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  1. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    PubMed

    Beyers, Rene L; Hart, John A; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats. PMID:22096529

  2. Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Beyers, Rene L.; Hart, John A.; Sinclair, Anthony R. E.; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats. PMID:22096529

  3. Democratic Republic of the Congo: undoing government by predation.

    PubMed

    Rackley, Edward B

    2006-12-01

    This paper draws on two periods of field research, conducted in 2004, to consider the state of governance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The first measures the paralysing impact of illegal taxation on riverine trade in the western provinces; the second documents civilian attempts to seek safety from violence in the troubled east, and evaluates third-party efforts to provide protection and security. Analysis of study findings suggests that the DRC's current governance crisis is neither historically novel nor driven exclusively by mineral resources, extraction rights or trafficking. Rather, government by predation is an endemic and systematic feature of the civil and military administration, ensuring the daily economic survival of soldiers and officials, who are able to wield their authority in a 'riskfree' environment, without oversight or accountability. The paper's conclusion tries to make sense of the persistence of corruption in social and political life, and assess the capacity of ordinary citizens to reverse their predicament. PMID:17100751

  4. Sport in the German Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of China. A Sociopolitical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Thomas D.

    1985-01-01

    The use of sports in the German Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of China is both propagandist and ideological. International sports competition can enhance the country's image and domestic sport is a means of political socialization. (DF)

  5. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  6. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  7. Adult intussusception in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Reinou S.; Leow, Jeffrey J.; Kushner, Adam L.

    2011-01-01

    Adult intussusception is a relatively infrequent, but well documented entity in the Western surgical literature, where the majorities of cases is caused by tumors and require resection. In Africa and other tropical locations, however, other causes of adult intussusceptions predominate and must be considered. As Western trained surgeons increasingly volunteer in developing countries it is imperative to become familiar with the complex presentation and differential diagnosis of this disease. We present an illustrative case of adult intussusception with a complex differential diagnosis that we recently treated during a surgical mission to the Democratic Republic of Congo. PMID:24949698

  8. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  9. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  10. Medicalized social hygiene? Tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911

  11. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-04-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

  12. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  13. The Volkshochschule: A Comparative Study of Adult Education in the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadt, Armin Ludwig

    The Volkschochschule (people's college) is the primary institution for adult education in both the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). The general purpose of this study is to assess similarities and differences not only in the basic aims of adult education but to examine where possible the…

  14. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A

    2011-05-01

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  15. Schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Madinga, Joule; Linsuke, Sylvie; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Meurs, Lynn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Speybroeck, Niko; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related parasitic infection, leading to chronic ill-health. For more than a century, schistosomiasis has been known to be endemic in certain provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a clear overview on the status of the disease within the country is currently lacking, which is seriously hampering control. Here, we review the available information on schistosomiasis in DRC of the past 60 years. Findings and data gaps are discussed in the perspective of upcoming control activities.An electronic literature search via PubMed complemented by manual search of non-peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to January 2015. The search concerned all relevant records related to schistosomiasis in the DRC from January 1955 onwards. A total of 155 records were found, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. Results were summarized by geographical region, mapped, and compared with those reported sixty years ago. The available data reported schistosomiasis in some areas located in 10 of the 11 provinces of DRC. Three species of Schistosoma were found: S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. The prevalence of schistosomiasis varied greatly between regions and between villages, with high values of up to 95 % observed in some communities. The overall trend over 60 years points to the spread of schistosomiasis to formerly non-endemic areas. The prevalence of schistosomiasis has increased in rural endemic areas and decreased in urban/peri-urban endemic areas of Kinshasa. Hepatosplenomegaly, urinary tract lesions and anaemia were commonly reported in schistosomiasis endemic areas but not always associated with infection status.The present review confirms that schistosomiasis is still endemic in DRC. However, available data are scattered across time and space and studies lack methodological uniformity, hampering a reliable estimation of the current status of schistosomiasis in DRC. There is a clear need for updated prevalence data

  16. Smallpox and its eradication in the Democratic Republic of Congo: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Mulembakani, Prime; Lekie, René Botee; Szczeniowski, Mark; Ježek, Zdeněk; Doshi, Reena; Hoff, Nicole; Rimoin, Anne W

    2011-12-30

    Smallpox eradication is considered to be one of the most remarkable accomplishments of the 20th century. Lessons learned from the campaign during the 1960s and 1970s in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) can provide important information for the development of other eradication programs including polio. The DRC is the third largest country in Africa; the population suffers from extreme poverty, deteriorating infrastructure and health systems, and long periods of civil strife. Despite these challenges, DRC's smallpox eradication campaign was successful, eradicating smallpox only 41 months after initiation. DRC had been polio free since 2001; however, in 2006, imported cases were identified in the country. Polio transmission has since been re-established and DRC now has the second greatest number of reported polio cases in the world. Challenges which existed during the smallpox campaign in DRC are still present today; additionally, the polio vaccine itself poses unique challenges which include requiring multiple doses to confer immunity. In the fight against polio in DRC, it will be important to draw from the smallpox eradication experience. A number of important themes emerged during the campaign that could be beneficial to eradicating polio and future eradication programs that may follow. During the smallpox campaign, a standard vaccination program was implemented, surveillance was intensified, and there were strong collaborative programs with community involvement. These successful elements of the smallpox campaign should be adapted and applied in DRC in polio eradication programs. PMID:22188930

  17. Factors Affecting Performance of Agricultural Extension: Evidence from Democratic Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Ulimwengu, John; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Badibanga, Thaddee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the institutional reforms and agricultural restructuring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this paper provides an assessment of the performance of the agricultural extension system as well as factors explaining it. Method: This paper involves key informants' interviews and surveys of 107 extension organizations and 162…

  18. Historical Development of Media Systems. II. German Democratic Republic. Communication and Society 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusiska, Emil

    This report summarizes a study of the systems of mass communication in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that concentrated on the ideological and political bases of mass media as they developed after the Second World War. Topics discussed include (1) the history of journalism in the GDR, (2) the roles of the various media in that country, (3)…

  19. Higher Education in the German Democratic Republic. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, H. J.

    The system of higher education of the German Democratic Republic is described. Information on the different kinds of colleges--universities, university colleges, and engineering and technical colleges--is provided, including admission procedures, course objectives, course content and structure, further education, paths leading to the award of…

  20. Invasive Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Ley, Benedikt; Le Hello, Simon; Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Weill, François-Xavier; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 is associated with high rates of drug resistance, bloodstream infections, and death. To determine whether ST313 is dominant in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we studied 180 isolates collected during 2007-2011; 96% belonged to CRISPOL type CT28, which is associated with ST313. PMID:24655438

  1. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Miwanda, Berthe; Moore, Sandra; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kabangwa, Ickel Kakongo; Ndjakani, Daniel Yassa; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Thefenne, Helene; Garnotel, Eric; Tshapenda, Gaston; Kakongo, Denis Kandolo; Kalambayi, Guy

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997–2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011–2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile. PMID:25897570

  2. Rights of the Child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosandey, Olivier

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The report's introductory summary asserts that although the DRC has ratified the Convention and other international…

  3. First Report of Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi has not been reported to occur in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in Central Africa. Nigeria (1) and Uganda (3) are the closest countries to DRC in the west and east, respectively, where the disease has been reported. In February 2007 during a dis...

  4. Are the Rural Schools of the Democratic Republic of Congo Ready for the $100 Laptop?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banza, Nsomwe-a- Nfunkwa

    2006-01-01

    The situation of schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo in matters concerning new information and communication technologies remains alarming. Given the primary role of these technologies in teaching and learning, as well as the concern of giving Congolese rural schools access to these tools, considering the problems of lack of electricity,…

  5. New Information and Communication Technologies in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Strategies and Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banza, Nsomwe-a- Nfunkwa

    2006-01-01

    This article will primarily allow a definition of the strategic development of ICT in the Democratic Republic of Congo, to be put forward. For the most part it involves the precision of many types of measures and strategies (such as institutional, regulatory, infrastructural measures), human resources, the development of content and partnerships,…

  6. Ketamine use in Taiwan: Moral panic, civilizing processes, and democratization.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Liang-Yin

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine use among young people in Taiwan has increased in recent years. Believing ketamine users to be a threat to social order and harsh punishment to be a deterrent, some legislators have called for upgrading ketamine use to a more serious criminal offence. These calls have been repeatedly rebuffed by the advisory council which sets drug policy, suggesting that the perceived problem does not correlate to the actual one. In this commentary, I argue that the calls of legislators constitute a 'moral panic,' and follow Rohloff (2011) in connecting the phenomenon to Elias' (2000) concept of civilizing and decivilizing processes. In addition, I demonstrate that moral panic - in the ketamine case at least - is shaped by the legacy of authoritarianism. PMID:24975444

  7. [Medicine and health in the Democratic Republic of Congo: from Independence to the Third Republic].

    PubMed

    Wembonyama, S; Mpaka, S; Tshilolo, L

    2007-10-01

    The birth and mortality rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a former Belgian colony, are high, i.e., 48.9/1000 and 17/1000 respectively. The DRC also has one of the highest maternal death rates in the world, i.e., 1289/100,000 live births. Health conditions have not improved since independence. Access to drinking water is limited, living conditions are poor, and food availability in households is low. The mean health services utilization rate in the DRC is estimated to be 0.15 visits/inhabitant/year. The incidence of transmissible diseases is rising. This increase is observed even for illnesses that were under control before independence such as sleeping sickness, onchocerciasis, leprosy, and tuberculosis. One the main causes of mortality and morbidity in the population is malaria that is responsible for the deaths of 150,000 to 250,000 children under the age of 5 every year. The HIV prevalence rate is 4.5% with 1.19 million persons with AIDS and 930,000 orphans whose parents died of AIDS. Other potentially epidemic diseases including bubonic plaque and Ebola hemorrhagic fever are serious threats. Non-transmissible diseases are also on the rise including diabetes, systemic arterial hypertension, cancer and neglected diseases such as sickle cell anemia. To meet these challenges, the country's health authorities have established a program called the Strategy for Reinforcement of the Health System (SRHS). One goal of the SRHS is to develop health zones in order to improve access to quality health care for the whole population. PMID:18225727

  8. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential... Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of... section 2(b)(C) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended (12 U.S.C. 635(b)(2)(C)), I...

  9. Mai-Mai militia and sexual violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Guy, Kitwe Mulunda

    2014-01-01

    This article sets the reasons for the brutal violence against women. It focuses on three field sites providing insight into Mai-Mai motivations and their attitudes toward sexual violence. According to most sources, 5.5 million people have died since the beginning of the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1994, and rape is used as a weapon of destruction. More than 15,000 rapes were reported in the DRC in the last year--accounts of these rapes include descriptions of horrific acts, such as mutilation and the killing of unborn children. The sexual violence is so severe in the DRC that some have described rape in the country as the worst in the world. Sexual violence has long lasting consequences and far-reaching impacts on individual survivors, their families, and their communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:25585492

  10. [Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep in the Democratic Republic of Germany district of Frankfurt/Oder].

    PubMed

    Stuhrberg, E; Nickel, S; Hiepe, T

    1975-09-01

    In the district of Frankfurt/Oder of the German Democratic Republic, faecal examinations of 143 sheep stocks revealed a 31.3 percent infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum. In different territories of the district, the intensity of the infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum varied remarkably. Detailed investigations demonstrated, that the parasite was limited to pastures with Brownearth soil. Routine examinations revealed the fact, that the egg-output of Dicrocoelium dendritcum was very variable during the pasture season. During the whole time of the examinations, the authors found eggs in the faeces of sheep belonging to Dicrocoelium dendriticun. In the German Democratic Republic, this helminth species is not restricted to hills with limestones. It occurs also in lowlands with small amounts of lime like the Brown-earth zones of the district Frankfurt/Oder. PMID:1190548

  11. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carly

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding. The sexual violence inflicted upon women has been nothing less than brutal and destructive, physically, socially, and psychologically. This paper analyzes the use of rape as a weapon of war in the Congo, taking into context the ongoing war, cultural and social situations that facilitate its existence, and the many consequences the victims are forced to endure. Drawing information from various academic journals, articles, and field research from international organizations, this paper paints a concise picture of the sexual atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:23086003

  12. The relationship between censuses and civil registration in the Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Dibbs, M C

    1980-01-01

    The author examines the history and use of censuses of civil registration in the Syrian Arab Republic. The reliability and completeness of the civil register and of the census data on which it is based are discussed PMID:12338410

  13. Human Monkeypox in the Kivus, a Conflict Region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Andrea M; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Ndongala, Guy Mutombo; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Kabamba, Joelle; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Li, Yu; Emerson, Ginny; Damon, Inger K; Carroll, Darin S; Reynolds, Mary G; Malekani, Jean; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe

    2015-10-01

    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infection endemic in central and western Africa. Human MPX cases occur in the central and northern regions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and this is the first report of confirmed MPX cases in the forested areas of North and South Kivu Provinces, with a detailed epidemiological investigation for one case. The location of each case is within areas predicted to be suitable for MPX virus transmission based on an ecological niche model. Phylogenetic analysis places these viruses in the Congo Basin clade. PMID:26283752

  14. [Shock therapy and psychosurgery in the early German Democratic Republic (GDR)].

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, L

    2015-11-01

    Patient files, textbooks and published articles of the time show that the wide range of psychiatric therapies of the 1950s and 1960s was also used in the early German Democratic Republic (GDR). The use of insulin coma therapy, cardiazol and electroconvulsive therapies and especially of leucotomy in the GDR must not only be seen in the context of the international development and debate concerning these therapies up to the introduction of psychopharmaceutic therapy but also, in a similar way as in the Federal Republic of Germany, in relation to the locally sometimes different availability of insulin and cardiazol in the post-war period, different schools of academic thought and scientific research interest and priorities of the clinics concerned. PMID:25962346

  15. Antibiotic prescription behaviours in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a knowledge, attitude and practice survey

    PubMed Central

    Quet, Fabrice; Leyer, Caroline; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N; Naphayvong, Philaysak; Keoluangkhot, Valy; Chomarat, Monique; Longuet, Christophe; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Jacobs, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the antibiotic prescribing practices of doctors working in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and their knowledge of local antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods Doctors attending morning meetings in 25 public hospitals in four provinces were asked to complete a knowledge, attitude and practice survey. The questionnaire contained 43 multiple choice questions that the doctor answered at the time of the meeting. Findings The response rate was 83.4% (386/463). Two hundred and seventy doctors (59.8%) declared that they had insufficient information about antibiotics. Only 14.0% (54/386) recognized the possibility of cephalosporin cross-resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most participants had no information about local antibiotic resistance for Salmonella Typhi (211/385, 54.8%) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (253/384, 65.9%). Unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions were considered as harmless by 115 participants and 148 considered locally-available generic antibiotics to be of poor quality. Nearly three-quarters (280/386) of participants agreed that it was difficult to select the correct antibiotics. Most participants (373/386) welcomed educational programmes on antibiotic prescribing and 65.0% (249/383) preferred local over international antibiotic guidelines. Conclusion Doctors in the Lao People's Democratic Republic seem to favour antibiotic prescribing interventions. Health authorities should consider a capacity building programme that incorporates antibiotic prescribing and hospital infection control. PMID:26229186

  16. Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Kazadi Lukusa, Aimé; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Kadima-Tshimanga, Bertin; Mvitu-Muaka, Moïse; Gini Ehungu, Jean Lambert; Ngiyulu, René; Ekulu Mfutu, Pépé; Budiongo Nzazi, Aléine

    2012-01-01

    Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females). Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years) for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years) for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality. PMID:22619679

  17. On the Social Status and Career Prospects of Youth in Agriculture in the GDR (German Democratic Republic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittel, Guenter

    The new Youth Act passed by the People's Chamber of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1974 assumes that the interests of young people concur with the interests of their socialist society and state, for it reforms the rights and conditions for the further development of young people and defines their duties and responsibilities in terms of…

  18. Malaria surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: comparison of microscopy, PCR, and rapid diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Doctor, Stephanie M; Liu, Yunhao; Whitesell, Amy; Thwai, Kyaw L; Taylor, Steve M; Janko, Mark; Emch, Michael; Kashamuka, Melchior; Muwonga, Jérémie; Tshefu, Antoinette; Meshnick, Steven R

    2016-05-01

    Malaria surveillance is critical for control efforts, but diagnostic methods frequently disagree. Here, we compare microscopy, PCR, and a rapid diagnostic test in 7137 samples from children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo using latent class analysis. PCR had the highest sensitivity (94.6%) and microscopy had the lowest (76.7%). PMID:26915637

  19. The 1984 Literacy Campaign in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. A Case Study. Notes, Comments...No. 183.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fara, Mohammed Saeed; Fisher, Nigel

    In 1984, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen undertook a nationwide literacy campaign, which mobilized the entire nation in an effort to reach an estimated 194,000 illiterate people, 77 percent of them women. The campaign plan demanded the full and active participation of formal school teachers and students at secondary level and above as…

  20. Situation Report--Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in ten foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  1. Diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection with Handheld Microscopy in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Meister, Isabel; Utzinger, Jürg; Odermatt, Peter; Andrews, Jason R; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, yet it is of considerable public health importance in Southeast Asia given the predilection for chronically infected persons to develop cholangiocarcinoma. We evaluated a handheld microscope for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini in a community-based setting in Lao People's Democratic Republic in comparison with conventional light microscopy. In stool samples collected from 104 individuals, handheld microscopy revealed a sensitivity of 70.6% and a specificity of 89.5% for O. viverrini infection. Pearson's correlation for quantitative fecal egg counts between the two devices was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-0.99). With small adjustments to further increase diagnostic sensitivity, a handheld microscope may become a helpful tool to screen for O. viverrini and other helminth infections in public health settings. PMID:26526923

  2. Dorstenialuamensis (Moraceae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae), Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN). PMID:25383011

  3. Terms Used for People Living With HIV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mupenda, Bavon; Duvall, Sandra; Maman, Suzanne; Pettifor, Audrey; Holub, Christina; Taylor, Eboni; Rennie, Stuart; Kashosi, Mujalambo; Lema, Mamie; Behets, Frieda

    2015-01-01

    For this study we conducted in-depth interviews with 29 youth living with HIV (YLWH) and key informant interviews with 8 HIV care/support providers. We describe terms used to portray people living with HIV (PLWH) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Labels commonly used, mostly derogatory, described PLWH as walking corpses, dangers to others, or people deserving to die before others get infected. Blame and other accusations were directed at PLWH through anchoring or objectification. Being labeled sometimes made these youth suffer in silence, afraid to disclose their status, or avoid performing actions in public, preferring to let others do them. YLWH need psychosocial support to mitigate the harmful effects of these labels and strengthen their coping skills, whereas community, institutional, and national efforts are needed for stigma reduction. PMID:24463633

  4. Baseline assessment of collaborative tuberculosis/HIV activities in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Martinot, Amanda; Van Rie, Annelies; Mulangu, Sabue; Mbulula, Marie; Jarrett, Nikki; Behets, Frieda; Bola, Valentin; Bahati, Etienne

    2008-07-01

    Ninety-two clinics were surveyed in 2005 as part of a baseline assessment of HIV activities in Tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Some HIV activities were implemented in 58% of TB clinics. The majority of health had > or = 1 health care worker (HCW) trained in either HIV counseling or testing (71%). Fifty-three clinics offered counseling and testing to TB patients; twenty-two (42%) routinely offered HIV CT to all patients, while others used selective criteria. While most offered on-site counseling (92%) and testing (77%), not all 53 clinics had a HCW trained in counseling and only 31 had access to a counseling room. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was offered in 51% of clinics; antiretroviral treatment in 17%. Shortcomings in human resources, infrastructure and quality of services were revealed. Strengthening those clinics already implementing HIV activities could be prioritized to achieve the goals set forward by the Global Plan to Stop TB. PMID:18628533

  5. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014–2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  6. Investigation of Recurrent Melioidosis in Lao People's Democratic Republic by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, Audrey; Dittrich, Sabine; Phommasone, Koukeo; Douangnouvong, Anousone; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N.; Dance, David A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. In northeast Thailand and northern Australia, where the disease is highly endemic, a range of molecular tools have been used to study its epidemiology and pathogenesis. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) where melioidosis has been recognized as endemic since 1999, no such studies have been undertaken. We used a multilocus sequence typing scheme specific for B. pseudomallei to investigate nine cases of culture-positive recurrence occurring in 514 patients with melioidosis between 2010 and 2015: four were suspected to be relapses while the other five represented reinfections. In addition, two novel sequence types of the bacterium were identified. The low overall recurrence rates (2.4%) and proportions of relapse and reinfection in the Laos are consistent with those described in the recent literature, reflecting the effective use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27001759

  7. Investigation of Recurrent Melioidosis in Lao People's Democratic Republic by Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Audrey; Dittrich, Sabine; Phommasone, Koukeo; Douangnouvong, Anousone; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N; Dance, David A B

    2016-06-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei In northeast Thailand and northern Australia, where the disease is highly endemic, a range of molecular tools have been used to study its epidemiology and pathogenesis. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) where melioidosis has been recognized as endemic since 1999, no such studies have been undertaken. We used a multilocus sequence typing scheme specific for B. pseudomallei to investigate nine cases of culture-positive recurrence occurring in 514 patients with melioidosis between 2010 and 2015: four were suspected to be relapses while the other five represented reinfections. In addition, two novel sequence types of the bacterium were identified. The low overall recurrence rates (2.4%) and proportions of relapse and reinfection in the Laos are consistent with those described in the recent literature, reflecting the effective use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27001759

  8. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014-2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  9. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s), forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565) were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%), although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%). Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103) of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%). Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the majority of aggressions

  10. REDD+ projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo: impacts on future emissions, income and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosnier, Aline; Bocqueho, Geraldine; Mant, Rebecca; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlik, Petr; Kapos, Val; Fritz, Steffen; Botrill, Leo

    2014-05-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) encompasses a large rainforest area which has been rather preserved up to now. However, pressure on the forests is increasing with high population growth, transition toward political stability and the abundance of minerals in the country. REDD+ is a developing mechanism under the UNFCCC that aims to support developing countries that want to make efforts to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The REDD+ strategy in DRC combines an independent national fund and independent REDD+ projects at the local level that are at the initial stage of implementation. The objective of this paper is to assess i) emissions reduction due to the implementation of the REDD+ pilot projects taking into account potential leakage and ii) potential co-benefits of REDD+ pilot projects in terms of biodiversity and rural income by 2030. We use the land use economic model CongoBIOM adapted from GLOBIOM which represents land-based activities and land use changes at a 50x50km resolution level. It includes domestic and international demand for agricultural products, fuel wood and minerals which are the main deforestation drivers in the Congo Basin region. Finally, we run a sensitivity analysis on emissions from land use change according to three different above and below ground living biomass estimates: downscaled FAO, NASA and WHRC.

  11. Women's Status and Intimate Partner Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tlapek, Sarah Myers

    2015-09-01

    Women's greatest risk of violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may come from an intimate partner, but few studies have analyzed context-specific risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) in the DRC. This study analyzed data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Congo to assess risk and protective factors for IPV and the role of women's status, a factor implicated in prior IPV research. Using a sample of 1,821 married or cohabiting women between the ages of 15 and 49, four logistic regression models tested relationships between physical, sexual, emotional, or any violence and independent variables of interest. Results indicated that 68.2% of respondents had experienced at least one of the three types of IPV. An attitude of acceptance toward spousal violence was associated with increased risk for physical and emotional IPV. Women who were the only wife of their husband were half as likely to experience IPV compared with women whose husbands had other wives or women who did not know their husbands' marital status. Partner's use of alcohol was associated with nearly doubled risk for both physical and sexual IPV. The study's results indicate that IPV occurs frequently and is justified as acceptable by many women in the DRC. Findings suggest that awareness-raising campaigns may be a helpful intervention and that partner characteristics should be considered when assessing women's risk for IPV. PMID:25315479

  12. Prevalence of River Epilepsy in the Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Colebunders, Robert; Tepage, Floribert; Rood, Ente; Mandro, Michel; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Musinya, Gisele; Mambandu, Germain; Kabeya, José; Komba, Michel; Levick, Bethany; Mokili, John L; Laudisoit, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of epilepsy has been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic areas. Objective To determine the prevalence and distribution of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Design/Methods An epilepsy prevalence study was carried out in 2014, in two localities of the Bas-Uélé district, an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Orientale Province of the DRC. Risk factors for epilepsy were identified using a random effects logistic regression model and the distribution of epilepsy cases was investigated using the Moran’s I statistic of spatial auto-correlation. Results Among the 12,776 individuals of Dingila, 373 (2.9%) individuals with epilepsy were identified. In a house-to-house survey in Titule, 68 (2.3%) of the 2,908 people who participated in the survey were found to present episodes of epilepsy. Epilepsy showed a marked spatial pattern with clustering of cases occurring within and between adjacent households. Individual risk of epilepsy was found to be associated with living close to the nearest fast flowing river where blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae)–the vector of Onchocerca volvulus–oviposit and breed. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in villages in the Bas-Uélé district in the DRC was higher than in non-onchocerciasis endemic regions in Africa. Living close to a blackflies infested river was found to be a risk factor for epilepsy. PMID:27139245

  13. Intimate partner violence, modern contraceptive use and conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Palermo, Tia; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been found to be negatively associated with contraceptive use in developing countries, but evidence from Africa is mixed. This study examines whether the above association differs in conflict settings, which have the potential for both higher levels of violence and more limited access to family planning. We use nationally representative data from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to examine the relationship between individual- and community-level IPV and modern contraceptive use, and to explore whether conflict modifies the relationship between IPV and contraceptive use. Nationally, only 6% of women reported current modern contraceptive use, while 53% reported experiencing physical IPV and 32% reported experiencing sexual IPV. In multivariate models, we found that individual-level sexual IPV was positively associated with current using modern contraceptive use, but that a combined measure of physical and sexual IPV did not demonstrate a similar association. Community-level IPV was not associated with individual-level contraceptive use. Conflict exposure was neither an independent predictor nor modifier of contraceptive use. Results suggest improved access to family planning should be a priority for programming in DRC, and efforts should ensure that sufficient resources are allocated towards the reproductive health needs of women in both conflict and non-conflict regions. PMID:25828259

  14. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented. PMID:26164963

  15. HIGH RATE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION IN LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.

    PubMed

    Jutavijittum, Prapan; Yousukh, Amnat; Saysanasongkham, Bounnack; Samountry, Bounthome; Samountry, Khamtim; Toriyama, Kan; Tokuda, Masaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Among 3,000 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at Mother and Child Hospital in Vientiane, Lao PDR, 5.8% were HBsAg positive by a rapid test. Among serum samples of 47 infants aged 9-12 months born to HBsAg-positive mothers, 38% were anti-HBs negative. Percent anti-HBs negative children is significantly higher in those born to HBeAg positive mothers than in those born to HBeAg negative mothers (60% vs 25%, p < 0.05). Out of 47 HBsAg-positive mothers, 10 had infants who were HBsAg positive. None of the infants born to HBsAg negative mothers became HBsAg positive but 10/19 (52.6%) of infants born to HBeAg positive mothers became HBsAg positive. This high rate of mother-to-child transmission of HBV in an endemic country is of concern and indicates that routine vaccination program for Lao infants needs strengthening. PMID:27244958

  16. Growing healthy children and communities: Children's insights in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    A diverse group of 103 children aged 7-11 years old living in family and residential care in rural and urban settings in two northern provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic participated in group discussions using images and community mapping. Children's identified sources of risk and protection illustrate primary public health and protection concerns and resources. Young children worried about lack of hygiene, unintentional injuries, corporal punishment, and domestic violence. They also expressed concern about gambling and children sleeping in the streets, even if they had never seen any of the latter in their communities. In contrast, food and shelter; artistic, religious, and cultural practices; supportive interpersonal relationships; and schooling largely evoked feelings of safety and belonging. Images that prompted conflicting interpretations surfaced individual and contextual considerations that nuanced analysis. Researchers and decision-makers will benefit from using this developmentally appropriate, context-sensitive child-centred visual method to elicit young children's views of risk and protection. It may also serve as a tool for public health education. Involving young children in the initial selection of images would further enhance the efficiency of the method. PMID:27021373

  17. Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German Democratic Republic government.

    PubMed

    Franke, W W; Berendonk, B

    1997-07-01

    Several classified documents saved after the collapse of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1990 describe the promotion by the government of the use of drugs, notably androgenic steroids, in high-performance sports (doping). Top-secret doctoral theses, scientific reports, progress reports of grants, proceedings from symposia of experts, and reports of physicians and scientists who served as unofficial collaborators for the Ministry for State Security ("Stasi") reveal that from 1966 on, hundreds of physicians and scientists, including top-ranking professors, performed doping research and administered prescription drugs as well as unapproved experimental drug preparations. Several thousand athletes were treated with androgens every year, including minors of each sex. Special emphasis was placed on administering androgens to women and adolescent girls because this practice proved to be particularly effective for sports performance. Damaging side effects were recorded, some of which required surgical or medical intervention. In addition, several prominent scientists and sports physicians of the GDR contributed to the development of methods of drug administration that would evade detection by international doping controls. PMID:9216474

  18. Severe malaria in children: A descriptive report from Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kunuanunua, Thomas S; Nsibu, Célestin N; Bodi, Joseph M; Tshibola, Thérèse K; Makusi Bura, Mimy; Magoga, Kumbundu; Ekila, Mathilde B; Situakibanza, Hypolite T; Aloni, Michel N

    2015-08-01

    The decline of susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resulted in the change of drug policy. This policy has probably changed the facies of the severe form of malaria. A prospective study was conducted in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Data on children aged ≤13 years, diagnosed with severe malaria were analyzed. In total, 378 children were included with an overall median age of 8 years (age range: 1-13 years). Dark urine was seen in 25.1% of cases. Metabolic acidosis (85.2%), hypoglycemia (62.2%) and hemoglobin ≤5 g/dl (39.1%) were the common laboratories features. Severe malaria anemia, cerebral malaria and Blackwater fever (BWF) were found in 39.1, 30.1 and 25.4%, respectively. Mortality rate was 4%. BWF emerges as a frequent form of severe malaria in our midst. Availing artemisin-based combination treatments in the health care system is a priority to reduce the incidence of BWF in our environment. PMID:25957436

  19. Seroprevalence of Q fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR. PMID:27430548

  20. Salmonella Typhi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Fluoroquinolone Decreased Susceptibility on the Rise

    PubMed Central

    Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Phoba, Marie-France; Bertrand, Sophie; Vanhoof, Raymond; Verhaegen, Jan; Smith, Anthony Marius; Keddy, Karen Helena; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) to first-line antibiotics is emerging in Central Africa. Although increased use of fluoroquinolones is associated with spread of resistance, Salmonella Typhi with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) has rarely been reported in Central Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of a microbiological surveillance study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), Salmonella Typhi isolates from bloodstream infections were collected prospectively between 2007 and 2011. The genetic relationship of the Salmonella Typhi isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates was determined and mutations associated with DCS were studied. In total, 201 Salmonella Typhi isolates were collected. More than half of the Salmonella Typhi isolates originated from children and young adults aged 5–19. Thirty different PFGE profiles were identified, with 72% of the isolates showing a single profile. Multidrug resistance, DCS and azithromycin resistance were 30.3%, 15.4% and 1.0%, respectively. DCS was associated with point mutations in the gyrA gene at codons 83 and 87. Conclusions/Significance Our study describes the first report of widespread multidrug resistance and DCS among Salmonella Typhi isolates from DR Congo. Our findings highlight the need for increased microbiological diagnosis and surveillance in DR Congo, being a prerequisite for rational use of antimicrobials and the development of standard treatment guidelines. PMID:23166855

  1. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among healthcare workers in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, H; Vandendriessche, S; Hallin, M; Batoko, B; Alworonga, J-P; Mapendo, B; Van Geet, C; Dauly, N; Denis, O; Jacobs, J

    2015-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a global health concern, but there are few data from Central Africa. The objective of our study was to characterise S. aureus colonisation isolates from healthcare-exposed professionals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Healthcare workers and medical students (n = 380) in Kisangani, DRC were screened for S. aureus nasal carriage in a single-centre cross-sectional study in the University Hospital of Kisangani. The isolates were identified and characterised using phenotypic and genotypic methods. The nasal carriage rate of S. aureus was 16.6 % and 10 out of 63 isolates (15.9 %) were MRSA. We found 28 different spa types. Most MRSA isolates belonged to ST8-spa t1476-SCCmec V. The majority of MRSA were multidrug-resistant to non-beta-lactam antibiotics. Overall, 28.5 % of S. aureus carried Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding genes (all methicillin-sensitive) and 17.5 % carried toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-encoding genes. The finding of MRSA carriage among healthcare workers in a setting with limited access to diagnostic microbiology and appropriate therapy calls for improved education on infection control practices and supports the introduction of surveillance programmes. PMID:25931131

  2. Human rabies: a descriptive observation of 21 children in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Muyila, Delphin I; Aloni, Michel N; Lose-Ekanga, Marie Josée; Nzita, Jules M; Kalala-Mbikay, Alexandre; Bongo, Henri L; Esako, Mathilde N; Malonga-Biapi, Jean Pierre; Mputu-Dibwe, BenoÎt; Aloni, Muriel L; Ekila, Mathilde B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Human rabies has recently emerged as a significant public health threat in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, there is little epidemiological information on human rabies especially in children. Methods: We performed at Pediatrics Department of General Reference hospital of Kinshasa between December 2008 and July 2009, a retrospective study to assess the incidence and to describe their clinical aspects and outcome. Results: A total of 21 cases were observed, rather three cases per month. There were 12 boys (57.1%) and 9 girls (42.9%). Biting animal was found to be dog in all cases (100%). The dog was not immunized in all of cases. On admission, all patients (100%) showed furious rabies manifestations. Only two (9.5%) had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) after the bite incident. Two (9.5%) patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The case-fatality rate was 100%. Conclusions: The disease emerges as a new major public health problem because of a lack of knowledge regarding rabies risk, the poor management of dog bites. Preventative vaccination for rabies should be recommended in the population of Kinshasa, area at high risk to contract rabies, particularly in children. PMID:25417907

  3. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996-1999.

    PubMed

    2000-03-31

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by December 31, 2000 (1). Although progress has been extraordinary (2), full implementation of polio eradication strategies has been delayed in several countries affected by war. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced continual armed conflict since October 1996. As a result, DRC is the last country in the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to implement National Immunization Days (NIDs*). DRC is an important global reservoir for wild poliovirus and shares more than 5580 miles (9000 km) of border with nine countries; in at least seven of these countries polio is endemic. The large area of DRC, substantial amount of poverty, weak health-care infrastructure, poor transportation and communication, and competing demands for resources present considerable challenges to polio eradication. This report summarizes information on the existing health-care infrastructure and routine coverage, information from NIDs carried out in 1999, and results from the recently established surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). PMID:10774546

  4. Sparks creating light? Strengthening peripheral disease surveillance in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mossoko, M.; Nyakio Kakusu, J. P.; Nyembo, J.; Mangion, J. P.; Van Laeken, D.; Van den Bergh, R.; Van den Boogaard, W.; Manzi, M.; Kibango, W. K.; Hermans, V.; Beijnsberger, J.; Lambert, V.; Kitenge, E.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The Democratic Republic of Congo suffers from an amalgam of disease outbreaks and other medical emergencies. An efficient response to these relies strongly on the national surveillance system. The Pool d'Urgence Congo (PUC, Congo Emergency Team) of Médecins Sans Frontières is a project that responds to emergencies in highly remote areas through short-term vertical interventions, during which it uses the opportunity of its presence to reinforce the local surveillance system. Objective: To investigate whether the ancillary strengthening of the peripheral surveillance system during short-term interventions leads to improved disease notification. Design: A descriptive paired study measuring disease notification before and after 12 PUC interventions in 2013–2014. Results: A significant increase in disease notification was observed after seven mass-vaccination campaigns and was sustained over 6 months. For the remaining five smaller-scaled interventions, no significant effects were observed. Conclusion: The observed improvements after even short-term interventions underline, on the one hand, how external emergency actors can positively affect the system through their punctuated actions, and, on the other hand, the dire need for investment in surveillance at peripheral level. PMID:27358796

  5. Human African Trypanosomiasis in a Rural Community, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Lutumba, Pascal; Makieya, Eric; Shaw, Alexandra; Meheus, Filip

    2007-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) (sleeping sickness) caused the loss of ≈1.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2002. We describe the effect of HAT during 2000–2002 in Buma, a rural community near Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We used retrospective questionnaire surveys to estimate HAT-related household costs and DALYs. The HAT outbreak in Buma involved 57 patients and affected 47 (21%) households. The cost to each household was equivalent to 5 months’ income for that household. The total number of HAT-related DALYs was 2,145, and interventions to control HAT averted 1,408 DALYs. The cost per DALY averted was US $17. Because HAT has a serious economic effect on households and control interventions are cost-effective, considering only global burden of disease rankings for resource allocation could lead to misguided priority setting if applied without caution in HAT-affected countries. PMID:17479887

  6. Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1976-2014

    PubMed Central

    Rosello, Alicia; Mossoko, Mathias; Flasche, Stefan; Van Hoek, Albert Jan; Mbala, Placide; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Kucharski, Adam; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Edmunds, W John; Piot, Peter; Baguelin, Marc; Muyembe Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has experienced the most outbreaks of Ebola virus disease since the virus' discovery in 1976. This article provides for the first time a description and a line list for all outbreaks in this country, comprising 996 cases. Compared to patients over 15 years old, the odds of dying were significantly lower in patients aged 5 to 15 and higher in children under five (with 100% mortality in those under 2 years old). The odds of dying increased by 11% per day that a patient was not hospitalised. Outbreaks with an initially high reproduction number, R (>3), were rapidly brought under control, whilst outbreaks with a lower initial R caused longer and generally larger outbreaks. These findings can inform the choice of target age groups for interventions and highlight the importance of both reducing the delay between symptom onset and hospitalisation and rapid national and international response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09015.001 PMID:26525597

  7. High Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Asymptomatic Individuals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Bobanga, Thierry Lengu; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Kayembe, Jean-Marie Ntumba; Situakibanza, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Nsibu, Célestin Ndosimao; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 14 million cases reported by the WHO Malaria Report in 2014. Asymptomatic malaria cases are known to be prevalent in endemic areas and are generally untreated, resulting in a significant source of gametocytes that may serve as reservoir of disease transmission. Considering that microscopy certainly underestimates the prevalence of Plasmodium infections within asymptomatic carriers and that PCR assays are currently recognized as the most sensitive methods for Plasmodium identification, this study was conducted to weigh the asymptomatic carriage in DRC by a molecular method. Six provinces were randomly selected for blood collection in which 80 to 100 individuals were included in the study. Five hundred and eighty blood samples were collected and molecular diagnosis was performed. Globally, almost half of the samples collected from asymptomatic individuals (280/580; 48.2%) had Plasmodium infections and the most species identified was P. falciparum alone in combination with P. malariae. The high prevalence reported here should interpellate the bodies involved in malaria control in DR Congo to take into account asymptomatic carriers in actions taken and consider asymptomatic malaria as a major hurdle for malaria elimination. PMID:26942036

  8. Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tia; Bredenkamp, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide data-based estimates of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and describe risk factors for such violence. Methods. We used nationally representative household survey data from 3436 women selected to answer the domestic violence module who took part in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey along with population estimates to estimate levels of sexual violence. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze correlates of sexual violence. Results. Approximately 1.69 to 1.80 million women reported having been raped in their lifetime (with 407 397–433 785 women reporting having been raped in the preceding 12 months), and approximately 3.07 to 3.37 million women reported experiencing intimate partner sexual violence. Reports of sexual violence were largely independent of individual-level background factors. However, compared with women in Kinshasa, women in Nord-Kivu were significantly more likely to report all types of sexual violence. Conclusions. Not only is sexual violence more generalized than previously thought, but our findings suggest that future policies and programs should focus on abuse within families and eliminate the acceptance of and impunity surrounding sexual violence nationwide while also maintaining and enhancing efforts to stop militias from perpetrating rape. PMID:21566049

  9. Risk Factors for Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, Matthias; Grein, Thomas; Roth, Cathy; Swanepoel, Robert; Libande, Modeste L.; Talarmin, Antoine; Bertherat, Eric; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Tugume, Ben; Colebunders, Robert; Kondé, Kader M.; Pirard, Patricia; Olinda, Loku L.; Rodier, Guénaël R.; Campbell, Patricia; Tomori, Oyewale; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted two antibody surveys to assess risk factors for Marburg hemorrhagic fever in an area of confirmed Marburg virus transmission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Questionnaires were administered and serum samples tested for Marburg-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fifteen (2%) of 912 participants in a general village cross-sectional antibody survey were positive for Marburg immunoglobulin G antibody. Thirteen (87%) of these 15 were men who worked in the local gold mines. Working as a miner (odds ratio [OR] 13.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1 to 62.1) and receiving injections (OR 7.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 33.2) were associated with a positive antibody result. All 103 participants in a targeted antibody survey of healthcare workers were antibody negative. Primary transmission of Marburg virus to humans likely occurred via exposure to a still unidentified reservoir in the local mines. Secondary transmission appears to be less common with Marburg virus than with Ebola virus, the other known filovirus. PMID:14720391

  10. Higher Education and Employment: The Changing Relationship. Recent Developments in Continuing Professional Education. Country Study: Germany. Flexible Organisation of Learning and Distance Study in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the Former German Democratic Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, H. J.; And Others

    This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in continuing professional education, looks at recent developments in Germany in distance education. In particular the study compares its development in the Federal Republic of Germany and the former German Democratic Republic. The first of two main…

  11. Validation of the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) in the democratic republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A simple method called RAPLOA, to rapidly assess what proportion of people in a community are infected with L. loa and hence which communities are at high risk of severe adverse reactions following ivermectin treatment, was developed in Cameroon and Nigeria. The method needed further validation in other geographical and cultural contexts before its application in all endemic countries. The present study was designed to validate RAPLOA in two regions in the North East and South West of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods In each study region, villages were selected from different bio-ecological zones in order to cover a wide range of loiasis endemicity. In each selected community, 80 people above the age of 15 years were interviewed for a history of eye worm (migration of adult L. loa under the conjunctiva of the eye) and parasitologically examined for the presence and intensity of L. loa infection. In total, 8100 individuals from 99 villages were enrolled into the study. Results The results confirmed the findings of the original RAPLOA study: i) the eye worm phenomenon was well-known in all endemic areas, ii) there was a clear relationship between the prevalence of eye worm history and the prevalence and intensity of L. loa microfilaraemia, and iii) using a threshold of 40%, the prevalence of eye worm history was a sensitive and specific indicator of high-risk communities. Conclusion Following this successful validation, RAPLOA was recommended for the assessment of loiasis endemicity in areas targeted for ivermectin treatment by lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis control programmes. PMID:22300872

  12. Provenance and chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic West Congolian Group in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Tack, Luc; Basei, Miguel S.; Nutman, Allen P.; Boven, Ariel

    2006-10-01

    Lithogeochemical, chemostratigraphic, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope as well as U-Pb single zircon age data from the principal stratigraphic units of the West Congolian Group (West Congo Supergroup) in the West Congo Belt, Democratic Republic of Congo, presented in this reconnaissance study provide new insights into regional stratigraphic correlation and sediment provenance. The oldest unit (Sansikwa Subgroup) is a continental rift basin fill that culminated in a marine glacial diamictite (Lower Mixtite Formation), which is correlated with the global 750-720 Ma Sturtian glaciation. This is followed by a post-glacial, marine carbonate-dominated succession (Haut Shiloango Subgroup), a second diamictite unit (Upper Mixtite Formation) for which a syn-Marinoan (636 Ma) age is favoured, a post-glacial carbonate succession (Schisto-Calcaire Subgroup) and finally molasse sediments that experienced orogenic deformation at c. 566 Ma, as indicated by new 40Ar- 39Ar data. The youngest unit (Inkisi Group) is post-orogenic, derived from the West Congo Belt, and thus not part of the same supersequence. The proposed regional to global correlation of the various units is in line with progressively younger detrital zircon age spectra up-section. Overall, these age spectra indicate a Neoarchaean basement source (Congo Craton) and a Palaeoproterozoic source from the known Kimezian Supergroup to the west of the belt, which corresponds in age with the Eburnean of southern Africa. In addition, we identified a hitherto unknown late Mesoproterozoic source to the west of the belt, the age of which is comparable to the Espinhaço Supergroup of the Araçuai Belt in Brazil.

  13. Health policy evolution in Lao People’s Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-01-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People’s Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. PMID:24740710

  14. Real world pharmacy: assessing the quality of private pharmacy practice in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Stenson, B; Syhakhang, L; Eriksson, B; Tomson, G

    2001-02-01

    The private sector is a dominant actor in the provision of pharmaceuticals, particularly in developing countries. Private provision of drugs has been associated with risks regarding availability, affordability, rational use and drug quality. Ensuring an effective regulatory framework is therefore a major challenge for governments, yet the capacity of regulatory authorities is often outstripped by private sector growth. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao P.D.R.), a poor, landlocked country in South East Asia, the private provision of drugs has increased dramatically since the liberalisation of the economy in the late 1980s. This paper aims to describe the quality of the private pharmacy services in the Savannakhet province of Lao P.D.R. In order to do this, a monitoring instrument which serves to make the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) operational was developed and applied to a sample of pharmacies. Service quality, as measured by three facility-specific indicators, showed a tendency to be lower in the most distant districts. Poor dispensing practices were manifest by a lack of information about drugs sold in 59% of cases, drugs not being labelled in 47% and different drugs being mixed in the same package in 26% of cases. The prices of four sample drugs were slightly higher in the remote districts. A 10-fold price difference for the same drug was recorded in one district. After reporting the findings, the paper discusses the possible influence of district and pharmacy variables on the quality of services, and goes on to discuss the price differences. It is concluded that further government interventions are needed in order to improve the quality of services and to focus regulatory action on a limited number of aspects, to ensure that drugs can be traced before trying to establish a comprehensive regulatory system. PMID:11330774

  15. ETHICS OF MANDATORY PREMARITAL HIV TESTING IN AFRICA: THE CASE OF GOMA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

    PubMed Central

    RENNIE, STUART; MUPENDA, BAVON

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of prevention efforts, millions of persons worldwide continue to become infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) every year. This urgent problem of global epidemic control has recently lead to significant changes in HIV testing policies. Provider-initiated approaches to HIV testing have been embraced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, such as those that routinely inform persons that they will be tested for HIV unless they explicitly refuse (‘opt out’). While these policies appear to increase uptake of testing, they raise a number of ethical concerns that have been debated in journals and at international AIDS conferences. However, one special form of ‘provider-initiated’ testing is being practiced and promoted in various parts of the world, and has advocates within international health agencies, but has received little attention in the bioethical literature: mandatory premarital HIV testing. This article analyses some of the key ethical issues related to mandatory premarital HIV testing in resource-poor settings with generalized HIV epidemics. We will first briefly mention some mandatory HIV premarital testing proposals, policies and practices worldwide, and offer a number of conceptual and factual distinctions to help distinguish different types of mandatory testing policies. Using premarital testing in Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) as a point of departure, we will use influential public health ethics principles to evaluate different forms of mandatory testing. We conclude by making concrete recommendations concerning the place of mandatory premarital testing in the struggle against HIV/AIDS. PMID:19143089

  16. Local perceptions of cholera and anticipated vaccine acceptance in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In regions where access to clean water and the provision of a sanitary infrastructure has not been sustainable, cholera continues to pose an important public health burden. Although oral cholera vaccines (OCV) are effective means to complement classical cholera control efforts, still relatively little is known about their acceptability in targeted communities. Clarification of vaccine acceptability prior to the introduction of a new vaccine provides important information for future policy and planning. Methods In a cross-sectional study in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), local perceptions of cholera and anticipated acceptance of an OCV were investigated. A random sample of 360 unaffected adults from a rural town and a remote fishing island was interviewed in 2010. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of key informants and focus-group discussions provided contextual information. Socio-cultural determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance were assessed with logistic regression. Results Most respondents perceived contaminated water (63%) and food (61%) as main causes of cholera. Vaccines (28%), health education (18%) and the provision of clean water (15%) were considered the most effective measures of cholera control. Anticipated vaccine acceptance reached 97% if an OCV would be provided for free. Cholera-specific knowledge of hygiene and self-help in form of praying for healing were positively associated with anticipated OCV acceptance if costs of USD 5 were assumed. Conversely, respondents who feared negative social implications of cholera were less likely to anticipate acceptance of OCVs. These fears were especially prominent among respondents who generated their income through fishing. With an increase of assumed costs to USD 10.5, fear of financial constraints was negatively associated with anticipated vaccine acceptance as well. Conclusions Results suggest a high motivation to use an OCV as long as it seems affordable. The

  17. Referral hospitals in the Democratic Republic of Congo as complex adaptive systems: similar program, different dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Karemere, Hermès; Ribesse, Nathalie; Kahindo, Jean-Bosco; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In many African countries, first referral hospitals received little attention from development agencies until recently. We report the evolution of two of them in an unstable region like Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo when receiving the support from development aid program. Specifically, we aimed at studying how actors’ network and institutional framework evolved over time and what could matter the most when looking at their performance in such an environment. Methods We performed two cases studies between 2006 and 2010. We used multiple sources of data: reports to document events; health information system for hospital services production, and “key-informants” interviews to interpret the relation between interventions and services production. Our analysis was inspired from complex adaptive system theory. It started from the analysis of events implementation, to explore interaction process between the main agents in each hospital, and the consequence it could have on hospital health services production. This led to the development of new theoretical propositions. Results Two events implemented in the frame of the development aid program were identified by most of the key-informants interviewed as having the greatest impact on hospital performance: the development of a hospital plan and the performance based financing. They resulted in contrasting interaction process between the main agents between the two hospitals. Two groups of services production were reviewed: consultation at outpatient department and admissions, and surgery. The evolution of both groups of services production were different between both hospitals. Conclusion By studying two first referral hospitals through the lens of a Complex Adaptive System, their performance in a context of development aid takes a different meaning. Success is not only measured through increased hospital production but through meaningful process of hospital agents’” network adaptation. Expected

  18. Sensibility analysis of VORIS lava-flow simulations: application to Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga area in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than two years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano, thereby affecting very large areas and having a serious impact on the region of Virunga. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling lava flow propagation. We tested different Digital Elevation Models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to analyze the sensibility of the input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1 in simulation of recent historical lava-flow for which the pre-eruption topography is known. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS model for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  19. Occupational Stress among Textile Workers in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kitronza, Panda Lukongo; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), scientific studies on occupational health are scarce. The present study aims at estimating the level of occupational stress, as well as associated factors, in a textile company. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey among textile workers in DRC. Data (N = 192 subjects) were collected through a self-questionnaire validated for the assessment of stress (Karasek and Siegrist’s scale); supplemented by a medical examination. Frequencies and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for descriptive analyses. Adjusted ORs were calculated through a logistic regression model to investigate associations between socio-demographic and organisational variables and stress. Results: Our study highlighted a high level of stress among individuals: 28% of them were suffering from stress, according to Karasek, and 22%, when applying Siegrist’s model. A 14%-isostrain was calculated when considering all workers. A statistically significant association was observed between stress and age, seniority and perceived non-adaptation to work, considering both approaches. Furthermore, when job strain was determined according to Karasek, it was related to the worker status, the poor perception of organisation and alcohol consumption, while stress estimated by applying Siegrist’s model showed an association with education level and the occurrence of cardiac symptoms. Conclusion: The present study provides of stress among individuals through both models. Several socio-professional factors are associated with stress, which determines populations at risk. The results revealed that both stress models offer complementary information, thus increasing the probability to model workers’ health more exactly and to make recommendations on prevention and management. PMID:26865824

  20. Heterogeneous and decreasing HIV prevalence among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Behets, Frieda; Edmonds, Andrew; Kitenge, François; Crabbé, François; Laga, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background We examined HIV prevalence trends over 4.5 years among women receiving antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, by geographic location, clinic management and urbanicity. Methods Quarterly proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pregnant women with HIV positive results were determined using aggregate service provision and uptake data from 22 maternity units that provided vertical HIV prevention services from October 2004 to March 2009. Assuming linearity, proportions were assessed for trend via the Cochran–Armitage test. Multivariable binomial regression was used to describe detailed prevalence trends. Results HIV testing was offered to 220 006 pregnant women; 210 348 (95.6%) agreed to be tested and 191 216 (90.9%) received their results. A total of 3999 women were found to be HIV positive, a prevalence of 1.90% (95% CI: 1.84–1.96%). The median quarterly proportion of women testing positive for HIV was 1.94% (range: 1.44–2.44%). Prevalence was heterogeneous in terms of maternity management, urbanicity and geographic location. Modeling suggested that the overall prevalence dropped from 2.04% (95% CI: 1.92–2.16%) to 1.77% (95% CI: 1.66–1.88%) over 4.5 years, a relative decrease of 13.2% (95% CI: 3.53–22.9%). Trend testing corroborated this decline (P < 0.01). Conclusions The decreasing HIV prevalence among Kinshasa antenatal care seekers is robust and encouraging. The relatively low prevalence and the weak existing healthcare system require prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions that strengthen maternal and child healthcare service delivery. Complacency would be unwarranted: assuming a uniform national crude birth rate of 50/1000 and 1.8% antenatal HIV prevalence, approximately 7000 pregnant HIV infected women in Kinshasa, and 60 000 nationwide, are in need of care and prevention services yearly. PMID:20453017

  1. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. PMID:24740710

  2. Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Lussy Justin, Paluku; Kimona, Christophe; Nyavandu, Kavira; Mukekulu Eugenie, Kamabu; Jonathan, Kasereka Muhindo Lusi; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Hawkes, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. Methods Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤18 yrs) and adult patients. Findings 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6–12], p<0.001), and less frequently by military personnel (13% vs 48%, OR 0.14 [95%CI 0.075–0.26], p<0.001). Delayed presentation for medical care (>72 hours after the assault) was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2–4.0], p = 0.007). Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3–4.4], p = 0.006). Nine (2.9%) pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34). Interpretation World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth. PMID:21267467

  3. Normal grief and its correlates in Lubumbashi, an urban city in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Katabwa Kabongo; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Manyonga, Tshibangu; Mwadianvita, Costa Kazadi; Valérien, Mutombo; Stanis, Wembonyama; Kavulu, Mukendi; Espérance, Kashala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Grief is a universal experience faced at one time or another by most people during their lives. Response to grief and bereavement losses can lead to psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, post traumatic responses, insomnia loss of appetite, anxiety, and depression. The aim of our study is to value in our community the physical and psychological complications of a normal grief. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from March 2012 to September 2012 in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Two questionnaires, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory scale were used as screening tool. A snow ball sampling method was performed and the questionnaires were administered only to those who consented to participate in the study. Results A total of 78 subjects were included in the study of which 87.2% were aged between 14-50 years old. The majority of the subjects were female 65.4%, and about a quarter (28%) was unemployed. The main correlates of the grief reported in the present study were being treated as witchcraft or accused to be responsible of a death (68%), being rejected by family and not being allowed to inherit (32%). Being homeless was reported in 26%. The main psychological symptoms reported were psychological distress after 1 year (65%) and related physical health problems after the death (72%). Depression and mild anxiety were the most reported disorders, with respectively 92.3% and 74.4% of the subjects. Conclusion Grief in Lubumbashi is associated with a large number of psychological, social and health problems. Health problems such as gastric is, high blood pressure were often reported. Being accused of witchcraft remains the main social impact. Depression and anxiety were the most psychological problem associated with grief.

  4. [Blood transfusion in the Democratic Republic of Congo: efforts and challenges].

    PubMed

    Kabinda Maotela, J; Ramazani, S Y; Misingi, P; Dramaix-Wilmet, M

    2015-01-01

    The authors trace the history of blood transfusion in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as inherited through the colonial organization of the health system. The current configuration of transfusion system begins with the drafting of the national blood transfusion policy and the establishment of a national technical office within the Ministry of Health to coordinate transfusion activities and of its agents in each province. Despite countless difficulties, several positive points were noted. These involve essentially the drafting of all the necessary documents and standards and the integration of the blood safety system into the country's health system. Initially, the blood transfusion system applied a vertical approach, but with the reform of the country's health system, the performance of blood safety became transversal. In the 12 years from 2001 to 2012, it mobilized 112,882 volunteer blood donors; more than 80% of blood products were checked for safety and covered all blood needs; and 81,806 HIV infections were avoided by routine testing of blood products. During the same period, 7560 people were trained in blood transfusion. The prevalence of viral markers among donors has diminished sharply. Thus, HIV prevalence decreased from 4.7% to 2.1% between 2001 and 2012 that of hepatitis B dropped from 7.1% to 3.5% during the same period, and hepatitis C from 11.8% to 2.3% from 2004 to 2012. Despite this performance, enormous efforts are still required, for the organization of blood safety monitoring, the establishment of a safe supply of reagents and supplies, for sustaining the dynamics of voluntary associations of blood donors, and finally for providing stable funding for these blood safety activities. PMID:26742551

  5. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  6. Antiretroviral Treatment Program Retention among HIV-Infected Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Ditekemena, John; Luhata, Christophe; Bonane, William; Kiumbu, Modeste; Tshefu, Antoinette; Colebunders, Robert; Koole, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Retaining patients with HIV infection in care is still a major challenge in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where the antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage is low. Monitoring retention is an important tool for evaluating the quality of care. Methods and Findings A review of medical records of HIV -infected children was performed in three health facilities in the DRC: the Amo-Congo Health center, the Monkole Clinic in Kinshasa, and the HEAL Africa Clinic in Goma. Medical records of 720 children were included. Kaplan Meier curves were constructed with the probability of retention at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years. Retention rates were: 88.2% (95% CI: 85.1%–90.8%) at 6 months; 85% (95% CI: 81.5%–87.6%) at one year; 79.4% (95%CI: 75.5%–82.8%) at two years and 74.7% (95% CI: 70.5%–78.5%) at 3 years. The retention varied across study sites: 88.2%, 66.6% and 92.5% at 6 months; 84%, 59% and 90% at 12 months and 75.7%, 56.3% and 85.8% at 24 months respectively for Amo-Congo/Kasavubu, Monkole facility and HEAL Africa. After multivariable Cox regression four variables remained independently associated with attrition: study site, CD4 cell count <350 cells/µL, children younger than 2 years and children whose caregivers were member of an independent church. Conclusions Attrition remains a challenge for pediatric HIV positive patients in ART programs in DRC. In addition, the low coverage of pediatric treatment exacerbates the situation of pediatric HIV/AIDS. PMID:25541707

  7. Geospatial Information Informs Bonobo (pan Paniscus) Conservation Efforts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nackoney, J.; Hickey, J.; Williams, D.; Facheux, C.; Dupain, J.

    2014-12-01

    The bonobo (Pan paniscus), a great ape that is endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2007. Hunting and habitat loss are primary threats. Two recent wars and ongoing conflicts in the DRC have resulted in political and economic instability that hampers on-the-ground work, thereby accentuating the importance of spatial data and maps as tools for monitoring threats remotely and prioritizing locations for safeguarding bonobo habitat. Several regional and rangewide efforts have leveraged the utility of existing spatial data to help focus limited resources for effective broad-scale conservation of these great apes. At local scales, we developed spatial models to identify locations of highest hunting pressure, predict future human settlement and agricultural expansion, map areas of highest conservation value to bonobos, and identify the connective corridors linking them. We identified 42 least-disturbed wildland blocks meeting the minimum home range size needed for bonobos, and 32 potential corridors. At the range-wide scale, we developed a first range-wide spatial model of suitable conditions for the bonobo; this was a major contribution to the development of a Bonobo Conservation Strategy for 2012-2022, recently published by IUCN. The model used a forest edge density metric and other biotic and abiotic variables in conjunction with bonobo nest data collected during 2003-2010 by over 40 bonobo researchers. Approximately 28% of the range was predicted suitable; of that, about 27.5% was located in official protected areas. Highlighting these examples, this presentation will discuss the conservation status of bonobos and how spatial data and models are being utilized for the formation of strategic conservation plans.

  8. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  9. The geography of malaria genetics in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A complex and fragmented landscape

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret; Patel, Jaymin; Taylor, Steve M.; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Escalante, Ananias A.; McCollum, Andrea; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order to understand how the relatedness of malaria parasites varies across space, and whether there are barriers to the flow of malaria parasites within the DRC or across borders. Parasite DNA was retrieved from dried blood spots from 7 Demographic and Health Survey sample clusters in the DRC. Malaria genetic characteristics of parasites from Ghana and Kenya were also obtained. For each of 9 geographic sites (7 DRC, 1 Ghana and 1 Kenya), a pair-wise RST statistic was calculated, indicating the genetic distance between malaria parasites found in those locations. Mapping genetics across the spatial extent of the study area indicates a complex genetic landscape, where relatedness between two proximal sites may be relatively high (RST > 0.64) or low (RST < 0.05), and where distal sites also exhibit both high and low genetic similarity. Mantel’s tests suggest that malaria genetics differ as geographic distances increase. Principal Coordinate Analysis suggests that genetically related samples are not co-located. Barrier analysis reveals no significant barriers to gene flow between locations. Malaria genetics in the DRC have a complex and fragmented landscape. Limited exchange of genes across space is reflected in greater genetic distance between malaria parasites isolated at greater geographic distances. There is, however, evidence for close genetic ties between distally located sample locations, indicating that movement of malaria parasites and flow of genes is being driven by factors other than distance decay. This research demonstrates the contributions that spatial disease ecology and landscape genetics can make to

  10. New Republic to Civil War: Booklet 2. Critical Thinking in American History. [Student Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin

    One of a series of curriculum materials in U.S. history designed to teach critical thinking skills systematically, this student booklet presents high school students with supplementary lessons on the new Republic, the Jacksonian era, slavery and the Civil War. The student booklet begins with a guide to critical thinking which offers an explanation…

  11. A cross-sectional community study of post-traumatic stress disorder and social support in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Southivong, Bouavanh; Nakahara, Shinji; Southivong, Chanhpheng

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in those injured and not injured by landmines or unexploded ordnance (UXO) in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic and to determine whether the perception of social support was associated with PTSD symptom severity. Methods A community survey was conducted among 190 people injured by landmines or UXO and 380 age-, sex- and neighbourhood-matched non-injured individuals in the Sepone district of Savannakhet Province, the part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic most heavily bombed during the Viet Nam War. Using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, trained health-care workers conducted face-to-face interviews to assess PTSD symptoms and level of perceived social support. Multiple linear regression was performed to explore the association between social support and other factors and PTSD. Findings The prevalence of PTSD was higher among the injured (10%) than among the non-injured (4%), but the level of perceived social support was not significantly different between the two groups. A higher level of perceived social support was associated with milder symptoms of PTSD. Women, older people and those with a formal education were more often and more severely affected by PTSD. Conclusion The perception of strong social support might help to alleviate the symptoms of PTSD among people injured by landmines or UXO in rural parts of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Psychosocial interventions should be incorporated in assistance for the injured because they have more severe and longer-lasting symptoms of PTSD than the non-injured. PMID:24115800

  12. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to characterize heterogenite (CoO·OH) (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, C.; Vanbrabant, Y.; Goethals, H.; Thys, T.; Dupin, L.

    2011-10-01

    Natural heterogenite (CoO·OH) samples were studied by Raman microspectroscopy, electronic microprobe and Electronic BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD). Raw samples and polished sections were made from 10 mines covering the Katanga copperbelt (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo). Four typical Raman responses have been obtained leading to investigate the laser-induced dehydroxylation of heterogenite into a Co-spinel structure. The results are also compared with EBSD patterns from oven heated heterogenite samples. A close relationship was established between the chemical substitutions of Co by mainly Cu, Ni, Mn and Al and their impact on the mineral Raman response.

  13. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to characterize heterogenite (CoO·OH) (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Burlet, C; Vanbrabant, Y; Goethals, H; Thys, T; Dupin, L

    2011-10-01

    Natural heterogenite (CoO·OH) samples were studied by Raman microspectroscopy, electronic microprobe and Electronic BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD). Raw samples and polished sections were made from 10 mines covering the Katanga copperbelt (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo). Four typical Raman responses have been obtained leading to investigate the laser-induced dehydroxylation of heterogenite into a Co-spinel structure. The results are also compared with EBSD patterns from oven heated heterogenite samples. A close relationship was established between the chemical substitutions of Co by mainly Cu, Ni, Mn and Al and their impact on the mineral Raman response. PMID:21497546

  14. Experiments in Democratic Education: Dewey's Lab School and Korczak's Children's Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Liba H.

    2008-01-01

    For democracy to thrive, students increasingly need to participate in democratic education. During the first half of the twentieth century, two education reformers individually developed, refined, and implemented two different forms of democratic education. In this article, the author describes the purpose of public schooling and how John Dewey…

  15. A Resource Planning Analysis of District Hospital Surgical Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sion, Melanie; Rajan, Dheepa; Kalambay, Hyppolite; Lokonga, Jean-Pierre; Bulakali, Joseph; Mossoko, Mathias; Kwete, Dieudonne; Schmets, Gerard; Kelley, Edward; Elongo, Tarcisse; Sambo, Luis; Cherian, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The impact of surgical conditions on global health, particularly on vulnerable populations, is gaining recognition. However, only 3.5% of the 234.2 million cases per year of major surgery are performed in countries where the world's poorest third reside, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods: Data on the availability of anesthesia and surgical services were gathered from 12 DRC district hospitals using the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Emergency and Essential Surgical Care Situation Analysis Tool. We complemented these data with an analysis of the costs of surgical services in a Congolese norms-based district hospital as well as in 2 of the 12 hospitals in which we conducted the situational analysis (Demba and Kabare District Hospitals). For the cost analysis, we used WHO's integrated Healthcare Technology Package tool. Results: Of the 32 surgical interventions surveyed, only 2 of the 12 hospitals provided all essential services. The deficits in procedures varied from no deficits to 17 services that could not be provided, with an average of 7 essential procedures unavailable. Many of the hospitals did not have basic infrastructure such as running water and electricity; 9 of 12 had no or interrupted water and 7 of 12 had no or interrupted electricity. On average, 21% of lifesaving surgical interventions were absent from the facilities, compared with the model normative hospital. According to the normative hospital, all surgical services would cost US$2.17 per inhabitant per year, representing 33.3% of the total patient caseload but only 18.3% of the total district hospital operating budget. At Demba Hospital, the operating budget required for surgical interventions was US$0.08 per inhabitant per year, and at Kabare Hospital, US$0.69 per inhabitant per year. Conclusion: A significant portion of the health problems addressed at Congolese district hospitals is surgical in nature, but there is a current inability to meet

  16. Patterns of Congenital Malformations and Barriers to Care in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Nyavandu, Kavira; Machumu, Bahati; Kwiratuwe, Sylvain; Rej, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Background An increase of congenital anomalies in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been reported. Congenital malformations (CMs) are not uncommon among newborns and, if left untreated, can contribute to increased neonate morbidity and mortality. Methods Medical records of all individuals admitted with a diagnosed CM to HEAL Africa Teaching Hospital (Goma, DRC) from 2002 to 2014 (n=1301) were reviewed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics to summarize chart records, and inferential statistics to investigate significant barriers to earlier treatment. Results Since 2012, the number of patients treated each year for CMs has increased by over 200% compared to the average annual number of cases treated from 2002-2011. Though delayed presentation of patients to HEAL Hospital was very obvious, with an average age of 8.2 years. We find that patient age has been significantly decreasing (p=0.037) over time. The average distance separating patients from HEAL Hospital was 178 km, with approximately one third living 350 km or further from the treatment center. Distance is the most significant (p=3.33x10-6) barrier to earlier treatment. When controlling for an interaction between gender and the use of mercy funds, we also find that female patients are at a significant (p=1.04x10-3) disadvantage to undergo earlier corrective surgery. This disadvantage is further illustrated by our finding that 89% of women and girls, and over 81% of all patients, required mercy funds to cover the cost of surgery in 2014. Lastly, the mortality rate for surgery was low and averaged less than 1.0%. Conclusion Despite a formal end to the war in 2009, and an overall increase in individuals undergoing corrective surgery, distance, poverty, and gender are still massive barriers to CM care at HEAL Hospital, Goma, DRC. We find that patients have been successfully treated earlier by HEAL, although the average age of CM correction in 2014 (4.9 years) is still above average

  17. [Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo 2011-2012].

    PubMed

    Bazira, L; Coulibaly, T; Mayenga, M; Ncharre, C; Yogolelo, R; Mbule, A; Moudzeo, H; Lwamba, P; Mulumba, A W; Cabore, J

    2015-10-01

    According to the WHO records of 2013, the incidence of poliomyelitis was reduced by more than 99%, the number of endemic countries decreased from 125 in 1988 to 3 in 2013 and over 10 million cases were prevented from poliomyelitis thanks to the intensive use of Oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, the emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus strains (cVDPV), causing serious epidemics like the wild poliovirus, is a major challenge on the final straight towards the goal of eradication and OPV cessation. This paper describes the cVDPVoutbreak that occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from November 2011 to April 2012. All children under 15 years of age with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and confirmed presence of cVDPV in the stool samples were included. Thirty (30) children, all from the administrative territories of Bukama and Malemba Nkulu in the Katanga Province (south-east DRC), were reported. The virus responsible was the cVDPV type 2 (0.7% -3.5% divergent from the reference Sabin 2 strain) in 29 children (97%) and the ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus strain (0.7% divergent) was confirmed in one case (3%), a boy seventeen months old and already vaccinated four times with OPV. Twentyfive children (83%) were protected by any of the routine EPI vaccines and 3 children (10%) had never received any dose of OPV. In reaction, DRC has conducted five local campaigns over a period of 10 months (from January to October 2012) and the epidemic was stopped after the second round performed in March 2012. As elsewhere in similar conditions, low immunization coverage, poor sanitation conditions and the stop of the use of OPV2 have favoured the emergence of the third cVDPV epidemic in DRC. The implementation of the Strategic Plan for Polio eradication and endgame strategic plan 2013-2018 will prevent the emergence of cVDPV and set up the conditions for a coordinated OPV phase out. PMID:26288132

  18. Overview of Animal Rabies in Kinshasa Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Twabela, Augustin Tshibwabwa; Lombe, Boniface Pongombo; Hankanga, Careen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rabies is one of the major public health problems mostly affecting developing countries in Africa and Asia where 99.9% of all rabies related human deaths are recorded each year. In Democratic Republic of Congo, repeated outbreaks have been reported. Despite this, there is little reliable epidemiological data about rabies in the country for the development of effective control strategies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out in Kinshasa Province during a period of five years (2009–2013) to describe the proportion of rabid animals and the species involved in rabies transmission and maintenance. The survey also aimed at describing the spatial-temporal distribution of rabies. To gather information, the daily registers of institutions involved in rabies diagnosis were reviewed and each rabies case was traced back to area of occurrence for collection of geographic coordinates. Results and Discussion A total of 5,053 attacks were registered involving six animal species including dog, cat, monkey, rabbit, rat, and pig. Based on clinical observations, rabies was reported in dogs and cats while data obtained from the laboratory confirmed rabies cases included dogs, cats and a goat. The annual distribution showed a significant decrease of rabies cases from 2009 up to 2011 and a later increase up to 2013. There was no difference in rabies occurrence between seasons (p = 0.721). Rabies cases were three times higher in peri-urban zone than in urban zone OR = 3.4 (95% CI: 2.3–5.1). The positive proportion of rabies was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.1–3) based on clinical evidence and 65.9% (95% CI: 50–79.5) for laboratory confirmed cases. Conclusion and Suggestion This study confirms the endemicity of rabies in Kinshasa where occurrence of rabies cases was related to human population density and lifestyle. In order to control rabies, there is need to set up a surveillance program and implement efficient mass vaccination campaigns of susceptible

  19. The role of religion in HIV-positive women's disclosure experiences and coping strategies in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Maman, Suzanne; Cathcart, Rebecca; Burkhardt, Gillian; Omba, Serge; Behets, Frieda

    2009-03-01

    Literature from the U.S. has documented the importance of spirituality on the psychological health of people living with HIV/AIDS; however there is little published data on the ways in which people living with HIV/AIDS in Africa turn to religion for support. We conducted 40 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women who were pregnant or had recently given birth in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo to inform the development of a comprehensive family-centered HIV treatment and care program. Women described how they relied upon their faith and turned to church leaders when they were diagnosed with HIV and prepared to share their diagnosis with others. The women used prayer to overcome the initial shock, sadness and anger of learning their HIV diagnosis. They turned to their church leaders to help them prepare for disclosing their diagnosis to others, including their partners. Church leaders were also important targets for disclosure by some women. Women's faith played an important role in their long-term coping strategies. Conceptualizing their infection as a path chosen by God, and believing that God has the power to cure their infection comforted women and provided them with hope. In settings like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where there is a strong foundation of faith, we need to recognize how individuals draw upon their different health belief systems in order to develop and implement coherent and effective prevention, treatment and care strategies. PMID:19136188

  20. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tungsten processing plants, a critical part of the tungsten supply chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzes supply chains to identify and define major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. Two major reasons necessitate these analyses: (1) to identify risks associated with the supply of critical and strategic minerals to the United States and (2) to provide greater supply chain transparency so that policymakers have the information necessary to ensure domestic legislation compliance. This fact sheet focuses on the latter. The USGS National Minerals Information Center has been asked by governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide information on tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold (collectively known as “3TG minerals”) processing facilities worldwide in response to U.S. legislation aimed at removing the link between the trade in these minerals and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Post beneficiation processing plants (smelters and refineries) of 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being the link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine); determining the point of origin is critical to establishing a transparent conflict mineral supply chain. This fact sheet, the first in a series of 3TG mineral fact sheets, focuses on the tungsten supply chain by listing plants that consume tungsten concentrates to produce ammonium paratungstate and ferrotungsten worldwide.

  1. Studies of crustal structure, seismic precursors to volcanic eruptions and earthquake hazard in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavonga, T.; Zana, N.; Durrheim, R. J.

    2010-11-01

    In recent decades, civil wars in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo have caused massive social disruptions, which have been exacerbated by volcanic and earthquake disasters. Seismic data were gathered and analysed as part of an effort to monitor the volcanoes and quantitatively assess the earthquake hazard. This information can be used to regulate the settlement of displaced people and to "build back better". In order to investigate volcanic processes in the Virunga area, a local seismic velocity model was derived and used to relocate earthquake hypocenters. It was found that swarm-type seismicity, composed mainly of long-period earthquakes, preceded both the 2004 and 2006 eruptions of Nyamuragira. A steady increase in seismicity was observed to commence ten or eleven months prior to the eruption, which is attributed to the movement of magma in a deep conduit. In the last stage (1 or 2 months) before the eruption, the hypocenters of long-period earthquakes became shallower. Seismic hazard maps were prepared for the DRC using a 90-year catalogue compiled for homogeneous Mw magnitudes, various published attenuation relations, and the EZ-Frisk software package. The highest levels of seismic hazard were found in the Lake Tanganyika Rift seismic zone, where peak ground accelerations (PGA) in excess of 0.32 g, 0.22 g and 0.16 g are expected to occur with 2%, 5% and 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, respectively.

  2. Micropaleontology and chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baludikay, Blaise; Bekker, Andrey; Baudet, Daniel; Asael, Dan; Storme, Jean-Yves; Javaux, Emmanuelle

    2014-05-01

    The Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup, deposited between 1170 ± 22 Ma and ca. 800 Ma [1], outcrops in the eastern Oriental Kasai Province and western Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is the youngest Precambrian unit of the Kasai block and was deposited in the SE-NW trending failed-rift Sankuru-Mbuji-Mayi-Lomami-Lovoy basin filled with siliciclastic and carbonate sediments. In the northern part of this basin (Oriental Kasai Province), the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup rests unconformably upon the Archean Dibaya Granite Complex, but in the southern part (northeastern Katanga Province), it overlies the Mesoproterozoic Kibaran Supergroup. The Supergroup is divided into two groups: the lower, ~ 500-m thick siliciclastics-rich BI Group and the upper, ~ 1000-m thick carbonate-rich BII Group. Our own and previous sedimentological observations [2] indicate facies ranging from subtidal, low-energy stromatolitic environments to overlying intertidal to supratidal evaporitic settings of lagoon and sabkha. In order to characterize the diversity of microfossil assemblages, their paleobiology and paleoecology as well as redox conditions in their depositional setting, we have sampled three drill cores (KAFUKU 15, B13 KANSHI, and S70 LUBI) from the collections of the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMAC). Our biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data also provide further constraints on the age of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup. Here we present preliminary data on microfossil diversity from the Kanshi drill core and carbon isotope chemostratigraphy for all three drill cores. The well-preserved and diverse assemblage of acritarchs and filamentous forms includes prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and is similar to other coeval assemblages described worldwide outside of Africa. The presence of the acanthomorph acritarch Trachyhystrichosphaera aimika is significant as it is indicative of the late Meso- to early Neoproterozoic age elsewhere, and is reported for the first time in Central

  3. Cooperation of Libraries to Ensure the Satisfaction of Requirements in Information and Literature by the Broad Masses of People: Development and Experiences in the German Democratic Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotz, Klaus

    This overview of the situation in library cooperation in the German Democratic Republic with regard to the legal fundamentals for library work emphasizes the role of the head offices of librarianship, which are responsible for the coordination and direction of development. The existing structure and networks (territorial and special) are also…

  4. Feasibility Analysis of an Evidence-Based Positive Prevention Intervention for Youth Living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J. L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C. E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of a Positive Prevention intervention adapted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) ages 15-24 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with intervention facilitators and YLWH participants on the following four areas of a feasibility framework:…

  5. Democratic Schooling Practices in the Republic of Ireland: The Gaps between the Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon the writings of Maxine Greene and Paolo Freire, this article explores the necessary conditions for the advancement of education for democracy in the context of modern post-industrial societies, with a focus on schooling in the Republic of Ireland. The article charts a general topography of the Republic of Ireland in relation to the…

  6. High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

  7. Is it better not to talk? Group polarization, extended contact, and perspective taking in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy

    2010-09-01

    Mass media are often used to generate discussion for the purpose of conflict reduction. A yearlong field experiment in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) tested the impact of one such media program, a talk show designed to promote listener discussion about intergroup conflict and cooperation. A stratified random half of all nonoverlapping broadcast regions in eastern DRC aired the talk show, which encouraged listeners to consider tolerant opinions and outgroup perspectives, and promoted extended intergroup contact using a related soap opera. The other regions aired the soap opera only. Compared to individuals exposed to the soap opera only, talk show listeners discussed more but were more intolerant, more mindful of grievances, and less likely to aid disliked community members. These results point to some of the limits of discussion and suggest further research on ideas connecting theoretical recommendations for discussion and conflict reduction. PMID:20709938

  8. Extended Human-to-Human Transmission during a Monkeypox Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Nolen, Leisha Diane; Osadebe, Lynda; Katomba, Jacques; Likofata, Jacques; Mukadi, Daniel; Monroe, Benjamin; Doty, Jeffrey; Hughes, Christine Marie; Kabamba, Joelle; Malekani, Jean; Bomponda, Pierre Lokwa; Lokota, Jules Inonga; Balilo, Marcel Pie; Likafi, Toutou; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nkawa, Frida; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Nguete, Beatrice; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; McCollum, Andrea M; Reynolds, Mary G

    2016-06-01

    A 600-fold increase in monkeypox cases occurred in the Bokungu Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the second half of 2013; this increase prompted an outbreak investigation. A total of 104 possible cases were reported from this health zone; among 60 suspected cases that were tested, 50 (48.1%) cases were confirmed by laboratory testing, and 10 (9.6%) tested negative for monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection. The household attack rate (i.e., rate of persons living with an infected person that develop symptoms of MPXV infection) was 50%. Nine families showed >1 transmission event, and >6 transmission events occurred within this health zone. Mean incubation period was 8 days (range 4-14 days). The high attack rate and transmission observed in this study reinforce the importance of surveillance and rapid identification of monkeypox cases. Community education and training are needed to prevent transmission of MPXV infection during outbreaks. PMID:27191380

  9. Extended Human-to-Human Transmission during a Monkeypox Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Osadebe, Lynda; Katomba, Jacques; Likofata, Jacques; Mukadi, Daniel; Monroe, Benjamin; Doty, Jeffrey; Hughes, Christine Marie; Kabamba, Joelle; Malekani, Jean; Bomponda, Pierre Lokwa; Lokota, Jules Inonga; Balilo, Marcel Pie; Likafi, Toutou; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nkawa, Frida; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Nguete, Beatrice; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; McCollum, Andrea M.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2016-01-01

    A 600-fold increase in monkeypox cases occurred in the Bokungu Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the second half of 2013; this increase prompted an outbreak investigation. A total of 104 possible cases were reported from this health zone; among 60 suspected cases that were tested, 50 (48.1%) cases were confirmed by laboratory testing, and 10 (9.6%) tested negative for monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection. The household attack rate (i.e., rate of persons living with an infected person that develop symptoms of MPXV infection) was 50%. Nine families showed >1 transmission event, and >6 transmission events occurred within this health zone. Mean incubation period was 8 days (range 4–14 days). The high attack rate and transmission observed in this study reinforce the importance of surveillance and rapid identification of monkeypox cases. Community education and training are needed to prevent transmission of MPXV infection during outbreaks. PMID:27191380

  10. Risk of Sexual Violence: Perspectives and Experiences of Women in a Hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Zihindula, Ganzamungu; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2015-08-01

    Sexual violence in conflict situations is gaining worldwide recognition as a human rights issue. There is growing awareness and concern about the risks associated with sexual violence against women. This study was conducted in order to explore the perceptions and experiences of the risk of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The study draws on qualitative, in-depth interviews with women at a hospital in Bukavu. The findings show that women suffered humiliation, torture and beatings during their rape. Most women were raped by a number of men and others were forced to have sex with close family members. The rapist often used extreme brutality against the women which had major long-term consequences for women including unwanted pregnancies and/or HIV/AIDS. Many of the women experienced great uncertainty about their future and that of their children. PMID:25649840

  11. Sociocultural determinants of anticipated vaccine acceptance for acute watery diarrhea in early childhood in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Merten, Sonja; Schaetti, Christian; Manianga, Cele; Lapika, Bruno; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Weiss, Mitchell

    2013-09-01

    Rotavirus and oral cholera vaccines have the potential to reduce diarrhea-related child mortality in low-income settings and are recommended by the World Health Organization. Uptake of vaccination depends on community support, and is based on local priorities. This study investigates local perceptions of acute watery diarrhea in childhood and anticipated vaccine acceptance in two sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2010, 360 randomly selected non-affected adults were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Witchcraft and breastfeeding were perceived as potential cause of acute watery diarrhea by 51% and 48% of respondents. Despite misperceptions, anticipated vaccine acceptance at no cost was 99%. The strongest predictor of anticipated vaccine acceptance if costs were assumed was the educational level of the respondents. Results suggest that the introduction of vaccines is a local priority and local (mis)perceptions of illness do not compromise vaccine acceptability if the vaccine is affordable. PMID:23878187

  12. Sociocultural Determinants of Anticipated Vaccine Acceptance for Acute Watery Diarrhea in Early Childhood in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Sonja; Schaetti, Christian; Manianga, Cele; Lapika, Bruno; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Weiss, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus and oral cholera vaccines have the potential to reduce diarrhea-related child mortality in low-income settings and are recommended by the World Health Organization. Uptake of vaccination depends on community support, and is based on local priorities. This study investigates local perceptions of acute watery diarrhea in childhood and anticipated vaccine acceptance in two sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2010, 360 randomly selected non-affected adults were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Witchcraft and breastfeeding were perceived as potential cause of acute watery diarrhea by 51% and 48% of respondents. Despite misperceptions, anticipated vaccine acceptance at no cost was 99%. The strongest predictor of anticipated vaccine acceptance if costs were assumed was the educational level of the respondents. Results suggest that the introduction of vaccines is a local priority and local (mis)perceptions of illness do not compromise vaccine acceptability if the vaccine is affordable. PMID:23878187

  13. Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a remote, conflict-affected area of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Shanks, L; Masumbuko, E W; Ngoy, N M; Maneno, M; Bartlett, S; Thi, S S; Shah, T

    2012-08-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo is a high-burden country for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Médecins Sans Frontières has supported the Ministry of Health in the conflict-affected region of Shabunda since 1997. In 2006, three patients were diagnosed with drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) and had no options for further treatment. An innovative model was developed to treat these patients despite the remote setting. Key innovations were the devolving of responsibility for treatment to non-TB clinicians remotely supported by a TB specialist, use of simplified monitoring protocols, and a strong focus on addressing stigma to support adherence. Treatment was successfully completed after a median of 24 months. This pilot programme demonstrates that successful treatment for DR-TB is possible on a small scale in remote settings. PMID:22565108

  14. HIV infection among internally displaced women and women residing in river populations along the Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Andrea A; Malele, Faustin; Kaiser, Reinhard; Mama, Nicaise; Kinkela, Timothée; Mantshumba, Jean-Caurent; Hynes, Michelle; De Jesus, Stacy; Musema, Godefoid; Kayembe, Patrick K; Hawkins Reed, Karen; Diaz, Theresa

    2009-10-01

    We conducted a reproductive health assessment among women aged 15-49 years residing in an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp and surrounding river populations in the Democratic Republic of Congo. After providing informed consent, participants were administered a behavioral questionnaire on demographics, sexual risk, reproductive health behavior, and a history of gender based violence. Participants provided a blood specimen for HIV and syphilis testing and were referred to HIV counseling and testing services established for this study to learn their HIV status. HIV prevalence was significantly higher among women in the IDP population compared to women in the river population. Sexually transmitted infection symptoms in the past 12 months and a history of sexual violence during the conflict were associated with HIV infection the river and IDP population, respectively. Targeted prevention, care, and treatment services are urgently needed for the IDP population and surrounding host communities during displacement and resettlement. PMID:19319674

  15. Farming the battlefield: the meanings of war, cattle and soil in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Cox, T Paul

    2012-04-01

    Prior to 1996 and the Congolese wars, exploitative land policies pushed farmers in the eastern highlands of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) into a vulnerable position, with cattle manure sustaining intensive cultivation. This exposed households to a complete breakdown in mixed farming as cattle became targets of war. This study of villages in South Kivu offers an inside understanding of continuity and change in farming practices in a region where there are no easy solutions, and it assesses how the province lost its present and where farmers look when they glance to the future. For farmers, who hold a broad view of soil fertility, the casualties of war were not only people and cattle but also the land itself, which has enduring scars. Perceiving a rupture in tradition, South Kivu farmers are searching desperately for new livelihoods that are built on education instead of livestock, setting aside old ethnic signifiers to seek a future beyond protracted conflict. PMID:21995623

  16. Genetic Evidence of Importation of Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum to Guatemala from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steve M.; Juliao, Patricia C.; Parobek, Christian M.; Janko, Mark; Gonzalez, Luis Demetrio; Ortiz, Lucia; Padilla, Norma; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Emch, Michael; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lindblade, Kim; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Imported malaria threatens control and elimination efforts in countries that have low rates of transmission. In 2010, an outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported among United Nations peacekeeping soldiers from Guatemala who had recently returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Epidemiologic evidence suggested that the soldiers were infected in the DRC, but local transmission could not be ruled out in all cases. We used population genetic analyses of neutral microsatellites to determine the outbreak source. Genetic relatedness was compared among parasites found in samples from the soldiers and parasite populations collected in the DRC and Guatemala; parasites identified in the soldiers were more closely related to those from the DRC. A phylogenetic clustering analysis confirms this identification with >99.9% confidence. Thus, results support the hypothesis that the soldiers likely imported malaria from the DRC. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular genotyping in outbreak investigations. PMID:24856348

  17. Genetic Evidence of Importation of Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum to Guatemala from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaymin C; Taylor, Steve M; Juliao, Patricia C; Parobek, Christian M; Janko, Mark; Gonzalez, Luis Demetrio; Ortiz, Lucia; Padilla, Norma; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Emch, Michael; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lindblade, Kim; Meshnick, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Imported malaria threatens control and elimination efforts in countries that have low rates of transmission. In 2010, an outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported among United Nations peacekeeping soldiers from Guatemala who had recently returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Epidemiologic evidence suggested that the soldiers were infected in the DRC, but local transmission could not be ruled out in all cases. We used population genetic analyses of neutral microsatellites to determine the outbreak source. Genetic relatedness was compared among parasites found in samples from the soldiers and parasite populations collected in the DRC and Guatemala; parasites identified in the soldiers were more closely related to those from the DRC. A phylogenetic clustering analysis confirms this identification with >99.9% confidence. Thus, results support the hypothesis that the soldiers likely imported malaria from the DRC. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular genotyping in outbreak investigations. PMID:24856348

  18. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  19. [Role of the "Marriage and Family" Section in the field of family planning in the German Democratic Republic].

    PubMed

    Dolberg, G; Krause, S; Wegner, B

    1976-07-01

    Founded in 1963, the marriage and family planning department under the leadership of its chairman, K.H. Mehlan has grown in its number of members (220) and in its sphere of activities. With the help of the Health Department it has increasingly taken on the responsibility of implementing family planning programs in the German Democratic Republic. Laws concerning abortion and sterilization were liberalized to women's advantage and a serious attempt was made to provide new, effective mechanical, chemical, and hormonal contraceptives. Marriage and Sexual Counseling centers were set up throughout the country. From 1965 on development conferences were held annually in Rostock. A major propaganda compaign for family planning was initiated with national and local press specials, television and radio programs, and lectures and conferences throughout the republic. In 1967 the department was accepted in the IPPF. In 1968 the department was given status as a separate and independent one. In 1971 demography and fertility were included in the curricula of the medical schools. Specialized organizations concentrated on training and further education of family planning workers and specialists. In 1971 an international seminar was held to discuss family planning in socialist countries, and in 1972 abortion was legalized and an attempt was made to instruct youth in the most effective methods of contraceptives. PMID:960845

  20. Civic Education in the Czech Republic: Curriculum Reform for Democratic Citizenship. Evaluator's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    This report evaluates a project undertaken in the Czech Republic to create lesson scenarios to revise the existing social studies curricular framework for the third form of secondary school (ages 17-18) with special reference to the overarching objectives for civic education reform started in 1989. These objectives included the elimination of…

  1. Communists, Social Democrats, and the homosexual movement in the Weimar Republic.

    PubMed

    Herzer, M

    1995-01-01

    Two cliches of gay historiography concerning the relationship between homosexuals and the political parties of the Weimar Republic are here subjected to critical examination. The notion that the political left of that era was similar in its homophobia to the right-wing and centrist parties is challenged with a number of particulars showing that the goals of the homosexual movement were supported almost exclusively by the left, especially the Communist Party, and that leftist homophobia was an atypical exception. Attention is also devoted to the active involvement of homosexual men in the Nazi movement and the destruction of the Weimar Republic, which casts doubt on the notion that homosexuals were merely passive victims of Nazi homophobia and persecution. The possibility of a special affinity between homosexual men and the Nazi movement is explored using the example of the Nazi leader Ernst Röhm. PMID:8666755

  2. Heterogenite vs asbolane: a mineralogical study of cobalt oxides from the DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; Vanbrabant, Yves; Decree, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The largest cobalt ore reserves are located in DRC, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Most of cobalt is observed as black cobaltic oxide minerals: heterogenite [HCoO2] and asbolane [(Ni,Co)2-xMn(O,OH)4.nH2O] which are hardly differentiable since they exhibit similar macroscopic habit and textures. These minerals are frequently observed in similar environment (oxidized horizon of ore deposits) and they are commonly poorly-crystallized limiting their study with XRD. Their chemical composition is also not very well-constrained since they exhibit significant chemical substitutions with cations as Cu, Co, Ni, Mn. Our observations on a set of heterogenite and asbolane samples from DRC combined with samples from other localities shows that each phase, even under an amorphous form, can be readily distinguished by Raman microspectrometry. This technique is therefore attractive during ore deposit characterization campaigns or during the follow-up extraction operations where it is important to distinguish the main constituting Co-phase(s). The main advantage of this technique is its speed since no sample preparation is required during the collection Raman spectra that usually last few tens of seconds. The method provides information at a μm-scale and several points are thus required to fully characterize ore batches composed of different mineralogical phases. Our petrographical observations show also that asbolane and heterogenite mineralogical phases can coexist at a μm-scale as two distinct phases into 'heterogenite' ore. The distinction between heterogenite and asbolane from our sample set can also be conducted on a chemical base showing that heterogenite represents the richer Co-phase with variable Cu concentrations. By contrast, only Mn traces are usually observed in heterogenite minerals from DRC except in few samples, but always in lower concentration than in asbolane. The latter shows variable Mn/(Mn+Co) ratio between 0.85 and 0.3 and the decrease of this value is

  3. Seroprevalence of antibodies against dengue virus among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tsai-Ying; Trovoada dos Santos, Maria de Jesus; Tseng, Lien-Feng; Chang, Shu-Feng; Cheng, Chien-Fu; Carvalho, Arlindo Vicente de Assunção; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lien, Jih-Ching; Tsai, Kun-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Dengue fever has become a worldwide public health concern, threatening an estimated 40% of the world's population. However, most resources and attention are still focused on malaria, while dengue statuses are poorly recognized in many African countries. In this serological survey, dengue virus (DENV) transmission was demonstrated by using serum samples collected from 78 pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) during 2003 to 2004. Immunofluorescence assay was performed and 31 samples (39.74%) were found positive for DENV antibodies. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that 53 samples (67.95%) were positive for dengue E IgG, and 38 samples (48.72%) were positive for NS1 IgG. A prevalence of 35.90% was therefore determined for dengue IgG by considering samples that yielded positive results by all three tests. Cross-reactions with other flaviviruses were examined by indirect ELISA against Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. Only one sample exhibited stronger absorbance against Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. Moreover, one sample was positive for dengue IgM. These results agreed with the previous researches in neighboring countries and suggested DENV exposure. The study contributes to raising public awareness of dengue and supporting future control strategies. PMID:26739653

  4. Introduction of Monkeypox into a Community and Household: Risk Factors and Zoonotic Reservoirs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Nolen, Leisha Diane; Osadebe, Lynda; Katomba, Jacques; Likofata, Jacques; Mukadi, Daniel; Monroe, Benjamin; Doty, Jeffrey; Kalemba, Lem's; Malekani, Jean; Kabamba, Joelle; Bomponda, Pierre Lokwa; Lokota, Jules Inonga; Balilo, Marcel Pie; Likafi, Toutou; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Okitolonda, Emile Wemakoy; McCollum, Andrea M; Reynolds, Mary G

    2015-08-01

    An increased incidence of monkeypox (MPX) infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was noted by the regional surveillance system in October 2013. Little information exists regarding how MPX is introduced into the community and the factors associated with transmission within the household. Sixty-eight wild animals were collected and tested for Orthopoxvirus. Two of three rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.) were positive for antibodies to Orthopoxviruses; however, no increased risk was associated with the consumption or preparation of rope squirrels. A retrospective cohort investigation and a case-control investigation were performed to identify risk factors affecting the introduction of monkeypox virus (MPXV) into the community and transmission within the home. School-age males were the individuals most frequently identified as the first person infected in the household and were the group most frequently affected overall. Risk factors of acquiring MPXV in a household included sleeping in the same room or bed, or using the same plate or cup as the primary case. There was no significant risk associated with eating or processing of wild animals. Activities associated with an increased risk of MPXV transmission all have potential for virus exposure to the mucosa. PMID:26013374

  5. Introduction of Monkeypox into a Community and Household: Risk Factors and Zoonotic Reservoirs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Leisha Diane; Osadebe, Lynda; Katomba, Jacques; Likofata, Jacques; Mukadi, Daniel; Monroe, Benjamin; Doty, Jeffrey; Kalemba, Lem's; Malekani, Jean; Kabamba, Joelle; Bomponda, Pierre Lokwa; Lokota, Jules Inonga; Balilo, Marcel Pie; Likafi, Toutou; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Okitolonda, Emile Wemakoy; McCollum, Andrea M.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    An increased incidence of monkeypox (MPX) infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was noted by the regional surveillance system in October 2013. Little information exists regarding how MPX is introduced into the community and the factors associated with transmission within the household. Sixty-eight wild animals were collected and tested for Orthopoxvirus. Two of three rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.) were positive for antibodies to Orthopoxviruses; however, no increased risk was associated with the consumption or preparation of rope squirrels. A retrospective cohort investigation and a case–control investigation were performed to identify risk factors affecting the introduction of monkeypox virus (MPXV) into the community and transmission within the home. School-age males were the individuals most frequently identified as the first person infected in the household and were the group most frequently affected overall. Risk factors of acquiring MPXV in a household included sleeping in the same room or bed, or using the same plate or cup as the primary case. There was no significant risk associated with eating or processing of wild animals. Activities associated with an increased risk of MPXV transmission all have potential for virus exposure to the mucosa. PMID:26013374

  6. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  7. Mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts sold at markets in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamika, Ilunga; Mngqawa, Pamella; Rheeder, John P; Teffo, Snow L; Katerere, David R

    2014-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food crop in sub-Saharan Africa. In this survey, the mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts collected from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa, was assessed. Twenty peanut samples were purchased randomly at informal markets in the two cities and analysed for mycoflora and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) using standard methods. The results indicated that 95% of the Kinshasa samples and 100% of the Pretoria samples were contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi in the ranges 20-49,000 and 40-21,000 CFU/g, respectively. Seventy-five per cent of the Kinshasa samples and 35% of the Pretoria samples exceeded the maximum limits of AFB1 as set by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Residents of both cities are at a high risk of aflatoxin exposure despite their apparent cultural, socio-economic, geographic and climatic differences. Further work needs to be done to understand the supply chains of peanut trade in informal markets of the two countries so that interventions are well targeted on a regional rather than a national level. PMID:24914597

  8. Filarial antigenemia and Loa loa night blood microfilaremia in an area without bancroftian filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Bakajika, Didier K; Nigo, Maurice M; Lotsima, Jean Pierre; Masikini, Germain A; Fischer, Kerstin; Lloyd, Melanie M; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0-14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis. PMID:25223938

  9. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Four Health Areas of Kisantu Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mbanzulu Makola, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected. Data were entered and encoded using software EpiData version 3.1. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 software. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.5% (103); almost two-thirds (63) (61.2%) had light infection intensity. A significant association was found between S. mansoni infection and age (p = 0.005), educational level (p = 0.001), and practices of swimming/bathing (p < 0.001) and using water from river/lake/stream for domestic use (p < 0.001). Kipasa health area had high prevalence of schistosomiasis (64.6%) (64/99; 95% CI 54.4–74.0) compared to other health areas. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in these areas. There is a need to promote health education and promote behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis. PMID:27579346

  10. Changing spatial patterns and increasing rurality of HIV prevalence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Morgan, Camille; Fwamba, Franck; Muwonga, Jérémie; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has one of the lowest HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, estimated at 1.1% [0.9-1.3] of adults aged 15-49 in 2013 (UNAIDS). Within the 2 million km(2) country, however, there exists spatial variation in HIV prevalence, with the highest HIV prevalence observed in the large cities of Kinshasa and Lubumbashi. Globally, HIV is an increasingly rural disease, diffusing outwards from urban centers of high HIV prevalence to places where HIV was previously absent or present at very low levels. Utilizing data collected during Demographic and Health Surveillance (DHS) in 2007 and 2013 in the DRC, we sought to update the map of HIV prevalence in the DRC as well as to explore whether HIV in the DRC is an increasingly rural disease or remains confined to urban areas. Bayesian kriging and regression indicate that HIV prevalence in rural areas of the DRC is higher in 2013 than in 2007 and that increased distance to an urban area is no longer protective against HIV as it was in 2007. These findings suggest that HIV education, testing and prevention efforts need to diffuse from urban to rural areas just as HIV is doing. PMID:26974234

  11. Preventing vertical transmission of HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a baseline survey of 18 antenatal clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, Frieda Mtf; Matendo, Richard; Vaz, Lara Me; Kilese, Nick; Nanlele, Diderot; Kokolomami, Jack; Okitolando, Emile W.; Van Rie, Annelies

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the content and delivery of essential antenatal services before implementation of programmes for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We assessed 18 antenatal care centres (eight public units and ten managed by nongovernmental organizations) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We used a survey to capture information about the number and type of antenatal health workers, infrastructure capacity and the delivery of basic antenatal care services such as: nutritional counselling; tetanus toxoid vaccination; prevention and management of anaemia, malaria, sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis; and counselling for postpartum contraception. FINDINGS: Antenatal care units differed with respect to size, capacity, cost, service delivery systems and content. For instance, 17 of the 18 sites offered anaemia screening but only two sites included the cost in the card that gives access to antenatal care. Nine of the clinics (50%) reported providing the malaria prophyalxis sulfadoxine pyrimethamine as per national policy. Four (22%) of the sites offered syphilis screening. CONCLUSION: Scaling up PMTCT programmes in under-resourced settings requires evaluation and strengthening of existing basic antenatal care service delivery. PMID:17242833

  12. Evidence for partial melt in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu (Changbaishan), Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and China

    PubMed Central

    Kyong-Song, Ri; Hammond, James O. S.; Chol-Nam, Ko; Hyok, Kim; Yong-Gun, Yun; Gil-Jong, Pak; Chong-Song, Ri; Oppenheimer, Clive; Liu, Kosima W.; Iacovino, Kayla; Kum-Ran, Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Paektu (also known as Changbaishan) is an enigmatic volcano on the border between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and China. Despite being responsible for one of the largest eruptions in history, comparatively little is known about its magmatic evolution, geochronology, or underlying structure. We present receiver function results from an unprecedented seismic deployment in the DPRK. These are the first estimates of the crustal structure on the DPRK side of the volcano and, indeed, for anywhere beneath the DPRK. The crust 60 km from the volcano has a thickness of 35 km and a bulk VP/VS of 1.76, similar to that of the Sino-Korean craton. The VP/VS ratio increases ~20 km from the volcano, rising to >1.87 directly beneath the volcano. This shows that a large region of the crust has been modified by magmatism associated with the volcanism. Such high values of VP/VS suggest that partial melt is present in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu. This region of melt represents a potential source for magmas erupted in the last few thousand years and may be associated with an episode of volcanic unrest observed between 2002 and 2005. PMID:27152343

  13. [On the history of the German Democratic Republic Journal Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology (1949-1990)].

    PubMed

    Teitge, M; Kumbier, E

    2015-05-01

    Scientific journals were established in the Soviet occupied zone following WWII in order to distinguish themselves from the other occupying powers. Starting in 1949 a journal with the title "Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology" was founded as no publishing house existed in the field of psychiatry and neurology and it became necessary to establish a new journal that was competitive. The journal was primarily distributed in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1990 but the interest internationally was very limited. State affairs had a great influence from the very beginning so that the political involvement was reflected in the selection of staff, such as the publishers and the head of the editorial department and by the close interconnection between the Society for Psychiatry and Neurology of the GDR and the editorship of the journal. The publishers who were primarily responsible and the authors were at the interface of politics and science. Nevertheless, in an international comparison many parallels can be found in the orientation with respect to the content. PMID:25432785

  14. Modelling nitrate pollution pressure using a multivariate statistical approach: the case of Kinshasa groundwater body, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Ndembo Longo, Jean; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-03-01

    A multivariate statistical modelling approach was applied to explain the anthropogenic pressure of nitrate pollution on the Kinshasa groundwater body (Democratic Republic of Congo). Multiple regression and regression tree models were compared and used to identify major environmental factors that control the groundwater nitrate concentration in this region. The analyses were made in terms of physical attributes related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology in the capture zone of different groundwater sampling stations. For the nitrate data, groundwater datasets from two different surveys were used. The statistical models identified the topography, the residential area, the service land (cemetery), and the surface-water land-use classes as major factors explaining nitrate occurrence in the groundwater. Also, groundwater nitrate pollution depends not on one single factor but on the combined influence of factors representing nitrogen loading sources and aquifer susceptibility characteristics. The groundwater nitrate pressure was better predicted with the regression tree model than with the multiple regression model. Furthermore, the results elucidated the sensitivity of the model performance towards the method of delineation of the capture zones. For pollution modelling at the monitoring points, therefore, it is better to identify capture-zone shapes based on a conceptual hydrogeological model rather than to adopt arbitrary circular capture zones.

  15. [Socioeconomic impact of armed conflict on the health of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    PubMed

    Omba Kalonda, J C

    2011-04-01

    Since 1996, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been the theatre of armed conflict. More than 5.4 millions have died and 500,000 to 1,000,000 women have been raped. As a result of permanent insecurity including frequent massacres, burning of villages and plundering of personal property and crops, millions of Congolese people especially in eastern regions have been displaced with around 1.3 million in internal refugee camps. Rural populations have abandoned farming that was the main source of employment, food, and income. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socioeconomic impact of this armed conflict particularly on the health of women and children. Consequences include i) decreased food production, ii) worsening food insecurity and malnutrition, iii) reduced household income, and iv) inadequate health care leading to epidemic outbreaks of diseases such as cholera, measles, and meningitis. Food insecurity and poverty affect around 70% of the population. Chronic malnutrition and growth retardation affect 38% of children. The mortality rate for children under 5 has reached 205 per 1000 live births. Other than achieving lasting peace that is a prerequisite for development in the DRC, the main priority must be to provide victims with multiform assistance aimed at restarting the economy and ensuring food self-sufficiency, thereby reducing both malnutrition and child mortality. Better access to healthcare and to psychosocial, medical, and legal services is also needed for rape victims. PMID:21695885

  16. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in six health areas of - Kasansa health zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: short report.

    PubMed

    Linsuke, Sylvie; Nundu, Sabin; Mupoyi, Sylvain; Mukele, Rodin; Mukunda, Faustin; Kabongo, Madeleine Mbuyi; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Van Sprundel, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Polman, Katja; Lutumba, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An epidemiological and parasitological study was carried out in 2011 in the health zone of Kasansa. Six health areas (HA) were included in the study. In each health area, one primary school was selected. School-aged children were screened for S. mansoni infection using parallel Kato-Katz and direct microscopy techniques. A total of 335 school-aged children were screened. The average prevalence was 82.7% and ranged between 59.5-94.9%. Four of the six HAs had a prevalence level over 91%. Of all infected children, about half 112 (43.2%) had light parasite density. These results demonstrate that Schistosoma mansoni infection is a bigger problem than anticipated and there is an urgent need to implement effective control measures. PMID:25521351

  17. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Okello, Anna L.; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V.; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C.; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  18. Ethical implications of resource-limited evaluations: lessons from an INGO in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Ramanath, Ramya

    2014-10-01

    The emphasis on demonstrable program results in international development work has produced countless evaluation guidelines and numerous scholars have championed specific, ethical-based evaluation approaches to guide international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs). Yet few studies have examined the ethical implications of current evaluation practices among INGOs or the resulting effects on INGO-funded programs. This article focuses on one among a growing population of young, U.S.-based INGOs whose evaluation practices reflect limitations of time, methodological expertise and funding. Drawing on existing principles of ethical evaluations, the author explores the circumstances and potential implications of one evaluation performed by an INGO in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and concludes that an ethically defensible evaluation exceeds the capacity of this young INGO. Four propositions are forwarded to highlight the tensions between currently accepted evaluation guidelines and INGO realities. Finally, to help under-resourced INGOs minimize the potential ethical implications for their programs, the article recommends that they prioritize their limited resources to: (1) build local capacity and decentralize evaluation tasks and responsibilities; (2) share program agendas and solicit feedback on implementation from evaluands; (3) share field impressions with local and expert stakeholders; and, (4) translate communications into local dialects to facilitate discussion about structuring future programs and their evaluation. PMID:24907592

  19. Female sociality during the daytime birth of a wild bonobo at Luikotale, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Parturition is one of the most important yet least observed events in studies of primate life history and reproduction. Here, I report the first documented observation of a bonobo (Pan paniscus) birth event in the wild, at the Luikotale Bonobo Project field site, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The nulliparous mother's behaviour before, during and after parturition is described, along with reactions of other community members to the birth and the neonate. Data were collected through focal-animal observations, and the events postpartum were photo-documented. The behaviour and spatial distribution of party members were recorded using scan samples. Parturition occurred during the late morning in a social context, with parous females in close proximity to the parturient mother. Placentophagia occurred immediately after delivery, and the parturient shared the placenta with two of the attending females. I compare this observation with reports of parturition in captive bonobos, and highlight the observed female sociality and social support during the birth event. Plausible adaptive advantages of parturition occurring in a social context are discussed, and accrued observations of birth events in wild and free-ranging primates suggest that females may give birth within proximity of others more frequently than previously thought. This account contributes rare empirical data for examining the interface between female sociality and parturition, and the evolution of parturitional behaviours in primates. PMID:25007717

  20. Ethno-entomological observations from North Korea (officially known as the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In terms of scientific activities generally and ethnobiological pursuits in particular, North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, is an almost blank entity on the quilt of global research. During a sabbatical semester at Pyongyang University of Science and Technology the author used this opportunity to gather some information on the uses of insect and other terrestrial arthropods as human food and components of traditional healing methods in that country. Despite the widely publicised shortcomings in the supply of food stuffs to the population of North Korea, insects are not generally seen as a source of food worthy of exploitation. However, the therapeutic use of insects, centipedes and scorpions to treat illnesses as diverse as the common cold, skin rashes, constipation, dysentery, nervous prostration, whooping cough, osteomyelitis, tetanus, and various forms of cancer is apparently still popular. The arthropods used therapeutically are credited with anti-inflammatory, immunological and other health-promoting effects, because they are said to contain hormones, steroids, lipids and plant-derived alkaloids, all of which capable of exerting their effects on the human body. PMID:23324196

  1. [Referential of nursing competencies in the Democratic Republic of Congo within the framework of strengthening human resources for health].

    PubMed

    Parent, F; Lemenu, D; Lejeune, C; Komba, D; Baulana, R; Kahombo, G; Coppieters, Y

    2006-09-01

    This article describes the results of a participatory process aiming to design and develop a referential of competencies for nurses to be used in secondary professional training within the context of the global South, and more specifically in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Priority focus is given to the presentation of the final validated product. The competencies' referential is accompanied by a training referential as a pre-requisite guide, which outlines the course of study. Only the referential of competencies is described in this article. The result documents, in the first instance, the shape which this referential of competencies takes in reality, from which a school nurse can be brought to mobilise while practicing his/her profession. The referential's basis and presentation is founded on four key skill sets as a starting point. Each of the four key skills were further broken down and divided according to levels of competencies and minimal criteria for perfecting these skills per year of study. The presentation of the referential of competencies ends by regrouping "families of situations" for each year as well as with an adapted glossary. The discussion focuses on the results of the referential of competencies in its context but also on the use which should be made of this tool within the framework of the implementation of the education and training reform for nurses in DRC. Another point is the interest of this approach by skills for various types of professional training in the health sciences. PMID:17094685

  2. Evidence for partial melt in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu (Changbaishan), Democratic People's Republic of Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Kyong-Song, Ri; Hammond, James O S; Chol-Nam, Ko; Hyok, Kim; Yong-Gun, Yun; Gil-Jong, Pak; Chong-Song, Ri; Oppenheimer, Clive; Liu, Kosima W; Iacovino, Kayla; Kum-Ran, Ryu

    2016-04-01

    Mt. Paektu (also known as Changbaishan) is an enigmatic volcano on the border between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and China. Despite being responsible for one of the largest eruptions in history, comparatively little is known about its magmatic evolution, geochronology, or underlying structure. We present receiver function results from an unprecedented seismic deployment in the DPRK. These are the first estimates of the crustal structure on the DPRK side of the volcano and, indeed, for anywhere beneath the DPRK. The crust 60 km from the volcano has a thickness of 35 km and a bulk V P/V S of 1.76, similar to that of the Sino-Korean craton. The V P/V S ratio increases ~20 km from the volcano, rising to >1.87 directly beneath the volcano. This shows that a large region of the crust has been modified by magmatism associated with the volcanism. Such high values of V P/V S suggest that partial melt is present in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu. This region of melt represents a potential source for magmas erupted in the last few thousand years and may be associated with an episode of volcanic unrest observed between 2002 and 2005. PMID:27152343

  3. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Four Health Areas of Kisantu Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Khonde Kumbu, R; Mbanzulu Makola, K; Bin, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected. Data were entered and encoded using software EpiData version 3.1. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 software. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.5% (103); almost two-thirds (63) (61.2%) had light infection intensity. A significant association was found between S. mansoni infection and age (p = 0.005), educational level (p = 0.001), and practices of swimming/bathing (p < 0.001) and using water from river/lake/stream for domestic use (p < 0.001). Kipasa health area had high prevalence of schistosomiasis (64.6%) (64/99; 95% CI 54.4-74.0) compared to other health areas. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in these areas. There is a need to promote health education and promote behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis. PMID:27579346

  4. Assessment of gender distribution in dengue surveillance data, the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Prasith, Nouda; Keosavanh, Onechanh; Phengxay, Manilay; Stone, Sara; Lewis, Hannah C; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Matsui, Tamano; Phongmanay, Panom; Khamphaphongphane, Bouaphanh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adolescent and young adult males account for a large proportion of dengue cases reported through national surveillance systems in the Western Pacific Region. To preliminarily assess the validity of these observed distributions, a field investigation was conducted in the Lao People's Democratic Republic’s Savannakhet Province in November 2011. Methods Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Dengue surveillance data from Savannakhet Province, and aggregate hospital admission data from the Savannakhet Provincial Hospital for outpatients and inpatients were analysed by age and sex. Unstructured informal interviews were conducted with local health care workers, primary and secondary school officials and villagers. Results An excess of males was found among reported dengue cases in Savannakhet Province in the 15–49 year age group. Females in the same age group, however, were found to access health care more than their male counterparts. Qualitative assessments attributed this distribution to young females being more health-conscious and having greater health care-seeking behaviour. Discussion The excess of male dengue cases in the surveillance data appeared to be associated with a truly higher risk of dengue rather than greater health care access or health care-seeking behaviour by young men. This investigation indicated the importance of assessing the reported surveillance data within the context of health care utilization behaviour of the population under surveillance. PMID:24015367

  5. Water Supply Interruptions and Suspected Cholera Incidence: A Time-Series Regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Jeandron, Aurélie; Saidi, Jaime Mufitini; Kapama, Alois; Burhole, Manu; Birembano, Freddy; Vandevelde, Thierry; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town. Methods and Findings Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54–4.24), compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile—4,794 m3). Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%–33.2%). Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91–7.20) and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%–42.5%). The analysis did not suggest any

  6. Pyrochlores from the Lueshe carbonatite complex (Democratic Republic of Congo): a geochemical record of different alteration stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasraoui, M.; Bilal, E.

    2000-04-01

    Magmatic pyrochlores from the Lueshe syenite-carbonatite complex from the northeastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (ex-Zaı̈re) are characterized by Ta/Nb ratios in an increasing order from pyroxenite, calcite-carbonatite (sövite), silicate xenoliths (nodules) to syenite. Substitutions involving Nb, Ta, Ti and REE have been precisely described. Hydrothermal alteration of Lueshe pyrochlore involves the substitution of Na ++F -=VA+VY and Ca+O=VA+VY (VA=A-site vacancy and VY=Y-site vacancy). In calcite carbonatite, hydrothermal alteration of pyrochlore took place during and after the precipitation of ancylite-(Ce), strontianite, celestite, baryte and fayalite according to a fluid composition of relatively low pH, aNa +, aCa 2+ and aHF, and high aSr 2+ and aLREE 3+. The supergene alteration is characterized by complete leaching of Na, Ca and F and partial incorporation of K, Ba, Sr and Ce resulting in the formation of kali-, bario-, strontio- and ceriopyrochlore respectively. The Na-poor pyrochlore may be an intermediate variety corresponding to an alteration stage between the hydrothermal and weathered pyrochlores. The IR spectroscopic study has indicated that the weathered pyrochlore is a hydrated variety containing two bands of OH vibration modes at 3413 and 1630 cm -1. During hydrothermal and supergene alterations, the cations at B-site remain relatively constant. The variable chemical compositions of the pyrochlores from the Lueshe complex represent geochemical memories of the different alteration conditions including the variation in the oxidation-reduction environment.

  7. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d’Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Peter T.; Leendertz, Siv A. J.; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d’Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d’Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d’Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required. PMID:26052326

  8. Paying health workers for performance in a fragmented, fragile state: reflections from Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Fox, Sarah; Witter, Sophie; Wylde, Emily; Mafuta, Eric; Lievens, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The health financing system in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) presents an extreme example of low government investment, high dependency on user fees and poor harmonization across donors. Within this context, performance-based financing mechanisms are being implemented by various donors in the expectation that they will improve health worker motivation and service delivery performance. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data at different levels of the health system, this study focuses on one such programme in Katanga Province, which combines paying for performance (P4P) with a reduction in fees to users. Despite adding considerably to facility resources (providing the majority of the resources in the case study facilities), there was no evidence of benefits in terms of any of the service inputs, processes or outputs measured. The findings suggest that the positive effects on health worker motivation cannot be taken as a given, particularly, when staff are often expected to increase their workload to achieve the performance objectives and when another source of income, the income from user fees, may be reduced due to a fall in the prices of services. Moreover, in a context where health workers were already almost entirely dependent on users for their remuneration before the donor programme was introduced, the incentive effects of a performance contract may be muted. In addition, other income sources have particular value for staff, it seems-even though salaries and government allowances were low, and frequently delayed, health workers were highly dissatisfied at not receiving them. Salaries were seen as a more assured and long-term source of funding and an important recognition of their role as agents of the state. The authors conclude that while there may be a role for P4P in fragile contexts such as the DRC, to be effective it needs to be rooted in wider financing and human resource policy reforms. PMID:23325585

  9. Mapping and characterizing the vegetation types of the Democratic Republic of Congo using SPOT VEGETATION time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancutsem, C.; Pekel, J.-F.; Evrard, C.; Malaisse, F.; Defourny, P.

    2009-02-01

    The need for quantitative and accurate information to characterize the state and evolution of vegetation types at a national scale is widely recognized. This type of information is crucial for the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains the majority of the tropical forest cover of Central Africa and a large diversity of habitats. In spite of recent progress in earth observation capabilities, vegetation mapping and seasonality analysis in equatorial areas still represent an outstanding challenge owing to high cloud coverage and the extent and limited accessibility of the territory. On one hand, the use of coarse-resolution optical data is constrained by performance in the presence of cloud screening and by noise arising from the compositing process, which limits the spatial consistency of the composite and the temporal resolution. On the other hand, the use of high-resolution data suffers from heterogeneity of acquisition dates, images and interpretation from one scene to another. The objective of the present study was to propose and demonstrate a semi-automatic processing method for vegetation mapping and seasonality characterization based on temporal and spectral information from SPOT VEGETATION time series. A land cover map with 18 vegetation classes was produced using the proposed method that was fed by ecological knowledge gathered from botanists and reference documents. The floristic composition and physiognomy of each vegetation type are described using the Land Cover Classification System developed by the FAO. Moreover, the seasonality of each class is characterized on a monthly basis and the variation in different vegetation indicators is discussed from a phenological point of view. This mapping exercise delivers the first area estimates of seven different forest types, five different savannas characterized by specific seasonality behavior and two aquatic vegetation types. Finally, the result is compared to two recent land cover maps derived from

  10. Mental Health Disorders Among Women Victims of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Nissou Ines; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Hatem, Marie; Fraser, William Donald

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effects of sexual violence (SV) in armed conflicts on women's mental health, on its own and in conjunction with reproductive health issues such as fistula or chronic pelvic pain (CPP). A cross-sectional population-based study of 320 women living in Goma, the Democratic Republic of Congo, aged 15 to 45 years, was conducted. Women who experienced conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) were compared with those who experienced non-conflict-related sexual violence (NCRSV) and those who never experienced such acts. Data were gathered through individual interviews by local staff using standardized questionnaires. The outcomes investigated were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms severity and psychological distress symptoms (PDS) severity. Experience of SV in either context was associated with more severe PDS (p < .0001). Only CRSV was associated with more severe PTSD symptoms (p < .0001). Women who suffered from fistula or CPP also had a higher PDS score mean (p < .0001 and p = .007) and a higher PTSD symptoms score mean (p < .0001, for both reproductive health issues). Multivariate analyses showed that compared with women who never experienced SV and never suffered from fistula or CPP, those who experienced CRSV and suffered from fistula or CPP had the most severe PDS and PTSD symptoms after adjustment for potential confounders. The differences in PDS and PTSD symptoms severity were all significant (p < .0001). Psychological and physical health care are urgently needed for women who experienced CRSV, particularly those with additional issues of fistula or CPP. Current interventions should simultaneously seek to improve both reproductive and mental health. PMID:25304667

  11. Risk Profiling of Hookworm Infection and Intensity in Southern Lao People’s Democratic Republic Using Bayesian Models

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Armelle; Vounatsou, Penelope; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Among the common soil-transmitted helminth infections, hookworm causes the highest burden. Previous research in the southern part of Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) revealed high prevalence rates of hookworm infection. The purpose of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of hookworm infection and intensity, and to investigate risk factors in the Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. Methodology A cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey was conducted in 51 villages. Data on demography, socioeconomic status, water, sanitation, and behavior were combined with remotely sensed environmental data. Bayesian mixed effects logistic and negative binomial models were utilized to investigate risk factors and spatial distribution of hookworm infection and intensity, and to make predictions for non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings A total of 3,371 individuals were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and revealed a hookworm prevalence of 48.8%. Most infections (91.7%) were of light intensity (1-1,999 eggs/g of stool). Lower hookworm infection levels were associated with higher socioeconomic status. The lowest infection levels were found in preschool-aged children. Overall, females were at lower risk of infection, but women aged 50 years and above harbored the heaviest hookworm infection intensities. Hookworm was widespread in Champasack province with little evidence for spatial clustering. Infection risk was somewhat lower in the lowlands, mostly along the western bank of the Mekong River, while infection intensity was homogeneous across the Champasack province. Conclusions/Significance Hookworm transmission seems to occur within, rather than between villages in Champasack province. We present spatial risk maps of hookworm infection and intensity, which suggest that control efforts should be intensified in the Champasack province, particularly in mountainous areas. PMID:25822794

  12. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that

  13. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  14. Experiences of female survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the deadliest since World War II. Over a decade of fighting amongst an array of armed groups has resulted in extensive human rights abuses, particularly the widespread use of sexual violence against women. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a non-random sample of 255 women attending a referral hospital and two local non-governmental organizations to characterize their experiences of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). We then conducted focus groups of 48 women survivors of SGBV to elaborate on survey findings. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent thematic and statistical analysis respectively. Findings Of the women surveyed, 193 (75.7%) experienced rape. Twenty-nine percent of raped women were rejected by their families and 6% by their communities. Thirteen percent of women had a child from rape. Widowhood, husband abandonment, gang rape, and having a child from rape were significant risk factors for social rejection. Mixed methods findings show rape survivors were seen as "contaminated" with HIV, contributing to their isolation and over 95% could not access prophylactic care in time. Receiving support from their husbands after rape was protective against survivors' feelings of shame and social isolation. Interpretation Rape results not only in physical and psychological trauma, but can destroy family and community structures. Women face significant obstacles in seeking services after rape. Interventions offering long-term solutions for hyper-vulnerable women are vital, but lacking; reintegration programs on SGBV for women, men, and communities are also needed. PMID:22047181

  15. "Ten Minimum Requirement": A Management Tool to Improve Quality of Healthcare Services in Lao People Democratic Republic (Lao PDR).

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Rattana, Sommana; Vongsamphanh, Chanphomma

    2015-12-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), the mortality rate among children under 5 years of age is high (131 per 1000 live births in 2003), partly as a consequence of poor basic services provided by district hospitals. A simplified management tool, "Ten MR (Minimum Requirement)", was developed in Lao PDR. The tool assured the quality of health services including the processes of planning, implementing, self-monitoring, supervision, reporting and evaluation. The tool focused on ten basic services, integrating stakeholders from district hospitals and governing agencies. Each district hospital develops feasible annual activities, assigning responsibility to people based on a consensus between hospital staff and local governing agencies. Hospitals can self-monitor their activities on a monthly basis. Supervisory visits to district hospitals by local governing agencies improved activities and communication between staff. Visualization of progress promoted the sharing of achievements between staff and highlighted activities in need of more work. In 2004, district hospitals in Vientiane and Oudomxay provinces initiated the application of the tool. These district hospitals included primary care hospitals for outpatients, emergency care and in-patients, with a capacity of 10-20 beds, providing care for a population of between 30,000 and 80,000 people. The Ministry of Health recognized the effectiveness of Ten MR and implemented the expansion of the tool to all district hospitals in Lao PDR from 2011. Ten MR benefits district hospitals and governing agencies. Ten MR focuses on the daily routine work, enhancing team work and communication among all stakeholders. PMID:26865826

  16. Adherence to Artemisinin Combination Therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Willis, Andrew; Bil, Karla; Singh, Jatinder; Mukomena Sompwe, Eric; Ariti, Cono

    2015-01-01

    Between 2011 and 2013 the number of recorded malaria cases had more than doubled, and between 2009 and 2013 had increased almost 4-fold in MSF-OCA (Médecins sans Frontières – Operational Centre Amsterdam) programmes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The reasons for this rise are unclear. Incorrect intake of Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) could result in failure to treat the infection and potential recurrence. An adherence study was carried out to assess whether patients were completing the full course of ACT. One hundred and eight malaria patients in Shamwana, Katanga province, DRC were visited in their households the day after ACT was supposed to be completed. They were asked a series of questions about ACT administration and the blister pack was observed (if available). Sixty seven (62.0%) patients were considered probably adherent. This did not take into account the patients that vomited or spat their pills or took them at the incorrect time of day, in which case adherence dropped to 46 (42.6%). The most common reason that patients gave for incomplete/incorrect intake was that they were vomiting or felt unwell (10 patients (24.4%), although the reasons were not recorded for 22 (53.7%) patients). This indicates that there may be poor understanding of the importance of completing the treatment or that the side effects of ACT were significant enough to over-ride the pharmacy instructions. Adherence to ACT was poor in this setting. Health education messages emphasising the need to complete ACT even if patients vomit doses, feel unwell or their health conditions improve should be promoted. PMID:25949803

  17. Qualitative study exploring surgical team members' perception of patient safety in conflict-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Labat, Francoise; Sharma, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify potential barriers to patient safety (PS) interventions from the perspective of surgical team members working in an operating theatre in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Design In-depth interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Setting Governmental referral teaching hospital in Eastern DRC. Participants We purposively selected 2–4 national and expatriate surgical team members from each specialisation. Of the 31 eligible surgical health workers (HWs), 17 volunteered to be interviewed. Results Economics issues affected PS throughout the entire health system, from human resources and hospital management, to access to healthcare for patients. Surgical team members seemed embedded in a paternalistic organisational structure and blame culture accompanied by perceived inefficient support services and low salaries. The armed conflict did not only worsen these system failures, it also carried direct threats to patients and HWs, and resulted in complex indirect consequences compromising PS. The increased corruption within health organisations, and population impoverishment and substance abuse among health staff adversely altered safe care. Simultaneously, HWs’ reported resilience and resourcefulness to address barrier to PS. Participants had varying views on external aid depending on its relevance. Conclusions The complex links between war and PS emphasise the importance of a comprehensive approach including occupational health to strengthen HWs' resilience, external clinical audits to limit corruption, and educational programmes in PS to support patient-centred care and address blame culture. Finally, improvement of equity in the health financing system seems essential to ensure access to healthcare and safe perioperative outcomes for all. PMID:27113232

  18. The Challenges of Research Informed Consent in Socio-Economically Vulnerable Populations: A Viewpoint From the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kalabuanga, Marion; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Maketa, Vivi; Muhindo Mavoko, Hypolite; Fungula, Blaise; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    In medical research, the ethical principle of respect for persons is operationalized into the process of informed consent. The consent tools should be contextualized and adapted to the different socio-cultural environment, especially when research crosses the traditional boundaries and reaches poor communities. We look at the challenges experienced in the malaria Quinact trial, conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and describe some lessons learned, related to the definition of acceptable representative, the role of independent witness and the impact of socio-economic vulnerability. To ensure children's protection, consent is required by the parents or, in their absence, by a legally mandated representative. In our setting, children's responsibility is often entrusted permanently or temporarily to relatives or friends without a tribunal mandate. Hence, a notion of 'culturally acceptable representative' under supervision of the local Ethics Committee may be more suitable. To ensure protection of illiterate subjects, an independent witness is required to confirm that the consent was freely given. However, in low-literacy contexts, potential witnesses often don't have any previous relationship with patient and there may be power-unbalance in their relationship, rather than genuine dialogue. In poor communities, trial participation may be seen as an opportunity to secure access to healthcare. Poverty may also lead to 'competition' to access the research-related benefits, with a risk of disturbance at societal or household level. Adjusting consent procedures to sociocultural and socioeconomic realities is essential for fulfilling the underlying ethical principles. This requires a collaborative dialogue between researchers, regulators and ethics committees. PMID:26346178

  19. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S. V.; Potapov, P. V.; Turubanova, S. A.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr-1) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr-1) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC.

  20. A biocultural study of the effects of maternal stress on mother and newborn health in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Nicole C; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-10-01

    The impact of stress on human health is a topic of wide-spread relevance and one that is particularly amenable to multidisciplinary investigation. Stress impacts both our psychological and physical health and, thus, may leave evidence on our psyche, our physical body and our genome. We are interested in the effect of extreme stressors, such as war, on health from the perspective of long-term and multigenerational effects. We integrate sociocultural, biological, and epigenetic data from the war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Between May and August, 2010, we measured sociocultural stress exposure among 25 mother-newborn dyads and we measured health outcomes in newborns. We also collected maternal venous blood, placental tissue, and umbilical cord blood to assay for methylation changes to test for a possible epigenetic mechanism that mediates the effects of stress on health. We provide a qualitative description of the wide range of stress exposures experienced by mothers in our study. As we have shown previously, maternal war stress is strongly associated with newborn birthweight and changes in newborn methylation at the glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1. New results presented here demonstrate that maternal war stress and birthweight are also associated with genome-wide changes in maternal methylation levels. In sum, these results suggest that stress may influence gene expression across a broad spectrum in the individual who directly experiences the stress, i.e., the mother, whereas potential heritable effects in the newborn may be focused on specific genes that are uniquely sensitive to environmental cues. PMID:25043696

  1. Genotypes of rubella virus and the epidemiology of rubella infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Pukuta, Elizabeth; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Abernathy, Emily; Illunga, Benoit Kebela; Obama, Ricardo; Mondonge, Vital; Dahl, Benjamin A; Maresha, Balcha G; Icenogle, Joseph; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Rubella is a viral infection that may cause fetal death or congenital defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), during early pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries assess the burden of rubella and CRS, including the determination of genotypes of circulating viruses. The goal of this study was to identify the genotypes of rubella viruses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Serum or throat swab samples were collected through the measles surveillance system. Sera that tested negative for measles IgM antibody were tested for rubella IgM antibody. Serum collected within 4 days of rash onset and throat swabs were screened by real-time RT-PCR for rubella virus RNA. For positive samples, an amplicon of the E1 glycoprotein gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. 11733 sera were tested for rubella IgM and 2816 (24%) were positive; 145 (5%) were tested for the presence of rubella RNA by real-time RT-PCR and 10 (7%) were positive. Seventeen throat swabs were analyzed by RT-PCR and three were positive. Sequences were obtained from eight of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DRC rubella viruses belonged to genotypes 1B, 1E, 1G, and 2B. This report provides the first information on the genotypes of rubella virus circulating in the DRC. These data contribute to a better understanding of rubella burden and the dynamics of rubella virus circulation in Africa. Efforts to establish rubella surveillance in the DRC are needed to support rubella elimination in Africa. J. Med. Virol. 88:1677-1684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27479298

  2. Improving financial access to health care in the Kisantu district in the Democratic Republic of Congo: acting upon complexity

    PubMed Central

    Stasse, Stéphanie; Vita, Dany; Kimfuta, Jacques; da Silveira, Valèria Campos; Bossyns, Paul; Criel, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Background Comzmercialization of health care has contributed to widen inequities between the rich and the poor, especially in settings with suboptimal regulatory frameworks of the health sector. Poorly regulated fee-for-service payment systems generate inequity and initiate a vicious circle in which access to quality health care gradually deteriorates. Although the abolition of user fees is high on the international health policy agenda, the sudden removal of user fees may have disrupting effects on the health system and may not be affordable or sustainable in resource-constrained countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods and Results Between 2008 and 2011, the Belgian development aid agency (BTC) launched a set of reforms in the Kisantu district, in the province of Bas Congo, through an action-research process deemed appropriate for the implementation of change within open complex systems such as the Kisantu local health system. Moreover, the entire process contributed to strengthen the stewardship capacity of the Kisantu district management team. The reforms mainly comprised the rationalization of resources and the regulation of health services financing. Flat fees per episode of disease were introduced as an alternative to fee-for-service payments by patients. A financial subsidy from BTC allowed to reduce the height of the flat fees. The provision of the subsidy was made conditional upon a range of measures to rationalize the use of resources. Conclusions The results in terms of enhancing people access to quality health care were immediate and substantial. The Kisantu experience demonstrates that a systems approach is essential in addressing complex problems. It provides useful lessons for other districts in the country. PMID:25563450

  3. Charcoal-inferred Holocene fire and vegetation history linked to drought periods in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Hubau, Wannes; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The impact of Holocene drought events on the presumably stable Central African rainforest remains largely unexplored, in particular the significance of fire. High-quality sedimentary archives are scarce, and palynological records mostly integrate over large regional scales subject to different fire regimes. Here, we demonstrate a direct temporal link between Holocene droughts, palaeofire and vegetation change within present-day Central African rainforest, using records of identified charcoal fragments extracted from soil in the southern Mayumbe forest (Democratic Republic of Congo). We find three distinct periods of local palaeofire occurrence: 7.8-6.8 ka BP, 2.3-1.5 ka BP, 0.8 ka BP - present. These periods are linked to well-known Holocene drought anomalies: the 8.2 ka BP event, the 3rd millennium BP rainforest crisis and the Mediaeval Climate Anomaly. During and after these Holocene droughts, the Central African rainforest landscape was characterized by a fragmented pattern with fire-prone open patches. Some fires occurred during the drought anomalies although most fires seem to lag behind them, which suggests that the open patches remained fire-prone after the actual climate anomalies. Charcoal identifications indicate that mature rainforest patches did persist through the Early to Mid-Holocene climatic transition, the subsequent Holocene thermal optimum and the third millennium BP rainforest crisis, until 0.8 ka BP. However, disturbance and fragmentation were probably more prominent near the boundary of the southern Mayumbe forest. Furthermore, the dominance of pioneer and woodland savanna taxa in younger charcoal assemblages indicates that rainforest regeneration was hampered by increasingly severe drought conditions after 0.8 ka BP. These results support the notion of a dynamic forest ecosystem at multicentury time scales across the Central African rainforest. PMID:25594742

  4. New Constraints on the Geochemistry of the Millennium Eruption of Mount Paektu (Changbaishan), Democratic People's Republic of Korea/China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovino, K.; Kim, J. S.; Sisson, T. W.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Jang, J. N.; Song, K. H.; Ham, H. H.; Ri, K. H.; Donovan, A. R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Weber Liu, K.; Ryu, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Paektu (also known as Changbaishan) is a large caldera located on the border between China and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Circa 946 AD, Paektu produced one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history, the so-called Millennium Eruption (ME), whose combined fall and pyroclastic flow deposits total approximately 25 km3 dense rock equivalent (95% commendite, 5% late stage trachyte). Despite its recent and potentially destructive history, the volcano is not well studied due to its relative inaccessibility. A seismic swarm beneath the volcano's summit in 2002-2005 spurred a unique collaboration between scientists from the DPRK, US, and the UK with the goals of characterizing Paektu's eruptive history and assessing its current state of activity. We present new results from this collaboration, including major and trace element (XRF, EMP and SHRIMP-RG) and volatile data (SHRIMP-RG and FTIR) on feldspar-, clinopyroxene-, and olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI), matrix glasses, and bulk pumices from four ME comendites and one ME trachyte. MI are halogen rich (F≤4000 ppm, Cl≤5000 ppm) with moderate S (≤250 ppm) and H2O (≤4 wt%) and minimal CO2 (≤15 ppm, detection limit ~2 ppm). H2O contents in comendite MI indicate saturation pressures (at 725 °C) of ~150 MPa, corresponding to a magma chamber depth of ~6 km, similar to the depth inferred for the magmatic injection thought to have resulted in the 2002-05 earthquake swarm. ME comendite is consistent with a ca. 25% residual melt by fractional crystallization from an ME trachyte parent. Published U-series zircon ages from ME comendite indicate a magma residence time of 11ky. Thus, the late stage ME trachyte likely represents a mafic recharge event of a melt separate from but geochemically similar to the original ME comendite parent.

  5. Postage Stamps and the Teaching of GDR Culture and Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Napoli, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Proposes the use of postage stamps as sources of information and visual aids in teaching the culture and civilization of the German Democratic Republic. Illustrates how stamps can provide interesting insights into areas such as history, economy, socio-political customs, foreign policy and the arts. (MES)

  6. Visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine in cervical cancer screening at the general referral hospital Kayembe in Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Desire, Banza Kamba; Philippe, Cilundika Mulenga; Thierry, Kabengele; Félix, Kitenge Wa Momat; Wembodinga, Gilbert Utshudienyema; Prosper, Kakudji Luhete; Oscar, Luboya Numbi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality of women from cancer in the developing World. It is the primary cause of reduced life expectancy in Sub-Saharan countries such as Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of this work was to determinate the socio-demographic profile of women with precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix, to determinate the frequency of VIA and VILI positive cases and to show the challenges that can be faced in managing patients with abnormalities in the city of Mbuji-Mayi in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods As part of its activities, the “Association de Lutte contre le Cancer du Col utérin” (ALCC) organized a community outreach followed by free voluntary testing for cervical cancer for two weeks (26thMarch to 10th April 2011) at the General Referral Hospital Kayembe in Mbuji-Mayi (Democratic Republic of Congo). Results A total of 229 women were examined. 38% of tests (VIA + VILI) were positive with 6 clinically suspected cases of invasive cancer at stage 1 (7% of cases). Nearly 70% of patients were still of childbearing age and had started their first sexual intercourse before 18 years of age and 86% of cases were multiparous. Given the material, financial and technical constraints, 75% of patients were placed in a monitoring program of 9 months to 1 year (= expectation and another test) while 11% of them were selected for a biopsy to be locally practiced and sent to the pathologist. Nearly 8% of the cases were candidates for hysterectomy. Conclusion Given the difficulties encountered and the frequency of positive tests, we recommend another study with a larger sample, improved working conditions (mainly equipment) and the association of another test such as the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) test. PMID:27217888

  7. Risk for family rejection and associated mental health outcomes among conflict-affected adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Mullany, Luke C; Murhula, Clovis Mitima; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikengi; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Ntwali, Eric Mpanano; Glass, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Stigma due to sexual violence includes family rejection, a complex outcome including economic, behavioral, and physical components. We explored the relationship among conflict-related trauma, family rejection, and mental health in adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, who participate in a livestock-based microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Exposure to multiple and different types of conflict-related trauma, including sexual assault, was associated with increased likelihood of family rejection, which in turn was associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Design of appropriate and effective interventions will require understanding family relationships and exposure to different types of trauma in postconflict environments. PMID:24660941

  8. Metasomatic mantle origin for Mbuji-Mayi and Kundelungu garnet and clinopyroxene megacrysts (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivin, M.; Féménias, O.; Demaiffe, D.

    2009-11-01

    Mbuji-Mayi (east Kasai province) and Kundelungu (Shaba province) are the two kimberlite fields known for a long time in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Mbuji-Mayi intrudes the Archean basement (Congo-Kasai Craton) and is diamond-rich, whereas Kundelungu cuts across Paleoproterozoic basement (Bangweulu block) and is diamond-poor. The megacryst suites (or discrete nodule suites) of both fields include garnet and clinopyroxene megacrysts. The pyrope-rich megacrysts can be subdivided in three groups on the basis of their Cr contents: low-Cr (0.00-1.79 wt.%Cr 2O 3; Mg #: 72.8-84.0); medium-Cr (1.93-5.16 wt.%Cr 2O 3; Mg #: 76.2-86.3) and high-Cr (5.42-7.10 wt.%Cr 2O 3; Mg #: 79.2-84.6). There are no significant geochemical differences between the garnets from Mbuji-Mayi and from Kundelungu. Polymineral inclusions composed of K-rich hydrated phases (phlogopite and amphibole), fresh glass and Cr-spinels are identified in garnets from all three groups, in both localities, which suggest a common origin. Two groups of diopside megacrysts from Mbuji-Mayi are distinguished on the basis of their Ca content: low-Ca (Ca #: 39.5-42.1; 0.61-0.92 wt.%Cr 2O 3) and medium-Ca (Ca #: 44.1-48.5; 0.41-1.09 wt.%Cr 2O 3); they differ from a third group of high-Cr diopsides (Ca #: 47.1-49.4; 1.31-2.77 wt.%Cr 2O 3). The major element compositions of DRC megacrysts are distinct from those of many other megacryst suites worldwide: the clinopyroxenes are lower in Fe and Ti and higher in Mg and the garnets contain more Cr and significantly less Ti, Fe and Al. These DRC megacryst compositions are intermediate between those of peridotite minerals and those of kimberlite megacrysts from other localities. Most garnets have "normal" REE profiles ((La/Yb) N = 0.003-0.027), whereas clinopyroxenes display relative LREE enrichment ((La/Yb) N = 5.1-43.2). The REE patterns of garnet and clinopyroxene megacrysts are similar to those from metasomatized South African mantle lherzolites. The differences

  9. Use of facility assessment data to improve reproductive health service delivery in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prolonged exposure to war has severely impacted the provision of health services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Health infrastructure has been destroyed, health workers have fled and government support to health care services has been made difficult by ongoing conflict. Poor reproductive health (RH) indicators illustrate the effect that the prolonged crisis in DRC has had on the on the reproductive health (RH) of Congolese women. In 2007, with support from the RAISE Initiative, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and CARE conducted baseline assessments of public hospitals to evaluate their capacities to meet the RH needs of the local populations and to determine availability, utilization and quality of RH services including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and family planning (FP). Methods Data were collected from facility assessments at nine general referral hospitals in five provinces in the DRC during March, April and November 2007. Interviews, observation and clinical record review were used to assess the general infrastructure, EmOC and FP services provided, and the infection prevention environment in each of the facilities. Results None of the nine hospitals met the criteria for classification as an EmOC facility (either basic or comprehensive). Most facilities lacked any FP services. Shortage of trained staff, essential supplies and medicines and poor infection prevention practices were consistently documented. All facilities had poor systems for routine monitoring of RH services, especially with regard to EmOC. Conclusions Women's lives can be saved and their well-being improved with functioning RH services. As the DRC stabilizes, IRC and CARE in partnership with the local Ministry of Health and other service provision partners are improving RH services by: 1) providing necessary equipment and renovations to health facilities; 2) improving supply management systems; 3) providing comprehensive competency-based training for

  10. Newborn care in Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and the Philippines: a comprehensive needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Between 1990 and 2011, global neonatal mortality decline was slower than that of under-five mortality. As a result, the proportion of under-five deaths due to neonatal mortality increased. This increase is primarily a consequence of decreasing post-neonatal and child under-five mortality as a result of the typical focus of child survival programmes of the past two decades on diseases affecting children over four weeks of age. Newborns are lagging behind in improved child health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive, equity-focussed newborn care assessment and to explore options to improve newborn survival in Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) and the Philippines. Methods We assessed newborn health policies, services and care in the three countries through document review, interviews and health facility visits. Findings were triangulated to describe newborns’ health status, the health policy and the health system context for newborn care and the equity situation regarding newborn survival. Results Main findings: (1) In the three countries, decline of neonatal mortality is lagging behind compared to that of under-five mortality. (2) Comprehensive newborn policies in line with international standards exist, although implementation remains poor. An important factor hampering implementation is decentralisation of the health sector, which created confusion regarding roles and responsibilities. Management capacity and skills at decentralised level were often found to be limited. (3) Quality of newborn care provided at primary healthcare and referral level is generally substandard. Limited knowledge and skills among providers of newborn care are contributing to poor quality of care. (4) Socio-economic and geographic inequities in newborn care are considerable. Conclusions Similar important challenges for newborn care have been identified in Indonesia, Lao PDR and the Philippines. There is an urgent need to address weak

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among male high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Thanavanh, Bounbouly; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md.; Kasuya, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes and risky practices are major hindrances to preventing the spread of HIV. This study aimed to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Methods A cross-sectional study on unmarried male students aged between 16 and 19 years old was undertaken in 2010 to evaluate their KAPs. We selected 300 eligible grade VII students through systematic random sampling from different high schools in one province of Lao PDR. Results The majority of students surveyed were aware that HIV can be transmitted by sexual intercourse (97.7%), from mother to child (88.3%) and through sharing needles or syringes (92.0%). Misconceptions about transmission of HIV were observed among 59.3% to 74.3% of respondents. Positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were observed among 55.7% of respondents. Nearly half of the surveyed students (45.3%) said that they would be willing to continue studying in a school with HIV-positive friends, and 124 (41.3%) said they would continue attending a school with HIV-positive teachers. Ninety-four (31.3%) students had a history of sexual intercourse, and 70.2% of these students had used a condom. However, only 43.9% said they used condoms consistently. Students with medium and high levels of knowledge were 4.3 (95% CI=2.1–9.0, P<0.001) and 13.3 (95% CI=6.5–27.4, P<0.001) times more likely to display positive attitudes towards people living with HIV. Similarly, safe practices related to safe sex were also observed among students with medium (OR=2.8, 95% CI=0.9–8.8, P=0.069) and high levels of knowledge (OR=1.9, 95% CI=0.6–6.2, P=0.284). More than three-quarters of students mentioned television and radio as major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Despite adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS among the school students, misconceptions about routes of transmission were found. Negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS and risky

  12. Violence against civilians and access to health care in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: three cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The province of North Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo has been afflicted by conflict for over a decade. After months of relative calm, offences restarted in September 2008. We did an epidemiological study to document the impact of violence on the civilian population and orient pre-existing humanitarian aid. Methods In May 2009, we conducted three cross-sectional surveys among 200 000 resident and displaced people in North Kivu (Kabizo, Masisi, Kitchanga). The recall period covered an eight month period from the beginning of the most recent offensives to the survey date. Heads of households provided information on displacement, death, violence, theft, and access to fields and health care. Results Crude mortality rates (per 10 000 per day) were below emergency thresholds: Kabizo 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.4), Masisi 0.5 (0.4-0.6), Kitchanga 0.7 (0.6-0.9). Violence was the reported cause in 39.7% (27/68) and 35.8% (33/92) of deaths in Masisi and Kitchanga, respectively. In Masisi 99.1% (897/905) and Kitchanga 50.4% (509/1020) of households reported at least one member subjected to violence. Displacement was reported by 39.0% of households (419/1075) in Kitchanga and 99.8% (903/905) in Masisi. Theft affected 87.7% (451/514) of households in Masisi and 57.4% (585/1019) in Kitchanga. Access to health care was good: 93.5% (359/384) of the sick in Kabizo, 81.7% (515/630) in Masisi, and 89.8% (651/725) in Kitchanga received care, of whom 83.0% (298/359), 87.5% (451/515), and 88.9% (579/651), respectively, did not pay. Conclusions Our results show the impact of the ongoing war on these civilian populations: one third of deaths were violent in two sites, individuals are frequently subjected to violence, and displacements and theft are common. While humanitarian aid may have had a positive impact on disease mortality and access to care, the population remains exposed to extremely high levels of violence. PMID:21059195

  13. Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Isiro, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012: Signs and Symptoms, Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Thomas; Roddy, Paul; Tshomba Oloma, Antoine; Jeffs, Benjamin; Pou Ciruelo, Diana; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Borchert, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Data collected during the 2012 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were analysed for clinical signs, symptoms and case fatality of EVD caused by Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), establishment of differential diagnoses, description of medical treatment and evaluation of the quality of clinical documentation. In a quantitative observational prospective study, global epidemiological data from 52 patients (34 patients within the community, 18 patients treated in the Ebola Treatment Centre) were entered anonymously into a database, subsequently matched and analysed. Relevant findings include an over-representation of females among community EVD cases (85.3%) and of community EVD cases in the age group of 15-54 years (82.4%). All ETC patients had fever (55.6% of all 18 ETC patients during their hospital stay) or self-reported fever (88.2% upon admission) at some point of time during their illness. Major symptoms of ETC patients during hospital stay included asthenia (82.4%), anorexia (82.4%), myalgia (70.6%), sore throat/difficulty swallowing (70.6%), arthralgia (76.5%) and nausea (70.6%). Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting) (76.4%) as well as general pain (94.1%) were frequent in ETC patients. The median duration of EVD was 18 days, while the mean incubation period was 11.3 days. Differential diagnosis of EVD included malaria (28.3%), intestinal parasitosis (10.9%), and infectious syndrome (10.9%). There was also an important variation in clinical evolvement. Quality of documentation was adversely affected by the way patient file contents were transferred from inside to outside the high-risk zone, entailing a mean mismatch value of 27.3% between patient file contents inside vs. outside the high-risk zone. This study adds further description of EVD (frequently non-specific signs and symptoms, non frequent bleeding, a long incubation period, long duration of disease) and emphasizes the need for improving

  14. Novel simian foamy virus infections from multiple monkey species in women from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in Central Africa is ongoing and can result in pandemic human infection. While simian foamy virus (SFV) infection was reported in primate hunters in Cameroon and Gabon, little is known about the distribution of SFV in Africa and whether human-to-human transmission and disease occur. We screened 3,334 plasmas from persons living in rural villages in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using SFV-specific EIA and Western blot (WB) tests. PCR amplification of SFV polymerase sequences from DNA extracted from buffy coats was used to measure proviral loads. Phylogenetic analysis was used to define the NHP species origin of SFV. Participants completed questionnaires to capture NHP exposure information. Results Sixteen (0.5%) samples were WB-positive; 12 of 16 were from women (75%, 95% confidence limits 47.6%, 92.7%). Sequence analysis detected SFV in three women originating from Angolan colobus or red-tailed monkeys; both monkeys are hunted frequently in DRC. NHP exposure varied and infected women lived in distant villages suggesting a wide and potentially diverse distribution of SFV infections across DRC. Plasmas from 22 contacts of 8 WB-positive participants were all WB negative suggesting no secondary viral transmission. Proviral loads in the three women ranged from 14 – 1,755 copies/105 cells. Conclusions Our study documents SFV infection in rural DRC for the first time and identifies infections with novel SFV variants from Colobus and red-tailed monkeys. Unlike previous studies, women were not at lower risk for SFV infection in our population, providing opportunities for spread of SFV both horizontally and vertically. However, limited testing of close contacts of WB-positive persons did not identify human-to-human transmission. Combined with the broad behavioral risk and distribution of NHPs across DRC, our results suggest that SFV infection may have a wider geographic distribution within DRC. These

  15. Patterns of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: reports from survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the signing of international peace agreements, a deadly war continues in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and sexual violence is a prominent modus operandi of many military groups operating in the region. Methods Retrospective cohort study of women who presented to Panzi Hospital in 2006 requesting post-sexual violence care. Data was extracted and analyzed to describe the patterns of sexual violence. Results A total of 1,021 medical records were reviewed. A majority of attacks occurred in individual homes (56.5%), with the fields (18.4%) and the forest (14.3%) also being frequent locations of attack. In total, 58.9% of all attacks occurred at night. Of the four primary types of sexual violence, gang rape predominated (59.3%) and rape Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) was also common (21.5%). Sexual slavery was described by 4.9% of the survivors and a combination of gang rape and sexual slavery was described by 11.7%. The mean number of assailants per attack was 2.5 with a range of one to > 15. There were several demographic predictors for sexual slavery. Controlling for age, education level and occupation, a marital status of "single" increased the risk of sexual slavery (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.12-7.85). Similarly, after controlling for other variables, age was a significant predictor of sexual slavery with older women being at a slightly reduced risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99). Women who experienced sexual slavery were 37 times more likely to have a resultant pregnancy in comparison to those who reported other types of sexual violence (OR = 37.50, 95% CI = 14.57-99.33). Conclusions Among sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006, the majority of attacks occurred in women's own homes, often at night. This represents a pattern of violence that differs from other conflict settings and has important implications regarding protection strategies. Sexual violence in South Kivu was also marked with a predominance of gang rape

  16. High School Students Are a Target Group for Fight against Self-Medication with Antimalarial Drugs: A Pilot Study in University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kabongo Kamitalu, Ramsès; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the self-medication against malaria infection in population of Congolese students in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Medical records of all students with malaria admitted to Centre de Santé Universitaire of University of Kinshasa from January 1, 2008, to April 30, 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Results. The median age of the patients was 25.4 years (range: from 18 to 36 years). The majority of them were male (67.9%). Artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) was the most used self-prescribed antimalarial drugs. However, self-medication was associated with the ingestion of quinine in 19.9% of cases. No case of ingestion of artesunate/artemether in monotherapy was found. All the medicines taken were registered in DRC. In this series, self-prescribed antimalarial was very irrational in terms of dose and duration of treatment. Conclusion. This paper highlights self-medication by a group who should be aware of malaria treatment protocols. The level of self-prescribing quinine is relatively high among students and is disturbing for a molecule reserved for severe disease in Congolese health care policy in management of malaria. PMID:27340411

  17. Correlates of syphilis seropositivity and risk for syphilis-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes among women attending antenatal care clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Melanie M; Ebrahim, Shahul; Abiola, Nadine; Kinkodi, Didine Kaba; Mpingulu, Minlangu; Kabuayi, Jean Pierre; Ekofo, Felly; Newman, Daniel R; Peterman, Thomas A; Kamb, Mary L; Sidibe, Kassim

    2014-09-01

    Screening and treatment for syphilis among pregnant women is the primary means of prevention of congenital syphilis. Sentinel surveillance for syphilis can inform these prevention efforts. We reviewed antenatal syphilis screening results to assess trends and to identify correlates of seropositivity among women attending antenatal care clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo during 2011. Syphilis seropositivity among the 17,669 women attending the antenatal care clinics during 2011 was 4.2% (range 0.4%-16.9%). Syphilis seropositivity was significantly higher among women attending rural clinics (5.0%) as compared to urban clinics (3.0%) and those tested in antenatal care clinics in the provinces of Equateur (7.6%) and Orientale (7.7%) as compared to other provinces (p < 0.001). Based on the antenatal care syphilis seroprevalence and national pregnancy estimates, we estimate that approximately 128,591 pregnant women countrywide would have tested seropositive for syphilis during 2011. Over 85,000 adverse pregnancy outcomes would have resulted from these maternal infections, assuming prenatal syphilis diagnosis and treatment were not available. The prevalence of syphilis was highest in rural areas, but exceeded 1% in every area, indicating a need to assure screening and treatment throughout Democratic Republic of Congo. These sentinel surveillance estimates can be used to guide national congenital syphilis prevention efforts. PMID:24452733

  18. High School Students Are a Target Group for Fight against Self-Medication with Antimalarial Drugs: A Pilot Study in University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kabongo Kamitalu, Ramsès; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the self-medication against malaria infection in population of Congolese students in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Medical records of all students with malaria admitted to Centre de Santé Universitaire of University of Kinshasa from January 1, 2008, to April 30, 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Results. The median age of the patients was 25.4 years (range: from 18 to 36 years). The majority of them were male (67.9%). Artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) was the most used self-prescribed antimalarial drugs. However, self-medication was associated with the ingestion of quinine in 19.9% of cases. No case of ingestion of artesunate/artemether in monotherapy was found. All the medicines taken were registered in DRC. In this series, self-prescribed antimalarial was very irrational in terms of dose and duration of treatment. Conclusion. This paper highlights self-medication by a group who should be aware of malaria treatment protocols. The level of self-prescribing quinine is relatively high among students and is disturbing for a molecule reserved for severe disease in Congolese health care policy in management of malaria. PMID:27340411

  19. Development of an efficient callus proliferation system for Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Mun, Song-Chol; Mun, Gwan-Sim

    2016-07-01

    A clonal mass propagation to obtain mountainous sources of Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant in Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established by rhizome tissue culture. Whole plants were selected and collected as a vigorous individual free from blights and harmful insects among wild plants of R. coreanum grown on the top of Mt. Langrim (1.540 m above the sea) situated at the northern extremity of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Induction of the callus was determined using four organs separated from the whole plant and different plant growth regulators. The callus was successfully induced from rhizome explant on MS medium containing 2.4-D (0.2-0.3 mg/l). In the MS medium supplemented with a combination of BAP (2 mg/l) and NAA (0.2 mg/l), single NAA (0.5 mg/l), or IBA (0.5 mg/l), a higher number of shoot, root and plantlets was achieved. The survival rate on the mountainous region of the plantlets successfully acclimatized (100%) in greenhouse reached 95%, and yields of crude drug and contents of active principles were higher than those obtained by sexual and vegetative propagation. This first report of R. coreanum tissue culture provides an opportunity to control extinction threats and an efficient callus proliferation system for growing resources rapidly on a large scale. PMID:27298581

  20. Fluvial-marine transitional depositional environment influencing the diagenesis in the buntsandstein of thuringia (German Democratic Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, Rolf

    The Buntsandstein in Thuringia (German Democratic Republic) consists predominantly of sandy and gravelly fluvial sediments which in parts of the sequence pass into marine deposits. Extensive braided-river systems produced vast stream sand bar and sand sheet sediments which coalesced by lateral amalgamation and vertical stacking to persisting complexes that permit the stratigraphical connection of the Folgen megacycles. In the marginal parts of the basin, a higher amount of channel conglomerates occurs, whereas towards the centre of the depression, fine-grained overbank deposits become more abundant and thicker. Marine influences are frequent in the estuarine reach, and the fluvial magnacycle is terminated by the major transgression of the R'ot sea. The palaeocurrent directions reflect three main sources of sediment material, with the flows deriving from Gallian Massif, western part of Bohemian Massif and northern border of Bohemian Massif (Western Erzgebirge) and being directed towards northnortheast, northwest and westnorthwest, respectively. The infilling of the depositional area results in a seaward migration of facies being typical for progradation. The geological framework for the diagenetic alterations of the sediments comprises a large epicontinental basin with platform deposition, resulting in low total thickness of the sequence and shallow depth of burial due to thin overburden. Progressive burial diagenesis is terminated by uplift and weathering descending from the surface during Cretaceous and Tertiary, resulting in overprinting effects of a retrograde or diaphthoritic weathering diagenesis. The postsedimentary phenomena and processes in sandstones include formation of rim cements comprising hematite, feldspar, quartz and chalcedony; growth of basal cements being dolomite and calcite, gypsum and anhydrite, and kaolinite; phase changes and transformations representing mainly illitic, kaolinitic and carbonatic degradation of feldspars; and authigenesis of

  1. A New Clade of African Body and Head Lice Infected by Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis-Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Davoust, Bernard; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases-specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively-that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Here, we describe a fourth mitochondrial clade, Clade D, comprising head and body lice. Clade D may be a vector of B. quintana and Y. pestis, which is prevalent in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:26392158

  2. Interventions to control virus transmission during an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: experience from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995.

    PubMed

    Kerstiëns, B; Matthys, F

    1999-02-01

    On 6 May 1995, the Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) coordinator in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), received a request for assistance for what was believed to be a concurrent outbreak of bacillary dysentery and viral hemorrhagic fever (suspected Ebola hemorrhagic fever [EHF]) in the town of Kikwit, DRC. On 11 May, the MSF intervention team assessed Kikwit General Hospital. This initial assessment revealed a nonfunctional isolation ward for suspected EHF cases; a lack of water and electricity; no waste disposal system; and no protective gear for medical staff. The priorities set by MSF were to establish a functional isolation ward to deal with EHF and to distribute protective supplies to individuals who were involved with patient care. Before the intervention, 67 health workers contracted EHF; after the initiation of control measures, just 3 cases were reported among health staff and none among Red Cross volunteers involved in body burial. PMID:9988193

  3. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF AN EVIDENCE-BASED POSITIVE PREVENTION INTERVENTION FOR YOUTH LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN KINSHASA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    PubMed Central

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J. L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C. E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of a Positive Prevention intervention adapted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) ages 15–24 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with intervention facilitators and YLWH participants on the following four areas of a feasibility framework: acceptability, implementation, adaptation, and limited-efficacy. The adapted intervention was suitable, satisfying, and attractive to program facilitators and participants and able to be implemented effectively. It performed well with a new population and showed preliminary efficacy. However, we identified certain aspects of the intervention that must be addressed prior to wider implementation such as: (1) including more content on navigating marriage while living with HIV and disclosure; (2) adjusting intervention timing and session length; and (3) simplifying the more complicated content. An adapted evidence-based intervention was found to be feasible and lessons learned can be applied to YLWH in other low-resource settings. PMID:23514081

  4. Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection (Buruli Ulcer) on the Face: A Comparative Analysis of 13 Clinically Suspected Cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Phanzu, Delphin M.; Mahema, Roger L.; Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Imposo, Désiré-Hubert B.; Lehman, Linda F.; Nduwamahoro, Elie; Meyers, Wayne M.; Boelaert, Marleen; Portaels, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience in managing 13 consecutive clinically suspected cases of Buruli ulcer on the face treated at the hospital of the Institut Médical Evangélique at Kimpese, Democratic Republic of Congo diagnosed during 2003–2007. During specific antibiotherapy, facial edema diminished, thus minimizing the subsequent extent of surgery and severe disfigurations. The following complications were observed: 1) lagophthalmos from scarring in four patients and associated ectropion in three of them; 2) blindness in one eye in one patient; 3) disfiguring exposure of teeth and gums resulting from excision of the left labial commissure that affected speech, drinking, and eating in one patient; and 4) dissemination of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in three patients. Our study highlights the importance of this clinical presentation of Buruli ulcer, and the need for health workers in disease-endemic areas to be aware of the special challenges management of Buruli ulcer on the face presents. PMID:22144452

  5. Botanical repellents and pesticides traditionally used against hematophagous invertebrates in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a comparative study of plants used in 66 villages.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo; Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2010-05-01

    Hematophagous parasites such as leeches, ticks, mites, lice, bedbugs, mosquitoes, and myiasis-producing fly larvae are common health problems in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Several arthropod-borne infections, e.g., malaria, dengue fever, and Japanese encephalitis, are endemic there. Effective vector control methods including the use of pesticides, insecticide-treated bed nets, and synthetic and plant-based repellents are important means of control against such invertebrates and the pathogens they may transmit or directly cause. In this study, we documented traditional knowledge on plants that are used to repel or kill hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, bedbugs, human lice, mites and ticks, fly larvae, and blood-sucking leeches. Structured interviews were carried out in 66 villages comprising 17 ethnic groups, covering a range of cultures, throughout Lao People's Democratic Republic. A total of 92 plant species was recorded as traditional repellents (including plants for pesticidal usages) in 123 different plant-ectoparasite combinations. The number and species of plants, and animal taxa repelled (or killed) per plant species differed per region, village, and ethnic group. Traditional use was confirmed in the scientific literature for 74 of these plant species, and for an additional 13 species using literature on closely related species. The use of botanical repellents and pesticides from many plant species is common and widespread in the Lao countryside. In the future, the identification of the active components in certain plants to develop more optimal, inexpensive repellents, insecticides, acaricides, or antileech compounds as alternatives to synthetic repellents/pesticides against blood-feeding insects, ticks, mites, and leeches is warranted. PMID:20496588

  6. Conceptions of Democratic Education in the Founding of the French Third Republic (1870-c. 1890). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlett, J. Stephen

    The broad problem area of the relation of education to democracy, dealing primarily with the thought of the "opportunist" wing of French democracy in the early Third Republic (1870-c. 1890), is the focus of this study. It endeavors to find out why the politicians and educators who contributed to development of the primary school believed that mass…

  7. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  8. Object-based image analysis for the assessment of mineral extraction in conflict regions - a case study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranz, Olaf; Schoepfer, Elisabeth; Spröhnle, Kristin; Lang, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this study object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques were applied to assess land cover changes related to mineral extraction in a conflict-affected area of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) over a period of five years based on very high resolution (VHR) satellite data of different sensors. Object-based approaches explicitly consider spatio-temporal aspects which allow extracting important information to document mining activities. The use of remote sensing data as an independent, up-to-date and reliable data source provided hints on the general development of the mining sector in relation to socio-economic and political decisions. While in early 2010, the situation was still characterised by an intensification of mineral extraction, a mining ban between autumn 2010 and spring 2011 marked the starting point for a continuous decrease of mining activities. The latter can be substantiated through a decrease in the extend of the mining area as well as of the number of dwellings in the nearby settlement. A following demilitarisation and the mentioned need for accountability with respect to the origin of certain minerals led to organised, more industrialized exploitation. This development is likewise visible on satellite imagery as typical clearings within forested areas. The results of the continuous monitoring in turn facilitate non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to further foster the mentioned establishment of responsible supply chains by the mining industry throughout the entire period of investigation.

  9. The Effect of Cognitive Therapy on Structural Social Capital: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial Among Sexual Violence Survivors in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Paul A.; Annan, Jeannie; Kaysen, Debra; Robinette, Katie; Cetinoglu, Talita; Wachter, Karin; Bass, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated changes in social capital following group-based cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for female survivors of sexual violence. Methods. We compared CPT with individual support in a cluster-randomized trial in villages in South Kivu province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Local psychosocial assistants delivered the interventions from April through July 2011. We evaluated differences between CPT and individual support conditions for structural social capital (i.e., time spent with nonkin social network, group membership and participation, and the size of financial and instrumental support networks) and emotional support seeking. We analyzed intervention effects with longitudinal random effects models. Results. We obtained small to medium effect size differences for 2 study outcomes. Women in the CPT villages increased group membership and participation at 6-month follow-up and emotional support seeking after the intervention compared with women in the individual support villages. Conclusions. Results support the efficacy of group CPT to increase dimensions of social capital among survivors of sexual violence in a low-income conflict-affected context. PMID:25033113

  10. Discovery of a Leptospirosis Cluster Amidst a Pneumonic Plague Outbreak in a Miners’ Camp in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Bertherat, Eric; Mueller, Melissa J.; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo provide an ideal environment for leptospirosis and plague, both of which can cause severe pulmonary manifestations. In December 2004, an outbreak of lethal pneumonia occurred in a local mining camp, affecting 130 persons and killing 57 of them. Clinical signs, fast disease spread, and initial laboratory investigations suggested pneumonic plague. While leptospirosis had not recently been described in the region, it was considered as a differential diagnosis. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A confirmed case of leptospirosis was defined as having consistent clinical signs and any one of the following: seroconversion or four-fold increase in MAT titre for paired serum samples, or a MAT titre ≥ 1:400 for acute-phase serum samples. Twenty-nine of the 54 patients or convalescents tested for leptospirosis were seropositive. Two cases showed a confirmed infection for both plague and leptospirosis. While evidence supports the plague nature of this outbreak, the results suggest that some of the suspected plague cases might be due to leptospirosis. In any case, this diagnosis will have to be evoked in the future if a similar outbreak occurs in this region of Africa. PMID:24514425

  11. Differences in preferences for rural job postings between nursing students and practicing nurses: evidence from a discrete choice experiment in Lao People’s Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A discrete choice experiment was conducted to investigate preferences for job characteristics among nursing students and practicing nurses to determine how these groups vary in their respective preferences and to understand whether differing policies may be appropriate for each group. Methods Participating students and workers were administered a discrete choice experiment that elicited preferences for attributes of potential job postings. Job attributes included salary, duration of service until promotion to permanent staff, duration of service until qualified for further study and scholarship, housing provision, transportation provision, and performance-based financial rewards. Mixed logit models were fit to the data to estimate stated preferences and willingness to pay for attributes. Finally, an interaction model was fit to formally investigate differences in preferences between nursing students and practicing nurses. Results Data were collected from 256 nursing students and 249 practicing nurses. For both groups, choice of job posting was strongly influenced by salary and direct promotion to permanent staff. As compared to nursing students, practicing nurses had significantly lower preference for housing allowance and housing provision as well as lower preference for provision of transportation for work and personal use. Conclusions In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, nursing students and practicing nurses demonstrated important differences in their respective preferences for rural job posting attributes. This finding suggests that it may be important to differentiate between recruitment and retention policies when addressing human resources for health challenges in developing countries, such as Laos. PMID:23705805

  12. A molecular phylogeny of Equatorial African Lacertidae, with the description of a new genus and species from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Villanueva, Cesar O.; Kusamba, Chifundera; Aristote, Mwenebatu M.; Branch, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, four species of the lacertid lizard genus Adolfus are known from Central and East Africa. We sequenced up to 2,825 bp of two mitochondrial (16S and cyt b) and two nuclear (c-mos and RAG1) genes from 41 samples of Adolfus (representing every species), two species each of Gastropholis and Holaspis, and in separate analyses combined this data with GenBank sequences of all other Eremiadini genera and four Lacertini outgroups. Data from DNA sequences were analyzed with maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum-likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) criteria. Results demonstrated that Adolfus is not monophyletic: A. africanus (type species), A. alleni and A. jacksoni are sister taxa, whereas A. vauereselli and a new species from the Itombwe Plateau of Democratic Republic of the Congo are in a separate lineage. Holaspis and Gastropholis were recovered in separate clades. Based on this molecular data, relatively substantial sequence divergence and multiple morphological differences, we describe a new genus of lacertid for the lineage including A. vauereselli and the new Itombwe species. The recognition of this new, endemic genus underscores the conservation importance of the Albertine Rift, especially the Itombwe Plateau, a unique region that is severely threatened by unchecked deforestation, mining and poaching. PMID:22121299

  13. Voluntary Counseling and Testing for HIV in Rural Area of Democratic Republic of the Congo: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey among Service Users

    PubMed Central

    Kautako-Kiambi, Mida; Ekila, Mathilde B.; Kama-Lemba, Smith; Wumba, Roger; Aloni, Michel N.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To determine the prevalence of HIV, the level of sexual risk for HIV, and determinants of VCT attendance among adult population living in a rural area. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mbanza-Ngungu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. An anonymous questionnaire was designed to extract relevant data. Results. In our cohort, 69% were respondents of more than 24 years of age and the single marital status was most represented (64.1%). A high proportion of respondents (90.6%) visited VCT service for requiring information (good acceptability). Positive test for HIV was reported in 9.4% of respondents. In this cohort, 49.6% of respondents had declared themselves to never use condom. In binary analysis, there was association between positive HIV test and age (p = 0.04) and religions (p = 0.02). In this cohort, it was observed that positive HIV test was significantly associated with confidentiality (p = 0.02). However, there was no association between positive HIV test and condom use (p = 0.25), knowledge of VCT (p = 0.81), service requested (p = 0.20), and previous HIV test (p = 0.68). Conclusions. Preventive information for AIDS should be recommended in the population living in rural zone. PMID:26347477

  14. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Cimanga, K; Kambu, K; Tona, L; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Hermans, N; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-02-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from 15 aromatic medicinal plant species growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been studied. More than 15 constituents in an amount higher than 0.1% were identified in each essential oil. 1,8-cineole, alpha and beta-pinene, p-cymene, myrcene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpineol and limonene were prevalent constituents in almost more than 10 selected plant species. Results from the antibacterial testing by the diffusion method indicate that all essential oils (5 microl per disc) inhibited the growth of selected bacteria at different extents. The most active antibacterial essential oils were those of the leaves of Eucalyptus camadulensis and Eucalyptus terticornis (12-30 mm zone diameter of inhibition). They showed particularly a most potent inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth (15-16 mm), followed by Eucalyptus robusta (12 mm). Essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus alba, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus deglupta, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus robusta, Aframomum stipulatum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum and that of the seeds of Monodora myristica showed also a good antibacterial activity (10-18 mm). Eucalyptus propinqua, Eucalyptus urophylla and Ocimum gratissimum essential oils were the less active samples against the selected bacteria. No correlation between the amount of major constituents such as 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, cryptone or thymol and the antibacterial activity was observed. PMID:11801384

  15. Prenatal Maternal Stress Predicts Methylation of Genes Regulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System in Mothers and Newborns in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kertes, Darlene A; Kamin, Hayley S; Hughes, David A; Rodney, Nicole C; Bhatt, Samarth; Mulligan, Connie J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress early in life permanently shapes activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the brain. Prenatally, glucocorticoids pass through the placenta to the fetus with postnatal impacts on brain development, birth weight (BW), and HPA axis functioning. Little is known about the biological mechanisms by which prenatal stress affects postnatal functioning. This study addresses this gap by examining the effect of chronic stress and traumatic war-related stress on epigenetic changes in four key genes regulating the HPA axis in neonatal cord blood, placenta, and maternal blood: CRH, CRHBP, NR3C1, and FKBP5. Participants were 24 mother-newborn dyads in the conflict-ridden region of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. BW data were collected at delivery and maternal interviews were conducted to assess culturally relevant chronic and war-related stressors. Chronic stress and war trauma had widespread effects on HPA axis gene methylation, with significant effects observed at transcription factor binding (TFB) sites in all target genes tested. Some changes in methylation were unique to chronic or war stress, whereas others were observed across both stressor types. Moreover, stress exposures impacted maternal and fetal tissues differently, supporting theoretical models that stress impacts vary according to life phase. Methylation in several NR3C1 and CRH CpG sites, all located at TFB sites, was associated with BW. These findings suggest that prenatal stress exposure impacts development via epigenetic changes in HPA axis genes. PMID:26822443

  16. Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Lengu Bobanga, Thierry; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Kunyu, Billy Shako; Ntumba Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Situakibanza, Nani-Tuma H; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted. PMID:27141437

  17. Lesula: A New Species of Cercopithecus Monkey Endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Implications for Conservation of Congo’s Central Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hart, John A.; Detwiler, Kate M.; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Fuller, James L.; Emetshu, Maurice; Hart, Terese B.; Vosper, Ashley; Sargis, Eric J.; Tosi, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as “lesula” was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba) and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo’s interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba) River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range. PMID:22984482

  18. Nurses’ compliance with prevention of mother-to-child transmission national guidelines in selected sites in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Brysiewicz, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) implemented a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV infection programme in maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) services in 2001 with nurses as key personnel. To date there is no information in the DRC and specifically in Kinshasa with respect to compliance with PMTCT national guidelines. Aim The study aimed at describing nurses’ compliance with the PMTCT national guidelines in selected PMTCT sites of Kinshasa. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa with 76 nurses in 18 selected PMTCT sites. The nurses’ compliance with PMTCT national guidelines was assessed using a healthcare provider self-reporting questionnaire developed by the researchers. Results The study showed that the mean score of nurses’ compliance with PMTCT national guidelines was 74% (95% CI: 69% – 78%) which progressively decreased and was significantly different across different MNCH services (p = 0.025). With respect to categories of PMTCT recommendations, nurses were compliant with those related to education in labour and delivery, and antenatal services. Sociodemographic characteristics such as training, length of service and category of nurses did not influence nurses’ compliance score. Conclusion These findings showed that nurses were noncompliant with PMTCT national guidelines, with the score level being 80% or more in the three MNCH services/units. Improvement of nurses’ ‘compliance with the PMTCT national guidelines requires effective monitoring of full integration of PMTCT as routine activities in MNCH care.

  19. High mortality in an internally displaced population in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2005: results of a rapid assessment under difficult conditions.

    PubMed

    Ahoua, L; Tamrat, A; Duroch, F; Grais, R F; Brown, V

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing conflict in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), has led to more than 50,000 deaths, more than 500,000 displaced civilians and continuing, unacceptably high, mortality since 1999. In February 2005, after a resurgence of violence and further displacements, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) launched an emergency response in three internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Ituri. We performed a rapid health assessment in April 2005 in one of the IDP camps to evaluate mortality (due to violence or disease) and camp living conditions. The retrospective mortality survey, covering a recall period from 18 December 2004 to 27 March 2005, indicated a crude mortality rate of 4.1 deaths/10,000/day (95% CI: 2.8-5.4) and an under-five mortality rate of 6.9 deaths/10,000/day (95% CI: 4.4-9.4). Living conditions in the camp were extremely poor (average 286 persons per latrine). Despite efforts of the international community and humanitarian organizations, the security situation continues to deteriorate. Regular assessments should be undertaken to monitor the situation. PMID:19153907

  20. A Congolese-US participatory action research partnership to rebuild the lives of rape survivors and their families in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Glass, Nancy; Ramazani, Paul; Tosha, Mafille; Mpanano, Mitima; Cinyabuguma, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) remains an all-too-potent reminder of how war, human rights violations and their related health and economic impacts can devastate a society. The last decade has seen the use of rape as a weapon of war in the DRC, where rebels and soldiers subject women and girls to brutalising attacks, rape, torture and mutilation. Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often further traumatised by infections, disease, poverty, stigma and social isolation. Substantial evidence exists showing an association between social determinants (e.g., poverty, stress and trauma, stigma, lack of access to health care) and health; however, limited research has been conducted to elucidate these relationships or to develop and test interventions to change social determinants of health, especially in conflict and post-conflict settings such as the DRC. The purpose of this article is to present a Congolese-US community-academic research partnership to obtain evidence to develop and implement a sustainable intervention to begin to address the social determinants of health, including poverty and traumatic stress for survivors of SGBV and their families in the South Kivu province of eastern DRC. PMID:21732709

  1. Characterizing uncertainties of the national-scale forest gross aboveground biomass (AGB) loss estimate: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern remote sensing techniques enable the mapping and monitoring of aboveground biomass (AGB) carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where a national forest inventory (NFI) has yet to be established due to a lack of infrastructure and political instability. We demonstrate a method for producing national-scale gross AGB loss estimates and quantifying uncertainty of the estimates using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Forest cover type and loss were characterized using published Landsat-based data sets and related to LIDAR-derived biomass data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). We produced two gross AGB loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a conservative estimate accounting for classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a maximal estimate that also took into consideration omitted change at the 30m spatial resolution. Omitted disturbances were largely related to smallholder agriculture, the detection of which is scale-dependent. The use of LIDAR data as a substitute for NFI data to estimate AGB loss based on Landsat-derived activity data was demonstrated. Comparisons of our forest cover loss and AGB estimates with published studies raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and its impact on carbon stock change estimation using remotely sensed data.

  2. 'There is fear but there is no other work': a preliminary qualitative exploration of the experience of sex workers in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Brendan; Mishori, Ranit; Masoda, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Two decades of conflict and insecurity have had a devastating impact on many in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), including marginalised groups such as sex workers. In the province of North Kivu, many residents face desperate conditions that render them vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. As a result, many turn to the sex trade in what can often be described as 'survival sex'. This small-scale qualitative study explores the experience of urban sex workers in the eastern region of the DRC. Sex workers were recruited at their place of business and asked to participate in a semi-structured interview. Eight participants were recruited, including seven women and one man. Our analysis identified several themes: (1) economic hardship as a catalyst for joining the sex trade, (2) significant work-related violence and (3) a paucity of available resources or assistance. Responses to specific prompts indicated that sex workers do not trust law enforcement and there are significant barriers to both medical care and local resources. Further studies of this vulnerable population and its needs are encouraged in order to develop programmes that provide the means to manage the hazards of their work and obtain an alternative source of income. PMID:26414956

  3. Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Lengu Bobanga, Thierry; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Kunyu, Billy Shako; Ntumba Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Situakibanza, Nani-Tuma H.; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted. PMID:27141437

  4. Intestinal Helminths of Wild Bonobos in Forest-Savanna Mosaic: Risk Assessment of Cross-Species Transmission with Local People in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Narat, Victor; Guillot, Jacques; Pennec, Flora; Lafosse, Sophie; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; Simmen, Bruno; Bokika Ngawolo, Jean Christophe; Krief, Sabrina

    2015-12-01

    Phylogenetic and geographic proximities between humans and apes pose a risk of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) of the Bolobo Territory, Democratic Republic of the Congo, live in a fragmented forest-savanna mosaic setting, a marginal habitat for this species used to living in dense forests. Human activities in the forest have increased the risk of contacts between humans and bonobos. Over 21 months (September 2010-October 2013), we monitored intestinal parasites in bonobo (n = 273) and in human (n = 79) fecal samples to acquire data on bonobo parasitology and to assess the risk of intestinal helminth transmission between these hosts. Coproscopy, DNA amplification, and sequencing of stored dried feces and larvae were performed to identify helminths. Little difference was observed in intestinal parasites of bonobos in this dryer habitat compared to those living in dense forests. Although Strongylids, Enterobius sp., and Capillaria sp. were found in both humans and bonobos, the species were different between the hosts according to egg size or molecular data. Thus, no evidence of helminth transmission between humans and bonobos was found. However, because humans and this threatened species share the same habitat, it is essential to continue to monitor this risk. PMID:26369331

  5. Observed Differences in the Human Footprint and Forest Fragmentation in the Primary Forest Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Remote Sensing Study for 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.

    2015-12-01

    Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighboring countries has caused the displacement of people internally and internationally sometimes leading to drastic changes in the impact that traditional slash and burn shifting cultivation has on the forest ecosystem. In other areas, the lack of infrastructure and governance has isolated and protected areas of core forest from large scale exploitation. Observing specific patterns of forest fragmentation caused either by the expansion of existing rural complex areas or of isolated forest perforations has allowed us to track the differential growth of the human footprint throughout forested area of the country during the period 2000-2010. Our methodological approach involved the development of a model of shifting cultivation and forest fragmentation in which spatial rules applied morphological image processing to the Forets d'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) product. The result is a disaggregated classification of the primary forest into patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes which we subsequently re-aggregated into homogenous anthropogenic macro-areas of rural complex and isolated forest perforations. We tracked how subsequent forest loss observed in 2005 and 2010 grew or shrunk these areas, presumably with differential impacts on the forest ecosystem. Using this approach we were able to map forest degradation by contextualizing the contribution of forest loss to change in different types of areas, highlighting how it can be greatly underestimated by a non contextualized per-pixel assessment of forest cover loss.

  6. Flexibility of mobile laboratory unit in support of patient management during the 2007 Ebola-Zaire outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Grolla, A; Jones, S; Kobinger, G; Sprecher, A; Girard, G; Yao, M; Roth, C; Artsob, H; Feldmann, H; Strong, J E

    2012-09-01

    The mobile laboratory provides a safe, rapid and flexible platform to provide effective diagnosis of Ebola virus as well as additional differential diagnostic agents in remote settings of equatorial Africa. During the 2007 Democratic Republic of Congo outbreak of Ebola-Zaire, the mobile laboratory was set up in two different locations by two separate teams within a day of equipment arriving in each location. The first location was in Mweka where our laboratory took over the diagnostic laboratory space of the local hospital, whereas the second location, approximately 50 km south near Kampungu at the epicentre of the outbreak, required local labour to fabricate a tent structure as a suitable pre-existing structure was not available. In both settings, the laboratory was able to quickly set up, providing accurate and efficient molecular diagnostics (within 3 h of receiving samples) for 67 individuals, including four cases of Ebola, seven cases of Shigella and 13 cases of malaria. This rapid turn-around time provides an important role in the support of patient management and epidemiological surveillance. PMID:22958259

  7. Effects of untreated hospital effluents on the accumulation of toxic metals in sediments of receiving system under tropical conditions: case of South India and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Devarajan, Naresh; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mputu, John Kayembe; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mpiana, Pius T; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses have been performed to assess the quality of sediments receiving untreated hospital effluents from Indian and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) hospitals. The sediments were collected monthly and characterized for grain size, organic matter, total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals from the Indian hospital effluent receiving systems, especially for Cr, Cu, As, Zn and Hg. On the other hand, the metal concentrations in the sediment receiving system from DRC are low (e.g. maximum Hg and Zn concentration were 0.46 and 48.84 mg kg(-1) respectively). Ostracods exposed to sediment samples H2 (September month sample) and H3 (June and September month samples) were found dead after 6d of exposure whereas the higher mortality rate for Congo sediments was 23% but was accompanied with 33 ± 7% of growth inhibition. The results of this study show the variation of sediment composition on toxic metal levels as well as toxicity related to both, the type of hospitals and the sampling period. Additionally, hospital effluent disposal practices at the study sites can lead to the pollution of water resources and may generate risks for aquatic organisms and human health. PMID:23816453

  8. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  9. [Malacologic-schistosomal study of the refugee camps on the Plain of Ruzizi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    PubMed

    Baluku, B; Bagalwa, M; Basabose, K

    1999-01-01

    Bilharziasis due to Schistosoma mansoni is widespread in the eastern part of the People's Republic of the Congo, particularly in the Ruzizi plain area. The intermediate host is the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi whose ecology is now well documented. Bilharziasis due to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma intercalatum have not yet been observed but the potential for this development is high given the presence of the intermediate hosts, i.e. Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus globosus, and Bulinus forskalii, and the migration of populations in the area. Malacological and cercariometric studies were undertaken in 3 refugee camps in 1995. Findings showed that Biomphalaria pfeifferi was present in all water systems tested but that levels varied from 21 p. 100 to 70 p. 100 from one camp to another. The rate of infestation by Biomphalaria pfeifferi varied from 37 to 20 p. 100 depending on the sampling site. Given the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in the population, extension of bilharziasis is likely in the Ruzizi plain area and its surroundings. Potential intermediary hosts for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma intercalatum were of lower relative prevalence and were found in specific biotopes. The authors propose methods of controlling water snails and preventing infection of people and water systems. PMID:10472580

  10. Preliminary assessment for the use of VORIS as a tool for rapid lava flow simulation at Goma Volcano Observatory, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-10-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga volcanic province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than 2 years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano. Though most of the lava flows did not reach urban areas, only impacting the forests of the endangered Virunga National Park, some of them related to distal flank eruptions affected villages and roads. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling the lava flow propagation. We tested different parameters and digital elevation models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to evaluate the sensitivity of the models to changes in input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1. Simulations were tested against the known lava flows and topography from the 2010 Nyamulagira eruption. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested when input parameters are appropriately chosen. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  11. Pb isotopic constraints on the formation of the Dikulushi Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag mineralisation, Kundelungu Plateau (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haest, Maarten; Schneider, Jens; Cloquet, Christophe; Latruwe, Kris; Vanhaecke, Frank; Muchez, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Base metal-Ag mineralisation at Dikulushi and in other deposits on the Kundelungu Plateau (Democratic Republic of Congo) developed during two episodes. Subeconomic Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe polysulphide ores were generated during the Lufilian Orogeny (c. 520 Ma ago) in a set of E-W- and NE-SW-oriented faults. Their lead has a relatively unradiogenic and internally inhomogeneous isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.07-18.49), most likely generated by mixing of Pb from isotopically heterogeneous clastic sources. These sulphides were remobilised and enriched after the Lufilian Orogeny, along reactivated and newly formed NE-SW-oriented faults into a chalcocite-dominated Cu-Ag mineralisation of high economic interest. The chalcocite samples contain only trace amounts of lead and show mostly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures that fall along a linear trend in the 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram (206Pb/204Pb = 18.66-23.65; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.72-16.02). These anomalous characteristics reflect a two-stage evolution involving admixture of both radiogenic lead and uranium during a young fluid event possibly c. 100 Ma ago. The Pb isotope systematics of local host rocks to mineralisation also indicate some comparable young disturbance of their U-Th-Pb systems, related to the same event. They could have provided Pb with sufficiently radiogenic compositions that was added to less radiogenic Pb remobilised from precursor Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe polysulphides, whereas the U most likely originated from external sources. Local metal sources are also suggested by the 208Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb systematics of combined ore and rock lead, which indicate a pronounced and diversified lithological control of the immediate host rocks on the chalcocite-dominated Cu-Ag ores. The Pb isotope systematics of polysulphide mineralisation on the Kundelungu Plateau clearly record a diachronous evolution.

  12. Late Stone Age human remains from Ishango (Democratic Republic of Congo): New insights on Late Pleistocene modern human diversity in Africa.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, I; Brooks, A; Ribot, I; Cornelissen, E; Semal, P

    2016-07-01

    Although questions of modern human origins and dispersal are subject to intense research within and outside Africa, the processes of modern human diversification during the Late Pleistocene are most often discussed within the context of recent human genetic data. This situation is due largely to the dearth of human fossil remains dating to the final Pleistocene in Africa and their almost total absence from West and Central Africa, thus limiting our perception of modern human diversification within Africa before the Holocene. Here, we present a morphometric comparative analysis of the earliest Late Pleistocene modern human remains from the Central African site of Ishango in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The early Late Stone Age layer (eLSA) of this site, dated to the Last Glacial Maximum (25-20 Ky), contains more than one hundred fragmentary human remains. The exceptional associated archaeological context suggests these remains derived from a community of hunter-fisher-gatherers exhibiting complex social and cognitive behaviors including substantial reliance on aquatic resources, development of fishing technology, possible mathematical notations and repetitive use of space, likely on a seasonal basis. Comparisons with large samples of Late Pleistocene and early Holocene modern human fossils from Africa and Eurasia show that the Ishango human remains exhibit distinctive characteristics and a higher phenotypic diversity in contrast to recent African populations. In many aspects, as is true for the inner ear conformation, these eLSA human remains have more affinities with Middle to early Late Pleistocene fossils worldwide than with extant local African populations. In addition, cross-sectional geometric properties of the long bones are consistent with archaeological evidence suggesting reduced terrestrial mobility resulting from greater investment in and use of aquatic resources. Our results on the Ishango human remains provide insights into past African modern

  13. Transfer of rare earth elements from natural metalliferous (copper and cobalt rich) soils into plant shoot biomass of metallophytes from Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourret, Olivier; Lange, Bastien; Jitaru, Petru; Mahy, Grégory; Faucon, Michel-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REE) is generally assessed for the characterization of the geological systems where these elements represent the best proxies of processes involving the occurrence of an interface between different media. REE behavior is investigated according to their concentrations normalized with respect to the upper continental crust. In this study, the geochemical fingerprint of REE in plant shoot biomass of an unique metallicolous flora (i.e., Crepidorhopalon tenuis and Anisopappus chinensis) was investigated. The plants originate from extremely copper and cobalt rich soils, deriving from Cu and Co outcrops in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Some of the species investigated in this study are able to accumulate high amounts of Cu and Co in shoot hence being considered as Cu and Co hyperaccumulators. Therefore, assessing the behavior of REE may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of metal accumulation by this flora. The data obtained in this study indicate that REE uptake by plants is not primarily controlled by their concentration and speciation in the soil as previously shown in the literature (Brioschi et al. 2013). Indeed, the REE patterns in shoots are relatively flat whereas soils patterns are Middle REE enriched. In addition, it is worth noting that Eu enrichments occur in aerial parts of the plants. These positive Eu anomalies suggest that Eu3 + can form stable organic complexes replacing Ca2 + in several biological processes as in xylem fluids associated with the general nutrient flux. Therefore, is is possible that the Eu mobility in these fluids is enhanced by its reductive speciation as Eu2 +. Eventually, the geochemical behavior of REE illustrates that metals accumulation in aerial parts of C. tenuis and A. chinensis is mainly driven by dissolved complexation. Brioschi, L., Steinmann, M., Lucot, E., Pierret, M., Stille, P., Prunier, J., Badot, P., 2013. Transfer of rare earth elements (REE) from

  14. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6-59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Leeson, Sarah; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Hawes, Meaghan; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Bahizire, Esto; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Michaux, Kristina D; Lynd, Larry D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Moursi, Mourad; Boy, Erick; Foley, Jennifer; McLean, Judy; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Green, Tim J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6-23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24-59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6-23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24-59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (<5%); RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6-23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24-59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention. PMID:26901219

  15. Repeated stool sampling and use of multiple techniques enhance the sensitivity of helminth diagnosis: a cross-sectional survey in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Sayasone, Somphou; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are common in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We investigated the accuracy of the Kato-Katz (KK) technique in relation to varying stool sampling efforts, and determined the effect of the concurrent use of a quantitative formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) for helminth diagnosis and appraisal of concomitant infections. The study was carried out between March and May 2006 in Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. Overall, 485 individuals aged ≥6 months who provided three stool samples were included in the final analysis. All stool samples were subjected to the KK technique. Additionally, one stool sample per individual was processed by FECT. Diagnosis was done under a light microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. Analysis of three stool samples with KK plus a single FECT was considered as diagnostic 'gold' standard and resulted in prevalence estimates of hookworm, Opisthorchis viverrini, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mekongi infection of 77.9%, 65.0%, 33.4%, 26.2% and 24.3%, respectively. As expected, a single KK and a single FECT missed a considerable number of infections. While our diagnostic 'gold' standard produced similar results than those obtained by a mathematical model for most helminth infections, the 'true' prevalence predicted by the model for S. mekongi (28.1%) was somewhat higher than after multiple KK plus a single FECT (24.3%). In the current setting, triplicate KK plus a single FECT diagnosed helminth infections with high sensitivity. Hence, such a diagnostic approach might be utilised for generating high-quality baseline data, assessing anthelminthic drug efficacy and rigorous monitoring of community interventions. PMID:25225157

  16. Species protection, the changing informal economy, and the politics of access to the bushmeat trade in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    De Merode, Emmanuel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2006-08-01

    Our understanding of the linkages between the bushmeat trade and the wider informal economy is limited. This lack of knowledge is particularly problematic for conservation under conditions of political instability, when the informal economy can be highly dynamic and impacts on wildlife populations can be severe. To explore these interlinked processes, we conducted a study of the bushmeat trade in Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, through a combination of market surveys, semistructured interviews, and direct observation. We focused on the sale of protected and unprotected species in urban and rural markets, and the bushmeat commodity chains that supplied these markets, under conditions of political stability and armed conflict. During peacetime, protected species from the park (predominantly elephant and buffalo) rarely appeared in the rural markets, but they comprised more than half of all bushmeat sales in the urban markets. This pattern reflected differences in the rural and urban commodity chains. Automatic weapons were urban trade. The use of such weapons was discouraged by the traditional chiefs, who administered the village markets. During wartime, the sales of protected species in the urban markets increased fivefold because the military officers fled, leaving behind an open-access system that led to a massive increase in the exploitation of protected species. In contrast, the rural markets remained relatively stable because of the continued authority of the village chiefs. Our results indicate that sociopolitical factors can be an important determinant of species offtake and, therefore, that knowledge of the bushmeat commodity chain can be vital to controlling theprocesses that drive species extraction. In addition, our findings suggest that traditional authorities can be potentially valuable partners for bushmeat management. PMID:16922242

  17. Forest cover dynamics of shifting cultivation in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a remote sensing-based assessment for 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.

    2015-09-01

    Shifting cultivation has traditionally been practiced in the Democratic Republic of Congo by carving agricultural fields out of primary and secondary forest, resulting in the rural complex: a characteristic land cover mosaic of roads, villages, active and fallow fields and secondary forest. Forest clearing has varying impacts depending on where it occurs relative to this area: whether inside it, along its primary forest interface, or in more isolated primary forest areas. The spatial contextualization of forest cover loss is therefore necessary to understand its impacts and plan its management. We characterized forest clearing using spatial models in a Geographical Information System, applying morphological image processing to the Forets d’Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection product. This process allowed us to create forest fragmentation maps for 2000, 2005 and 2010, classifying previously homogenous primary forest into separate patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes. Subsequently we used spatial rules to map the established rural complex separately from isolated forest perforations, tracking the growth of these areas in time. Results confirm that the expansion of the rural complex and forest perforations has high variance throughout the country, with consequent differences in local impacts on forest ecology and habitat fragmentation. Between 2000 and 2010 the rural complex grew by 10.2% (46 182 ha), increasing from 11.9% to 13.1% of the total land area (1.2% change) while perforated forest grew by 74.4% (23 856 ha), from 0.8% to 1.5%. Core forest decreased by 3.8% (54 852 ha), from 38% to 36.6% of the 2010 land area. Of particular concern is the nearly doubling of perforated forest, a land dynamic that represents greater spatial intrusion of forest clearing within core forest areas and a move away from the established rural complex.

  18. Perceptions of Health, Health Care and Community-Oriented Health Interventions in Poor Urban Communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city’s major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  19. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398. PMID:24636358

  20. One Size Fits All? Standardised Provision of Care for Survivors of Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Au, Sokhieng; De Plecker, Eva; Zachariah, Rony; Manzi, Marcel; Lambert, Vincent; Abi-Aad, Elias; Nanan-N’Zeth, Kassi; Nzuya, Serge; Omba, Brigitte; Shako, Charly; MuishaBaroki, Derick; Basimuoneye, Jean Paul; Moke, Didier Amudiandroy; Lampaert, Emmanuel; Masangu, Lucien; De Weggheleire, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of sexual violence care programmes may vary according to the profile of survivors, type of violence suffered, and local context. Analysis of existing sexual violence care services could lead to their better adaptation to the local contexts. We therefore set out to compare the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in a zone of conflict (Masisi, North Kivu) and post-conflict (Niangara, Haut-Uélé). Methods A retrospective descriptive cohort study, using routine programmatic data from the MSF sexual violence programmes in Masisi and Niangara, DRC, for 2012. Results In Masisi, 491 survivors of sexual violence presented for care, compared to 180 in Niangara. Niangara saw predominantly sexual violence perpetrated by civilians who were known to the victim (48%) and directed against children and adolescents (median age 15 (IQR 13–17)), while sexual violence in Masisi was more directed towards adults (median age 26 (IQR 20–35)), and was characterised by marked brutality, with higher levels of gang rape, weapon use, and associated violence; perpetrated by the military (51%). Only 60% of the patients in Masisi and 32% of those in Niangara arrived for a consultation within the critical timeframe of 72 hours, when prophylaxis for HIV and sexually transmitted infections is most effective. Survivors were predominantly referred through community programmes. Treatment at first contact was typically efficient, with high (>95%) coverage rates of prophylaxes. However, follow-up was poor, with only 49% of all patients in Masisi and 61% in Niangara returning for follow-up, and consequently low rates of treatment and/or vaccination completion. Conclusion This study has identified a number of weak and strong points in the sexual violence programmes of differing contexts, indicating gaps which need to be addressed, and strengths of both programmes that may contribute to future models of context

  1. Geochemical and oxygen isotope signatures of mantle corundum megacrysts from the Mbuji-Mayi kimberlite, Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Changle alkali basalt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Pivin, Marjorie; Fallick, Anthony E.; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Song, Yucai; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen isotope signatures of ruby and sapphire megacrysts, combined with trace-element analysis, from the Mbuji-Mayi kimberlite, Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Changle alkali basalt, China, provide clues to specify their origin in the deep Earth. At Mbuji-Mayi, pink sapphires have δ18O values in the range 4.3 to 5.4‰ (N = 10) with a mean of 4.9 ± 0.4‰, and rubies from 5.5 to 5.6‰ (N = 3). The Ga/Mg ratio of pink sapphires is between 1.9 and 3.9, and in rubies, between 0.6 and 2.6. The blue or yellow sapphires from Changle have δ18O values from 4.6 to 5.2 ‰, with a mean of 4.9 ± 0.2‰ (N = 9). The Ga/Mg ratio is between 5.7 and 11.3. The homogenous isotopic composition of ruby suggests a derivation from upper mantle xenoliths (garnet lherzolite, pyroxenite) or metagabbros and/or lower crustal garnet clinopyroxenite eclogite-type xenoliths included in kimberlites. Data from the pink sapphires from Mbuji-Mayi suggest a mantle origin, but different probable protoliths: either subducted oceanic protolith transformed into eclogite with δ18O values buffered to the mantle value, or clinopyroxenite protoliths in peridotite. The Changle sapphires have a mantle O-isotope signature. They probably formed in syenitic magmas produced by low degree partial melting of a spinel lherzolite source. The kimberlite and the alkali basalt acted as gem conveyors from the upper mantle up to the surface.

  2. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  3. Trace metals and persistent organic pollutants in sediments from river-reservoir systems in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Spatial distribution and potential ecotoxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Thevenon, Florian; Birane, Niane; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence and spatial distribution of metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs: including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from a river-reservoir system. Surface sediments were sampled from thirteen sites of the Congo River Basin and Lake Ma Vallée, both situated in the vicinity of the capital city Kinshasa (Congo Democratic Republic). Sediment qualities were evaluated using toxicity test based on exposing Ostracods to the sediment samples. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediments subjected to anthropogenic influences, urban runoff and domestic and industrial wastewaters, discharge into the Congo River basin. Ostracods exposed to the sediments resulted in 100% mortality rates after 6d of incubation, indicating the ultimate toxicity of these sediments as well as potential environmental risks. The POPs and PAHs levels in all sediment samples were low, with maximum concentration found in the sediments (area of pool Malebo): OCP value ranged from 0.02 to 2.50 with ∑OCPs: 3.3μgkg(-1); PCB ranged from 0.07 to 0.99 with Total PCBs (∑7×4.3): 15.31μgkg(-1); PAH value ranged from 0.12 to 9.39 with ∑PAHs: 63.89μgkg(-1). Our results indicate that the deterioration of urban river-reservoir water quality result mainly from urban stormwater runoff, untreated industrial effluents which discharge into the river-reservoirs, human activities and uncontrolled urbanization. This study represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in river-reservoir systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments. PMID:24997956

  4. A biomass representative land cover classification for the Democratic Republic of Congo derived from the Forets D'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Altstatt, A. L.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    The FACET forest cover and forest cover loss 2000-2005-2010 data set has been produced by South Dakota State University, the University of Maryland and the Kinshasa-based Observatoire Satellital des Forets D'Afrique Central (OSFAC) with funding from the USAID Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE). The product is now available or being finalized for the DRC, the ROC and Gabon with plans to complete all Congo Basin countries. While FACET provides unprecedented synoptic detail in the extent of Congo Basin forest and the forest cover loss, additional information is required to stratify land cover into types indicative of biomass content. Analysis of the FACET patterns of deforestation, more detailed remote sensing analysis of biophysical attributes within the FACET land cover classes and GIS-derived classes of degradation obtained through variable distance buffers based on relevant literature and ground truth data are combined with the existing FACET classes to produce a ranking of land cover from low biomass to high biomass for the Democratic Republic of Congo. The resulting classification can be used in all Reduced Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) pre-inventory phases when baseline forest cover needs to be known and the location and amount of forest biomass inventory plots needs to be designed. FACET cover loss classes were kept in the classification and can provide the Monitoring, Reporting and Verification tools needed for REDD projects. The project will be demonstrated for the Maringa Lopori Wamba Landscape of the DRC where this work was funded by the African Wildlife Foundation to support the design of a REDD pilot project.

  5. From Health Advice to Taboo: Community Perspectives on the Treatment of Sleeping Sickness in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mpanya, Alain; Hendrickx, David; Baloji, Sylvain; Lumbala, Crispin; da Luz, Raquel Inocêncio; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background Socio-cultural and economic factors constitute real barriers for uptake of screening and treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Better understanding and addressing these barriers may enhance the effectiveness of HAT control. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions in the Bandundu and Kasaï Oriental provinces, two provinces lagging behind in the HAT elimination effort. Our study population included current and former HAT patients, as well as healthcare providers and program managers of the national HAT control program. All interviews and discussions were voice recorded on a digital device and data were analysed with the ATLAS.ti software. Findings Health workers and community members quoted a number of prohibitions that have to be respected for six months after HAT treatment: no work, no sexual intercourse, no hot food, not walking in the sun. Violating these restrictions is believed to cause serious, and sometimes deadly, complications. These strong prohibitions are well-known by the community and lead some people to avoid HAT screening campaigns, for fear of having to observe such taboos in case of diagnosis. Discussion The restrictions originally aimed to mitigate the severe adverse effects of the melarsoprol regimen, but are not evidence-based and became obsolete with the new safer drugs. Correct health information regarding HAT treatment is essential. Health providers should address the perspective of the community in a constant dialogue to keep abreast of unintended transformations of meaning. PMID:25856578

  6. Nuclear and chloroplast diversity and phenotypic distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm from the democratic people’s republic of Korea (DPRK; North Korea)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rice accounts for 43% of staple food production in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The most widely planted rice varieties were developed from a limited number of ancestral lines that were repeatedly used as parents in breeding programs. However, detailed pedigrees are not publicly available and little is known about the genetic, phenotypic, and geographical variation of DPRK varieties. Results We evaluated 80 O. sativa accessions from the DPRK, consisting of 67 improved varieties and 13 landraces. Based on nuclear SSR analysis, we divide the varieties into two genetic groups: Group 1 corresponds to the temperate japonica subpopulation and represents 78.75% of the accessions, while Group 2 shares recent ancestry with indica varieties. Interestingly, members of Group 1 are less diverse than Group 2 at the nuclear level, but are more diverse at the chloroplast level. All Group 2 varieties share a single Japonica maternal-haplotype, while Group 1 varieties trace maternal ancestry to both Japonica and Indica. Phenotypically, members of Group 1 have shorter grains than Group 2, and varieties from breeding programs have thicker and wider grains than landraces. Improved varieties in Group 1 also show similar and/or better levels of cold tolerance for most traits, except for spikelet number per panicle. Finally, geographic analysis demonstrates that the majority of genetic variation is located within regions that have the most intensive rice cultivation, including the Western territories near the capital city Pyungyang. This is consistent with the conscious and highly centralized role of human selection in determining local dispersion patterns of rice in the DPRK. Conclusions Diversity studies of DPRK rice germplasm revealed two genetic groups. The most widely planted group has a narrow genetic base and would benefit from the introduction of new genetic variation from cold tolerant landraces, wild accessions, and/or cultivated gene pools to

  7. Characteristics of antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients lost-to-care in HIV clinics in Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and Burundi.

    PubMed

    Stolka, Kristen; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Kiumbu, Modeste; Atibu, Joseph; Azinyue, Innocent; Akam, Wilfred; Balimba, Ashue; Mfangam Molu, Brigitte; Mukumbi, Henri; Niyongabo, Theodore; Twizere, Christelle; Newman, Jamie; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients are vulnerable to becoming lost-to-care (LTC) because they are not monitored as often as patients on treatment. We examined data from 19,461 HIV positive adults at 10 HIV clinics in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Cameroon, and Burundi participating in the Phase 1 International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Central Africa (IeDEA-CA) study. Patients were LTC if they were ART-naïve and did not return within 7 months of the end of data collection. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk factors associated with LTC. Of 5353 ART-naïve patients, 4420 (83%) were LTC and 933 (17%) were in-care. The odds of being LTC were greatest among patients from DRC (OR = 2.16, CI: 1.64-2.84, p < .0001), males (OR = 1.39, CI: 1.15-1.69, p = .0009), and ages 18-49 (OR = 1.45, CI: 1.16-1.82, p = .001). The odds of being LTC were least among patients with a WHO Clinical Stage of 1 or 2 (OR = 0.65, CI: 0.55-0.77, p < .0001) and in a perceived concordant relationship (OR = 0.61, CI: 0.43-0.87, p < .0001). LTC patients were more likely to have characteristics associated with higher risk for HIV transmission and progression. Many entered care at advanced stages and were less likely to know their partner's serostatus. Greater efforts to retain ART-naïve patients may increase earlier initiation of ART. PMID:26855169

  8. [University professors in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the German Democratic Republic up to 1961: Academic alternation of generations at university psychiatric hospitals].

    PubMed

    Kumbier, E; Haack, K

    2015-05-01

    After WWII a politically guided staffing policy foresaw an exchange program for professors from the Soviet Occupation Zone and the German Democratic Republic (GDR). In the field of medicine this initiative was not successful. With respect to university psychiatric/neurological hospitals this experiment failed as a result of a shortage of personnel due to the consequences of war, denazification and people migrating into western occupation zones. Criteria for politically selecting promising young talent which had been propagated by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED) were thus not relevant in academic medicine until 1961; however, the communist rulers had great interest in bringing professional and academic resources up to date. Politically implicated representatives in the field were also included in this process. At the forefront was the interest in functioning medical care and education in order to be able to train much needed health professionals. At the end of the 1950s a new generation of professors was established at the university hospitals. This generation rotation demonstrated the politically intended replacement of the "old" professor generation and the transition to a new GDR generation that had been trained after 1945. This second generation of professors inherited vacant professorships and defined and shaped research and academia until the end of the GDR much more than the previous generation had and also more than the one that followed. The generation of professors continued to feel a strong affiliation with their academic teachers and consequently continued their tradition in the sense of a school, for the most part independent of political circumstances. PMID:25604837

  9. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6–59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Harvey-Leeson, Sarah; Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Hawes, Meaghan; Tugirimana, Pierrot L.; Bahizire, Esto; Akilimali, Pierre Z.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Lynd, Larry D.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Moursi, Mourad; Boy, Erick; Foley, Jennifer; McLean, Judy; Houghton, Lisa A.; Gibson, Rosalind S.; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6–23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24–59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6–23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24–59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (<5%); RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6–23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24–59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention. PMID:26901219

  10. “Ten Minimum Requirement”: A Management Tool to Improve Quality of Healthcare Services in Lao People Democratic Republic (Lao PDR)

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Rattana, Sommana; Vongsamphanh, Chanphomma

    2015-01-01

    In Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), the mortality rate among children under 5 years of age is high (131 per 1000 live births in 2003), partly as a consequence of poor basic services provided by district hospitals. A simplified management tool, “Ten MR (Minimum Requirement)”, was developed in Lao PDR. The tool assured the quality of health services including the processes of planning, implementing, self-monitoring, supervision, reporting and evaluation. The tool focused on ten basic services, integrating stakeholders from district hospitals and governing agencies. Each district hospital develops feasible annual activities, assigning responsibility to people based on a consensus between hospital staff and local governing agencies. Hospitals can self-monitor their activities on a monthly basis. Supervisory visits to district hospitals by local governing agencies improved activities and communication between staff. Visualization of progress promoted the sharing of achievements between staff and highlighted activities in need of more work. In 2004, district hospitals in Vientiane and Oudomxay provinces initiated the application of the tool. These district hospitals included primary care hospitals for outpatients, emergency care and in-patients, with a capacity of 10–20 beds, providing care for a population of between 30,000 and 80,000 people. The Ministry of Health recognized the effectiveness of Ten MR and implemented the expansion of the tool to all district hospitals in Lao PDR from 2011. Ten MR benefits district hospitals and governing agencies. Ten MR focuses on the daily routine work, enhancing team work and communication among all stakeholders. PMID:26865826

  11. TB/HIV Co-Infection Care in Conflict-Affected Settings: A Mapping of Health Facilities in the Goma Area, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira; Ogwang, Brenda. A.; Namegabe, Edmond Ntabe; Mbasa, Ndemo; Kabunga, Deka Kambale; Karafuli, Kambale

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis (TB) are major contributors to the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa. The two diseases have been described as a harmful synergy as they are biologically and epidemiologically linked. Control of TB/HIV co-infection is an integral and most challenging part of both national TB and national HIV control programmes, especially in contexts of instability where health systems are suffering from political and social strife. This study aimed at assessing the provision of HIV/TB co-infection services in health facilities in the conflict-ridden region of Goma in Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of health facilities that provide either HIV or TB services or both was carried out. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data which was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Eighty facilities were identified, of which 64 facilities were publicly owned. TB care was more available than HIV care (in 61% vs. 9% of facilities). Twenty-three facilities (29%) offered services to co-infected patients. TB/HIV co-infection rates among patients were unknown in 82% of the facilities. Only 19 facilities (24%) reported some coordination with and support from concerned diseases’ control programmes. HIV and TB services are largely fragmented, indicating imbalances and poor coordination by disease control programmes. Conclusion: HIV and TB control appear not to be the focus of health interventions in this crisis affected region, despite the high risks of TB and HIV infection in the setting. Comprehensive public health response to this setting calls for reforms that promote joint TB/HIV co-infection control, including improved leadership by the HIV programmes that accuse weaknesses in this conflict-ridden region. PMID:24596866

  12. [Stab wounds of the hand and forearm due to Kuluna in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo): types of injuries and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kibadi, K; Portaels, F; Pichot, Y; Kapinga, M; Moutet, F

    2015-01-01

    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a particular form of juvenile delinquency and insecurity intensifies in the city of Kinshasa. This is the phenomenon Kuluna. It is organized gangs equipped with machetes and other weapons. The main objective of this study is to know the phenomenon Kuluna and describe the upper limb injuries caused by machetes, while insisting on the specifics of the management of these lesions in our communities. This retrospective descriptive study examines 14 cases of wounds of the hand and forearm due to stab phenomenon Kuluna, in Kinshasa. It covers the period from 1 November 2010 to 1 November 2013. Among the 14 patients with lesions in the hand and forearm admitted and treated at the Unit of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns, University Clinics of Kinshasa to attacks due to the phenomenon Kuluna. We have 11 men and 3 women. The average age was 33, 5 years (extremes of 21 and 56 years). The right upper limb is reached that the left upper limb, respectively 12 patients and 2 patients. The lesions are localized to the wrist in the majority of cases (10 patients) in the palm of hand and in 3 patients in the fingers in 1 patient. The palmar surface is reached (10 cases) and the dorsal (4 cases). Zone 5 of the International Classification of flexor and Zone 8 topographic classification extensors at hand are the predilection sites of lesions respectively the palmar surface (6 out of 10) and the dorsal (2 case 4). The median nerve at the wrist is cut in half the cases. On bone lesions localized to the forearm, we observed a high incidence of fracture of the ulna (62.5%). The treatment begins with the stabilization of bone pieces, gestures revascularization and nerve sutures and suture tendon and finally skin coverage. Rehabilitation was mandatory, she supervises the actions of repair and it continues until the recovery of function. PMID:26837110

  13. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people’s sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. Methods This healthcare intervention was conducted over a six month period and consisted of a survey carried out in Kinshasa. This focused on 14 to 24 old young people using phone calls on a radio program raising concerns related to sexuality. The radio program was jointly run by a journalist and a health professional who were required to reply immediately to questions from young people. All sexual health concerns were recorded and analyzed. Results Forty programs were broadcast in six months and 1,250 messages and calls were recorded: 880 (70%) from girls and 370 (30%) from boys, which represents an average of 32 interventions (of which 10 calls and 22 messages) per broadcast. Most questions came from 15-19- and 20-24-year-old girls and boys. Focus of girls’ questions: menstrual cycle calculation and related concerns accounted for the majority (24%); sexual practices (16%), love relationships (15%) and virginity (14%). Boys’ concerns are masturbation (and its consequences) (22%), sexual practices (19%), love relationships (18%) and worries about penis size (10%). Infections (genital and STI) and topics regarding HIV represent 9% and 4% of the questions asked by girls against 7% and 10% by boys. Concerns were mainly related to knowledge, attitudes and competences to be developed. Conclusions Concerns and sexual practices raised by teens about their sexual and emotional life have inspired the design of a practical guide for youth self-training and have steered the second phase of this interactive program towards supporting

  14. First molecular identification and report of genetic diversity of Strongyloides stercoralis, a current major soil-transmitted helminth in humans from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Laxachack, Pinnakhone; Jongthawin, Jurairat; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Phosuk, Issarapong; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2016-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) disease that affects people worldwide. We present updated data on prevalence in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2015, arising from a community cross-sectional helminthiasis survey. Fecal samples were collected from 327 individuals across three provinces in Lao PDR (Luang Prabang in the north, Khammouane in the center, and Champasack in the south). Agar plate culture and Kato-Katz methods were used to examine duplicate stool samples from each participant to detect Strongyloides stercoralis and co-infecting helminths. Overall prevalences of S. strercoralis human hookworm, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Enterobius vermicularis were 41.0, 28.1, 4.9, 4.0, 1.5, and 0.9 %, respectively. The prevalence of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 37.9 % and of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.3 %. Strongyloidiasis is a current major STH disease in Lao PDR. We also report the molecular-phylogenetic identification of S. stercoralis adult males collected from 40 representative human strongyliodiasis fecal samples. DNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced from a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene and the nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that all specimens sequenced belonged to S. stercoralis (Bavay, 1876) Stiles and Hassall, 1902. The cox1 sequences exhibited great diversity (24 haplotypes) in Lao PDR. This is the first molecular identification and report of genetic diversity of S. stercoralis in humans from Lao PDR. An effective parasite control program is needed to reduce the serious health impacts. PMID:27083185

  15. Unity vs. Uniformity: The Influence of Ziya Gökalp and John Dewey on the Education System of the Republic of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Rasit

    2014-01-01

    Creating a democratic nation-state and sustaining its progress was seen by the founders of the Republic of Turkey as necessary to achieving the goal of becoming a distinguished member among developed civilizations. The founders conceived of education as a main instrument in disseminating this new ideology and ensuring the emergence of a culture of…

  16. Neoproterozoic uppermost Haut-Shiloango Subgroup (West Congo Supergroup, Democratic Republic of Congo): Misinterpreted stromatolites and implications for sea-level fluctuations before the onset of the Marinoan glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpomdor, F.; Kant, F.; Préat, A.

    2014-02-01

    The middle Neoproterozoic carbonate-dominated uppermost Haut-Shiloango Subgroup (Sh8h and Sh8i members) in the Lower-Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo is considered as recording pre-glacial shallow-marine sedimentation with stromatolitic reefs overlain by the Upper Diamictite Formation. We investigated these stromatolitic carbonates in order to highlight their biogenicity. Newly defined lithofacies and geochemical analyses (stable isotopes, major, trace and REE+Y elements) are used to provide insights into the origins of the depositional events that occurred immediately before Marinoan global glaciation. These insights should in turn provide constraints on the models developed for this glaciation event.

  17. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Other Intestinal Parasites in Young Children in Lobata Province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Augusto, João; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, José; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%), G. duodenalis (7.5%), T. trichiura (4.5%) and Entamoeba coli (10.5%) were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5%) and E. bieneusi (5.2%) were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60%) and Assemblage B (40%). The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%), KIN1 (28.6%) and KIN3 (14.3%). Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3%) and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5%) were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%]) and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]). G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%), D (26.4%), A (10.5%) and KIN1 (10.5%) were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance

  18. Lymphatic filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; micro-stratification overlap mapping (MOM) as a prerequisite for control and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has a significant burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. A major impediment to the expansion of the LF elimination programme is the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) associated with the use of ivermectin in areas co-endemic for onchocerciasis and loiasis. It is important to analyse these and other factors, such as soil transmitted helminths (STH) and malaria co-endemicity, which will impact on LF elimination. Results We analysed maps of onchocerciasis community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) from the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC); maps of predicted prevalence of Loa loa; planned STH control maps of albendazole (and mebendazole) from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections (GAHI); and bed nets and insecticide treated nets (ITNs) distribution from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) as well as published historic data which were incorporated into overlay maps. We developed an approach we designate as micro-stratification overlap mapping (MOM) to identify areas that will assist the implementation of LF elimination in the DRC. The historic data on LF was found through an extensive review of the literature as no recently published information was available. Conclusions This paper identifies an approach that takes account of the various factors that will influence not only country strategies, but suggests that country plans will require a finer resolution mapping than usual, before implementation of LF activities can be efficiently deployed. This is because 1) distribution of ivermectin through APOC projects will already have had an impact of LF intensity and prevalence 2) DRC has been up scaling bed net distribution which will impact over time on transmission of W. bancrofti and 3) recently available predictive maps of L. loa allow higher risk areas to be identified, which allow LF implementation to be initiated with reduced risk where L. loa

  19. Mortality rates above emergency threshold in population affected by conflict in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, July 2012-April 2013.

    PubMed

    Carrión Martín, Antonio Isidro; Bil, Karla; Salumu, Papy; Baabo, Dominique; Singh, Jatinder; Kik, Corry; Lenglet, Annick

    2014-09-01

    The area of Walikale in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is intensely affected by conflict and population displacement. Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF) returned to provide primary healthcare in July 2012. To better understand the impact of the ongoing conflict and displacement on the population, a retrospective mortality survey was conducted in April 2013. A two-stage randomized cluster survey using 31 clusters of 21 households was conducted. Heads of households provided information on their household make-up, ownership of non-food items (NFIs), access to healthcare and information on deaths and occurrence of self-reported disease in the household during the recall period. The recall period was of 325 days (July 2012-April 2013). In total, 173 deaths were reported during the recall period. The crude mortality rate (CMR) was of 1.4/10,000 persons/day (CI95%: 1.2-1.7) and the under-five- mortality rate (U5MR) of 1.9/10,000 persons per day (CI95%: 1.3-2.5). The most frequently reported cause of death was fever/malaria 34.1% (CI95%: 25.4-42.9). Thirteen deaths were due to intentional violence. Over 70% of all households had been displaced at some time during the recall period. Out of households with someone sick in the last two weeks, 63.8% sought health care; the main reason not to seek health care was the lack of money (n = 134, 63.8%, CI95%: 52.2-75.4). Non Food Items (NFI) ownership was low: 69.0% (CI95%: 53.1-79.7) at least one 10 liter jerry can, 30.1% (CI95%: 24.3-36.5) of households with visible soap available and 1.6 bednets per household. The results from this survey in Walikale clearly illustrate the impact that ongoing conflict and displacement are having on the population in this part of DRC. The gravity of their health status was highlighted by a CMR that was well above the emergency threshold of 1 person/10,000/day and an U5MR that approaches the 2 children/10,000/day threshold for the recall period. PMID:25233090

  20. Elevated blood lead levels and sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, Joel; Lison, Dominique; Mbuyi, Francois; Haufroid, Vincent; Hoet, Perrine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine blood lead levels (BLLs) and the possible sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to May 2008 in a representative sample of the Kinshasan population. BLL was measured in 275 individuals (53.4% women) aged 1-70 years in the urban area of Kinshasa and from 60 additional subjects in the rural area. Pb was also determined in environmental specimens (air and soil, indoor and outdoor). BLL in the study population ranged from 2.9 to 49.3 μg/dl (median, 9.9 μg/dl). The median BLL among children aged <6 years was 11.5 μg/dl (range: 3.0-37.8 μg/dl). Of these children, 71% had elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) and 22% had BLL ≥20 μg/dl. The proportion of elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) was higher for children aged <3 years than for children aged 3 to 5 years (97% vs 56%). A higher prevalence of elevated BLL was observed in urban compared with rural children (71% vs 20%). Significantly higher BLLs were also found in children whose mother consumed fired clay during pregnancy. Residential informal activities in the recycling of car batteries also contributed to elevated BLL in children. The elevated background of Pb exposure in the Kinshasan population indicates a public health issue that requires corrective actions. Pb-contaminated dust and air in children's home is an issue of public health concern. The use of leaded gasoline and the activities of car battery recycling in certain residences appear to constitute the main sources of exposure in the city of Kinshasa. The traditional use of fired clay for the treatment of gastritis by pregnant women is another significant contributor for elevated BLL in children. PMID:22617721

  1. Climate Controls on Last Glacial Maximum to Early Holocene Glacier Extents in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Russell, J. M.; Baber, M.; Loomis, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The climate controls on past and present tropical glacier fluctuations are unclear. Here we present a chronology of past glacial extents in the Rwenzori Mountains (~1ºN, 30ºE), on the border of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and compare this with local and regional paleoclimate records to infer the climate controls on glaciation. The Rwenzori Mountains host the most extensive glacial system in Africa and are composed of quartz-rich bedrock lithologies, enabling 10Be dating. Our dataset includes thirty 10Be ages of boulders on moraines estimated to have been deposited between the end of the last glacial period and early Holocene time. In the Mubuku Valley, eight 10Be ages of large (~50-150 m relief) lateral moraines that extend down to ~2000 m asl indicate that deposition occurred at ~23.4 ka (n=4) and ~20.1 ka (n=4), contemporaneously with the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Local and regional paleoclimate records document dry, cool conditions in East Africa during this time. Therefore, we suggest that cooler temperatures were a primary influence on the LGM glacial extents. Upvalley from these samples, six 10Be ages of boulders on moraines (between 3450 and 3720 m asl) document stillstands or readvances of glacier ice at ~14.3 ka (n=2), ~13.2 ka (n=2), and ~11.1 ka (n=2). In the nearby Nyagumasani Valley sixteen 10Be ages of boulders on moraines at similar elevations (3870-4020 m asl) indicate stillstands or readvances at ~11.5 ka (n=4), ~10.6 ka (n=4), and ~10.5 ka (n=4). Local and regional paleoclimate records indicate dry conditions during Younger Dryas time, wet conditions during early Holocene time, and no significant late-glacial temperature reversal. Thus, the relationship between glacier advance and climate conditions during late-glacial time remains enigmatic. We continue to develop the moraine chronology in order to improve our interpretations of climate controls on glacier fluctuations during late-glacial to early Holocene time.

  2. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Methods Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. Results The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for < 24 month birth interval [posterior odds ratio and 95% credible region: 1.14 (1.04, 1.26)], home birth [1.13 (1.01, 1.27)] and living with a single mother [1.16 (1.03, 1.33)]. Striking variation was also noted in the risk of U5M by province of residence, with the highest risk in Kasaï-Oriental, a non-conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. Conclusion This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point

  3. Village health volunteers’ social capital related to their performance in Lao People’s Democratic Republic: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving the performance of community health workers (CHWs) is a global issue. The relationship between CHWs and their community may impact their performance. In Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), CHW are called village health volunteers (VHV). Lao PDR has a problem with VHV inactivity, especially in rural areas. This study focused on which aspects of social capital are related to VHV performance. Methods This research represents a cross-sectional study with a quantitative survey based primarily on interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Interviews were conducted with 149 VHVs living and working in the Sepon District. VHV performance evaluation was measured with scores on a 5-point scale, and the cutoff point for designating performance as good or poor was set at the median score. This evaluation of VHV performance was conducted as a self-evaluation by VHVs and by health center staff who were supervisors of the VHVs. Measurement of social capital was accomplished using the short version of the Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool (SASCAT). For statistical analyses, logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The results of multiple logistic regression adjusted by moderator variables showed that citizenship activities in the structural social capital component of SASCAT were significantly related to performance in self-evaluation by VHVs (adjusted OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.19-3.71) and the evaluations by health center staff (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.01-2.77). Support from groups (adjusted OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.27-2.76) and cognitive social capital (adjusted OR: 7.48, 95% CI: 2.14-26.10) were found to be significantly associated but only for VHV self-evaluation. Conclusions The results suggest that individuals who interact with important figures in the community and who cooperate with other villagers whenever problems arise, i.e., have social capital, exhibit good

  4. Predictors of Persistent Anaemia in the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Goma, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Musumari, Patou Masika; Kayembe, Patrick Kalambayi; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Mapatano, Mala Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia is associated with adverse outcomes including early death in the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study reports on the factors associated with persistent anaemia among HIV-infected patients initiating ART in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study and analyzed data from patients receiving HIV care between January 2004 and December 2012 at two major hospitals in Goma, DR Congo. Haemoglobin concentrations of all patients on ART regimen were obtained prior to and within one year of ART initiation. A logistic regression model was used to identify the predictors of persistent anaemia after 12 months of ART. Results Of 756 patients, 69% of patients were anaemic (IC95%: 65.7–72.3) at baseline. After 12 months of follow up, there was a 1.2 g/dl average increase of haemoglobin concentration (P < 0.001) with differences depending on the therapeutic regimen. Patients who received zidovudine (AZT) gained less than those who did not receive AZT (0.99 g/dl vs 1.33 g/dl; p< 0.001). Among 445 patient who had anaemia at the beginning, 33% (147/445) had the condition resolved. Among patients with anaemia at ART initiation, those who did not receive cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before starting ART(AOR 3.89; 95% CI 2.09–7.25; P < 0.001) and a AZT initial regimen (AOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.36–3.52; P < 0.001) were significantly at risk of persistent anaemia. Conclusions More than two thirds of patients had anaemia at baseline. The AZT-containing regimen and absence of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before starting ART were associated with persistent anaemia 12 months, after initiation of treatment. Considering the large proportion of patients with persistence of anaemia at 12 months, we suggest that it is necessary to conduct a large study to assess anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Goma. PMID:26474481

  5. Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminth Burden and Their Correlation with Anemia in Children Attending Primary Schools in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Matangila, Junior R.; Doua, Joachim Yorokpa; Linsuke, Sylvie; Madinga, Joule; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia reduces cognitive potential in school children, retards their growth and predisposes them to other diseases. As there is a paucity of data on the current burden of P. falciparum, S. mansoni and soil transmitted helminths (STH) infections and their correlation with schoolchildren’s anemia in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we collect these data. Methods This study reports baseline data collected from a randomized controlled trial investigating the impact of IPT with SP and SP-PQ on anemia and malaria morbidity in Congolese schoolchildren (Trial registration: NCT01722539; PACTR201211000449323). S. mansoni and STH infections were assessed using kato-katz technique. Malaria infection and hemoglobin concentration were assessed using Blood smear and Hemocontrol device, respectively. Results A total of 616 primary schoolchildren from 4 to 13 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. infection was 18.5% (95%CI:15.6–21.9). Amongst those infected, 24 (21%), 40 (35.1%), 40 (35.1%), 10 (8.8%), had light, moderate, heavy, very high malaria parasite density, respectively. Above 9 years of age (p = 0.02), male and history of fever (p = 0.04) were both associated with malaria infection. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 6.4% (95%CI:4.4–9.1). Girls were associated with S. mansoni infection (p = 0.04). T. trichiura was the most prevalent STH infection (26.3%), followed by A. lumbricoides (20.1%). Co-infection with malaria-S. mansoni and malaria-STH was, respectively, 1.5% (CI95%:0.7–3.3) and 6.4% (CI95% 4.4–9.1). The prevalence of anemia was found to be 41.6% (95%CI:37.7–45.6) and anemia was strongly related with Plasmodium ssp infection (aOR:4.1; CI95%:2.6–6.5;p<0.001) and S. mansoni infection (aOR:3.3;CI95%:1.4–7.8;p<0.01). Conclusion Malaria and S. mansoni infection were strongly associated with high prevalence of anemia in schoolchildren. Therefore, specific school

  6. Field Assessment of a Novel Household-Based Water Filtration Device: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Boisson, Sophie; Kiyombo, Mbela; Sthreshley, Larry; Tumba, Saturnin; Makambo, Jacques; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. Methods and Findings We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons) in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field performance, use and effectiveness of a novel filtration device in preventing diarrhea. Households were followed up monthly for 12 months. Filters and placebos were monitored for longevity and for microbiological performance by comparing thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels in influent and effluent water samples. Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was estimated among participants of all ages. Compliance was assessed through self-reported use and presence of water in the top vessel of the device at the time of visit. Over the 12-month follow-up period, data were collected for 11,236 person-weeks of observation (81.8% total possible). After adjusting for clustering within the household, the longitudinal prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.61–1.20). The filters achieved a 2.98 log reduction in TTC levels while, for reasons that are unclear, the placebos achieved a 1.05 log reduction (p<0.0001). After 8 months, 68% of intervention households met the study's definition of current users, though most (73% of adults and 95% of children) also reported drinking untreated water the previous day. The filter maintained a constant flow rate over time, though 12.4% of filters were damaged during the course of the study. Conclusions While the filter was effective in improving water quality, our results provide little evidence that it was protective against diarrhea. The moderate reduction observed nevertheless supports the need for larger studies that

  7. Uncomplicated Clinical Malaria Features, the Efficacy of Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Their Relation with Multiplicity of Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Muhindo Mavoko, Hypolite; Kalabuanga, Marion; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Maketa, Vivi; Mukele, Rodin; Fungula, Blaise; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Lutumba, Pascal; Van geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Democratic Republic of Congo, artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) is the first-line medication recommended for uncomplicated malaria treatment. We conducted a study in Kinshasa to describe the clinical features of the disease and assess the efficacy of ASAQ and its impact on the multiplicity of infection in children with uncomplicated malaria. Methods Children aged 12 to 59 months with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were treated with ASAQ and followed up passively for 42 days. To distinguish new infections from recrudescent parasites, samples were genotyped using a stepwise strategy with three molecular markers (GLURP, MSP2 and MSP1). We then assessed PCR-corrected and -uncorrected day-42 cure rates and multiplicity of infection (MOI). Results In total, 2,796 patients were screened and 865 enrolled in the study. Clinical features were characterized by history of fever (100%), coryza (59.9%) and weakness (59.4%). The crude and PCR-corrected efficacies of ASAQ were 55.3% (95%CI: 51.8–58.8) and 92.8% (95%CI: 91.0–94.6) respectively, as 83.6% (95%CI: 79.1–87.2) of the recurrences were new infections. Compared to monoclonal infections, polyclonal infections were more frequent at enrollment (88.1%) and in recurrences (80.1%; p = 0.005; OR: 1.8, 95%CI: 1.20–2.8). The median MOI at enrollment (MOI = 3.7; IQR: 0.7–6.7) decreased to 3 (IQR: 1–5) in the recurrent samples (p<0.001). Patients infected with a single haplotype on day 0 had no recrudescence; the risk of recrudescence increased by 28% with each additional haplotype (HR: 1.3, 95%CI: 1.24–1.44). Conclusion The PCR-corrected efficacy of ASAQ at day 42 was 92.8%, but crude efficacy was relatively poor due to high reinfection rates. Treatment outcomes were positively correlated with MOI. Continued monitoring of the efficacy of ACTs—ASAQ, in this case—is paramount. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01374581 PMID:27280792

  8. Effect of daily versus weekly home fortification with multiple micronutrient powder on haemoglobin concentration of young children in a rural area, Lao People's Democratic Republic: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple micronutrient deficiencies, in particular iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a severe public health problem in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Because of the practical difficulties encountered in improving the nutritional adequacy of traditional complementary foods and the limitations associated with the use of liquid iron supplementation for the treatment and prevention of IDA in infants and young children, recently, home-fortification with multivitamins and minerals sprinkles was recommended. This study aims to compare the effect of twice weekly versus daily supplementation with multivitamins and minerals powder (MMP) on anaemia prevalence, haemoglobin concentration, and growth in infants and young children in a rural community in Lao PDR. Methods A randomized trial was conducted in six rural communities. Children aged 6 to 52 months (n = 336) were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 110) or to one of two intervention groups receiving either two sachets per week (n = 115) or a daily sachet (n = 111) of MMP for 24 weeks; 331 children completed the study. A finger prick of blood was taken at baseline, at week 12, and again at week 24 to determine haemoglobin concentration. Anthropometric measurements were taken every 4 weeks. The McNemar test was used to assess within group differences at three time points in the study subjects with anaemia and one-way ANOVA was used to assess changes in mean haemoglobin concentration in the treatment groups. Results MMP supplementation resulted in significant improvements in haemoglobin concentration and in the reduction of anaemia prevalence in the two treatment groups compared with the control group (p <0.001). The severely to moderately anaemic children (Hb <100 g/L) on daily supplementation recovered faster than those on twice weekly supplementation. MMP was well accepted and compliance was high in both treatment groups. Overall, the improvement in the weight for age Z-score was very small

  9. Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese) sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Malanga sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. However, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. No active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. To understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal African trypanosomiasis in the Malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blood meals as well as different trypanosome species in flies trapped in this focus. Methods Pyramidal traps were use to trap tsetse flies. All flies caught were identified and live flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Fly mid-gut was used for the molecular identification of the blood meal source, as well as for the presence of different trypanosome species. Results About 949 Glossina palpalis palpalis were trapped; 296 (31.2%) of which were dissected, 60 (20.3%) blood meals collected and 57 (19.3%) trypanosome infections identified. The infection rates were 13.4%, 5.1%, 3.5% and 0.4% for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, Trypanosoma brucei s.l., Trypanosoma congolense forest type and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Three mixed infections including Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, and one mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type were identified. Eleven Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections were identified; indicating an active circulation of this trypanosome subspecies. Of all the identified blood meals, about 58.3% were identified as being taken on pigs, while 33.3% and 8.3% were from man and other mammals, respectively. Conclusion The presence of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse mid-guts associated with human blood meals is indicative of an active transmission of this parasite between tsetse and man. The considerable number of pig blood meals combined with the circulation of

  10. Mortality Rates above Emergency Threshold in Population Affected by Conflict in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, July 2012–April 2013

    PubMed Central

    Carrión Martín, Antonio Isidro; Bil, Karla; Salumu, Papy; Baabo, Dominique; Singh, Jatinder; Kik, Corry; Lenglet, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The area of Walikale in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is intensely affected by conflict and population displacement. Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF) returned to provide primary healthcare in July 2012. To better understand the impact of the ongoing conflict and displacement on the population, a retrospective mortality survey was conducted in April 2013. A two-stage randomized cluster survey using 31 clusters of 21 households was conducted. Heads of households provided information on their household make-up, ownership of non-food items (NFIs), access to healthcare and information on deaths and occurrence of self-reported disease in the household during the recall period. The recall period was of 325 days (July 2012–April 2013). In total, 173 deaths were reported during the recall period. The crude mortality rate (CMR) was of 1.4/10,000 persons/day (CI95%: 1.2–1.7) and the under-five- mortality rate (U5MR) of 1.9/10,000 persons per day (CI95%: 1.3–2.5). The most frequently reported cause of death was fever/malaria 34.1% (CI95%: 25.4–42.9). Thirteen deaths were due to intentional violence. Over 70% of all households had been displaced at some time during the recall period. Out of households with someone sick in the last two weeks, 63.8% sought health care; the main reason not to seek health care was the lack of money (n = 134, 63.8%, CI95%: 52.2–75.4). Non Food Items (NFI) ownership was low: 69.0% (CI95%: 53.1–79.7) at least one 10 liter jerry can, 30.1% (CI95%: 24.3–36.5) of households with visible soap available and 1.6 bednets per household. The results from this survey in Walikale clearly illustrate the impact that ongoing conflict and displacement are having on the population in this part of DRC. The gravity of their health status was highlighted by a CMR that was well above the emergency threshold of 1 person/10,000/day and an U5MR that approaches the 2 children/10,000/day threshold for the recall period. PMID:25233090