derived tubular invaginations. We found that cholera toxin mutants that bind to only one glycosphingolipid receptor accumulated in tubules, and that toxin binding was entirely dispensable for membrane tubulations to form. Unexpectedly, the driving force for tubule extension was supplied by the combination of microtubules, dynein and dynactin, thus defining a novel mechanism for generating membrane curvature during clathrin-independent endocytosis. PMID:25690058

  3. Enhanced endocytosis of nano-curcumin in nasopharyngeal cancer cells: An atomic force microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanth, R.; Nair, Greshma; Girish, C. M.

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies in drug development have shown that curcumin can be a good competent due to its improved anticancer, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. A detailed real time characterization of drug (curcumin)-cell interaction is carried out in human nasopharyngeal cancer cells using atomic force microscopy. Nanocurcumin shows an enhanced uptake over micron sized drugs attributed to the receptor mediated route. Cell membrane stiffness plays a critical role in the drug endocytosis in nasopharyngeal cancer cells.

  4. Long-term potentiation decay and memory loss are mediated by AMPAR endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili; Li, Hongjie; Bai, Yanrui; Wang, Wei; Tu, Man; Peng, Yan; Zhou, Limin; He, Wenting; Wu, Xiaobin; Tan, Tao; Liu, Mingjing; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Weihui; Jin, Wuyang; Zhang, Shu; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong; Wang, Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength between hippocampal neurons is associated with learning and memory, and LTP dysfunction is thought to underlie memory loss. LTP can be temporally and mechanistically classified into decaying (early-phase) LTP and nondecaying (late-phase) LTP. While the nondecaying nature of LTP is thought to depend on protein synthesis and contribute to memory maintenance, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of decaying LTP. Here, we demonstrated that inhibiting endocytosis of postsynaptic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) prevents LTP decay, thereby converting it into nondecaying LTP. Conversely, restoration of AMPAR endocytosis by inhibiting protein kinase M? (PKM?) converted nondecaying LTP into decaying LTP. Similarly, inhibition of AMPAR endocytosis prolonged memory retention in normal animals and reduced memory loss in a murine model of Alzheimers disease. These results strongly suggest that an active process that involves AMPAR endocytosis mediates the decay of LTP and that inhibition of this process can prolong the longevity of LTP as well as memory under both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25437879

  5. Endocytosis of hERG Is Clathrin-Independent and Involves Arf6

    PubMed Central

    Abuarab, Nada; Smith, Andrew J.; Hardy, Matthew E. L.; Elliott, David J. S.; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2013-01-01

    The hERG potassium channel is critical for repolarisation of the cardiac action potential. Reduced expression of hERG at the plasma membrane, whether caused by hereditary mutations or drugs, results in long QT syndrome and increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to understand how the density of this channel at the plasma membrane is regulated. We used antibodies to an extracellular native or engineered epitope, in conjunction with immunofluorescence and ELISA, to investigate the mechanism of hERG endocytosis in recombinant cells and validated the findings in rat neonatal cardiac myocytes. The data reveal that this channel undergoes rapid internalisation, which is inhibited by neither dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin, nor a dominant negative construct of Rab5a, into endosomes that are largely devoid of the transferrin receptor. These results support a clathrin-independent mechanism of endocytosis and exclude involvement of dynamin-dependent caveolin and RhoA mechanisms. In agreement, internalised hERG displayed marked overlap with glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored GFP, a clathrin-independent cargo. Endocytosis was significantly affected by cholesterol extraction with methyl-β-cyclodextrin and inhibition of Arf6 function with dominant negative Arf6-T27N-eGFP. Taken together, we conclude that hERG undergoes clathrin-independent endocytosis via a mechanism involving Arf6. PMID:24392021

  6. Inter-Cellular Exchange of Cellular Components via VE-Cadherin-Dependent Trans-Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takashi; Woolls, Melissa J.; Jin, Suk-Won

    2014-01-01

    Cell-cell communications typically involve receptor-mediated signaling initiated by soluble or cell-bound ligands. Here, we report a unique mode of endocytosis: proteins originating from cell-cell junctions and cytosolic cellular components from the neighboring cell are internalized, leading to direct exchange of cellular components between two adjacent endothelial cells. VE-cadherins form transcellular bridges between two endothelial cells that are the basis of adherence junctions. At such adherens junction sites, we observed the movement of the entire VE-cadherin molecule from one endothelial cell into the other with junctional and cytoplasmic components. This phenomenon, here termed trans-endocytosis, requires the establishment of a VE-cadherin homodimer in trans with internalization proceeding in a Rac1-, and actomyosin-dependent manner. Importantly, the trans-endocytosis is not dependent on any known endocytic pathway including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, macropinocytosis or phagocytosis. This novel form of cell-cell communications, leading to a direct exchange of cellular components, was observed in 2D and 3D-cultured endothelial cells as well as in the developing zebrafish vasculature. PMID:24603875

  7. Inter-cellular exchange of cellular components via VE-cadherin-dependent trans-endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takashi; Woolls, Melissa J; Jin, Suk-Won; Murakami, Masahiro; Simons, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cell-cell communications typically involve receptor-mediated signaling initiated by soluble or cell-bound ligands. Here, we report a unique mode of endocytosis: proteins originating from cell-cell junctions and cytosolic cellular components from the neighboring cell are internalized, leading to direct exchange of cellular components between two adjacent endothelial cells. VE-cadherins form transcellular bridges between two endothelial cells that are the basis of adherence junctions. At such adherens junction sites, we observed the movement of the entire VE-cadherin molecule from one endothelial cell into the other with junctional and cytoplasmic components. This phenomenon, here termed trans-endocytosis, requires the establishment of a VE-cadherin homodimer in trans with internalization proceeding in a Rac1-, and actomyosin-dependent manner. Importantly, the trans-endocytosis is not dependent on any known endocytic pathway including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, macropinocytosis or phagocytosis. This novel form of cell-cell communications, leading to a direct exchange of cellular components, was observed in 2D and 3D-cultured endothelial cells as well as in the developing zebrafish vasculature. PMID:24603875

  8. An endocytosis pathway initiated through neuropilin-1 and regulated by nutrient availability

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Hong-Bo; Braun, Gary B.; Friman, Tomas; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Ruidiaz, Manuel E.; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2014-01-01

    Neuropilins (NRPs) are trans-membrane receptors involved in axon guidance and vascular development. Many growth factors and other signaling molecules bind to NRPs through a C-terminal, basic sequence motif (C-end Rule or CendR motif). Peptides with this motif (CendR peptides) are taken up into cells by endocytosis. Tumor-homing CendR peptides penetrate through tumor tissue and have shown utility in enhancing drug delivery into tumors. Here we show, using RNAi screening and subsequent validation studies, that NRP1-mediated endocytosis of CendR peptides is distinct from known endocytic pathways. Ultrastructurally, CendR endocytosis resembles macropinocytosis, but is mechanistically different. We also show that nutrient-sensing networks such as mTOR signaling regulate CendR endocytosis and subsequent intercellular transport of CendR cargo, both of which are stimulated by nutrient depletion. As CendR is a bulk transport pathway, our results suggest a role for it in nutrient transport; CendR-enhanced drug delivery then makes use of this natural pathway. PMID:25277522

  9. Molecular characterization of opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research was to purify and characterize active opioid receptors and elucidate molecular aspects of opioid receptor heterogeneity. Purification to apparent homogeneity of an opioid binding protein from bovine caudate was achieved by solubilization in the non-ionic detergent, digitonin, followed by sequential chromatography on the opiate affinity matrix, ..beta..-naltrexylethylenediamine-CH-Sepharose 4B, and on the lectine affinity matrix, wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) followed by autoradiography revealed that radioiodinated purified receptor gave a single band. Purified receptor preparations showed a specific activity of 12,000-15,000 fmol of opiate bound per mg of protein. Radioiodinated human beta-endorphin (/sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/) was used as a probe to investigate the ligand binding subunits of mu and delta opioid receptors. /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ was shown to bind to a variety of opioid receptor-containing tissues with high affinity and specificity with preference for mu and delta sites, and with little, if any, binding to kappa sites. Affinity crosslinking techniques were employed to covalently link /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ to opioid receptors, utilizing derivatives of bis-succinimidyl esters that are bifunctional crosslinkers with specificities for amino and sulfhydryl groups. This, and competition experiments with high type-selective ligands, permitted the assignment of two labeled peptides to their receptor types, namely a peptide of M/sub r/ = 65,000 for mu receptors and one of M/sub r/ = 53,000 for delta receptors.

  10. Multiscale perspectives of virus entry via endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways to gain entry into host cells and initiate infections. Understanding of virus entry via endocytosis is critically important for the design of antiviral strategies. Virus entry via endocytosis is a complex process involving hundreds of cellular proteins. The entire process is dictated by events occurring at multiple time and length scales. In this review, we discuss and evaluate the available means to investigate virus endocytic entry, from both experimental and theoretical/numerical modeling fronts, and highlight the importance of multiscale features. The complexity of the process requires investigations at a systems biology level, which involves the combination of different experimental approaches, the collaboration of experimentalists and theorists across different disciplines, and the development of novel multiscale models. PMID:23734580

  11. Endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) represent an interesting amalgamation of the three basic kinds of cellular macromolecules viz. proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. An unusually hybrid moiety, the GPI-anchor is expressed in a diverse range of organisms from parasites to mammalian cells and serves to anchor a large number of functionally diverse proteins and has been the center of attention in scientific debate for some time now. Membrane organization of GPI-APs into laterally-organized cholesterol-sphingolipid ordered membrane domains or "rafts" and endocytosis of GPI-APs has been intensely debated. Inclusion into or exclusion from these membrane domains seems to be the critical factor in determining the endocytic mechanisms and intracellular destinations of GPI-APs. The intracellular signaling as well as endocytic trafficking of GPI-APs is critically dependent upon the cell surface organization of GPI-APs, and the associations with these lipid rafts play a vital role during these processes. The mechanism of endocytosis for GPI-APs may differ from other cellular endocytic pathways, such as those mediated by clathrin-coated pits (caveolae), and is necessary for unique biological functions. Numerous intracellular factors are involved in and regulate the endocytosis of GPI-APs, and these may be variably dependent on cell-type. The central focus of this article is to describe the significance of the endocytosis of GPI-APs on a multitude of biological processes, ranging from nutrient-uptake to more complex immune responses. Ultimately, a thorough elucidation of GPI-AP mediated signaling pathways and their regulatory elements will enhance our understanding of essential biological processes and benefit as components of disease intervention strategies. PMID:19832981

  12. Exocytosis and Endocytosis: Modes, Functions, and Coupling Mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ling-Gang; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Vesicle exocytosis releases content to mediate many biological events, including synaptic transmission essential for brain functions. Following exocytosis, endocytosis is initiated to retrieve exocytosed vesicles within seconds to minutes. Decades of studies in secretory cells reveal three exocytosis modes coupled to three endocytosis modes: (a) full-collapse fusion, in which vesicles collapse into the plasma membrane, followed by classical endocytosis involving membrane invagination and vesicle reformation; (b) kiss-and-run, in which the fusion pore opens and closes; and (c) compound exocytosis, which involves exocytosis of giant vesicles formed via vesicle-vesicle fusion, followed by bulk endocytosis that retrieves giant vesicles. Here we review these exo- and endocytosis modes and their roles in regulating quantal size and synaptic strength, generating synaptic plasticity, maintaining exocytosis, and clearing release sites for vesicle replenishment. Furthermore, we highlight recent progress in understanding how vesicle endocytosis is initiated and is thus coupled to exocytosis. The emerging model is that calcium influx via voltage-dependent calcium channels at the calcium microdomain triggers endocytosis and controls endocytosis rate; calmodulin and synaptotagmin are the calcium sensors; and the exocytosis machinery, including SNARE proteins (synaptobrevin, SNAP25, and syntaxin), is needed to coinitiate endocytosis, likely to control the amount of endocytosis. PMID:24274740

  13. Postnatal development of opioid receptors modulating acetylcholine release in hippocampus and septum of the rat.

    PubMed

    Gazyakan, E; Disko, U; Haaf, A; Heimrich, B; Jackisch, R

    2000-10-28

    The postnatal development of presynaptic opioid receptors inhibiting the release of acetylcholine (ACh) was studied in rat brain hippocampus, medial septum (MS) and diagonal band of Broca (DB). To this end, the corresponding brain slices (350 microm thick) of rats of various postnatal ages (postnatal day 4 [P4] to P16, and adult) were preincubated with [(3)H]choline and stimulated twice for 2 min (S(1), S(2): at 3 Hz, 2 ms, 60 mA) during superfusion with physiological buffer containing hemicholinium-3. In parallel, the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was determined in crude homogenates of the tissues as a marker for the development of cholinergic neurons. At any postnatal age, the electrically evoked overflow of tritium from slices preincubated with [(3)H]choline was highest in the DB, followed by the MS and the hippocampus. The evoked [(3)H]overflow increased with postnatal age, reached about 50% (MS, DB) or 30% (hippocampus) of the corresponding adult levels at P16 and correlated significantly with the corresponding ChAT activities. Presence of the preferential mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO during S(2) significantly inhibited the evoked overflow of tritium already at P4 in DB and MS, whereas in the hippocampus significant inhibitory effects were first observed at P8 only. Moreover, adult levels of inhibition due to DAMGO were reached at P16 in the DB and MS but not in the hippocampus. In septal areas, also the effect of the preferential delta-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE on the evoked [(3)H]overflow was studied: in contrast to DAMGO, however, significant inhibitory effects of DPDPE were first observed at P12 only. In conclusion, the postnatal development of presynaptic mu-opioid receptors on cholinergic neurons in the DB and MS starts earlier than in the hippocampus and precedes that of presynaptic delta-opioid receptors. PMID:11042342

  14. The pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase D1 accelerates EGFR endocytosis by increasing the expression of the Rab5 effector, rabaptin-5

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mi Hee; Choi, Kang-Yell; Min, Do Sik

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis is differentially regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and phospholipase D (PLD). However, the relationship between HIF-1α and PLD in endocytosis is unknown. HIF-1α is degraded through the prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)/von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) ubiquitination pathway in an oxygen-dependent manner. Here, we show that PLD1 recovers the decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) endocytosis induced by HIF-1α independent of lipase activity via the Rab5-mediated endosome fusion pathway. EGF-induced interaction of PLD1 with HIF-1α, PHD and VHL may contribute to EGFR endocytosis. The pleckstrin homology domain (PH) of PLD1 itself promotes degradation of HIF-1α, then accelerates EGFR endocytosis via upregulation of rabaptin-5 and suppresses tumor progression. These findings reveal a novel role of the PLD1-PH domain as a positive regulator of endocytosis and provide a link between PLD1 and HIF-1α in the EGFR endocytosis pathway. PMID:26680696

  15. Clostridial glucosylating toxins enter cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Zamboglou, Constantinos; Genisyuerek, Selda; Guttenberg, Gregor; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and C. novyi alpha-toxin (TcnA) are important pathogenicity factors, which represent the family of the clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs). Toxin A and B are associated with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis. Lethal toxin is involved in toxic shock syndrome after abortion and alpha-toxin in gas gangrene development. CGTs enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and require an acidified endosome for translocation of the catalytic domain into the cytosol. Here we studied the endocytic processes that mediate cell internalization of the CGTs. Intoxication of cells was monitored by analyzing cell morphology, status of Rac glucosylation in cell lysates and transepithelial resistance of cell monolayers. We found that the intoxication of cultured cells by CGTs was strongly delayed when cells were preincubated with dynasore, a cell-permeable inhibitor of dynamin, or chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. Additional evidence about the role of clathrin in the uptake of the prototypical CGT family member toxin B was achieved by expression of a dominant-negative inhibitor of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Eps15 DN) or by siRNA against the clathrin heavy chain. Accordingly, cells that expressed dominant-negative caveolin-1 were not protected from toxin B-induced cell rounding. In addition, lipid rafts impairment by exogenous depletion of sphingomyelin did not decelerate intoxication of HeLa cells by CGTs. Taken together, our data indicate that the endocytic uptake of the CGTs involves a dynamin-dependent process that is mainly governed by clathrin. PMID:20498856

  16. Iterative endocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S P; Bomford, A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of iron on the exocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells was studied by first allowing the cells to endocytose apotransferrin or diferric transferrin. Subsequent release of the apotransferrin was very rapid with a t 1/2 of 3.01 min, compared with 5.5 min for diferric transferrin. Release of apotransferrin was slowed by the weak base methylamine, t 1/2 8.0 min, but the effect of this agent was substantially greater when iron-transferrin was used, t 1/2 18.65 min, suggesting that methylamine affects both iron removal and receptor recycling. Release of iron-transferrin could be accelerated to a rate comparable with that of apotransferrin by addition of the permeant iron-chelator desferrioxamine. The difference in the rates of release of different forms of the protein could be explained by the re-endocytosis of the iron-rich protein, a process detected by the accelerated release of transferrin when the cells were washed in medium at pH 5.5 containing an iron-chelator or treated with a protease-containing medium to digest transferrin accessible at the cell surface. It appears that in cells incubated under control conditions, re-endocytosis of transferrin, which is incompletely depleted of iron, occurs and that a transferrin molecule may make two passes through the cell before all the iron is removed. This mechanism helps to explain why very little iron-transferrin is released from cells and why the efficiency of the iron uptake process is so high. PMID:8129715

  17. Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain MP-12 Enters Mammalian Host Cells via Caveola-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Brooke; Schudel, Benjamin R.; Maar, Dianna; Kozina, Carol; Ikegami, Tetsuro; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in both humans and livestock. The lack of efficient countermeasure strategies, the potential for dispersion into new regions, and the pathogenesis in humans and livestock make RVFV a serious public health concern. The receptors, cellular factors, and entry pathways used by RVFV and other members of the family Bunyaviridae remain largely uncharacterized. Here we provide evidence that RVFV strain MP-12 uses dynamin-dependent caveola-mediated endocytosis for cell entry. Caveolae are lipid raft domains composed of caveolin (the main structural component), cholesterol, and sphingolipids. Caveola-mediated endocytosis is responsible for the uptake of a wide variety of host ligands, as well as bacteria, bacterial toxins, and a number of viruses. To determine the cellular entry mechanism of RVFV, we used small-molecule inhibitors, RNA interference (RNAi), and dominant negative (DN) protein expression to inhibit the major mammalian cell endocytic pathways. Inhibitors and RNAi specific for macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis had no effect on RVFV infection. In contrast, inhibitors of caveola-mediated endocytosis, and RNAi targeted to caveolin-1 and dynamin, drastically reduced RVFV infection in multiple cell lines. Expression of DN caveolin-1 also reduced RVFV infection significantly, while expression of DN EPS15, a protein required for the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, and DN PAK-1, an obligate mediator of macropinocytosis, had no significant impact on RVFV infection. These results together suggest that the primary mechanism of RVFV MP-12 uptake is dynamin-dependent, caveolin-1-mediated endocytosis. PMID:22993156

  18. Autoantibodies to the δ-Opioid Receptor Function as Opioid Agonists and Display Immunomodulatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Parvathi; Chen, Hao; Adelman, Miranda K.; Schluter, Samuel F.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we show that affinity purified human anti-Delta Opioid Receptor (DOR) autoantibodies from IVIG are specific to DOR and possess agonistic properties displayed by their ability to dramatically decrease forskolin stimulated cAMP accumulation. Anti-DOR autoantibody also caused phosphorylation of the opioid receptor. Anti-DOR autoantibody treatment showed a significant reduction in CXCR4 gene expression as well as surface protein expression. In contrast, anti-DOR autoantibody treatment significantly upregulated CCR5 gene and protein expression. The presence of anti-DOR autoantibodies in IVIG and their potent immunomodulatory activity is further evidence to support the crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system. PMID:19879656

  19. Mib1 modulates dynamin 2 recruitment via Snx18 to promote Dll1 endocytosis for efficient Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Okano, Makoto; Matsuo, Hiromi; Nishimura, Yuya; Hozumi, Katsuto; Yoshioka, Saho; Tonoki, Ayako; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Notch signaling regulates normal development and tissue homeostasis. Ligand endocytosis plays critical roles in Notch signaling activation. Endocytic proteins such as epsin and dynamin participate in Notch ligand activity by mediating Notch ligand endocytosis. The ubiquitin ligase Mib1 also plays essential roles in Notch signaling via Notch ligand ubiquitination. However, the molecular links between Mib1 and endocytic proteins have not been fully defined. Here, we show that Mib1 is involved in dynamin 2 recruitment to Dll1 and that Snx18, which interacts with dynamin 2, modestly regulates Dll1 endocytosis. Furthermore, the ubiquitin ligase activity of Mib1 is induced by Notch ligand-receptor interactions. Mib1 promotes the interaction between dynamin 2 and Snx18 in an ubiquitin ligase activity-dependent manner. These results suggest that Mib1 modulates dynamin recruitment by regulating the interaction between Snx18 and dynamin 2, thereby helping to ensure the efficient signaling activity of Notch ligands. PMID:26923255

  20. Modulation of Opioid Receptor Ligand Affinity and Efficacy Using Active and Inactive State Receptor Models

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Jessica P.; Purington, Lauren C.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    2012-01-01

    Mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists are widely used for the treatment of pain; however chronic use results in the development of tolerance and dependence. It has been demonstrated that co-administration of a MOR agonist with a delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist maintains the analgesia associated with MOR agonists, but with reduced negative side effects. Using our newly refined opioid receptor models for structure-based ligand design, we have synthesized several pentapeptides with tailored affinity and efficacy profiles. In particular, we have obtained pentapeptides 8, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]NH2, and 12, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]OH, which demonstrates high affinity and full agonist behavior at MOR, high affinity but very low efficacy for DOR, and minimal affinity for the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). Functional properties of these peptides as MOR agonists/DOR antagonists lacking undesired KOR activity make them promising candidates for future in vivo studies of MOR/DOR interactions. Subtle structural variation of 12, by substituting D-Cys5 for L-Cys5, generated analog 13 which maintains low nanomolar MOR and DOR affinity, but which displays no efficacy at either receptor. These results demonstrate the power and utility of accurate receptor models for structure-based ligand design, as well as the profound sensitivity of ligand function on its structure. PMID:22882801

  1. LRP1 mediates Hedgehog-induced endocytosis of the GPC3–Hedgehog complex

    PubMed Central

    Capurro, Mariana I.; Shi, Wen; Filmus, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Summary Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan that is bound to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol link. This glypican regulates embryonic growth by inhibiting the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. GPC3 binds Hh and competes with Patched (Ptc), the Hh receptor, for Hh binding. The interaction of Hh with GPC3 triggers the endocytosis and degradation of the GPC3–Hh complex with the consequent reduction of Hh available for binding to Ptc. Currently, the molecular mechanisms by which the GPC3–Hh complex is internalized remains unknown. Here we show that the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) mediates the Hh-induced endocytosis of the GPC3–Hh complex, and that this endocytosis is necessary for the Hh-inhibitory activity of GPC3. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GPC3 binds through its HS chains to LRP1, and that this interaction causes the removal of GPC3 from the lipid rafts domains. PMID:22467855

  2. Dynamic spectrin/ankyrin-G microdomains promote lateral membrane assembly by opposing endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Paul M.; He, Meng; Bennett, Vann

    2015-01-01

    Current physical models for plasma membranes emphasize dynamic 10- to 300-nm compartments at thermodynamic equilibrium but subject to thermal fluctuations. However, epithelial lateral membranes contain micrometer-sized domains defined by an underlying membrane skeleton composed of spectrin and its partner ankyrin-G. We demonstrate that these spectrin/ankyrin-G domains exhibit local microtubule-dependent movement on a time scale of minutes and encounter most of the lateral membranes within an hour. Spectrin/ankyrin-G domains exclude clathrin and clathrin-dependent cargo, and inhibit both receptor-mediated and bulk endocytosis. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis fully restores lateral membrane height in spectrin- or ankyrin-G–depleted cells. These findings support a non-equilibrium cellular-scale model for epithelial lateral membranes, where spectrin/ankyrin-G domains actively patrol the plasma membrane, analogous to “window washers,” and promote columnar morphology by blocking membrane uptake. PMID:26523289

  3. Shank2 Regulates Renal Albumin Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Lewis, Linda; Doctor, R Brian; Okamura, Kayo; Lee, Min Goo; Altmann, Christopher; Faubel, Sarah; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong and independent predictor of kidney disease progression but the mechanisms of albumin handling by the kidney remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have shown that podocytes endocytose albumin. Here we demonstrate that Shank2, a large scaffolding protein originally identified at the neuronal postsynaptic density, is expressed in podocytes in vivo and in vitro and plays an important role in albumin endocytosis in podocytes. Knockdown of Shank2 in cultured human podocytes decreased albumin uptake, but the decrease was not statistically significant likely due to residual Shank2 still present in the knockdown podocytes. Complete knockout of Shank2 in podocytes significantly diminished albumin uptake in vitro. Shank2 knockout mice develop proteinuria by 8 weeks of age. To examine albumin handling in vivo in wild-type and Shank2 knockout mice we used multiphoton intravital imaging. While FITC-labeled albumin was rapidly seen in the renal tubules of wild-type mice after injection, little albumin was seen in the tubules of Shank2 knockout mice indicating dysregulated renal albumin trafficking in the Shank2 knockouts. We have previously found that caveolin-1 is required for albumin endocytosis in cultured podocytes. Shank2 knockout mice had significantly decreased expression and altered localization of caveolin-1 in podocytes suggesting that disruption of albumin endocytosis in Shank2 knockouts is mediated via caveolin-1. In summary, we have identified Shank2 as another component of the albumin endocytic pathway in podocytes. PMID:26333830

  4. Cell mobility after endocytosis of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirbhai, Massooma; Flores, Thomas; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Rotkin, Slava

    2013-03-01

    Directed cell movement plays a crucial role in cellular behaviors such as neuronal cell division, cell migration, and cell differentiation. There is evidence in preclinical in vivo studies that small fields have successfully been used to enhance regrowth of damages spinal cord axons but with a small success rate. Fortunately, the evolution of functional biomaterials and nanotechnology may provide promising solutions for enhancing the application of electric fields in guiding neuron migration and neurogenesis within the central nervous system. In this work, we studied how endocytosis and subsequent retention of carbon nanotubes affects the mobility of cells under the influence of an electric field, including the directed cell movement.

  5. Nanomechanics of magnetically driven cellular endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablotskii, V.; Lunov, O.; Dejneka, A.; Jastrabík, L.; Polyakova, T.; Syrovets, T.; Simmet, Th.

    2011-10-01

    Being essential for many pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes and playing a crucial role in regulating substrate detachment that enables cellular locomotion, endocytotic mechanisms in many aspects still remain a mystery and therefore can hardly be controlled. Here, we report on experimental and modeling studies of the magnetically assisted endocytosis of functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and characterize the time and force scales of the cellular uptake machinery. The results indicate how the cellular uptake rate could be controlled by applied magnetic field, membrane elasticity, and nanoparticle magnetic moment.

  6. pHuji, a pH-sensitive red fluorescent protein for imaging of exo- and endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Rosendale, Morgane

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins with pH-sensitive fluorescence are valuable tools for the imaging of exocytosis and endocytosis. The Aequorea green fluorescent protein mutant superecliptic pHluorin (SEP) is particularly well suited to these applications. Here we describe pHuji, a red fluorescent protein with a pH sensitivity that approaches that of SEP, making it amenable for detection of single exocytosis and endocytosis events. To demonstrate the utility of the pHuji plus SEP pair, we perform simultaneous two-color imaging of clathrin-mediated internalization of both the transferrin receptor and the β2 adrenergic receptor. These experiments reveal that the two receptors are differentially sorted at the time of endocytic vesicle formation. PMID:25385186

  7. Kinetics of virus entry by endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-04-01

    Entry of virions into the host cells is either endocytotic or fusogenic. In both cases, it occurs via reversible formation of numerous relatively weak bonds resulting in wrapping of a virion by the host membrane with subsequent membrane rupture or scission. The corresponding kinetic models are customarily focused on the formation of bonds and do not pay attention to the energetics of the whole process, which is crucially dependent, especially in the case of endocytosis, on deformation of actin filaments forming the cytoskeleton of the host cell. The kinetic model of endocytosis, proposed by the author, takes this factor into account and shows that the whole process can be divided into a rapid initial transient stage and a long steady-state stage. The entry occurs during the latter stage and can be described as a first-order reaction. Depending on the details of the dependence of the grand canonical potential on the number of bonds, the entry can be limited either by the interplay of bond formation and membrane rupture (or scission) or by reaching a maximum of this potential.

  8. Synaptotagmin-11 inhibits clathrin-mediated and bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhe; Wang, Yeshi; Hu, Meiqin; Chai, Zuying; Wu, Qihui; Huang, Rong; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Claire Xi; Zhou, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and efficient endocytosis is essential for vesicle recycling during a sustained neurotransmission. The regulation of endocytosis has been extensively studied, but inhibitors have rarely been found. Here, we show that synaptotagmin-11 (Syt11), a non-Ca(2+)-binding Syt implicated in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and bulk endocytosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The frequency of both types of endocytic event increases in Syt11 knockdown neurons, while the sizes of endocytosed vesicles and the kinetics of individual bulk endocytotic events remain unaffected. Specifically, clathrin-coated pits and bulk endocytosis-like structures increase on the plasma membrane in Syt11-knockdown neurons. Structural-functional analysis reveals distinct domain requirements for Syt11 function in CME and bulk endocytosis. Importantly, Syt11 also inhibits endocytosis in hippocampal neurons, implying a general role of Syt11 in neurons. Taken together, we propose that Syt11 functions to ensure precision in vesicle retrieval, mainly by limiting the sites of membrane invagination at the early stage of endocytosis. PMID:26589353

  9. PLD1 regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements by mediating Frizzled7 endocytosis for Wnt/PCP signal activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoon; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Yeo, Inchul; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in the regulation of receptor-associated signaling, cell movement, cell adhesion and endocytosis. However, its physiological role in vertebrate development remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that PLD1 is required for the convergent extension (CE) movements during Xenopus gastrulation by activating Wnt/PCP signaling. Xenopus PLD1 protein is specifically enriched in the dorsal region of Xenopus gastrula embryo and loss or gain-of-function of PLD1 induce defects in gastrulation and CE movements. These defective phenotypes are due to impaired regulation of Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Biochemical and imaging analysis using Xenopus tissues reveal that PLD1 is required for Fz7 receptor endocytosis upon Wnt11 stimulation. Moreover, we show that Fz7 endocytosis depends on dynamin and regulation of GAP activity of dynamin by PLD1 via its PX domain is crucial for this process. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD1 acts as a new positive mediator of Wnt/PCP signaling by promoting Wnt11-induced Fz7 endocytosis for precise regulation of Xenopus CE movements. PMID:26806705

  10. HARE-Mediated Endocytosis of Hyaluronan and Heparin Is Targeted by Different Subsets of Three Endocytic Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Madhu S.; Harris, Edward N.; Weigel, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The hyaluronan (HA) receptor for endocytosis (HARE) is a multifunctional recycling clearance receptor for 14 different ligands, including HA and heparin (Hep), which bind to discrete nonoverlapping sites. Four different functional endocytic motifs (M) in the cytoplasmic domain (CD) target coated pit mediated uptake: (YSYFRI2485 (M1), FQHF2495 (M2), NPLY2519 (M3), and DPF2534 (M4)). We previously found (Pandey et al. J. Biol. Chem. 283, 21453, 2008) that M1, M2, and M3 mediate endocytosis of HA. Here we assessed the ability of HARE variants with a single-motif deletion or containing only a single motif to endocytose HA or Hep. Single-motif deletion variants lacking M1, M3, or M4 (a different subset than involved in HA uptake) showed decreased Hep endocytosis, although M3 was the most active; the remaining redundant motifs did not compensate for loss of other motifs. Surprisingly, a HARE CD variant with only M3 internalized both HA and Hep, whereas variants with either M2 or M4 alone did not endocytose either ligand. Internalization of HA and Hep by HARE CD mutants was dynamin-dependent and was inhibited by hyperosmolarity, confirming clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The results indicate a complicated relationship among multiple CD motifs that target coated pit uptake and a more fundamental role for motif M3. PMID:25883656

  11. SAMP8 mice have altered hippocampal gene expression in long term potentiation, phosphatidylinositol signaling, and endocytosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Armbrecht, Harvey J; Siddiqui, Akbar M; Green, Michael; Farr, Susan A; Kumar, Vijaya B; Banks, William A; Patrick, Ping; Shah, Gul N; Morley, John E

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) strain exhibits decreased learning and memory and increased amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide accumulation at 12 months. To detect differences in gene expression in SAMP8 mice, we used a control mouse that was a 50% cross between SAMP8 and CD-1 mice and which showed no memory deficits (50% SAMs). We then compared gene expression in the hippocampus of 4- and 12-month-old SAMP8 and control mice using Affymetrix gene arrays. At 12 months, but not at 4 months, pathway analysis revealed significant differences in the long term potentiation (6 genes), phosphatidylinositol signaling (6 genes), and endocytosis (10 genes) pathways. The changes in long term potentiation included mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (N-ras, cAMP responsive element binding protein [CREB], protein phosphatase inhibitor 1) and Ca-dependent signaling (inositol triphosphate [ITP] receptors 1 and 2 and phospholipase C). Changes in phosphatidylinositol signaling genes suggested altered signaling through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and Western blotting revealed phosphorylation changes in serine/threonine protein kinase AKT and 70S6K. Changes in the endocytosis pathway involved genes related to clathrin-mediated endocytosis (dynamin and clathrin). Endocytosis is required for receptor recycling, is involved in Aβ metabolism, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol signaling. In summary, these studies demonstrate altered gene expression in 3 SAMP8 hippocampal pathways associated with memory formation and consolidation. These pathways might provide new therapeutic targets in addition to targeting Aβ metabolism itself. PMID:23969180

  12. Modification of the furan ring of salvinorin A: identification of a selective partial agonist at the kappa opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Béguin, Cécile; Duncan, Katharine K.; Munro, Thomas A.; Ho, Douglas M.; Xu, Wei; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to find novel agents which selectively target the kappa opioid receptor (KOPR), we modified the furan ring of the highly potent and selective KOPR agonist salvinorin A. Introduction of small substituents at C-16 was well tolerated. 12-epi-Salvinorin A, synthesized in four steps from salvinorin A, was a selective partial agonist at the KOPR. No clear SAR patterns were observed for C-13 aryl ketones. Introducing a hydroxymethylene group between C-12 and the furan ring was tolerated. Small C-13 esters and ethers gave weak KOPR agonists, while all C-13 amides were inactive. Finally, substitution of oxadiazoles for the furan ring abolished affinity for the KOPR. None of the compounds displayed any KOPR antagonism or any affinity for mu or delta opioid receptors. PMID:19147366

  13. Endocytosis of heat-denatured albumin by cultured rat Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwer, A.; Knook, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Purified Kupffer cells were obtained by centrifugal elutriation of sinusoidal cells isolated by pronase treatment of the rat liver. The endocytosis of radioactively labeled heat-aggregated colloidal albumin (CA /sup 125/I) was investigated in maintenance cultures of the purified Kupffer cells. The endocytic capacity of the cells was studied during 4 days of culture. Maximum uptake was observed after 24 hr of culture, with a gradual decline during the following days. When the uptake was measured after incubation with increasing concentrations of CA /sup 125/I, a saturation effect was observed. This finding and the observed high rate of uptake are strong indications that receptor sites on the cell membrane are involved in the mechanism of endocytosis. The uptake of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was inhibited by the metabolic inhibitors fluoride and antimycin A, indicating that endocytosis of CA /sup 125/I is dependent on energy derived from both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. The mechanism of internalization may also require the action of microfilaments as well as intact microtubules, since both cytochalasin B and colchicine inhibited the uptake of CA /sup 125/I. The intracellular degradation of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was strongly inhibited by chloroquine but not by colchicine. The degradation of ingested CA /sup 125/I occurred within the Kupffer cell lysosomes.

  14. Regulation of cargo-selective endocytosis by dynamin 2 GTPase-activating protein girdin

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Liang; Enomoto, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Asai, Naoya; Morone, Nobuhiro; Jiang, Ping; An, Jian; Kato, Takuya; Kuroda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Takashi; Asai, Masato; Ishida-Takagishi, Maki; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Hideki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Takahashi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), specificity and selectivity for cargoes are thought to be tightly regulated by cargo-specific adaptors for distinct cellular functions. Here, we show that the actin-binding protein girdin is a regulator of cargo-selective CME. Girdin interacts with dynamin 2, a GTPase that excises endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, and functions as its GTPase-activating protein. Interestingly, girdin depletion leads to the defect in clathrin-coated pit formation in the center of cells. Also, we find that girdin differentially interacts with some cargoes, which competitively prevents girdin from interacting with dynamin 2 and confers the cargo selectivity for CME. Therefore, girdin regulates transferrin and E-cadherin endocytosis in the center of cells and their subsequent polarized intracellular localization, but has no effect on integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis that occurs at the cell periphery. Our results reveal that girdin regulates selective CME via a mechanism involving dynamin 2, but not by operating as a cargo-specific adaptor. PMID:25061227

  15. DSL ligand endocytosis physically dissociates Notch1 heterodimers before activating proteolysis can occur.

    PubMed

    Nichols, James T; Miyamoto, Alison; Olsen, Samantha L; D'Souza, Brendan; Yao, Christine; Weinmaster, Gerry

    2007-02-12

    Cleavage of Notch by furin is required to generate a mature, cell surface heterodimeric receptor that can be proteolytically activated to release its intracellular domain, which functions in signal transduction. Current models propose that ligand binding to heterodimeric Notch (hNotch) induces a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) proteolytic release of the Notch extracellular domain (NECD), which is subsequently shed and/or endocytosed by DSL ligand cells. We provide evidence for NECD release and internalization by DSL ligand cells, which, surprisingly, did not require ADAM activity. However, losses in either hNotch formation or ligand endocytosis significantly decreased NECD transfer to DSL ligand cells, as well as signaling in Notch cells. Because endocytosis-defective ligands bind hNotch, but do not dissociate it, additional forces beyond those produced through ligand binding must function to disrupt the intramolecular interactions that keep hNotch intact and inactive. Based on our findings, we propose that mechanical forces generated during DSL ligand endocytosis function to physically dissociate hNotch, and that dissociation is a necessary step in Notch activation. PMID:17296795

  16. Unconventional EGF-induced ERK1/2-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Comes, Núria; Styrczewska, Katarzyna; Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Vicente, Rubén; Pujadas, Lluís; Soriano, Eduardo; Sorkin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potassium channel Kv1.3 plays roles in immunity, neuronal development and sensory discrimination. Regulation of Kv1.3 by kinase signaling has been studied. In this context, EGF binds to specific receptors (EGFR) and triggers tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling, which down-regulates Kv1.3 currents. We show that Kv1.3 undergoes EGF-dependent endocytosis. This EGF-mediated mechanism is relevant because is involved in adult neural stem cell fate determination. We demonstrated that changes in Kv1.3 subcellular distribution upon EGFR activation were due to Kv1.3 clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which targets the Kv1.3 channels to the lysosomal degradative pathway. Interestingly, our results further revealed that relevant tyrosines and other interacting motifs, such as PDZ and SH3 domains, were not involved in the EGF-dependent Kv1.3 internalization. However, a new, and yet undescribed mechanism, of ERK1/2-mediated threonine phosphorylation is crucial for the EGF-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis. Our results demonstrate that EGF triggers the down-regulation of Kv1.3 activity and its expression at the cell surface, which is important for the development and migration of adult neural progenitors. PMID:26542799

  17. Unconventional EGF-induced ERK1/2-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Comes, Núria; Styrczewska, Katarzyna; Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Vicente, Rubén; Pujadas, Lluís; Soriano, Eduardo; Sorkin, Alexander; Felipe, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The potassium channel Kv1.3 plays roles in immunity, neuronal development and sensory discrimination. Regulation of Kv1.3 by kinase signaling has been studied. In this context, EGF binds to specific receptors (EGFR) and triggers tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling, which down-regulates Kv1.3 currents. We show that Kv1.3 undergoes EGF-dependent endocytosis. This EGF-mediated mechanism is relevant because is involved in adult neural stem cell fate determination. We demonstrated that changes in Kv1.3 subcellular distribution upon EGFR activation were due to Kv1.3 clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which targets the Kv1.3 channels to the lysosomal degradative pathway. Interestingly, our results further revealed that relevant tyrosines and other interacting motifs, such as PDZ and SH3 domains, were not involved in the EGF-dependent Kv1.3 internalization. However, a new, and yet undescribed mechanism, of ERK1/2-mediated threonine phosphorylation is crucial for the EGF-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis. Our results demonstrate that EGF triggers the down-regulation of Kv1.3 activity and its expression at the cell surface, which is important for the development and migration of adult neural progenitors. PMID:26542799

  18. The Lowe Syndrome Protein OCRL1 Is Required for Endocytosis in the Zebrafish Pronephric Tubule

    PubMed Central

    Oltrabella, Francesca; Pietka, Grzegorz; Ramirez, Irene Barinaga-Rementeria; Mironov, Aleksandr; Starborg, Toby; Drummond, Iain A.; Hinchliffe, Katherine A.; Lowe, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease are caused by mutation of the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL1. Despite our increased understanding of the cellular functions of OCRL1, the underlying basis for the renal tubulopathy seen in both human disorders, of which a hallmark is low molecular weight proteinuria, is currently unknown. Here, we show that deficiency in OCRL1 causes a defect in endocytosis in the zebrafish pronephric tubule, a model for the mammalian renal tubule. This coincides with a reduction in levels of the scavenger receptor megalin and its accumulation in endocytic compartments, consistent with reduced recycling within the endocytic pathway. We also observe reduced numbers of early endocytic compartments and enlarged vacuolar endosomes in the sub-apical region of pronephric cells. Cell polarity within the pronephric tubule is unaffected in mutant embryos. The OCRL1-deficient embryos exhibit a mild ciliogenesis defect, but this cannot account for the observed impairment of endocytosis. Catalytic activity of OCRL1 is required for renal tubular endocytosis and the endocytic defect can be rescued by suppression of PIP5K. These results indicate for the first time that OCRL1 is required for endocytic trafficking in vivo, and strongly support the hypothesis that endocytic defects are responsible for the renal tubulopathy in Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease. Moreover, our results reveal PIP5K as a potential therapeutic target for Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease. PMID:25838181

  19. The giardial ENTH protein participates in lysosomal protein trafficking and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Feliziani, Constanza; Zamponi, Nahuel; Gottig, Natalia; Rópolo, Andrea S; Lanfredi-Rangel, Adriana; Touz, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    In the protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia, endocytosis and lysosomal protein trafficking are vital parasite-specific processes that involve the action of the adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2 and clathrin. In this work, we have identified a single gene in Giardia encoding a protein containing an ENTH domain that defines monomeric adaptor proteins of the epsin family. This domain is present in the epsin or epsin-related (epsinR) adaptor proteins, which are implicated in endocytosis and Golgi-to-endosome protein trafficking, respectively, in other eukaryotic cells. We found that GlENTHp (for G. lamblia ENTH protein) localized in the cytosol, strongly interacted with PI3,4,5P3, was associated with the alpha subunit of AP-2, clathrin and ubiquitin and was involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. It also bonded PI4P, the gamma subunit of AP-1 and was implicated in ER-to-PV trafficking. Alteration of the GlENTHp function severely affected trophozoite growth showing an unusual accumulation of dense material in the lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles (PVs), indicating that GlENTHp might be implicated in the maintenance of PV homeostasis. In this study, we showed evidence suggesting that GlENTHp might function as a monomeric adaptor protein supporting the findings of other group indicating that GlENTHp might be placed at the beginning of the ENTH family. PMID:25576518

  20. Ouabain uptake by endocytosis in isolated guinea pig atria

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez-Duran, H.; Riboni, L.; Ubaldo, E.; Kabela, E.; Barcenas-Ruiz, L. Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Mexico DF )

    1988-10-01

    Mammalian cells specifically internalize some molecular species through receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). The authors have used four different experimental protocols to investigate whether ouabain enters cardiac cells of guinea pig atrium through this pathway. First, by electron microscope morphometry the authors found that ouabain increased endocytic vesicles in atrial cells. Second, by scintillation counting they found that ({sup 3}H)ouabain uptake by the tissue is decreased by three treatments that decrease RME, i.e., NH{sub 4}Cl, trifluoperazine, and 16 mM (K{sup +}){sub 0}. Third, by radioautography at the electron microscope level, they checked that in preceding experiments ({sup 3}H)ouabain was washed out of plasma membrane after 60-min rinse and interiorized into the cardiac cells. Fourth, isometric tension recordings showed that the positive inotropic effect of ouabain was diminished in the presence of inhibitors, whereas that of a hydrophobic analogue, ouabagenin, was not affected. These results suggest that ouabain enters cardiac cells through RME and also that an intracellular site may, at least in part, be responsible for its inotropic effect.

  1. Physical Principles of Nanoparticle Cellular Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sulin; Gao, Huajian; Bao, Gang

    2015-09-22

    This review article focuses on the physiochemical mechanisms underlying nanoparticle uptake into cells. When nanoparticles are in close vicinity to a cell, the interactions between the nanoparticles and the cell membrane generate forces from different origins. This leads to the membrane wrapping of the nanoparticles followed by cellular uptake. This article discusses how the kinetics, energetics, and forces are related to these interactions and dependent on the size, shape, and stiffness of nanoparticles, the biomechanical properties of the cell membrane, as well as the local environment of the cells. The discussed fundamental principles of the physiochemical causes for nanoparticle-cell interaction may guide new studies of nanoparticle endocytosis and lead to better strategies to design nanoparticle-based approaches for biomedical applications. PMID:26256227

  2. Bradykinin release avoids high molecular weight kininogen endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Igor Z; Melo, Katia R B; Nascimento, Fabio D; Souza, Daianne S P; Araujo, Mariana S; Souza, Sinval E G; Sampaio, Misako U; Nader, Helena B; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Motta, Guacyara

    2015-01-01

    Human H-kininogen (120 kDa) plays a role in many pathophysiological processes and interacts with the cell surface through protein receptors and proteoglycans, which mediate H-kininogen endocytosis. In the present work we demonstrate that H-kininogen containing bradykinin domain is internalized and different endogenous kininogenases are present in CHO-K1 cells. We used CHO-K1 (wild type) and CHO-745 (mutant deficient in proteoglycans biosynthesis) cell lines. H-kininogen endocytosis was studied using confocal microscopy, and its hydrolysis by cell lysate fraction was determined by immunoblotting. Bradykinin release was also measured by radioimmunoassay. H-kininogen interaction with the cell surface of CHO-745 cells resulted in bradykinin release by serine proteases. In CHO-K1 cells, which produce heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, internalization of H-kininogen through its bradykinin domain can occur on lipid raft domains/caveolae. Nevertheless bradykinin-free H-kininogen was not internalized by CHO-K1 cells. The H-kininogen present in acidic endosomal vesicles in CHO-K1 was approximately 10-fold higher than the levels in CHO-745. CHO-K1 lysate fractions were assayed at pH 5.5 and intact H-kininogen was totally hydrolyzed into a 62 kDa fragment. By contrast, at an assay pH 7.4, the remained fragments were 115 kDa, 83 kDa, 62 kDa and 48 kDa in size. The antipain-Sepharose chromatography separated endogenous kininogenases from CHO-K1 lysate fraction. No difference was detected in the assays at pH 5.5 or 7.4, but the proteins in the fraction bound to the resin released bradykinin from H-kininogen. However, the proteins in the unbound fraction cleaved intact H-kininogen at other sites but did not release bradykinin. H-kininogen can interact with extravascular cells, and is internalized dependent on its bradykinin domain and cell surface proteoglycans. After internalization, H-kininogen is proteolytically processed by intracellular kininogenases. The present data also demonstrates that serine or cysteine proteases in lipid raft domains/caveolae on the CHO cell can hydrolyze H-kininogen, thus releasing kinins. PMID:25822177

  3. Bradykinin Release Avoids High Molecular Weight Kininogen Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Fabio D.; Souza, Daianne S. P.; Araujo, Mariana S.; Souza, Sinval E. G.; Sampaio, Misako U.; Nader, Helena B.; Tersariol, Ivarne L. S.; Motta, Guacyara

    2015-01-01

    Human H-kininogen (120 kDa) plays a role in many pathophysiological processes and interacts with the cell surface through protein receptors and proteoglycans, which mediate H-kininogen endocytosis. In the present work we demonstrate that H-kininogen containing bradykinin domain is internalized and different endogenous kininogenases are present in CHO-K1 cells. We used CHO-K1 (wild type) and CHO-745 (mutant deficient in proteoglycans biosynthesis) cell lines. H-kininogen endocytosis was studied using confocal microscopy, and its hydrolysis by cell lysate fraction was determined by immunoblotting. Bradykinin release was also measured by radioimmunoassay. H-kininogen interaction with the cell surface of CHO-745 cells resulted in bradykinin release by serine proteases. In CHO-K1 cells, which produce heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, internalization of H-kininogen through its bradykinin domain can occur on lipid raft domains/caveolae. Nevertheless bradykinin-free H-kininogen was not internalized by CHO-K1 cells. The H-kininogen present in acidic endosomal vesicles in CHO-K1 was approximately 10-fold higher than the levels in CHO-745. CHO-K1 lysate fractions were assayed at pH 5.5 and intact H-kininogen was totally hydrolyzed into a 62 kDa fragment. By contrast, at an assay pH 7.4, the remained fragments were 115 kDa, 83 kDa, 62 kDa and 48 kDa in size. The antipain-Sepharose chromatography separated endogenous kininogenases from CHO-K1 lysate fraction. No difference was detected in the assays at pH 5.5 or 7.4, but the proteins in the fraction bound to the resin released bradykinin from H-kininogen. However, the proteins in the unbound fraction cleaved intact H-kininogen at other sites but did not release bradykinin. H-kininogen can interact with extravascular cells, and is internalized dependent on its bradykinin domain and cell surface proteoglycans. After internalization, H-kininogen is proteolytically processed by intracellular kininogenases. The present data also demonstrates that serine or cysteine proteases in lipid raft domains/caveolae on the CHO cell can hydrolyze H-kininogen, thus releasing kinins. PMID:25822177

  4. Role of endocytosis and cathepsin-mediated activation in Nipah virus entry

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, Sandra; Thiel, Lena; Maisner, Andrea

    2008-06-05

    The recent discovery that the Nipah virus (NiV) fusion protein (F) is activated by endosomal cathepsin L raised the question if NiV utilize pH- and protease-dependent mechanisms of entry. We show here that the NiV receptor ephrin B2, virus-like particles and infectious NiV are internalized from the cell surface. However, endocytosis, acidic pH and cathepsin-mediated cleavage are not necessary for the initiation of infection of new host cells. Our data clearly demonstrate that proteolytic activation of the NiV F protein is required before incorporation into budding virions but not after virus entry.

  5. Characterization and visualization of rat and guinea pig brain. kappa. opioid receptors: Evidence for. kappa. sub 1 and. kappa. sub 2 opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Zukin, R.S.; Eghbali, M.; Olive, D.; Unterwald, E.M.; Tempel, A. )

    1988-06-01

    {kappa} opioid receptors ({kappa} receptors) have been characterized in homogenates of guinea pig and rat brain under in vitro binding conditions. {kappa} receptors were labeled by using the tritiated prototypic {kappa} opioid ethylketocyclazocine under conditions in which {mu} and {delta} opioid binding was suppressed. In the case of guinea pig brain membranes, a single population of high-affinity {kappa} opioid receptor sites was observed. In contrast, in the case of rat brain, two populations of {kappa} sites were observed. To test the hypothesis that the high- and low-affinity {kappa} sites represent two distinct {kappa} receptor subtypes, a series of opioids were tested for their abilities to compete for binding to the two sites. U-69,593 and Cambridge 20 selectively displaced the high-affinity {kappa} site in both guinea pig and rat tissue, but were inactive at the rat-brain low-affinity site. Other {kappa} opioid drugs competed for binding to both sites, but with different rank orders of potency. Quantitative light microscopy in vitro autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical pattern of {kappa} receptors in rat and guinea pig brain. The distribution patterns of the two {kappa} receptor subtypes of rat brain were clearly different. Collectively, these data provide direct evidence for the presence of two {kappa} receptor subtypes; the U-69,593-sensitive, high-affinity {kappa}{sub 1} site predominates in guinea pig brain, and the U-69,593-insensitive, low-affinity {kappa}{sub 2} site predominates in rat brain.

  6. Sphingosine 1-phosphate-induced motility and endocytosis of dendritic cells is regulated by SWAP-70 through RhoA.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Morgner, Carlos; Reichardt, Peter; Chopin, Michaël; Braungart, Sarah; Wahren, Christine; Gunzer, Matthias; Jessberger, Rolf

    2011-05-01

    The phospholipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) enhances motility and endocytosis of mature dendritic cells (DCs). We show that in vitro migration of Swap-70(-/-) bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) in response to S1P and S1P-induced upregulation of endocytosis are significantly reduced. S1P-stimulated movement of Swap-70(-/-) BMDCs, specifically retraction of their trailing edge, in a collagen three-dimensional environment is impaired. These in vitro observations correlate with delayed entry into lymphatic vessels and migration to lymph nodes of skin DCs in Swap-70(-/-) mice. Expression of S1P receptors (S1P(1-3)) by wild-type and Swap-70(-/-) BMDCs is similar, but Swap-70(-/-) BMDCs fail to activate RhoA and to localize Rac1 and RhoA into areas of actin polymerization after S1P stimulus. The Rho-activating G protein Gα(i) interacts with SWAP-70, which also supports the localization of Gα(13) to membrane rafts in BMDCs. LPS-matured Swap-70(-/-) BMDCs contain significantly more active RhoA than wild-type DCs. Preinhibition of Rho activation restored migration to S1P, S1P-induced upregulation of endocytosis in mature Swap-70(-/-) BMDCs, and localization of Gα(13) to membrane rafts. These data demonstrate SWAP-70 as a novel regulator of S1P signaling necessary for DC motility and endocytosis. PMID:21421853

  7. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 and endocytosis at the apical surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, Y; Liu, S; Katz, L; Tang, K; Hardy, S; Brodsky, F; Apodaca, G; Mostov, K

    1999-10-01

    We report that the small GTPase, ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), is present only on the apical surface of polarized MDCK epithelial cells. Overexpression of a mutant of ARF6, ARF6-Q67L, which is predicted to be in the GTP-bound form, stimulates endocytosis exclusively at this surface. Surprisingly, overexpression of the mutant ARF6-T27N, which is predicted to be in the GDP-bound form, also stimulated apical endocytosis, though to a lesser extent. ARF6-stimulated endocytosis is inhibited by a dominant-negative form of dynamin, or a dominant-negative hub fragment of clathrin heavy chain, indicating that it is mediated by clathrin. Correspondingly, overexpression of either mutant of ARF6 leads to an increase in the number of clathrin-coated pits at the apical plasma membrane. When ARF6-Q67L is overexpressed in the presence of the dominant-negative dynamin, the ARF6-Q67L colocalizes with clathrin and with IgA bound to its receptor. We conclude that ARF6 is an important modulator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the apical surface of epithelial cells. PMID:10508850

  8. Visualization of multiple opioid-receptor types in rat striatum after specific mesencephalic lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, M.; Santoro, C.; Paredes, W.; Gardner, E.L.; Zukin, R.S.

    1987-09-01

    In order to gain insight into a possible modulatory role for ..mu.., delta, and kappa opioid receptors of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the authors investigated the topographical organization of the receptors with respect to pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Dopaminergic terminals projecting from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum were destroyed by unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the susbstantia nigra. Quantitative receptor assays using highly specific radioligands were used to measure the density of striatal ..mu.., delta, and kappa receptors before and after denervation. Quantitative in vitro autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical pattern of receptors on lesioned and nonlesioned sides of the brain under the light microscope. Loss of ..mu.. receptors in striatal patches was striking in the ventro-lateral areas of the striatum, whereas the most notable loss of delta receptors was found in the central striatum. Other brain areas did not differ significantly in ..mu.. receptor density between the lesioned and nonlesioned sides, as determined by autoradiography. These findings suggest that a high percentage of ..mu.. and delta receptors in the striatum are located on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals and support the concept of a modulatory role for ..mu.. and delta opioid peptides in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of a rat kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Zhu, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y W; Deriel, J K; Ashby, B; Liu-Chen, L Y

    1993-01-01

    At least three types of opioid receptors have been identified in the nervous system. In this paper we report molecular cloning and expression of a rat kappa opioid receptor. PCR was performed on double-stranded cDNA derived from poly(A)+ RNA of the rat striatum with primers similar to those of Libert and co-workers [Libert, Parmentier, Lefort, Dinsart, Van Sande, Maenhaut, Simons, Dumont and Vassart (1989) Science 244, 569-572]. One of the PCR products, which had 65% sequence similarity to the mouse delta opioid receptor, was used to screen a rat striatum cDNA library. Two positive clones were isolated and found to be identical. The clone had a 2.1-kb insert, which was termed RKOR-1. RKOR-1 has an open reading frame of 1140 bp and encodes a 380-amino-acid protein. Hydropathy analysis indicates that RKOR-1 has seven putative transmembrane domains with short intra- and extra-cellular loops. Membranes of Cos-7 cells transfected with RKOR-1 exhibited high specific binding for [3H]diprenorphine ([3H]DIP), a non-selective opioid ligand. Naloxone inhibited [3H]DIP binding with stereospecificity. [3H]DIP binding was potently inhibited by selective kappa opioid ligands, with Ki values in the nanomolar or subnanomolar range, but much less potently inhibited by drugs selective for mu or delta receptors. Thus, RKOR-1 represents an opioid receptor with kappa characteristics. Images Figure 2 PMID:8240268

  10. Synucleins Regulate the Kinetics of Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Karina J.; Makani, Sachin; Davis, Taylor; Westphal, Christopher H.; Castillo, Pablo E.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and pathological studies link α-synuclein to the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the normal function of this presynaptic protein remains unknown. α-Synuclein, an acidic lipid binding protein, shares high sequence identity with β- and γ-synuclein. Previous studies have implicated synucleins in synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking, although the precise site of synuclein action continues to be unclear. Here we show, using optical imaging, electron microscopy, and slice electrophysiology, that synucleins are required for the fast kinetics of SV endocytosis. Slowed endocytosis observed in synuclein null cultures can be rescued by individually expressing mouse α-, β-, or γ-synuclein, indicating they are functionally redundant. Through comparisons to dynamin knock-out synapses and biochemical experiments, we suggest that synucleins act at early steps of SV endocytosis. Our results categorize α-synuclein with other familial PD genes known to regulate SV endocytosis, implicating this pathway in PD. PMID:25009269

  11. Retrovirus Entry by Endocytosis and Cathepsin Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yoshinao; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Sato, Hironori; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Retroviruses include infectious agents inducing severe diseases in humans and animals. In addition, retroviruses are widely used as tools to transfer genes of interest to target cells. Understanding the entry mechanism of retroviruses contributes to developments of novel therapeutic approaches against retrovirus-induced diseases and efficient exploitation of retroviral vectors. Entry of enveloped viruses into host cell cytoplasm is achieved by fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membranes at either the cell surface or intracellular vesicles. Many animal retroviruses enter host cells through endosomes and require endosome acidification. Ecotropic murine leukemia virus entry requires cathepsin proteases activated by the endosome acidification. CD4-dependent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is thought to occur via endosomes, but endosome acidification is not necessary for the entry whereas entry of CD4-independent HIVs, which are thought to be prototypes of CD4-dependent viruses, is low pH dependent. There are several controversial results on the retroviral entry pathways. Because endocytosis and endosome acidification are complicatedly controlled by cellular mechanisms, the retrovirus entry pathways may be different in different cell lines. PMID:23304142

  12. Quantitative Measurement of GPCR Endocytosis via Pulse-Chase Covalent Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Okamura, Tomohisa; Fujio, Keishi; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Nomura, Seitaro; Takeda, Norifumi; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Takimoto, Eiki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Komuro, Issei; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a critical role in many physiological systems and represent one of the largest families of signal-transducing receptors. The number of GPCRs at the cell surface regulates cellular responsiveness to their cognate ligands, and the number of GPCRs, in turn, is dynamically controlled by receptor endocytosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that GPCR endocytosis, in addition to affecting receptor desensitization and resensitization, contributes to acute G protein-mediated signaling. Thus, endocytic GPCR behavior has a significant impact on various aspects of physiology. In this study, we developed a novel GPCR internalization assay to facilitate characterization of endocytic GPCR behavior. We genetically engineered chimeric GPCRs by fusing HaloTag (a catalytically inactive derivative of a bacterial hydrolase) to the N-terminal end of the receptor (HT-GPCR). HaloTag has the ability to form a stable covalent bond with synthetic HaloTag ligands that contain fluorophores or a high-affinity handle (such as biotin) and the HaloTag reactive linker. We selectively labeled HT-GPCRs at the cell surface with a HaloTag PEG ligand, and this pulse-chase covalent labeling allowed us to directly monitor the relative number of internalized GPCRs after agonist stimulation. Because the endocytic activities of GPCR ligands are not necessarily correlated with their agonistic activities, applying this novel methodology to orphan GPCRs, or even to already characterized GPCRs, will increase the likelihood of identifying currently unknown ligands that have been missed by conventional pharmacological assays. PMID:26020647

  13. CD14 dependence of TLR4 endocytosis and TRIF signaling displays ligand specificity and is dissociable in endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rajaiah, Rajesh; Perkins, Darren J; Ireland, Derek D C; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2015-07-01

    Dimerization of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) heterodimers is critical for both MyD88- and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-mediated signaling pathways. Recently, Zanoni et al. [(2011) Cell 147(4):868-880] reported that cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is required for LPS-/Escherichia coli- induced TLR4 internalization into endosomes and activation of TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophages. We confirmed their findings with LPS but report here that CD14 is not required for receptor endocytosis and downstream signaling mediated by TLR4/MD2 agonistic antibody (UT12) and synthetic small-molecule TLR4 ligands (1Z105) in murine macrophages. CD14 deficiency completely ablated the LPS-induced TBK1/IRF3 signaling axis that mediates production of IFN-β in murine macrophages without affecting MyD88-mediated signaling, including NF-κB, MAPK activation, and TNF-α and IL-6 production. However, neither the MyD88- nor TRIF-signaling pathways and their associated cytokine profiles were altered in the absence of CD14 in UT12- or 1Z105-treated murine macrophages. Eritoran (E5564), a lipid A antagonist that binds the MD2 "pocket," completely blocked LPS- and 1Z105-driven, but not UT12-induced, TLR4 dimerization and endocytosis. Furthermore, TLR4 endocytosis is induced in macrophages tolerized by exposure to either LPS or UT12 and is independent of CD14. These data indicate that TLR4 receptor endocytosis and the TRIF-signaling pathway are dissociable and that TLR4 internalization in macrophages can be induced by UT12, 1Z105, and during endotoxin tolerance in the absence of CD14. PMID:26106158

  14. CD14 dependence of TLR4 endocytosis and TRIF signaling displays ligand specificity and is dissociable in endotoxin tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Rajaiah, Rajesh; Perkins, Darren J.; Ireland, Derek D. C.; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2015-01-01

    Dimerization of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) heterodimers is critical for both MyD88- and TIR-domain–containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-mediated signaling pathways. Recently, Zanoni et al. [(2011) Cell 147(4):868–880] reported that cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is required for LPS-/Escherichia coli- induced TLR4 internalization into endosomes and activation of TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophages. We confirmed their findings with LPS but report here that CD14 is not required for receptor endocytosis and downstream signaling mediated by TLR4/MD2 agonistic antibody (UT12) and synthetic small-molecule TLR4 ligands (1Z105) in murine macrophages. CD14 deficiency completely ablated the LPS-induced TBK1/IRF3 signaling axis that mediates production of IFN-β in murine macrophages without affecting MyD88-mediated signaling, including NF-κB, MAPK activation, and TNF-α and IL-6 production. However, neither the MyD88- nor TRIF-signaling pathways and their associated cytokine profiles were altered in the absence of CD14 in UT12- or 1Z105-treated murine macrophages. Eritoran (E5564), a lipid A antagonist that binds the MD2 “pocket,” completely blocked LPS- and 1Z105-driven, but not UT12-induced, TLR4 dimerization and endocytosis. Furthermore, TLR4 endocytosis is induced in macrophages tolerized by exposure to either LPS or UT12 and is independent of CD14. These data indicate that TLR4 receptor endocytosis and the TRIF-signaling pathway are dissociable and that TLR4 internalization in macrophages can be induced by UT12, 1Z105, and during endotoxin tolerance in the absence of CD14. PMID:26106158

  15. Effects of intrathecal SNC80, a delta receptor ligand, on nociceptive threshold and dorsal horn substance p release.

    PubMed

    Kouchek, Milad; Takasusuki, Toshifumi; Terashima, Tetsuji; Yaksh, Tony L; Xu, Qinghao

    2013-11-01

    Delta-opioid receptors (DOR) are present in the superficial dorsal horn and are believed to regulate the release of small afferent transmitters as evidenced by the effects of spinally delivered delta-opioid preferring peptides. Here we examined the effects of intrathecal SNC80 [(+)-4-[α(R)-α-[(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl]-3-(methoxybenzyl)-N,N-diethylbenzamide], a selective nonpeptidic DOR agonist, in three preclinical pain models, acute thermal escape, intraplantar carrageenan-tactile allodynia, and intraplantar formalin flinches, and on the evoked release of substance P (SP) from small primary afferents. Rats with chronic intrathecal catheters received intrathecal vehicle or SNC80 (100 or 200 μg). Intrathecal SNC80 did not change acute thermal latencies or carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia. However, SNC80 attenuated carrageenan-induced tactile allodynia and significantly reduced both phase 1 and phase 2 formalin-induced paw flinches, as assessed by an automatic flinch counting device. These effects were abolished by naltrindole (3 mg/kg i.p.), a selective DOR antagonist, but not CTOP (10 µg i.t.), a selective MOR antagonist. Furthermore, intrathecal SNC80 (200 μg) blocked formalin-induced substance P release otherwise evoked in the ispilateral superficial dorsal horn as measured by NK1 receptor internalization. In conclusion, intrathecal SNC80 alleviated pain hypersensitivity after peripheral inflammation in a fashion paralleling its ability to block peptide transmitter release from small peptidergic afferents, which by its pharmacology appears to represent an effect mediated by a spinal DOR. PMID:23978562

  16. Nonmuscle Myosin II is a Critical Regulator of Clathrin Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Indra; Goeckeler, Zoe M.; Turney, Stephen G.; Wang, Peter; Wysolmerski, Robert B.; Adelstein, Robert S.; Bridgman, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is essential to cell functions including nutrient uptake, receptor-mediated signaling, and membrane recycling. The requirement for actin in CME remains unclear and may vary due to regional or cellular differences in membrane tension. Previous studies have investigated the role of actin polymerization in counteracting this tension. Here we examined the role of the actin motor protein, myosin II (MII), during constitutive receptor-mediated endocytosis. In fibroblasts from embryonic MIIB knockout (MIIB KO) mice, we observed clear defects in CME: internalization of transferrin was significantly decreased, and the surface lifetime of YFP-clathrin light chain was increased. In addition, acute blebbistatin treatment to inactivate MII, shRNA-mediated knockdown of MIIB or MIIA, and treatment with nM latruculin A also inhibited transferrin uptake. Electron microscopy of MIIB KO cells or cells treated with blebbistatin revealed an increased percentage of shallow coated pits. Moreover, highly-invaginated coated pits were distorted and asymmetric. Our results indicate that MII activity is critical for coated pit progression during CME. Loss of MII function results in significant decreases in the probability of clathrin-dependent internalization. We conclude that CME is actomyosin-dependent, and that through its role in scaffolding, actin supports MII-driven force generation that regulates membrane bending and scission. PMID:24443954

  17. Endocytosis of Gene Delivery Vectors: From Clathrin-dependent to Lipid Raft-mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ayman; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The ideal nonviral vector delivers its nucleic acid cargo to a specific intracellular target. Vectors enter cells mainly through endocytosis and are distributed to various intracellular organelles. Recent advances in microscopy, lipidomics, and proteomics confirm that the cell membrane is composed of clusters of lipids, organized in the form of lipid raft domains, together with non-raft domains that comprise a generally disordered lipid milieu. The binding of a nonviral vector to either region can determine the pathway for its endocytic uptake and subsequent intracellular itinerary. Given this model of the cell membrane structure, endocytic pathways should be reclassified in relation to lipid rafts. In this review, we attempt to assess the currently recognized endocytic pathways in mammalian cells. The endocytic pathways are classified in relation to the membrane regions that make up the primary endocytic vesicles. This review covers the well-recognized clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), phagocytosis, and macropinocytosis in addition to the less addressed pathways that take place in lipid rafts. These include caveolae-mediated, flotillin-dependent, GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1)-dependent, adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6)-dependent, and RhoA-dependent endocytic pathways. We summarize the regulators associated with each uptake pathway and methods for interfering with these regulators are discussed. The fate of endocytic vesicles resulting from each endocytic uptake pathway is highlighted. PMID:23587924

  18. Exocyst Sec10 protects renal tubule cells from injury by EGFR/MAPK activation and effects on endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Buonato, Janine M.; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F.; Palmyre, Aurélien; Polgar, Noemi; Drummond, Iain; Park, Kwon Moo; Lazzara, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is common and has a high mortality rate, and no effective treatment exists other than supportive care. Using cell culture models, we previously demonstrated that exocyst Sec10 overexpression reduced damage to renal tubule cells and speeded recovery and that the protective effect was mediated by higher basal levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex, is known for regulating protein trafficking. Here we show that the exocyst biochemically interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstream of MAPK, and Sec10-overexpressing cells express greater levels of phosphorylated (active) ERK, the final step in the MAPK pathway, in response to EGF stimulation. EGFR endocytosis, which has been linked to activation of the MAPK pathway, increases in Sec10-overexpressing cells, and gefitinib, a specific EGFR inhibitor, and Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, both reduce EGFR endocytosis. In turn, inhibition of the MAPK pathway reduces ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis, suggesting a potential feedback of elevated ERK activity on EGFR endocytosis. Gefitinib also decreases MAPK signaling in Sec10-overexpressing cells to levels seen in control cells and, demonstrating a causal role for EGFR, reverses the protective effect of Sec10 overexpression following cell injury in vitro. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model of acute kidney injury, morpholino-induced knockdown of sec10 increases renal tubule cell susceptibility to injury. Taken together, these results suggest that the exocyst, acting through EGFR, endocytosis, and the MAPK pathway is a candidate therapeutic target for acute kidney injury. PMID:25298525

  19. Comparison of the butyrate effects on neurotransmitter receptors in neurohybrids NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, X.Z.; Chuang, D.M.

    1987-08-31

    The authors previous study demonstrated that long term treatment of NCB-20 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in a marked increase in the density of delta-opioid receptors with a much lesser effect on muscarinic cholinergic and no effect on alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on these three types of receptors in NG108-15 cells whose neuroblastoma parent is the same as that of NCB-20 cells. Long term treatment of NG108-15 cells with sodium butyrate (0.5 mM) induced a 2-fold increase in the density of the specific binding of /sup 3/H-clonidine. A comparable increase in the number of binding sites was detected when /sup 3/H-yohimbine was used as the receptor ligand. The butyrate-induced increase in the alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptor binding could be totally abolished by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that synthesis of receptor protein is involved. The same butyrate treatment had no significant effect on opioid and muscarinic cholinergic receptor bindings. Thus, butyrate effects on the expression of these three types of receptors in NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells are dramatically different. These data suggest that induction by butyrate of neurotransmitter receptors requires concerted action of genetic factors of both parents of the neurohybrids. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  20. The Plant Defense Elicitor Cryptogein Stimulates Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis Correlated with Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Bright Yellow-2 Tobacco Cells1[C

    PubMed Central

    Leborgne-Castel, Nathalie; Lherminier, Jeannine; Der, Christophe; Fromentin, Jérôme; Houot, Valérie; Simon-Plas, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    The plant defense elicitor cryptogein triggers well-known biochemical events of early signal transduction at the plasma membrane of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells, but microscopic observations of cell responses related to these early events were lacking. We determined that internalization of the lipophilic dye FM4-64, which is a marker of endocytosis, is stimulated a few minutes after addition of cryptogein to tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. This stimulation is specific to the signal transduction pathway elicited by cryptogein because a lipid transfer protein, which binds to the same receptor as cryptogein but without triggering signaling, does not increase endocytosis. To define the nature of the stimulated endocytosis, we quantified clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) forming on the plasma membrane of BY-2 cells. A transitory stimulation of this morphological event by cryptogein occurs within the first 15 min. In the presence of cryptogein, increases in both FM4-64 internalization and clathrin-mediated endocytosis are specifically blocked upon treatment with 5 μm tyrphostin A23, a receptor-mediated endocytosis inhibitor. The kinetics of the transient increase in CCPs at the plasma membrane coincides with that of transitory reactive oxygen species (ROS) production occurring within the first 15 min after elicitation. Moreover, in BY-2 cells expressing NtrbohD antisense cDNA, which are unable to produce ROS when treated with cryptogein, the CCP stimulation is inhibited. These results indicate that the very early endocytic process induced by cryptogein in tobacco is due, at least partly, to clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is dependent on ROS production by the NADPH oxidase NtrbohD. PMID:18184734

  1. Vesicle Formation and Endocytosis: Function, Machinery, Mechanisms, and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Nihal S.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Nitsche, Ludwig C.; Wedgewood, Lewis E.; Place, Aaron T.; Sverdlov, Maria S.; Chaga, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vesicle formation provides a means of cellular entry for extracellular substances and for recycling of membrane constituents. Mechanisms governing the two primary endocytic pathways (i.e., caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as newly emerging vesicular pathways) have become the focus of intense investigation to improve our understanding of nutrient, hormone, and drug delivery, as well as opportunistic invasion of pathogens. In this review of endocytosis, we broadly discuss the structural and signaling proteins that compose the molecular machinery governing endocytic vesicle formation (budding, invagination, and fission from the membrane), with some regard for the specificity observed in certain cell types and species. Important biochemical functions of endocytosis and diseases caused by their disruption also are discussed, along with the structures of key components of endocytic pathways and their known mechanistic contributions. The mechanisms by which principal components of the endocytic machinery are recruited to the plasma membrane, where they interact to induce vesicle formation, are discussed, together with computational approaches used to simulate simplified versions of endocytosis with the hope of clarifying aspects of vesicle formation that may be difficult to determine experimentally. Finally, we pose several unanswered questions intended to stimulate further research interest in the cell biology and modeling of endocytosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1301–1312. PMID:19113823

  2. Distinct Functions of Endophilin Isoforms in Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jifeng; Tan, Minghui; Yin, Yichen; Ren, Bingyu; Jiang, Nannan; Guo, Guoqing; Chen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Endophilin isoforms perform distinct characteristics in their interactions with N-type Ca2+ channels and dynamin. However, precise functional differences for the endophilin isoforms on synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis remain unknown. By coupling RNA interference and electrophysiological recording techniques in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we investigated the functional differences of three isoforms of endophilin in SV endocytosis. The results showed that the amplitude of normalized evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in endophilin1 knockdown neurons decreased significantly for both single train and multiple train stimulations. Similar results were found using endophilin2 knockdown neurons, whereas endophilin3 siRNA exhibited no change compared with control neurons. Endophilin1 and endophilin2 affected SV endocytosis, but the effect of endophilin1 and endophilin2 double knockdown was not different from that of either knockdown alone. This result suggested that endophilin1 and endophilin2 functioned together but not independently during SV endocytosis. Taken together, our results indicate that SV endocytosis is sustained by endophilin1 and endophilin2 isoforms, but not by endophilin3, in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. PMID:26682072

  3. Ankyrin-G Inhibits Endocytosis of Cadherin Dimers.

    PubMed

    Cadwell, Chantel M; Jenkins, Paul M; Bennett, Vann; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of endothelial cell adhesion is central to vascular development and maintenance. Furthermore, altered endothelial adhesion is implicated in numerous diseases. Therefore, normal vascular patterning and maintenance require tight regulation of endothelial cell adhesion dynamics. However, the mechanisms that control junctional plasticity are not fully understood. Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) is an adhesive protein found in adherens junctions of endothelial cells. VE-cadherin mediates adhesion through trans interactions formed by its extracellular domain. Trans binding is followed by cis interactions that laterally cluster the cadherin in junctions. VE-cadherin is linked to the actin cytoskeleton through cytoplasmic interactions with β- and α-catenin, which serve to increase adhesive strength. Furthermore, p120-catenin binds to the cytoplasmic tail of cadherin and stabilizes it at the plasma membrane. Here we report that induced cis dimerization of VE-cadherin inhibits endocytosis independent of both p120 binding and trans interactions. However, we find that ankyrin-G, a protein that links membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton, associates with VE-cadherin and inhibits its endocytosis. Ankyrin-G inhibits VE-cadherin endocytosis independent of p120 binding. We propose a model in which ankyrin-G associates with and inhibits the endocytosis of VE-cadherin cis dimers. Our findings support a novel mechanism for regulation of VE-cadherin endocytosis through ankyrin association with cadherin engaged in lateral interactions. PMID:26574545

  4. Stonin1 mediates endocytosis of the proteoglycan NG2 and regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Feutlinske, Fabian; Browarski, Marietta; Ku, Min-Chi; Trnka, Philipp; Waiczies, Sonia; Niendorf, Thoralf; Stallcup, William B.; Glass, Rainer; Krause, Eberhard; Maritzen, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Cellular functions, ranging from focal adhesion (FA) dynamics and cell motility to tumour growth, are orchestrated by signals cells receive from outside via cell surface receptors. Signalling is fine-tuned by the exo–endocytic cycling of these receptors to control cellular responses such as FA dynamics, which determine cell motility. How precisely endocytosis regulates turnover of the various cell surface receptors remains unclear. Here we identify Stonin1, an endocytic adaptor of unknown function, as a regulator of FA dynamics and cell motility, and demonstrate that it facilitates the internalization of the oncogenic proteoglycan NG2, a co-receptor of integrins and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Embryonic fibroblasts obtained from Stonin1-deficient mice display a marked surface accumulation of NG2, increased cellular signalling and defective FA disassembly as well as altered cellular motility. These data establish Stonin1 as a specific adaptor for the endocytosis of NG2 and as an important factor for FA dynamics and cell migration. PMID:26437238

  5. /sup 3/H)-(H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2) ((/sup 3/H)CTOP), a potent and highly selective peptide for mu opioid receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, K.N.; Knapp, R.J.; Lui, G.K.; Gulya, K.; Kazmierski, W.; Wan, Y.P.; Pelton, J.T.; Hruby, V.J.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1989-01-01

    The cyclic, conformationally restricted octapeptide (3H)-(H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2) ((3H)CTOP) was synthesized and its binding to mu opioid receptors was characterized in rat brain membrane preparations. Association rates (k+1) of 1.25 x 10(8) M-1 min-1 and 2.49 x 10(8) M-1 min-1 at 25 and 37 degrees C, respectively, were obtained, whereas dissociation rates (k-1) at the same temperatures were 1.93 x 10(-2) min-1 and 1.03 x 10(-1) min-1 at 25 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Saturation isotherms of (3H)CTOP binding to rat brain membranes gave apparent Kd values of 0.16 and 0.41 nM at 25 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Maximal number of binding sites in rat brain membranes were found to be 94 and 81 fmol/mg of protein at 25 and 37 degrees C, respectively. (3H)CTOP binding over a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 nM was best fit by a one site model consistent with binding to a single site. The general effect of different metal ions and guanyl-5'-yl-imidodiphosphate on (3H)CTOP binding was to reduce its affinity. High concentrations (100 mM) of sodium also produced a reduction of the apparent mu receptor density. Utilizing the delta opioid receptor specific peptide (3H)-(D-Pen2,D-Pen5)enkephalin, CTOP appeared to be about 2000-fold more specific for mu vs. delta opioid receptor than naloxone. Specific (3H)CTOP binding was inhibited by a large number of opioid or opiate ligands.

  6. Akt Links Insulin Signaling to Albumin Endocytosis in Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sam; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor; Erkan, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an epidemic, causing a significant decline in quality of life of individuals due to its multisystem involvement. Kidney is an important target organ in DM accounting for the majority of patients requiring renal replacement therapy at dialysis units. Microalbuminuria (MA) has been a valuable tool to predict end-organ damage in DM but its low sensitivity has driven research efforts to seek other alternatives. Albumin is taken up by albumin receptors, megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule epithelial cells. We demonstrated that insulin at physiological concentrations induce albumin endocytosis through activation of protein kinase B (Akt) in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Inhibition of Akt by a phosphorylation deficient construct abrogated insulin induced albumin endocytosis suggesting a role for Akt in insulin-induced albumin endocytosis. Furthermore we demonstrated a novel interaction between Akt substrate 160kDa (AS160) and cytoplasmic tail of megalin. Mice with type 1 DM (T1D) displayed decreased Akt, megalin, cubilin and AS160 expression in their kidneys in association with urinary cubilin shedding preceding significant MA. Patients with T1D who have developed MA in the EDC (The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications) study demonstrated urinary cubilin shedding prior to development of MA. We hypothesize that perturbed insulin-Akt cascade in DM leads to alterations in trafficking of megalin and cubilin, which results in urinary cubilin shedding as a prelude to MA in early diabetic nephropathy. We propose that utilization of urinary cubilin shedding, as a urinary biomarker, will allow us to detect and intervene in diabetic nephropathy (DN) at an earlier stage. PMID:26465605

  7. Akt Links Insulin Signaling to Albumin Endocytosis in Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Sam; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor; Erkan, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an epidemic, causing a significant decline in quality of life of individuals due to its multisystem involvement. Kidney is an important target organ in DM accounting for the majority of patients requiring renal replacement therapy at dialysis units. Microalbuminuria (MA) has been a valuable tool to predict end-organ damage in DM but its low sensitivity has driven research efforts to seek other alternatives. Albumin is taken up by albumin receptors, megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule epithelial cells. We demonstrated that insulin at physiological concentrations induce albumin endocytosis through activation of protein kinase B (Akt) in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Inhibition of Akt by a phosphorylation deficient construct abrogated insulin induced albumin endocytosis suggesting a role for Akt in insulin-induced albumin endocytosis. Furthermore we demonstrated a novel interaction between Akt substrate 160kDa (AS160) and cytoplasmic tail of megalin. Mice with type 1 DM (T1D) displayed decreased Akt, megalin, cubilin and AS160 expression in their kidneys in association with urinary cubilin shedding preceding significant MA. Patients with T1D who have developed MA in the EDC (The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications) study demonstrated urinary cubilin shedding prior to development of MA. We hypothesize that perturbed insulin-Akt cascade in DM leads to alterations in trafficking of megalin and cubilin, which results in urinary cubilin shedding as a prelude to MA in early diabetic nephropathy. We propose that utilization of urinary cubilin shedding, as a urinary biomarker, will allow us to detect and intervene in diabetic nephropathy (DN) at an earlier stage. PMID:26465605

  8. Localized endocytosis in tobacco pollen tubes: visualisation and dynamics of membrane retrieval by a fluorescent phospholipid.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, S; Scherer, G E F; Quader, H

    2008-01-01

    Two modes of endocytosis are known to occur in eucaryotic cells: fluid phase and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Fluid-phase endocytosis in plant cells resembles the retrieval of excess plasma membrane material previously incorporated by exocytosis. Pollen tubes need to carry out strong membrane retrieval due to their fast polar tip growth. Plasma membrane labelling of pollen tubes, grown in suspension, was achieved by the incorporation of a fluorescently modified phospholipid, 1,2-bis-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-undecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (20 microM) and measured with a confocal laser-scanning microscope. Time course experiments revealed a highly localised and relatively fast plasma membrane retrieval below the tip within the first 5 min after phospholipid application. The retrieved fluorescent plasma membrane was quickly re-integrated into parts of the endomembrane pool and then redistributed to the pollen tube base and very tip of the apex, with the exception of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria even after 1-h incubation period. Low temperature (10 degrees C) and the actin filament depolymerizing cytochalasin D (2 microM) completely abolished plasma membrane retrieval, whereas the microtubule destabilizing herbicide oryzalin (1 microM) had no effect. Our results provide strong support for a highly localised endocytotic pathway in tobacco pollen tubes. Passive uptake of bis-Bodipy FL C(11)-phosphocholine by mere penetration can be excluded. It is a valuable alternative to the styryl dyes often used in endocytotic studies, and may also be used to follow lipid turnover because membrane flow of labelled membranes occurs apparently not in a default manner as ascertained by its fast distribution. PMID:17786450

  9. Activity profiles of dalargin and its analogues in mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor selective bioassays.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, N; Pospisek, J; Hauzerova, L; Barth, T; Milanov, P

    1999-10-01

    1. To elucidate the structural features ensuring action of [D-Ala2, Leu5]-enkephalyl-Arg (dalargin), a series of dalargin analogues were tested for their effectiveness in depressing electrically-evoked contractions of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparations (mu- and kappa-opioid receptors) and the vasa deferentia of the hamster (delta-opioid receptors), mouse (mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors), rat (similar to mu-opioid receptors) and rabbit (kappa-opioid receptors). The naloxone KB values in the myenteric plexus were also obtained. 2. [L-Ala2]-dalargin was 19 times less potent than dalargin, and its pharmacological activity was peptidase-sensitive. The ratio of delta-activity to mu-activity for [L-Ala2]-dalargin was 6.78, and KB was 7.9 nM. This emphasizes the role that D-configuration of Ala2 plays in determining the active folding of dalargin molecule as well as in conferring resistance to peptidases. 3. [Met5]-dalargin was equipotent to dalargin in the myenteric plexus, but was more potent in the vasa deferentia of hamster and mouse (KB=5.5 nM). Leu5 and the interdependence of Leu5 and D-Ala2 are of importance for the selectivity of dalargin for mu-opioid receptors. 4. Dalarginamide was more potent and selective for mu-opioid receptors than dalargin, whilst dalarginethylamide, though equipotent to dalarginamide in the myenteric plexus, was more potent at delta-opioid receptors (KB=5.0 nM). [D-Phe4]-dalarginamide and N-Me-[D-Phe4]-dalarginamide were inactive indicating the contribution of L-configuration of Phe4 to the pharmacological potency of dalargin. 5. N-Me-[L-Phe4]-dalarginamide possessed the highest potency and selectivity for mu-opioid receptors (the ratio of delta-activity to mu-activity was 0.00053; KB=2.6 nM). The CONH2 terminus combined with the N-methylation of L-Phe4 increased the potency and selectivity of dalargin for mu-opioid receptors. PMID:10516634

  10. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Catherine M.; Taylor, Anna M. W.; Cook, Christopher; Ong, Edmund; Morón, Jose A.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:25452729

  11. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis: the gateway into plant cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Irani, Niloufer G; Friml, Jiří

    2011-12-01

    Endocytosis in plants has an essential role not only for basic cellular functions but also for growth and development, hormonal signaling and communication with the environment including nutrient delivery, toxin avoidance, and pathogen defense. The major endocytic mechanism in plants depends on the coat protein clathrin. It starts by clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, where specific cargoes are recognized and packaged for internalization. Recently, genetic, biochemical and advanced microscopy studies provided initial insights into mechanisms and roles of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in plants. Here we summarize the present state of knowledge and compare mechanisms of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in plants with animal and yeast paradigms as well as review plant-specific regulations and roles of this process. PMID:21945181

  12. Imaging the Dynamics of Endocytosis in Live Mammalian Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Weigert, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian cells, endocytosis plays a pivotal role in regulating several basic cellular functions. Up to now, the dynamics and the organization of the endocytic pathways have been primarily investigated in reductionist model systems such as cell and organ cultures. Although these experimental models have been fully successful in unraveling the endocytic machinery at a molecular level, our understanding of the regulation and the role of endocytosis in vivo has been limited. Recently, advancements in intravital microscopy have made it possible to extend imaging in live animals to subcellular structures, thus revealing new aspects of the molecular machineries regulating membrane trafficking that were not previously appreciated in vitro. Here, we focus on the use of intravital microscopy to study endocytosis in vivo, and discuss how this approach will allow addressing two fundamental questions: (1) how endocytic processes are organized in mammalian tissues, and (2) how they contribute to organ physiopathology. PMID:24691962

  13. Phosphoinositides, kinases and adaptors coordinating endocytosis in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Paul T; Field, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    In the kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei clathrin-mediated endocytosis is essential for survival and aids immune evasion in the mammalian host. The formation of endocytic clathrin coated vesicles in T. brucei is via a unique mechanism owing to an evolutionarily recent loss of the adaptor protein (AP)2 complex, a central hub in endocytic vesicle assembly. Despite this loss, recent studies examining endocytic clathrin coat assembly have highlighted a high degree of conservation between trypanosomes and their mammalian hosts. In particular phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and its putative effectors, TbCALM and TbEpsinR, are central to clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the trypanosome, just as they are in animal cells. In addition to providing insights into the cell biology of T. brucei, these studies also suggest an ancient, possibly pan-eukaryotic connection between PtdIns(4,5)P2 and endocytosis. PMID:27064836

  14. SUMOylation of Syntaxin1A regulates presynaptic endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Tim J.; Anderson, Dina; Evans, Ashley J.; Girach, Fatima; Henley, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminal is under very precise spatial and temporal control. Following neurotransmitter release, synaptic vesicles are recycled by endocytosis and refilled with neurotransmitter. During the exocytosis event leading to release, SNARE proteins provide most of the mechanical force for membrane fusion. Here, we show one of these proteins, Syntaxin1A, is SUMOylated near its C-terminal transmembrane domain in an activity-dependent manner. Preventing SUMOylation of Syntaxin1A reduces its interaction with other SNARE proteins and disrupts the balance of synaptic vesicle endo/exocytosis, resulting in an increase in endocytosis. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates the emerging role of Syntaxin1A in vesicle endocytosis, which in turn, modulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic function. PMID:26635000

  15. The endocytosis of cellulose synthase in Arabidopsis is dependent on μ2, a clathrin-mediated endocytosis adaptin.

    PubMed

    Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Anderson, Charles T; Lei, Lei; Gu, Ying

    2013-09-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the best-characterized type of endocytosis in eukaryotic cells. Plants appear to possess all of the molecular components necessary to carry out CME; however, functional characterization of the components is still in its infancy. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified μ2 as a putative interaction partner of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE6 (CESA6). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) μ2 is homologous to the medium subunit 2 of the mammalian ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX2 (AP2). In mammals, the AP2 complex acts as the central hub of CME by docking to the plasma membrane while concomitantly recruiting cargo proteins, clathrin triskelia, and accessory proteins to the sites of endocytosis. We confirmed that μ2 interacts with multiple CESA proteins through the μ-homology domain of μ2, which is involved in specific interactions with endocytic cargo proteins in mammals. Consistent with its role in mediating the endocytosis of cargos at the plasma membrane, μ2-YELLOW FLUORESCENT PROTEIN localized to transient foci at the plasma membrane, and loss of μ2 resulted in defects in bulk endocytosis. Furthermore, loss of μ2 led to increased accumulation of YELLOW FLUORESCENT PROTEIN-CESA6 particles at the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that CESA represents a new class of CME cargo proteins and that plant cells might regulate cellulose synthesis by controlling the abundance of active CESA complexes at the plasma membrane through CME. PMID:23843604

  16. (/sup 3/H)Ethylketocyclazocine binding to mouse brain membranes: evidence for a kappa opioid receptor type

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Lee, N.M.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of the putative kappa agonist ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) to synaptosomal membranes of mouse brain was studied. This benzomorphan was able to bind to different opioid receptors. A portion of this binding was not inhibited by the agonist naloxone, even at high concentrations (10 microM). This population of receptors, to which opioate alkaloids and opiod peptides display very low affinity, is probably the sigma receptor. Another class of binding sites was identified by the simultaneous addition of the selective agonists Sandoz FK-33824 and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin, which blocked the access of EKC to mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively, leaving a portion of naloxone-displaceable benzomorphan binding still detectable. Analysis of this remaining binding revealed a small population of receptors of high affinity, the kappa receptor. Therefore, EKC binds to the mu, delta, kappa and sigma receptors in the mouse brain, with similar affinities for the mu and kappa (0.22 and 0.15 nM). These results confirm the existence of a kappa opioid receptor type in the mouse brain.

  17. On the G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Heteromers and Their Allosteric Receptor-Receptor Interactions in the Central Nervous System: Focus on Their Role in Pain Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Rivera, Alicia; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Tarakanov, Alexander O.; Agnati, Luigi F.; Fuxe, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The modulatory role of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in the pain pathways of the Central Nervous System and the peripheral nociceptors has become of increasing interest. As integrators of nociceptive and antinociceptive wiring and volume transmission signals, with a major role for the opioid receptor heteromers, they likely have an important role in the pain circuits and may be involved in acupuncture. The delta opioid receptor (DOR) exerts an antagonistic allosteric influence on the mu opioid receptor (MOR) function in a MOR-DOR heteromer. This heteromer contributes to morphine-induced tolerance and dependence, since it becomes abundant and develops a reduced G-protein-coupling with reduced signaling mainly operating via β-arrestin2 upon chronic morphine treatment. A DOR antagonist causes a return of the Gi/o binding and coupling to the heteromer and the biological actions of morphine. The gender- and ovarian steroid-dependent recruitment of spinal cord MOR/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) heterodimers enhances antinociceptive functions and if impaired could contribute to chronic pain states in women. MOR1D heterodimerizes with gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in the spinal cord, mediating morphine induced itch. Other mechanism for the antinociceptive actions of acupuncture along meridians may be that it enhances the cross-desensitization of the TRPA1 (chemical nociceptor)-TRPV1 (capsaicin receptor) heteromeric channel complexes within the nociceptor terminals located along these meridians. Selective ionotropic cannabinoids may also produce cross-desensitization of the TRPA1-TRPV1 heteromeric nociceptor channels by being negative allosteric modulators of these channels leading to antinociception and antihyperalgesia. PMID:23956775

  18. An unmet actin requirement explains the mitotic inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Satdip; Fielding, Andrew B; Gassner, Gisela; Carter, Nicholas J; Royle, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major internalisation route for many different receptor types in mammalian cells. CME is shut down during early mitosis, but the mechanism of this inhibition is unclear. In this study, we show that the mitotic shutdown is due to an unmet requirement for actin in CME. In mitotic cells, membrane tension is increased and this invokes a requirement for the actin cytoskeleton to assist the CME machinery to overcome the increased load. However, the actin cytoskeleton is engaged in the formation of a rigid cortex in mitotic cells and is therefore unavailable for deployment. We demonstrate that CME can be ‘restarted’ in mitotic cells despite high membrane tension, by allowing actin to engage in endocytosis. Mitotic phosphorylation of endocytic proteins is maintained in mitotic cells with restored CME, indicating that direct phosphorylation of the CME machinery does not account for shutdown. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00829.001 PMID:24550251

  19. GD1b-Derived Gangliosides Modulate FcεRI Endocytosis in Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazucato, Vivian Marino; Silveira e Souza, Adriana Maria Mariano; Nicoletti, Liliana Martos; Jamur, Maria Célia; Oliver, Constance

    2011-01-01

    The role of the mast cell–specific gangliosides in the modulation of the endocytic pathway of FcεRI was investigated in RBL-2H3 cells and in the ganglioside-deficient cell lines, E5 and D1. MAb BC4, which binds to the α subunit of FcεRI, was used in the analysis of receptor internalization. After incubation with BC4-FITC for 30 min, endocytic vesicles in RBL-2H3 and E5 cells were dispersed in the cytoplasm. After 1 hr, the endocytic vesicles of the RBL-2H3 cells had fused and formed clusters, whereas in the E5 cells, the fusion was slower. In contrast, in D1 cells, the endocytic vesicles were smaller and remained close to the plasma membrane even after 3 hr of incubation. When incubated with BC4-FITC and subsequently imunolabeled for markers of various endocytic compartments, a defect in the endocytic pathway in the E5 and D1 cells became evident. In the D1 cells, this defect was observed at the initial steps of endocytosis. Therefore, the ganglioside derivatives from GD1b are important in the endocytosis of FcεRI in mast cells. Because gangliosides may play a role in mast cell–related disease processes, they provide an attractive target for drug therapy and diagnosis. PMID:21411813

  20. Synaptic vesicles are “primed” for fast clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the ribbon synapse

    PubMed Central

    Pelassa, Ilaria; Zhao, CongJian; Pasche, Mathias; Odermatt, Benjamin; Lagnado, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of synaptic vesicles can occur 1–10 s after fusion, but the role of clathrin during this process has been unclear because the classical mode of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is an order of magnitude slower, as during retrieval of surface receptors. Classical CME is thought to be rate-limited by the recruitment of clathrin, which raises the question: how is clathrin recruited during synaptic vesicle recycling? To investigate this question we applied total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to the synaptic terminal of retinal bipolar cells expressing fluorescent constructs of clathrin light-chain A. Upon calcium influx we observed a fast accumulation of clathrin within 100 ms at the periphery of the active zone. The subsequent loss of clathrin from these regions reflected endocytosis because the application of a potent clathrin inhibitor Pitstop2 dramatically slowed down this phase by ~3 fold. These results indicate that clathrin-dependent retrieval of synaptic vesicles is unusually fast, most probably because of a “priming” step involving a state of association of clathrin with the docked vesicle and with the endosomes and cisternae surrounding the ribbons. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that the majority of clathrin is moving with the same kinetics as synaptic vesicle proteins. Together, these results indicate that the fast endocytic mechanism operating to retrieve synaptic vesicles differs substantially from the classical mode of CME operating via formation of a coated pit. PMID:25520613

  1. Kinetics of cellular uptake of viruses and nanoparticles via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    Several viruses exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis to gain entry into host cells. This process is also used extensively in biomedical applications to deliver nanoparticles (NPs) to diseased cells. The internalization of these nano-objects is controlled by the assembly of a clathrin-containing protein coat on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, which drives the invagination of the membrane and the formation of a cargo-containing endocytic vesicle. Current theoretical models of receptor-mediated endocytosis of viruses and NPs do not explicitly take coat assembly into consideration. In this paper we study cellular uptake of viruses and NPs with a focus on coat assembly. We characterize the internalization process by the mean time between the binding of a particle to the membrane and its entry into the cell. Using a coarse-grained model which maps the stochastic dynamics of coat formation onto a one-dimensional random walk, we derive an analytical formula for this quantity. A study of the dependence of the mean internalization time on NP size shows that there is an upper bound above which this time becomes extremely large, and an optimal size at which it attains a minimum. Our estimates of these sizes compare well with experimental data. We also study the sensitivity of the obtained results on coat parameters to identify factors which significantly affect the internalization kinetics. PMID:26871680

  2. Selective integrin endocytosis is driven by interactions between the integrin α-chain and AP2.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Arjonen, Antti; Elkhatib, Nadia; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Wrobel, Antoni G; Wilson, Thomas A; Pouwels, Jeroen; Montagnac, Guillaume; Owen, David J; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion molecules comprising one of 18 possible α-chains and one of eight possible β-chains. They control a range of cell functions in a matrix- and ligand-specific manner. Integrins can be internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) through β subunit-based motifs found in all integrin heterodimers. However, whether specific integrin heterodimers can be selectively endocytosed was unknown. Here, we found that a subset of α subunits contain an evolutionarily conserved and functional YxxΦ motif directing integrins to selective internalization by the most abundant endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We determined the structure of the human integrin α4-tail motif in complex with the AP2 C-μ2 subunit and confirmed the interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry. Mutagenesis of the motif impaired selective heterodimer endocytosis and attenuated integrin-mediated cell migration. We propose that integrins evolved to enable selective integrin-receptor turnover in response to changing matrix conditions. PMID:26779610

  3. Kinetics of cellular uptake of viruses and nanoparticles via clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    Several viruses exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis to gain entry into host cells. This process is also used extensively in biomedical applications to deliver nanoparticles (NPs) to diseased cells. The internalization of these nano-objects is controlled by the assembly of a clathrin-containing protein coat on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, which drives the invagination of the membrane and the formation of a cargo-containing endocytic vesicle. Current theoretical models of receptor-mediated endocytosis of viruses and NPs do not explicitly take coat assembly into consideration. In this paper we study cellular uptake of viruses and NPs with a focus on coat assembly. We characterize the internalization process by the mean time between the binding of a particle to the membrane and its entry into the cell. Using a coarse-grained model which maps the stochastic dynamics of coat formation onto a one-dimensional random walk, we derive an analytical formula for this quantity. A study of the dependence of the mean internalization time on NP size shows that there is an upper bound above which this time becomes extremely large, and an optimal size at which it attains a minimum. Our estimates of these sizes compare well with experimental data. We also study the sensitivity of the obtained results on coat parameters to identify factors which significantly affect the internalization kinetics.

  4. Role of turgor pressure in endocytosis in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Roshni; Munteanu, Emilia Laura; Chang, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Yeast and other walled cells possess high internal turgor pressure that allows them to grow and survive in the environment. This turgor pressure, however, may oppose the invagination of the plasma membrane needed for endocytosis. Here we study the effects of turgor pressure on endocytosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by time-lapse imaging of individual endocytic sites. Decreasing effective turgor pressure by addition of sorbitol to the media significantly accelerates early steps in the endocytic process before actin assembly and membrane ingression but does not affect the velocity or depth of ingression of the endocytic pit in wild-type cells. Sorbitol also rescues endocytic ingression defects of certain endocytic mutants and of cells treated with a low dose of the actin inhibitor latrunculin A. Endocytosis proceeds after removal of the cell wall, suggesting that the cell wall does not contribute mechanically to this process. These studies suggest that endocytosis is governed by a mechanical balance between local actin-dependent inward forces and opposing forces from high internal turgor pressure on the plasma membrane. PMID:24403609

  5. Antimalarial quinolines and artemisinin inhibit endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Heinrich C; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Wiehart, Ursula I M; Meredith, Sandra A; Egan, Joanne; Weber, Brandon W

    2004-07-01

    Endocytosis is a fundamental process of eukaryotic cells and fulfills numerous functions, most notably, that of macromolecular nutrient uptake. Malaria parasites invade red blood cells and during their intracellular development endocytose large amounts of host cytoplasm for digestion in a specialized lysosomal compartment, the food vacuole. In the present study we have examined the effects of artemisinin and the quinoline drugs chloroquine and mefloquine on endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum. By using novel assays we found that mefloquine and artemisinin inhibit endocytosis of macromolecular tracers by up to 85%, while the latter drug also leads to an accumulation of undigested hemoglobin in the parasite. During 5-h incubations, chloroquine inhibited hemoglobin digestion but had no other significant effect on the endocytic pathway of the parasite, as assessed by electron microscopy, the immunofluorescence localization of hemoglobin, and the distribution of fluorescent and biotinylated dextran tracers. By contrast, when chloroquine was added to late ring stage parasites, followed by a 12-h incubation, macromolecule endocytosis was inhibited by more than 40%. Moreover, there is an accumulation of transport vesicles in the parasite cytosol, possibly due to a disruption in vacuole-vesicle fusion. This fusion block is not observed with mefloquine, artemisinin, quinine, or primaquine but is mimicked by the vacuole alkalinizing agents ammonium chloride and monensin. These results are discussed in the light of present theories regarding the mechanisms of action of the antimalarials and highlight the potential use of drugs in manipulating and studying the endocytic pathway of malaria parasites. PMID:15215083

  6. Bladder Uptake of Liposomes after Intravesical Administration Occurs by Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajaganapathy, Bharathi Raja; Chancellor, Michael B.; Nirmal, Jayabalan; Dang, Loan; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery. PMID:25811468

  7. Modulation of somatocardiac sympathetic reflexes mediated by opioid receptors at the spinal and brainstem level.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Sato, Y; Schmidt, R F

    1995-01-01

    Modulation of somatosympathetic reflexes at the spinal cord and the brainstem was studied by administering opioid receptor agonists into the intrathecal space of the lumbar spinal cord and into the subarachnoid space of the cisterna magna in rats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and urethane. Somatocardiac sympathetic A- and C-reflexes were elicited by electrical stimulation of myelinated (A) and unmyelinated (C) afferent fibers of the tibial nerve, respectively. Intrathecal administration of the mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO selectively depressed the C-reflex in a dose-dependent manner (minimum effective dose 10 ng), whereas the intrathecal injection of the delta-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE and the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-50,488H only at doses of 10 micrograms and 100 micrograms, respectively, led to a significant depression of the C-reflex. Injection of DAMGO into the cisterna magna enhanced both A- and C-reflexes in a dose-dependent manner (minimum effective dose 1 ng). The administration of neither DPDPE nor U-50,488H into the cisterna magna affected A- or C-reflexes. It is concluded that the activation of mu-opioid receptors is mainly or exclusively responsible for suppressing somatosympathetic C-reflexes at the spinal cord and for enhancing them at the brainstem. PMID:7589306

  8. A phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding site within mu2-adaptin regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Gundula; Wenzel, Dirk; Haucke, Volker

    2002-07-22

    The clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 serves to coordinate clathrin-coated pit assembly with the sorting of transmembrane cargo proteins at the plasmalemma. How precisely AP-2 assembly and cargo protein recognition at sites of endocytosis are regulated has remained unclear, but recent evidence implicates phosphoinositides, in particular phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2), in these processes. Here we have identified and functionally characterized a conserved binding site for PI(4,5)P2 within mu2-adaptin, the medium chain of the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2. Mutant mu2 lacking a cluster of conserved lysine residues fails to bind PI(4,5)P2 and to compete the recruitment of native clathrin/AP-2 to PI(4,5)P2-containing liposomes or to presynaptic membranes. Moreover, we show that expression of mutant mu2 inhibits receptor-mediated endocytosis in living cells. We suggest that PI(4,5)P2 binding to mu2-adaptin regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis and thereby may contribute to structurally linking cargo recognition to coat formation. PMID:12119359

  9. Spinal opioid receptors and adenosine release: neurochemical and behavioral characterization of opioid subtypes.

    PubMed

    Cahill, C M; White, T D; Sawynok, J

    1995-10-01

    Release of adenosine from the spinal cord contributes to spinal antinociception by morphine. Morphine induces a Ca(++)-dependent release of adenosine from dorsal spinal cord synaptosomes, which is augmented under partially depolarizing conditions. The present study examined the opioid receptor subtypes involved in this release, and determined whether adenosine is an important mediator of antinociception induced by the spinal administration of selective opioid agonists in rats. Nanomolar and micromolar concentrations of the selective mu opioid agonists DAMGO ([D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin) and PLO17 ([N-MePhe3,D-Pro4]morphiceptin) induced release of adenosine in a biphasic manner in the presence of a partial depolarization (addition of 6 mM K+ to the Krebs' medium). The delta opioid agonists DPDPE ([D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin) and DELT ([D-Ala2,Cys4]deltorphin) and the kappa opioid agonist U50488H (trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrroli-zemeacetamid e) had little effect on the release of adenosine except at high micromolar concentrations. Release of adenosine by mu (nanomolar) and delta (micromolar) ligands is Ca(++)-dependent, whereas the kappa (micromolar) receptor ligand releases adenosine via a Ca(++)-independent mechanism. Behavioral antinociception using the hot-plate threshold test revealed that intrathecal administration of the mu and delta opioid receptor agonists produced dose-dependent antinociception with an order of potency of DAMGO, PLO17 > morphine, DELT > DPDPE. An ED75 dose of morphine, DAMGO or PLO17 was attenuated dose-dependently by intrathecal pretreatment with the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine. Caffeine did not block the antinociceptive response to delta agonists, but in fact augmented antinociception when combined with DPDPE and DELT. This augmentation was dose-dependent. This study demonstrates that activation of the mu receptor subtype is responsible for the opioid-induced release of adenosine from the spinal cord, that such release contributes to the spinal antinociception by mu agonists and that only release evoked by low doses of opioids is behaviorally relevant. PMID:7562600

  10. A putative endosomal t-SNARE links exo- and endocytosis in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Bölker, Michael; Kahmann, Regine; Steinberg, Gero

    2000-01-01

    We identified a temperature-sensitive mutant of the plant pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis that is defective in the polar distribution of cell wall components and shows abnormal morphology. The affected gene, yup1, was cloned by complementation. It encodes a putative target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (t-SNARE), suggesting a function in membrane fusion. A Yup1–GFP fusion protein localized to vesicles that showed rapid saltatory motion along microtubules. These vesicles are part of the endocytic pathway and accumulate at sites of active growth, thereby supporting the expansion of the hyphal tip. In yup1ts cells, endocytosis is impaired and accumulation of Yup1-carrying endosomes at cell poles is abolished, resulting in apolar distribution of wall components and morphological alterations. This suggests that a membrane recycling process via early endosomes supports polar growth of U.maydis. PMID:10790364

  11. Intracellular trafficking and endocytosis of CXCR4 in fetal mesenchymal stem/stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) represent a developmentally-advantageous cell type with translational potential. To enhance adult MSC migration, studies have focussed on the role of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 (CXCL12), but more recent work implicates an intricate system of CXCR4 receptor dimerization, intracellular localization, multiple ligands, splice variants and nuclear accumulation. We investigated the intracellular localization of CXCR4 in fetal bone marrow-derived MSC and role of intracellular trafficking in CXCR4 surface expression and function. Results We found that up to 4% of human fetal MSC have detectable surface-localized CXCR4. In the majority of cells, CXCR4 is located not at the cell surface, as would be required for ‘sensing’ migratory cues, but intracellularly. CXCR4 was identified in early endosomes, recycling endosomes, and lysosomes, indicating only a small percentage of CXCR4 travelling to the plasma membrane. Notably CXCR4 was also found in and around the nucleus, as detected with an anti-CXCR4 antibody directed specifically against CXCR4 isoform 2 differing only in N-terminal sequence. After demonstrating that endocytosis of CXCR4 is largely independent of endogenously-produced SDF-1, we next applied the cytoskeletal inhibitors blebbistatin and dynasore to inhibit endocytotic recycling. These increased the number of cells expressing surface CXCR4 by 10 and 5 fold respectively, and enhanced the number of cells migrating to SDF1 in vitro (up to 2.6 fold). These molecules had a transient effect on cell morphology and adhesion, which abated after the removal of the inhibitors, and did not alter functional stem cell properties. Conclusions We conclude that constitutive endocytosis is implicated in the regulation of CXCR4 membrane expression, and suggest a novel pharmacological strategy to enhance migration of systemically-transplanted cells. PMID:24885150

  12. kappa-Opioid receptor in humans: cDNA and genomic cloning, chromosomal assignment, functional expression, pharmacology, and expression pattern in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, F; Gavriaux-Ruff, C; Befort, K; Matthes, H; Lannes, B; Micheletti, G; Matti, M G; Charron, G; Bloch, B; Kieffer, B

    1995-01-01

    Using the mouse delta-opioid receptor cDNA as a probe, we have isolated genomic clones encoding the human mu- and kappa-opioid receptor genes. Their organization appears similar to that of the human delta receptor gene, with exon-intron boundaries located after putative transmembrane domains 1 and 4. The kappa gene was mapped at position q11-12 in human chromosome 8. A full-length cDNA encoding the human kappa-opioid receptor has been isolated. The cloned receptor expressed in COS cells presents a typical kappa 1 pharmacological profile and is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase. The expression of kappa-opioid receptor mRNA in human brain, as estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, is consistent with the involvement of kappa-opioid receptors in pain perception, neuroendocrine physiology, affective behavior, and cognition. In situ hybridization studies performed on human fetal spinal cord demonstrate the presence of the transcript specifically in lamina II of the dorsal horn. Some divergences in structural, pharmacological, and anatomical properties are noted between the cloned human and rodent receptors. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624359

  13. Select G-protein-coupled receptors modulate agonist-induced signaling via a ROCK, LIMK, and β-arrestin 1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Nitish; Roberts, Kristofer; Pal, Katsuri; Bentolila, Laurent A; Fultz, Elissa; Minasyan, Ani; Cahill, Catherine; Pradhan, Amynah; Conner, David; DeFea, Kathryn; Evans, Christopher; Walwyn, Wendy

    2013-11-27

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are typically present in a basal, inactive state but, when bound to an agonist, activate downstream signaling cascades. In studying arrestin regulation of opioid receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, we find that agonists of delta opioid receptors (δORs) activate cofilin through Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK), LIM domain kinase (LIMK), and β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1) to regulate actin polymerization. This controls receptor function, as assessed by agonist-induced inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in DRGs. Agonists of opioid-receptor-like receptors (ORL1) similarly influence the function of this receptor through ROCK, LIMK, and β-arr1. Functional evidence of this cascade was demonstrated in vivo, where the behavioral effects of δOR or ORL1 agonists were enhanced in the absence of β-arr1 or prevented by inhibiting ROCK. This pathway allows δOR and ORL1 agonists to rapidly regulate receptor function. PMID:24239352

  14. Interleukin-1beta enhances endocytosis of glial glutamate transporters in the spinal dorsal horn through activating protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xisheng; Yadav, Ruchi; Gao, Mei; Weng, Han-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Excessive activation of glutamate receptors in spinal dorsal horn neurons is a key mechanism leading to abnormal neuronal activation in pathological pain conditions. Previous studies have shown that activation of glutamate receptors in the spinal dorsal horn is enhanced by impaired glial glutamate transporter functions and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). In this study, we for the first time revealed that spinal glial glutamate transporter activities in the neuropathic animals are attenuated by endogenous IL-1β. Specifically, we demonstrated that nerve injury results in an increased expression of IL-1β and activation of PKC in the spinal dorsal horn as well as suppression of glial glutamate uptake activities. We provided evidence that the nerve-injury induced suppression of glial glutamate uptake is at least in part ascribed to endogenous IL-1β and activation of PKC in the spinal dorsal horn. IL-1β reduces glial glutamate transporter activities through enhancing the endocytosis of both GLT-1 and GLAST glial glutamate transporters. The IL-1β induced trafficking of glial glutamate transporters is through the calcium/PKC signaling pathway, and the dynamin-dependent endocytosis, which is dependent on the integrity of actin filaments. The signaling pathway regulating glial glutamate transporters revealed in this study provides novel targets to attenuate aberrant activation of glutamate receptors in the spinal dorsal horn, which could ultimately help the development of analgesics. PMID:24677092

  15. Methods to study endocytic trafficking of the EGF receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla-Macua, Itziar; Sorkin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Endocytosis and postendocytic sorting of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) are the major regulators of EGFR signaling. EGFR endocytosis and ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal targeting are also considered to be the prototypic experimental system for studying the molecular mechanisms of stimulus-induced and constitutive endocytic trafficking. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanisms of EGFR endocytosis and its regulation of the signaling network is essential not only for better understanding of the EGFR biology but also for defining general regulatory principles in the endocytosis system. Comprehensive analysis of these mechanisms requires quantitative and physiologically relevant methodological approaches for measuring the rates of EGFR internalization, degradation, and recycling. Basic experimental protocols described in this chapter cover a combination of single-cell microscopy and biochemical methods that are used to follow EGF-induced endocytosis of EGFR in real time, measure the kinetic rate parameters of EGFR internalization and recycling, and analyze EGF-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of EGFR. PMID:26360045

  16. Opioid receptor selectivity profile change via isosterism for 14-O-substituted naltrexone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Elbegdorj, Orgil; Yuan, Yunyun; Beletskaya, Irina O; Selley, Dana E

    2013-07-01

    Isosterism is commonly used in drug discovery and development to address stability, selectivity, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy issues. A series of 14-O-substituted naltrexone derivatives were identified as potent mu opioid receptor (MOR) antagonists with improved selectivity over the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR), compared to naltrexone. Since esters are not metabolically very stable under typical physiological conditions, their corresponding amide analogs were thus synthesized and biologically evaluated. Unlike their isosteres, most of these novel ligands seem to be dually selective for the MOR and the KOR over the DOR. The restricted flexibility of the amide bond linkage might be responsible for their altered selectivity profile. However, the majority of the 14-N-substituted naltrexone derivatives produced marginal or no MOR stimulation in the (35)S-GTP[γS] assay, which resembled their ester analogs. The current study thus indicated that the 14-substituted naltrexone isosteres are not bioisosteres since they have distinctive pharmacological profile with the regard to their opioid receptor binding affinity and selectivity. PMID:23721804

  17. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-01-01

    It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms. PMID:25114214

  18. Architectural remodeling of the tonoplast during fluid-phase endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2013-07-01

    During fluid phase endocytosis (FPE) in plant storage cells, the vacuole receives a considerable amount of membrane and fluid contents. If allowed to accumulate over a period of time, the enlarging tonoplast and increase in fluids would invariably disrupt the structural equilibrium of the mature cells. Therefore, a membrane retrieval process must exist that will guarantee membrane homeostasis in light of tonoplast expansion by membrane addition during FPE. We examined the morphological changes to the vacuolar structure during endocytosis in red beet hypocotyl tissue using scanning laser confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The heavily pigmented storage vacuole allowed us to visualize all architectural transformations during treatment. When red beet tissue was incubated in 200 mM sucrose, a portion of the sucrose accumulated entered the cell by means of FPE. The accumulation process was accompanied by the development of vacuole-derived vesicles which transiently counterbalanced the addition of surplus endocytic membrane during rapid rates of endocytosis. Topographic fluorescent confocal micrographs showed an ensuing reduction in the size of the vacuole-derived vesicles and further suggest their reincorporation into the vacuole to maintain vacuolar unity and solute concentration. PMID:23656870

  19. Metallofullerene nanoparticles circumvent tumor resistance to cisplatin by reactivating endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xing-Jie; Meng, Huan; Wang, Yingze; He, Haiyong; Meng, Jie; Lu, Juan; Wang, Paul C.; Zhao, Yuliang; Gao, Xueyun; Sun, Baoyun; Chen, Chunying; Xing, Genmei; Shen, Dingwu; Gottesman, Michael M.; Wu, Yan; Yin, Jun-jie; Jia, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic drug commonly used in clinics. However, acquired resistance confines its application in chemotherapeutics. To overcome the acquired resistance to cisplatin, it is reasoned, based on our previous findings of mediation of cellular responses by [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles, that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n may reverse tumor resistance to cisplatin by reactivating the impaired endocytosis of cisplatin-resistant human prostate cancer (CP-r) cells. Here we report that exposure of the CP-r PC-3-luc cells to cisplatin in the presence of nontoxic [Gd@C82(OH)22]n not only decreased the number of surviving CP-r cells but also inhibited growth of the CP-r tumors in athymic nude mice as measured by both optical and MRI. Labeling the CP-r PC-3 cells with transferrin, an endocytotic marker, demonstrated that pretreatment of the CP-r PC-3-luc cells with [Gd@C82(OH)22]n enhanced intracellular accumulation of cisplatin and formation of cisplatin-DNA adducts by restoring the defective endocytosis of the CP-r cancer cells. The results suggest that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles overcome tumor resistance to cisplatin by increasing its intracellular accumulation through the mechanism of restoring defective endocytosis. The technology can be extended to other challenges related to multidrug resistance often found in cancer treatments. PMID:20368438

  20. Dynamin Inhibitors Impair Endocytosis and Mitogenic Signaling of PDGF

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Łukasz; Jastrzębski, Kamil; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Hellberg, Carina; Miaczynska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms regulate cell proliferation, migration and differentiation both in embryonic development and adult tissue remodeling. At the cellular level, growth-factor signaling is often modulated by endocytosis. Despite important functions of PDGF, its endocytosis remains poorly studied, mainly for lack of tools to track internalized ligand by microscopy. Here, we developed such a tool and quantitatively analyzed internalization and endosomal trafficking of PDGF-BB in human fibroblasts. We further show that PDGF can be internalized in the presence of dynamin inhibitors, arguing that both dynamin-dependent and dynamin-independent pathways can mediate PDGF uptake. Although these routes operate with somewhat different kinetics, they both ultimately lead to lysosomal degradation of PDGF. Although acute inhibition of dynamin activity only moderately affects PDGF endocytosis, it specifically decreases downstream signaling of PDGF via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). This correlates with reduced expression of MYC and impaired cell entry into S-phase, indicating that dynamin activity is required for PDGF-induced mitogenesis. Our data support a general view that the components governing endocytic trafficking may selectively regulate certain signaling effectors activated by a growth factor. PMID:23425318

  1. Translocation and Endocytosis for Cell-penetrating Peptide Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Chen-Yu; Delaroche, Diane; Burlina, Fabienne; Alves, Isabel D.; Chassaing, Gérard; Sagan, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) share the property of cellular internalization. The question of how these peptides reach the cytoplasm of cells is still widely debated. Herein, we have used a mass spectrometry-based method that enables quantification of internalized and membrane-bound peptides. Internalization of the most used CPP was studied at 37 °C (endocytosis and translocation) and 4 °C (translocation) in wild type and proteoglycan-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both translocation and endocytosis are internalization pathways used by CPP. The choice of one pathway versus the other depends on the peptide sequence (not the number of positive changes), the extracellular peptide concentration, and the membrane components. There is no relationship between the high affinity of these peptides for the cell membrane and their internalization efficacy. Translocation occurs at low extracellular peptide concentration, whereas endocytosis, a saturable and cooperative phenomenon, is activated at higher concentrations. Translocation operates in a narrow time window, which implies a specific lipid/peptide co-import in cells. PMID:19833724

  2. Signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Americo, Tatiana A.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Linden, Rafael . E-mail: rlinden@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-06-29

    The co-chaperone hop/STI-1 is a ligand of the cell surface prion protein (PrP{sup C}), and their interaction leads to signaling and biological effects. Among these, hop/STI-1 induces proliferation of A172 glioblastoma cells, dependent on both PrP{sup C} and activation of the Erk pathway. We tested whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis affects signaling induced by hop/STI-1. Both hyperosmolarity induced by sucrose and monodansyl-cadaverine blocked Erk activity induced by hop/STI-1, without affecting the high basal Akt activity typical of A172. The endocytosis inhibitors also affected the sub-cellular distribution of phosphorylated Erk, consistent with blockade of the latter's activity. The data indicate that signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis. These findings are consistent with a role of sub-cellular trafficking in signal transduction following engagement by PrP{sup C} by ligands such as hop/STI-1, and may help help unravel both the functions of the prion protein, as well as possible loss-of-function components of prion diseases.

  3. Tubular proteinuria in patients with HNF1α mutations: HNF1α drives endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Sara; Tanaka, Karo; Lengelé, Jean-Philippe; Olinger, Eric; Dubois-Laforgue, Danièle; Garbay, Serge; Kozyraki, Renata; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Christensen, Erik I; Courtoy, Pierre J; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Timsit, José; Pontoglio, Marco; Devuyst, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) is a transcription factor expressed in the liver, pancreas, and proximal tubule of the kidney. Mutations of HNF1α cause an autosomal dominant form of diabetes mellitus (MODY-HNF1A) and tubular dysfunction. To gain insights into the role of HNF1α in the proximal tubule, we analyzed Hnf1a-deficient mice. Compared with wild-type littermates, Hnf1a knockout mice showed low-molecular-weight proteinuria and a 70% decrease in the uptake of β2-microglobulin, indicating a major endocytic defect due to decreased expression of megalin/cubilin receptors. We identified several binding sites for HNF1α in promoters of Lrp2 and Cubn genes encoding megalin and cubilin, respectively. The functional interaction of HNF1α with these promoters was shown in C33 epithelial cells lacking endogenous HNF1α. Defective receptor-mediated endocytosis was confirmed in proximal tubule cells from these knockout mice and could be rescued by transfection of wild-type but not mutant HNF1α. Transfection of human proximal tubule HK2 cells with HNF1α was able to upregulate megalin and cubilin expression and to increase endocytosis of albumin. Low-molecular-weight proteinuria was consistently detected in individuals with HNF1A mutations compared with healthy controls and patients with non-MODY-HNF1A diabetes mellitus. Thus, HNF1α plays a key role in the constitutive expression of megalin and cubilin, hence regulating endocytosis in the proximal tubule of the kidney. These findings provide new insight into the renal phenotype of individuals with mutations of HNF1A. PMID:27083284

  4. Quantum dots induced interferon beta expression via TRIF-dependent signaling pathways by promoting endocytosis of TLR4.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Chi; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Pinpin

    2016-02-17

    Quantum dots (QDs) are nano-sized semiconductors. Previously, intratracheal instillation of QD705s induces persistent inflammation and remodeling in the mouse lung. Expression of interferon beta (IFN-β), involved in tissue remodeling, was induced in the mouse lung. The objective of this study was to understand the mechanism of QD705 induced interferon beta (IFN-β) expression. QD705-COOH and QD705-PEG increased IFN-β and IP-10 mRNA levels during day1 to 90 post-exposure in mouse lungs. QD705-COOH increased IFN-β expression via Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter protein (TRIF) dependent Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways in macrophages RAW264.7. Silencing TRIF expression with siRNA or co-treatment with a TRIF inhibitor tremendously abolished QD705s-induced IFN-β expression. Co-treatment with a TLR4 inhibitor completely prevented IFN-β induction by QD705-COOH. QD705-COOH readily entered cells, and co-treatment with either inhibitors of endocytosis or intracellular TLRs prevented IFN-β induction. Thus, activation of the TRIF dependent TLRs pathway by promoting endocytosis of TLR4 is one of the mechanisms for immunomodulatory effects of nanoparticles. PMID:26925925

  5. β-Arrestin-mediated Angiotensin II Signaling Controls the Activation of ARF6 Protein and Endocytosis in Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Charles, Ricardo; Namkung, Yoon; Cotton, Mathieu; Laporte, Stéphane A; Claing, Audrey

    2016-02-19

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasopressive hormone but is also a potent activator of cellular migration. We have previously shown that it can promote the activation of the GTPase ARF6 in a heterologous overexpressing system. The molecular mechanisms by which receptors control the activation of this small G protein remain, however, largely unknown. Furthermore, how ARF6 coordinates the activation of complex cellular responses needs to be further elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that Ang II receptors engage β-arrestin, but not Gq, to mediate ARF6 activation in HEK 293 cells. To further confirm the key role of β-arrestin proteins, we overexpressed β-arrestin2-(1-320), a dominant negative mutant known to block receptor endocytosis. We show that expression of this truncated construct does not support the activation of the GTPase nor cell migration. Interestingly, β-arrestin2 can interact with the ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO, although the C-terminally lacking mutant does not. We finally examined whether receptor endocytosis controlled ARF6 activation and cell migration. Although the clathrin inhibitor PitStop2 did not impact the ability of Ang II to activate ARF6, cell migration was markedly impaired. To further show that ARF activation regulates key signaling events leading to migration, we also examined MAPK activation. We demonstrate that this signaling axis is relevant in smooth muscle cells of the vasculature. Altogether, our findings show for the first time that Ang II receptor signaling to β-arrestin regulates ARF6 activation. These proteins together control receptor endocytosis and ultimately cell migration. PMID:26703465

  6. Fast, Temperature-Sensitive and Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis at Central Synapses.

    PubMed

    Delvendahl, Igor; Vyleta, Nicholas P; von Gersdorff, Henrique; Hallermann, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    The fusion of neurotransmitter-filled vesicles during synaptic transmission is balanced by endocytotic membrane retrieval. Despite extensive research, the speed and mechanisms of synaptic vesicle endocytosis have remained controversial. Here, we establish low-noise time-resolved membrane capacitance measurements that allow monitoring changes in surface membrane area elicited by single action potentials and stronger stimuli with high-temporal resolution at physiological temperature in individual bona-fide mature central synapses. We show that single action potentials trigger very rapid endocytosis, retrieving presynaptic membrane with a time constant of 470 ms. This fast endocytosis is independent of clathrin but mediated by dynamin and actin. In contrast, stronger stimuli evoke a slower mode of endocytosis that is clathrin, dynamin, and actin dependent. Furthermore, the speed of endocytosis is highly temperature dependent with a Q10 of ∼3.5. These results demonstrate that distinct molecular modes of endocytosis with markedly different kinetics operate at central synapses. PMID:27146271

  7. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination are necessary for Na,K-ATPase endocytosis during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Laura A.; Welch, Lynn C.; Zhou, Guofei; Ben-Saadon, Ronen; Ciechanover, Aaron; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2007-01-01

    As a cellular adaptative response, hypoxia decreases Na,K-ATPase activity by triggering the endocytosis of its α1 subunit in alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we present evidence that the ubiquitin conjugating system is important in the Na,K-ATPase endocytosis during hypoxia and ubiquitination of Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit occurs at the basolateral membrane. Endocytosis and ubiquitination were prevented when the Ser 18 in the PKC phosphorylation motif of the Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit was mutated to an alanine, suggesting that phosphorylation at Ser-18 is required for ubiquitination. Mutation of the four lysines surrounding Ser 18 to arginine prevented Na,K-ATPase ubiquitination and endocytosis during hypoxia; however, only one of them was sufficient to restore hypoxia-induced endocytosis. We provide evidence that ubiquitination plays an important role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia by regulating Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit endocytosis. PMID:17532187

  8. Regulation by intracellular Ca sup 2+ and cyclic AMP of the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Yoshihiko Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Medical Science ); Nishida, Eisuke; Sakai, Hikoichi ); Koyasu, Shigeo; Yahara, Ichiro )

    1989-04-01

    Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce formation of ruffling membranes and stimulate the fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. An increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration by treatment with A23187, a calcium ionophore, or an increase in intracellular cAMP level by treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin almost completely inhibited the insulin-, IGF-I-, or EGF-induced formation of ruffling membranes. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} or cAMP concentration also inhibited almost completely the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis elicited by these growth factors. These results suggest that the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis have a common regulatory mechanism involving intracellular concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP. {sup 125}I-EGF binding assays and immunoprecipitation experiments with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that treatment of KB cells with A23187, dibutyryl cAMP, or forskolin did not inhibit the EGF binding to the cells nor subsequent tyrosine autophosphorylation of its receptors. These results indicate that Ca{sup 2+}- and/or cAMP-sensitive intracellular reactions exist downstream from the receptor kinase activation in the process of these early cellular responses.

  9. An Unbiased Screen Identifies the DEP-1 Tumour Suppressor as a Phosphatase Controlling EGFR Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarcic, Gabi; Boguslavsky, Shlomit K.; Wakim, Jean; Kiuchi, Tai; Liu, Angela; Reinitz, Felicia; Nathanson, David; Takahashi, Takamune; Mischel, Paul S.; Ng, Tony; Yarden, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF-receptor (EGFR). This event precedes signalling from both the plasma membrane and from endosomes, and it is essential for recruitment of an ubiquitin ligase, CBL, that sorts activated receptors to endosomes and degradation. Because hyper-phosphorylation of EGFR is involved in oncogenic pathways, we performed an unbiased screen of siRNA oilgonucleotides targeting all human tyrosine phosphatases. Results We report the identification of PTPRK and PTPRJ (DEP-1) as EGFR-targeting phosphatases. DEP-1 is a tumour suppressor that dephosphorylates, thereby stabilizes EGFR by hampering its ability to associate with the CBL-GRB2 ubiquitin ligase complex. DEP-1 silencing enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of endosomal EGFRs and, accordingly, increased cell proliferation. In line with functional interactions, EGFR and DEP-1 form physical associations, and EGFR phosphorylates a substrtae trapping mutant of DEP-1. Interestingly, the interactions of DEP-1 and EGFR are followed by physical segregation: whereas EGFR undergoes endocytosis, DEP-1 remains confined to the cell surface. Conclusions EGFR and DEP-1 physically interact at the cell surface and maitain bidirectional enzyme-substrate interactions, which are relevant to their respective oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions. These observations highlight the emerging roles of vesicular trafficking in malignant processes. PMID:19836242

  10. SNX15 links clathrin endocytosis to the PtdIns3P early endosome independently of the APPL1 endosome

    PubMed Central

    Danson, Chris; Brown, Edward; Hemmings, Oliver J.; McGough, Ian J.; Yarwood, Sam; Heesom, Kate J.; Carlton, Jeremy G.; Martin-Serrano, Juan; May, Margaret T.; Verkade, Paul; Cullen, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sorting nexins (SNXs) are key regulators of the endosomal network. In designing an RNAi-mediated loss-of-function screen, we establish that of 30 human SNXs only SNX3, SNX5, SNX9, SNX15 and SNX21 appear to regulate EGF receptor degradative sorting. Suppression of SNX15 results in a delay in receptor degradation arising from a defect in movement of newly internalised EGF-receptor-labelled vesicles into early endosomes. Besides a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate- and PX-domain-dependent association to early endosomes, SNX15 also associates with clathrin-coated pits and clathrin-coated vesicles by direct binding to clathrin through a non-canonical clathrin-binding box. From live-cell imaging, it was identified that the activated EGF receptor enters distinct sub-populations of SNX15- and APPL1-labelled peripheral endocytic vesicles, which do not undergo heterotypic fusion. The SNX15-decorated receptor-containing sub-population does, however, undergo direct fusion with the Rab5-labelled early endosome. Our data are consistent with a model in which the EGF receptor enters the early endosome following clathrin-mediated endocytosis through at least two parallel pathways: maturation through an APPL1-intermediate compartment and an alternative more direct fusion between SNX15-decorated endocytic vesicles and the Rab5-positive early endosome. PMID:23986476

  11. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a key regulator of IFNAR1 endocytosis and a target for antiviral therapies

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Christopher J.; Zheng, Hui; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Lewis, John R.; Reiter, Alexander M.; Henthorn, Paula; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Baker, Darren P.; Ukkiramapandian, Radha; Bence, Kendra K.; Fuchs, Serge Y.

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 interferons (IFN1) elicit antiviral defenses by activating the cognate receptor composed of IFN-α/β receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1) and IFNAR2. Down-regulation of this receptor occurs through IFN1-stimulated IFNAR1 ubiquitination, which exposes a Y466-based linear endocytic motif within IFNAR1 to recruitment of the adaptin protein-2 complex (AP2) and ensuing receptor endocytosis. Paradoxically, IFN1-induced Janus kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Y466 is expected to decrease its affinity for AP2 and to inhibit the endocytic rate. To explain how IFN1 promotes Y466 phosphorylation yet stimulates IFNAR1 internalization, we proposed that the activity of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) is required to enable both events by dephosphorylating Y466. An RNAi-based screen identified PTP1B as a specific regulator of IFNAR1 endocytosis stimulated by IFN1, but not by ligand-independent inducers of IFNAR1 ubiquitination. PTP1B is a promising target for treatment of obesity and diabetes; numerous research programs are aimed at identification and characterization of clinically relevant inhibitors of PTP1B. PTP1B is capable of binding and dephosphorylating IFNAR1. Genetic or pharmacologic modulation of PTP1B activity regulated IFN1 signaling in a manner dependent on the integrity of Y466 within IFNAR1 in human cells. These effects were less evident in mouse cells whose IFNAR1 lacks an analogous motif. PTP1B inhibitors robustly augmented the antiviral effects of IFN1 against vesicular stomatitis and hepatitis C viruses in human cells and proved beneficial in feline stomatitis patients. The clinical significance of these findings in the context of using PTP1B inhibitors to increase the therapeutic efficacy of IFN against viral infections is discussed. PMID:23129613

  12. Essential Role for Endocytosis in the Growth Factor-stimulated Activation of ERK1/2 in Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Gourlaouen, Morgane; Welti, Jonathan C.; Vasudev, Naveen S.; Reynolds, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis by binding to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) on endothelial cells (ECs). Downstream activation of the extracellular related kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) is important for angiogenesis to proceed. Receptor internalization has been implicated in VEGFR2 signaling, but its role in the activation of ERK1/2 is unclear. To explore this question we utilized pitstop and dynasore, two small molecule inhibitors of endocytosis. First, we confirmed that both inhibitors block the internalization of VEGFR2 in ECs. We then stimulated ECs with VEGF in the presence and absence of the inhibitors and examined VEGFR2 signaling to ERK1/2. Activation of VEGFR2 and C-Raf still occurred in the presence of the inhibitors, whereas the activation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 was abrogated. Therefore, although internalization is not required for activation of either VEGFR2 or C-Raf in ECs stimulated with VEGF, internalization is necessary to activate the more distal kinases in the cascade. Importantly, inhibition of internalization also prevented activation of ERK1/2 when ECs were stimulated with other pro-angiogenic growth factors, namely fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor. In contrast, the same inhibitors did not block ERK1/2 activation in fibroblasts or cancer cells stimulated with growth factors. Finally, we show that these small molecule inhibitors of endocytosis block angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, receptor internalization may be a generic requirement for pro-angiogenic growth factors to activate ERK1/2 signaling in human ECs, and targeting receptor trafficking may present a therapeutic opportunity to block tumor angiogenesis. PMID:23341459

  13. TRIM72 modulates caveolar endocytosis in repair of lung cells.

    PubMed

    Nagre, Nagaraja; Wang, Shaohua; Kellett, Thomas; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Deng, Jing; Nishi, Miyuki; Shilo, Konstantin; Oeckler, Richard A; Yalowich, Jack C; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Christman, John; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell injury is a major feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, in particular when in conjunction with ventilation therapies. Previously we showed [Kim SC, Kellett T, Wang S, Nishi M, Nagre N, Zhou B, Flodby P, Shilo K, Ghadiali SN, Takeshima H, Hubmayr RD, Zhao X. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 307: L449-L459, 2014.] that tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) is essential for amending alveolar epithelial cell injury. Here, we posit that TRIM72 improves cellular integrity through its interaction with caveolin 1 (Cav1). Our data show that, in primary type I alveolar epithelial cells, lack of TRIM72 led to significant reduction of Cav1 at the plasma membrane, accompanied by marked attenuation of caveolar endocytosis. Meanwhile, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TRIM72 selectively increases caveolar endocytosis in rat lung epithelial cells, suggesting a functional association between these two. Further coimmunoprecipitation assays show that deletion of either functional domain of TRIM72, i.e., RING, B-box, coiled-coil, or PRY-SPRY, abolishes the physical interaction between TRIM72 and Cav1, suggesting that all theoretical domains of TRIM72 are required to forge a strong interaction between these two molecules. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that injurious ventilation-induced lung cell death was significantly increased in knockout (KO) TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) lungs compared with wild-type controls and was particularly pronounced in double KO mutants. Apoptosis was accompanied by accentuation of gross lung injury manifestations in the TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) mice. Our data show that TRIM72 directly and indirectly modulates caveolar endocytosis, an essential process involved in repair of lung epithelial cells through removal of plasma membrane wounds. Given TRIM72's role in endomembrane trafficking and cell repair, we consider this molecule an attractive therapeutic target for patients with injured lungs. PMID:26637632

  14. Transferrin Receptor Controls AMPA Receptor Trafficking Efficiency and Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Lei, Run; Li, Qiong; Wang, Xin-Xin; Wu, Qian; An, Peng; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhu, Minyan; Xu, Zhiheng; Hong, Yang; Wang, Fudi; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TFR) is an important iron transporter regulating iron homeostasis and has long been used as a marker for clathrin mediated endocytosis. However, little is known about its additional function other than iron transport in the development of central nervous system (CNS). Here we demonstrate that TFR functions as a regulator to control AMPA receptor trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. The conditional knockout (KO) of TFR in neural progenitor cells causes mice to develop progressive epileptic seizure, and dramatically reduces basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). We further demonstrate that TFR KO remarkably reduces the binding efficiency of GluR2 to AP2 and subsequently decreases AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling. Thus, our study reveals that TFR functions as a novel regulator to control AMPA trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26880306

  15. Transferrin Receptor Controls AMPA Receptor Trafficking Efficiency and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lei, Run; Li, Qiong; Wang, Xin-Xin; Wu, Qian; An, Peng; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhu, Minyan; Xu, Zhiheng; Hong, Yang; Wang, Fudi; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TFR) is an important iron transporter regulating iron homeostasis and has long been used as a marker for clathrin mediated endocytosis. However, little is known about its additional function other than iron transport in the development of central nervous system (CNS). Here we demonstrate that TFR functions as a regulator to control AMPA receptor trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. The conditional knockout (KO) of TFR in neural progenitor cells causes mice to develop progressive epileptic seizure, and dramatically reduces basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). We further demonstrate that TFR KO remarkably reduces the binding efficiency of GluR2 to AP2 and subsequently decreases AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling. Thus, our study reveals that TFR functions as a novel regulator to control AMPA trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26880306

  16. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in budding yeast at a glance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rebecca; Drubin, David G; Sun, Yidi

    2016-04-15

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is an essential cellular process that involves the concerted assembly and disassembly of many different proteins at the plasma membrane. In yeast, live-cell imaging has shown that the spatiotemporal dynamics of these proteins is highly stereotypical. Recent work has focused on determining how the timing and functions of endocytic proteins are regulated. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we review our current knowledge of the timeline of endocytic site maturation and discuss recent works focusing on how phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and lipids regulate various aspects of the process. PMID:27084361

  17. How to Take Autophagy and Endocytosis Up a Notch

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Julia M. I.; Köhler, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The interconnection of the endocytic and autophagosomal trafficking routes has been recognized more than two decades ago with both pathways using a set of identical effector proteins and sharing the same ultimate lysosomal destination. More recent data sheds light onto how other pathways are intertwined into this network, and how degradation via the endosomal/autophagosomal system may affect signaling pathways in multicellular organisms. Here, we briefly review the common features of autophagy and endocytosis and discuss how other players enter this mix with particular respect to the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:24860831

  18. Plasmolipin—a new player in endocytosis and epithelial development

    PubMed Central

    Le Guelte, Armelle; Macara, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Polarized vesicle sorting is essential not only for epithelial cell function but also for cell polarization and tissue morphogenesis. Endocytosis is a key determinant of the surface abundance of plasma membrane proteins and is highly regulated. In an important recent paper, Rodríguez-Fraticelli et al (4) identify a new player in apical endocytosis—a previously uncharacterized protein called Plasmolipin. They report not only its mechanism of action through binding to an epsin, but also highlight an essential role in regulating Notch signaling, which controls epithelial differentiation. PMID:25825384

  19. Nascent structure-activity relationship study of a diastereomeric series of kappa opioid receptor antagonists derived from CJ-15,208.

    PubMed

    Dolle, Roland E; Michaut, Mathieu; Martinez-Teipel, Blanca; Seida, Pamela R; Ajello, Christopher W; Muller, Alison L; DeHaven, Robert N; Carroll, Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Cyclic tetrapeptide c[Phe-pro-Phe-trp] 2, a diastereomer of CJ-15,208 (1), was identified as a potent dual kappa/mu opioid receptor antagonist devoid of delta opioid receptor affinity against cloned human receptors: K(i) (2)=3.8nM (kappa), 30nM (mu); IC(50) ([(35)S]GTPgammaS binding)=140nM (kappa), 21nM (mu). The d-tryptophan residue rendered 2 ca. eightfold and fourfold more potent at kappa and mu, respectively, than the corresponding l-configured tryptophan in the natural product 1. Phe analogs 3-10, designed to probe the effect of substituents on receptor affinity and selectivity, possessed K(i) values ranging from 14 to 220nM against the kappa opioid receptor with mu/kappa ratios of 0.45-3.0. An alanine scan of 2 yielded c[Ala-pro-Phe-trp] 12, an analog equipotent to 2. Agents 2 and 12 were pure antagonists in vitro devoid of agonist activity. Ac-pro-Phe-trp-Phe-NH(2)16 and Ac-Phe-trp-Phe-pro-NH(2)17 two of the eight possible acyclic peptides derived from 1 and 2, were selective, modestly potent mu ligands: K(i) (16)=340nM (mu); K(i) (17)=360nM (mu). PMID:19464172

  20. CLC-5 and KIF3B interact to facilitate CLC-5 plasma membrane expression, endocytosis, and microtubular transport: relevance to pathophysiology of Dent's disease

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Anita A. C.; Loh, Nellie Y.; Terryn, Sara; Lippiat, Jonathan D.; Partridge, Chris; Galvanovskis, Juris; Williams, Siân E.; Jouret, Francois; Wu, Fiona T. F.; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Nesbit, M. Andrew; Rorsman, Patrik; Devuyst, Olivier; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    Renal tubular reabsorption is important for extracellular fluid homeostasis and much of this occurs via the receptor-mediated endocytic pathway. This pathway is disrupted in Dent’s disease, an X-linked renal tubular disorder that is characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, and renal failure. Dent's disease is due to mutations of CLC-5, a chloride/proton antiporter, expressed in endosomes and apical membranes of renal tubules. Loss of CLC-5 function alters receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of megalin and cubilin, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that CLC-5 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B), a heterotrimeric motor protein that facilitates fast anterograde translocation of membranous organelles. Using yeast two-hybrid, glutathione-S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays, the COOH terminus of CLC-5 and the coiled-coil and globular domains of KIF3B were shown to interact. This was confirmed in vivo by endogenous coimmunoprecipitation of CLC-5 and KIF3B and codistribution with endosomal markers in mouse kidney fractions. Confocal live cell imaging in kidney cells further demonstrated association of CLC-5 and KIF3B, and transport of CLC-5-containing vesicles along KIF3B microtubules. KIF3B overexpression and underexpression, using siRNA, had reciprocal effects on whole cell chloride current amplitudes, CLC-5 cell surface expression, and endocytosis of albumin and transferrin. Clcn5Y/− mouse kidneys and isolated proximal tubular polarized cells showed increased KIF3B expression, whose effects on albumin endocytosis were dependent on CLC-5 expression. Thus, the CLC-5 and KIF3B interaction is important for CLC-5 plasma membrane expression and for facilitating endocytosis and microtubular transport in the kidney. PMID:19940036

  1. Inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cause defects in the postendocytic sorting of β2-adrenergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Hibah O.; Iyer, Varsha; Rosenfeld, Jennifer L.; Millman, Ellen E.; Foster, Estrella; Moore, Robert H.; Knoll, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors have been shown to affect the endocytosis or subsequent intracellular sorting in various receptor systems. Agonist-activated β2-adrenergic receptors undergo desensitization by mechanisms that include the phosphorylation, endocytosis and degradation of receptors. Following endocytosis, most internalized receptors are sorted to the cell surface, but some proportion is sorted to lysosomes for degradation. It is not known what governs the ratio of receptors that recycle versus receptors that undergo degradation. To determine if phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases regulate β2-adrenergic receptor trafficking, HEK293 cells stably expressing these receptors were treated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 or wortmannin. We then studied agonist-induced receptor endocytosis and postendocytic sorting, including recycling and degradation of the internalized receptors. Both inhibitors amplified the internalization of receptors after exposure to the β-agonist isoproterenol, which was attributable to the sorting of a significant fraction of receptors to an intracellular compartment from which receptor recycling did not occur. The initial rate of β2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis and the default rate of receptor recycling were not significantly altered. During prolonged exposure to agonist, LY294002 slowed the degradation rate of β2-adrenergic receptors and caused the accumulation of receptors within rab7-positive vesicles. These results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors (1) cause a misrouting of β2-adrenergic receptors into vesicles that are neither able to efficiently recycle to the surface nor sort to lysosomes, and (2) delays the movement of receptors from late endosomes to lysosomes. PMID:17553490

  2. Lysosomal Trafficking of TGFBIp via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-il; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Tae-im; Lee, Yangsin; Kim, Yong-Sun; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues and cell lines. Progressive accumulation of mutant TGFBIp is directly involved in the pathogenesis of TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. Recent studies reported that mutant TGFBIp accumulates in cells; however, the trafficking of TGFBIp is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated TGFBIp trafficking to determine the route of its internalization and secretion and to elucidate its roles in the pathogenesis of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Our data indicate that newly synthesized TGFBIp was secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent secretory pathway, and this secretion was delayed in the corneal fibroblasts of patients with GCD2. We also found that TGFBIp was internalized by caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and the internalized TGFBIp accumulated after treatment with bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of lysosomal degradation. In addition, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits the endocytosis of TGFBIp. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that TGFBIp interacted with integrin αVβ3. Moreover, treatment with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide suppressed the internalization of TGFBIp. These insights on TGFBIp trafficking could lead to the identification of novel targets and the development of new therapies for TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. PMID:25853243

  3. Tetraspanin CD151 Mediates Papillomavirus Type 16 Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Konstanze D.; Gawlitza, Alexander; Spoden, Gilles A.; Zhang, Xin A.; Lambert, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the primary etiologic agent for cervical cancer. The infectious entry of HPV16 into cells occurs via a so-far poorly characterized clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytic pathway, which involves tetraspanin proteins and actin. In this study, we investigated the specific role of the tetraspanin CD151 in the early steps of HPV16 infection. We show that surface-bound HPV16 moves together with CD151 within the plane of the membrane before they cointernalize into endosomes. Depletion of endogenous CD151 did not affect binding of viral particles to cells but resulted in reduction of HPV16 endocytosis. HPV16 uptake is dependent on the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of CD151 but does not require its tyrosine-based sorting motif. Reexpression of the wild-type CD151 but not mutants affecting integrin functions restored virus internalization in CD151-depleted cells. Accordingly, short interfering RNA (siRNA) gene knockdown experiments confirmed that CD151-associated integrins (i.e., ?3?1 and ?6?1/4) are involved in HPV16 infection. Furthermore, palmitoylation-deficient CD151 did not support HPV16 cell entry. These data show that complex formation of CD151 with laminin-binding integrins and integration of the complex into tetraspanin-enriched microdomains are critical for HPV16 endocytosis. PMID:23302890

  4. Uromodulin Upregulates TRPV5 by Impairing Caveolin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Matthias T.F.; Wu, Xue-Ru; Huang, Chou-Long

    2013-01-01

    Uromodulin (UMOD) is synthesized in the thick ascending limb and secreted into urine as the most abundant protein. Association studies in humans suggest protective effects of UMOD against calcium-containing kidney stones. Mice carrying mutations of Umod found in human uromodulin-associated kidney disease (UAKD) and Umod deficient mice exhibit hypercalciuria. The mechanism for UMOD regulation of urinary Ca2+ excretion is incompletely understood. We examined if UMOD regulates TRPV5 and TRPV6, channels critical for renal transcellular Ca2+ reabsorption. Coexpression with UMOD increased whole-cell TRPV5 current density in HEK293 cells. In biotinylation studies UMOD increased TRPV5 cell-surface abundance. Extracellular application of purified UMOD upregulated TRPV5 current density within physiological relevant concentration ranges. UMOD exerted a similar effect on TRPV6. TRPV5 undergoes constitutive caveolin-mediated endocytosis. UMOD had no effect on TRPV5 in a caveolin-1 deficient cell line. Expression of recombinant caveolin-1 in these cells restored the ability of UMOD to upregulate TRPV5. Secretion of UAKD-mutant UMOD was markedly reduced and coexpression of mutant UMOD with TRPV5 failed to increase its current. Immunofluorescent studies demonstrated lower TRPV5 expression in Umod−/− mice compared to wild-type. UMOD upregulates TRPV5 by acting from extracellular and by decreasing endocytosis of TRPV5. The stimulation of Ca2+ reabsorption via TRPV5 by UMOD may contribute to protection against kidney stone formation. PMID:23466996

  5. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao . E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-05-12

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

  6. Dysferlin is essential for endocytosis in the sea star oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Onorato, Thomas M.; Ramos, Isabela; Wessel, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Dysferlin is a calcium-binding transmembrane protein involved in membrane fusion and membrane repair. In humans, mutations in the dysferlin gene are associated with muscular dystrophy. In this study, we isolated plasma membrane-enriched fractions from full-grown immature oocytes of the sea star, and identified dysferlin by mass spectrometry analysis. The full-length dysferlin sequence is highly conserved between human and the sea star. We learned that in the sea star Patiria miniata, dysferlin RNA and protein are expressed from oogenesis to gastrulation. Interestingly, the protein is highly enriched in the plasma membrane of oocytes. Injection of a morpholino against dysferlin leads to a decrease of endocytosis in oocytes, and to a developmental arrest during gastrulation. These results suggest that dysferlin is critical for normal endocytosis during oogenesis and for embryogenesis in the sea star and that this animal may be a useful model for studying the relationship of dysferlin structure as it relates to its function. PMID:24368072

  7. Membrane Mechanics of Endocytosis in Cells with Turgor

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis is an essential process by which cells internalize a piece of plasma membrane and material from the outside. In cells with turgor, pressure opposes membrane deformations, and increases the amount of force that has to be generated by the endocytic machinery. To determine this force, and calculate the shape of the membrane, we used physical theory to model an elastic surface under pressure. Accurate fits of experimental profiles are obtained assuming that the coated membrane is highly rigid and preferentially curved at the endocytic site. The forces required from the actin machinery peaks at the onset of deformation, indicating that once invagination has been initiated, endocytosis is unlikely to stall before completion. Coat proteins do not lower the initiation force but may affect the process by the curvature they induce. In the presence of isotropic curvature inducers, pulling the tip of the invagination can trigger the formation of a neck at the base of the invagination. Hence direct neck constriction by actin may not be required, while its pulling role is essential. Finally, the theory shows that anisotropic curvature effectors stabilize membrane invaginations, and the loss of crescent-shaped BAR domain proteins such as Rvs167 could therefore trigger membrane scission. PMID:26517669

  8. Differential Use of the C-Type Lectins L-SIGN and DC-SIGN for Phlebovirus Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Léger, Psylvia; Tetard, Marilou; Youness, Berthe; Cordes, Nicole; Rouxel, Ronan N; Flamand, Marie; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2016-06-01

    Bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to humans and livestock globally. The receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely unidentified and poorly characterized. DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin highly expressed on dermal dendritic cells that has been found to act as an authentic entry receptor for many phleboviruses (Bunyaviridae), including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Toscana virus (TOSV) and Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). We found that these phleboviruses can exploit another C-type lectin, L-SIGN, for infection. L-SIGN shares 77% sequence homology with DC-SIGN and is expressed on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. L-SIGN is required for UUKV binding but not for virus internalization. An endocytosis-defective mutant of L-SIGN was still able to mediate virus uptake and infection, indicating that L-SIGN acts as an attachment receptor for phleboviruses rather than an endocytic receptor. Our results point out a fundamental difference in the use of the C-type lectins L-SIGN and DC-SIGN by UUKV to enter cells, although both proteins are closely related in terms of molecular structure and biological function. This study sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms by which phleboviruses target the liver and also highlights the added complexity in virus-receptor interactions beyond attachment. PMID:26990254

  9. Integrin α5β1 Function Is Regulated by XGIPC/kermit2 Mediated Endocytosis during Xenopus laevis Gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, Erin; Suckert, Catherine; Al-Attar, Hyder; Marsden, Mungo

    2010-01-01

    During Xenopus gastrulation α5β1 integrin function is modulated in a temporally and spatially restricted manner, however, the regulatory mechanisms behind this regulation remain uncharacterized. Here we report that XGIPC/kermit2 binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the α5 subunit and regulates the activity of α5β1 integrin. The interaction of kermit2 with α5β1 is essential for fibronectin (FN) matrix assembly during the early stages of gastrulation. We further demonstrate that kermit2 regulates α5β1 integrin endocytosis downstream of activin signaling. Inhibition of kermit2 function impairs cell migration but not adhesion to FN substrates indicating that integrin recycling is essential for mesoderm cell migration. Furthermore, we find that the α5β1 integrin is colocalized with kermit2 and Rab 21 in embryonic and XTC cells. These data support a model where region specific mesoderm induction acts through kermit2 to regulate the temporally and spatially restricted changes in adhesive properties of the α5β1 integrin through receptor endocytosis. PMID:20498857

  10. Notch Ligand Endocytosis Generates Mechanical Pulling Force Dependent on Dynamin, Epsins and Actin

    PubMed Central

    Meloty-Kapella, Laurence; Shergill, Bhupinder; Kuon, Jane; Botvinick, Elliot; Weinmaster, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Notch signaling induced by cell surface ligands is critical to development and maintenance of many eukaryotic organisms. Notch and its ligands are integral membrane proteins that facilitate direct cell-cell interactions to activate Notch proteolysis and release the intracellular domain that directs Notch-specific cellular responses. Genetic studies suggest Notch ligands require endocytosis, ubiquitylation and epsin endocytic adaptors to activate signaling, yet the exact role ligand endocytosis serves remains unresolved. Here we characterize a molecularly distinct mode of clathrin-mediated endocytosis requiring ligand ubiquitylation, epsins and actin for ligand cells to activate signaling in Notch cells. Using a cell-bead optical tweezers system, we obtained evidence for cell-mediated mechanical force dependent on this distinct mode of ligand endocytosis. We propose mechanical pulling force produced by endocytosis of Notch-bound ligand drives conformational changes in Notch that permit activating proteolysis. PMID:22658936

  11. The Secretion-coupled Endocytosis Correlates with Membrane Tension Changes in RBL 2H3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jianwu; Ting-Beall, H. Ping; Sheetz, Michael P.

    1997-01-01

    Stimulated secretion in endocrine cells and neuronal synapses causes a rise in endocytosis rates to recover the added membrane. The endocytic process involves the mechanical deformation of the membrane to produce an invagination. Studies of osmotic swelling effects on endocytosis indicate that the increased surface tension is tightly correlated to a significant decrease of endocytosis. When rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells are stimulated to secrete, there is a dramatic drop in the membrane tension and only small changes in membrane bending stiffness. Neither the shape change that normally accompanies secretion nor the binding of ligand without secretion causes a drop in tension. Further, tension decreases within 6 s, preceding shape change and measurable changes in endocytosis. After secretion stops, tension recovers. On the basis of these results we suggest that the physical parameter of membrane tension is a major regulator of endocytic rate in RBL cells. Low tensions would stimulate endocytosis and high tensions would stall the endocytic machinery. PMID:9234166

  12. Protein aggregation can inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chaperone competition

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Anan; Shibata, Yoko; Shah, Bijal; Calamini, Barbara; Lo, Donald C.; Morimoto, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    Protein conformational diseases exhibit complex pathologies linked to numerous molecular defects. Aggregation of a disease-associated protein causes the misfolding and aggregation of other proteins, but how this interferes with diverse cellular pathways is unclear. Here, we show that aggregation of neurodegenerative disease-related proteins (polyglutamine, huntingtin, ataxin-1, and superoxide dismutase-1) inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in mammalian cells by aggregate-driven sequestration of the major molecular chaperone heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), which is required to drive multiple steps of CME. CME suppression was also phenocopied by HSC70 RNAi depletion and could be restored by conditionally increasing HSC70 abundance. Aggregation caused dysregulated AMPA receptor internalization and also inhibited CME in primary neurons expressing mutant huntingtin, showing direct relevance of our findings to the pathology in neurodegenerative diseases. We propose that aggregate-associated chaperone competition leads to both gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes as chaperones become functionally depleted from multiple clients, leading to the decline of multiple cellular processes. The inherent properties of chaperones place them at risk, contributing to the complex pathologies of protein conformational diseases. PMID:24706768

  13. Evolutionary Changes on the Way to Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Dergai, Mykola; Iershov, Anton; Novokhatska, Olga; Pankivskyi, Serhii; Rynditch, Alla

    2016-01-01

    Endocytic pathways constitute an evolutionarily ancient system that significantly contributed to the eukaryotic cell architecture and to the diversity of cell type–specific functions and signaling cascades, in particular of metazoans. Here we used comparative proteomic studies to analyze the universal internalization route in eukaryotes, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), to address the issues of how this system evolved and what are its specific features. Among 35 proteins crucially required for animal CME, we identified a subset of 22 proteins common to major eukaryotic branches and 13 gradually acquired during evolution. Based on exploration of structure–function relationship between conserved homologs in sister, distantly related and early diverged branches, we identified novel features acquired during evolution of endocytic proteins on the way to animals: Elaborated way of cargo recruitment by multiple sorting proteins, structural changes in the core endocytic complex AP2, the emergence of the Fer/Cip4 homology domain-only protein/epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15/intersectin functional complex as an additional interaction hub and activator of AP2, as well as changes in late endocytic stages due to recruitment of dynamin/sorting nexin 9 complex and involvement of the actin polymerization machinery. The evolutionary reconstruction showed the basis of the CME process and its subsequent step-by-step development. Documented changes imply more precise regulation of the pathway, as well as CME specialization for the uptake of specific cargoes and cell type-specific functions. PMID:26872775

  14. GUCY2C lysosomotropic endocytosis delivers immunotoxin therapy to metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marszalowicz, Glen P.; Snook, Adam E.; Magee, Michael S.; Merlino, Dante; Lisa, D. Berman-Booty; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of targeted cancer therapy has been limited by the paucity of determinants which are tumor-specific and generally associated with disease, and have cell dynamics which effectively deploy cytotoxic payloads. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) may be ideal for targeting because it is normally expressed only in insulated barrier compartments, including intestine and brain, but over-expressed by systemic metastatic colorectal tumors. Here, we reveal that GUCY2C rapidly internalizes from the cell surface to lysosomes in intestinal and colorectal cancer cells. Endocytosis is independent of ligand binding and receptor activation, and is mediated by clathrin. This mechanism suggests a design for immunotoxins comprising a GUCY2C-directed monoclonal antibody conjugated through a reducible disulfide linkage to ricin A chain, which is activated to a potent cytotoxin in lysosomes. Indeed, this immunotoxin specifically killed GUCY2C-expressing colorectal cancer cells in a lysosomal- and clathrin-dependent fashion. Moreover, this immunotoxin reduced pulmonary tumors >80% (p<0.001), and improved survival 25% (p<0.001), in mice with established colorectal cancer metastases. Further, therapeutic efficacy was achieved without histologic evidence of toxicity in normal tissues. These observations support GUCY2C-targeted immunotoxins as novel therapeutics for metastatic tumors originating in the GI tract, including colorectum, stomach, esophagus, and pancreas. PMID:25294806

  15. Evolutionary Changes on the Way to Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Animals.

    PubMed

    Dergai, Mykola; Iershov, Anton; Novokhatska, Olga; Pankivskyi, Serhii; Rynditch, Alla

    2016-01-01

    Endocytic pathways constitute an evolutionarily ancient system that significantly contributed to the eukaryotic cell architecture and to the diversity of cell type-specific functions and signaling cascades, in particular of metazoans. Here we used comparative proteomic studies to analyze the universal internalization route in eukaryotes, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), to address the issues of how this system evolved and what are its specific features. Among 35 proteins crucially required for animal CME, we identified a subset of 22 proteins common to major eukaryotic branches and 13 gradually acquired during evolution. Based on exploration of structure-function relationship between conserved homologs in sister, distantly related and early diverged branches, we identified novel features acquired during evolution of endocytic proteins on the way to animals: Elaborated way of cargo recruitment by multiple sorting proteins, structural changes in the core endocytic complex AP2, the emergence of the Fer/Cip4 homology domain-only protein/epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15/intersectin functional complex as an additional interaction hub and activator of AP2, as well as changes in late endocytic stages due to recruitment of dynamin/sorting nexin 9 complex and involvement of the actin polymerization machinery. The evolutionary reconstruction showed the basis of the CME process and its subsequent step-by-step development. Documented changes imply more precise regulation of the pathway, as well as CME specialization for the uptake of specific cargoes and cell type-specific functions. PMID:26872775

  16. Endocytosis of simian virus 40 into the endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kartenbeck, J.; Stukenbrok, H.; Helenius, A. )

    1989-12-01

    The endocytosis of SV-40 into CV-1 cells we studied using biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. The half-time of binding of ({sup 35}S)methionine-radiolabeled SV-40 to CV-1 cells was 25 min. Most of the incoming virus particles remained undegraded for several hours. Electron microscopy showed that some virus entered the endosomal/lysosomal pathway via coated vesicles, while the majority were endocytosed via small uncoated vesicles. After infection at high multiplicity, one third of total cell-associated virus was observed to enter the ER, starting 1-2 h after virus application. The viruses were present in large, tubular, smooth membrane networks generated as extentions of the ER. The results describe a novel and unique membrane transport pathway that allows endocytosed viral particles to be targeted from the plasma membrane to the ER.

  17. Standardizing Scavenger Receptor Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    PrabhuDas, Mercy; Bowdish, Dawn; Drickamer, Kurt; Febbraio, Maria; Herz, Joachim; Kobzik, Lester; Krieger, Monty; Loike, John; Means, Terry K.; Moestrup, Soren K.; Post, Steven; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Silverstein, Samuel; Wang, Xiang-Yang; El Khoury, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptors constitute a large family of proteins that are structurally diverse and participate in a wide range of biological functions. These receptors are expressed predominantly by myeloid cells and recognize a variety of ligands, including endogenous and modified host-derived molecules and microbial pathogens. There are currently eight classes of scavenger receptors, many of which have multiple names, leading to inconsistencies and confusion in the literature. To address this problem, a workshop was organized by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition of scavenger receptors and a proposed scavenger receptor nomenclature. Scavenger receptors were defined as cell surface receptors that typically bind multiple ligands and promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. They often function by mechanisms that include endocytosis, phagocytosis, adhesion, and signaling that ultimately lead to the elimination of degraded or harmful substances. Based on this definition, nomenclature and classification of these receptors into 10 classes were proposed. The discussion and nomenclature recommendations described in this report only refer to mammalian scavenger receptors. The purpose of this article is to describe the proposed mammalian nomenclature and classification developed at the workshop and to solicit additional feedback from the broader research community. PMID:24563502

  18. Temperature effect on endocytosis and exocytosis by rabbit alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoda, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Lee, Y.C. )

    1989-09-15

    Endocytosis of 125I-mannose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and exocytosis of {sup 125}I-mannose-poly-D-lysine by rabbit alveolar macrophages were examined as a function of temperature. A plot for total ligand uptake (cell-associated ligand plus degraded ligand) versus time shows a single inflection point at 20{degrees}C. Ligand degradation does not occur below 20{degrees}C. Internalization of surface-bound {sup 125}I-mannose-BSA is negligible below 10{degrees}C. The rate constant for internalization increases dramatically above 20{degrees}C: 0.02 min-1 at 20{degrees}C, 0.05 min-1 at 25 degrees C, 0.13 min-1 at 30{degrees}C, and 0.29 min-1 at 35{degrees}C. {sup 125}I-Mannose-N-acetyl-poly-D-lysine preloaded in lysosomes is exocytosed in a temperature and time-dependent fashion. Even at lower temperatures (2-10{degrees}C), secretion of {sup 125}I-mannose-N-acetyl-poly-D-lysine was detected, indicating that movement of lysosomal content to plasma membrane and beyond cannot be suppressed at these temperatures. Thus, the temperature dependence of exocytosis of an {sup 125}I-labeled ligand is quite different from that of endocytosis, suggesting that the two processes are controlled by different mechanisms. Stimulation of secretion of preloaded {sup 125}I-mannose-N-acetyl-poly-D-lysine by mannose-BSA was more pronounced at lower temperatures with a sharp inflection point at 10{degrees}C. These findings suggest that endosomes containing newly internalized mannose-BSA interact with the exocytosis pathway and enhance secretion of {sup 125}I-mannose-N-acetyl-poly-D-lysine from lysosomes.

  19. Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Cell Entry Is Dependent on CD163 and Uses a Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis-Like Pathway

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, Adam; Robinson, Phillip J.; Haucke, Volker; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Bailey, Adam L.; Lauck, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes a severe and almost uniformly fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in Asian macaques but is thought to be nonpathogenic for humans. To date, the SHFV life cycle is almost completely uncharacterized on the molecular level. Here, we describe the first steps of the SHFV life cycle. Our experiments indicate that SHFV enters target cells by low-pH-dependent endocytosis. Dynamin inhibitors, chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, chloroquine, and concanamycin A dramatically reduced SHFV entry efficiency, whereas the macropinocytosis inhibitors EIPA, blebbistatin, and wortmannin and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors nystatin and filipin III had no effect. Furthermore, overexpression and knockout study and electron microscopy results indicate that SHFV entry occurs by a dynamin-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis-like pathway. Experiments utilizing latrunculin B, cytochalasin B, and cytochalasin D indicate that SHFV does not hijack the actin polymerization pathway. Treatment of target cells with proteases (proteinase K, papain, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin) abrogated entry, indicating that the SHFV cell surface receptor is a protein. Phospholipases A2 and D had no effect on SHFV entry. Finally, treatment of cells with antibodies targeting CD163, a cell surface molecule identified as an entry factor for the SHFV-related porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, diminished SHFV replication, identifying CD163 as an important SHFV entry component. IMPORTANCE Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes highly lethal disease in Asian macaques resembling human illness caused by Ebola or Lassa virus. However, little is known about SHFV's ecology and molecular biology and the mechanism by which it causes disease. The results of this study shed light on how SHFV enters its target cells. Using electron microscopy and inhibitors for various cellular pathways, we demonstrate that SHFV invades cells by low-pH-dependent, actin-independent endocytosis, likely with the help of a cellular surface protein. PMID:25355889

  20. Design, syntheses, and pharmacological characterization of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6α-(isoquinoline-3'-carboxamido)morphinan analogues as opioid receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yunyun; Zaidi, Saheem A; Stevens, David L; Scoggins, Krista L; Mosier, Philip D; Kellogg, Glen E; Dewey, William L; Selley, Dana E; Zhang, Yan

    2015-04-15

    A series of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6α-(isoquinoline-3'-carboxamido)morphinan (NAQ) analogues were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized to study their structure-activity relationship at the mu opioid receptor (MOR). The competition binding assay showed two-atom spacer and aromatic side chain were optimal for MOR selectivity. Meanwhile, substitutions at the 1'- and/or 4'-position of the isoquinoline ring retained or improved MOR selectivity over the kappa opioid receptor while still possessing above 20-fold MOR selectivity over the delta opioid receptor. In contrast, substitutions at the 6'- and/or 7'-position of the isoquinoline ring reduced MOR selectivity as well as MOR efficacy. Among this series of ligands, compound 11 acted as an antagonist when challenged with morphine in warm-water tail immersion assay and produced less significant withdrawal symptoms compared to naltrexone in morphine-pelleted mice. Compound 11 also antagonized the intracellular Ca(2+) increase induced by DAMGO. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of 11 in three opioid receptors indicated orientation of the 6'-nitro group varied significantly in the different 'address' domains of the receptors and played a crucial role in the observed binding affinities and selectivity. Collectively, the current findings provide valuable insights for future development of NAQ-based MOR selective ligands. PMID:25783191

  1. Design, Syntheses, and Pharmacological Characterization of 17-Cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6α-(isoquinoline-3′-carboxamido)morphinan Analogues as Opioid Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yunyun; Zaidi, Saheem A.; Stevens, David L.; Scoggins, Krista L.; Mosier, Philip D.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Dewey, William L.; Selley, Dana E.; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A series of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6α-(isoquinoline-3′-carboxamido)morphinan (NAQ) analogues were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized to study their structure-activity relationship at the mu opioid receptor (MOR). The competition binding assay showed two-atom spacer and aromatic side chain were optimal for MOR selectivity. Meanwhile, substitutions at the 1′- and/or 4′-position of the isoquinoline ring retained or improved MOR selectivity over the kappa opioid receptor while still possessing above 20-fold MOR selectivity over the delta opioid receptor. In contrast, substitutions at the 6′-and/or 7′-position of the isoquinoline ring reduced MOR selectivity as well as MOR efficacy. Among this series of ligands, compound 11 acted as an antagonist when challenged with morphine in warm-water tail immersion assay and produced less significant withdrawal symptoms compared to naltrexone in morphine-pelleted mice. Compound 11 also antagonized the intracellular Ca2+ increase induced by DAMGO. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of 11 in three opioid receptors indicated orientation of the 6’-nitro group varied significantly in the different “address” domains of the receptors and played a crucial role in the observed binding affinities and selectivity. Collectively, the current findings provide valuable insights for future development of NAQ-based MOR selective ligands. PMID:25783191

  2. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1

    PubMed Central

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M.; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion. PMID:24743596

  3. Down-regulation of insulin receptors is related to insulin internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, D.; Carpentier, J.L.; Gorden, P.; Orci, L. )

    1989-11-01

    In the present study, we have tested the influence of inhibition of endocytosis by hypertonic medium on the regulation of cell surface insulin receptors. We show that active internalization of {sup 125}I-insulin is markedly inhibited by hypertonic media and that, in parallel, cell surface invaginations are significantly diminished. These two events are accompanied by a marked inhibition of cell surface insulin receptor down-regulation. These data provide further strong evidence that receptor-mediated endocytosis is the major mechanism by which insulin receptors are regulated at the surface of target cells.

  4. Lack of dependence and rewarding effects of deltorphin II in mu-opioid receptor-deficient mice.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Hutcheson DM; Matthes HW; Valjent E; Sánchez-Blázquez P; Rodríguez-Díaz M; Garzón J; Kieffer BL; Maldonado R

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that the antinociceptive effects produced by the delta opioid-selective agonist deltorphin II are preserved in mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-deficient mice. We have now investigated rewarding effects and physical dependence produced by deltorphin II in these animals. Wild-type and MOR-deficient mice were implanted with a cannula into the third ventricle and deltorphin II was administered centrally. The rewarding effects induced by deltorphin II were then investigated using the place preference paradigm. Wild-type mice showed place preference for the compartment previously associated with deltorphin II and this effect was not observed in MOR-deficient mice. In a second experiment, mice received a chronic perfusion of deltorphin II over 6 days, via an Alzet minipump connected to the intraventricular cannula, and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Wild-type animals showed a moderate but significant incidence of several somatic signs of withdrawal. This withdrawal response was suppressed in MOR-deficient mice. Analysis of the immunoreactivity levels of PKC-alpha, PKC-beta (I and II) and PKC-gamma isozymes in the cerebral cortex of mice infused chronically with deltorphin II showed a significant up-regulation of all these isozymes in the soluble fraction in wild-type but not in MOR-deficient mice. In conclusion, mu-opioid receptors, which are not involved in deltorphin II antinociception, appear to mediate the effects of chronic deltorphin II on rewarding responses, physical dependence and adaptive changes to PKC.

  5. Multiple opioid receptors in endotoxic shock: evidence for delta involvement and mu-delta interactions in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    D'Amato, R; Holaday, J W

    1984-01-01

    The use of selective delta and mu opioid antagonists has provided evidence that delta opioid receptors within the brain mediate the endogenous opioid component of endotoxic shock hypotension. The selectivity of these delta and mu antagonists was demonstrated by their differing effects upon morphine analgesia and endotoxic hypotension. The mu antagonist beta-funaltrexamine, at doses that antagonized morphine analgesia, failed to alter shock, whereas the delta antagonist M 154,129: [N,N-bisallyl-Tyr-Gly-Gly-psi-(CH2S)-Phe-Leu-OH] (ICI) reversed shock at doses that failed to block morphine analgesia. Therefore, selective delta antagonists may have therapeutic value in reversing circulatory shock without altering the analgesic actions of endogenous or exogenous opioids. Additional data revealed that prior occupancy of mu binding sites by irreversible opioid antagonists may allosterically attenuate the actions of antagonists with selectivity for delta binding sites. For endogenous opioid systems, this observation provides an opportunity to link in vivo physiological responses with receptor-level biochemical interactions. PMID:6326151

  6. Rabconnectin-3a Regulates Vesicle Endocytosis and Canonical Wnt Signaling in Zebrafish Neural Crest Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Adam M.; Hoffman, Trevor L.; Schilling, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration requires dynamic regulation of cell–cell signaling and cell adhesion. Both of these processes involve endocytosis, lysosomal degradation, and recycling of ligand–receptor complexes and cell adhesion molecules from the plasma membrane. Neural crest (NC) cells in vertebrates are highly migratory cells, which undergo an epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) to leave the neural epithelium and migrate throughout the body to give rise to many different derivatives. Here we show that the v-ATPase interacting protein, Rabconnectin-3a (Rbc3a), controls intracellular trafficking events and Wnt signaling during NC migration. In zebrafish embryos deficient in Rbc3a, or its associated v-ATPase subunit Atp6v0a1, many NC cells fail to migrate and misregulate expression of cadherins. Surprisingly, endosomes in Rbc3a- and Atp6v0a1-deficient NC cells remain immature but still acidify. Rbc3a loss-of-function initially downregulates several canonical Wnt targets involved in EMT, but later Frizzled-7 accumulates at NC cell membranes, and nuclear B-catenin levels increase. Presumably due to this later Wnt signaling increase, Rbc3a-deficient NC cells that fail to migrate become pigment progenitors. We propose that Rbc3a and Atp6v0a1 promote endosomal maturation to coordinate Wnt signaling and intracellular trafficking of Wnt receptors and cadherins required for NC migration and cell fate determination. Our results suggest that different v-ATPases and associated proteins may play cell-type-specific functions in intracellular trafficking in many contexts. PMID:24802872

  7. Chronic Morphine Reduces Surface Expression of δ-Opioid Receptors in Subregions of Rostral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Leah, Paul M; Heath, Emily M L; Balleine, Bernard W; Christie, Macdonald J

    2016-03-01

    The delta opioid receptor (DOPr), whilst not the primary target of clinically used opioids, is involved in development of opioid tolerance and addiction. There is growing evidence that DOPr trafficking is involved in drug addiction, e.g., a range of studies have shown increased plasma membrane DOPr insertion during chronic treatment with opioids. The present study used a transgenic mouse model in which the C-terminal of the DOPr is tagged with enhanced-green fluorescence protein to examine the effects of chronic morphine treatment on surface membrane expression in striatal cholinergic interneurons that are implicated in motivated learning following both chronic morphine and morphine sensitization treatment schedules in male mice. A sex difference was noted throughout the anterior striatum, which was most prominent in the nucleus accumbens core region. Incontrast with previous studies in other neurons, chronic exposure to a high dose of morphine for 6 days had no effect, or slightly decreased (anterior dorsolateral striatum) surface DOPr expression. A morphine sensitization schedule produced similar results with a significant decrease in surface DOPr expression in nucleus accumbens shell. These results suggest that chronic morphine and morphine sensitisation treatment may have effects on instrumental reward-seeking behaviours and learning processes related to drug addiction, via effects on striatal DOPr function. PMID:26093651

  8. Binding characteristics of [3H]14-methoxymetopon, a high affinity mu-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Spetea, Mariana; Tóth, Fanni; Schütz, Johannes; Otvös, Ferenc; Tóth, Géza; Benyhe, Sandor; Borsodi, Anna; Schmidhammer, Helmut

    2003-07-01

    The highly potent micro -opioid receptor agonist 14-methoxymetopon (4,5alpha-epoxy-3-hydroxy-14beta-methoxy-5beta,17-dimethylmorphinan-6-one) was prepared in tritium labelled form by a catalytic dehalogenation method resulting in a specific radioactivity of 15.9 Ci/mmol. Opioid binding characteristics of [3H]14-methoxymetopon were determined using radioligand binding assay in rat brain membranes. [3H]14-Methoxymetopon specifically labelled a single class of opioid sites with affinity in low subnanomolar range (Ki = 0.43 nm) and maximal number of binding sites of 314 fmol/mg protein. Binding of [3H]14-methoxymetopon was inhibited by ligands selective for the micro -opioid receptor with high potency, while selective kappa-opioids and delta-opioids were weaker inhibitors. 14-Methoxymetopon increased guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding with an EC50 of 70.9 nm, thus, providing evidence for the agonist character of this ligand. The increase of [35S]GTPgammaS binding was inhibited by naloxone and selective micro -opioid antagonists, indicating a micro -opioid receptor-mediated action. [3H]14-Methoxymetopon is one of the few nonpeptide mu-opioid receptor agonists available in radiolabelled form up to now. Due to its high affinity and selectivity, high stability and extremely low nonspecific binding (<10%), this radioligand would be an important and useful tool in probing mu-opioid receptor mechanisms, as well as to promote a further understanding of the opioid system at the cellular and molecular level. PMID:12887410

  9. Endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membrane at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Miller, T M; Heuser, J E

    1984-02-01

    Frog nerve-muscle preparations were quick-frozen at various times after a single electrical stimulus in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), after which motor nerve terminals were visualized by freeze-fracture. Previous studies have shown that such stimulation causes prompt discharge of 3,000-6,000 synaptic vesicles from each nerve terminal and, as a result, adds a large amount of synaptic vesicle membrane to its plasmalemma. In the current experiments, we sought to visualize the endocytic retrieval of this vesicle membrane back into the terminal, during the interval between 1 s and 2 min after stimulation. Two distinct types of endocytosis were observed. The first appeared to be rapid and nonselective. Within the first few seconds after stimulation, relatively large vacuoles (approximately 0.1 micron) pinched off from the plasma membrane, both near to and far away from the active zones. Previous thin-section studies have shown that such vacuoles are not coated with clathrin at any stage during their formation. The second endocytic process was slower and appeared to be selective, because it internalized large intramembrane particles. This process was manifest first by the formation of relatively small (approximately 0.05 micron) indentations in the plasma membrane, which occurred everywhere except at the active zones. These indentations first appeared at 1 s, reached a peak abundance of 5.5/micron2 by 30 s after the stimulus, and disappeared almost completely by 90 s. Previous thin-section studies indicate that these indentations correspond to clathrin-coated pits. Their total abundance is comparable with the number of vesicles that were discharged initially. These endocytic structures could be classified into four intermediate forms, whose relative abundance over time suggests that, at this type of nerve terminal, endocytosis of coated vesicles has the following characteristics: (a) the single endocytotic event is short lived relative to the time scale of two minutes; (b) earlier forms last longer than later forms; and (c) a single event spends a smaller portion of its lifetime in the flat configuration soon after the stimulus than it does later on. PMID:6607255

  10. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-04-01

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly.We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experimental procedures and the results of the control experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01020a

  11. Sensing the delivery and endocytosis of nanoparticles using magneto-photo-acoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qu, M.; Mehrmohammadi, M.; Emelianov, S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedical applications necessitate a targeted intracellular delivery of the nanomaterial to specific cells. Therefore, a non-invasive and reliable imaging tool is required to detect both the delivery and cellular endocytosis of the nanoparticles. Herein, we demonstrate that magneto-photo-acoustic (MPA) imaging can be used to monitor the delivery and to identify endocytosis of magnetic and optically absorbing nanoparticles. The relationship between photoacoustic (PA) and magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) signals from the in vitro samples were analyzed to identify the delivery and endocytosis of nanoparticles. The results indicated that during the delivery of nanoparticles to the vicinity of the cells, both PA and MMUS signals are almost linearly proportional. However, accumulation of nanoparticles within the cells leads to nonlinear MMUS-PA relationship, due to non-linear MMUS signal amplification. Therefore, through longitudinal MPA imaging, it is possible to monitor the delivery of nanoparticles and identify the endocytosis of the nanoparticles by living cells. PMID:26640773

  12. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Perera-Lecoin, Manuel; Meertens, Laurent; Carnec, Xavier; Amara, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s) that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM). Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth. PMID:24381034

  13. Adaptor Protein Complex 2 (AP-2) Mediated, Clathrin Dependent Endocytosis, And Related Gene Activities, Are A Prominent Feature During Maturation Stage Amelogenesis

    PubMed Central

    LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.; BROOKES, Steven J.; WEN, Xin; JIMENEZ, Jaime M.; VIKMAN, Susanna; HU, Ping; WHITE, Shane N.; LYNGSTADAAS, S. Petter; OKAMOTO, Curtis T.; SMITH, Charles E.; PAINE, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular events defining enamel matrix removal during amelogenesis are poorly understood. Early reports have suggested that adaptor proteins (AP) participate in ameloblast-mediated endocytosis. Enamel formation involves the secretory and maturation stages, with an increase in resorptive function during the latter. Here, using real time PCR, we show that the expression of clathrin and adaptor protein subunits are up-regulated in maturation stage rodent enamel organ cells. AP-2 is the most up-regulated of the four distinct adaptor protein complexes. Immunolocalization confirms the presence of AP-2 and clathrin in ameloblasts with strongest reactivity at the apical pole. These data suggest that the resorptive functions of enamel cells involve AP-2 mediated, clathrin dependent endocytosis, thus implying the likelihood of a specific membrane-bound receptor(s) of enamel matrix protein debris. The mRNA expression of other endocytosis-related gene products is also up-regulated during maturation including: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp1), cluster of differentiation 63 and 68 (Cd63 and Cd68), ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit D2 (Atp6v0d2), ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V1 subunit B2 (Atp6v1b2), chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7 (Clcn7) and cathepsin K (Ctsk). Immunohistological data confirms the expression of a number of these proteins in maturation stage ameloblasts. The enamel of Cd63-null mice was also examined. Despite increased mRNA and protein expression in the enamel organ during maturation, the enamel of Cd63-null mice appeared normal. This may suggest inherent functional redundancies between Cd63 and related gene products, such as Lamp1 and Cd68. Ameloblast-like LS8 cells treated with the enamel matrix protein complex Emdogain® showed up-regulation of AP-2 and clathrin subunits, further supporting the existence of a membrane-bound receptor regulated pathway for the endocytosis of enamel matrix proteins. These data together define an endocytotic pathway likely used by ameloblasts to remove the enamel matrix during enamel maturation. PMID:23044750

  14. Quantification of endocytosis using a folate functionalized silica hollow nanoshell platform.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Sergio; Mendez, Natalie; Alfaro, Jesus G; Yang, Jian; Aschemeyer, Sharraya; Liberman, Alex; Trogler, William C; Kummel, Andrew C

    2015-08-01

    A quantification method to measure endocytosis was designed to assess cellular uptake and specificity of a targeting nanoparticle platform. A simple N -hydroxysuccinimide ester conjugation technique to functionalize 100-nm hollow silica nanoshell particles with fluorescent reporter fluorescein isothiocyanate and folate or polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed. Functionalized nanoshells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the maximum amount of folate functionalized on nanoshell surfaces was quantified with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The extent of endocytosis by HeLa cervical cancer cells and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF-1) cells was investigated in vitro using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. A simple fluorescence ratio analysis was developed to quantify endocytosis versus surface adhesion. Nanoshells functionalized with folate showed enhanced endocytosis by cancer cells when compared to PEG functionalized nanoshells. Fluorescence ratio analyses showed that 95% of folate functionalized silica nanoshells which adhered to cancer cells were endocytosed, while only 27% of PEG functionalized nanoshells adhered to the cell surface and underwent endocytosis when functionalized with 200 and 900  μg , respectively. Additionally, the endocytosis of folate functionalized nanoshells proved to be cancer cell selective while sparing normal cells. The developed fluorescence ratio analysis is a simple and rapid verification/validation method to quantify cellular uptake between datasets by using an internal control for normalization. PMID:26315280

  15. Genetic analysis of endocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans: coelomocyte uptake defective mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Fares, H; Greenwald, I

    2001-01-01

    The coelomocytes of Caenorhabditis elegans are scavenger cells that continuously and nonspecifically endocytose fluid from the pseudocoelom (body cavity). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) secreted into the pseudocoelom from body wall muscle cells is endocytosed and degraded by coelomocytes. We show that toxin-mediated ablation of coelomocytes results in viable animals that fail to endocytose pseudocoelomic GFP, indicating that endocytosis by coelomocytes is not essential for growth or survival of C. elegans under normal laboratory conditions. We examined known viable endocytosis mutants, and performed RNAi for other known endocytosis genes, for coelomocyte uptake defective (Cup) phenotypes. We also screened for new genes involved in endocytosis by isolating viable mutants with Cup defects; this screen identified 14 different genes, many with multiple alleles. A variety of Cup terminal phenotypes were observed, consistent with defects at various steps in the endocytic pathway. Available molecular information indicates that the Cup mutant screen has identified novel components of the endocytosis machinery that are conserved in mammals but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the only other organism for which large-scale genetic screens for endocytosis mutants have been performed. PMID:11560892

  16. Inhibitor of endocytosis impairs gene electrotransfer to mouse muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Markelc, Bostjan; Skvarca, Eva; Dolinsek, Tanja; Kloboves, Veronika Prevodnik; Coer, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor; Cemazar, Maja

    2015-06-01

    Application of electric pulses (electroporation/electropermeabilization) is an effective method for gene transfer (i.e. gene electrotransfer (GET)) in vitro and in vivo. Currently, the mechanisms by which the DNA enters the cell are not yet fully understood. Experimental evidence is building up that endocytosis is the main mechanism by which the DNA, which is later expressed, enters the cell. Therefore the aim of our study was to elucidate whether inhibitors of endocytosis, methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD), Concanavalin A (ConA) and Dynasore, can impair the transfection efficacy of GET in vitro in B16F1 murine melanoma and in vivo in m. tibialis cranialis in mice. We show that M?CD--general inhibitor of endocytosis--can almost prevent GET of EGFP-N1 plasmid in vitro, that ConA--inhibitor of clathrin mediated endocytosis--also abrogates GET but to a lesser extent, and when using Dynasore--reversible inhibitor of dynamin--there is no effect on GET efficacy, if endocytosis is blocked for only 5 min after GET. Moreover, M?CD also reduced GET efficacy in vivo in m. tibialis cranialis and this effect was long lasting. The results of this study show that endocytosis is probably the main mechanism of entrance of DNA after GET in vitro and also in vivo. PMID:25200990

  17. Coupling between endocytosis and sphingosine kinase I recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hongying; Giordano, Francesca; Wu, Yumei; Chan, Jason; Zhu, Chen; Milosevic, Ira; Wu, Xudong; Yao, Kai; Chen, Bo; Baumgart, Tobias; Sieburth, Derek; De Camilli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies have suggested a functional link between cholesterol/sphingolipid metabolism and endocytic membrane traffic. Here we show that perturbing the cholesterol/sphingomyelin balance in the plasma membrane results in the massive formation of clusters of narrow endocytic tubular invaginations positive for N-BAR proteins. These tubules are intensely positive for sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1). SPHK1 is also targeted to physiologically occurring early endocytic intermediates, and is highly enriched in nerve terminals, cellular compartments specialized for exo-endocytosis. Membrane recruitment of SPHK1 involves a direct, curvature-sensitive interaction with the lipid bilayer mediated by a hydrophobic patch on the enzyme’s surface. The knockdown of SPHKs results in endocytic recycling defects, and a mutation that disrupts the hydrophobic patch of C. elegans SPHK fails to rescue the neurotransmission defects in loss-of-function mutants of this enzyme. Our studies support a role of sphingosine phosphorylation in endocytic membrane trafficking beyond the established function of sphingosine-1-phosphate in intercellular signaling. PMID:24929359

  18. Interferon Gamma Receptor: The Beginning of the Journey

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Cédric M.; Lamaze, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Our view of endocytosis and membrane trafficking of transmembrane receptors has dramatically changed over the last 20 years. Several new endocytic routes have been discovered and mechanistically characterized in mammalian cells. Long considered as a passive means to terminate signaling through down-regulation of the number of activated receptors at the plasma membrane, it is now established that receptor endocytosis and endosomal sorting can be directly linked to the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways. The functional links between membrane trafficking of interferon receptors and JAK/STAT signaling have recently begun to be unraveled. These studies raise the exciting possibility that a certain level of signal specificity can be achieved through endocytosis and selective localization of the activated complexes within cellular membranes. The ongoing development of high-resolution cell imaging techniques with better spatial and temporal resolution gives new means of deciphering the inherent complexity of membrane trafficking and signaling. This should help to better comprehend the molecular mechanisms by which endocytosis and endosomal sorting of interferon receptors can orchestrate signaling selectivity within the JAK/STAT pathway that can be activated by as many as 60 different cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. PMID:24027571

  19. Synthetic Cell Surface Receptors for Delivery of Therapeutics and Probes

    PubMed Central

    Hymel, David; Peterson, Blake R.

    2012-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a highly efficient mechanism for cellular uptake of membrane-impermeant ligands. Cells use this process to acquire nutrients, initiate signal transduction, promote development, regulate neurotransmission, and maintain homeostasis. Natural receptors that participate in receptor-mediated endocytosis are structurally diverse, ranging from large transmembrane proteins to small glycolipids embedded in the outer leaflet of cellular plasma membranes. Despite their vast structural differences, these receptors share common features of binding to extracellular ligands, clustering in dynamic membrane regions that pinch off to yield intracellular vesicles, and accumulation of receptor-ligand complexes in membrane-sealed endosomes. Receptors typically dissociate from ligands in endosomes and cycle back to the cell surface, whereas internalized ligands are usually delivered into lysosomes, where they are degraded, but some can escape and penetrate into the cytosol. Here, we review efforts to develop synthetic cell surface receptors, defined as nonnatural compounds, exemplified by mimics of cholesterol, that insert into plasma membranes, bind extracellular ligands including therapeutics, probes, and endogenous proteins, and engage endocytic membrane trafficking pathways. By mimicking natural mechanisms of receptor-mediated endocytosis, synthetic cell surface receptors have the potential to function as prosthetic molecules capable of seamlessly augmenting the endocytic uptake machinery of living mammalian cells. PMID:22401875

  20. Als3 Is a Candida albicans Invasin That Binds to Cadherins and Induces Endocytosis by Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Quynh T; Myers, Carter L; Fu, Yue; Sheppard, Donald C; Yeaman, Michael R; Welch, William H; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Edwards, John E; Filler, Scott G

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of hematogenously disseminated and oropharyngeal candidiasis. Both of these diseases are characterized by fungal invasion of host cells. Previously, we have found that C. albicans hyphae invade endothelial cells and oral epithelial cells in vitro by inducing their own endocytosis. Therefore, we set out to identify the fungal surface protein and host cell receptors that mediate this process. We found that the C. albicans Als3 is required for the organism to be endocytosed by human umbilical vein endothelial cells and two different human oral epithelial lines. Affinity purification experiments with wild-type and an als3Δ/als3Δ mutant strain of C. albicans demonstrated that Als3 was required for C. albicans to bind to multiple host cell surface proteins, including N-cadherin on endothelial cells and E-cadherin on oral epithelial cells. Furthermore, latex beads coated with the recombinant N-terminal portion of Als3 were endocytosed by Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human N-cadherin or E-cadherin, whereas control beads coated with bovine serum albumin were not. Molecular modeling of the interactions of the N-terminal region of Als3 with the ectodomains of N-cadherin and E-cadherin indicated that the binding parameters of Als3 to either cadherin are similar to those of cadherin–cadherin binding. Therefore, Als3 is a fungal invasin that mimics host cell cadherins and induces endocytosis by binding to N-cadherin on endothelial cells and E-cadherin on oral epithelial cells. These results uncover the first known fungal invasin and provide evidence that C. albicans Als3 is a molecular mimic of human cadherins. PMID:17311474

  1. A High Precision Survey of the Molecular Dynamics of Mammalian Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marcus J.; Perrais, David; Merrifield, Christien J.

    2011-01-01

    Dual colour total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for decoding the molecular dynamics of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Typically, the recruitment of a fluorescent protein–tagged endocytic protein was referenced to the disappearance of spot-like clathrin-coated structure (CCS), but the precision of spot-like CCS disappearance as a marker for canonical CME remained unknown. Here we have used an imaging assay based on total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to detect scission events with a resolution of ∼2 s. We found that scission events engulfed comparable amounts of transferrin receptor cargo at CCSs of different sizes and CCS did not always disappear following scission. We measured the recruitment dynamics of 34 types of endocytic protein to scission events: Abp1, ACK1, amphiphysin1, APPL1, Arp3, BIN1, CALM, CIP4, clathrin light chain (Clc), cofilin, coronin1B, cortactin, dynamin1/2, endophilin2, Eps15, Eps8, epsin2, FBP17, FCHo1/2, GAK, Hip1R, lifeAct, mu2 subunit of the AP2 complex, myosin1E, myosin6, NECAP, N-WASP, OCRL1, Rab5, SNX9, synaptojanin2β1, and syndapin2. For each protein we aligned ∼1,000 recruitment profiles to their respective scission events and constructed characteristic “recruitment signatures” that were grouped, as for yeast, to reveal the modular organization of mammalian CME. A detailed analysis revealed the unanticipated recruitment dynamics of SNX9, FBP17, and CIP4 and showed that the same set of proteins was recruited, in the same order, to scission events at CCSs of different sizes and lifetimes. Collectively these data reveal the fine-grained temporal structure of CME and suggest a simplified canonical model of mammalian CME in which the same core mechanism of CME, involving actin, operates at CCSs of diverse sizes and lifetimes. PMID:21445324

  2. Cytoskeletal scaffolds regulate riboflavin endocytosis and recycling in placental trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Vanessa M; Bareford, Lisa M; Ray, Abhijit; Swaan, Peter W

    2006-12-01

    Microfilaments and microtubules (MT) play a vital role in cellular endocytic processes. The present study evaluates the role of these cytoskeletal elements in the apical internalization and postendocytic fate of riboflavin (RF) in placental trophoblasts (BeWo cells). Biochemical modification of the actin and microtubule network by (1) okadaic acid (OA), which disrupts MT-based vesicular trafficking; (2) cytochalasin D and latrunculin B, which promote actin depolymerization; and (3) 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), which inhibits myosin-actin interaction, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using actin- and tubulin-specific antibodies. Furthermore, involvement of the molecular motors dynein and kinesin was assessed in the presence of (1) sodium orthovanadate, which inhibits dynein-ATPase activity and (2) adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate tetralithium salt hydrate, a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, which results in defective kinesin-driven processes. RF internalization consequent to cytoskeletal alterations was compared with that of a clathrin-dependent endocytic marker ([125I]-transferrin [TF]), a caveolae-mediated endocytic substrate ([3H]-folic acid [FA]), and a fluid-phase endocytic marker ([125I]-horse radish peroxidase [HRP]). Apical recycling and bidirectional transport of RF and TF was measured following cytoskeletal alterations. Results indicate that uptake of RF, TF, FA and HRP are markedly reduced (approximately 30-65%) in the presence OA and BDM, suggesting differential sensitivities to modification of kinesin-driven microtubules. However, actin depolymerization negatively affected HRP endocytosis alone, while RF, FA and TF internalization remained unchanged. Disturbances in protein phosphorylation cascades also influenced apical recycling while net ligand transport across monolayers remained unaffected. In conclusion, apical RF trafficking in placental cells is tightly regulated by microtubules and supported by accessory actin involvement. PMID:16563724

  3. Recruitment of endocytosis in sonopermeabilization-mediated drug delivery: a real-time study.

    PubMed

    Derieppe, Marc; Rojek, Katarzyna; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Moonen, Chrit; Bos, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    Microbubbles (MBs) in combination with ultrasound (US) can enhance cell membrane permeability, and have the potential to facilitate the cellular uptake of hydrophilic molecules. However, the exact mechanism behind US- and MB-mediated intracellular delivery still remains to be fully understood. Among the proposed mechanisms are formation of transient pores and endocytosis stimulation. In our study, we investigated whether endocytosis is involved in US- and MB-mediated delivery of small molecules. Dynamic fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the effects of endocytosis inhibitors on the pharmacokinetic parameters of US- and MB-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green, a 600 Da hydrophilic model drug. C6 rat glioma cells, together with SonoVue(®) MBs, were exposed to 1.4 MHz US waves at 0.2 MPa peak-negative pressure. Collection of the signal intensity in each individual nucleus was monitored during and after US exposure by a fibered confocal fluorescence microscope designed for real-time imaging. Exposed to US waves, C6 cells pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, showed up to a 2.5-fold significant increase of the uptake time constant, and a 1.1-fold increase with genistein, an inhibitor of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Both inhibitors slowed down the US-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green. With C6 cells and our experimental settings, these quantitative data indicate that endocytosis plays a role in sonopermeabilization-mediated delivery of small molecules with a more predominant contribution of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PMID:26118644

  4. Recruitment of endocytosis in sonopermeabilization-mediated drug delivery: a real-time study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derieppe, Marc; Rojek, Katarzyna; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Moonen, Chrit; Bos, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    Microbubbles (MBs) in combination with ultrasound (US) can enhance cell membrane permeability, and have the potential to facilitate the cellular uptake of hydrophilic molecules. However, the exact mechanism behind US- and MB-mediated intracellular delivery still remains to be fully understood. Among the proposed mechanisms are formation of transient pores and endocytosis stimulation. In our study, we investigated whether endocytosis is involved in US- and MB-mediated delivery of small molecules. Dynamic fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the effects of endocytosis inhibitors on the pharmacokinetic parameters of US- and MB-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green, a 600 Da hydrophilic model drug. C6 rat glioma cells, together with SonoVue® MBs, were exposed to 1.4 MHz US waves at 0.2 MPa peak-negative pressure. Collection of the signal intensity in each individual nucleus was monitored during and after US exposure by a fibered confocal fluorescence microscope designed for real-time imaging. Exposed to US waves, C6 cells pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, showed up to a 2.5-fold significant increase of the uptake time constant, and a 1.1-fold increase with genistein, an inhibitor of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Both inhibitors slowed down the US-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green. With C6 cells and our experimental settings, these quantitative data indicate that endocytosis plays a role in sonopermeabilization-mediated delivery of small molecules with a more predominant contribution of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  5. β-Hydroxybutyrate supports synaptic vesicle cycling but reduces endocytosis and exocytosis in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Waseem, Tatyana V; Hébert, Audrey; Pellerin, Luc; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet is used as a prophylactic treatment for different types of brain diseases, such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. In such a diet, carbohydrates are replaced by fats in everyday food, resulting in an elevation of blood-borne ketone bodies levels. Despite clinical applications of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet exerts its beneficial effects are still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing glucose by the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate as the main energy substrate on synaptic vesicle recycling in rat brain synaptosomes. First, we observed that exposing presynaptic terminals to nonglycolytic energy substrates instead of glucose did not alter the plasma membrane potential. Next, we found that synaptosomes were able to maintain the synaptic vesicle cycle monitored with the fluorescent dye acridine orange when glucose was replaced by β-hydroxybutyrate. However, in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, synaptic vesicle recycling was modified with reduced endocytosis. Replacing glucose by pyruvate also led to a reduced endocytosis. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to glucose-containing incubation medium was without effect. Reduced endocytosis in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate as sole energy substrate was confirmed using the fluorescent dye FM2-10. Also we found that replacement of glucose by ketone bodies leads to inhibition of exocytosis, monitored by FM2-10. However this reduction was smaller than the effect on endocytosis under the same conditions. Using both acridine orange in synaptosomes and the genetically encoded sensor synaptopHluorin in cortical neurons, we observed that replacing glucose by β-hydroxybutyrate did not modify the pH gradient of synaptic vesicles. In conclusion, the nonglycolytic energy substrates β-hydroxybutyrate and pyruvate are able to support synaptic vesicle recycling. However, they both reduce endocytosis. Reduction of both endocytosis and exocytosis together with misbalance between endocytosis and exocytosis could be involved in the anticonvulsant activity of the ketogenic diet. PMID:26748385

  6. Berberine Improves Intestinal Motility and Visceral Pain in the Mouse Models Mimicking Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-D) Symptoms in an Opioid-Receptor Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qiuhui; Fichna, Jakub; Zheng, Lijun; Wang, Kesheng; Yu, Zhen; Li, Yongyu; Li, Kun; Song, Aihong; Liu, Zhongchen; Song, Zhenshun; Kreis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Berberine and its derivatives display potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Here we aimed at characterizing the mechanism of action of berberine in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and cortical neurons using animal models and in vitro tests. Methods The effect of berberine was characterized in murine models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) symptoms. Then the opioidantagonists were used to identify the receptors involved. Furthermore, the effect of berberineon opioid receptors expression was established in the mouse intestine and rat fetal cortical neurons. Results In mouse models, berberine prolonged GI transit and time to diarrhea in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced visceral pain. In physiological conditions the effects of berberine were mediated by mu- (MOR) and delta- (DOR) opioidreceptors; hypermotility, excessive secretion and nociception were reversed by berberine through MOR and DOR-dependent action. We also found that berberine increased the expression of MOR and DOR in the mouse bowel and rat fetal cortical neurons. Conclusion Berberine significantly improved IBS-D symptoms in animal models, possibly through mu- and delta- opioid receptors. Berberine may become a new drug candidate for the successful treatment of IBS-D in clinical conditions. PMID:26700862

  7. Identification of a transferable two-amino-acid motif (GT) present in the C-terminal tail of the human lutropin receptor that redirects internalized G protein-coupled receptors from a degradation to a recycling pathway.

    PubMed

    Galet, Colette; Min, Le; Narayanan, Ramesh; Kishi, Mikiko; Weigel, Nancy L; Ascoli, Mario

    2003-03-01

    Although highly homologous in amino acid sequence, the agonist-receptor complexes formed by the human lutropin receptor (hLHR) and rat (r) LHR follow different intracellular routes. The agonist-rLHR complex is routed mostly to a lysosomal degradation pathway whereas a substantial portion of the agonist-hLHR complex is routed to a recycling pathway. In a previous study, we showed that grafting a five-residue sequence (GTALL) present in the C-terminal tail of the hLHR into the equivalent position of the rLHR redirects a substantial portion of the internalized agonist-rLHR complex to a recycling pathway. Using a number of mutations of the GTALL motif, we now show that only the first two residues (GT) of this motif are necessary and sufficient to induce recycling of the internalized agonist-rLHR complex. Phosphoamino acid analysis and mutations of the GT motif show that phosphorylation of the threonine residue is not necessary for recycling. Lastly, we show that addition of portions of the C-terminal tail of the hLHR that include the GT motif to the C-terminal tails of the rat follitropin or murine delta-opioid receptors promotes the post-endocytotic recycling of these G protein-coupled receptors.We conclude that the GT motif present in the C-terminal tail of the hLHR is a transferable motif that promotes the postendocytotic recycling of several G protein-coupled receptors and that the GT-induced recycling does not require the phosphorylation of the threonine residue. PMID:12554787

  8. Prolonged Activity of the Pestiviral RNase Erns as an Interferon Antagonist after Uptake by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zürcher, Christoph; Sauter, Kay-Sara; Mathys, Veronika; Wyss, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RNase activity of the envelope glycoprotein Erns of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is required to block type I interferon (IFN) synthesis induced by single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in bovine cells. Due to the presence of an unusual membrane anchor at its C terminus, a significant portion of Erns is also secreted. In addition, a binding site for cell surface glycosaminoglycans is located within the C-terminal region of Erns. Here, we show that the activity of soluble Erns as an IFN antagonist is not restricted to bovine cells. Extracellularly applied Erns protein bound to cell surface glycosaminoglycans and was internalized into the cells within 1 h of incubation by an energy-dependent mechanism that could be blocked by inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Erns mutants that lacked the C-terminal membrane anchor retained RNase activity but lost most of their intracellular activity as an IFN antagonist. Surprisingly, once taken up into the cells, Erns remained active and blocked dsRNA-induced IFN synthesis for several days. Thus, we propose that Erns acts as an enzymatically active decoy receptor that degrades extracellularly added viral RNA mainly in endolysosomal compartments that might otherwise activate intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in order to maintain a state of innate immunotolerance. IMPORTANCE The pestiviral RNase Erns was previously shown to inhibit viral ssRNA- and dsRNA-induced interferon (IFN) synthesis. However, the localization of Erns at or inside the cells, its species specificity, and its mechanism of interaction with cell membranes in order to block the host's innate immune response are still largely unknown. Here, we provide strong evidence that the pestiviral RNase Erns is taken up within minutes by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and that this uptake is mostly dependent on the glycosaminoglycan binding site located within the C-terminal end of the protein. Remarkably, the inhibitory activity of Erns remains for several days, indicating the very potent and prolonged effect of a viral IFN antagonist. This novel mechanism of an enzymatically active decoy receptor that degrades a major viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) might be required to efficiently maintain innate and, thus, also adaptive immunotolerance, and it might well be relevant beyond the bovine species. PMID:24741078

  9. Phosphorylation and chronic agonist treatment atypically modulate GABAB receptor cell surface stability.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Benjamin P; Pitcher, Julie A; Scott, Mark G H; Calver, Andrew R; Pangalos, Menelas N; Moss, Stephen J; Couve, Andrés

    2004-03-26

    GABA(B) receptors are heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system. The dynamic control of the cell surface stability of GABA(B) receptors is likely to be of fundamental importance in the modulation of receptor signaling. Presently, however, this process is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that GABA(B) receptors are remarkably stable at the plasma membrane showing little basal endocytosis in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. In addition, we show that exposure to baclofen, a well characterized GABA(B) receptor agonist, fails to enhance GABA(B) receptor endocytosis. Lack of receptor internalization in neurons correlates with an absence of agonist-induced phosphorylation and lack of arrestin recruitment in heterologous systems. We also demonstrate that chronic exposure to baclofen selectively promotes endocytosis-independent GABA(B) receptor degradation. The effect of baclofen can be attenuated by activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase or co-stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. Furthermore, we show that increased degradation rates are correlated with reduced receptor phosphorylation at serine 892 in GABA(B)R2. Our results support a model in which GABA(B)R2 phosphorylation specifically stabilizes surface GABA(B) receptors in neurons. We propose that signaling pathways that regulate cAMP levels in neurons may have profound effects on the tonic synaptic inhibition by modulating the availability of GABA(B) receptors. PMID:14707142

  10. Insulin binding and fluid-phase endocytosis stimulation in the mouse neuroblastoma cell line 41A3.

    PubMed

    Sartori, C; Silvestroni, L; Stefanini, S; Tocco, G A

    1996-10-01

    As well as many other hormones and growth factors, insulin is known to influence several processes in the CNS; its specific effects, however, are still poorly understood. Neuroblastoma cell lines represent a useful experimental system for the analysis of the insulin-specific effect on neurons, in the absence of possible regulatory mechanisms elicited by other neuronal/glial cells and/or soluble factors. The expression and the binding properties of insulin receptors, as well as the insulin effects on both membrane fluidity and cell surface architecture, have been investigated in 41A3 mouse neuroblastoma cells, by radioligand-binding fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively the same cells, insulin-induced modifications on cytoskeletal organisation also have been studied. Binding studies were performed using 125I-insulin, while the cationic fluorescent probe trimethylammonium 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was used for biophysical investigations. The results presented in this paper provide evidence that insulin interacts with 41A3 neuroblastoma cells through a receptor-mediated mechanism and that, in these cells, insulin binding modifies the cell surface morphology and stimulates endocytosis. PMID:8960979

  11. A syndecan-4 hair trigger initiates wound healing through caveolin- and RhoG-regulated integrin endocytosis.