Science.gov

Sample records for demain quels roles

  1. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  2. ONU Geneve: quel avenir pour le francais? Silence, on coule! (ONU Geneva: What Future for French? Quiet, We're Sinking!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Jean-Michel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two articles address change and conflict concerning the French language. One discusses the comparative roles of English and French at the United Nations office in Geneva; the other is in response to the opinions of Philippe de Saint Robert on the need to protect French from change. (MSE)

  3. Interactions avec des enfants migrants en contexte logopedique: quels etayages? (Interaction with Migrant Children in a Speech Therapy Context: What Kinds of Scaffolding?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornali, Sandra Galli

    1998-01-01

    Scaffolding strategies occurring in interactions between speech pathologists and migrant children are discussed. Various contexts and strategies are first defined, and the role of the concept of scaffolding in different types of research is examined. Finally, a corpus of therapist-child interactions is analyzed, focusing on problems of mutual…

  4. Challenging Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younker, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A veteran teacher with over 35 years experience, the author reflects on the events of September 11, 2001, and how the events of that day demonstrated that teachers fulfill many shifting roles in their students' lives. Here, he shares his own feelings of profound sadness for all the victims on that day, and discusses how the roles of teachers often…

  5. Parents' Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, George C.

    A psychologist discusses efforts at the Boston Center for Blind Children to help parents adjust to the demands of their multiply-handicapped, visually-impaired children. The following programs are found to be helpful: an infant home visiting program (see EC 062 470)in which parents develop their role through participating in an individualized…

  6. Education, developpment et ecole de demain en Mediterranee (Education, Development and Schools of the Future in the Mediterranean).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2002-01-01

    Offers an analysis of the condition of education in developing countries such as Morocco, where, according to the author, educational improvements will not occur as a result of adopting European educational models. Argues that educational progress in developing regions should embrace humanistic values and be founded upon the concepts of the right…

  7. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  8. Learning through Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Explains how role playing can provide enriching experiences that develop children's literacy and numeracy skills. Lists key ingredients of good role playing and suggests ways to plan them and prepare space for them. (SK)

  9. Changing Sex Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worell, Judith

    This article reviews literature on sex role change in children and points to areas which need further research. Competing ideologies which support or reject sex typing of role behaviors are briefly discussed in the introduction. The sources of sex role change are divided into two categories: (1) planned direct intervention programs and (2) natural…

  10. Role Discovery in Graphs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-08-14

    RolX takes the features from Re-FeX or any other feature matrix as input and outputs role assignments (clusters). The output of RolX is a csv file containing the node-role memberships and a csv file containing the role-feature definitions.

  11. Expanded Roles for HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanded roles for human resource development (HRD). "The Roles of Consultants in Gainsharing Firms: Empirical Results" (Eunsang Cho, Gary N. McLean) reports findings that consultants are moderately involved at the separation, preparation, evaluation, and design stages and have low…

  12. Reconceptualizing Evaluator Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolits, Gary J.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Burr, Erin Mehalic

    2009-01-01

    The current evaluation literature tends to conceptualize evaluator roles as a single, overarching orientation toward an evaluation, an orientation largely driven by evaluation methods, models, or stakeholder orientations. Roles identified range from a social transformer or a neutral social scientist to that of an educator or even a power merchant.…

  13. The Advisor's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Martha A.

    1975-01-01

    A training program for advisors is presented as a support system for implementing the Open Corridor concept into school systems. The following components of the advisor's role are discussed: selection and training, advisor-teacher relationship, work in the classroom, work with principals and parents, and role of teachers. (EC)

  14. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  15. Gender Roles and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…

  16. Role relationships: lesbian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J M; Reilly, M E

    This questionnaire study of 140 lesbians, 70 couples who have lived together for one or more years, explores equality and role relationships. We predicted that lesbians would achieve partnerships characterized by equality and freedom from traditional butch-femme role playing. Financial sharing and decision-making were found to be characterized by high degrees of equality. Household responsibilities tended to be performed individually, but no role-playing was evident. Sexual intimacy items indicated less perceived equality than other areas. And overall, some partners were viewed as unequal. The variables of age, income, education, occupation, assets, and years living together did not explain the inequality observed. PMID:3835202

  17. The State Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick M.; Jonsen, Richard W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews higher education consumer protection activities currently undertaken by the states, with suggestions about others that should be implemented and the role that state coordinating agencies can play in them. (Editor/JT)

  18. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dad's Role in Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Let’s say you and ... you can be when the time comes. Successful nursing depends on a host of factors, many of ...

  20. Roles within the Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Text Size Email Print Share Roles Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. ...

  1. The meaning of role strain.

    PubMed

    Ward, C R

    1986-01-01

    Explicating the meaning of the concept of role strain is important in role theory formulation, an area requiring further development to provide explanations and predictions for both patient and provider roles. In this analysis, the use of the term role strain is traced from the structural-functionalist and symbolic-interactionist perspectives. Descriptive, stipulative, and connotative definitions of role strain are derived, and necessary and relevant properties are proposed. Antecedent and intervening conditions for role strain are outlined from the literature. Role strain manifestations and empirical referents are presented, and an initial step is taken toward a theoretical formulation by defining role strain within the context of role stress. PMID:3079985

  2. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…

  3. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  4. Roles and Role Conflict of Women in Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Janet R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the experience of role conflict for women in infertile couples. Findings lead to an understanding of infertility as part of an interactional system for dealing with potentially intolerable sources of role conflict. (Author)

  5. Neuroendocrine Role for VGF

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jo E.; Brameld, John M.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2015-01-01

    The vgf gene (non-acronymic) is highly conserved and was identified on the basis of its rapid induction in vitro by nerve growth factor, although can also be induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial-derived growth factor. The VGF gene gives rise to a 68 kDa precursor polypeptide, which is induced robustly, relatively selectively and is synthesized exclusively in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. Post-translational processing by neuroendocrine specific prohormone convertases in these cells results in the production of a number of smaller peptides. The VGF gene and peptides are widely expressed throughout the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, in peripheral tissues including the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, and the pancreas, and in the gastrointestinal tract in both the myenteric plexus and in endocrine cells. VGF peptides have been associated with a number of neuroendocrine roles, and in this review, we aim to describe these roles to highlight the importance of VGF as therapeutic target for a number of disorders, particularly those associated with energy metabolism, pain, reproduction, and cognition. PMID:25699015

  6. Marital and Family Role Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Bruce A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports the satisfaction between several independent variables and marital satisfaction. Adequacy of role performance of both self and spouse and spouse's conformity to expectations emerged as the strongest predictors of satisfaction derived from playing family roles. (Author)

  7. The Division of Family Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Julia A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the marital role division between couples, in the Philadelphia area, concentrating on the division of household tasks, child care, and paid employment. Data support a marital power model with husband's income negatively related and wife's education positively related to shared roles. Blacks are more likely to share roles. (Author)

  8. The Many Roles of Fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of fathers to children's development is increasing. Fathers play many roles: supporting the mother-infant relationship, nurturing, acting as mother surrogate, encouraging separation and individuation setting up care sexual identify and developing sex role, and encouraging the development of conscience. A fuller understanding of the role of fatherhood can help family physicians offering medical and preventive treatment.

  9. Dose refinement. ARAC's role

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; Baskett, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970's has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC's primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates release rates, mix of material, and release geometry and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate

  10. Nursing's role in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Henning, Michael

    2009-01-01

    There are not enough dietitians and nutritionists available to serve the entire healthcare industry. That means that nurses often fill the role of nutrition counselors. Nurses do not receive extensive education about nutrition, but there are great opportunities for nurses in nutrition, both as educators and researchers. One way this can happen is through the use of nutrition assessment tools. This article introduces a freeware nutritional assessment tool for use on Windows-based computers (available at http://nursing.jmu.edu). Unlike currently available tools, the Nutrition Analyzer is a stand-alone, Web-independent product, which builds a database of client data that can be manipulated for analysis and research. PMID:19726924

  11. Role of the pharmacist.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Michael

    2006-12-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors continues to rise, with considerable emphasis on the upward trends in obesity and diabetes mellitus, which have increased by 46% and 60%, respectively, in the past 10 years. The alarming increase in the prevalence of diabetes and obesity has resulted in the development of new and innovative drug therapies to assist in managing cardiometabolic risk factors. This advent creates many opportunities for pharmacists to evaluate patients' drug regimens and influence lifestyle modification. Drug therapy management programs allow pharmacists to take active roles in assessing drug regimens and to intervene as appropriate. No matter what their practice environment, pharmacists have numerous opportunities to recognize and recommend treatment for cardiometabolic risk factors and to increase patient compliance by educating patients and health care practitioners. PMID:17125450

  12. Functional roles of fructose.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyoung; Song, Gwonhwa; Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W

    2012-06-19

    During the periimplantation period of pregnancy, pig blastocysts undergo morphological changes and differentiation requiring secretion and transport of nutrients (histotroph) into the uterine lumen. Of these nutrients, glucose is converted to fructose, an isomer of glucose, by conceptus trophectoderm. Although glucose is an energy source for proliferation and growth of mammalian cells, the role of fructose in uterine histotroph is unclear although it is the most abundant hexose sugar in fetal blood and fluids of ungulate mammals (e.g., cows, sheep, and pigs). In this study, we used porcine trophectoderm cells to determine that fructose increased cell proliferation, as did glucose. Western blot analyses of porcine trophectoderm cell extracts revealed that fructose increased the abundance of phosphorylated-RPS6K, -EIF4EBP1, and -RPS6 over basal levels within 30 min, and those levels remained elevated to 120 min. Phosphorylation of both RPS6K and EIF4EBP1 proteins in response to fructose was inhibited by inhibitors of both PI3K and MTOR. Further, when we investigated the inhibition of glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) by azaserine (an inhibitor of GFPT1) and GFPT1 siRNA, we found that MTOR-RPS6K and MTOR-EIF4EBP1 signaling in response to fructose is mediated via GFPT1 activation and the hexosamine pathway. We further demonstrated that fructose stimulates the production of hyaluronic acid via GFPT1 and the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. Collectively, these results demonstrate critical roles for fructose that are mediated via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway to stimulate MTOR cell signaling, proliferation of porcine trophectoderm cells, and synthesis of hyaluronic acid, a significant glycosaminoglycan in the pregnant uterus. PMID:22623530

  13. [Asbestosis and microfiber role].

    PubMed

    Piolatto, P G; Pira, E; Putzu, M G; Massiccio, M; Romano, C

    2006-01-01

    Based on the predominant content of thin and short asbestos fibres in lung and mesothelioma tissues, it was recently stated (2005) that such fibres "appear to contribute to the causation of human malignant mesothelioma". In another study of the same year it was stated that fibres in the order of few microm length and 0.2 microm diameter are the sole able to induce mesothelioma. This scientific conclusions entail some implications from practical point of view. The enormous amount of information gained on asbestos in the last decades is based on the definition of a fibre as an alongated particle with an aspect-ratio of at least 3:1, a diameter < or = 3 microm and a length > or = 5 microm. These parameters were used up today to define occupational and in some case non-occupational limits. In which way can "reference" values be established if all lengths or only fibres shorter than 5 microm are considered? Nowadays we have no answer. Secondly, assuming a prevalent role of such fibres especially in mesothelioma cases, how can reliable estimates of past exposure obtained in a medico-legal context, since they have never been counted? Morever, how might he the employer responsibility assessed since short fibres were not measured by definition pathogenic, and this not measured, nor were there appropriate filtering systems up to the middle of the '80? PMID:17144416

  14. Climate's Role in Terroir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. V.

    2012-12-01

    The marriage between a given winegrape cultivar planted in its ideal climate, over favorable topography and physical soil characteristics, combine to create the potential to produce fine wine. The French term terroir embodies this potential as a holistic concept that relates to both environmental and cultural factors that together influence the grape growing to wine production continuum. While the landscape, geology, soil, and climate strongly interact to influence the vine's balance of nutrients and water, climate is clearly of prevailing importance in that it limits where grapes can be grown at both the global and site scale. This talk will review the nature of climate's role in terroir through a discussion of the structure of climate in wine regions globally and how this structure influences cultivar suitability. Furthermore, the talk will use two of the most commonly planted red wine cultivars as examples - Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon - providing details on the historic, current, and future climate structure of wine regions growing these cultivars. In general the examination reveals that cool climate cultivars tend to have a narrower climate niche for high quality wine production, than do warmer climate cultivars, with less range of adaptation. Furthermore, the range of the climate suitability of these two cultivars shows that potentially new terroirs for each are waiting to be found.

  15. Enseigner quel francais du tourisme (Which French to Teach for Tourism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bjorn

    1992-01-01

    Development of a course in French for tourism and the hotel industry in Sweden is chronicled, focusing on the process of functional analysis used to determine appropriate language content. A general functional outline of touristic French and an outline of language functions specific to a restaurant situation are presented. (MSE)

  16. Pourquoi le francais et quel francais au Maroc? (Why French and Which French in Morocco?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akouaou, Ahmed

    1984-01-01

    The status of French in Morocco is ambiguous: it is neither an official language nor a foreign language, and it would benefit greatly from an official definition that would allow a variety of language conflicts to be resolved. (MSE)

  17. Models and role models.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers. PMID:25871413

  18. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sarah; Gordon, Carole; Harris, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging…

  19. Balancing Caregiving and Work: Role Conflict and Role Strain Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Judith R.; Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Murphy, Wendy Marcinkus; Rose, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Positing role conflict as a bidirectional construct in which work interferes with caregiving (WIC) and caregiving interferes with work (CIW), this study investigated its antecedents (demands and support of caregiving and work) and consequences (role strain). A national sample of 583 women between the ages of 50 and 64 years identified using…

  20. Sex Role Attitudes and Sex Role Stereotyping: Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This annotated bibliography profiles 17 publications examining sex role attitudes/sex role stereotyping from the perspectives of ethnicity, gender, and age. Cited in the section on ethnicity are studies of work satisfaction/family functioning among working-class Mexican-American women and cultural variations in sex typing by students in the United…

  1. Classroom Roles and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

    2004-01-01

    The peer group is an important developmental context for children. In this paper we present a method to operationalize a child's integration into the classroom by their informal social classroom roles, which we obtained using a blockmodel analysis based on role equivalence. This method differs in several respects from the common socio-metric…

  2. Union Roles in Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Stephen Michael

    1993-01-01

    Discusses roles for labor unions in resolving workforce deficiencies, suggesting that labor, management, and government must work together to develop cooperative training initiatives. Describes labor's historic role in basic and workplace literacy training, lists skills workers need in the "new" workplace, describes exemplary union-management…

  3. Ten Roles for Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen

    2007-01-01

    Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…

  4. FORCES INFLUENCING THE COUNSELOR'S ROLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOLER, DONALD

    DEFINING THE ROLE OF A COUNSELOR IS A TASK WHICH IS COMPLICATED BY THE CHANGING WORLD, THE CHANGING SOCIAL STRUCTURE, AND THE INFLUENCES OF GOVERNMENT. THE ROLE IS FURTHER COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT COUNSELING HAS ORIGINATED FROM A VARIETY OF DISCIPLINES, BORROWING FROM THE JOB OF THE TEACHER, THE ADMINISTRATOR, THE SOCIAL WORKER, AND THE…

  5. Changing Societal Roles and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    This handbook for home economics teachers as well as those teaching social studies and consumer education is designed to provide content and numerous student activities that explore the nature and effects of changing roles in society, particularly sex-related roles. The handbook begins with a brief section containing ten short single paragraph…

  6. Sex Role and Depressive Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Arnold; And Others

    Research has suggested that an association exists between sex role identity and typing and affective states. The relationship of sex role type and depressive mood was explored through the direct manipulation of affect in a mood induction procedure. Female (N=208) and male (N=131) subjects, classified as either androgynous, masculine, feminine, or…

  7. ROLE CONFLICTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ISOLATE THE ROLE CONFLICTS TO WHICH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS ARE EXPOSED, THE METHODS USED TO RESOLVE THEM, AND THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH THEY OCCUR. THE SOCIAL MATRIX OF ROLE CONFLICT IS BASED ON DIFFERING EXPECTATIONS OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERPRETATIONS. THUS, WHEN PARENTS, STUDENTS, TEACHERS, OTHER ADMINISTRATORS, AND…

  8. Current Research on Sex Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, Lucy W., Comp.

    Focusing on women, this annotated bibliography reviews recent research-oriented literature that investigates sex roles. The main concern is the role and place of women in present-day United States society. The literature areas which the bibliography covers are bibliographies and sources, action organizations, media, women's movement, affirmative…

  9. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team. PMID:26062328

  10. Role Clarity and Organizational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Barry Z.; Butterfield, D. Anthony

    1978-01-01

    Role clarity was examined in terms of its relationship with personal outcomes and organizational effectiveness. Organizational level as moderator of such relationship was also investigated. Hypotheses based on prior research were confirmed. Role clarity was positively related to perceptions of job satisfaction, personal influence, organizational…

  11. Role of Atmospheric Transport on the Arctic Amplification: Adjusting Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUG, J.; Yim, B.; Jin, F.

    2013-12-01

    It is controversial whether the atmospheric transport plays a role in arctic amplification. Recently, Hwang et al. (2011) showed that the magnitude of the arctic amplification is negatively correlated with anomalous poleward atmospheric transport. That is, when the arctic amplification is strong (weak), the atmospheric transport plays a negative (positive) role in the arctic amplification. In this study, it is discussed what is a physical mechanism to determine the role of atmospheric transport and relation with the arctic amplification. Here, we suggest adjusting roles of atmospheric transport. The strength of local feedback over the Arctic determines zonal wind changes. The zonal wind changes are determined by two factors. The first one is polar cap cooling, and second is surface warming. They play opposite roles. So, there will be two different zonal wind responses in high-latitude to the greenhouse warming. Depending on the zonal wind response, the atmospheric transport can play a different role because the zonal wind changes can organize synoptic eddy feedbacks including heat flux, which largely contributes to poleward energy transport. We show here that when polar cap cooling is strong, and surface warming over Arctic is relatively weak, the Jet stream tends to be shifted poleward, so it leads to poleward atmospheric transport. On the other hand, when the surface warming is too strong, it lead to southward shift of Jet stream and equatorward atmospheric transport, which paly a negative role in the Arctic amplification.

  12. The Nephrology Clinical Research Nurse Role: Potential Role Conflicts.

    PubMed

    Micklos, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research nursing is becoming more visible to nephrology professionals. As more nephrology practices and units are participating in clinical trials, clinical research nursing is gaining interest as a career niche among nephrology nurses. This unique specialty requires that nephrology clinical nurse nurses (CRNs) reconcile the roles of nurse as caregiver and nurse as researcher, which may result in a role conflict. Nephrology nurses should be aware that they may experience this role conflict when transitioning from patient care to a position as a clinical research nurse. These nurses can rely on the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics for Nurses and the Oncology Nursing Society's Oncology Clinical Trials Nurse Competencies to help reconcile the potential role conflict. PMID:27501633

  13. Roles of galectins in infection

    PubMed Central

    Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    Galectins, which were first characterized in the mid-1970s, were assigned a role in the recognition of endogenous (‘self) carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis, development and immune regulation. Recently, however, galectins have been shown to bind glycans on the surface of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, and function as recognition and effector factors in innate immunity. Some parasites subvert the recognition roles of the vector or host galectins to ensure successful attachment or invasion. This Review discusses the role of galectins in microbial infection, with particular emphasis on adaptations of pathogens to evasion or subversion of host galectin-mediated immune responses. PMID:19444247

  14. Roles for the Family Caregiver

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communicator The family caregiver has many roles besides giving the patient hands-on care. Most people think ... caregiver becomes an advocate for the patient by giving this information to the health care team. Although ...

  15. The Arctic's Role in Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. James

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the special role the Arctic region plays in climate, focusing on: (1) the global energy balance; (2) feedback mechanisms; (3) effects of increasing carbon dioxide; and (4) climate processes study programs. (JN)

  16. Occupational Roles in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Judith Stevinson

    1976-01-01

    Compares children's literature of the 1930s and that of recent times in terms of occupational roles and sex typing. Little change was found in number or type of women's occupations despite the recent political, social and economic changes. (MS)

  17. The Changing Role of Logarithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    With the advent of computers and electronic calculators, the role of logarithms in the curriculum is changing. An intuitive approach to logarithms, stressing the notion of isomorphism, is discussed. (SD)

  18. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  19. Technology's Role in NASA's Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun talks to NASA managers about the vital role technology research and development will play in NASA's future. Braun discusses how NASA will use new technologies to...

  20. Role Socialization of Juvenile Court Probation Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Tested the degree of association between probation officers' sent and received roles and role behavior in four juvenile courts. Found the role communicated to probation officers by their superiors was predictive of the role the probation officers perceived but not of the role as enacted with juveniles. (Author)

  1. Transformative Learning in Managerial Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of learning in work role transitions from specialist roles to managerial roles in a context of a large international technology organisation. Prior theorisation of learning in role transitions has been based on quantitative, psychologically-oriented studies prescribing different role and…

  2. Linking species functional roles to their network roles.

    PubMed

    Coux, Camille; Rader, Romina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2016-07-01

    Species roles in ecological networks combine to generate their architecture, which contributes to their stability. Species trait diversity also affects ecosystem functioning and resilience, yet it remains unknown whether species' contributions to functional diversity relate to their network roles. Here, we use 21 empirical pollen transport networks to characterise this relationship. We found that, apart from a few abundant species, pollinators with original traits either had few interaction partners or interacted most frequently with a subset of these partners. This suggests that narrowing of interactions to a subset of the plant community accompanies pollinator niche specialisation, congruent with our hypothesised trade-off between having unique traits vs. being able to interact with many mutualist partners. Conversely, these effects were not detected in plants, potentially because key aspects of their flowering traits are conserved at a family level. Relating functional and network roles can provide further insight into mechanisms underlying ecosystem functioning. PMID:27169359

  3. Bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Silva Ramos, Eduardo; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Mourier, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are bioenergetic hotspots, producing the bulk of ATP by the oxidative phosphorylation process. Mitochondria are also structurally dynamic and undergo coordinated fusion and fission to maintain their function. Recent studies of the mitochondrial fusion machinery have provided new evidence in detailing their role in mitochondrial metabolism. Remarkably, mitofusin 2, in addition to its role in fusion, is important for maintaining coenzyme Q levels and may be an integral player in the mevalonate synthesis pathway. Here, we review the bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial dynamics and emphasize the importance of the in vitro growth conditions when evaluating mitochondrial respiration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016,' edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27060252

  4. Role of the school physician.

    PubMed

    Devore, Cynthia DiLaura; Wheeler, Lani S M

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the important role physicians play in promoting the optimal biopsychosocial well-being of children in the school setting. Although the concept of a school physician has existed for more than a century, uniformity among states and school districts regarding physicians in schools and the laws governing it are lacking. By understanding the roles and contributions physicians can make to schools, pediatricians can support and promote school physicians in their communities and improve health and safety for children. PMID:23277314

  5. Transitioning between Work and Family Roles as a Function of Boundary Flexibility and Role Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Doan E.; Clayton, Russell W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which people separate their work and family roles and how they manage the boundaries of these two important roles. Specifically, we focus on how role flexibility and salience influence transitions between roles. Results indicate that the ability and willingness to flex a role boundary and role salience are…

  6. Political Elections: The Library Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Terry

    1984-01-01

    Discusses library role in providing access to information on political candidates and issues. Press coverage, political party literature, Federal Election Commission, interest groups, monographs, serials, and online databases are highlighted. Lists of 15 references, 89 national organizations that rate members of Congress, and 9 active political…

  7. The Economic Role of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Statistical information pertaining to one of the most important changes in the American economy in this century--the increase in the number of women who work outside the home--is presented as an introduction to the broader range of topics which will be considered by the Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women. Job-related aspects of…

  8. Psychology's Role in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

    This information packet contains eight two- to three-page publications from the American Psychological Association series "Psychological Services for the 21st Century, Psychology's Role in Health Care: Studying Human Behavior; Promoting Health; Saving Health Care Dollars; Providing Mental Health Services." The focus of the series is the connection…

  9. Role models face class expulsion.

    PubMed

    Sprinks, Jennifer

    There are plans to drop Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale from the curriculum taught in schools, according to leaked reports. Here, nurse leaders protest that this would rob young people of valuable role models and undermine the image of the profession. It is also suggested that a person's contribution to society is more important than their personality. PMID:23427681

  10. The role of induction therapy

    PubMed Central

    Moremen, Jacob R.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal cancer has been steadily increasing. The 5-year survival of esophageal cancer has minimally improved over the past 30 years. In this article, we review the management of esophageal cancer, focusing on the literature investigating the role of induction chemotherapy and radiation therapy. PMID:24876935

  11. ISO 9000: The Librarian's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Chris; Ernst, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes the special library's role in implementing ISO 9000 (i.e., a series of international quality-assurance standards developed by the International Organization of Standards). Topics discussed include document and data control, keeping the standards current, documentation of procedures, the ISO 9000 audit, and benefits for the library. (MES)

  12. Persona; Social Role and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Helen Harris

    These essays examine ways in which people, during the major part of adulthood, know and experience their identity through the roles they assume in work, marriage, and parenthood. Referring to Freud's definition of maturity as the ability to love and to work, the author discusses such concerns as adulthood and personal change, common problems of…

  13. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  14. Gender Stereotypes and Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.

    The reason that people think women and men differ in their general qualities may be that the two sexes tend to be observed in different social roles. To explore the sources of stereotypes about men and women several experiments were conducted. Most of the studies involved randomly selected college students who were presented with a description of…

  15. Role Modeling for Clinical Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Ellen Richter

    1991-01-01

    To become better role models, higher educators in institutions of clinical education should be conscious of the behaviors they demonstrate and the broad range of activities and attitudes that students observe and emulate, including clinical competence, professional demeanor, doctor-patient interactions, ethical values, and social consciousness.…

  16. The Faculty Role in Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    1984-01-01

    Specific roles faculty members can play in their institution's budget processes are discussed, and the general ends served by budgets are identified. Each of the dimensions of institutional character (e.g., size, mission) determines the ways in which participants in budgeting will interact. For example, broader faculty participation in budgeting…

  17. Exploring Unique Roles for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mohiuddin; Boisvert, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow highlighted unique roles that psychologists can play in mental health service delivery by providing psychological treatments--treatments that psychologists would be uniquely qualified to design and deliver. In support of Barlow's position, the authors draw from…

  18. Domestic Role Sharing in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Linda

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which Swedish couples (N=128) share domestic tasks using a mail survey. Suggests Swedish couples shared household chores more evenly than American couples. Results indicated variables measuring social exchange theory, family life-cycle stage, and socialization had the greatest influence on role sharing behavior.…

  19. Perceptions of the Volunteer Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Wayne L.

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire responses from 51 probation and parole line officers to determine staff perceptions of one Volunteers in Corrections program. Findings suggest that officers view volunteer role as involving several functions, including research, treatment, counseling, supervision, volunteer program operations, clerical, and investigation.…

  20. Sex Roles: Symposium V B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lua, Sokhong; And Others

    Reported is an exploratory investigation of attitudes toward child-rearing practices in Malaysia, including an attempt to investigate and analyze the nature and extent of involvement of Malaysian fathers in child care. There is also an abstract of a study of the influence of child-rearing practices on marital role expectations in Bengali,…

  1. CTE's Role in Worker Retraining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2011-01-01

    The economic downturn and growing skills mismatch dramatically highlight the importance of programs that retrain workers for the demands of the current workplace. The career and technical education (CTE) system has played a large role in the development of these programs, and CTE educators are leading efforts to ensure that new and newly…

  2. Perceived roles of oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance. PMID:26897865

  3. The Role of International Expert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews Sally Lubeck's international contributions. It describes her role as "rapporteur" for the OECD review of early education and care services in the UK, one of 20 such reviews commissioned by the OECD. It discusses the continued relevance of her observations and comments on provision in the UK. The article goes on to comment…

  4. The Effect of Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on Performance of Vice Principals: The Mediating Role of Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Kazim

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Role ambiguity and role conflict are considered issues that affect performance and lead to burnout. While numerous studies have analyzed role ambiguity or role conflict in relation to burnout or performance, few studies have studied all of these issues together. Since vice principals are expected to carry out a variety of…

  5. Occupational Role Identity of Women Academic Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravey, Pamela J.

    1991-01-01

    A national survey which examined the occupational role identity of female academic librarians collected personal, demographic, and job data. In addition, a test for orientation to the occupational role and a sex-role orientation test were administered. Women academic librarians were found to hold a positive and unique occupational role identity.…

  6. Principals Discuss Their Roles: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kathryn S.

    What principals are taught about their roles differs markedly from how they actually perceive and experience their roles. To discover the principals' views, comments made in discussion groups by 44 principals in a large urban Midwest school system over a four-month period were analyzed. Their descriptions of their roles and desired role changes…

  7. Role of Calpain in Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death that occurs under physiological as well as pathological conditions, is characterized by morphological and biochemical features. While the importance of caspases in apoptosis is established, several noncaspase proteases (Ca2+-dependent proteases) such as calpain may play a role in the execution of apoptosis. The calpain family consists of two major isoforms, calpain I and calpain II which require µM and mM Ca2+ concentrations to initiate their activity. An increase in intracellular Ca2+ level is thought to trigger a cascade of biochemical processes including calpain activation. Once activated, calpains degrade membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear substrates, leading to the breakdown of cellular architecture and finally apoptosis. The activation of calpain has been implicated in neuronal apoptosis following spinal cord injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on calpain with an emphasis on its key role in the proteolysis of cellular protein substrates following apoptosis. PMID:23507938

  8. Role of MYC in Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Martine F.; Robinson, Giles W.

    2013-01-01

    Since its discovery as an oncogene carried by the avian acute leukemia virus MC29 in myelocytomatosis (Roussel et al. 1979) and its cloning (Vennstrom et al. 1982), c-MYC (MYC), as well as its paralogs MYCN and MYCL1, has been shown to play essential roles in cycling progenitor cells born from proliferating zones during embryonic development, and in all proliferating cells after birth. MYC deletion induces cell-cycle exit or cell death, depending on the cell type and milieu, whereas MYC and MYCN amplification or overexpression promotes cell proliferation and occurs in many cancers. Here, we review the relationship of MYC family proteins to the four molecularly distinct medulloblastoma subgroups, discuss the possible roles MYC plays in each of these subgroups and in the developing cells of the posterior fossa, and speculate on possible therapeutic strategies targeting MYC. PMID:24186490

  9. Role ambiguity, employee gender, and workplace friendship.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Mao, Hsiao-Yen; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2012-06-01

    The importance of workplace friendship is recognized by researchers and practitioners, but its antecedents with respect to work roles are not well understood. Employees' gender might moderate a relationship between work roles and friendships. Data from a survey of 221 international tourist hotel employees showed that a key aspect of job support, role ambiguity, was negatively related to having workplace friendships. However, employees' gender did not moderate this relationship. Role clarity (the opposite of role ambiguity) may facilitate workplace friendships. PMID:22897079

  10. Mitigating earthquakes; the federal role

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Press, F.

    1977-01-01

    With rapid approach of a capability to make reliable earthquake forecasts, it essential that the Federal Government play a strong, positive role in formulating and implementing plans to reduce earthquake hazards. Many steps are being taken in this direction, with the President looking to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in his Executive Office to provide leadership in establishing and coordinating Federal activities. 

  11. Sex role ideology among physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Leichner, P.; Harper, D.

    1982-01-01

    Physicians have been accused by some feminist writers of having traditional views on sex roles that make them part of society's oppressive power structure and therefore responsible in part for the high incidence of psychologic problems and drug dependency among women. To assess whether physicians' attitudes towards women are indeed polarized in a traditional fashion, a sex role ideology questionnaire was given to all practising physicians belonging to the Manitoba Medical Association. Overall the physicians were found to be more feminist than male college students and a group of women with traditional beliefs. Psychiatrists, who had the highest adjusted group mean score on a sex role ideology scale (high indicating feminist beliefs), were found to be significantly more feminist than family practitioners, surgeons, and obstetricians and gynecologists, although not more so than internists, radiologists, pediatricians and anesthesiologists. These findings do not support the assumption that physicians have traditional views that reflect those of society. However, the significant differences between specialties emphasize the need for educating physicians and medical students in the behaviour of women. PMID:7104916

  12. The Relationship of Women's Role Strain to Social Support, Role Satisfaction, and Self Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdwins, Carol J.; Buffardi, Louis C.; Casper, Wendy J.; O'Brien, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Relationship of social support, role satisfaction, and self-efficacy to measures of role strain was explored in married, employed women with preschool aged children. Self efficacy in work and parental role proved to be a significant predictor of work-family conflict and role overload. Organizational support on role conflict was mediated by job…

  13. Refinement of boards' role required.

    PubMed

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business. PMID:10280356

  14. [The biological role of sulfatides].

    PubMed

    Suchański, Jarosław; Ugorski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Sulfatides (3-O-sulfogalactosylceramides, sulfated galactocerebrosides, SM4) are esters of sulfuric acid with galactosylceramides. These acidic glycosphingolipids, present at the external leaflet of the plasma membrane, are synthesized by a variety of mammalian cells. They are especially abundant in the myelin sheath of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Studies using cerebroside galactosyltransferase-deficient mice revealed that sulfatides are responsible for proper structure and functioning of myelin. Large amounts of sulfatides are also found in the kidney, gastrointestinal tract, islets of Langerhans, and membranes of erythrocytes, thrombocytes and granulocytes. They are ligands for numerous proteins, but in most cases the biological role of such interactions is poorly understood. A notable exception is their binding by P- and L-selectins. Platelet sulfatides are major ligands for P-selectin, and this interaction is critical for the formation of stable platelet aggregates. Sulfatides also bind to chemokines, and seem to play a role in regulation of cytokine expression in human lymphocytes and monocytes. Aberrant metabolism of sulfatides, could cause several important human diseases. In this article, we describe the changes in sulfatide expression associated with such nervous disorders as metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and several types of cancer, e.g. colon cancer, kidney cancer, and ovarian cancer. We also discuss the involvement of sulfatides in cancer progression, diabetes and autoimmune and immune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. This acidic glycosphingolipids seem to play an important role in pathogenesis of infectious diseases, serving as receptors for binding various bacteria and viruses. PMID:27180966

  15. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  16. The role of the university.

    PubMed Central

    Starck, P L

    1987-01-01

    The role of the university, and particularly the health sciences university, in promoting positive health for women is twofold. First, the dissemination of existing knowledge raises awareness of special health needs and identifies gaps in the present research and literature base. Second, universities must project future needs of women in a rapidly changing society where such things as space travel may become commonplace. Reduction of the risk of debilitating disease and promotion of positive attitudes will enhance the quality of life for women. A logotherapeutic approach to choosing one's own attitudes toward life's challenges promotes successful coping in a dynamic society. PMID:3120225

  17. Role of Microglia in Neurotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Loane, David J.; Byrnes, Kimberly R.

    2010-01-01

    Microglia are the primary mediators of the central nervous system's (CNS) immune defense system and are integral to the subsequent inflammatory response. The role of microglia in the injured CNS is under scrutiny as research has begun to fully explore how post-injury inflammation contributes to secondary damage and recovery of function. Whether microglia are ‘good’ or ‘bad’ is under debate, with strong support for a dual role or differential activation of microglia. Microglia release a number of factors that modulate secondary injury and recovery after injury, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, prostaglandins, growth factors and superoxide species. Here we review experimental work on the complex and varied responses of microglia in terms of both detrimental and beneficial effects. In addition, the impact of microglial activation in two examples of CNS injury - spinal cord and traumatic brain injury - will be discussed. Microglial activation is integral to the response of CNS tissue to injury. As such, future research should now focus on clarifying the signals and mechanisms by which microglia can be guided to promote optimal functional recovery. PMID:20880501

  18. Bronchovascular role in pulmonary congestion.

    PubMed

    McIlveen, S A

    2000-12-01

    1. A postulated role for the bronchial circulation in the development of pulmonary congestion may be based on recent studies of bronchovascular control. 2. The bronchial circulation is the nutrient blood supply of the conducting airways and, therefore, plays an important role in the function of the bronchial mucosa. Mucosal swelling secondary to elevation of mucosal capillary hydrostatic pressure may decrease airway calibre, increase resistance to airflow and precipitate symptoms of pulmonary congestion. 3. Resting mucosal capillary hydrostatic pressure is relatively constant due to autoregulation of bronchial blood flow and is maintained low by nett bronchovascular constriction due to the dominance of autonomic vasoconstriction over nitric oxidedependent vasodilatation. 4. Bronchial blood flow is also regulated by cardiac afferent reflexes. Stimulation of cardiac vagal and spinal afferents produces vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, respectively. Tonic activity of cardiac spinal afferents probably contributes to the resting autonomic vasoconstriction. 5. Therefore, mild heart failure, which is associated with abnormal cardiovascular reflex function, may decrease cardiac spinal afferent-mediated bronchial vasoconstriction and produce active dilatation due to stimulation of cardiac vagal afferents by excessive myocardial stretch, leading to bronchial mucosal swelling and pulmonary congestion. PMID:11117228

  19. Role models for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, J.; White, D. R.

    2007-11-01

    We present a framework for automatically decomposing (“block-modeling”) the functional classes of agents within a complex network. These classes are represented by the nodes of an image graph (“block model”) depicting the main patterns of connectivity and thus functional roles in the network. Using a first principles approach, we derive a measure for the fit of a network to any given image graph allowing objective hypothesis testing. From the properties of an optimal fit, we derive how to find the best fitting image graph directly from the network and present a criterion to avoid overfitting. The method can handle both two-mode and one-mode data, directed and undirected as well as weighted networks and allows for different types of links to be dealt with simultaneously. It is non-parametric and computationally efficient. The concepts of structural equivalence and modularity are found as special cases of our approach. We apply our method to the world trade network and analyze the roles individual countries play in the global economy.

  20. Family size and sex-role stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, F E; Vogel, S R; Broverman, I K; Broverman, D M; Rosenkrantz, P S

    1970-01-23

    Social attitudes about sex roles have been implicated as important factors in population growth. Degree of incorporation of stereotypic sex roles into the self-concepts of mothers is found to be related to completed family size. PMID:5409743

  1. Wanted: Active Role Models for Today's Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Wanted: Active Role Models for Today's Kids Past ... the active role models they can get. "With childhood obesity at an all-time high, we need to ...

  2. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  3. Role of atomic collisions in fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Post, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general discussion of the present role of atomic processes in both magnetic and inertial controlled fusion work is presented.

  4. Role of Akirin in Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhiqing; Wang, Huan; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Guo, Xiulan; Tang, Renyong; Long, Dingbiao

    2013-01-01

    Akirin is a recently discovered nuclear factor that plays an important role in innate immune responses. Beyond its role in innate immune responses, Akirin has recently been shown to play an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, we will briefly review the structure and tissue distribution of Akirin and discuss recent advances in our understanding of its role and signal pathway in skeletal myogenesis. PMID:23396110

  5. Role of akirin in skeletal myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhiqing; Wang, Huan; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Guo, Xiulan; Tang, Renyong; Long, Dingbiao

    2013-01-01

    Akirin is a recently discovered nuclear factor that plays an important role in innate immune responses. Beyond its role in innate immune responses, Akirin has recently been shown to play an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, we will briefly review the structure and tissue distribution of Akirin and discuss recent advances in our understanding of its role and signal pathway in skeletal myogenesis. PMID:23396110

  6. Perspectives on role socialization of nurses.

    PubMed

    Christman, L

    1991-01-01

    Individuals enact roles according to their personal knowledge of the role and the expectations of others interacting with the role. This is especially evident in patient care, where depths of knowledge are crucial to outcomes. The pecking order of health care professionals is directly related to the knowledge levels of the role enactors. Nurses tend to be the proverbial low man on the totem pole. PMID:1896312

  7. Psychological Consequences of Multiple Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explored consequences of having mulitiple roles. Questioned 500 employed women about self-esteem; satisfaction with careers, partners, and children; perceptions of life stress and pleasure; and number of roles held. Higher self-esteem and greater job satisfaction were associated with holding more roles. Marital and parental satisfaction were not…

  8. Marital Role Strain and Sexual Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Ellen; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire pertaining to discrepancies between an individual's ideal and actual marital role behaviors and level of sexual satisfaction indicated lower levels of role strain in nonpatient couples. A higher level of role strain correlated with increased sexual dissatisfaction. (Author)

  9. Identifying Role Diffusion in School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astramovich, Randall L.; Hoskins, Wendy J.; Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Bartlett, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    Role ambiguity in professional school counseling is an ongoing concern despite recent advances with comprehensive school counseling models. The study outlined in this article examined role diffusion as a possible factor contributing to ongoing role ambiguity in school counseling. Participants included 109 graduate students enrolled in a…

  10. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  11. The Role of Libraries in Economic Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Sara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the roles academic and public libraries can play in the process of economic restructuring and development. A business school library in Hungary is described, and its role in economic restructuring and the education of future managers is discussed; and the role of public libraries in the United States is examined. (four references) (LRW)

  12. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  13. Gender Role Socialization in Jewish Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Gottlieb, Michael C.

    There has been little empirical research on the gender role socialization of Jewish men. This paper explores Jewish male gender role socialization and provides a model by which gender and ethnicity may be studied. A description of the gender role socialization of Jewish men, with an emphasis on advantages and disadvantages of such socialization…

  14. ROLE EXPECTATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWEITZER, ROBERT E.; AND OTHERS

    EFFORTS WERE MADE TO DISCOVER THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUPERINTENDENTS, PRINCIPALS, AND TEACHERS. MAJOR AREAS OF INVESTIGATION CONCERNED THE ROLE OF THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS FULFILLMENT OF THAT ROLE. THE STUDY WAS TO PROVIDE A BASIS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH IN THESE AREAS. THE ROLE OF THE PRINCIPAL CONCERNED THE TASKS OF SELECTION OF CURRICULUM,…

  15. Sex Roles and Fertility in College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of sex role acceptance to actual and desired fertility was assessed in a sample of female college students and women's organization members. Multiple regression analysis indicated that behavioral measures of sex role acceptance accounted for more variance in predicting desired fertility than did the Bem Sex Role Inventory.…

  16. Thematic Role Properties of Subjects and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kako, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests two claims about the thematic roles Agent and Patient: first, that they can be decomposed into more primitive features, as laid out in Dowty's (1991) Proto-Roles Hypothesis; and second, that these properties can be inferred directly from the grammatical roles subject and object. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated the…

  17. Roles of Variables in Three Programming Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, J.; Ben-Ari, M.; Byckling, P.; Gerdt, P.; Kulikova, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Roles can be assigned to occurrences of variables in programs according to a small number of stereotypical patterns of use. Studies on explicitly teaching roles to novices learning programming have shown that roles are an excellent pedagogical tool for clarifying the structure and meaning of programs and that their use improves students'…

  18. Role Interaction: The Salt in the Soup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbane-Flash, Marian T.

    This case study illustrates and expands upon the principle that innovation efforts involve both role change and change in role interrelationships, changes that (ideally) will be supportive of the innovation effort, but which may--if duplication, gaps among roles, or tension arise--weaken or destroy the effort. A planning effort in the Cleveland…

  19. Roles of Academic Department Chairpersons at the University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer-Hayon, Lya; Avi-Itzhak, Tamar E.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of 90 department heads in six Israeli universities concerning their role perceptions, role fulfillment, and satisfaction with role fulfillment found five main role factors and significant differences between fulfillment of roles and the desire to fulfill them. (MSE)

  20. [Diagnostic role of galectin-3].

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Monika; Chrostek, Lech

    2014-12-01

    The meaning of galectin-3 role in the diagnostics of different diseases was disscused in the paper. Galectin-3 is endogenous, soluble beta- galactoside-binding lectin, which occur in the cell nucleus, the cytoplasm and on the surface of certain cells. Galectin-3 controls cell cycle, modulates adhesion, affects the mRNA splicing, extracellular matrix interactions and cellular differentiation. Galectin-3, also affects to procollagen I which irreversibly crosslinks to form collagen and results in parenchymal organs fibrosis. Taking into account numerous research and knowledge of action mechanism of galectin-3 there were presented changes in its activity in the pathological processes of the human body, including: heart failure, liver fibrosis and tumors. The results of published clinical studies have shown its high diagnostic sensitivity, which probably enables to application in laboratory diagnosis. PMID:25715576

  1. Developmental roles of brain histamine.

    PubMed

    Panula, Pertti; Sundvik, Maria; Karlstedt, Kaj

    2014-03-01

    Histamine appears early during brain development, has been shown to regulate fetal and adult brain-derived stem cells in a receptor type-dependent manner, and has widespread actions on systems involved in arousal and movement. Developmental studies in both rodents and zebrafish have elucidated the spatiotemporal patterning of the histaminergic system and, in zebrafish, have revealed the mechanisms whereby histamine regulates the number of hypocretin/orexin (hcrt) neurons, which in turn may regulate the number of histaminergic cells. Recent demonstrations of increased numbers of histaminergic neurons in patients with narcolepsy highlight the importance, for our understanding of both normal and pathological brain function, of understanding these interactions. Here, we review recent research into the developmental roles of histamine and suggest key areas for future research. PMID:24486025

  2. The Role of Coherent Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    Many interesting astronomical objects, such as galaxies, molecular clouds, PDRs, star - forming regions, protostars, evolved stars, planets, and comets, have rich submillimeter spectra. In order to avoid line blending, and to be able to resolve the line shape, it is often necessary to measure these spectra at high resolution. This paper discusses the relative advantages and limitations of coherent and direct detection for high resolution spectroscopy in the submillimeter and far - infrared. In principle, direct detection has a fundamental sensitivity advantage. In practice, it is di.cult to realize this advantage given the sensitivities of existing detectors and reasonable constraints on the instrument volume. Thus, coherent detection can be expected to play an important role in submillimeter and far - infrared astrophysics well into the future.

  3. THE ROLE OF THE SCAPULA

    PubMed Central

    Voight, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, the scapular musculature was often neglected in designing a rehabilitation protocol for the shoulder. In the past two decades a significant amount of research has been performed in order to help identify the role of the scapula in upper extremity function. Weakness of the scapular stabilizers and resultant altered biomechanics could result in: 1) abnormal stresses to the anterior capsular structures of the shoulder, 2) increased possibility of rotator cuff compression, and 3) decreased shoulder complex neuromuscular performance. This clinical commentary presents facts about the anatomy and biomechanics of the scapula and surrounding musculature, and describes the pathomechanics of scapular dysfunction. The focus is upon the assessment of dysfunction and retraining of the scapular musculature. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175141

  4. Role of Astrocytes in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Douglas A.; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes express ion channels, transmitter receptors, and transporters and, thus, are endowed with the machinery to sense and respond to neuronal activity. Recent studies have implicated that astrocytes play important roles in physiology, but these cells also emerge as crucial actors in epilepsy. Astrocytes are abundantly coupled through gap junctions allowing them to redistribute elevated K+ and transmitter concentrations from sites of enhanced neuronal activity. Investigation of specimens from patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy and epilepsy models revealed alterations in expression, localization, and function of astroglial K+ and water channels. In addition, malfunction of glutamate transporters and the astrocytic glutamate-converting enzyme, glutamine synthetase, has been observed in epileptic tissue. These findings suggest that dysfunctional astrocytes are crucial players in epilepsy and should be considered as promising targets for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:25732035

  5. [Role of RAS in prehypertension].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Shinji; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension has long been recognized as a major risk factor of several cardiovascular diseases. It is well known that the renin-angiotensin system(RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of both hypertension and hypertensive end-organ damage. Untreated hypertension is self-accelerating condition through RAS stimulation. Activation of RAS contributes to the transition from borderline hypertension to established hypertension. Recently, "the Seventh Report of Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7)" proposed a new classification of borderline blood pressure levels, as "prehypertension". The therapeutic focus has begun to shift from the therapy of established hypertension to the prevention of hypertension. This review addressed the relationship between hypertension, prehypertension and the role of RAS. PMID:18700549

  6. Roles of the Team Physician.

    PubMed

    Kinderknecht, James

    2016-07-01

    The roles of the team physician are much more than providing medical coverage at a sport's event. The team physician has numerous administrative and medical responsibilities. The development of an emergency action plan is an essential administrative task as an example. The implementation of the components of this plan requires the team physician to have the necessary medical knowledge and skill. An expertise in returning an athlete to play after an injury or other medical condition is a unique attribute of the trained team physician. The athlete's return to participation needs to start with the athlete's safety and best medical interests but not inappropriately restrict the individual from play. The ability to communicate on numerous levels needs to be a characteristic of the team physician. There are several potential ethical conflicts the team physician needs to control. These conflicts can create unique medicolegal issues. The true emphasis of the team physician is to focus on what is best for the athlete. PMID:27322925

  7. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:25589035

  8. Curriculum change: the importance of team role.

    PubMed

    Broomfield, D; Bligh, J

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a study examining aspects of team role in the management of curriculum change. The Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory was completed by 25 members (83%) of a faculty curriculum development team. Overall the group showed a preference for the implementer and shaper roles, whilst the completer-finisher role was relatively weakly represented, ranking fifth out of eight possible roles. Older and more senior team members favoured the co-ordinator role, whilst younger and more junior members favoured the team-worker and completer-finisher roles. Some implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the current trend for widespread change in undergraduate medical curricula and the challenges faced by medical schools in a resource constrained environment. PMID:9231114

  9. The "Role" of Burnout among Special Educators: The Relationship between Burnout and Role Tensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey L.; Thompson, David P.

    This paper discusses the outcomes of a meta-analysis that reviewed primary studies from eight major databases to investigate the impact of role ambiguity and conflict in the burnout of special education teachers. Five role constructs were found to be present in the literature on burnout among special educators: role ambiguity, role conflict, role…

  10. From "Mentor" to "Role Model": Scaling the Involvement of STEM Professionals through Role Model Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Jennifer; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Mentors and role models can play a significant role in high school students' motivation to pursue specific careers later in life. Although the use of role models in the classroom is an important research topic, little research has been conducted on scaling up STEM role models reach through the use of video vignettes. This essay outlines a series…

  11. Réflexions sur lʼavenir de lʼénergie nucléaire, de la France dʼaujourdʼhui au monde de demain : IIe à IVe générations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautray, Robert; Friedel, Jacques; Bréchet, Yves

    2012-06-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima power plants (PP) have brought to light key issues which have to be discussed concerning the position of nuclear energy in the energy mix, in the context of global warming, of waning petroleum resources, of an increasing world population, and of its industrial development. These questions are addressed here from the viewpoint of physical facts; and, without proposing definite choices, this article aims to provide information on the equipment required to benefit from the fission chain reaction, while explaining the possible incidents and accidents, and the possible hidden military misuse of nuclear matter. Specific issues, such as risk assessment and risk management, will be considered, under the constraints of dealing with international non-proliferation safeguards and France energy resources independence. A special emphasis will be given on the fuel cycle, on the variety of time scales involved, and on the requirements of developing the next generation of nuclear power plants, and more specifically the fast breeder option. The lessons to be drawn from the Fukushima accident, resulting mainly from the residual power of used fuel and the loss of cooling source, are outlined, and the consequences to be drawn about the various relevant time scales are emphasized.

  12. Unemployment and health: physicians' role.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, S S

    1999-01-01

    Unemployment has been documented to have detrimental impacts on a person's mental, physical and social well being. When unemployment or being out of work is due to injury or sickness, the effects are compounded by mental and social factors. In an effort to prevent prolonged unemployment due to injury or sickness, changes were made to existing disability income supplement plans to redirect their focus from basic income support to active employment measures. This is intended to reduce individual's dependency on financial assistance and encourage individuals to take personal responsibility for getting back to work. The various disability insurance plans require primary care physicians to provide opinion and participate in the recovery and safety return to work of injured or sick persons. The physician approach to medical care of the injured/sick person with employment problems should focus on return to work as a goal of treatment. The patient should be seen as part of a social or environmental system and not as an isolated individual. The physician has a significant role to play in the diagnosis, determining functional abilities and participation in the return to work plan. The physician positive participation, not only provides an intrinsic cost saving value in insurance costs, but more important, helps patients maintain gainful employment. Work often helps in regaining health. Many factors are involved in a return to work outcome and physicians need to know how to identify and track the factors that facilitate or impede return to work. The challenge for the physician is to utilize the available resources to facilitate the recovery and communicate with other parties involved in the return to work process. This paper discusses the disability insurance plans in Canada and the community expectations from physicians dealing with patients who are out of work because of injury or sickness. It is acknowledged that primary care physicians' skills are not adequate in this

  13. Atom-Role-Based Access Control Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihong; Huang, Richeng; Hou, Xiaoli; Wei, Gang; Xiao, Shui; Chen, Yindong

    Role-based access control (RBAC) model has been widely recognized as an efficient access control model and becomes a hot research topic of information security at present. However, in the large-scale enterprise application environments, the traditional RBAC model based on the role hierarchy has the following deficiencies: Firstly, it is unable to reflect the role relationships in complicated cases effectively, which does not accord with practical applications. Secondly, the senior role unconditionally inherits all permissions of the junior role, thus if a user is under the supervisor role, he may accumulate all permissions, and this easily causes the abuse of permission and violates the least privilege principle, which is one of the main security principles. To deal with these problems, we, after analyzing permission types and role relationships, proposed the concept of atom role and built an atom-role-based access control model, called ATRBAC, by dividing the permission set of each regular role based on inheritance path relationships. Through the application-specific analysis, this model can well meet the access control requirements.

  14. Role of carnitine in disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient that plays a vital role in energy production and fatty acid metabolism. Vegetarians possess a greater bioavailability than meat eaters. Distinct deficiencies arise either from genetic mutation of carnitine transporters or in association with other disorders such as liver or kidney disease. Carnitine deficiency occurs in aberrations of carnitine regulation in disorders such as diabetes, sepsis, cardiomyopathy, malnutrition, cirrhosis, endocrine disorders and with aging. Nutritional supplementation of L-carnitine, the biologically active form of carnitine, is ameliorative for uremic patients, and can improve nerve conduction, neuropathic pain and immune function in diabetes patients while it is life-saving for patients suffering primary carnitine deficiency. Clinical application of carnitine holds much promise in a range of neural disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, hepatic encephalopathy and other painful neuropathies. Topical application in dry eye offers osmoprotection and modulates immune and inflammatory responses. Carnitine has been recognized as a nutritional supplement in cardiovascular disease and there is increasing evidence that carnitine supplementation may be beneficial in treating obesity, improving glucose intolerance and total energy expenditure. PMID:20398344

  15. Ritual's role in profound change.

    PubMed

    1995-03-01

    In today's healthcare environment, characterized by downsizing, restructuring, mergers, and acquisitions, organizational cultures and employees are experiencing rapid--and often tense--changes. Ritual can facilitate change by acknowledging it and allowing the grieving process to take its course. The success of an organizational culture change can depend on whether the organization and its members have been given an opportunity to grieve. Until they grieve their losses, people cannot embrace the new. Organizational leaders who have survived downsizing must come to grips with their own survivor status first and then lead others in the organization through the current painful but irrevocable shift in their relationship to the organization. The use of ritual helps organizational survivors see the connection between the grieving process and their survivor symptoms of denial, anger, depression, guilt, fear, insecurity, anxiety, and uncertainty. A good ritual should allow those present to rise above barriers that separate, worries that overburden, and blindness that limits and to gather as one with God. As a rule, a good ritual is participative and recognizes the audience's diversity. The ritual should not just address those present but invite them to act, pray, or sing. Ritual is an important way to provide a structure that allows people to express their emotions. For leaders, it can be a visible way to acknowledge grief and show support for organizational members. For ritual to have any meaning, key leaders need to be present and perhaps have a role in the creation and enactment of the ritual. PMID:10146160

  16. Role of LCAT in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ossoli, Alice; Simonelli, Sara; Vitali, Cecilia; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the only enzyme capable of esterifying cholesterol in plasma, thus determining the maturation of high-density lipoproteins. Because it maintains an unesterified cholesterol gradient between peripheral cells and extracellular acceptors, for a long time, LCAT has been considered as a key enzyme in reverse cholesterol transport. However, despite the fact that it has been more than 50 years since the identification of LCAT, the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still debated. A number of studies have been conducted in different animal models, with contradictory results. Studies in humans, in particular in the general population, in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, and in carriers of genetic LCAT deficiency in an excellent model to evaluate the correlation between the reduction of LCAT activity and atherosclerosis also gave conflicting results. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the controversial findings obtained in animals and humans, strengthening the necessity of further investigation to establish how LCAT could be regulated in a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:26607351

  17. Functional Role of Ribosomal Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Eargle, John; Sarkar, Krishnarjun; Gruebele, Martin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2010-01-01

    Although structure and sequence signatures in ribosomal RNA and proteins are defining characteristics of the three domains of life and instrumental in constructing the modern phylogeny, little is known about their functional roles in the ribosome. In this work, the largest coevolving RNA/protein signatures in the bacterial 30S ribosome are investigated both experimentally and computationally through all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations. The complex includes the N-terminal fragment of the ribosomal protein S4, which is a primary binding protein that initiates 30S small subunit assembly from the 5′ domain, and helix 16 (h16), which is part of the five-way junction in 16S rRNA. Our results show that the S4 N-terminus signature is intrinsically disordered in solution, whereas h16 is relatively stable by itself. The dynamic disordered property of the protein is exploited to couple the folding and binding process to the five-way junction, and the results provide insight into the mechanism for the early and fast binding of S4 in the assembly of the ribosomal small subunit. PMID:21156135

  18. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products. PMID:25284291

  19. Role of infections in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, V V

    1999-11-01

    A growing amount of epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical evidence has linked infection as a risk factor to variousatherosclerotic diseases including acute myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction. Bacteremic infections with and without endocarditis carry a high risk for both stroke and acute myocardial infarction. During the last decade, chronic bacterial infections such as Chlamydia pneumoniae and dental infections have been associated as risk factors for various atherosclerotic diseases. These chronic bacterial infections are risk factors for acute cardiovascular events, but they may also have some role in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerotic process itself. There are many known mechanisms that might explain the observed association of infection and atherosclerotic diseases, but it is probable that these mechanisms are complex and multifactorial and probably differ from infection to infection and from patient to patient. Infection theory is by no means against classic risk factor theory in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Infection may also act as a synergistic risk factor together with classic risk factors in the development of various atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:10539842

  20. Men's role. Developing public opinion.

    PubMed

    Song, Y

    1994-03-01

    With most couples in China currently bearing only 1-2 children, the average couple must practice family planning for more than 20-30 years. An extremely high level of cooperation is therefore required between husband and wife to realize this level of fertility. The Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress stresses that men should take a greater role in family planning. Women, like men, work to contribute to family income, but they also become pregnant, give birth, breastfeed, and rear children. Men should really share some responsibilities of family planning to alleviate some degree of burden borne by women. In particular, men could opt to be sexually sterilized to eliminate the potential for any further unwanted fertility as a result of their continued sexual intercourse. The process of male sterilization is easier and safer than female sterilization with the Li method of male sterilization requiring only an injection into the seminal passage to prevent the further emission of semen. The vice-chairman notes that more than 15 million men voluntarily underwent male sterilization in Sichuan province, thus accounting for half of male sterilization cases in the world. Not everyone, however, should accept sterilization, but efforts could nonetheless be made to encourage men to accept greater responsibility for the control of their fertility. PMID:12287782

  1. Educating nurses for leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Heller, Barbara R; Drenkard, Karen; Esposito-Herr, Mary Beth; Romano, Carol; Tom, Sally; Valentine, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    As a result of the growing shortage of nurses and the dramatically changing role of the front-line nurse manager, leadership education for nurses is of critical importance. The purpose of the project described in this article was to design, implement, and evaluate an innovative model of nursing leadership development for students enrolled in registered nurse to bachelor of science in nursing or registered nurse to master of science in nursing programs. A guided "action-learning" course was designed that focused on both core knowledge and experiential learning. The course was developed with the assistance of an advisory panel of prominent nurse leaders with expertise in administration, health policy, informatics, and nursing education. The prototype course was offered for the first time as an elective in Spring 2003. Evaluation data indicated that the course was considered valuable by students and with modifications suggested by students, faculty, and advisory panel members, the course would be offered regularly as part of the curriculum. Recommendations also included adapting course content to a continuing education format. PMID:15481400

  2. Differential Roles of PML Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Nisole, Sébastien; Maroui, Mohamed Ali; Mascle, Xavier H; Aubry, Muriel; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is fused to the retinoic acid receptor alpha in patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Treatment of APL patients with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) reverses the disease phenotype by a process involving the degradation of the fusion protein via its PML moiety. Several PML isoforms are generated from a single PML gene by alternative splicing. They share the same N-terminal region containing the RBCC/tripartite motif but differ in their C-terminal sequences. Recent studies of all the PML isoforms reveal the specific functions of each. Here, we review the nomenclature and structural organization of the PML isoforms in order to clarify the various designations and classifications found in different databases. The functions of the PML isoforms and their differential roles in antiviral defense also are reviewed. Finally, the key players involved in the degradation of the PML isoforms in response to As2O3 or other inducers are discussed. PMID:23734343

  3. Approches interlinguistiques de la complementation verbale: Quels savoirs pour l'enseignant? Quels savoirs pour l'eleve? (Interlinguistic Approaches to Object-Verb Complementation: What the Teacher Needs To Know? What the Student Needs To Know?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beguelin, Marie-Jose, Ed.; de Pietro, Jean-Francois, Ed.; Naf, Anton, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue deals with verb-object complementation, a complex and controversial but important topic, in particular in connection with the teaching and learning of a second language. The articles are a response to a long debate about the harmonization of grammatical terminology used in schools and the simplification of grammar for students. The…

  4. Etiology of maternal-student role stress.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Eileen

    2004-04-01

    This paper details the refinement and testing of a proposition regarding the age-related effects of psychological involvement in both the maternal role and the student role, and total network support on maternal-student role stress. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that the independent variables contribute to an explanation of maternal-student role stress only for women aged 37 years and older. The proposition was further refined. It supports the propositions of both Neuman's systems model and Meleis et al.'s transition framework. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:15090092

  5. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.

  6. University-Based Planning: Faculty Advocacy Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William M.; Thagard, Aubrey

    2001-01-01

    Supports the involvement of university planning faculty in advocacy roles as change agents in urban inner city communities, discussing several roles for urban design professionals in the academic context as advocates or contractors (i.e., planner advocacy in community development, in environmental affairs, and in urban design). (SM)

  7. Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families: Childhood Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used retrospective accounts to compare adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), adults who experienced stressful events in childhood not involving parental alcoholism (A-D+), and adults with no reported dysfunction in family of origin (A-D-) with regard to dysfunctional roles adopted as children. Dysfunctional role adoption was more frequent in ACOA…

  8. Sex-roles in Reading Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobban, Glenys

    1974-01-01

    Author contended that no broad-ranging study of the way sex-roles are presented in British reading schemes exists. In this article he described a preliminary study on sex-role content in readers in order to remedy this lack of information. (Author/RK)

  9. Modelling Focused Learning in Role Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matessa, Michael; Anderson, John R.

    2000-01-01

    ACT-R is a theory of cognition that is capable of learning the relative usefulness of alternative rules. A model using this implicit procedural learning mechanism is described that explains results from a concept formation task created by McDonald and MacWhinney (1991), a role assignment created by Blackwell (1995), and a new role assignment…

  10. ROLE-PLAYING AND THE POOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDFARB, JEAN; RIESSMAN, FRANK

    ROLE-PLAYING IS A VALUABLE TECHNIQUE FOR WORKING WITH DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE BECAUSE IT IS CONGENIAL WITH THE LOW-INCOME PERSON'S STYLE. ROLE-PLAYING ALLOWS THE PRACTITIONER TO REDUCE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN HIMSELF AND THE DISADVANTAGED, IT PERMITS MORE LEARNING ABOUT THE CULTURE OF THE LOW-INCOME PERSON FROM THE "INSIDE," AND IT IS AN EXCELLENT…

  11. Origins of Sex-Role Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Weintraub, Marsha

    1979-01-01

    Development in general, and sex-role behavior in particular, is influenced by both biological and environmental factors. However, the coalescence of these factors around the child's growing social cognitive abilities is the critical factor in the development of sex role behavior. (Author/EB)

  12. A Leadership Role for Library Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, John

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of library media specialists in education. Highlights include assessing the effect of media specialists on learning outcomes; sexism; educational change; and strategic planning for media centers and for schools, including a paradigm shift for media specialists to assume a leadership role in the educational community. (LRW)

  13. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  14. Personality Correlates of Social Role Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Paul; And Others

    The concept of social role range (SRR) deals with the magnitude of an individual's repertoire of different interpersonal behavior patterns and exhibits the properties of a personality trait. Over a broad range of interpersonal settings, individuals tend to be consistent in the magnitude of their SRR's. A role play technique was devised for…

  15. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  16. Children's Sextyped Views of Traditional Occupational Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Ruth S.

    1983-01-01

    Examined children's views of traditional occupations in a study of 300 elementary school students who viewed photographs of 18 occupations. Results showed for most of the 18 occupational roles, students chose a traditional male or female role. The occupations of homemaker and firefighter received the most stereotyped scores. (JAC)

  17. Opening Trade Barriers: Sex Role Awareness Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Rikki

    This manual consists of exercises to explore sex-role stereotyping as it affects work roles. They are intended to make young people aware of career opportunities in nontraditional fields. The 10 exercises include the following: values clarification; true-false quiz about sex characteristics and occupational requirements; character traits…

  18. Role Strain in University Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Craig; Bozeman, Barry

    2007-01-01

    One way in which university faculty members' professional lives have become more complex with the advent of contemporary university research centers is that many faculty have taken on additional roles. The authors' concern in this article is to determine the extent to which role strain is experienced by university faculty members who are…

  19. The Roles and Challenges of Deans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez, Joni Mina; Wolverton, Mimi; Gmelch, Walter H.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Academic Deans, examined the relationships between academic deans' roles, conflict, and ambiguity, postulating that the same roles in which they engage today will be challenges in the future unless conflict and ambiguity are lessened. Discusses the implications of these issues and recommends strategies for…

  20. Technological Dependency, Role Stress, and Strain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Robert D.; Jones, Kenneth W.

    This study grew out of interest in how occupational role stress, moderated by personality, affects health--particularly in the area of coronary heart disease. People in organizations are now asking how occupational role demands and technological developments affect employee health. This study examined the effects of an impending shutdown of the…

  1. Key Roles in the Revolution of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverin-Simard, Danielle

    At the height of the work revolution and its great social challenges, career development and employment counseling specialists have essential key roles to play in order to support the socioeconomic growth of our community. This book suggests four pro-active key roles for the profession. This recommendation is based on research conducted over the…

  2. Higher Education Leadership Roles in Knowledge Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffery S.; Marion, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the critical roles of leadership in higher education and to define how such roles enable an environment that embraces the demands of a knowledge-based organization. Design/methodology/approach: Through interviews with executive leadership in several higher education institutions, the ontology of knowledge management was…

  3. Licensed Practical Nurses' Sex Role Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallston, Barbara Strudler; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether sex-role stereotypes would affect nurses' (N=32) attitudes toward simulations of male and female patients. Emotional style and patients' diagnosis were manipulated. Results showed significant sex-role differences and stereotypical attitudes. Male patients were rated more positively, and were more likely to possess traditional male…

  4. Making a role for nurses in CCGs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2016-07-13

    What do nurses in clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) do? The answer is lots, but their role and influence varies greatly between CCGs. In May, a report from NHS Clinical Commissioners (NHSCC) - the membership organisation of CCGs - highlighted the key responsibilities of nurses and the important contribution they make in what are often pressured and demanding roles (see tinyurl.com/CCG-nurses ). PMID:27406497

  5. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  6. Sex Role Stereotypes Are Alive and Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Sara E.

    Two studies, in late 1988 and early 1990, examined sex-role stereotypes held by northeastern liberal arts college students (N=719) and southern state university college students (N=145). The first study used the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and compared ratings of men and women with the traditional sex-roles represented by the PAQ in…

  7. Health Educators: Role Modeling and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.; Galli, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Examined cigarette smoking among health educators, their views about the effects of this behavior upon their audiences and beliefs about smoking in light of their professional role. Smokers and nonsmokers were significantly less included than former smokers to feel the role of health education is to convince people not to smoke. (Author/ABL)

  8. Role-Playing Methods in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, Mark; Fox, Robert

    This book, one of three Teacher Resource Booklets on Classroom Social Relations and Learning developed at the Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge at the University of Michigan, discusses the theoretical background of role playing and gives a step-by-step discussion of how to use role playing in the classroom. There are…

  9. Faculty Role Categories: A Dean's Management Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael G.; Sigerstad, Thomas; Kuffel, Thomas S.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Keaton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors' goal was to examine faculty roles from a role-theoretic perspective based on a typology of faculty categories. Based on an assessment of specific faculty needs within each category, the authors proposed a differentiated management model for academic deans to address specific segments of the faculty work environment.…

  10. Marketing the Changing Role of the SLMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freels, Judy; Kruse, Claire; Richards, David; Sophiea, Laura

    2001-01-01

    School library media specialists (SLMSs) in the Rochester (Michigan) Community Schools decided it was crucial to come to a consensus about key roles of SLMSs in successful school library media programs. They identified the following roles: information specialist, instructional partner, and program administrator. To educate administrators, staff…

  11. Roles in Literacy Learning: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovey, Duane R., Ed.; Kerber, James E., Ed.

    Refining and better understanding the roles parents, teachers, administrators, and researchers play in helping children learn to process written language is the focus of this book. Part 1 considers the role of the parents and includes the following articles: "Learning to Read: It Starts in the Home" (David B. Doake): "Let's Read Another One"…

  12. Veterinary Science Departments: Their Role in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Terrence M.

    1977-01-01

    The roles played by veterinary science departments are creditable and important, says this head of a department of veterinary science. Those roles will reflect an absolute increase in participation with veterinary schools on a regional and national basis, and a relative increase in direct involvement in veterinary education. (LBH)

  13. Students' Roles during Peer Response Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sandra Sim Phek; Samuel, Moses

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the types of roles played by students during peer response sessions and investigated how the students' roles facilitated learning. This qualitative case study involved six Grade 10 mixed-proficiency level students from a secondary school in Malaysia. Data were collected through multiple sources. The findings indicated that the…

  14. CTE's Role in Workforce Readiness Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2008-01-01

    The career and technical education (CTE) programs play critical roles in the growth of workforce readiness credentials. This article presents an ACTE issue brief that highlighting the need for workforce readiness credentials, and the role CTE plays in helping students acquire them. CTE is at the forefront of preparing students at all levels for…

  15. Development of Mentor Teacher Role Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Ebru Melek

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and investigate the validity and reliability of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory (MTRI). A total of 1843 student teachers in the Distance English Teacher Training Program participated in the study. The 58 items of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory underwent principal factor analysis, which revealed nine factors…

  16. Roles, Responsibilities, and Qualifications for Reading Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This document presents in outline form the roles, responsibilities, and qualifications of reading specialists as formulated by the Professional Standards and Ethics Committee and approved by the Board of Directors of the International Reading Association. The breakdown of roles, which are retained as outline headings in the sections on…

  17. The Role of the Primary School Head.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lester

    1987-01-01

    This study uses Henry Mintzberg's structural observation method to examine British primary school head teachers' work patterns and determine the nature of their role. Head teachers' days were characterized by brevity, variety, and fragmentation similar to those discussed in findings of other empirical managerial studies. Leadership roles stressed…

  18. Sex Role Socialization in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    This paper reviews the theory and research related to the sex role socialization of young children, specifically addressing a range of theoretical and practical issues related to the implementation of the Women's Educational Equity Act. Section I examines the influence of the family on children's sex role development, focusing on differentiated…

  19. Working Lesbians: Role Conflicts and Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar, Sandra A.; Gilbert, Lucia A.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated interrole and intrarole conflict reported by lesbian working women (N=79) and factors influencing the types of coping strategies these women used. Responses to a questionnaire showed most interrole conflicts were between the work and lover roles, and intrarole conflicts involved the work and daughter roles. (Author/JAC)

  20. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  1. THE ROLE BEHAVIOR OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS

    THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS OF THREE ROLE BEHAVIOR ASPECTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS WERE STUDIED, AS FOLLOWS--(1) CLOSENESS OF TEACHER SUPERVISION, (2) SUPPORT OF INNOVATION, AND (3) INVOLVEMENT OF PARENTS IN SCHOOL AFFAIRS. SPECIFICALLY, THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS TO BE EXAMINED WERE THE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTS OF ROLE BEHAVIOR IN TERMS OF TEACHER…

  2. The Online School Librarian: Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Children across the United States of America are maturing in a media-saturated society. Unfortunately, this often results in poor content choices and evaluative skills. North American schools have attempted to address this problem through information literacy skills. One role key to teaching these skills is the role of the school librarian.…

  3. Understanding the Role-Emerging Fieldwork Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossers, Ann M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Students' perceptions (n=11) of role-emerging placements as a learning experience in occupational therapy were explored using qualitative methods. Findings indicate that important learning occurs in the role-emerging experience, which provides opportunities for the development of students as professionals. (Author/JOW)

  4. The Role of SENCOs as Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tissot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The year 2014 marks an important milestone for the SENCo role. It is the 20-year anniversary of the requirement for schools to have a named person as lead for special educational needs. This article, by Catherine Tissot from the University of Reading, explores the vision of the role as seen in Government guidance and documents and compares this…

  5. The Evaluative Role of Participant Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundsteen, Sara W.

    Participant observation, one of the fieldwork techniques of ethnography, requires a definition of and delicate balance between the roles of participant and observer and a clear understanding of the involvement of the researcher in these two roles. Ethnography is the study of the geographical distribution of people and their relation to their…

  6. Negotiating Researcher Roles in Ethnographic Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harklau, Linda; Norwood, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    We argue for the value of postmodernism in illuminating the roles or subject positions of ethnographic program evaluators. Drawing upon data from an ethnographic study of a summer college readiness program for African American, Asian American, and Anglo youth, we explore how postmodern theories can provide insights into the multiple roles of…

  7. Trends in Counselor Attitude About Women's Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, Patricia Auer; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Counselor attitudes were measured longitudinally to chart attitude changes accompanying increasing career development interests of women. Attitudes examined were: (1) the dual role of mother and worker; (2) perceptions of sex role definition; and (3) expectations regarding the societal impact of women. Changes suggest broader acceptance of sex…

  8. The Federal Role in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Virginia A.

    The federal role in postsecondary education since 1787 is traced. Attention is directed to the types of indirect federal support toward postsecondary education until the first Higher Education Act of 1965, and the kinds of national priorities served by the current federal role in postsecondary education. Future projections and the implications of…

  9. Personality Characteristics and Evaluation of Women's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Mary C.; Hawker, James

    The relationships between several commonly utilized women's role questionnaires and several personality inventories was investigated. Undergraduates students (120 females, 80 males) completed several personality and sex-role questionnaires including the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI); Rotter's Locus of Control Scale (I-E), MAFERR Forms A, B,…

  10. Probation's role in offender mental health.

    PubMed

    Sirdifield, Coral; Owen, Sara

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders' perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method. Findings Both staff and offenders defined probation's role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders' engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms. Originality/value This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation's role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy. PMID:27548020

  11. Preterm labor: role of the nurse practitioner.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Jennifer; Silber, Angela

    2015-03-12

    The nurse practitioner may play a pivotal role in diagnosing preterm labor through risk assessment and physical exam. While treatment and management of preterm labor are usually beyond the nurse practitioner's scope of practice, they can play an important role in preventing preterm birth through assessment, action, or advocacy. PMID:25585096

  12. The Principal's Role in Instructional Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Keith

    1985-01-01

    The role of principal as supervisor and evaluator of teachers is central to instructional leadership, and this means direct involvement through classroom observation and interaction with each teacher. Principals often neglect this role, with lack of time usually given as the reason. There are other reasons: Interacting with teachers about their…

  13. UNESCO's Role in Global Educational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comparative Education Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a two-round discussion that centered around the question: "How well has UNESCO framed its own proposed role in meeting Education for All objectives as well as the roles of other UN organizations, national governments, and civil society actors?" The participants reviewed the most recent draft of UNESCO's "Global Action Plan"…

  14. The Role of Platelets in Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Montoro-García, Silvia; Schindewolf, Marc; Stanford, Sophia; Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Thiele, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Platelets have attracted much interest in arterial cardiovascular disease, whereas their role in VTE has received much less attention. Recent evidence suggests that platelets may play a more important role in VTE than previously anticipated. This review discusses the mechanisms that link platelets with venous thrombotic disease and their potential applications as novel risk factors for VTE. In addition, animal studies and randomized clinical trials that highlight the potential effect of antiplatelet therapy in venous thrombosis are evaluated to assess the role of platelets in VTE. The clinical significance of platelets for VTE risk assessment in specific patient cohorts and their role as a suitable therapeutic target for VTE prevention is acknowledged. The role of platelets in VTE is a promising field for future research. PMID:26926584

  15. The Relationship between Race and Students' Identified Career Role Models and Perceived Role Model Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…

  16. What Is a PE Teacher's Role? The Influence of Learning Opportunities on Role Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keay, Jeanne K.

    2006-01-01

    At a time when the role of a physical education teacher in schools is being called into question, this article considers the relationship between learning opportunities and role definition. Previous research suggests that teachers define their roles through prior experience; through interaction with colleagues, friends, family and media; and in…

  17. Roles of sucrose in guard cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Daloso, Danilo M; Dos Anjos, Leticia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-08-01

    The control of stomatal aperture involves reversible changes in the concentration of osmolytes in guard cells. Sucrose has long been proposed to have an osmolytic role in guard cells. However, direct evidence for such a role is lacking. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that sucrose may perform additional roles in guard cells. Here, we provide an update covering the multiple roles of sucrose in guard cell regulation, highlighting the knowledge accumulated regarding spatiotemporal differences in the synthesis, accumulation, and degradation of sucrose as well as reviewing the role of sucrose as a metabolic connector between mesophyll and guard cells. Analysis of transcriptomic data from previous studies reveals that several genes encoding sucrose and hexose transporters and genes involved in gluconeogenesis, sucrose and trehalose metabolism are highly expressed in guard cells compared with mesophyll cells. Interestingly, this analysis also showed that guard cells have considerably higher expression of C4 -marker genes than mesophyll cells. We discuss the possible roles of these genes in guard cell function and the role of sucrose in stomatal opening and closure. Finally, we provide a perspective for future experiments which are required to fill gaps in our understanding of both guard cell metabolism and stomatal regulation. PMID:27060199

  18. Aggression toward gay men as gender role enforcement: effects of male role norms, sexual prejudice, and masculine gender role stress.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J

    2009-08-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between 2 gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  19. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  20. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    PubMed

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649

  1. Mexican American Adolescents’ Gender Role Attitude Development: The Role of Adolescents’ Gender and Nativity and Parents’ Gender Role Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican American adolescents (N = 246; 51% female), using four phases of longitudinal data across eight years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649

  2. Role of Sodium Channels in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David I; Isom, Lori L; Petrou, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are fundamentally important for the generation and coordinated transmission of action potentials throughout the nervous system. It is, therefore, unsurprising that they have been shown to play a central role in the genesis and alleviation of epilepsy. Genetic studies on patients with epilepsy have identified more than 700 mutations among the genes that encode for VGSCs attesting to their role in pathogenesis. Further, many common antiepileptic drugs act on VGSCs to suppress seizure activity. Here, we present an account of the role of VGSCs in epilepsy, both through their pathogenic dysfunction and as targets for pharmacotherapy. PMID:27143702

  3. Patient advocacy: the role of the nurse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Pin Pin

    2015-06-10

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is well recognised by healthcare professionals, yet the processes and practices involved in patient advocacy are not clearly understood. A suboptimal level of advocacy is often apparent in the literature, encompassing paternalistic concepts of protecting patients from harm. This article examines the concept of patient advocacy and its relevance to nursing, associated goals and outcomes of advocacy and the processes and practices involved. It provides insights into how nurses practise patient advocacy in healthcare settings and how they may develop this role further, through formal education, workplace learning, role modelling by expert nurses and promoting an organisational culture conducive to patient advocacy. PMID:26058653

  4. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kiah L; Millsteed, Jeannine; Richmond, Janet E; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Girdler, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working 'sandwich' generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working 'sandwich' generation women. PMID:27305074

  5. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance

    PubMed Central

    Girdler, Sonya J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women. PMID:27305074

  6. Organizational role stress among medical school faculty members in Iran: dealing with role conflict

    PubMed Central

    Ahmady, Soleiman; Changiz, Tahereh; Masiello, Italo; Brommels, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Background Little research has been conducted to investigate role stress experienced by faculty members in medical schools in developing countries. This becomes even more important when the process of reform in medical education has already taken place, such as the case of Iran. The objectives of this study were to investigate and assess the level and source of role-related stress as well as dimensions of conflict among the faculty members of Iranian medical schools. Variables like the length of academic work, academic rank, employment position, and the departments of affiliation were also taken into consideration in order to determine potentially related factors. Methods A survey was conducted at three different ranks of public medical schools. The validated Organizational Role Stress Scale was used to investigate the level of role stress and dimensions of role conflict among medical faculty members. The response rate was 66.5%. Results The findings show that role stress was experienced in high level among almost all faculty members. All three studied medical schools with different ranks are threatened with relatively the same levels of role stress. Specific differences were found among faculty members from different disciplines, and academic ranks. Also having permanent position and the length of services had significant correlation with the level of role stress. The major role- related stress and forms of conflict among faculty members were role overload, role expectation conflict, inter-role distance, resource inadequacy, role stagnation, and role isolation. Conclusion The most role-related stressors and forms of conflict among faculty members include too many tasks and everyday work load; conflicting demands from colleagues and superiors; incompatible demands from their different personal and organizational roles; inadequate resources for appropriate performance; insufficient competency to meet the demands of their role; inadequate autonomy to make decision on

  7. Role of succinic acid in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1982-01-01

    Succinic acid is converted into other carboxylic acids by ionizing radiation. The results obtained have been correlated with the ready formation of this compound in prebiotic experiments. Its role in biological systems may be related to its prebiotic occurrence.

  8. The Role of Social Isolation in Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Deborah L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the literature which relates to the role of social isolation in suicide. Major areas reviewed include theories on suicide and social isolation, measures of social isolation, and empirical studies which concern the relationship of social isolation to suicide. (Author)

  9. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  10. The Role of Screen Translation: A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Eithne

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of screen translation in minority language broadcasting. The article is a response to a roundtable discussion on minority language broadcasting and language maintenance. (Author/VWL)

  11. Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Complex Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, John R.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Study describes the development and testing of questionnaire measures of role conflict and ambiguity. Analyses of responses of managers show these two constructs to be factorially identifiable and independent. (Author/KJ)

  12. Justice, citizenship, and role definition effects.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Lockhart, D; Hoobler, J

    2001-08-01

    A limitation of the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) literature is that theory and empirical evidence suggest that some employees define OCBs as part of their job. A theoretical framework that addresses this problem is tested in this article. The framework focuses on 2 effects: a role enlargement effect (i.e., employees with more favorable attitudes define OCB as inrole behavior, which, in turn, results in greater citizenship) and a role discretion effect (i.e., the relationship between employees' attitudes and their citizenship will be stronger among employees who define OCB as extrarole behavior). In tests of this framework with 2 independent samples of supervisor-subordinate dyads, role definitions were found to moderate several relationships between procedural justice and OCB, providing support for the role discretion effect. Implications for OCB theory and research are discussed. PMID:11519662

  13. Switching Roles: When Teachers Become Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motz, Annabelle B.; Hollander, Elaine K.

    1973-01-01

    Impressions of what teachers experience when they are registered in a graduate level course as students and the ways in which they accommodate to their new role are analyzed by the research method of participation-observation. (Author/KM)

  14. Role of inflammation in the aging bones.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Samir M; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F

    2015-02-15

    Chronic inflammation in aging is characterized by increased inflammatory cytokines, bone loss, decreased adaptation, and defective tissue repair in response to injury. Aging leads to inherent changes in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, resulting in impaired osteoblastogenesis. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines increase with aging, leading to enhanced myelopoiesis and osteoclastogenesis. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) play pivotal roles in osteoblast differentiation, the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and subsequent bone repair. However, during aging, little is known about the role of macrophages in the differentiation and function of MSC and HSC. Aged mammals have higher circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines than young adults, supporting the hypothesis of increased inflammation with aging. This review will aid in the understanding of the potential role(s) of pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages in differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in relation to aging. PMID:25510309

  15. Preserving Intellectual Freedom: The Principal's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Hugh

    1993-01-01

    Argues that one of the primary roles of any school principal is to act as champion of students' rights of academic and intellectual freedom. Provides five steps that principals can take to preserve intellectual freedom in their schools. (HB)

  16. Fish Peroxiredoxins and Their Role in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Yulema; Martínez-Morcillo, Francisco J.; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Cuesta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative damage. In addition, Prxs may act as modulators of inflammation, protect against cell death and tumour progression, and facilitate tissue repair after damage. The most studied roles of Prx1 and Prx2 are immunological. Here we present a review on the effects of some immunostimulant treatments and bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections on the expression of fish Prxs at the gene and/or protein level, and point to their important role in immunity. The Prxs show antioxidant activity as well as a protective effect against infection. Some preliminary data are presented about the role of fish Prx1 and Prx2 in virus resistance although further studies are needed before the role of fish Prx in immunity can be definitively defined. PMID:26633533

  17. Role of laparoscopy in hepatobiliary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Balarajah, Vickna; Watt, Jennifer; Abraham, Ajit T.; Bhattacharya, Satyajit; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2016-01-01

    The many benefits of laparoscopy, including smaller incision, reduced length of hospital stay and more rapid return to normal function, have seen its popularity grow in recent years. With concurrent improvements in non-surgical cancer management the importance of accurate staging is becoming increasingly important. There are two main applications of laparoscopic surgery in managing hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) malignancy: accurate staging of disease and resection. We aim to summarize the use of laparoscopy in these contexts. The role of staging laparoscopy has become routine in certain cancers, in particular T2 staged, locally advanced gastric cancer, hilar cholangiocarcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For other cancers, in particular colorectal, laparoscopy has now become the gold standard management for resection such that there is no role for stand-alone staging laparoscopy. In HPB cancers, although staging laparoscopy may play a role, with ever improving radiology, its role remains controversial. PMID:27377496

  18. Exploring the role of modern day fatherhood.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Spencer; Croninger, Bill; Croninger, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The case is the personal perspective and reflection of a father and his daughter, each individually addressing five key aspects of the role of father, revealing a unique and fundamental family perspective. PMID:25248532

  19. NASA's Role in Understanding Climate Change

    NASA Video Gallery

    Earth's climate is changing because of human activity. Learn about NASA's role in understanding climate and climate change with Gilberto Colón, special assistant to the deputy director of NASA's Go...

  20. Roles of Galectin-7 in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Tarnjeet; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2016-01-01

    Galectins are β-galactoside binding lectins that contain one or more carbohydrate recognition domains. As a consequence of sugar-binding properties, galectins exhibit a variety of interactions with glycoproteins, thus playing important roles in various pathological processes. A number of studies have shown roles of galectins in cancer. Galectin-7 is a prototype member of the galectin family implicated in epithelial stratification and cell migration. It can act as a potent dual regulator in different types of cancer. Galectin-7 may contribute either to neoplastic transformation and tumour progression through regulation of cell growth, cell cycle, angiogenesis, apoptosis and cell migration or may have a protective effect in cancer depending on the tissue type. A perusal of the literature indicates particular roles of galectin-7 in carcinomas and melanomas, while contributions await greater exploration in other types of cancers including sarcomas and leukemia. This review collectively summarizes available literature on expression and roles of galectin-7 in different cancers. PMID:26925627

  1. The Future Roles of the Rehabilitation Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthard, John E.; Salomone, Paul R.

    1972-01-01

    The expectations of 50 rehabilitation leaders for the role and responsibilities of rehabilitation counselors in 1980 are summarized. Their projections, made in 1967, include the types of tasks, settings, clients, and services rehabilitation counselors will experience. (Author)

  2. Planning and Role Setting: Alone or Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the recent American Library Association publication, "Planning and Role Setting for Public Libraries: A Manual of Options and Procedures," noting omissions in its approach. Several reasons for including the larger library community in the planning process are discussed. (MES)

  3. Role of laparoscopy in hepatobiliary malignancies.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Balarajah, Vickna; Watt, Jennifer; Abraham, Ajit T; Bhattacharya, Satyajit; Kocher, Hemant M

    2016-04-01

    The many benefits of laparoscopy, including smaller incision, reduced length of hospital stay and more rapid return to normal function, have seen its popularity grow in recent years. With concurrent improvements in non-surgical cancer management the importance of accurate staging is becoming increasingly important. There are two main applications of laparoscopic surgery in managing hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) malignancy: accurate staging of disease and resection. We aim to summarize the use of laparoscopy in these contexts. The role of staging laparoscopy has become routine in certain cancers, in particular T[2] staged, locally advanced gastric cancer, hilar cholangiocarcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For other cancers, in particular colorectal, laparoscopy has now become the gold standard management for resection such that there is no role for stand-alone staging laparoscopy. In HPB cancers, although staging laparoscopy may play a role, with ever improving radiology, its role remains controversial. PMID:27377496

  4. The role of the food industry.

    PubMed

    Mettler, A E

    1986-01-01

    The role of the manufacturing food industry in relation to provision of foods for the weanling encompasses 4 main objectives viz. customer satisfaction, safety, providing product information and the maintenance of commercial viability. The effectiveness of the manufacturing food industry to fulfil these roles is judged by the customer wishing to buy for quality and convenience reasons, by the law of the land in meeting legal requirements for safety and labelling and by its generation of profit in terms of commercial viability. Whereas it is commonly expected that industry should fulfil a role in nutrition education this is seen as a primary role of health professionals whilst industry needs to provide full and detailed product information. The industry is highly creative in both its technological innovation and adaptation and works hard at trying to satisfy the requirements of consumers, the industry, health professionals and its critics. PMID:3463120

  5. The role of inhibition in epileptic networks.

    PubMed

    Trevelyan, Andrew J; Muldoon, Sarah F; Merricks, Edward M; Racca, Claudia; Staley, Kevin J

    2015-06-01

    Inhibition plays many roles in cortical circuits, including coordination of network activity in different brain rhythms and neuronal clusters, gating of activity, gain control, and dictating the manner in which activity flows through the network. This latter is particularly relevant to epileptic states, when extreme hypersynchronous discharges can spread across cortical territories. We review these different physiological and pathological roles and discuss how inhibition can be compromised and why this predisposes the network to seizures. PMID:26035675

  6. Role of neutrophils in systemic autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils have emerged as important regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent evidence indicates that neutrophils display marked abnormalities in phenotype and function in various systemic autoimmune diseases, and may play a central role in initiation and perpetuation of aberrant immune responses and organ damage in these conditions. This review discusses the putative roles that neutrophils and aberrant neutrophil cell death play in the pathogenesis of various systemic autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, small vessel vasculitis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24286137

  7. Role Models for Pregnancy, Birth, and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses how the media provide role models—good and bad—for pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. There is a critical need for more positive role models that promote natural, safe, and healthy pregnancy and birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth. PMID:22379353

  8. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  9. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available. PMID:25954093

  10. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. PMID:25133722

  11. Multifaceted Role of Sialylation in Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baskakov, Ilia V.; Katorcha, Elizaveta

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian prion or PrPSc is a proteinaceous infectious agent that consists of a misfolded, self-replicating state of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein, or PrPC. Sialylation of the prion protein N-linked glycans was discovered more than 30 years ago, yet the role of sialylation in prion pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Recent years have witnessed extraordinary growth in interest in sialylation and established a critical role for sialic acids in host invasion and host-pathogen interactions. This review article summarizes current knowledge on the role of sialylation of the prion protein in prion diseases. First, we discuss the correlation between sialylation of PrPSc glycans and prion infectivity and describe the factors that control sialylation of PrPSc. Second, we explain how glycan sialylation contributes to the prion replication barrier, defines strain-specific glycoform ratios, and imposes constraints for PrPSc structure. Third, several topics, including a possible role for sialylation in animal-to-human prion transmission, prion lymphotropism, toxicity, strain interference, and normal function of PrPC, are critically reviewed. Finally, a metabolic hypothesis on the role of sialylation in the etiology of sporadic prion diseases is proposed. PMID:27551257

  12. Bitter taste receptors: Extraoral roles in pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Feroz Ahmed; Singh, Nisha; Arakawa, Makoto; Duan, Kangmin; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functional role of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) and bitter taste perception. This review will cover the recent advances made in identifying the role of T2Rs in pathophysiological states. T2Rs are widely expressed in various parts of human anatomy and have been shown to be involved in physiology of respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system. Empirical evidence has shown T2Rs to be an integral component of antimicrobial immune responses in upper respiratory tract infections. The studies on human airway smooth muscle cells have shown that a potent bitter tastant induced bronchodilatory effects mediated by bitter taste receptors. Clinical data suggests a role for T2R38 polymorphism in predisposition of individuals to chronic rhinosinusitis. The role of genetic variation in T2Rs and its impact on disease susceptibility have been investigated in various other disease risk factors such as alcohol dependence, head and neck cancers. Preliminary reports have demonstrated differential expression of functional T2Rs in breast cancer cell lines. Studies on the role of T2Rs in pathophysiology of diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, and cancer have been promising. However, research in this field is in its nascent stages, and more confirmatory studies on animal models and in clinical settings are required. PMID:27032752

  13. Multifaceted Role of Sialylation in Prion Diseases.

    PubMed

    Baskakov, Ilia V; Katorcha, Elizaveta

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian prion or PrP(Sc) is a proteinaceous infectious agent that consists of a misfolded, self-replicating state of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein, or PrP(C). Sialylation of the prion protein N-linked glycans was discovered more than 30 years ago, yet the role of sialylation in prion pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Recent years have witnessed extraordinary growth in interest in sialylation and established a critical role for sialic acids in host invasion and host-pathogen interactions. This review article summarizes current knowledge on the role of sialylation of the prion protein in prion diseases. First, we discuss the correlation between sialylation of PrP(Sc) glycans and prion infectivity and describe the factors that control sialylation of PrP(Sc). Second, we explain how glycan sialylation contributes to the prion replication barrier, defines strain-specific glycoform ratios, and imposes constraints for PrP(Sc) structure. Third, several topics, including a possible role for sialylation in animal-to-human prion transmission, prion lymphotropism, toxicity, strain interference, and normal function of PrP(C), are critically reviewed. Finally, a metabolic hypothesis on the role of sialylation in the etiology of sporadic prion diseases is proposed. PMID:27551257

  14. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks - the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  15. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  16. Role of Osteopontin in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yankai; Jeong, Seogsong; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein, is involved in numerous pathological conditions including inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis in various tissues. Extensive studies have elucidated the critical role of OPN in cell signaling such as regulation of cell proliferation, migration, inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. In the liver, OPN interacts with integrins, CD44, vimentin and MyD88 signaling, thereby induces infiltration, migration, invasion and metastasis of cells. OPN is highlighted as a chemoattractant for macrophages and neutrophils during injury in inflammatory liver diseases. OPN activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to exert an enhancer in fibrogenesis. The role of OPN in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has also generated significant interests, especially with regards to its role as a diagnostic and prognostic factor. Interestingly, OPN acts an opposing role in liver repair under different pathological conditions. This review summarizes the current understanding of OPN in liver diseases. Further understanding of the pathophysiological role of OPN in cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms associated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and cancer may contribute to the development of novel strategies for clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapy of liver diseases. PMID:27570486

  17. Perceived Role-Taking Behavior and Role-Taking Test Performance in Fraternity and Sorority College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro

    Generally, role-taking research has focused on the development and correlates of role taking in children. To explore role taking in the relatively overlooked population of young adults, a sociometric instrument, the Peer Role-Taking Questionnaire (PRTQ), was developed and used to measure perceived role-taking behaviors. The results were compared…

  18. Teams without Roles: Empowering Teams for Greater Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Mitch

    1995-01-01

    Criticizes Belbin's team role theory on the basis that roles are appropriate only in static organizations. Argues that most teams have no set roles and members interchange them. Suggests that all team members be trained to manage teamwork effectively. (SK)

  19. Climate hazards, adaptation and "resilience" of societies (early Little Ice Age, west of France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athimon, Emmanuelle; Maanan, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    exports of wine or salt to finance the restoration of the bridges. So it appears that these societies have been able to adapt through a collective memory, a lifestyle, a significant perception of risks, a territory management, the construction of infrastructures, etc. Key words : Little Ice Age, West of France, climate hazards, resilience, adaptation. This work was supported by grants from the Fondation de France through the research program « Quels littoraux pour demain? ».

  20. Role of copper transporters in platinum resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Deepak; Guancial, Elizabeth; Kim, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Platinum (Pt)-based antitumor agents are effective in the treatment of many solid malignancies. However, their efficacy is limited by toxicity and drug resistance. Reduced intracellular Pt accumulation has been consistently shown to correlate with resistance in tumors. Proteins involved in copper homeostasis have been identified as Pt transporters. In particular, copper transporter receptor 1 (CTR1), the major copper influx transporter, has been shown to play a significant role in Pt resistance. Clinical studies demonstrated that expression of CTR1 correlated with intratumoral Pt concentration and outcomes following Pt-based therapy. Other CTRs such as CTR2, ATP7A and ATP7B, may also play a role in Pt resistance. Recent clinical studies attempting to modulate CTR1 to overcome Pt resistance may provide novel strategies. This review discusses the role of CTR1 as a potential predictive biomarker of Pt sensitivity and a therapeutic target for overcoming Pt resistance. PMID:26862494

  1. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Role of Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; Maor, Yaakov; Nanau, Radu M.; Melzer, Ehud; Mell, Haim; Opris, Mihai; Cohen, Lawrence; Malnick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The present review spans a broad spectrum of topics dealing with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including clinical and translational research. It focuses on the role of the immune system and the signaling pathways of cytokines in the pathogenesis of ALD. An additional factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which plays a central role in the induction of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. LPS derived from the intestinal microbiota enters the portal circulation, and is recognized by macrophages (Kupffer cells) and hepatocytes. In individuals with ALD, excessive levels of LPS in the liver affect immune, parenchymal, and non-immune cells, which in turn release various inflammatory cytokines and recruit neutrophils and other inflammatory cells. In this review, we elucidate the mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to the activation of Kupffer cells and the inflammatory cascade. The role of the stellate cells in fibrogenesis is also discussed. PMID:26343741

  2. Role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Idzko, Marco; Pitchford, Simon; Page, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role for platelets and their products (e.g., platelet factor 4, β-thromboglobulin, RANTES, thromboxane, or serotonin) in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. A variety of changes in platelet function have been observed in patients with asthma, such as alterations in platelet secretion, expression of surface molecules, aggregation, and adhesion. Moreover, platelets have been found to actively contribute to most of the characteristic features of asthma, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. This review brings together the current available data from both experimental and clinical studies that have investigated the role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation and asthma. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of asthma might lead to novel promising therapeutic approaches in the treatment of allergic airway diseases. PMID:26051948

  3. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  4. The role of Probiotics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Michail, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Allergic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group. While the exact etiology is unclear, evidence is mounting to incriminate environmental factors and an aberrant gut microbiota with a shift of the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system back to a Th1 response. Several in vitro studies suggest a role for probiotics in treating allergic disorders. Human trials demonstrate a limited benefit for the use of probiotics in atopic dermatitis in a preventive as well as a therapeutic capacity. Data supporting their use in allergic rhinitis are less robust. Currently, there is no role for probiotic therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Future studies will be critical in determining the exact role of probiotics in allergic disorders. PMID:19946408

  5. Role of STAT3 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Pranabananda; Sabri, Nafiseh; Li, Jinghong; Li, Willis X

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a challenging disease. It is responsible for the high cancer mortality rates in the US and worldwide. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operative in lung cancer is an important first step in developing effective therapies. Accumulating evidence over the last 2 decades suggests a critical role for Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) as a point of convergence for various signaling pathways that are dysregulated in the disease. In this review, we discuss possible molecular mechanisms involving STAT3 in lung tumorigenesis based on recent literature. We consider possible roles of STAT3 in cancer cell proliferation and survival, in the tumor immune environment, and in epigenetic regulation and interaction of STAT3 with other transcription factors. We also discuss the potential role of STAT3 in tumor suppression, which complicates strategies of targeting STAT3 in cancer therapy. PMID:26413424

  6. Cardiac arrhythmias in space. Role of vagotonia.

    PubMed

    Leguay, G; Seigneuric, A

    1981-07-01

    Rhythm disorders observed in space have always been minor but they are not unfrequent. They include: ventricular or supra-ventricular extrasystoles, nodal arrhythmias, auriculo-ventricular conduction disorders. There are several etiopathogenetic hypotheses: a strict selection must permit its elimination of an underlying heart disease; the potassium deficiency is often advanced but its role is not certain; the role of catecholamines is also discussed; the role of hypervagotony is extensively analysed as great clinical and electro-cardiographic evidence speaks for it. It can induce disorders which are more serious than those observed so far, particularly fibrillation or intermittent atrial flutter; weightlessness itself could partly condition the vagotonic state; and the effects of fluid shifts are also discussed from this point of view. The possible therapies for various atrial, nodal, ventricular disorders are reviewed, with greater detail for vagal atrial arrhythmias. PMID:11542963

  7. Neuropilins: expression and roles in the epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wild, Jonathan R L; Staton, Carolyn A; Chapple, Keith; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-04-01

    Initially found expressed in neuronal and then later in endothelial cells, it is well established that the transmembrane glycoproteins neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and neuropilin-2 (NRP2) play essential roles in axonal growth and guidance and in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Neuropilin expression and function in epithelial cells has received little attention when compared with neuronal and endothelial cells. Overexpression of NRPs is shown to enhance growth, correlate with invasion and is associated with poor prognosis in various tumour types, especially those of epithelial origin. The contribution of NRP and its ligands to tumour growth and metastasis has spurred a strong interest in NRPs as novel chemotherapy drug targets. Given NRP's role as a multifunctional co-receptor with an ability to bind with disparate ligand families, this has sparked new areas of research implicating NRPs in diverse biological functions. Here, we review the growing body of research demonstrating NRP expression and role in the normal and neoplastic epithelium. PMID:22414290

  8. The veterinary technician's role in laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Kronberger, Charly

    2002-05-01

    The use of surgical lasers in veterinary practice has grown significantly since 1996. Many veterinarians have studied and implemented the basic physics and tissue didactics required to successfully incorporate a surgical laser program into their practice. The support role of the veterinary technician is crucial to ensuring an efficient, safe, and successful outcome of any surgical laser procedure. The technician's role may include practice management duties, client communication, and laser safety officer duties. Although there are a variety of lasers, the most common types used in veterinary practice are carbon dioxide (CO2) and diode. This article presents an overview of the veterinary technician's role as a key support person in ensuring a safe and positive outcome in the implementation of CO2 and diode lasers in a veterinary practice. PMID:12064050

  9. The role of macrophages in bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadou, Ifigenia; Holen, Ingunn

    2013-01-01

    The skeleton is one of the most common sites of metastatic disease, affecting a large number of patients with advanced cancer. Although an increasing number of therapies are available for treatment of bone metastasis, this remains incurable, highlighting the need for better understanding of the underlying biology. Metastatic tumour spread to distant organs is a multistage process, involving not only cancer cells but also those of the surrounding host microenvironment. Tumour associated macrophages are multifunctional cells that contribute both to tumour development and response to treatment by regulating adaptive immunity, remodelling of stroma, mediating basement membrane breakdown and angiogenesis. Although direct evidence for a specific role of macrophages in bone metastasis is limited, their involvement in metastasis in general is well documented. In this review we provide an overview of role of macrophages in tumour progression, with particular emphasis on their potential role in bone metastasis. PMID:26909287

  10. Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2012-06-01

    The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine. PMID:22160735