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Sample records for den bedst egnede

  1. Dens invaginatus (Type III B)

    PubMed Central

    Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Sudheendra, US; Kasetty, Sowmya; Joshi, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Dens invaginatus or ‘dens in dente’ is a developmental malformation of the tooth resulting from infolding of the dental papilla before calcification. This article presents a case of dens invaginatus occurring in maxillary right lateral incisor of a 45-year-old male patient. The patient presented with pain and clinically missing maxillary right canine. The tooth was found to be non-vital. Radiographic examination revealed the tooth-in-tooth appearance of lateral incisor with a dilated pulp chamber. The crown of impacted canine was found within the pulp chamber of lateral incisor. Owing to this unique clinical presentation, both the lateral incisor and the impacted canine were extracted. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Dens invaginatus Type III B. A brief review on etiopathogenesis, radiographic features and treatment of dens invaginatus has also been included. PMID:22923901

  2. Two New Letters by Denning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Two letters written by W. F. Denning to R. P. Greg in March and April of 1879 that had been tucked into the folds of an 1876 edition of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Reports were recently found at the Carnegie Institution in Washington D.C. The letters are wonderfully preserved, and offer us a snap-shot of the work being performed by a young Denning at the time when his influence in the field of meteor studies was in its ascendency. The contents of these two letters is analyzed and placed within context to Denning's other publications and private life.

  3. Double Dens Invaginatus: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, A. Zeynep; Sumer, A. Pinar; Celenk, Peruze

    2009-01-01

    Dens invaginatus results from an infolding of the outer surface of a tooth. The clinical importance of dens invaginatus results from the risk of pulpal disease. So, all clinicians should be aware of this anomaly. The presence of double dens invaginatus is extremely rare. This article presents three cases of double dens invaginatus in permanent maxillary lateral incisors, one with preventive restoration on its palatal surface. They were classified as double dens invaginatus because of two enamel lined invaginations presented in the crowns of these teeth. PMID:19262734

  4. The posteriorly tilted dens. A normal variation mimicking a fractured dens.

    PubMed

    Swischuk, L E; Hayden, C K; Sarwar, M

    1979-02-26

    The normal dens occasionally can be posteriorly tilted and in such cases, can mimic a fractured, posteriorly tilted, dens. Differentiation of the two conditions depends on: [1] knowledge that this normal variation of the dens occurs, and [2] demonstrating that no fracture exists. In many cases, this latter determination can be accomplished on plain films, but in other cases, laminography is required. PMID:431988

  5. Denning of grizzly bears in the Yellowstone National Park area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judd, Steven L.; Knight, Richard R.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to locate 101 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) dens from 1975 to 1980; 35 dens were examined on the ground. Pregnant females denned in late October, and most other bears denned by mid-November. Duration of denning average 113, 132, and 170 days for males, females, and females with new cubs, respectively. Males emerged from mid-February to late March, followed by single females and females with yearlings and 2-year-olds. Females with new cubs emerged from early mid-April. Den sites were associated with moderate tree cover (26%-75% canopy cover) on 30°-60° slopes. Dens occurred on all aspects, although northerly exposures were most common. Grizzly bears usually dug new dens but occasionally used natural cavities or a den from a previous year. Males usually dug larger dens than females with young. Eight excavated and 2 natural dens of the 35 examined dens were used for more than 1 year.

  6. The DenA/DEN1 Interacting Phosphatase DipA Controls Septa Positioning and Phosphorylation-Dependent Stability of Cytoplasmatic DenA/DEN1 during Fungal Development

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Josua; Kolog Gulko, Miriam; Christmann, Martin; Valerius, Oliver; Stumpf, Sina Kristin; Stirz, Margarita; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2016-01-01

    DenA/DEN1 and the COP9 signalosome (CSN) represent two deneddylases which remove the ubiquitin-like Nedd8 from modified target proteins and are required for distinct fungal developmental programmes. The cellular DenA/DEN1 population is divided into a nuclear and a cytoplasmatic subpopulation which is especially enriched at septa. DenA/DEN1 stability control mechanisms are different for the two cellular subpopulations and depend on different physical interacting proteins and the C-terminal DenA/DEN1 phosphorylation pattern. Nuclear DenA/DEN1 is destabilized during fungal development by five of the eight CSN subunits which target nuclear DenA/DEN1 for degradation. DenA/DEN1 becomes stabilized as a phosphoprotein at S243/S245 during vegetative growth, which is necessary to support further asexual development. After the initial phase of development, the newly identified cytoplasmatic DenA/DEN1 interacting phosphatase DipA and an additional developmental specific C-terminal phosphorylation site at serine S253 destabilize DenA/DEN1. Outside of the nucleus, DipA is co-transported with DenA/DEN1 in the cytoplasm between septa and nuclei. Deletion of dipA resulted in increased DenA/DEN1 stability in a strain which is unresponsive to illumination. The mutant strain is dysregulated in cytokinesis and impaired in asexual development. Our results suggest a dual phosphorylation-dependent DenA/DEN1 stability control with stabilizing and destabilizing modifications and physical interaction partner proteins which function as control points in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. PMID:27010942

  7. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.; Gardner, C.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is circumpolar in the NOrthern Hemisphere, but known locations of maternal dens are concentrated in relatively few, widely scattered locations. Denning is either uncommon or unknown within gaps. To understand effects of industrial development and propose increases in hunting, the temporal and spatial distribution of denning in the Beaufort Sea must be known. We caputred and radiocollared polar bears between 1981 and 1991 and determined tht denning in the Beaufort Sea region was sufficient to account for the estimated population there. Of 90 dend, 48 were on drifting pack ice, 38 on land, and 4 on land-fast ice. The portions of dens on land was higher (P= 0.029) in later compared with earlier years of the study. Bears denning on pack ice drifting as far as 997 km (x=385km) while in dens. there was no difference in cun production by bears denning on land and pack ice (P =0.66). Mean entry and exit dates were 11 November and 5 April for land dens and 22 November and 26 March for pack-ice dens. Female polar bears captured in the Beaufort Sea appeared to be isolated from those caught eat of Cape Bathurst in Canada. Of 35 polar bears that denned along the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada 80% denned between 137 00'W snf 146 59'W. Bears followed to >1 den did not reuse sites and consecutive dens were 20-1,304 km apart. However radio-collared bears are largely faithful to substrate (pack-ice, land, and land-fast ice) and the general geographic area of previous dens. Bears denning on land may be vunerable to human activities such as hunting and industrial development. However, predictable denning chronology and alck of site fidelity indicate that many potential impacts on denning polar bears could be mitigated.

  8. Dragons' Den: promoting healthcare research and innovation.

    PubMed

    Mazhindu, Deborah; Gregory, Siobhan

    2015-07-01

    The changing health and social care landscape, and, in particular, the financial challenges affecting the NHS, can present difficulties for staff looking for funding to support innovation and new ways of working. One method of competitive tendering that is becoming more accepted as a way of allocating funds, encouraging staff engagement and developing innovation for research is a format based the BBC television series, Dragons' Den. This article describes how Hounslow and Richmond Community Healthcare NHS Trust, London, has developed a 'Dragons' Den initiative' of annual competitive research funding allocation to ensure that some of the most dynamic practice in the trust is captured. PMID:26135194

  9. A rare presentation of multiple dens invaginatus in maxillary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental disturbance of the tooth and usually occurs in the maxillary lateral incisor of permanent dentition. In this article, a rare case of dens invaginatus affecting multiple permanent maxillary teeth is described. PMID:25085944

  10. Dens Evaginatus: A Problem-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, A.; Vikram, M.; Suwal, P.

    2015-01-01

    Dens evaginatus is an uncommon developmental anomaly of human dentition characterized by the presence of tubercle on the occlusal surface of mandibular premolars and lingual surface of anterior teeth. Due to occlusal trauma this tubercle tends to fracture thus exposing the pathway to the pulp chamber of teeth. This case report is about the presentation of dens evaginatus in mandibular premolars bilaterally; among them tooth 44 was associated with chronic apical periodontitis. Fractured tubercle of three premolars was sealed with composite resin. Root canal treatment was performed with tooth 44. Routine endodontic treatment did not result in remission of infection. Therefore, culture and sensitivity tests were performed to identify the cause and modify treatment plan accordingly. Triple antibiotic paste was used as an intracanal medicament to disinfect the root canal that resulted in remission of infection. PMID:26779353

  11. Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Phillips, M.K.; Smith, D.W.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

  12. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. Dens in dente in a six year old doberman pinscher.

    PubMed

    DeForge, D H

    1992-09-01

    Developmental abnormalities of tooth shape and form are rare. Identification of dens in dente is made by radiographic and clinical examination. Pulpitis, pulp necrosis and periapical inflammation can be associated with this abnormality. The tooth should be evaluated for endodontic therapy. A review of the literature related to dens in dente is described with the findings in a doberman pinscher. PMID:1290603

  15. Dens evaginatus: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ponnambalam, Yoganathan; Love, Robert M

    2006-06-01

    Dens evaginatus is a developmental anomaly that produces a tubercle on the occlusal or palatal or lingual surfaces of teeth. The tubercle, which often contains pulp tissue, can cause occlusal interference, and pulpal pathology is a common sequel of attrition or fracture of the evagination. It affects a number of tooth types, but most commonly the premolar teeth of people of oriental ethnicity. Early diagnosis and management of dens evaginatus are important to maintain pulp vitality. This article describes three cases of dens evaginatus with different presentations. PMID:16773794

  16. Dens invaginatus: review, relevance, and report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Khan, Suleman Abbas; Khan, Saima Yunus; Bains, Vivek K; Bains, Rhythm; Loomba, Kapil

    2012-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental morphoanatomical variation resulting from the infolding of the dental papilla before biological mineralization that allows the invagination of inner dental epithelium. Permanent maxillary lateral incisors are most commonly affected, and the condition is frequently bilateral, but it may also prevail in permanent maxillary central incisors. The purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the etiopathogenesis, frequency of occurrence, and clinical and radiographic features and to discuss 3 dens invaginatus cases. PMID:23433617

  17. Patterns of den occupation by the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    Spotted hyaenas utilize isolated natal dens (NDs) and communal dens (CDs) for rearing their cubs. Here we describe patterns of natal and CD occupation by hyaenas belonging to one well-studied clan in the Maasai Mara National Reserve during a 10-year period. Locations of 98 den sites that were used as natal or CDs by hyaenas in the study clan were digitized in a Geographic Information System, and the duration of use of each den site, frequency of re-use, and distances involved in den moves were quantified. Hyaenas moved their CD monthly on average. Most CD sites were occupied only once during the study, but several sites were used repeatedly. On rare occasions, the movement of hyaenas to a new den site could be attributed to a disturbance event at the CD, but factors regularly prompting hyaenas to move to new CD sites were unclear. High-ranking female hyaenas were more likely to rear their cubs from birth in a CD than low-ranking females. Low-ranking females almost always utilized isolated NDs for the first few weeks of a litter's development, and low-ranking females transferred their cubs over longer distances than did high-ranking females. ?? 2006 East African Wild Life Society.

  18. Den use by arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in a subarctic region of western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and use of arctic fox dens located in coastal tundra communities of the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta were determined in studies from 1985 to 1990. Dens were denser and less complex than those described in studies conducted above the Arctic Circle. Eighty-three dens of varying complexity were found in the 52-km2 study area. Nineteen dens were used by arctic foxes for whelping or rearing pups. Three females relocated litters to multiple dens; a maximum of four dens were used concurrently by pups from one litter. Although red foxes were common in the region, their use of dens in the study area was minimal. Differences in vegetation at den sites and nearby unoccupied sites were minimal. Furthermore, den sites could not be distinguished from non-den sites during aerial surveys.

  19. Denning chronology and design of effective bear management units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Inman, R.M.; Costello, C.M.; Jones, D.E.; Inman, K.H.; Thompson, B.C.; Quigley, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    Reports on the effectiveness of using late fall hunting seasons to reduce the proportion of female black bears (Ursus americanus) in the harvest are limited, and the geographic scale over which the technique functions as intended has not been examined. During 1992-2000, we radio-equipped black bears in New Mexico, USA, obtained estimates of 175 den entry and 137 den emergence dates, and used New Mexico Department of Game and Fish harvest data (1985-2000) to test for differences in proportion of females in the harvest relative to denning chronology. Bears in northern New Mexico entered dens earlier and emerged later than bears in southern New Mexico (P ??? 0.001). In northern New Mexico bears displayed the typical pattern of earlier entry and later emergence by reproductive females, proportion of females in the harvest varied over time as expected, and late fall seasons were effective (P ??? 0.10). In contrast, denning chronology did not differ by sex in southern New Mexico, proportion of females in the harvest did not change over time, and late fall seasons were not effective (P ??? 0.18). Manipulation of hunting season dates to influence female mortality can be an effective tool, however our study provides an example of an area where denning chronology did not differ by sex and late seasons were not effective. We also observed regional differences in timing of entrance and emergence, which suggest that scale of application may be key. In management jurisdictions that encompass ecologically distinct areas, cover a wide range of latitudes, or are mountainous, successful use of the technique may depend on knowledge of denning chronology at multiple locations and appropriate designation of hunting unit boundaries, season dates, and data analysis units.

  20. Remote identification of polar bear maternal den habitat in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth in dens of ice and snow to protect their altricial young. During the snow-free season, we visited 25 den sites located previously by radiotelemetry and characterized the den site physiognomy. Seven dens occurred in habitats with minimal relief. Eighteen dens (72%) were in coastal and river banks. These "banks" were identifiable on aerial photographs. We then searched high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 3000) for habitats similar to those of the 18 dens. On aerial photos, we mapped 1782 km of bank habitats suitable for denning. Bank habitats comprised 0.18% of our study area between the Colville River and the Tamayariak River in northern Alaska. The final map, which correctly identified 88% of bank denning habitat in this region, will help minimize the potential for disruptions of maternal dens by winter petroleum exploration activities.

  1. Detecting denning polar bears with Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.; McDonald, T.L.; Nielson, R.; Simac, K.

    2004-01-01

    Polar bears give birth in snow dens in midwinter and remain in dens until early spring. The survival and development of cubs is dependent on a stable environment within the maternal den. To mitigate potential disruption of polar bear denning by existing and proposed petroleum activities, we used forward-looking infrared (FLIR) viewing to try to detect heat rising from dens.We flew transects over dens of radio-collared females with FLIR imager-equipped aircraft, recorded weather conditions at each observation, and noted whether the den was detected.We surveyed 23 dens on 67 occasions (1 to 7 times each). Nine dens were always detected, and 10 dens visited more than once were detected on some flights but not on others. Four dens were never detected (17 percent), but three of those were visited only under marginal conditions. The odds of detecting a den were 4.8 times greater when airborne moisture (snow, blowing snow, fog, etc.) was absent than when it was present, and they increased 3-fold for every 1?C increase in temperature-dew point spread. The estimated probability of detecting dens in sunlight was 0. Data suggested that FLIR surveys conducted during optimal conditions for detection can produce detection rates approaching 90 percent and thus can be an important management and mitigation tool. polar bear, infrared imagery, maternal denning, human impacts, management

  2. American black bear denning behavior: Observations and applications using remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Fox, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, C.; Vaughan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers examining American black bear (Ursus americanus) denning behavior have relied primarily on den-site visitation and radiotelemetry to gather data. Repeated den-site visits are time-intensive and may disturb denning bears, possibly causing den abandonment, whereas radiotelemetry is sufficient only to provide gross data on den emergence. We used remote cameras to examine black bear denning behavior in the Allegheny Mountains of western Virginia during March-May 2003. We deployed cameras at 10 den sites and used 137 pictures of black bears. Adult female black bears exhibited greater extra-den activity than we expected prior to final den emergence, which occurred between April 12 and May 6, 2003. Our technique provided more accurate den-emergence estimation than previously published methodologies. Additionally, we observed seldom-documented behaviors associated with den exits and estimated cub age at den emergence. Remote cameras can provide unique insights into denning ecology, and we describe their potential application to reproductive, survival, and behavioral research.

  3. Habitat characteristics of polar bear terrestrial maternal den sites in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Fischbach, Anthony S.

    2003-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth to and nurture their young in dens of ice and snow. During 1999-2001, we measured the structure of 22 dens on the coastal plain of northern Alaska after polar bear families had evacuated their dens in the spring. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, we revisited the sites of 42 maternal and autumn exploratory dens and recorded characteristics of the under-snow habitat. The structure of polar bear snow dens was highly variable. Most were simple chambers with a single entrance/egress tunnel. Others had multiple chambers and additional tunnels. Thickness of snow above and below dens was highly variable, but most dens were overlain by less than 1 m of snow. Dens were located on, or associated with, pronounced landscape features (primarily coastal and river banks, but also a lake shore and an abandoned oil field gravel pad) that are readily distinguished from the surrounding terrain in summer and catch snow in early winter. Although easily identified, den landforms in northern Alaska were more subtle than den habitats in many other parts of the Arctic. The structure of polar bear dens in Alaska was strikingly similar to that of dens elsewhere and has remained largely unchanged in northern Alaska for more than 25 years. Knowledge of den structure and site characteristics will allow resource managers to identify habitats with the greatest probability of holding dens. This information may assist resource managers in preventing negative impacts of mineral exploration and extraction on polar bears.

  4. Prophylactic treatment of dens evaginatus using mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Koh, E T; Ford, T R; Kariyawasam, S P; Chen, N N; Torabinejad, M

    2001-08-01

    Two case reports with dens evaginatus are presented. Each patient had one tooth affected. There was a prominent tubercle on the occlusal surface of the mandibular second premolar. Under local anesthesia and rubber dam isolation a partial pulpotomy was conducted and mineral trioxide aggregate was placed. After 6 months the teeth were removed as part of planned orthodontic treatment. Histological examination of these teeth showed an apparent continuous dentin bridge formation in both teeth, and the pulps were free of inflammation. These cases show that mineral trioxide aggregate can be used as an alternative to existing materials in the proplylactic treatment of dens evaginatus. PMID:11501594

  5. Denning habits of free-ranging dogs reveal preference for human proximity.

    PubMed

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Dens are crucial in the early development of many mammals, making den site selection an important component of parental care in such species. Resource availability and shelter from predators primarily govern den selection. Species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes typically den away from human disturbance, often shifting dens to avoid humans during the early life of their young. Domesticated dogs have evolved in human proximity over centuries, being bred and reared in human homes for generations. While pets rely on their owners for shelter and care, free-ranging dogs roam uncared, and typically whelp in dens. We conducted a study on 148 free-ranging dog dens in India to understand their denning habits. Distance from resources influenced den choice, but anthropogenic disturbance did not. Dens were found in areas of high human activity, and begging from humans was preferred over scavenging. A study on 15 pregnant females revealed that females actively searched for denning sites, rejecting several intermediate ones before selecting the final den. We propose that the obvious preference of dogs for denning close to humans is a behavioural adaptation that helps them to survive in the urban landscape, in spite of the high human induced mortality during the early life of pups. PMID:27535214

  6. Denning habits of free-ranging dogs reveal preference for human proximity

    PubMed Central

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Dens are crucial in the early development of many mammals, making den site selection an important component of parental care in such species. Resource availability and shelter from predators primarily govern den selection. Species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes typically den away from human disturbance, often shifting dens to avoid humans during the early life of their young. Domesticated dogs have evolved in human proximity over centuries, being bred and reared in human homes for generations. While pets rely on their owners for shelter and care, free-ranging dogs roam uncared, and typically whelp in dens. We conducted a study on 148 free-ranging dog dens in India to understand their denning habits. Distance from resources influenced den choice, but anthropogenic disturbance did not. Dens were found in areas of high human activity, and begging from humans was preferred over scavenging. A study on 15 pregnant females revealed that females actively searched for denning sites, rejecting several intermediate ones before selecting the final den. We propose that the obvious preference of dogs for denning close to humans is a behavioural adaptation that helps them to survive in the urban landscape, in spite of the high human induced mortality during the early life of pups. PMID:27535214

  7. Den-site characteristics of black bears in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    We compared historic (1985-1992) and contemporary (2003-2006) black bear (Ursus americanus) den locations in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, for habitat and physiographic attributes of den sites and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which factors were most influential in predicting den-site locations. We observed variability in the relationship between den locations and distance to trails and elevation over rime. Locations of historic den sites were most associated with slope, elevation, and covertype, whereas contemporary sites were associated with slope, distance to roads, aspect, and canopy height. Although relationships to covariates differed between historic and contemporary periods, preferred den-site characteristics consistently included steep slopes and factors associated with greater snow depth. Distribution of den locations shifted toward areas closer to human developments, indicating little negative influence of this factor on den-site selection by black bears in RMNP.

  8. Grizzly bear denning chronology and movements in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Ternent, Mark A.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    Den entrance and emergence dates of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are important to management agencies that wish to minimize impacts of human activities on bears. Current estimates for grizzly bear denning events use data that were collected from 1975–80. We update these estimates by including data obtained from 1981–99. We used aerial telemetry data to estimate week of den entry and emergence by determining the midpoint between the last known active date and the first known date denned, as well as the last known date denned and the first known active date. We also investigated post emergence movement patterns relative to den locations. Mean earliest and latest week of den entry and emergence were also determined. Den entry for females began during the fourth week in September, with 90% denned by the fourth week of November. Earliest den entry for males occurred during the second week of October, with 90% denned by the second week of December. Mean week of den entry for known pregnant females was earlier than males. Earliest week of den entry for known pregnant females was earlier than other females and males. Earliest den emergence for males occurred during the first week of February, with 90% of males out of dens by the fourth week of April. Earliest den emergence for females occurred during the third week of March; by the first week of May, 90% of females had emerged. Male bears emerged from dens earlier than females. Denning period differed among classes and averaged 171 days for females that emerged from dens with cubs, 151 days for other females, and 131 days for males. Known pregnant females tended to den at higher elevations and, following emergence, remained at higher elevation until late May. Females with cubs remained relatively close (<3 km) to den sites until the last 2 weeks in May. Timing of denning events was similar to previous estimates for this and other grizzly bear populations in the southern Rocky

  9. Selection of den sites by black bears in the southern Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.; Brown, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated selection of den sites by American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, western North Carolina, by comparing characteristics of dens at 53 den sites with availability of habitat characteristics in annual home ranges of bears and in the study area. We also tested whether den-site selection differed by sex, age, and reproductive status of bears. In addition, we evaluated whether the den component of an existing habitat model for black bears predicted where bears would select den sites. We found bears selected den sites far from gravel roads, on steep slopes, and at high elevations relative to what was available in both annual home ranges and in the study area. Den-site selection did not differ by sex or age, but it differed by reproductive status. Adult females with cubs preferred to den in areas that were relatively far from gravel roads, but adult females without cubs did not. The habitat model overestimated the value of areas near gravel roads, underestimated the value of moderately steep areas, and did not include elevation as a predictor variable. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating den selection in terms of both use and availability of den characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. A female black bear denning habitat model using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Hayes, S.G.; Pledger, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic and a raster geographic information system (GIS) to model potential black bear (Ursus americanus) denning habitat in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. The Mahalanobis distance statistic was used to represent the standard squared distance between sample variates in the GIS database (forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to roads, and forest cover richness) and variates at known bear dens. Two models were developed: a generalized model for all den locations and another specific to dens in rock cavities. Differences between habitat at den sites and habitat across the study area were represented in 2 new GIS themes as Mahalanobis distance values. Cells similar to the mean vector derived from the known dens had low Mahalanobis distance values, and dissimilar cells had high values. The reliability of the predictive model was tested by overlaying den locations collected subsequent to original model development on the resultant den habitat themes. Although the generalized model demonstrated poor reliability, the model specific to rock dens had good reliability. Bears were more likely to choose rock den locations with low Mahalanobis distance values and less likely to choose those with high values. The model can be used to plan the timing and extent of management actions (e.g., road building, prescribed fire, timber harvest) most appropriate for those sites with high or low denning potential. 

  11. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) diurnal den use within an intensively managed forest in central West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, Sheldon F.; Berl, Jacob L.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2015-01-01

    Intensive forest management may influence the availability of suitable den sites for large den-seeking species, such as Procyon lotor (Raccoon). As part of a Raccoon ecology study on an industrial forest in the Allegheny Mountains of central West Virginia, we radio-tracked 32 Raccoons to 175 diurnal den sites to determine relative use of dens that included cavity trees, rock dens, log piles, slash piles, and exposed limbs. Patterns of den use significantly differed between sexes and among seasons. Overall, we recorded 58 cavity dens in 12 tree species with 7 maternal dens found in 5 tree species. Raccoons selected larger-diameter den trees than available cavity trees and non-cavity trees. Because the abundance of suitable tree cavities is known to influence Raccoon densities and recruitment at fine spatial scales and female Raccoons in this study used tree cavities as maternal den sites, the continued harvest of large-diameter trees (i.e., those capable of developing den cavities) without replacement may impact Raccoon recruitment within intensively managed forests throughout the central Appalachians.

  12. Landward and eastward shift of Alaskan polar bear denning associated with recent sea ice changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischbach, A.S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the northern Alaska region den in coastal areas and on offshore drifting ice. We evaluated changes in the distribution of polar bear maternal dens between 1985 and 2005, using satellite telemetry. We determined the distribution of maternal dens occupied by 89 satellite collared female polar bears between 137°W and 167°W longitude. The proportion of dens on pack ice declined from 62% in 1985–1994 to 37% in 1998–2004 (P = 0.044) and among pack ice dens fewer occurred in the western Beaufort Sea after 1998. We evaluated whether hunting, attraction to bowhead whale remains, or changes in sea ice could explain changes in den distribution. We concluded that denning distribution changed in response to reductions in stable old ice, increases in unconsolidated ice, and lengthening of the melt season. In consort, these changes have likely reduced the availability and quality of pack ice denning habitat. Further declines in sea ice availability are predicted. Therefore, we expect the proportion of polar bears denning in coastal areas will continue to increase, until such time as the autumn ice retreats far enough from shore that it precludes offshore pregnant females from reaching the Alaska coast in advance of denning.

  13. Selection of wolf dens in relation to winter territories in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciucci, P.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Locations of wolf (Canus lupus) dens in the Superior National Forest in northeastern Minnesota from 1969 through 1988 were analyzed in relation to winter territories. Dens situated within the central 60% of the territories were randomly located relative to territory centers. However, only 10.5% (2) of the dens were located within a 1-km-wide strip inside the territory boundaries, indicating possible avoidance of neighboring packs. A negative relationship (r2 = 0.27; P 1 year, and possibly the availability of a stable food source helped determine den location.

  14. Post-den emergence behavior of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Partridge, S.T.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Schliebe, S.

    2007-01-01

    We observed polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternity den sites on Alaska’s North Slope in March 2002 and 2003 in an effort to describe bears’ post-den emergence behavior. During 40 sessions spanning 459 h, we observed 8 adults and 14 dependent cubs outside dens for 37.5 h (8.2% of total observation time). There was no significant difference between den emergence dates in 2002 (mean = 15 Mar ± 4.1 d) and 2003 (mean = 21 Mar ± 2.1 d). Following initial den breakout, polar bears remained at their den sites for 1.5 to 14 days (mean = 8.1 ± 5.1 d). The average length of stay in dens between emergent periods was significantly shorter in 2002 (1.79 h) than in 2003 (4.82 h). While outside, adult bears were inactive 49.5% of the time, whereas cubs were inactive 13.4% of the time. We found no significant relationships between den emergence activity and weather. Adult polar bears at den sites subjected to industrial activity exhibited significantly fewer bouts of vigilance than denned bears in undisturbed areas (t = -5.5164, df = 4, p= 0.00). However, the duration of vigilance behaviors at sites near industrial activity was not significantly shorter than at the other sites studied (t = -1.8902, df = 4, p = 0.07). Results for these bears were within the range of findings in other studies of denned polar bears.

  15. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth during mid-winter in dens of ice and snow. Denning polar bears subjected to human disturbances may abandon dens before their altricial young can survive the rigors of the Arctic winter. Because the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska is an area of high petroleum potential and contains existing and planned oil field developments, the distribution of polar bear dens on the plain is of interest to land managers. Therefore, as part of a study of denning habitats along the entire Arctic coast of Alaska, we examined high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 1655) of the 7994 km2 coastal plain included in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and mapped 3621 km of bank habitat suitable for denning by polar bears. Such habitats were distributed uniformly and comprised 0.29% (23.2 km2) of the coastal plain between the Canning River and the Canadian border. Ground-truth sampling suggested that we had correctly identified 91.5% of bank denning habitats on the ANWR coastal plain. Knowledge of the distribution of these habitats will help facilitate informed management of human activities and minimize disruption of polar bears in maternal dens.

  16. Kin selection in den sharing develops under limited availability of tree hollows for a forest marsupial

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Sam C.; Lindenmayer, David B.; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Knight, Emma J.; Blyton, Michaela D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Animal social behaviour is not static with regard to environmental change. Flexibility in cooperative resource use may be an important response to resource decline, mediating the impacts of resource availability on fitness and demography. In forest ecosystems, hollow trees are key den resources for many species, but are declining worldwide owing to forestry. Altered patterns of den sharing may mediate the effects of the decline of this resource. We studied den-sharing interactions among hollow-dependent Australian mountain brushtail possums to investigate how spatial variation in hollow tree availability affects resource sharing and kin selection. Under reduced den availability, individuals used fewer dens and shared them less often. This suggests increased territoriality in the presence of resource competition. Further, there was a switch from kin avoidance to kin preference with decreasing hollow tree availability. This was driven primarily by a change in den sharing among siblings. The inclusive fitness benefits of den sharing with kin are likely to increase under resource-limiting conditions, but are potentially outweighed by the benefits of associating with non-relatives (avoidance of inbreeding or pathogen transmission) where dens are abundant. We discuss how predictions from social evolutionary theory can contribute to understanding animal responses to landscape change. PMID:21288953

  17. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  18. Dens invaginatus in an impacted mesiodens: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Cantín, M; Fonseca, G M

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a dental anomaly originated from invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla, during odontogenesis. DI may be associated with other abnormalities such as dysmorphic mesiodens, and this unusual condition may be detected by chance on the conventional radiography. However, the three-dimensional nature and the exact morphological patterns of DI are impossible to appreciate from this method. We present a morphological study of impacted mesiodens in a 9-year-old girl, which the three coronal invaginations were detected only by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in the pre-surgical examination. CBCT, radiographic and microscopic reproductions allow transfer of images to facilitate cooperation of working groups, examination as well as for teaching purposes. PMID:24322044

  19. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus in Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is an acute, emerging, infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that has become a serious global public health problem. The DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus were originally isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever in Fujian Province, China, in 1999. Our data provide the first assessment of the vector competence of Aedes mosquitoes with respect to the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus. There were significant differences in the replication rates of these two viral strains in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (P<0.05); replication of the DEN2-FJ10 strain was greater in Ae. aegypti than in Ae. albopictus 5 days post infection whereas replication of the DEN2-FJ11 was greater in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti 7 days post infection. The replicative ability of the DEN2-FJ11 strain was greater than that of the DEN2-FJ10 strain in infected Ae. albopictus. In infected Ae. aegypti, rapid proliferation of the DEN2-FJ10 strain occurred earlier than in the DEN2-FJ11 strain. There were no significant differences in the midgut and salivary gland infection rates of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti with respect to either viral strain. Although the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains differ in their virulence to neonatal rats, there was no significant difference in the ability of either Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti to transmit the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ10 strains of the dengue 2 virus (P>0.05). In summary, our results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are moderately competent vectors of the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus and provide the first evidence of the effect of these two viral strains on the vector competence of mosquitoes in China. PMID:27260668

  20. Grizzly bear denning and potential conflict areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podruzny, Shannon; Cherry, Steve; Schwartz, Charles C.; Landenburger, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Increasing winter use of steep, high-elevation terrain by backcountry recreationists has elevated concern about disturbance of denning grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). To help identify areas where such conflicts might occur, we developed a spatially explicit model to predict potential denning areas in the GYE. Using a scan area of 630 m around each location, we assigned site attributes to 344 den locations of radio-trackedg rizzly bears from 1975-99. Attributesi dentified as predictorsf or the analysis included elevation, slope, an index of solar radiation, and forest cover. We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic to model the similarity between sites used by denning bears and each cell in the data layers. We used the final Mahalanobis distance model to produce maps of the study area. Potential denning habitat, based upon the model, is abundantw ithin the GYE. Ourr esultsc an be used by land managementa gencies to identifyp otentialc onflict sites and minimize effects of regulated activities on denning grizzly bears. We illustrate how the Gallatin National Forest (GNF) used the model to examine the overlap between potential snowmobile use areas and potential denning habitat as part of a Biological Assessment submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Management of dens in dente associated with a chronic periapical lesion.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vivek; Raheja, Anupama; Singh, Rajeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dens in dente is characterised as a developmental anomaly resulting from invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla. It is a rare malformation of teeth, showing a wide spectrum of morphological variations such as gemination, microdontia, taurodontism, dentinogenesis imperfecta, supernumerary tooth and hyperplasias, resulting frequently in early pulp necrosis. Maxillary lateral incisors are the commonest teeth to be affected by dental malformations-supernumerary tooth, talon cusp, congenitally missing tooth and dens in dente. We describe the management of a case of dens in dente in a maxillary lateral incisor with a periradicular lesion. PMID:26655667

  2. Den Entry Behavior in Scandinavian Brown Bears: Implications for Preventing Human Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sahlén, Veronica; Friebe, Andrea; Sæbø, Solve; Swenson, Jon E; Støen, Ole-Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Encounters between Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and humans that result in human injuries and fatalities typically coincide with den entry in October and November, and commonly occur near a den. Our aim was to determine when bears arrive at their dens, identify potential predictors of this event, document behavior and activity associated with this period, and attempt to explain the increased risk of bear-caused human injuries in this period. We analyzed global positioning system (GPS) location and activity data from brown bears in south-central Sweden, using generalized linear mixed models, statistical process control, and activity analyses. Bears arrived at their den sites between 6 October and 1 December. Timing varied by reproductive category, bear age, and year. Half of all bears significantly reduced their activity before arriving at the den area: on average 2,169 m away from the den and 1.8 days before arrival. The other half reduced their activity after arriving at the den area. The latter bears took longer time to reach hibernation activity levels, but we did not find a difference in the start date of hibernation between the 2 groups. Bears also appeared to be sensitive to disturbance in this period, with higher den abandonment rates than later in winter, particularly for males and for bears that had not visited their den sites previously. Den entry occurred from October to December, with high variability and poor predictability of its timing. Therefore, restricting hunting or other recreation activities to reduce risk of injury by bears and disturbing bears probably would be both impractical and ineffective. Our findings can be used to educate hunters about bear behavior at this time of year. Many people associate dens with an increased risk of a bear responding aggressively to disturbance to defend its den, but our results indicate that other behavioral, and possibly physiological, changes in this period also may be involved. © 2014 The

  3. Conventional Treatment of Maxillary Incisor Type III Dens Invaginatus with Periapical Lesion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; Nadalin, Michele Regina; Pedro, Fábio Luís Miranda; da Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2011-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental dental anomaly clinically characterized by a palatine furrow that can be limited to the coronal pulp or may extend to the radicular apex. The purpose of this paper was to present a clinical case of type III dens invaginatus, identified on the maxillary right central incisor in anterior periapical radiographs, in which the tooth was submitted to conventional endodontic treatment. The results obtained after five years of clinical and radiographic followup demonstrated that conventional endodontic treatment is a clinically viable alternative in cases of type III dens invaginatus. PMID:21991460

  4. [Immediate implant loading using DenTi implants--our long-term experience. Part 2: Experience with DenTi implants as reflected in the literature].

    PubMed

    István, Vajdovich; Mihály, Bandula; Péter, Bóka; Zsuzsanna, Tóth

    2006-12-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants have been widely used to retain and support cross-arch partial dentures. 3-6 months after implantation the osseointegration is established. This period may be shortened with immediate loading of implants. The purpose of this study was to compare the long term experience of immediate loading of DenTi implants and the results reported in available literature. The most relevant articles were selected from current available literature. The influencing factors of success of immediate loading (surgery,- host,- implant and occlusion-related factors) were investigated and discussed in this article. The result of the evaluation showed that the success rate of the immediate loaded DenTi implants with large grit sandblasted treatment and acid etched surface was higher than 95 %. The success rate of the immediate loaded DenTi implants is similar to the ones reported in the available literature. PMID:17444128

  5. The homeopathy of kin selection: an evaluation of Van den Berghe's sociobiological approach to ethnic nepotism.

    PubMed

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2001-09-01

    The present discussion of sociobiological approaches to ethnic nepotism takes Pierre van den Berghe's theory as a starting point. Two points, which have not been addressed in former analyses, are considered to be of particular importance. It is argued that the behavioral mechanism of ethnic nepotism -- as understood by van den Berghe -- cannot explain ethnic boundaries and attitudes. In addition, I show that van den Berghe's central premise concerning ethnic nepotism is in contradiction to Hamilton's formula, the essential principle of kin selection theory. It is further discussed how other approaches that make reference to ethnic nepotism are related to van den Berghe's account and its problems. I conclude with remarks on the evolutionary explanation of ethnic phenomena. PMID:16859334

  6. Sex steroid and prolactin profiles in male American black bears (Ursus americanus) during denning.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, T; Garshelis, D L; Nelson, R A; Bahr, J M

    1999-01-01

    Serum sex steroid and prolactin profiles were examined in the male American black bear, Ursus americanus during denning. Sera collected in December and the following March from 8 denning male black bears in Minnesota, U.S.A. were assayed for testosterone, estradiol-17 beta and prolactin. Eight bears were confirmed to be the denning mode based on a serum urea to creatinine ratio less than 10. Serum testosterone concentrations tended to increase from December to the subsequent March whereas serum estradiol-17 beta concentrations tended to decrease during this period. There were few changes in serum prolactin concentrations between December and March. These findings suggest that spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis initiated during denning may be influenced by changes in serum sex steroid concentrations in the American black bear. PMID:10027172

  7. Nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus with open apex: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Nidhi; Sroa, Renu B

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare malformation with a widely varied morphology. It typically affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors, central incisors, and premolars. This article demonstrates rapid management of type II dens invagination with open apex and large periradicular lesion using calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament for 1-week followed by apical plug formation with mineral trioxide aggregate Plus and lateral condensation of Gutta-percha. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and lesion was entirely resolved. PMID:26751206

  8. Cell cycle progression in denV-transfected murine fibroblasts exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Kusewitt, D F; Budge, C L; Nolla, H A; Edwards, B S; Ley, R D

    1992-09-01

    Repair-proficient murine fibroblasts transfected with the denV gene of bacteriophage T4 repaired 70-80% of pyrimidine dimers within 24 h after exposure to 150 J/m2 ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from an FS-40 sunlamp. Under the same conditions, control cells repaired only about 20% of UVR-induced pyrimidine dimers. After UVR exposure, both control and denV-transfected cells exhibited some degree of DNA-synthesis inhibition, as determined by flow cytometric analysis of cell-cycle kinetics in propidium iodide-stained cells. DenV-transfected cells had a longer and more profound S phase arrest than control cells, but both control and denV-transfected cells had largely recovered from UVR effects on cell-cycle kinetics by 48 h after UVR exposure. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by UVR was also measured by determining post-UVR incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The amount of BrdU incorporated was quantitated by determining with flow cytometry the quenching of Hoechst dye 33342 by BrdU incorporated in cellular DNA. DenV-transfected cells showed more marked inhibition of BrdU incorporation after low fluences of UVR than control cells. Differences between denV-transfected and control cells in cell-cycle kinetics following UVR exposure may be related to differences in mechanisms of repair when excision repair of pyrimidine dimers is initiated by endonuclease V instead of cellular repair enzymes. PMID:1380650

  9. Remote identification of maternal polar bear (Ursus maritimus) denning habitat on the Colville River Delta, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Justin J.

    High resolution digital aerial photographs (1 foot pixel size) of the Colville River Delta, Alaska were examined in 3D, with the use of a digital photogrammetric workstation. Topographic features meeting the criteria required for adequate snow accumulation, and subsequent construction of terrestrial polar bear maternal dens, were identified and digitized into an ArcGIS line shapefile. Effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy were improved when compared to previous polar bear denning habitat efforts which utilized contact photo prints and a pocket stereoscope in other geographic areas of northern Alaska. Accuracy of photograph interpretation was systematically evaluated visually from the air with the use of a helicopter and physically on the ground. Results show that the mapping efforts were successful in identifying den habitat 91.3% of the time. Knowledge denning habitat can improve and inform decision making by managers and regulators when considering travel and development in the study area. An understanding of polar bear denning habitat extent and location will be a crucial tool for planning activities within the study area in a way that minimizes conflicts with maternal dens.

  10. Arctic foxes as ecosystem engineers: increased soil nutrients lead to increased plant productivity on fox dens

    PubMed Central

    Gharajehdaghipour, Tazarve; Roth, James D.; Fafard, Paul M.; Markham, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Top predators can provide fundamental ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, and their impact can be even greater in environments with low nutrients and productivity, such as Arctic tundra. We estimated the effects of Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) denning on soil nutrient dynamics and vegetation production near Churchill, Manitoba in June and August 2014. Soils from fox dens contained higher nutrient levels in June (71% more inorganic nitrogen, 1195% more extractable phosphorous) and in August (242% more inorganic nitrogen, 191% more extractable phosphorous) than adjacent control sites. Inorganic nitrogen levels decreased from June to August on both dens and controls, whereas extractable phosphorous increased. Pup production the previous year, which should enhance nutrient deposition (from urine, feces, and decomposing prey), did not affect soil nutrient concentrations, suggesting the impact of Arctic foxes persists >1 year. Dens supported 2.8 times greater vegetation biomass in August, but δ15N values in sea lyme grass (Leymus mollis) were unaffected by denning. By concentrating nutrients on dens Arctic foxes enhance nutrient cycling as an ecosystem service and thus engineer Arctic ecosystems on local scales. The enhanced productivity in patches on the landscape could subsequently affect plant diversity and the dispersion of herbivores on the tundra. PMID:27045973

  11. Arctic foxes as ecosystem engineers: increased soil nutrients lead to increased plant productivity on fox dens.

    PubMed

    Gharajehdaghipour, Tazarve; Roth, James D; Fafard, Paul M; Markham, John H

    2016-01-01

    Top predators can provide fundamental ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, and their impact can be even greater in environments with low nutrients and productivity, such as Arctic tundra. We estimated the effects of Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) denning on soil nutrient dynamics and vegetation production near Churchill, Manitoba in June and August 2014. Soils from fox dens contained higher nutrient levels in June (71% more inorganic nitrogen, 1195% more extractable phosphorous) and in August (242% more inorganic nitrogen, 191% more extractable phosphorous) than adjacent control sites. Inorganic nitrogen levels decreased from June to August on both dens and controls, whereas extractable phosphorous increased. Pup production the previous year, which should enhance nutrient deposition (from urine, feces, and decomposing prey), did not affect soil nutrient concentrations, suggesting the impact of Arctic foxes persists >1 year. Dens supported 2.8 times greater vegetation biomass in August, but δ(15)N values in sea lyme grass (Leymus mollis) were unaffected by denning. By concentrating nutrients on dens Arctic foxes enhance nutrient cycling as an ecosystem service and thus engineer Arctic ecosystems on local scales. The enhanced productivity in patches on the landscape could subsequently affect plant diversity and the dispersion of herbivores on the tundra. PMID:27045973

  12. A Rare Case of Crowned Dens Syndrome Mimicking Aseptic Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Teruyuki; Minakata, Yugo; Tamura, Masato; Takasu, Toshiaki; Murakami, Marohito

    2013-01-01

    Background Crowned dens syndrome (CDS), related to microcrystalline deposition in the periodontoid process, is the main cause of acute or chronic cervical pain. Microcrystal-line deposition most often consists of calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals and/or hydroxyapatite crystals. Case Presentation This report describes the case of an 89-year-old woman who presented with sudden onset, high fever, severe occipital headache, and neck stiffness. A laboratory examination revealed a markedly elevated white blood cell count (11,100/µl) and C-reactive protein level (23.8 mg/dl). These clinical findings suggested severe infection such as meningitis with sepsis. However, the results of blood culture, serum endotoxin, and procalcitonin were all negative, and cerebrospinal fluid studies revealed only a slight abnormality. The patient was first diagnosed with meningitis and treated with antiviral and antibiotic agents as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but they only had limited effects. A cervical plain computed tomography (CT) scan and its three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction detected a remarkable crown-like calcification surrounding the odontoid process. On the basis of the CT findings, the patient was diagnosed as a severe case of CDS and was immediately treated with corticosteroids. The patient's condition drastically improved within a week after one course of corticosteroid therapy. Conclusion Some atypical symptoms of CDS are misleading and may be misdiagnosed as meningitis, as happened in our case. A CT scan, especially a 3D-CT scan, is necessary and useful for a definitive diagnosis of CDS. CDS should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a possible etiology for fever, headache, and cervical pain of unknown origin. PMID:23569451

  13. Despotism and Risk of Infanticide Influence Grizzly Bear Den-Site Selection

    PubMed Central

    Libal, Nathan S.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Leopold, Bruce D.; Wang, Guiming; Owen, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142), adult male (n = 36), and juvenile (n = 35) den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC) = 0.926) and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880) den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841) den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations ( = 1,412 m, SE = 52) and steeper slopes ( = 21.9°, SE = 1.1) than adult male (elevation:  = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope:  = 15.6°, SE = 1.9) den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring. PMID:21935378

  14. Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection.

    PubMed

    Libal, Nathan S; Belant, Jerrold L; Leopold, Bruce D; Wang, Guiming; Owen, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142), adult male (n = 36), and juvenile (n = 35) den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC) = 0.926) and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880) den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841) den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations (mean= 1,412 m, SE = 52) and steeper slopes (mean = 21.9°, SE = 1.1) than adult male (elevation: mean = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope: mean = 15.6°, SE = 1.9) den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring. PMID:21935378

  15. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes. PMID:24918935

  16. Lack of gp130 expression in hepatocytes attenuates tumor progression in the DEN model

    PubMed Central

    Hatting, M; Spannbauer, M; Peng, J; Al Masaoudi, M; Sellge, G; Nevzorova, Y A; Gassler, N; Liedtke, C; Cubero, F J; Trautwein, C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver inflammation is a crucial event in the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Compelling evidence has shown that interleukin-6 (IL-6)/gp130-dependent signaling has a fundamental role in liver carcinogenesis. Thus, in the present study we aimed to investigate the role of gp130 in hepatocytes for the initiation and progression of HCC. Hepatocyte-specific gp130 knockout mice (gp130Δhepa) and control animals (gp130f/f) were treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The role of gp130 for acute injury (0–144 h post treatment), tumor initiation (24 weeks) and progression (40 weeks) was analyzed. After acute DEN-induced liver injury we observed a reduction in the inflammatory response in gp130Δhepa animals as reflected by decreased levels of IL-6 and oncostatin M. The loss of gp130 slightly attenuated the initiation of HCC 24 weeks after DEN treatment. In contrast, 40 weeks after DEN treatment, male and female gp130Δhepa mice showed smaller tumors and reduced tumor burden, indicating a role for hepatocyte-specific gp130 expression during HCC progression. Oxidative stress and DNA damage were substantially and similarly increased by DEN in both gp130f/f and gp130Δhepa animals. However, gp130Δhepa livers revealed aberrant STAT5 activation and decreased levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), pSMAD2/3 and SMAD2, whereas phosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr705 and Ser727 was absent. Our results indicate that gp130 deletion in hepatocytes reduces progression, but not HCC initiation in the DEN model. Gp130 deletion resulted in STAT3 inhibition but increased STAT5 activation and diminished TGF-dependent signaling. Hence, blocking gp130 in hepatocytes might be an interesting therapeutic target to inhibit the growth of HCC. PMID:25741592

  17. Treatment of Dens Invagination in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Azar; Rahmani, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Dens invagination is a developmental anomaly requiring specific treatment approaches. Oehler's Type III dens in dente, extends into the root and perforates at the apical area or lateral surface of the root. In this case endodontic treatment of the invaginated tooth was carried out through the central lumen of the invagination with calcium hydroxide without manipulation of the main pulp canal, thereby leaving the tooth vital. The 18-month follow-up examinations were indicative of treatment success; the periapical lesion resolved completely and the tooth remained vital. Conclusion: Information about the three dimensional anatomy of the teeth especially those with an abnormality is necessary for a successful treatment. PMID:26213545

  18. Mapping polar bear maternal denning habitat in the National Petroleum Reserve -- Alaska with an IfSAR digital terrain model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR-A) in northeastern Alaska provides winter maternal denning habitat for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and also has high potential for recoverable hydrocarbons. Denning polar bears exposed to human activities may abandon their dens before their young are able to survive the severity of Arctic winter weather. To ensure that wintertime petroleum activities do not threaten polar bears, managers need to know the distribution of landscape features in which maternal dens are likely to occur. Here, we present a map of potential denning habitat within the NPR-A. We used a fine-grain digital elevation model derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) to generate a map of putative denning habitat. We then tested the map’s ability to identify polar bear denning habitat on the landscape. Our final map correctly identified 82% of denning habitat estimated to be within the NPR-A. Mapped denning habitat comprised 19.7 km2 (0.1% of the study area) and was widely dispersed. Though mapping denning habitat with IfSAR data was as effective as mapping with the photogrammetric methods used for other regions of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain, the use of GIS to analyze IfSAR data allowed greater objectivity and flexibility with less manual labor. Analytical advantages and performance equivalent to that of manual cartographic methods suggest that the use of IfSAR data to identify polar bear maternal denning habitat is a better management tool in the NPR-A and wherever such data may be available.

  19. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A.; Maia, Paula F.; Magalhães, Arthur R.; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother–pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. PMID:26085500

  20. "Where's the Bear? Over There!"--Creative Thinking and Imagination in Den Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This small scale research project examines opportunities for creative thinking and imagination through den making in a rural private day nursery with its own woodland area on the borders of England and Wales in the UK. The research is underpinned by sociocultural theory and is an ethnographic study of non-participant observations of children aged…

  1. The Influence of the Outdoor Environment: Den-Making in Three Different Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    This small-scale research examined den-making in three different settings in the UK. The research consisted of non-participant, narrative observations of children aged between 3- and 5-years and early years practitioners involved in supporting them in their play. Content analysis revealed common themes: the impact of the environment on the way…

  2. First report of captive New Guinea dingo (Canis dingo hallstromi) den-digging and parental behavior.

    PubMed

    Koler-Matznick, Janice; Stinner, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    New Guinea dingoes (NGDs) (Canis dingo hallstromi; Troughton [1957] Proc Roy Soc new South Wells 1955-1956:93-94) have been kept in zoos since 1956. Almost nothing is known of their wild behavior. These observations of a captive pair are the first documentation of natal den-digging and parental behavior for this taxon. The main den, excavated near the top of a 1.5 m hill, consisted of a rounded chamber about 50.8 cm deep, with an entrance about 30.5 cm high and 40.6 cm wide. The dam frequently moved the pups from the natal den to secondary locations for short periods during the day and then back to the den, starting when the pups were 2 weeks old. When the pups were between 5 and 12 weeks of age, both parents regularly regurgitated for them. The sire expressed escalating threat behavior toward the male pup starting when the pup was 5 months old, and the female began threatening the female pups at about 6 months of age. Rejection of same-sex offspring is usual for captive NGDs as the next breeding season approaches. PMID:21154450

  3. Effect of age on respiratory carcinogenesis with diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN) in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, S.F.; Saffiotti, U.

    1986-03-01

    Groups of male and female Syrian golden hamsters were given 12 weekly s.c. injections of 10 mg/kg DEN beginning at 1 day (85 animals) or 8 weeks (70 animals) of age, and were held for lifetime observation. In hamsters receiving DEN from birth, the first respiratory tumors were observed at 15 experimental weeks; all animals were dead by 66 weeks with a 99% respiratory tumor incidence. Of these hamster, 87% developed carcinomas or adenomas in the nasal cavities, 75% papillomas of the trachea, larynx or extrapulmonary bronchi and 7% adenomas or adenocarcinomas of the peripheral lung. Hamsters given DEN from 8 weeks of age first showed respiratory tumors after 25 weeks with a 96% incidence by 62 weeks when all had died. Of these hamsters, 24% developed carcinomas or adenomas in the nasal cavities, 91% papillomas of the trachea, larynx or bronchi, and 9% adenomas or adenocarcinomas of the peripheral lung. In comparison, the nasal tumors in the first group were more anaplastic and invaded the brain more frequently than in the second. These results indicate that the nasal mucosa of newborns is more sensitive to carcinogenesis with DEN than is that of adults, while there appears to be little age-related susceptibility of the epithelium of the airways or lung. A serial sacrifice experiment is currently under way to study the cells of origin of the various tumors using immuno-histochemical and electron microscopic techniques.

  4. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A; Maia, Paula F; Magalhães, Arthur R; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-06-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother-pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. PMID:26085500

  5. DenHunt - A Comprehensive Database of the Intricate Network of Dengue-Human Interactions.

    PubMed

    Karyala, Prashanthi; Metri, Rahul; Bathula, Christopher; Yelamanchi, Syam K; Sahoo, Lipika; Arjunan, Selvam; Sastri, Narayan P; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature. However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue-human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called DenHunt. We retrieved 682 direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, 382 indirect interactions and 4120 differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients. We have illustrated the importance of DenHunt by mapping the dengue-human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. We also observed that 7 percent of the dengue virus interacting human proteins are also associated with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Finally, the understanding that comes from such analyses could be used to design better strategies to counteract the diseases caused by dengue virus. The whole dataset has been catalogued in a searchable database, called DenHunt (http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/DenHunt/). PMID:27618709

  6. The Dens: Normal Development, Developmental Variants and Anomalies, and Traumatic Injuries.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, William T; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of cervical spine imagining can be challenging, especially in children and the elderly. The biomechanics of the developing pediatric spine and age-related degenerative changes predispose these patient populations to injuries centered at the craniocervical junction. In addition, congenital anomalies are common in this region, especially those associated with the axis/dens, due to its complexity in terms of development compared to other vertebral levels. The most common congenital variations of the dens include the os odontoideum and a persistent ossiculum terminale. At times, it is necessary to distinguish normal development, developmental variants, and developmental anomalies from traumatic injuries in the setting of acute traumatic injury. Key imaging features are useful to differentiate between traumatic fractures and normal or variant anatomy acutely; however, the radiologist must first have a basic understanding of the spectrum of normal developmental anatomy and its anatomic variations in order to make an accurate assessment. This review article attempts to provide the basic framework required for accurate interpretation of cervical spine imaging with a focus on the dens, specifically covering the normal development and ossification of the dens, common congenital variants and their various imaging appearances, fracture classifications, imaging appearances, and treatment options. PMID:26199787

  7. The Dens: Normal Development, Developmental Variants and Anomalies, and Traumatic Injuries

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, William T; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of cervical spine imagining can be challenging, especially in children and the elderly. The biomechanics of the developing pediatric spine and age-related degenerative changes predispose these patient populations to injuries centered at the craniocervical junction. In addition, congenital anomalies are common in this region, especially those associated with the axis/dens, due to its complexity in terms of development compared to other vertebral levels. The most common congenital variations of the dens include the os odontoideum and a persistent ossiculum terminale. At times, it is necessary to distinguish normal development, developmental variants, and developmental anomalies from traumatic injuries in the setting of acute traumatic injury. Key imaging features are useful to differentiate between traumatic fractures and normal or variant anatomy acutely; however, the radiologist must first have a basic understanding of the spectrum of normal developmental anatomy and its anatomic variations in order to make an accurate assessment. This review article attempts to provide the basic framework required for accurate interpretation of cervical spine imaging with a focus on the dens, specifically covering the normal development and ossification of the dens, common congenital variants and their various imaging appearances, fracture classifications, imaging appearances, and treatment options. PMID:26199787

  8. Importance of Native Grassland Habitat for Den-Site Selection of Indian Foxes in a Fragmented Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Punjabi, Girish Arjun; Chellam, Ravi; Vanak, Abi Tamim

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of native habitats is now a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting wildlife at various scales. We examined selection of den-sites (n = 26) by Indian foxes (Vulpes bengalensis) in a highly modified short-grassland landscape in central India (Jan-May, 2010). At the scale of the home-range, defined by an 800 m circular buffer around den sites, we examined the effect of land-cover edges and roads on selection of sites for denning using a distance-based approach. At the smaller den-area scale, defined by a 25 m x 25 m plot around den and paired available sites, the effect of microhabitat characteristics was examined using discrete-choice models. Indian foxes selected den-sites closer to native grasslands (t = -9.57, P < 0.001) and roads (t = -2.04, P = 0.05) than random at the home-range scale. At the smaller scale, abundance of rodents and higher visibility increased the odds of selection of a site by eight and four times respectively, indicating resource availability and predator avoidance to be important considerations for foxes. Indian foxes largely chose to den in human-made structures, indicated by the proportion of dens found in earthen bunds (0.69) and boulder piles (0.27) in the study area. With agricultural expansion and human modification threatening native short-grassland habitats, their conservation and effective management in human-dominated landscapes will benefit the Indian fox. The presence of some human-made structures within native grasslands would also be beneficial for this den-dependent species. We suggest future studies examine the impact of fragmentation and connectivity of grasslands on survival and reproductive success of the Indian fox. PMID:24098494

  9. Combined endodontic and surgical management of a mandibular lateral incisor with a rare type of dens invaginatus.

    PubMed

    Chaniotis, Antonios M; Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G; Tosios, Konstantinos I

    2008-10-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth that most commonly affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors. Presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular permanent teeth is relatively rare. The purpose of this report is to describe the combined nonsurgical and surgical management of a mandibular lateral incisor associated with a rare type of dens invaginatus. Pulp involvement of the malformed tooth, periapical abscess, and severe periodontal destruction were observed. The signs (sinus tracts) and symptoms ceased after completion of the treatment. Satisfactory healing of the periradicular lesion was observed at the 6-month and 2-year follow-up examinations. PMID:18793933

  10. Expression of the denV gene of coliphage T4 in UV-sensitive rad mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie, K.; Fronko, G.; Henderson, E.E.; de Riel, J.K.

    1986-10-01

    A plasmid containing the denV gene from bacteriophage T4, under the control of the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADC1) promoter, conferred a substantial increase in UV resistance in the UV-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants rad1-2 and rad3-2. The UV resistance of the denV+ yeast cells was cell cycle dependent and correlated well with the level of the denV gene product as measured by immunoblotting and by a photoreversal assay for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity.

  11. HyDEn: A Hybrid Steganocryptographic Approach for Data Encryption Using Randomized Error-Correcting DNA Codes

    PubMed Central

    Regoui, Chaouki; Durand, Guillaume; Belliveau, Luc; Léger, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hybrid DNA encryption (HyDEn) approach that uses randomized assignments of unique error-correcting DNA Hamming code words for single characters in the extended ASCII set. HyDEn relies on custom-built quaternary codes and a private key used in the randomized assignment of code words and the cyclic permutations applied on the encoded message. Along with its ability to detect and correct errors, HyDEn equals or outperforms existing cryptographic methods and represents a promising in silico DNA steganographic approach. PMID:23984392

  12. HyDEn: a hybrid steganocryptographic approach for data encryption using randomized error-correcting DNA codes.

    PubMed

    Tulpan, Dan; Regoui, Chaouki; Durand, Guillaume; Belliveau, Luc; Léger, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hybrid DNA encryption (HyDEn) approach that uses randomized assignments of unique error-correcting DNA Hamming code words for single characters in the extended ASCII set. HyDEn relies on custom-built quaternary codes and a private key used in the randomized assignment of code words and the cyclic permutations applied on the encoded message. Along with its ability to detect and correct errors, HyDEn equals or outperforms existing cryptographic methods and represents a promising in silico DNA steganographic approach. PMID:23984392

  13. CheckDen, a program to compute quantum molecular properties on spatial grids.

    PubMed

    Pacios, Luis F; Fernandez, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    CheckDen, a program to compute quantum molecular properties on a variety of spatial grids is presented. The program reads as unique input wavefunction files written by standard quantum packages and calculates the electron density rho(r), promolecule and density difference function, gradient of rho(r), Laplacian of rho(r), information entropy, electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities G(r) and K(r), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL) function. These properties can be calculated on a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional grids that can be processed by widely used graphics programs to render high-resolution images. CheckDen offers also other options as extracting separate atom contributions to the property computed, converting grid output data into CUBE and OpenDX volumetric data formats, and perform arithmetic combinations with grid files in all the recognized formats. PMID:19447056

  14. Misconceptions in Van den Broeck's representation of misconceptions about learning disability research.

    PubMed

    Willson, Victor L; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2002-01-01

    The methods and conclusions of Van den Broeck (in this issue) are evaluated from two perspectives: (a) statistical considerations and (b) theoretical models of IQ and achievement, specifically reading achievement. We consider the statistical model proposed by Van den Broeck for the regression-based discrepancy model (RDM) to be either irrelevant or conceptually inconsistent with current models of IQ and achievement. The resulting simulation produced exemplar cases that are not realistic in terms of practice. The theoretical representations of IQ and achievement were, in our understanding, inconsistent with contemporary models of either. We suggest that acceptable models support the use of the RDM as it has been proposed by us and by others as one component of the determination of the presence or absence of a learning disability. PMID:15493317

  15. Excision repair characteristics of denV-transformed xeroderma pigmentosum cells.

    PubMed

    Ley, R D; Applegate, L A; de Riel, J K; Henderson, E E

    1989-03-01

    Introduction of the denV gene of phage T4, encoding the pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease V, into xeroderma pigmentosum cells XP12RO(M1) was reported to result in partial restoration of colony-forming ability and excision repair synthesis. We have further characterized 3 denV-transformed XP clones in terms of rates of excision of pyrimidine dimers and size of the resulting resynthesized regions following exposure to 100 J/m2 from an FS-40 sunlamp. In the denV-transformed XP cells we observed 50% dimer removal within 3-6 h after UV exposure as compared to no measurable removal in the XP12RO(M1) line and 50% dimer excision after 18 h in the GM637A human, control cells. Dimer removal was assayed with Micrococcus luteus UV-endonuclease in conjunction with sedimentation of treated DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients. The size of the resulting repaired regions was determined by the bromouracil photolysis technique. Based on the photolytic sensitivity of DNA repaired in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine, we calculated that the excision of a dimer in the GM637A cells appears to be accompanied by the resynthesis of a region approximately 95 nucleotides in length. Conversely, the resynthesized regions in the denV-transformed clones were considerably smaller and were estimated to be between 13 and 18 nucleotides in length. These results may indicate that either the endonuclease that initiated dimer repair dictated the size of the resynthesized region or that the long-patch repair observed in the normal cells resulted from the repair of non-dimer DNA lesions. PMID:2918865

  16. Case study of total energy system, Sher-Den Mall, Sherman, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Myrtetus, G.B.; Levey, M.D.

    1980-12-01

    The Sher-Den Mall shopping center receives all of its electricity and heating and cooling energy from a total energy plant located within the shopping center proper. Four engine-generator units are fueled primarily by natural gas, with some fuel oil use. The following are presented: initial corporate planning, investigation, and feasibility studies; a description of the total energy system; capital costs; plant operations, and revenue structure. Tables, figures, exhibits, and equipment specification lists are presented. (MHR)

  17. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  18. [Failed compression osteosynthesis of the dens axis treated by anterior C1-C2 transarticular stabilisation. Case report].

    PubMed

    Kočiš, J; Kelbl, M

    2011-01-01

    We describe the case of an 80-year-old female patient who had undergone anterior C1-C2 transarticular stabilisation and was subsequently treated by the triple-screw method for failed compression osteosynthesis of a AO type III dens axis fracture. Key words: dens axis, upper cervical spine fracture, eldery, triple screw technique, anterior transarticular C1-C2 stabilisation. PMID:21729645

  19. Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, 1910-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 392 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between 1910 and 2010 that are archived by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades. Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens.

  20. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues. PMID:25304489

  1. Dens Axis Vertebroplasty Combined with C 3 Vertebral Body Arthroplasty. Case Study.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Spinal tumors are most commonly located in the thoracic and lumbar spine, less commonly in the cervical section of the spine. Diagnosis is usually late and surgery is not radical. Myeloma is one of the most frequent metastatic spinal tumors. Surgical treatment of osteolytic lesions in the spine involves posterior and anterior stabilization, full or partial tumorectomies as well as decompression of neural structures. Bone cement injection has been increasingly used in plastic surgery of vertebral bodies and is most frequently performed percutaneously in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Cervical vertebroplasty can be performed both percutaneously and after anterior exposure of the spine. The dens axis can also be approached transorally. The safest surgical technique seems to be the Southwick approach, which allows exposure of the spine at C2-Th2 and, if necessary, can be extended both proximally and distally. Cemented cervical vertebroplasty, especially dens axis vertebroplasty, shows good results, yet this technique has rarely been described in the literature. It has the advantage of early patient mobility and little limitation of motion of the spine. Cervical vertebroplasty can be successfully combined with other procedures utilizing the same surgical approach in a single-stage operation. Post-resection anterior stabilization of the cervical spine with plates and vertebral body prosthesis allows for good stability of the spine and makes it possible to restore the spinal axis and curvatures. PMID:26468178

  2. Bacoside A downregulates matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Geetha, Arumugam; Yuvaraj, Sambandam; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2010-03-01

    Cancer metastasis is a complex multi-step process, responsible for a majority of cancer-related deaths by affecting the critical organs and causing complications in therapies. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a multi-factorial disease and is the third most common cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in tumor invasion and metastases and their elevated expression has been associated with poor prognosis. Our recent studies showed a strong anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective effects of bacoside A (BA) against carcinogen. Nevertheless the effect of BA on the activities and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 during hepatocellular carcinoma is not yet recognized. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the same. Results of gelatin zymography study showed that BA co-treatment significantly decreased the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which is increased during hepatocellular carcinoma. Further immunoblot analysis showed decreased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in rats co-treated with BA compared to DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results reveal that BA exerts its anti-metastatic effect against DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting the activities and expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9. PMID:20084675

  3. Wie verstehen Schülerinnen und Schüler den Begriff der Unendlichkeit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmöller, Tabea

    Wie Hilbert bereits feststellte, wirkt die Idee der Unendlichkeit, wie keine andere, schon seit Zeiten sehr anregend und fruchtbar auf den Verstand und bewegt das Gemüt der Menschen. Der Begriff der Unendlichkeit bedarf aber auch, wie kein anderer, der Aufklärung, denn mit ihm eröffnet sich ein weites Feld, welches nicht nur aus vielen verschiedenen Definitionen besteht, sondern auch aus völlig unterschiedlichen Disziplinen. Physiker suchen immer dringender nach einer "Theorie für Alles" oder einer "Weltformel", Kosmologen beschäftigen sich unter anderem mit der Ewigkeit des Universums, Theologen interessiert eher die Unendlichkeit Gottes, Philosophen diskutieren unter anderem Grenzfragen zwischen Naturwissenschaft und Philosophie und die Mathematiker versuchen den Paradoxien des Unendlichen einen Sinn zu geben. Und so wird ersichtlich, dass nichts abstrakter ist als das Unendliche: Obwohl die Unendlichkeit für die unterschiedlichsten Wissenschaften von großer Bedeutung ist, "[ist] in der Wirklichkeit das Unendliche nirgends zu finden, [egal] was für Erfahrungen und Beobachtungen und welcherlei Wissenschaft wir auch heranziehen".

  4. Management of Oehler's Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Jaya; Rangarajan Sundaresan, Mohan Kumar; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler's classification (1957) for Dens Invaginatus (DI) into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler's Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation. PMID:27069697

  5. Management of Oehler's Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Jaya; Rangarajan Sundaresan, Mohan Kumar; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler's classification (1957) for Dens Invaginatus (DI) into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler's Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation. PMID:27069697

  6. Structure of a Complex between Nedd8 and the Ulp/Senp Protease Family Member Den1

    SciTech Connect

    Reverter, David; Wu, Kenneth; Erdene, Tudeviin Gan; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2010-07-20

    The Nedd8 conjugation pathway is conserved from yeast to humans and is essential in many organisms. Nedd8 is conjugated to cullin proteins in a process that alters SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and it is presumed that Nedd8 deconjugation would reverse these effects. We now report the X-ray structures of the human Nedd8-specific protease, Den1, in a complex with the inhibitor Nedd8 aldehyde, thus revealing a model for the tetrahedral transition state intermediate generated during proteolysis. Although Den1 is closely related to the SUMO-specific protease family (Ulp/Senp family), structural analysis of the interface suggests determinants involved in Nedd8 selectivity by Den1 over other ubiquitin-like family members and suggests how the Ulp/Senp architecture has been modified to interact with different ubiquitin-like modifiers.

  7. Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an Interferon-Stimulated Cellular Inhibitor against Dengue Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyama, Koji; Lee, Ching Hua; Eyo, Zhi Wen; Ebina, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Chikako; Tan, Beng Hui; Hishiki, Takayuki; Ohba, Kenji; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Tan, Yee-Joo; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Vasudevan, Subhash G.; Sano, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection and disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression and gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), and La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 and LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication and, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA and cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells. PMID:26735137

  8. Remote identification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in northern Alaska using airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Durner, G. M.; Stoker, J.; Shideler, R.; Perham, C.; Liston, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations throughout the Arctic are being threatened by reductions in critical sea ice habitat. Throughout much of their range, polar bears give birth to their young in winter dens that are excavated in snowdrifts. New-born cubs, which are unable to survive exposure to Arctic winter weather, require 2-3 months of the relatively warm, stable, and undisturbed environment of the den for their growth. In the southern Beaufort Sea (BS), polar bears may den on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP).The proportion of dens occurring on land has increased because of reductions in stable multi-year ice, increases in unconsolidated ice, and lengthening of the fall open-water period. Large portions of the ACP are currently being used for oil and gas activities and proposed projects will likely expand this footprint in the near future. Since petroleum exploration and development activities increase during winter there is the potential for human activities to disturb polar bears in maternal dens. Thus, maps showing the potential distribution of terrestrial denning habitat can help to mitigate negative interactions. Prior remote sensing efforts have consisted of manual interpretation of vertical aerial photography and automated classification of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (IfSAR) derived digital terrain models (DTM) (5-m spatial resolution) focused on the identification of snowdrift forming landscape features. In this study, we assess the feasibility of airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data (2-m spatial resolution) for the automated classification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in a 1,400 km2 area on the central portion of the ACP. The study region spans the BS coast from the Prudhoe Bay oilfield in the west to near Point Thompson in the east and extends inland from 10 to 30 km. Approximately 800 km2 of the study area contains 19 known den locations, 51 field survey sites with information on bank height and

  9. Acute non-ambulatory tetraparesis with absence of the dens in two large breed dogs: case reports with a radiographic study of relatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-ambulatory tetraparesis with an absence of the dens of C2 (axis) has not previously been reported in large breed dogs. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens has been reported in both small, medium and large breed dogs, but not in closely related animals. Methods Two young large-breed dogs (a German shepherd and a Standard poodle) both with an acute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis were subjected to physical, neurological and radiographic examinations. Both dogs were euthanased and submitted for postmortem examination within one week of onset of clinical signs. To investigate possible heritability of dens abnormalities, oblique radiographs of the cranial cervical vertebrae were taken of nine and eighteen dogs related to the German shepherd and the Standard poodle, respectively. Results Absence of the dens, atlantoaxial instability and extensive spinal cord injury was found in both case dogs. Radiographs revealed a normal dens in both parents and in the seven littermates of the German shepherd. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens was diagnosed in six relatives of the Standard poodle. Conclusions Atlantoaxial subluxation with cervical spinal cord injury should be considered as a differential diagnosis in non-ambulatory tetraparetic young large breed dogs. Absence of the dens and no history of external trauma increase the likelihood for this diagnosis. This study provides evidence to suggest that absence or hypoplasia of the dens is inherited in an autosomal way in Standard poodle dogs. PMID:23591104

  10. The "crowned dens" revisited: imaging findings in calcium crystal deposition diseases around the odontoid.

    PubMed

    Viana, Sergio L; Fernandes, João L; De Araújo Coimbra, Pablo P; De Mendonça, José L F; Freitas, Flávia M O; De Carvalho Barbosa Viana, Maria A

    2010-10-01

    The so-called "crowned dens" is a peculiar manifestation of calcium crystal deposition diseases, either caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate or caused by calcium hydroxiapatite crystals, characterized by the presence of calcific deposits around the odontoid, often showing a crown-like configuration on imaging. It has protean clinical and radiological pictures, and care should be taken to avoid misinterpretation and diagnostic errors. Although asymptomatic in many patients, this entity may present as a predominantly algic or febrile condition, and in some cases, signs of compression of the spinal cord may be the major complaint. The detection of calcifications in the periodontoid tissues is the key to the diagnosis, erosive osseous changes, and variably calcified soft-tissue masses being occasionally associated. Computed tomography is the most important imaging study to be performed in this setting. PMID:19344369

  11. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species. PMID:24291157

  12. Distribution of dens used by radiocollared San Joaquin kit fox on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California, 1980-1987

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Tabor, S.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Locations of 945 dens used by radiocollared San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) on or adjacent to the US Department of Energy's Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in western Kern County, California between 1980-1987 were recorded on maps and stored within a computer-compatible data base. Most (516 of 887) typical subterranean dens of this endangered species were found in undeveloped portions of 65 sections, but most (41 of 58) atypical dens (dens in man-made structures) were found in developed portions of 26 sections. Program managers can plan construction, maintenance, and operational activities on NPR-1 in ways that avoid potential conflicts with the conservation of kit fox dens by using the section maps provided in this report or by accessing the computerized data base through the Endangered Species Contractor, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. 20 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  13. Rater Biases in Genetically Informative Research Designs: Comment on Bartels, Boomsma, Hudziak, van Beijsterveldt, and van den Oord (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Rater biases are of interest to behavior genetic researchers, who often use ratings data as a basis for studying heritability. Inclusion of multiple raters for each sibling pair (M. Bartels, D. I. Boomsma, J. J. Hudziak, T. C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt, & E. J. C. G. van den Oord, 2007) is a promising strategy for controlling bias variance and may…

  14. Enhanced pyrimidine dimer repair in cultured murine epithelial cells transfected with the denV gene of bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed

    Kusewitt, D F; Budge, C L; Ley, R D

    1994-04-01

    The patch size for excision repair of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced pyrimidine dimers was determined in cultured murine epithelial cells with normal and enhanced pyrimidine dimer repair capabilities. Cells with enhanced pyrimidine dimer repair were produced by transfecting 308 cells with the denV gene of bacteriophage T4; this gene encodes the enzyme endonuclease V. Pyrimidine dimer repair following exposure to UV from an FS-40 sunlamp was determined by micrococcal dimer-specific nuclease digestion and alkaline sucrose ultracentrifugation. Patch size ws estimated based on the photolytic lability of bromodeoxyuridine-substituted DNA. Excision repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in denV-transfected 308 cells was enhanced two- to threefold. Production of mRNA from the denV gene in cell lines with enhanced repair was confirmed by RNA blotting. In control cells, the patch size for excision repair of DNA photoproducts was estimated to be 34 nucleotides per photoproduct removed; in denV-transfected cells, a smaller average patch size of 10-16 nucleotides per photoproduct removed was calculated. Thus, endonuclease V activity appears to alter not only the extent, but also the nature of excision repair in UV-exposed mammalian epithelial cells. PMID:8151125

  15. Absence of the dens in a 9.5-year-old rottweiler with non-progressive clinical signs

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Kristin M.; Almes, Kelli M.; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Absence of the dens is rarely described in large breed dogs. In this rottweiler, mild neurological deficits seen at 6 mo of age did not progress for the 9.5 y of the dog’s life despite lack of surgical intervention. This finding underscores the marked differences between small and large breeds. PMID:21119869

  16. Differential Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections with the Inbios JE Detect™ and DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA Kits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara W.; Goodman, Christin H.; Jee, Youngmee; Featherstone, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral neurological disease in Asia. The JEV-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum is the recommended method of laboratory diagnosis, but specificity of JEV MAC-ELISA can be low due to cross-reactivity. To increase the specificity of the commercially available JE Detect™ MAC-ELISA (JE Detect), a differential testing algorithm was developed in which samples tested by JE Detect with positive results were subsequently tested by the DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA (DEN Detect) kit, and results of both tests were used to make the final interpretation. The testing algorithm was evaluated with a reference panel of serum and CSF samples submitted for confirmatory testing. In serum, the false Japanese encephalitis (JE) positive rate was reduced, but sequential testing in CSF resulted in reduced JE specificity, as true JEV+ CSF samples had positive results by both JE Detect and DEN Detect and were classified as JE− (dengue virus [DENV]+). Differential diagnosis of JE by sequential testing with JE Detect and DEN Detect increased specificity for JE in serum, but more data with CSF is needed to make a final determination on the usefulness of this testing algorithm for CSF. PMID:26856911

  17. Recombinant soluble gp130 protein reduces DEN-induced primary hepatocellular carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jing; Wang, Hang; Shen, Guoying; Lin, Da; Lin, Yanxue; Ye, Nanhui; Guo, Yashan; Li, Qiaoling; Ye, Nanhui; Deng, Chengjun; Meng, Chun

    2016-01-01

    IL-6 (interleukin 6) plays an important role in the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via both classic signaling and trans-signaling pathways. Soluble gp130 (sgp130) is known to be a natural inhibitor of the trans-signaling pathway. In the present study, our goal was to investigate whether recombinant sgp130 could suppress the initiation and progression of HCC in mouse models. Our results demonstrate that sgp130 induced an apoptosis of HepG2 cells and inhibited the clonogenicity of HepG2 in vitro. Moreover, the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway is significantly suppressed by sgp130 as reflected by the decrease in the level of STAT3 phosphorylation and other inflammatory factors both in vitro and in vivo. In the DEN-induced HCC mouse model, intravenous injection of sgp130 attenuated hepatic fibrosis at 16 weeks and reduced the initiation and progression of primary HCC at 36 weeks. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that intravenous administration of sgp130 significantly suppressed the growth and metastasis of xenograft human HCC in NOD/SCID mice. PMID:27080032

  18. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multi-band photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and colour-colour (CC) diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜ 60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜ 1 - 6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20 - 320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜ 80 - 380M$⊙$), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  19. Generalized annular granuloma associated with crowned dens syndrome, which resolved with colchicine treatment.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, E; Basso, D; Cimmino, M A; Larosa, M; Burlando, M; Rongioletti, F; Drago, F; Parodi, A

    2016-08-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a chronic, benign, and usually self-limiting cutaneous inflammatory disease, typically characterized by small, localized, skin-coloured papules that are usually asymptomatic or mildly pruriginous. Its aetiopathogenesis is still unknown and treatments are rarely effective. Generally, 50-70% of localized GA cases are self-limiting and show spontaneous resolution after 1-2 years, whereas disseminated GA is less likely to disappear without treatment. Treatment of generalized GA is usually based on single case reports, and only a few studies involving large case series have been published. We present the case of a patient affected by generalized GA, which resolved after colchicine treatment used for concomitant crowned dens syndrome due to calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD). Colchicine may have worked by a direct action on GA or, alternatively, by controlling CPPD, as a possible trigger. As the low-dosage colchicine treatment was well tolerated by our patient, this could be easily used in the management of GA. However, further studies are needed to confirm the action of colchicine on GA. PMID:27335228

  20. An unusual morphological anomaly in an incisor crown. Anterior dens evaginatus.

    PubMed

    Llena-Puy, Mari Carmen; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo

    2005-01-01

    Exophytic growth of a portion of the tissue structure is one of the various clinical manifestations of the morphological anomalies that can affect the crown of the anterior teeth. The crown form disorder presented in this paper consists of an asymptomatic bulge on part of the vestibular surface of the tooth, due to enamel and dentine growth, with no radiological evidence of the pulp having extended into the protrusion of mineralised tissues. In this case, it only affects one tooth and is not associated with any other dental morphology or structure disorder, or with any of the syndromes that have been described in association with this anomaly. The term to describe this situation in the anterior teeth is not clearly defined in the relevant literature, which employs various names such as talon cusp, accentuated cingulum (when it affects the lingual or palatal surface) or dens evaginatus (evaginated tooth, evaginated odontome), the term that is always used when it is present in the posterior teeth. PMID:15627903

  1. Polar bear mother-offspring interactions in maternity dens in captivity.

    PubMed

    van Gessel, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Two female polar bears at Dierenrijk Zoo in the Netherlands were monitored at their maternity den one day before the birth of their cubs and three days postpartum. Each bear was monitored for 96 hr to document behaviour and vocalisations. The goal was to obtain insight into the differences between the mother that lost her litter and the other that successfully reared her cubs. Six groups of cub vocalisations were identified: Comfort, Discomfort, Distress, Nursing Attempts, Nursing, and No Vocalisation. Maternal vocalisations were split into three groups: Calm, Grooming, and Stress. Maternal behaviours were also split into three groups: Active, Rest, and Stress. The unsuccessful mother produced more stress vocalisations before and during the birth of her cub, whereas the successful mother appeared less stressed. Vocalisations indicate that the cub that died tried to nurse but was unsuccessful. The unsuccessful mother showed less stress as her cub got weaker and vocalised less. From this I suggest that maternal stress was a factor in cub mortality. PMID:26252623

  2. Conservative management of dens evaginatus and attached supernumerary tooth/odontome in mandibular premolar with dual radiolucencies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an innovative, nonsurgical regenerative endodontic treatment protocol “SealBio” was introduced to manage mature nonvital permanent teeth with periapical lesions. This paper explains the management of an unusual case of dens evaginatus and an attached supernumerary tooth/an odontome associated with two distinct radiolucencies in a mandibular premolar with “SealBio” technique and discusses the various hypotheses on the pathogenesis of unusual malformation and associated pericervical cyst-like radiolucency in the involved tooth. PMID:26604586

  3. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induces irreversible hepatocellular carcinogenesis through overexpression of G1/S-phase regulatory proteins in rat.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae-Hun; Shin, Jae Wook; Park, Seung-Kee; Seo, Jae-Nam; Li, Lan; Jang, Ja-June; Lee, Min-Jae

    2009-12-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequent cause of cancer deaths in males and was the third most frequent cause of cancer deaths in 2007 throughout the world. The incidence rate is 2-3 times higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Animal models have enabled study of the mechanism of HCC and the development of possible strategies for treatment. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a representative chemical carcinogen with the potential to cause tumors in various organs, including the liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory system. Specifically in HCC, DEN is a complete carcinogen. Many lines of evidence have demonstrated a relationship between carcinogenesis and cell cycle regulation. In this study we found that cell cycle regulatory proteins were critically involved in cancer initiation and promotion by DEN. Cyclin D1, cyclin E, cdk4, and p21(CIP1/WAF1) are factors whose expression levels may be useful as criteria for the classification of hepatic disease. In particular, cdk4 had a pivotal role in the transition to the neoplastic stage. In conclusion, we suggest that changes in the level of cdk4 may be useful as a biomarker for detection of HCC. PMID:19822196

  4. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-05-01

    Upper Pleistocene remains of the Ice Age steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) have been found in the Perick Caves, Sauerland Karst, NW Germany. Bones from many hyenas and their imported prey dating from the Lower to Middle Weichselian have also been recovered from the Perick Cave hyena den. These are commonly cracked or exhibit deep chew marks. The absence of lion cub bones, in contrast to hyena and cave bear cub remains in the Perick Caves, and other caves of northern Germany, excludes the possibility that P. leo spelaea used the cave for raising cubs. Only in the Wilhelms Cave was a single skeleton of a cub found in a hyena den. Evidence of the chewing, nibbling and cracking of lion bones and crania must have resulted from the importation and destruction of lion carcasses (4% of the prey fauna). Similar evidence was preserved at other hyena den caves and open air sites in Germany. The bone material from the Perick and other Central European caves points to antagonistic hyena and lion conflicts, similar to clashes of their modern African relatives.

  5. Korrelationsstatistischer Vergleich zweier Schulleistungstests fur den Unterricht in Englisch an Hauptschulen (Comparison by Statistical Correlation of Two English Achievement Tests for Intermediate Schools)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Holger; Scheibner-Herzig, Gudrun

    1971-01-01

    Expanded version of a lecture given at a meeting of the Teachers of Modern Languages in Colleges of Education (Tagung der Fachdidaktiker fur neuere Sprachen an den Padagogischen Hochschulen), October 1, 1970 in Luneburg, West Germany. (RS)

  6. ‘Neanderthal bone flutes’: simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2015-01-01

    Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as ‘Palaeolithic bone flutes’ and the ‘oldest Neanderthal instruments’. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round–oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den. PMID:26064624

  7. 'Neanderthal bone flutes': simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Cajus G

    2015-04-01

    Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as 'Palaeolithic bone flutes' and the 'oldest Neanderthal instruments'. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round-oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den. PMID:26064624

  8. A Rare Case of Parkinson's Disease with Severe Neck Pain Owing to Crowned Dens Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Teruyuki; Tamura, Masato; Osabe, Keiichi; Tamiya, Takashi; Miki, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Mai; Akira, Kanno; Kamei, Satoshi; Takasu, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is regarded as one of the most common nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, musculoskeletal pain has been reported as the most common type of PD-associated pain. Crowned dens syndrome (CDS), related to microcrystalline deposition in the periodontoid process, is the main cause of acute or chronic cervical pain. Case Presentation This report describes the case of an 87-year-old woman who had severe bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, gait disturbance and neck pain. Laboratory examination revealed marked elevations of white blood cells (10,100/µl) and C-reactive protein (CRP; 8.63 mg/dl). She was primarily diagnosed with severe and untreated PD, corresponding to Hoehn and Yahr scale score IV, with musculoskeletal pain and urinary tract infection. The patient was treated with antiparkinsonism drugs, antibiotic agents and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but they had only limited effects. Cervical plain computed tomography (CT) scanning detected remarkable crown-like calcification surrounding the odontoid process. Based on CT findings, the patient was diagnosed as having CDS with PD, and was immediately treated with corticosteroid. The severe neck rigidity with pain and the serum CRP level (0.83 mg/dl) of the patient were drastically improved within a week by the additional corticosteroid therapy. Conclusion Severe neck rigidity and bradykinesia in this patient might have strengthened the chondrocalcinosis around the odontoid process. Cervical plain CT scan is necessary and useful for the definitive diagnosis of CDS. CDS should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a possible etiology for musculoskeletal pain related to rigidity and bradykinesia in PD. PMID:24926265

  9. A Probabilistic Wake Vortex Lateral Transport Model Using Data from SFO and DEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellman, George R.; Delisi, Donald P.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous report, we considered the behavior of the lateral position of vortices as a function of time after vortex formation for Out of Ground Effects (OGE) data for aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport (SFO). We quantified the spread in lateral position as a function of time and examined how predictable lateral position is under a variety of assumptions. The combination of spread and predictability allowed us to derive probability distribution functions (PDFs) for lateral position given observed crosswind (CW) velocities. In this study, we examine the portability of these PDFs with respect to other landing sites. To this end, we consider OGE data obtained by the Federal Aviation Administration for landings at Denver International Airport (DEN) between 04/05/2006 and 06/03/2006. We consider vortices from both B733 (Boeing 737 models 200-500) and B757 (Boeing 757) aircraft. The data set contains 635 B733 landings and 506 B757 landings. The glide slope altitude for these measurements was 280 m, determined by the average initial vortex observation adjusted for a 3-second delay in the initial observation. The comparable SFO altitude was 158 m. We note that the principal mechanism for lateral transport in the OGE regime is advection by the ambient wind. This implies that a simple crosswind correction may be effective in explaining much of the variation in the lateral transport data. In this study, we again consider the use of ASOS data and average Lidar crosswind data over the vortex altitude range to predict vortex location as a function of time.

  10. Mutations in SCARF2 Are Responsible for Van Den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Natascia; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Teebi, Ahmad; Ha, Kevin C.H.; Lalonde, Emilie; Ali, Rehab; Almureikhi, Mariam; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M.; Liu, Junhui; Rosenblatt, David S.; Majewski, Jacek; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2010-01-01

    Van Den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is an extremely rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, which include blepharophimosis, malar and/or maxillary hypoplasia, a narrow and beaked nose, and an everted lower lip. Other features are arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, peculiar skeletal abnormalities, and normal development and intelligence. We present molecular data on four VDEGS patients from three consanguineous Qatari families belonging to the same highly inbred Bedouin tribe. The patients were genotyped with SNP microarrays, and a 2.4 Mb homozygous region was found on chromosome 22q11 in an area overlapping the DiGeorge critical region. This region contained 44 genes, including SCARF2, a gene that is expressed during development in a number of mouse tissues relevant to the symptoms described above. Sanger sequencing identified a missense change, c.773G>A (p.C258Y), in exon 4 in the two closely related patients and a 2 bp deletion in exon 8, c.1328_1329delTG (p.V443DfsX83), in two unrelated individuals. In parallel with the candidate gene approach, complete exome sequencing was used to confirm that SCARF2 was the gene responsible for VDEGS. SCARF2 contains putative epidermal growth factor-like domains in its extracellular domain, along with a number of positively charged residues in its intracellular domain, indicating that it may be involved in intracellular signaling. However, the function of SCARF2 has not been characterized, and this study reports that phenotypic effects can be associated with defects in the scavenger receptor F family of genes. PMID:20887961

  11. Predicting movements of female polar bears between summer sea ice foraging habitats and terrestrial denning habitats of Alaska in the 21st century: Proposed methodology and pilot assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergen, Scott; Durner, George M.; Douglas, David C.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) require the relative warmth and stability afforded by snow dens for successful reproduction. Pregnant bears must travel from foraging habitats on the sea ice to land in autumn to establish winter dens. Data of sea ice extent and composition from satellite-acquired passive microwave (PMW) imagery show a reduction in summer sea ice extent throughout the Arctic from 1979-2006. Additionally, General Circulation Models (GCM) predict that Arctic sea ice extent will continue to diminish throughout the 21st century. Greater energetic demands will be placed on pregnant polar bears in the future if they travel greater distances from summer forage habitats to traditional denning habitats on land. We developed an approach for estimating how much these distances may change by modeling autumn movement paths of polar bears using the observational PMW record of sea ice distribution and sea ice projections of 5 GCMs during the 21st century. Over the 1979-2006 PMW record, polar bears returning to Alaska to den have experienced an annual increase in travel of > 6 km/year—an increase of >168 km over the 28 year period. Based on GCM sea ice projections during 2001-2060, the average increase in the distance required to reach traditional Alaskan denning regions was estimated to increase > 16 km/year. Distances traveled, and therefore, energetic demands, will likely vary among the different circumpolar sub-populations of polar bears.

  12. Diagnosis of Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome: Approach to the Marden-Walker-like spectrum of disorders.

    PubMed

    Niederhoffer, Karen Y; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Eydoux, Patrice; Mawson, John; Nishimura, Gen; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A; Patel, Millan S

    2016-09-01

    Marden-Walker syndrome is challenging to diagnose, as there is significant overlap with other multi-system congenital contracture syndromes including Beals congenital contractural arachnodactyly, D4ST1-Deficient Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome), Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome, and Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome. We discuss this differential diagnosis in the context of a boy from a consanguineous union with Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome, a diagnosis initially confused by the atypical presence of intellectual disability. SNP microarray and whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous frameshift mutation (p.L870V) in SCARF2 and predicted damaging mutations in several genes, most notably DGCR2 (p.P75L) and NCAM2 (p.S147G), both possible candidates for this child's intellectual disability. We review distinguishing features for each Marden-Walker-like syndrome and propose a clinical algorithm for diagnosis among this spectrum of disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27375131

  13. Geothermal Project Den Haag - 3-D models for temperature prediction and reservoir characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghy, D.; Pechnig, R.; Willemsen, G.; Simmelink, H. J.; Vandeweijer, V.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the "Den Haag Zuidwest" geothermal district heating system a deep geothermal installation is projected. The target horizon of the planned doublet is the "Delft sandstone" which has been extensively explored for oil- and gas reservoirs in the last century. In the target area, this upper Jurassic sandstone layer is found at a depth of about 2300 m with an average thickness of about 50 m. The study presented here focuses on the prediction of reservoir temperatures and production behavior which is crucial for planning a deep geothermal installation. In the first phase, the main objective was to find out whether there is a significant influence of the 3-dimensional structures of anticlines and synclines on the temperature field, which could cause formation temperatures deviating from the predicted extrapolated temperature data from oil and gas exploration wells. To this end a regional model was set up as a basis for steady state numerical simulations. Since representative input parameters are decisive for reliable model results, all available information was compiled: a) the subsurface geometry, depth and thickness of the stratigraphic layers known from seismic data sets 2) borehole geophysical data and c) geological and petrographical information from exploration wells. In addition 50 cuttings samples were taken from two selected key wells in order to provide direct information on thermal properties of the underlying strata. Thermal conductivity and rock matrix density were measured in the laboratory. These data were combined with a petrophysical log analysis (Gamma Ray, Sonic, Density and Resistivity), which resulted in continuous profiles of porosity, effective thermal conductivity and radiogenetic heat production. These profiles allowed to asses in detail the variability of the petrophysical properties with depth and to check for lateral changes between the wells. All this data entered the numerical simulations which were performed by a 3-D

  14. Role of phosphorylated histone H3 serine 10 in DEN-induced deregulation of Pol III genes and cell proliferation and transformation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuping

    2013-01-01

    The products of Pol III genes (RNA polymerase III-dependent genes), such as tRNAs and 5S rRNA, are elevated in both transformed and tumor cells suggesting that they play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. An increase in Brf1 (TFIIIB-related factor 1), a subunit of TFIIIB, augments Pol III gene transcription and is sufficient for cell transformation and tumor formation. We have demonstrated that enhancement of Brf1 and Pol III gene expression is associated with the occurrences of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice. This suggests that Brf1 may be a key molecule during HCC development. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a chemical carcinogen, has been used to induce HCC in rodents. To determine the role of Brf1 and the epigenetic-regulating events in cell proliferation and transformation, hepatocytes were treated with DEN. The results indicate that DEN increases proliferation and transformation of AML-12 cells. DEN enhanced Brf1 expression and tRNALeu and 5S rRNA transcription, as well as H3S10ph (phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 10). Interestingly, DEN-induced Pol III gene transcription and H3S10ph in tumor cells of liver are significantly higher than in non-tumor cells. Inhibition of H3S10ph by H3S10A attenuates the induction of Brf1 and Pol III genes. Further analysis indicates that H3S10ph occupies the promoters of Brf1 and Pol III genes to modulate their expression. Blocking H3S10ph represses cell proliferation and transformation. These results demonstrate that DEN induces H3S10ph, which mediate Brf1 expression, including but not limited Brf1-dependent genes, to upregulate Pol III gene transcription, resulting in an increase in cell proliferation and transformation. PMID:23774401

  15. The role for estrogen receptor-alpha and prolactin receptor in sex-dependent DEN-induced liver tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, Robert M.; Caperell-Grant, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Mice treated neonatally with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) develop liver tumors in a male-dominant manner, reflecting the male bias in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Evidence suggests that estrogen, androgen, prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) modify liver tumorigenesis. We determined the roles of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) using receptor null mice, ERαKO (C57Bl/6J) and PRLR-KO (129Ola-X-C57BL/6), in the neonatal-DEN model of liver tumorigenesis. In both mouse strains, females had reduced tumorigenesis compared with males (P < 0.01), regardless of ERα or PRLR status. Tumorigenesis was not affected by ovariectomy in C57Bl/6J mice but it was increased by ovariectomy in the mixed strain, 129Ola-X-C57BL/6, regardless of PRLR status. ERαKO males had 47% fewer tumors than ERα wild-type males (P < 0.01). On the other hand, estradiol treatment protected against tumorigenesis in males only in the presence of ERα. As evidenced by liver gene expression, lack of ERα did not alter the pattern of GH secretion in males but resulted in the male GH pattern in females. These observations indicate that ERα is not required for lower tumorigenesis in females, but it is required for the protective effects of exogenously delivered estradiol. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that ERα plays a role in promotion of liver tumors in males. In addition, it can be concluded that sex differences in liver tumorigenesis cannot be explained by the sexually dimorphic pattern of GH secretion. The results also rule out PRL as the mediator of the protective effect of the ovaries. PMID:21606321

  16. Comment to the Article by van Arensbergen and van den Besselaar "The Selection of Scientific Talent in the Allocation of Research Grants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maessen, K. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The article entitled "The selection of scientific talent in the allocation of research grants" by van Arensbergen and van den Besselaar published in "Higher Education Policy" 25/3 (2012) is based on research that both researchers carried out on behalf of The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. In this comment, we want to address…

  17. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA Induced Liver Necrosis in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  18. Protective effect of ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Poornima, Kannappan; Chella Perumal, Palanisamy; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  19. Sclerocornea in a Patient with Van Den Ende–Gupta Syndrome Homozygous for a SCARF2 Microdeletion

    PubMed Central

    Migliavacca, Michele P.; Sobreira, Nara L. M.; Antonialli, Graziela P.M.; Oliveira, Mariana M.; Melaragno, Maria Isabel S.A.; Casteels, Ingele; de Ravel, Thomy; Brunoni, Decio; Valle, David; Perez, Ana Beatriz A.

    2015-01-01

    Van den Ende–Gupta Syndrome (VDEGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by blepharophimosis, distinctive nose, hypoplastic maxilla, and skeletal abnormalities. Using homozygosity mapping in four VDEGS patients from three consanguineous families, Anastacio et al. [Anastacio et al. (2010); Am J Hum Genet 87:553–559] identified homozygous mutations in SCARF2, located at 22q11.2. Bedeschi et al. [2011] described a VDEGS patient with sclerocornea and cataracts with compound heterozygosity for the common 22q11.2 microdeletion and a hemizygous SCARF2 mutation. Because sclerocornea had been described in DiGeorge-velo-cardio-facial syndrome but not in VDEGS, they suggested that the ocular abnormalities were caused by the 22q11.2 microdeletion. We report on a 23-year-old male who presented with bilateral sclerocornea and the VDGEGS phenotype who was subsequently found to be homozygous for a 17 bp deletion in exon 4 of SCARF2. The occurrence of bilateral sclerocornea in our patient together with that of Bedeschi et al., suggests that the full VDEGS phenotype may include sclerocornea resulting from homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for loss of function variants in SCARF2. PMID:24478002

  20. [Presence of the dinoflagellates Ceratium dens, C. fusus and C. furca (Gonyaulacales: Ceratiaceae) in Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Montero, Maribelle; Freer, Enrique

    2004-09-01

    Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are a frequent phenomenon in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, as in other parts of the world. The morphology and physiology of these microalgae are important because HAB species have adaptive characteristics. The production of high concentrations of paralytic toxins by Ceratium dinoflagellates has only been documented at the experimental level. However, this genus has been associated with the mortality of aquatic organisms, including oyster and shrimp larva, and fish, and with decreased water quality. Recently, fishermen reported massive mortality of encaged fish near Tortuga Island (Gulf of Nicoya). Samples were taken from an algal bloom that had produced an orange coloration and had a strong foul-smelling odor. Ultrastructural details were examined with scanning electron microscopy. The dinoflagellates Ceratium dens, C. furca and C. fusus were found in samples taken at the surface. The cell count revealed four million cells of this genus per liter. The morphological variability of these species is high; therefore electron microscopy is an useful tool in the ultrastructural study of these organisms. This is the first time that three Ceratium species are reported concurrently producing harmful blooms in Costa Rica. PMID:17465124

  1. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  2. A Rare Case of Type III Dens Invaginatus in a Mandibular Second Premolar and Its Nonsurgical Endodontic Management by Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pritesh Kisanlal; Wankhade, Jyoti; Warhadpande, Manjusha

    2016-04-01

    Invaginated teeth present technical difficulties in clinical management because of their abnormal anatomic configuration. Endodontic clinical management of type III dens invaginatus can be greatly enhanced by newer techniques and materials such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), mineral trioxide aggregate, and platelet-rich fibrin. This case report presents a 13-year-old male patient with type III dens invaginatus (DI) in left mandibular second premolar with history of recurrent swelling. Pulp testing revealed no response with the tooth. Dens invaginatus type III with an immature apex and periapical lesion was seen on radiograph. The case was diagnosed as Oehlers type III DI with pulp necrosis and chronic apical abscess. The treatment was planned and performed by using CBCT imaging. CBCT was performed to see the canal anatomy and to know the size of periapical lesion. Root canal treatment was completed in 2 visits. Calcium hydroxide dressing was placed in the first visit. In the second visit MTA was used for apexification in the main canal, and warm vertical compaction technique with gutta-percha was used in the invaginated canal. At the 2-year reevaluation, the patient was asymptomatic, and his tooth had remained functional since the treatment was completed. Radiographic assessment of the tooth showed significant osseous healing of the preoperative lesion. Three-dimensional imaging is a valuable tool for endodontic management of teeth with complex internal anatomy. PMID:26874642

  3. DensToolKit: A comprehensive open-source package for analyzing the electron density and its derivative scalar and vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Hernández-Pérez, Julio M.

    2015-11-01

    DensToolKit is a suite of cross-platform, optionally parallelized, programs for analyzing the molecular electron density (ρ) and several fields derived from it. Scalar and vector fields, such as the gradient of the electron density (∇ρ), electron localization function (ELF) and its gradient, localized orbital locator (LOL), region of slow electrons (RoSE), reduced density gradient, localized electrons detector (LED), information entropy, molecular electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities K and G, among others, can be evaluated on zero, one, two, and three dimensional grids. The suite includes a program for searching critical points and bond paths of the electron density, under the framework of Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules. DensToolKit also evaluates the momentum space electron density on spatial grids, and the reduced density matrix of order one along lines joining two arbitrary atoms of a molecule. The source code is distributed under the GNU-GPLv3 license, and we release the code with the intent of establishing an open-source collaborative project. The style of DensToolKit's code follows some of the guidelines of an object-oriented program. This allows us to supply the user with a simple manner for easily implement new scalar or vector fields, provided they are derived from any of the fields already implemented in the code. In this paper, we present some of the most salient features of the programs contained in the suite, some examples of how to run them, and the mathematical definitions of the implemented fields along with hints of how we optimized their evaluation. We benchmarked our suite against both a freely-available program and a commercial package. Speed-ups of ∼2×, and up to 12× were obtained using a non-parallel compilation of DensToolKit for the evaluation of fields. DensToolKit takes similar times for finding critical points, compared to a commercial package. Finally, we present some perspectives for the future development

  4. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hytönen, Marjo K.; Arumilli, Meharji; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Hundi, Sruthi; Salmela, Elina; Venta, Patrick; Sarkiala, Eva; Jokinen, Tarja; Gorgas, Daniela; Kere, Juha; Nieminen, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant), SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion) and FAM20C (missense variant) genes, respectively. CMO is a clinical equivalent to an infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease), for which SLC37A2 is a new candidate gene. SLC37A2 is a poorly characterized member of a glucose-phosphate transporter family without previous disease associations. It is expressed in many tissues, including cells of the macrophage lineage, e.g. osteoclasts, and suggests a disease mechanism, in which an impaired glucose homeostasis in osteoclasts compromises their function in the developing bone, leading to hyperostosis. Mutations in SCARF2 and FAM20C have been associated with the human van den Ende-Gupta and Raine syndromes that include numerous features similar to the affected dogs. Given the growing interest in the molecular characterization and treatment of human rare diseases, our study presents three novel physiologically relevant models for further research and therapy approaches, while providing the molecular identity for the canine conditions. PMID:27187611

  5. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Marjo K; Arumilli, Meharji; Lappalainen, Anu K; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Hundi, Sruthi; Salmela, Elina; Venta, Patrick; Sarkiala, Eva; Jokinen, Tarja; Gorgas, Daniela; Kere, Juha; Nieminen, Pekka; Drögemüller, Cord; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant), SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion) and FAM20C (missense variant) genes, respectively. CMO is a clinical equivalent to an infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease), for which SLC37A2 is a new candidate gene. SLC37A2 is a poorly characterized member of a glucose-phosphate transporter family without previous disease associations. It is expressed in many tissues, including cells of the macrophage lineage, e.g. osteoclasts, and suggests a disease mechanism, in which an impaired glucose homeostasis in osteoclasts compromises their function in the developing bone, leading to hyperostosis. Mutations in SCARF2 and FAM20C have been associated with the human van den Ende-Gupta and Raine syndromes that include numerous features similar to the affected dogs. Given the growing interest in the molecular characterization and treatment of human rare diseases, our study presents three novel physiologically relevant models for further research and therapy approaches, while providing the molecular identity for the canine conditions. PMID:27187611

  6. Paleoenvironmental and Human Behavioral Implications of the Boegoeberg 1 Late Pleistocene Hyena Den, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Richard G.; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Hart, Tim; Parkington, John E.

    1999-11-01

    Boegoeberg 1 (BOG1) is located on the Atlantic coast of South Africa, 850 km north of Cape Town. The site is a shallow rock shelter in the side of a sand-choked gully that was emptied by diamond miners. Abundant coprolites, chewed bones, and partially digested bones implicate hyenas as the bone accumulators. The location of the site, quantity of bones, and composition of the fauna imply it was a brown hyena nursery den. The abundance of Cape fur seal bones shows that the hyenas had ready access to the coast. Radiocarbon dates place the site before 37,000 14C yr ago, while the large average size of the black-backed jackals and the presence of extralimital ungulates imply cool, moist conditions, probably during the early part of the last glaciation (isotope stage 4 or stage 3 before 37,000 14C yr ago) or perhaps during one of the cooler phases (isotope substages 5d or 5b) within the last interglaciation. Comparisons of the BOG1 seal bones to those from regional Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) archeological sites suggest (1) that hyena and human seal accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for vertebrae to be much more common in a hyena accumulation and (2) that hyena and LSA accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for hyena-accumulated seals to represent a much wider range of individual seal ages. Differences in the way hyenas and people dismember, transport, and consume seal carcasses probably explain the contrast in skeletal part representation, while differences in season of occupation explain the contrast in seal age representation. Like modern brown hyenas, the BOG1 hyenas probably occupied the coast year-round, while the LSA people focused their coastal visits on the August-October interval when nine-to-eleven-month-old seals were abundant. The MSA sample from Klasies River Mouth Cave 1 resembles BOG1 in seal age composition, suggesting that unlike LSA people, MSA people obtained seals more or less throughout the year.

  7. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log10 TCID50/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log10 TCID50/ml after a single treatment with 20 μl/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log10 PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log10 PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 μl/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC50 values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required. PMID:26063530

  8. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular Incisor Exhibiting Concurrence of Fusion, Talon Cusp and Dens Invaginatus using CBCT as a Diagnostic Aid

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varun

    2016-01-01

    Teeth with aberrant anatomy present a challenge to the endodontist. Advanced tools like cone beam computed tomography aid in exploring the details of endodontic architecture in such cases. The aim of this case report is to highlight the advantage of CBCT in endodontic management of teeth with multiple dental anomalies. A mandibular lateral incisor associated with an extraoral sinus tract revealed unusual clinical anatomy. A provisional diagnosis of type III dens in dente was made based on radiographic findings. Considering the complex anatomy, CBCT was advised to get a confirmatory diagnosis. The anatomic details revealed by CBCT differed significantly from the provisional diagnosis. A final diagnosis of concurrence of fusion with a supernumerary tooth, talon cusp and type II dens invaginatus was established and endodontic treatment of the concerned tooth was carried out. Non-surgical endodontic treatment resulted in successful resolution of the sinus tract and healing of the periapical lesion. CBCT, thus proves to be an excellent diagnostic tool for management of teeth with unusual anatomy, paving way for a conservative treatment free of endodontic mishaps. PMID:27042591

  9. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography-Guided Management of C-Shaped Type III Dens Invaginatus With Peri-invagination Periodontitis in a Maxillary Canine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Priya; Jadhav, Ganesh R; Syed, Shibli; Bhujbal, Nikita D

    2016-06-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a developmental anomaly seen infrequently in maxillary canines. This article describes cone-beam computed tomography-guided nonsurgical management of type III (subtype B) DI in a permanent maxillary canine associated with a sinus tract and peri-invagination periodontitis in a 17-year-old female. After gaining access to the root canal, thorough chemo-mechanical preparation was performed and usage of intracanal medicament of calcium hydroxide was prescribed for 3 weeks, during which the sinus tract healed completely. Obturation was completed by a technique of down-packing master-cone gutta-percha, followed by backfilling with thermoplasticized gutta-percha. At 12-months follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with complete resolution of the sinus tract and radiographic evidence of healing of periapical pathology. PMID:27525733

  10. Morphological and molecular investigations of a microsporidium infecting the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff., and its taxonomic determination as Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

    PubMed

    Kleespies, Regina G; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A

    2003-07-01

    We have isolated a microsporidium from a laboratory stock of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Screening of this stock showed an infection rate of more than 90%, whereas field collected larvae from three different locations in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) did not demonstrate any signs of infection. Light and electron microscopic investigations of infected insects showed that gross pathology, morphology, and ultrastructure of the microsporidium are similar to those described earlier for Pleistophora legeri. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rDNA using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbour joining distance methods showed that our isolate was closely related to Cystosporogenes operophterae. Based on our morphological and molecular investigations we propose to rename this species Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb. PMID:12877831

  11. Factors Affecting Date of Implantation, Parturition, and Den Entry Estimated from Activity and Body Temperature in Free-Ranging Brown Bears

    PubMed Central

    Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human. PMID:24988486

  12. Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears.

    PubMed

    Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human. PMID:24988486

  13. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  14. [Immunohistochemical Analysis of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) Expression in Lung Tissue in Primary Lung Cancer Patients with High Serum KL-6 Levels].

    PubMed

    Yatsuyanagi, Eiji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Sato, Keisuke

    2015-09-01

    We investigated sialylated carbohydrate antigen( Krebs von den Lungen-6:KL-6) expression in lung tissue and correlation between the expression and serum KL-6 level in the patients with primary lung cancer. Thirty-four primary lung cancer patients with high serum KL-6 levels( >500 U/ml) were evaluated. A coexistence of interstitial pneumonia (IP) was histopathologically evaluated and an immunohistochemical staining using a mouse anti-human KL-6 antibody (mKL-6) was performed. A multiple regression analysis was also caluculated using a serum KL-6 level as a target variable and the histopathological and immunohistochemical factors (KL-6 expression in cancer tissue and IP tissue, coexistence of IP, tumor size, pathological staging) as descriptive variables. Twenty-two patients (64.7%) were histopathologically concomitant with IP. Cancer tissues were positively stained by mKL-6 in 32 patients (94.1%). Among them, 20 patients were concomitant with IP and all of their cancer tissues were more strongly stained by mKL-6 than IP tissues. Although considerable high rate of lung cancer patients might express the KL-6 in the cancer tissue, we could not reveal the relationship between the expression and serum KL-6 level by a multiple regression analysis. For revealing the mechanism of elevating serum KL-6 level in the patients with lung cancer, more detailed and powerful study is thought to be needed. PMID:26329623

  15. Early detection of colon cancer by increased serum level of Krebs von den Lungen-6 in a patient with dermatomyositis-associated interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Naoko; Tanino, Yoshinori; Sato, Suguru; Fukuhara, Atsuro; Uematsu, Manabu; Nikaido, Takefumi; Misa, Kenichi; Sato, Yasuko; Saito, Junpei; Wang, Xintao; Munakata, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein which is elevated in serum of patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP). Serum KL-6 level is clinically used for the diagnosis of IP as well as the evaluation of its disease activity. KL-6 is originally identified when exploring novel soluble antigens in patients with lung cancer, and is known to be elevated in patients with several malignant tumors. The risk of malignant tumors is high in IP patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and follow-up of KL-6 levels may allow earlier detection of such tumors. However, to date, there are only a few reports showing the usefulness of following-up serum KL-6 levels for finding malignant tumors in IP patients with PM/DM. Here, we described the first patient in whom increased serum KL-6 led to the diagnosis of colon cancer during follow-up of DM-associated IP. PMID:26422573

  16. Differential predation by age and sex classes in blue wildebeest in Serengeti: study of a modern carnivore den in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania).

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Mabulla, Audax; Baquedano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex selection of prey is an aspect of predator ecology which has been extensively studied in both temperate and African ecosystems. This dimension, along with fecundity, survival rates of prey and mortality factors other than predation are important in laying down the population dynamics of prey and have important implications in the management of species. A carnivore den located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti was studied. Sex- and age- class (using five age categories) of the wildebeest remains recovered were analyzed through horn morphology, biometrics of the bones and tooth wear patterns. We compared our results with previous studies from lion and hyaena kills through multivariate analyses. Seasonality of the accumulation was analyzed through tooth histology. PCA and CVA results show that age class selection by predators depends on season, habitat-type, and growth rate of the wildebeest population. Female-biased predation was found to contradict classical hypotheses based on territorial male behaviour. The lion and spotted hyaena showed strong selection on age classes, contrary to previous studies. Migratory wildebeest sex ratio is regulated through differential predation by seasons and female deaths in the wet season are a trade-off for population stability. These data are crucial for an effective management of the species and the new method created may be useful for different carnivore species and their prey. PMID:26017363

  17. Differential Predation by Age and Sex Classes in Blue Wildebeest in Serengeti: Study of a Modern Carnivore Den in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)

    PubMed Central

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Mabulla, Audax; Baquedano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex selection of prey is an aspect of predator ecology which has been extensively studied in both temperate and African ecosystems. This dimension, along with fecundity, survival rates of prey and mortality factors other than predation are important in laying down the population dynamics of prey and have important implications in the management of species. A carnivore den located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti was studied. Sex- and age- class (using five age categories) of the wildebeest remains recovered were analyzed through horn morphology, biometrics of the bones and tooth wear patterns. We compared our results with previous studies from lion and hyaena kills through multivariate analyses. Seasonality of the accumulation was analyzed through tooth histology. PCA and CVA results show that age class selection by predators depends on season, habitat-type, and growth rate of the wildebeest population. Female-biased predation was found to contradict classical hypotheses based on territorial male behaviour. The lion and spotted hyaena showed strong selection on age classes, contrary to previous studies. Migratory wildebeest sex ratio is regulated through differential predation by seasons and female deaths in the wet season are a trade-off for population stability. These data are crucial for an effective management of the species and the new method created may be useful for different carnivore species and their prey. PMID:26017363

  18. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  19. Unmasking of a Recessive SCARF2 Mutation by a 22q11.12 de novo Deletion in a Patient with Van den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bedeschi, M.F.; Colombo, L.; Mari, F.; Hofmann, K.; Rauch, A.; Gentilin, B.; Renieri, A.; Clerici, D.

    2011-01-01

    Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is a congenital condition characterized by craniofacial and skeletal manifestations, specifically blepharophimosis, malar and maxillary hypoplasia, distinctive nose, arachnocamptodactyly, and long slender bones of the hands and feet. To date, only 24 patients have been described. It is generally thought that the syndrome is transmitted by an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, although evidence for genetic heterogeneity has recently been presented. We report on a girl followed from birth up to 3 years of life with a set of peculiar minor anomalies, arachnocamptodactyly of hands and feet, characteristic of VDEGS in association with a 22q11.12 deletion. Recently, the VDEGS gene was mapped to the DiGeorge syndrome region on 22q11.2, and homozygous mutations in the SCARF2 gene were identified. We now report the first patient with VDEGS due to compound heterozygosity for the common 22q11.2 microdeletion and a hemizygous SCARF2 splice site mutation. PMID:22140376

  20. Data assimilative twin-experiment in a high-resolution Bay of Biscay configuration: 4DEnOI based on stochastic modeling of the wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervatis, V.; Testut, C. E.; De Mey, P.; Ayoub, N.; Chanut, J.; Quattrocchi, G.

    2016-04-01

    A twin-experiment is carried out introducing elements of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), to assess and correct ocean uncertainties in a high-resolution Bay of Biscay configuration. Initially, an ensemble of 102 members is performed by applying stochastic modeling of the wind forcing. The target of this step is to simulate the envelope of possible realizations and to explore the robustness of the method at building ensemble covariances. Our second step includes the integration of the ensemble-based error estimates into a data assimilative system adopting a 4D Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (4DEnOI) approach. In the twin-experiment context, synthetic observations are simulated from a perturbed member not used in the subsequent analyses, satisfying the condition of an unbiased probability distribution function against the ensemble by performing a rank histogram. We evaluate the assimilation performance on short-term predictability focusing on the ensemble size, the observational network, and the enrichment of the ensemble by inexpensive time-lagged techniques. The results show that variations in performance are linked to intrinsic oceanic processes, such as the spring shoaling of the thermocline, in combination with external forcing modulated by river runoffs and time-variable wind patterns, constantly reshaping the error regimes. Ensemble covariances are able to capture high-frequency processes associated with coastal density fronts, slope currents and upwelling events near the Armorican and Galician shelf break. Further improvement is gained when enriching model covariances by including pattern phase errors, with the help of time-neighbor states augmenting the ensemble spread.

  1. Long-term Outcomes and Quality of Life of 186 Patients With Primary Parotid Carcinoma Treated With Surgery and Radiotherapy at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Rooij, Peter van; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcomes, toxicity, and quality of life (QOL) of patients with primary parotid carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2010, 186 patients with parotid carcinoma were treated with parotidectomy with or without neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) was applied to high-risk, node-negative disease. End points were locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS), late toxicity, and QOL. Results: After a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 4-172 months), the 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for LRC, DFS, CSS, and OS were 89%, 83%, 80%, and 68%, respectively. Forty-five events were reported: 24 distant metastases (DM) and 21 locoregional failures (LRF). Event-free survival rates by histological types were 89%, 78%, 76%, 74%, and 70% for acinic cell, mucoepidermoid, adenoid cystic, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. More LRF were reported in patients with squamous cell and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (21% and 19%, respectively) than in patients with other histological types (p = 0.04) and more DM in patients with adenoid cystic and adenocarcinoma (20% and 19%, respectively) than in patients with other types (p = 0.03). None of the high-risk node-negative patients who received ENI developed regional failure. On multivariate analysis, T stage, N stage, grade, and presence of perineural invasion and facial paralysis correlated significantly with DFS. The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade {>=}2 late toxicity was 8%. QOL scores deteriorate during and shortly after treatment but returned in almost all scales to baseline scores within 6 months. Conclusions: Of the entire group, surgery and postoperative radiotherapy resulted in excellent outcomes with minimal side effects and preservation of good QOL scores. However, in

  2. Application of DEN refinement and automated model building to a difficult case of molecular-replacement phasing: the structure of a putative succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Brunger, Axel T.; Das, Debanu; Deacon, Ashley M.; Grant, Joanna; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Read, Randy J.; Adams, Paul D.; Levitt, Michael; Schröder, Gunnar F.

    2012-01-01

    Phasing by molecular replacement remains difficult for targets that are far from the search model or in situations where the crystal diffracts only weakly or to low resolution. Here, the process of determining and refining the structure of Cgl1109, a putative succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, at ∼3 Å resolution is described using a combination of homology modeling with MODELLER, molecular-replacement phasing with Phaser, deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement and automated model building using AutoBuild in a semi-automated fashion, followed by final refinement cycles with phenix.refine and Coot. This difficult molecular-replacement case illustrates the power of including DEN restraints derived from a starting model to guide the movements of the model during refinement. The resulting improved model phases provide better starting points for automated model building and produce more significant difference peaks in anomalous difference Fourier maps to locate anomalous scatterers than does standard refinement. This example also illustrates a current limitation of automated procedures that require manual adjustment of local sequence misalignments between the homology model and the target sequence. PMID:22505259

  3. Patient-reported outcomes at hospital discharge from Heart Centres, a national cross-sectional survey with a register-based follow-up: the DenHeart study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Svanholm, Jette; Lauberg, Astrid; Borregaard, Britt; Herning, Margrethe; Mygind, Anna; Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Juel, Knud; Thrysøe, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patient reported health status, which includes symptom burden, functional status and quality of life, is an important measure of health. Differences in health status between diagnostic groups within cardiology have only been sparsely investigated. These outcomes may predict morbidity, mortality, labour market affiliation and healthcare utilisation in various diagnostic groups. A national survey aiming to include all cardiac diagnostic groups from a total Heart Centre population has been designed as the DenHeart survey. Methods and analysis DenHeart is designed as a cross-sectional survey with a register-based follow-up. All diagnostic groups at the five national Heart Centres are included during 1 year (15 April 2013 to 15 April 2014) and asked to fill out a questionnaire at hospital discharge. The total eligible population, both responders and non-responders, will be followed in national registers. The following instruments are used: SF-12, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, EQ-5D, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), HeartQoL and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale. The following variables are collected from national registers: action diagnosis, procedures, comorbidity, length of hospital stay, type of hospitalisation, visits to general practitioners and other agents in primary healthcare, dispensed prescription medication, vital status and cause of death. Labour market affiliation, sick leave, early retirement pension, educational degree and income will be collected from registers. Frequency distributions and multiple logistic regression analyses will be used to describe and assess differences in patient reported outcomes at hospital discharge between diagnostic groups and in-hospital predicting factors. Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time scale will be used to investigate associations between patient reported outcomes at baseline and morbidity/mortality, labour market affiliation and healthcare utilisation

  4. Erfahrungen mit den Pentax SDHF-Refraktoren.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lignie, J.

    1996-10-01

    Behandelt werden: die SDHF-Refraktoren, mechanische Eigenschaften und Verarbeitung, die Montierung MS-3n, Beobachtungen mit der SDHF-Optik und optische Qualität, der 75 SDHF, der 105 SDHF. Fotografischer Teil: die Pentax 645 als Astrokamera, fotografische Abbildung der Objektive zur Pentax 645 und der SDHF-Optik, Zubehör.

  5. Wasserversorgung in den schleswig-holsteinischen Marschengebieten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldewey, Wilhelm Georg; Meier, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    Archeological findings from the Roman Imperial era show that already in the first centuries A.D., people were actively searching for solutions for their water supply problems in the marshy regions of the North Sea coast. These problems were solved by using simple installations in the form of water pits as well as more complex structures such as dug wells with different inflows and outflows. The water supply system used on the North Frisian Halligen is particularly elaborate, consisting of well-like reservoirs. It was only with the flood disaster of 1962 that a radical change took place. Because the storm surge caused saltwater to penetrate into the historical supply installations, they could no longer be used for drinking water purposes and were replaced by fresh water pipes from the mainland. Only the water pits and the dew ponds have withstood the test of time and may potentially be used in the future.

  6. Chao Mung Den Dat My (Welcome to America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    The purpose of this booklet is to introduce Southeast Asian refugees to some American attitudes and social styles. The complete English text is repeated in Khmer (Cambodian language) and Vietnamese. Topics discussed include: America as a very young country; America as a mixture of different people; that urban life is complex, fast-paced, and…

  7. Reflections on My Time in the Wolfe Den

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    The three and a half years I spent as a member of the Infrared Group were transitional. Bill Wolfe was the nexus. Bill played a role in getting me to Arizona and keeping me there. He helped me advance professionally and taught me how to think like a systems engineer. He played a central role in my effort to earn a PhD. And, he helped start me in SPIE. This paper contains my personal and honest reflections on the impact which Bill Wolfe has had on me.

  8. Ueber den Nachweis von Exoplaneten in der ASAS-3 Datenbank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huemmerich, Stefan; Bernhard, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Under favourable circumstances, transits of known exoplanets with large amplitudes like WASP-18 b can be observed in the ASAS-3 database. An attempt to search for exoplanets using ASAS-3 data is discussed.

  9. Osteitis in the dens of axis caused by Treponema pallidum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Syphilis has been referred to as “the great imitator” due to its ability to imitate other diseases. Untreated syphilis becomes a systemic infection that can involve almost every organ systems. Treponema pallidum has a high affinity for bone tissue, but osteitis has mainly been described in late stages of the disease. Vertebral involvement is rare, and this is to our knowledge the first case describing syphilitic spondylitis in early acquired syphilis. Case presentation We here describe destructive osteitis in the vertebral column as the initial manifestation of early acquired syphilis in a 24-year-old caucasian homosexual male with HIV infection. The diagnosis was reached by universal bacterial PCR and DNA sequencing of the DNA product. It was confirmed by PCR specific for Treponema pallidum, immunohistochemistry and detection of increasing antibody titer. Conclusions As syphilis has re-emerged in Western countries and remains a worldwide common disease it is important to have in mind as a causative agent of skeletal symptoms, especially among HIV-infected individuals or men who have sex with men (MSM). PMID:23885957

  10. Historisches Rätsel Er hatte den Durchblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    2002-03-01

    Seine Jugend ist voller Schicksalsschläge: Mit zwölf Jahren wird er als elftes und jüngstes Kind eines Glasermeisters Vollwaise, mit vierzehn stürzt das Haus seines Pflegevaters und Lehrherren über ihm zusammen. Auch ist ihm kein langes Leben vergönnt: Mit gerade 39 Jahren ereilt ihn die Lungen- und Nervenschwindsucht.

  11. Arbeitsmittel fur den Deutschunterricht an Auslander (Materials for German Instruction to Foreigners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Gerhard, Comp.

    This annotated German bibliography of textbooks for use in language programs includes a wide variety of instructional media. Materials are classified under: (1) language texts, (2) teachers' texts, (3) language texts for foreigners, (4) exercise books and tapes, (5) testing materials, (6) radio courses, (7) instructional films, (8) vocational…

  12. Floral volatiles ofTanacetum vulgare L. attractive toLobesia botrana den. et schiff. females.

    PubMed

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D; Suchy, V; Marion-Poll, F; Hradsky, P; Farkas, P

    1992-05-01

    The European grapevine moth (EGVM),Lobesia botrana, is a major pest of grapes in Europe. Females are attracted to a nonhost plant: tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), which is a common weed in Slovakian vineyards. A steam distillate extract of tansy flowers was analyzed by means of a GC-EAG technique to screen constituents detected by the olfactory receptors of EGVM females. From more than 200 GC peaks, nine peaks corresponding to monoterpenoids released an EAG response in more than 70% of the females (N=15):p-cymene,d-limonene,α-thujene,α-thujone,β-thujone, thujyl alcohol, terpinene-4-ol, (Z)-verbenol, and piperitone. The steam distillate of tansy as well as a synthetic blend of identified compounds released consistent attraction in a field cage. The use of nonhost plants and host plant odors in integrated pest management is discussed. PMID:24253963

  13. Eine photometrische Loesung f¸r den Doppelstern V381 Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    V381 CMa is known as a bright eclipsing binary system having an orbital period of 3.4 days. Modelling of old and new photometric data now revealed an annular eclipse in the primary minimum, i.e. a transit of a smaller and cooler companion in front of the A-type star primary component. By combining the obtained relative parameters of the components with stellar models a mass of about 2.76 Msun and a radius of 4.39 Rsun has been derived for the A-type star, and a mass of about 0.79 Msun and a radius of 0.72 Rsun for the secondary component having a Teff of about 4850 K. Apparently, the components of the binary can be classified as an A-type subgiant and a K-type dwarf. [The online version of this paper is written in German and English].

  14. First trace and body fossil evidence of a burrowing, denning dinosaur

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J; Martin, Anthony J; Katsura, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    A fossil discovery in the mid-Cretaceous Blackleaf Formation of southwest Montana, USA, has yielded the first trace and body fossil evidence of burrowing behaviour in a dinosaur. Skeletal remains of an adult and two juveniles of Oryctodromeus cubicularis gen. et sp. nov., a new species of hypsilophodont-grade dinosaur, were found in the expanded distal chamber of a sediment-filled burrow. Correspondence between burrow and adult dimensions supports Oryctodromeus as the burrow maker. Additionally, Oryctodromeus exhibits features of the snout, shoulder girdle and pelvis consistent with digging habits while retaining cursorial hindlimb proportions. Association of adult and young within a terminal chamber provides definitive evidence of extensive parental care in the Dinosauria. As with modern vertebrate cursors that dig, burrowing in Oryctodromeus may have been an important adaptation for the rearing of young. Burrowing also represents a mechanism by which small dinosaurs may have exploited the extreme environments of polar latitudes, deserts and high mountain areas. The ability among dinosaurs to find or make shelter may contradict some scenarios of the Cretaceous–Paleogene impact event. Burrowing habits expand the known range of nonavian dinosaur behaviours and suggest that the cursorial ancestry of dinosaurs did not fully preclude the evolution of different functional regimes, such as fossoriality. PMID:17374596

  15. Congenital anomaly of craniovertebral junction: atlas-dens fusion with C1 anterior arch cleft.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vallina, José R; Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Cobo-Ruisánchez, Angeles; Orejas-Rodriguez-Arango, Gonzalo; López-Muñiz, Carlos; Fernández-Martínez, José M

    2002-02-01

    A rare case of congenital atlantoaxial block is reported. A 13-year-old boy had a fusion of a non-separated odontoid process with the anterior arch of the atlas, in association with an anterior midline C1 arch cleft. PMID:11891461

  16. Nay'nadeligha I'ghaan Dghat'aen'den (The War at Nay'nadeli).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Henry

    This reader is intended for use in a bilingual education setting and is geared towards students who are competent speakers of Ahtna Athabaskan with knowledge of the writing system. It is an historical account of a battle and its aftermath from the Cantwell area. It includes an interlinear English translation and a free English translation. (AMH)

  17. Rear-Guard Actions against an "Impoverishing Delusion": Anmerkungen zur Situation der Auslandsgermanistik in den Americas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John A.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution responds to the previous three articles by highlighting common concerns across the Americas. It also offers suggestions for how the field of German might want to move forward in an inclusive fashion. Key principles of orientation are EU language policy and transcultural education as a transformative experience in shaping…

  18. Pyritoxidationsprozesse im cretazischen Emschermergel infolge von aeroben Bedingungen durch den Emscherumbau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Björn; Wisotzky, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Due to the restoration of the Emscher river system, large amounts of the Emschermergel, a Cretaceous sediment containing significant amounts of carbonate and pyrite, will be released from its anoxic state. The oxidation of pyrite results in the release of protons, iron and sulfate. In order to evaluate the impact of the reaction products, extensive laboratory investigations were carried out. The methodology can detect pyrite content in the range of magnitude of the Rhenish lignite mining area (average 0.21 wt.% Pyritic-S). The formation of a naturally-occurring weathering horizon could also be detected. Under laboratory conditions, further oxidation of the weathered laboratory samples could be observed. Column experiments show significant release of sulfate at high concentrations. Hydrochemical modelling and acid-base accounting show neutralization of the free protons by the effective carbonate buffer in the sediment.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. X. (den Brok+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Seth, A.; Balcells, M.; Dominguez, L.; Graham, A. W.; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Jogee, S.; Lucey, J.; Phillipps, S.; Puzia, T.; Valentijn, E.; Kleijn, G. V.; Weinzirl, T.

    2015-05-01

    The Coma ACS Survey (Carter et al., 2008ApJS..176..424C) provides data in two passbands for 25 fields pointed at the core of the Coma cluster and at the outskirts. The exposure times in the two passbands, F814W and F475W (which are roughly equivalent to the IC and g band) were ~1400 and ~2600s. The original envisaged coverage of the cluster was much larger than 25 fields, but due to the ACS failure in 2008 January the survey was not completed. (2 data files).

  20. Identifizierung der Nitratabbauprozesse und Prognose des Nitratabbaupotenzials in den Sedimenten des Hessischen Rieds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kludt, Christoph; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Knöller, Kay; Berthold, Georg; Schüth, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Microbial denitrification contributes significantly to the mitigation of nitrate contamination in sedimentary aquifers by reducing nitrate coupled to the consumption of organic carbon (heterotrophic) and iron sulphides like pyrite (autotrophic). However, these phases are often only present in trace amounts and can become depleted, so that denitrification will eventually cease. In order to implement measures within the EC-Water Framework Directive, we investigated the denitrification potential and the denitrification processes in the sediments of the Hessian Ried. The reduction potential was quantified and characterized by solid-phase analyses of drill core samples. Depth-oriented investigations of hydrochemistry (i.e. stable isotopes, N2Excess) allowed determining nitrate input, reduction progress and average reduction kinetics upstream of selected wells. Despite low sulphide contents (max. 123 mg-S/kg), autotrophic denitrification was typically the dominant process. The results can be used to delineate risk areas, downstream of which denitrification can be expected to cease in the near future.

  1. Curriculare Schwerpunkte und Entwiklungstrends im Erziehungs und Gesellschaftswissenschaftlichen Studium fur Den Lehrerberuf in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Manfred; Kolbe, Manfred

    1975-01-01

    An empirical study on the curricular content of lectures offered to education students in the Federal Republic of Germany was designed to ascertain what knowledge and competency can be acquired by attending the available courses. In German; introduction in English. (MM)

  2. Versuch einer Ubungstypologie fur den fachbezogenen Fremdsprachenunterricht (A Trial Typology of Exercises for Career-Oriented Foreign Language Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Norbert

    1973-01-01

    Examples of exercises derived from the text Fachdeutsch fur spanischsprachige Naturwissenschaftler: Mathematiker, Physiker, Chemiker'' (Technical German for Spanish-Speaking Scientists: Mathematicians, Physicists, Chemists) soon to be published by the Max Hueber Verlag, Munich, West Germany. (RS)

  3. Fernsehkurs staerker in den Russischunterricht integrieren (Integrating the Television Course More Firmly into the Teaching of Russian)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattler, Gerda

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiences covering two years of use of a Russian television course for Grade 9. The course is seen as particularly useful in reinforcing knowledge of vocabulary of past lessons. Several practical hints to the teacher, e.g., preparation for the television lesson, are offered. (Text is in German.) (IfS/WGA)

  4. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik (Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Peter

    This report of the 1969 Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics contains summaries of papers and speeches on the following topics: (1) linguistics applied to literary texts, (2) computer analysis of texts, (3) research in the psychology of first language learning, (4) research in the psychology of second language learning, (5) speech…

  5. In the footsteps of astronomers in Bremen and Lilienthal. (German Title: Auf den Spuren von Astronomen in Bremen und Lilienthal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langkavel, Arno

    When Bremen and Lilienthal are mentioned, people interested in the history of astronomy will first of all remember Wilhelm Olbers (1785-1840) and Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745-1816). In addition to them, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777-1855) have also left their traces. Two walks describe the main memorial sites, which are all outdoors and easily accessible to the general public.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FeI radiative lifetime and branching fractions (Den Hartog+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Ruffoni, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Pickering, J. C.; Lind, K.; Brewer, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    From our recent work for the APOGEE and Gaia-ESO surveys (Ruffoni et al. 2013ApJ...779...17R; 2014, J/MNRAS/441/3127), we have assembled a catalog of high-resolution, intensity calibrated FeI line spectra, measured in emission by Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy in overlapping regions from 1800/cm to 35500/cm. From this catalog, we have used the two spectra shown in Table 2 to measure branching fractions (BFs) for lines linked to many of the levels listed in Table 1. (2 data files).

  7. Differential Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections with the Inbios JE Detect™ and DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA Kits.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Barbara W; Goodman, Christin H; Jee, Youngmee; Featherstone, David A

    2016-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral neurological disease in Asia. The JEV-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum is the recommended method of laboratory diagnosis, but specificity of JEV MAC-ELISA can be low due to cross-reactivity. To increase the specificity of the commercially available JEDetect™ MAC-ELISA (JEDetect), a differential testing algorithm was developed in which samples tested by JEDetect with positive results were subsequently tested by the DENDetect™ MAC-ELISA (DENDetect) kit, and results of both tests were used to make the final interpretation. The testing algorithm was evaluated with a reference panel of serum and CSF samples submitted for confirmatory testing. In serum, the false Japanese encephalitis (JE) positive rate was reduced, but sequential testing in CSF resulted in reduced JE specificity, as true JEV+ CSF samples had positive results by both JEDetect and DENDetect and were classified as JE- (dengue virus [DENV]+). Differential diagnosis of JE by sequential testing with JEDetect and DENDetect increased specificity for JE in serum, but more data with CSF is needed to make a final determination on the usefulness of this testing algorithm for CSF. PMID:26856911

  8. Die Sprache der Hande zu den Handen sprechen (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

  9. Gene Expression Analysis Indicates Divergent Mechanisms in DEN-Induced Carcinogenesis in Wild Type and Bid-Deficient Livers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changshun; Yan, Shengmin; Khambu, Bilon; Chen, Xiaoyun; Dong, Zheng; Luo, Jianhua; Michalopoulos, George K; Wu, Shangwei; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Bid is a Bcl-2 family protein. In addition to its pro-apoptosis function, Bid can also promote cell proliferation, maintain S phase checkpoint, and facilitate inflammasome activation. Bid plays important roles in tissue injury and regeneration, hematopoietic homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Bid participates in hepatic carcinogenesis but the mechanism is not fully understood. Deletion of Bid resulted in diminished tumor burden and delayed tumor progression in a liver cancer model. In order to better understand the Bid-regulated events during hepatic carcinogenesis we performed gene expression analysis in wild type and bid-deficient mice treated with a hepatic carcinogen, diethylnitrosamine. We found that deletion of Bid caused significantly fewer alterations in gene expression in terms of the number of genes affected and the number of pathways affected. In addition, the expression profiles were remarkably different. In the wild type mice, there was a significant increase in the expression of growth regulation-related and immune/inflammation response-related genes, and a significant decrease in the expression of metabolism-related genes, both of which were diminished in bid-deficient livers. These data suggest that Bid could promote hepatic carcinogenesis via growth control and inflammation-mediated events. PMID:27196317

  10. Gene Expression Analysis Indicates Divergent Mechanisms in DEN-Induced Carcinogenesis in Wild Type and Bid-Deficient Livers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Changshun; Yan, Shengmin; Khambu, Bilon; Chen, Xiaoyun; Dong, Zheng; Luo, Jianhua; Michalopoulos, George K.; Wu, Shangwei; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Bid is a Bcl-2 family protein. In addition to its pro-apoptosis function, Bid can also promote cell proliferation, maintain S phase checkpoint, and facilitate inflammasome activation. Bid plays important roles in tissue injury and regeneration, hematopoietic homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Bid participates in hepatic carcinogenesis but the mechanism is not fully understood. Deletion of Bid resulted in diminished tumor burden and delayed tumor progression in a liver cancer model. In order to better understand the Bid-regulated events during hepatic carcinogenesis we performed gene expression analysis in wild type and bid-deficient mice treated with a hepatic carcinogen, diethylnitrosamine. We found that deletion of Bid caused significantly fewer alterations in gene expression in terms of the number of genes affected and the number of pathways affected. In addition, the expression profiles were remarkably different. In the wild type mice, there was a significant increase in the expression of growth regulation-related and immune/inflammation response-related genes, and a significant decrease in the expression of metabolism-related genes, both of which were diminished in bid-deficient livers. These data suggest that Bid could promote hepatic carcinogenesis via growth control and inflammation-mediated events. PMID:27196317

  11. Nitrogen input into the soil by N{sub 2} fixing plants; Stickstoffeintrag in den boden durch stickstoffixierende pflanzen

    SciTech Connect

    Haunold, E.

    1992-04-01

    Only prokaryontic organisms are able to fix nitrogen. These are about 200 species of bacteria and blue green algae. Of their biochemical efficiency about 500,000 eukaryontic plants (thereof about 340,000 species of flowering plants and more than 100,000 species of fungi) and over 1,000,000 species of animals profit. On a global scale about 200 Mio t/a of nitrogen is being fixed by the prokaryonts. Air nitrogen in legumes varies between 50 and 90% and depends upon the relationship between host and microbe, nutrient status of the soil, water and climatic conditions etc.

  12. Fishers' knowledge as a source of information about the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis, van Bénéden, 1864).

    PubMed

    Manzan, Maíra Fontes; Lopes, Priscila F M

    2015-01-01

    Fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) is an additional tool to obtain information about cetaceans, regarding their local particularities, fishing interactions, and behavior. However, this knowledge could vary in depth of detail according to the level of interaction that fishers have with a specific species. This study investigated differences in small-scale fishers' LEK regarding the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) in three Brazilian northeast coastal communities where fishing is practiced in estuarine lagoons and/or coastal waters and where dolphin-watching tourism varies from incipient to important. The fishers (N = 116) were asked about general characteristics of S. guianensis and their interactions with this dolphin during fishing activities. Compared to lagoon fishers, coastal fishers showed greater knowledge about the species but had more negative interactions with the dolphin during fishing activities. Coastal fishing not only offered the opportunity for fishers to observe a wider variety of the dolphin's behavior, but also implied direct contact with the dolphins, as they are bycaught in coastal gillnets. Besides complementing information that could be used for the management of cetaceans, this study shows that the type of environment most used by fishers also affects the accuracy of the information they provide. When designing studies to gather information on species and/or populations with the support of fishers, special consideration should be given to local particularities such as gear and habitats used within the fishing community. PMID:25399120

  13. Qualitative Data Collection and Interpretation: A Turkish Social Studies Lesson=Nitel Veri Toplama ve Yorumlama: Türkiye' den bir Sosyal Bilgiler Dersi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammes, Tilman; Açikalin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The classroom with its teaching-learning dynamics creates a kind of "embryonic society" in which the micro-policies of collective social knowledge construction and meaning can be re-constructed; therefore, it can be considered as a kind of "mirror" of political culture. Thus, comparative lesson research, which requires in-depth…

  14. Die Religiose Konstante. Uber den padagogischen Umgang mit naturwissenshcaftlichen Hypothesen (The Religious Constant--The Interpretation of Hypotheses of the Natural Sciences in Educational Theory).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    Shows how evolution-theoretical behavioral research may serve to influence the theory production of pedagogics. Questions which truths and securities are required by educational practice and which consequences can be drawn for the level of theoretical cognition of the respective discipline. An analysis of the relation between religion in its…

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Comamonadaceae, and description of Delftia acidovorans (den Dooren de Jong 1926 and Tamaoka et al. 1987) gen. nov., comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Wen, A; Fegan, M; Hayward, C; Chakraborty, S; Sly, L I

    1999-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among members of the family Comamonadaceae and several unclassified strains were studied by direct sequencing of their PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, members of the family formed a coherent group. The closest relatives are species of the Rubrivivax sub-group: Leptothrix discophora, Ideonella dechloratans and Rubrivivax gelatinosus. The genus Hydrogenophaga formed two subclusters, as did the species of Acidovorax, whereas the five species of the genus [Aquaspirillum] were polyphyletic. Comamonas acidovorans was phylogenetically distant from the type species of Comamonas, Comamonas terrigena. On the basis of this work and previous studies, Comamonas acidovorans is removed from the genus Comamonas and renamed as Delftia acidovorans gen. nov., comb. nov. Descriptions of the new genus Delftia and of the type species Delftia acidovorans, for which the type strain is ATCC 15668T, are presented. PMID:10319477

  16. Grüne Infrastruktur in den Städten Nordrhein-Westfalens - Bedeutung als Standortfaktor und Einfluss auf das Standortmarketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffer, Ina

    2016-05-01

    Hardly any other city in North Rhine-Westphalia has such a green image as the city of Münster. It embodies the image of a livable city in Germany. Other North Rhine-Westphalian cities also work on their external perception and are approaching the task of getting a greener image for themselves in many ways. A central question is how it is done precisely and whether urban green infrastructure can be a locational factor to affect location-based marketing. This article deals with the strategies of various cities in North Rhine-Westphalia.

  17. Serum Krebs Von Den Lungen-6 as a Biomarker for Early Detection of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Children Undergoing Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gassas, Adam; Schechter, Tal; Krueger, Joerg; Craig-Barnes, Hayley; Sung, Lillian; Ali, Muhammad; Dell, Sharon; Egeler, R Maarten; Zaidman, Irina; Palaniyar, Nades

    2015-08-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a devastating complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Early identification of high-risk patients is pivotal for success. Lung proteins, KL-6, CCSP, SP-A, and SP-D, measured in the serum may identify high-risk patients for BOS earlier than pulmonary function tests (PFTs) can identify changes or clinical symptoms. Lung proteins were measured in patients' serum at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after transplantation along with history, clinical examination, and PFTs. Serum levels of lung proteins were also measured in healthy control subjects. The primary endpoint was the development of BOS confirmed by pathological biopsy or National Institutes of Health criteria. Between September 2009 and September 2011, 39 patients were enrolled. Six children developed BOS at a median time of 200 days (range, 94 to 282). KL-6 levels were low in control subjects, at a median of .1 U/mL (range, .1 to 1.5). Pre-SCT and 1-month KL-6 levels were significantly higher in surviving patients who developed BOS (n = 6) versus those who did not (n = 18) (pre-SCT: mean, 32.6 U/mL [IQR, 9.7 to 89.3] versus 5.8 U/mL [IQR, 2.1 to 12.6], P = .03; at 1 month: mean, 52.5 U/mL [IQR, 20.2 to 121.3] versus 11.4 U/mL [IQR, 5.7 to 36.0], P = .04). Three- and 6-month KL-6 levels continued to be higher in BOS group but were not statistically significant. CCSP, SP-A, and SP-D were not predictive. KL-6 measured in the serum of children receiving allo-SCT may identify patients at high risk for the development of BOS. These patients will benefit from intensive surveillance protocol and early therapy before irreversible lung damage. PMID:25963919

  18. Grüne Infrastruktur -. Konzepte und Strategien zur Förderung eines Bewusstseins für den Wert von Stadtgrün

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Due to climate change, but also because of the demographic change and financial constraints in many municipalities, the future of cities is a currently much-discussed topic. Conflicts over land-use are inevitable: As densification is an essential principle in growing cities, the pressure on open (green) spaces rises. Climate Change and water-management as well as mobility-issues and air-quality confront municipalities with new challenges, in terms of open space planning and greenery in the city. It is necessary to save the existing green in these days of budget-shortage and other priorities in communities. Municipalities have to raise new strategies to strengthen the awareness of the value of green in public and in the local business.

  19. Drei Wochen bei den Internationalen Sommerkursen in Erfurt, 22. Juli-11. August 1968 (Three Weeks at the International Summer Courses in Erfurt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Elizabeth M.

    This paper discusses life in East Germany as observed by the author during a three-week program of summer courses in Erfurt. Background information includes a description of Erfurt, a brief review of its history, and analysis of the daily life of East Germans--their attitudes towards the state, physical appearance, salary structure, and…

  20. Grüne Infrastruktur in den Städten Nordrhein-Westfalens. Bedeutung als Standortfaktor und Einfluss auf das Standortmarketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffer, Ina

    2016-06-01

    Hardly any other city in North Rhine-Westphalia has such a green image as the city of Münster. It embodies the image of a livable city in Germany. Other North Rhine-Westphalian cities also work on their external perception and are approaching the task of getting a greener image for themselves in many ways. A central question is how it is done precisely and whether urban green infrastructure can be a locational factor to affect location-based marketing. This article deals with the strategies of various cities in North Rhine-Westphalia.

  1. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis van Bénéden, 1864).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Mari, Renata de Britto; Marigo, Juliana; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2011-08-01

    The importance of the tongue during feeding, and the limited information on the tongue of most aquatic mammals led us to investigate its morphological aspects in sexually immature and mature Sotalia guianensis. Six tongues were measured and photo-documented after their removal from the oral cavity. The samples were divided into rostral, middle, and caudal regions, and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.). Sotalia guianensis tongue presented lateral grooves from the apex to the middle portion, while the anterolateral region presented marginal papillae. Histological characteristics revealed the presence of a keratinized stratified epithelium, salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue, and filiform papillae in the caudal region. S.E.M. images revealed the presence of filiform papillae and ducts of salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue. We can conclude that the characteristics found in this study may reflect an adaptation to changes in diet after weaning. PMID:21801004

  2. Han Hoan Chao Ban Den Hoa Ky. Sach Chi Dan Danh Cho Nguoi Ti Nan. (Welcome to the United States. A Guidebook for Refugees).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This guidebook provides Vietnamese-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies, refugees overseas who have been approved for U.S. admission, and service…

  3. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864) and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, M C O; Oshima, J E F; Pacífico, E S; Silva, E

    2010-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE) (25 degrees 01' S and 47 degrees 55' W) from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) (25 degrees 24' S and 48 degrees 24' W) from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7%) involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2%) involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (chi2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p < 0.05), while in the PEC no differences were reported when comparing seabird species (chi2 = 5.78; d.f.=3, p = 0.1223). In the CE, feeding associations were significantly more frequent in inner waters (subset A0; chi2 = 9.52; d.f. = 2, p < 0.05), and in winter (chi2 = 12.46; d.f. = 1, p < 0.05). Within these events, 44.7% of the association groups were composed by more than one seabird species. Seasonality in feeding associations was also observed in the PEC (chi2 = 4.76; d.f. = 1, p < 0.05), with same patterns observed in the CE. Interactions were more frequent in inner waters of the Laranjeiras bay, PEC (chi2 = 11.65; d.f. = 2, p < 0.05). Within these events, 74.2% of the association groups were composed by more than one seabird species. Water transparency, prey and seabird abundance and distribution, cetacean group size, and the life cycle of prey and seabirds are listed as the main factors addressing multi-species feeding associations in the Lagamar estuary. PMID:20231955

  4. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5 m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species. PMID:22584063

  5. Materialien und Modelle fuer den Franzoesischunterricht in der Sekundarstufe Zwei (Materials and Models for Teaching French in Grades 11-13)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frei, Alfons

    1978-01-01

    Texts available for French courses in the highest grades are listed according to topics, which include: position of women, today's youth, the language of advertising, French colonialism, holidays and tourism, modern city living, criminality, French politics. Hints for the teacher are included. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  6. Grüne Infrastruktur - - Konzepte und Strategien zur Förderung eines Bewusstseins für den Wert von Stadtgrün

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Due to climate change, but also because of the demographic change and financial constraints in many municipalities, the future of cities is a currently much-discussed topic. Conflicts over land-use are inevitable: As densification is an essential principle in growing cities, the pressure on open (green) spaces rises. Climate Change and water-management as well as mobility-issues and air-quality confront municipalities with new challenges, in terms of open space planning and greenery in the city. It is necessary to save the existing green in these days of budget-shortage and other priorities in communities. Municipalities have to raise new strategies to strengthen the awareness of the value of green in public and in the local business.

  7. Characteristics of Patients Who Admitted to the Emergency Department Because of Burns Due to Dens Liquids Such as Hot Milk/Oil

    PubMed Central

    Bayramoglu, Atif; Sener, M. Talip; Cakir, Zeynep; Aslan, Sahin; Emet, Mucahit; Akoz, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Burn is the tissue damage on body caused due to various reasons. Although all burns caused by hot liquids are investigated as scalding burns, dense liquid burns (DLB) caused by such as milk and oil are different from other burns. The aim of this study was to report the properties of DLB. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to the Emergency Service of Atatürk University Hospital, with DLB from June 2003 to December 2008, were examined retrospectively. Results: During the study, 28 DLB patients were admitted to the emergency service. The most common admission were found in autumn 28.6% (n=8), and in May and June, 17.9% (n=5). The frequency of burns on the right upper extremity was seen in 50% (n=14) of the patients. The burn degree of all patients was determined as 2nd degree. Seventy-five percent (n=21) of the patients were discharged, 14.3% (n=4) were hospitalized. None of the patients died. Conclusion: Dense liquid burns is a burn type that is commonly seen in women, absolutely causing 2nd degree burns, frequently reported in upper extremity and head/neck regions, and in contrast to other studies, in our region it is completely seen in patients living in city centre. PMID:27026759

  8. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specifi...

  9. Evolution of the passive and active microwave signatures of a large sea ice feature during its 21<den>2den>-year drift through the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohin, Francis; Cavanié, Alain; Ezraty, Robert

    1998-04-01

    Although estimation of the total ice concentration from special sensor microwave imagers (SSM/I) has proven to be successful, none of the various algorithms developed to discriminate new and older ice provide satisfying results. While the strong contrast between the emissivity of sea ice and that of open water can be utilized to provide reliable estimators of the total ice concentration, passive microwave characteristics of second-year and multiyear ice may locally evolve in different ways, even during the cold season. Scatterometers, as the active microwave instrument in wind mode (AMI-wind) on board the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), provide backscatter data which have a higher sensitivity to the surface topography of ice and a better stability in time, at a resolution compatible with the SSM/I measurements. Here we present the evolutions of the microwave properties of an ice feature appearing along the shores of Novosibirskiye Ostrova (New Siberian Islands) at the end of July 1992 as the ice ages during its 3-year drift toward the Fram Strait. The track of this well-defined ice surface is easily followed on the maps of the backscatter coefficient provided by the AMI-wind during the cold season. In summer, because of melting, the ice undergoes critical changes which alter its microwave signatures and hamper automatic tracking. Moreover, on approaching the Fram Strait the resolution of the scatterometer is not sufficient to capture the complex and rapid transformations of the ice cover. To compensate for this, buoy data obtained from the International Arctic Buoy Program are used, alone during summers or together with satellite data, to build basin-wide ice displacement fields. These displacement fields, successively applied to each pixel of the ice feature selected, provide a series of Lagrangian observations. During the drift, which ends in May 1995, the active and passive signatures evolve coherently, except for the cold season 1992-1993 when unrealistic multiyear ice concentrations are deduced from the brightness temperatures, which, at that time, are much less stable than the backscatter coefficient over the ice surface tracked, identified as second-year ice.

  10. Les Differences dans l'emploi de la construction possessive "N1"+"DE"+"N2" entre le XIX et le XX s. dans la prose litteraire francaise (Differences in the Use of the Possessive Construction "N1"+"de"+"N2" between 19th and 20th Century French Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roglic, Vera

    1991-01-01

    Study looks at frequency of noun1 + de + noun2 possessive in French prose. Researchers used chi-square and Pearson test to analyze results of syntagmatic possessive construction in works by Hugo, Stendahl, Balzac, Zola, Gide, Malraux, St. Exupery, and Sartre. Findings indicate that syntagmatic genitive possessive is more commonly found in…

  11. Zwischen den Stuhlen: Untersuchungen zur Situation der Korrektoren an der Fernuniversitat 1980, (In between Chairs: The Situation of Tutors (Correctors) at the FernUniversitat in 1980). ZIFF Papiere 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Helmut; And Others

    An empirical study of tutors responsible for evaluating students' assignments at the Fernuniversitat in 1980 employed an 18-item questionnaire, analysis of open-ended responses, analysis of graders' comments on more than 1,000 assignments, and interviews with staff. The process of evaluating students' work was shown to be inefficient, with minimal…

  12. Five letters by Tycho Brahe to the Görlitz astronomer Bartholomäus Scultetus. (German Title: Fünf Briefe Tycho Brahes an den Görlitzer Astronomen Bartholomäus Scultetus (1540-1614))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, Juergen

    The five letters by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe to the Görlitz astronomer, mayor, and reformer of the calendar Bartholomäus Scultetus are for the first time translated from Latin into German with comments. The letters of October 12, 1581, August 17, 1588, December 8, 1590, March 12, 1592, and Januar 7, 1600, which are to a certain extent very personal letters, deal with, among other items, Scultetus's manuscript on the comet of 1577 and offer interesting details regarding Brahe's observatories on the island Hveen and near Prague. In addition, they provide information on his projects of books, problems with paper and print, his pupil Paul Wittich, currently largely unknown correspondents and his friends in Saxony and Silesia. The author prefaces the letters with biographical information on the 16th century Görlitz astronomer.

  13. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  14. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  15. Dreissig Jahre Volksrepublik Polen. Aus den Thesen des Zentralkomitees der Polnischen Vereinigten Arbeiterpartei (Thirty years of the People's Republic of Poland. From the Theses of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Offers an overview of the development of the teaching of Russian in the People's Republic of Poland since its introduction in 1945 and the support of the periodical "Jezyk Rosyjski" (Russian Language) in the attainment of the goals set by the Ministry of Popular Education of the People's Republic of Poland. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 μg/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental effects of predation rates of mosquito predators, such as C. auratus. PMID:26290219

  17. Can Break-Dance Break Your Neck? C1/C2 Luxation with a Combined Dens Fracture Without Neurological Deficits in an 11-Year Old Boy After a Break-Dance Performance.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Athanasios K; Kinzel, Adrian; Blaeser, Klaus; Thissen, Joost; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Scholz, Martin

    2015-09-28

    Atlantoaxial dislocation in children is a very rare condition. We present the case of a dislocation happened during a break-dance maneuver. The purpose of this report is describing dangers of break-dancing and discussing the treatment we chose. The patient was followed up until 12 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the cervical spine were evaluated. Translaminar fixation of C1/C2 had been performed after manual reposition under X-ray illumination. After a 12-month follow-up, the patient shows a stable condition without neurological dysfunction. He is not allowed to perform any extreme sports. PMID:26664716

  18. PROPOSED MEASURES OF CONTROL MANAGEMENT OF THE GRAPE MOTH, LOBESIA BOTRANA DEN AND SCHIFF (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE), IN REFERENCE TO INFESTATION PERCENTAGES, YIELD LOSS AND ECONOMICS OF CONTROL IN EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Kordy, A M; Zaghloul, O A; Mourad, A K

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of five measures; including the release of two strains of Trichogramma, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.). Sweetened B.t. and the environmentally friend insecticide (Tracer®), to manage the grape moth, Lobesia botrana that infested the grape vines c.v. "Thompson seedless " in Egypt severely during the two successive years of 2011 and 2012. In concern to the release of the worldwide, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood., the mean total grape yield ranged from 8.00 to 14.00 ton/fed and from 6.90 to 11.9, in respect to the two seasons and the mean infestation percentages fluctuated between 50.00 and 16.14; 43.48 and 21.01 in sequence for the same years. The corresponding grape bunches loss percentages averaged from 21.43 to 6.91; 18.63 to 9.00,respectively for the same periods of this study. Whereas, it was noticed that in releasing the indigenous T. bourarchae was more effective than T. evanescens in reducing all the above mentioned grape yield particularly. Applying Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) and/or adding sugar as a stimulant to improve yields reduced the infestation and the crop loss percentage. However, Bacillus thuringiensis mixed with sugar which overweighed the use of Bacillus thuringiensis alone. Although Tracer® provided good harvest in both years, but unfortunately it affected the grape berries components rather than the other treatments. Control plots indicated 48 and 50% infestation, with very low yield compared with the other five trials to manage the assigned insect pest. For the first time worldwide economics and profits were computed taking into account the whole market sale, the total control costs and the gross income to decide the most profitable treatment for the table grape growers under the Egyptian conditions. It was found that the mean (L.E.) profits/fed were arranged in a descending order as follows: 470.95, 513.28, 504.78, 500.82, 397.25 and 0.00 for Bacillus thuringiensis + sugar, Trichogramma bourarchae, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, Dipel-2x®, Tracer® and control in respect in 2011. The corresponding values in the year 2012 were 453.85, 445.58, 427.18, 377.00, 349.18 and 0.00 for Trichogramma bourarchae, Bacillus thuringiensis + sugar, Dipel-2x®, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, Tracer® and control in respect. The obtained results were analysed and discussed in the text. PMID:26084105

  19. Diglossische Prozesse (Zwischen Deutsch und Spanisch) unter den Spanischen Emigranten der 2. Generation in Deutschland: Eine Soziolinguistische Studie (Diglossia Processes (Between German and Spanish) Among Second Generation Spanish Immigrants in Germany: A Sociolinguistic Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karin Vilar

    1998-01-01

    Presents a sociolinguistic study of second-generation Spanish immigrants in Germany. Specific focus is on "diglossia processes," or how Spanish and German are used for different sociolinguistic situations. (Author/VL)

  20. Corporate Regional Responsibility - Warum engagieren sich Unternehmen gemeinsam für ihre Region?. Motive der kollektiven regionalen Verantwortungsübernahme von Unternehmen an den Beispielen des Initiativkreises Ruhr und der Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiek, Meike

    2016-03-01

    Companies can voluntarily participate in matters of regional developments, thereby accepting responsibility on a regional level. Referring to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), the term Corporate Regional Responsibility (CRR) is used to describe this behavior. Moreover, companies can form a CRR-corporation with other companies in order to take over a collective CRR. So far, the motives of companies for exercising collective CRR are unknown, thus, corporate resources can not be mobilized and utilized efficiently for regional developments. This article explores the subject of collective CRR and illustrates CRR motives using the example of the two CRR-cooperations Initiativkreis Ruhr and Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain.

  1. Serotype and genotype analysis of dengue virus by sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis using samples from three mini outbreaks-2007-2009 in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the first reported outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan, several mini outbreaks have erupted in the region. Dengue virus serotype 3 (DEN-3) was first documented in 2005 outbreak in Karachi. Reports show that serotype 3 is prevalent in Lahore since 2008. Serotype 2 (DEN-2) is the major circulating serotype in Pakistan as it is documented since 1994. We have conducted a detailed study of three outbreaks of dengue virus infection that occurred in years 2007, 2008 and 2009 in Lahore by using molecular techniques such as PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the C-prM gene junction of Dengue virus. Results Through the analysis of 114 serum samples collected over the period of three years (2007-2009), total 20 patients were found to be infected with dengue virus. In year 2007, four were positive for serotype 2 and one sample was positive for serotype DEN-3. In 2008, five samples had concurrent infection with serotypes DEN-2 and DEN-3 while three samples were infected only with serotype DEN-2. In year 2009, one sample had concurrent infection with serotypes DEN-2 and DEN-3 while six were positive for serotype DEN-2 only. Conclusions Our study showed that serotype DEN-2 was dominant in positive samples of dengue virus infection collected during the period of three years (2007-2009). The other serotype present was serotype DEN-3. Genotypes of serotype DEN-2 and serotype DEN-3 were subtype IV and subtype III, respectively. PMID:21906394

  2. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., an active raptor nest, or occupied den site; or (2) Engaging in photography within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  3. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., an active raptor nest, or occupied den site; or (2) Engaging in photography within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  4. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., an active raptor nest, or occupied den site; or (2) Engaging in photography within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  5. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., an active raptor nest, or occupied den site; or (2) Engaging in photography within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  6. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., an active raptor nest, or occupied den site; or (2) Engaging in photography within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  7. Futuristic Airframe Concepts & Technology (FACT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The distributed exhaust nozzle (DEN) components: view of the DEN nozzle from upstream looking downstream (looking out of the exit of the nozzle). Photographed in building 1221B, room 116, Jet Noise Lab.

  8. Development of DENVax: A chimeric dengue-2 PDK-53-based tetravalent vaccine for protection against dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Kinney, Richard M.; Stinchcomb, Dan T.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue. virus infection is the leading arboviral cause of disease worldwide. A vaccine is being developed based on the attenuated DEN-2 virus, DEN-2 PDK-53. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the parent DEN-2 PDK-53 strain as well as the chimeric viruses containing the prM and E genes of DEN-1, DEN-3 or DEN-4 virus in the genetic backbone of the DEN-2 PDK-53 virus (termed DENVax). Tetravalent DENVax formulations containing cloned, fully sequenced isolates of the DEN-2 PDK-53 virus and the three chimeras have been evaluated for safety and efficacy in preclinical animal models. Based on the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in preclinical studies, Phase 1 clinical testing of DENVax has been initiated. PMID:21777638

  9. Evolution: Treibende Kräfte in Natur und Kultur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuketits, Franz M.

    Vorbemerkung Der vorliegende Text ist sozusagen die Nachschrift meines im Dezember 2007 in Dresden gehaltenen Vortrags. Ich hielt den Vortrag im Wesentlichen in freier Rede, nur auf der Basis einiger Notizen, und schrieb den vollen Text danach. Dabei habe ich den Vortragsstil beibehalten. Allerdings habe ich nachträglich manches hinzugefügt, den Beitrag mit ein paar Anmerkungen versehen und einiges an zwischenzeitlich erschienener Literatur berücksichtigt.

  10. Monoclonal antibody-escape variant of dengue virus serotype 1: Genetic composition and envelope protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chem, Y K; Chua, K B; Malik, Y; Voon, K

    2015-06-01

    Monoclonal antibody-escape variant of dengue virus type 1 (MabEV DEN-1) was discovered and isolated in an outbreak of dengue in Klang Valley, Malaysia from December 2004 to March 2005. This study was done to investigate whether DEN152 (an isolate of MabEV DEN-1) is a product of recombination event or not. In addition, the non-synonymous mutations that correlate with the monoclonal antibody-escape variant were determined in this study. The genomes of DEN152 and two new DEN-1 isolates, DENB04 and DENK154 were completely sequenced, aligned, and compared. Phylogenetic tree was plotted and the recombination event on DEN152 was investigated. DEN152 is sub-grouped under genotype I and is closely related genetically to a DEN-1 isolated in Japan in 2004. DEN152 is not a recombinant product of any parental strains. Four amino acid substitutions were unique only to DEN 152. These amino acid substitutions were (Ser)[326](Leu), (Ser)[340](Leu) at the deduced E protein, (Ile)[250](Thr) at NS1 protein, and (Thr)[41](Ser) at NS5 protein. Thus, DEN152 is an isolate of the emerging monoclonal antibody-escape variant DEN-1 that escaped diagnostic laboratory detection. PMID:26691263

  11. Matthias Falter und die frühe Halbleitertechnik in der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Frank

    Nach einer ganzen Reihe von Vorarbeiten weltweit1 konnten im Dezember 1947 die amerikanischen Physiker Walter H. Brattain, John Bardeen und William Shockley in den Bell Laboratories den Transistoreffekt demonstrieren. Damit legten sie den Grundstein für die Mikroelektronik als Basistechnologie des Informationszeitalters.

  12. Trends in Dengue Cases Imported into the United States from Pan America 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve risk assessments of travel on dengue (DEN) virus (DENV) distribution. We investigated the exposure risk of US citizens traveling to DEN-endemic Pan American countries. The number of DEN cases reported in 51 Pan American countries from 2001 to 2012 was compared to the population of the same countries. The number of US travelers visiting the Pan American countries was categorized by region, and travel-related DEN infections were analyzed. US residents visiting the Dominican Republic exhibited the highest traveler-related DEN incidence. Brazil showed the most DEN cases in its residents (>1 million reported cases in 2010). The number of DEN cases continues to rise as does international travel and the geographic range of potential DENV vectors. DENV risk assessments may be improved by analyzing the possible routes of entry. Underreporting remains an issue for calculating DENV transmission risk by country and region. PMID:26766913

  13. Trends in Dengue Cases Imported into the United States from Pan America 2001–2012

    PubMed Central

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A.M.; Richards, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve risk assessments of travel on dengue (DEN) virus (DENV) distribution. We investigated the exposure risk of US citizens traveling to DEN-endemic Pan American countries. The number of DEN cases reported in 51 Pan American countries from 2001 to 2012 was compared to the population of the same countries. The number of US travelers visiting the Pan American countries was categorized by region, and travel-related DEN infections were analyzed. US residents visiting the Dominican Republic exhibited the highest traveler-related DEN incidence. Brazil showed the most DEN cases in its residents (>1 million reported cases in 2010). The number of DEN cases continues to rise as does international travel and the geographic range of potential DENV vectors. DENV risk assessments may be improved by analyzing the possible routes of entry. Underreporting remains an issue for calculating DENV transmission risk by country and region. PMID:26766913

  14. Bimetallic dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles as catalysts: a review of the research advances.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaohong; Pan, Qinmin; Rempel, Garry L

    2008-08-01

    Bimetallic dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are important materials, because they have demonstrated improvement in performance compared to the monometallic DENs in many systems when they are used as catalysts. This tutorial review focuses on the recent research advances in bimetallic DENs with respect to their synthesis, characterization, and applications as catalysts. Bimetallic DENs can be made mainly via three routes: co-complexation, sequential loading, and partial displacement. The research in bimetallic DENs has been significantly promoted by the advancement of characterization instruments. The performances of bimetallic DENs as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts in organic synthesis have been compared with both monometallic DENs and their physical mixtures. It is concluded that the synergistic electronic effect in bimetallic nanoparticles enhances their catalytic activities. PMID:18648686

  15. High Genetic Stability of Dengue Virus Propagated in MRC-5 Cells as Compared to the Virus Propagated in Vero Cells

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Michael; Wu, Suh-Chin

    2008-01-01

    This work investigated the replication kinetics of the four dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1 to DEN-4), including dengue virus type 4 (DEN-4) recovered from an infectious cDNA clone, in Vero cells and in MRC-5 cells grown on Cytodex 1 microcarriers. DEN-1 strain Hawaii, DEN-2 strain NGC, DEN-3 strain H-87, and DEN-4 strain H-241 , and DEN-4 strain 814669 derived from cloned DNA, were used to infect Vero cells and MRC-5 cells grown in serum-free or serum-containing microcarrier cultures. Serum-free and serum-containing cultures were found to yield comparable titers of these viruses. The cloned DNA-derived DEN-4 started genetically more homogeneous was used to investigate the genetic stability of the virus propagated in Vero cells and MRC-5 cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the DEN-4 propagated in MRC-5 cells maintained a high genetic stability, compared to the virus propagated in Vero cells. Amino acid substitutions of Gly104Cys and Phe108Ile were detected at 70%, 60%, respectively, in the envelope (E) protein of DEN-4 propagated in Vero cells, whereas a single mutation of Glu345Lys was detected at 50% in E of the virus propagated in MRC-5 cells. Sequencing of multiple clones of three separate DNA fragments spanning 40% of the genome also indicated that DEN-4 propagated in Vero cells contained a higher number of mutations than the virus growing in MRC-5 cells. Although Vero cells yielded a peak virus titer approximately 1 to 17 folds higher than MRC-5 cells, cloned DEN-4 from MRC-5 cells maintained a greater stability than the virus from Vero cells. Serum-free microcarrier cultures of MRC-5 cells offer a potentially valuable system for the large-scale production of live-attenuated DEN vaccines. PMID:18350148

  16. Structural and biophysical analysis of sero-specific immune responses using epitope grafted Dengue ED3 mutants.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manjiri R; Islam, Monirul M; Numoto, Nobutaka; Elahi, Montasir; Mahib, Mamunur R; Ito, Nobutoshi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    Dengue fever is a re-emerging tropical disease and its severe form is caused by cross-reactivity between its four serotypes (DEN1, DEN2, DEN3 and DEN4). The third domain of the viral envelope protein (ED3) contains the two major putative epitopes and is a highly suitable model protein for examining the molecular determinants of a virus' sero-specificity. Here we examine d the sero-specificity and cross-reactivity of the immune response against DEN3 and DEN4 ED3 using six epitope grafted ED3 variants where the surface-exposed epitope residues from DEN3 ED3 were switched to those of DEN4 ED3 and vice versa. We prepared anti-DEN3 and anti-DEN4 ED3 serum by immunizing Swiss albino mice and measured their reactivities against all six grafted mutants. As expected, both sera exhibited strong reactivity against its own serotype's ED3, and little cross-reactivity against their counterpart serotype's ED3s. E2 played a major role in the sero-specificity of anti-DEN3 serum, whereas E1 was important for DEN4 ED3's sero-specificity. Next, the reactivity patterns corroborated our working hypothesis that sero-specificity could be transferred by grafting the surface exposed epitope residues from one serotype to the other. To analyze the above results from a structural viewpoint, we determined the crystal structure of a DEN4 ED3 variant, where E2 was grafted from DEN3 ED3, at 2.78Å resolution and modeled the structures of the five remaining grafted variants by assuming that the overall backbone remained unchanged. The examination of the electrostatic and molecular surfaces of the variants suggested some further rationale for the sero-specificity of the immune responses. PMID:26160751

  17. Gelingende Integration? Anmerkungen zur Studie von D. Katzenbach u.a. uber den Hamburger Schulversuch "Integrative Grundschule" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590 (Successful Integration? Remarks on the Study by D. Katzenbach et al. on the Hamburg School Experiment "Integrative Elementary School" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Peter Martin

    1999-01-01

    Critiques two normative premises that guide the researchers' interpretation of results from the Hamburg School Experiment, an empirical study that focused on mainstreaming elementary students diagnosed as needing special education: (1) integrating these children in normal classrooms is legitimated; and (2) social integration should not preclude…

  18. Construction and characterization of chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue type 4 viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Pletnev, A G; Bray, M; Huggins, J; Lai, C J

    1992-01-01

    Dengue type 4 virus (DEN4) cDNA was used as a vector to express genes of the distantly related tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Full-length chimeric TBEV/DEN4 cDNAs were constructed by substituting TBEV genes coding for proteins such as capsid (C); pre-membrane, which is the precursor of membrane (M); envelope (E); or nonstructural protein NS1 for the corresponding DEN4 sequences. RNA transcripts prepared from cDNAs were used to transfect permissive simian cells. Two viable chimeric viruses that contained TBEV CME or ME genes were recovered. Compared with DEN4, chimeric TBE(ME)/DEN4 virus [designated vTBE(ME)/DEN4] produced larger plaques and grew to higher titer in simian cells. In contrast, vTBE(ME)/DEN4 produced smaller plaques on mosquito cells and grew to lower titer than DEN4. Analysis of viral RNA and proteins produced in vTBE(ME)/DEN4- and DEN4-infected mosquito or simian cells revealed that the chimera was restricted in its ability to enter and replicate in mosquito cells. In contrast, vTBE(ME)/DEN4 entered simian cells efficiently and its RNA was replicated more rapidly in these cells than was parental DEN4 RNA. Following intracerebral inoculation, vTBE(ME)/DEN4 caused fatal encephalitis in both suckling and adult mice, while nearly all mice inoculated by the same route with DEN4 did not develop disease. Unlike wild-type TBEV, vTBE(ME)/DEN4 did not cause encephalitis when adult mice were inoculated by a peripheral route. Adult mice previously inoculated with the chimera by a peripheral route were completely resistant to subsequent intraperitoneal challenge with 10(3) times the median lethal dose of TBEV, whereas mice previously inoculated with DEN4 were not protected. These findings indicate that (i) the TBEV M and E genes of the chimeric virus are major protective antigens and induce resistance to lethal TBEV challenge and (ii) other regions of the TBEV genome are essential for the ability of this virus to spread from a peripheral site to the brain

  19. Dengue Type 4 Live-Attenuated Vaccine Viruses Passaged in Vero Cells Affect Genetic Stability and Dengue-Induced Hemorrhaging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiang-Chi; Yen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Wen-Yu; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.; Wu, Suh-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Most live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccines in current clinical trials are produced from Vero cells. In a previous study we demonstrated that an infectious cDNA clone-derived dengue type 4 (DEN-4) virus retains higher genetic stability in MRC-5 cells than in Vero cells. For this study we investigated two DEN-4 viruses: the infectious cDNA clone-derived DEN-4 2A and its derived 3′ NCR 30-nucleotide deletion mutant DEN-4 2AΔ30, a vaccine candidate. Mutations in the C-prM-E, NS2B-NS3, and NS4B-NS5 regions of the DEN genome were sequenced and compared following cell passages in Vero and MRC-5 cells. Our results indicate stronger genetic stability in both viruses following MRC-5 cell passages, leading to significantly lower RNA polymerase error rates when the DEN-4 virus is used for genome replication. Although no significant increases in virus titers were observed following cell passages, DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2AΔ30 virus titers following Vero cell passages were 17-fold to 25-fold higher than titers following MRC-5 cell passages. Neurovirulence for DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2AΔ30 viruses increased significantly following passages in Vero cells compared to passages in MRC-5 cells. In addition, more severe DEN-induced hemorrhaging in mice was noted following DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2AΔ30 passages in Vero cells compared to passages in MRC-5 cells. Target mutagenesis performed on the DEN-4 2A infectious clone indicated that single point mutation of E-Q438H, E-V463L, NS2B-Q78H, and NS2B-A113T imperatively increased mouse hemorrhaging severity. The relationship between amino acid mutations acquired during Vero cell passage and enhanced DEN-induced hemorrhages in mice may be important for understanding DHF pathogenesis, as well as for the development of live-attenuated dengue vaccines. Taken together, the genetic stability, virus yield, and DEN-induced hemorrhaging all require further investigation in the context of live-attenuated DEN vaccine development. PMID:22053180

  20. Physikgeschichte Das Rätsel bleibt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2002-05-01

    Die jüngst erfolgte Veröffentlichung von Dokumenten aus dem Privatarchiv der Familie Bohr [1] über den geheimnisumwitterten Besuch von Werner Heisenberg in Kopenhagen im September 1941 hat in den deutschen Medien große Resonanz gefunden [2]. Tatsächlich verraten uns die jetzt veröffentlichten Dokumente sehr viel mehr über die Zeit ihres Entstehens als über den Besuch selbst.

  1. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  2. Seasonal regulation of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in the American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Stanley; Morgan-Boyd, Rebecca; Nelson, Ralph; Garshelis, David L; Turyk, Mary E; Unterman, Terry

    2011-10-01

    The American black bear maintains lean body mass for months without food during winter denning. We asked whether changes in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis may contribute to this remarkable adaptation to starvation. Serum IGF-I levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) were analyzed by ligand blotting. Initial studies in bears living in the wild showed that IGF-I levels are highest in summer and lowest in early winter denning. Detailed studies in captive bears showed that IGF-I levels decline in autumn when bears are hyperphagic, continue to decline in early denning, and later rise above predenning levels despite continued starvation in the den. IGFBP-2 increased and IGFBP-3 decreased in early denning, and these changes were also reversed in later denning. Treatment with GH (0.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) × 6 days) during early denning increased serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lowered levels of IGFBP-2, indicating that denning bears remain responsive to GH. GH treatment lowered blood urea nitrogen levels, reflecting effects on protein metabolism. GH also accelerated weight loss and markedly increased serum levels of free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, resulting in a ketoacidosis (bicarbonate decreased to 15 meq/l), which was reversed when GH was withdrawn. These results demonstrate seasonal regulation of GH/IGF-I axis activity in black bears. Diminished GH activity may promote fat storage in autumn in preparation for denning and prevent excessive mobilization and premature exhaustion of fat stores in early denning, whereas restoration of GH/IGF activity in later denning may prepare the bear for normal activity outside the den. PMID:21730258

  3. Wolfgang Pauli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, Charles P.

    2000-11-01

    Wolfgang Pauli gehört zu den bedeutendsten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts. Erst das von ihm entdeckte Ausschließungsprinzip erklärt den Aufbau des Periodensystems der Elemente. Darüber hinaus legte er den Grundstein für die Quantenfeldtheorie. Privat zeigte sich Pauli als bissiger und humorvoller Mensc gleichermaßen, und sein Hang zur Psychoanalyse lässt ihn überdies als interessante Persönlichkeit erscheinen.

  4. Dynamics and functional differences between dendroaspin and rhodostomin: insights into protein scaffolds in integrin recognition.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chun-Ho; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shiu, Jia-Hau; Chang, Yao-Tsung; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hau; Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2012-12-01

    Dendroaspin (Den) and rhodostomin (Rho) are snake venom proteins containing a PRGDMP motif. Although Den and Rho have different 3D structures, they are highly potent integrin inhibitors. To study their structure, function, and dynamics relationships, we expressed Den and Rho in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Den and Rho inhibited platelet aggregation with the K(I) values of 149.8 and 83.2 nM. Cell adhesion analysis showed that Den was 3.7 times less active than Rho when inhibiting the integrin αIIbβ3 and 2.5 times less active when inhibiting the integrin αvβ3. In contrast, Den and Rho were similarly active when inhibiting the integrin α5β1 with the IC₅₀ values of 239.8 and 256.8 nM. NMR analysis showed that recombinant Den and Rho have different 3D conformations for their arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. However, the comparison with Rho showed that the docking of Den into integrin αvβ3 resulted in a similar number of contacts. Analysis of the dynamic properties of the RGD loop in Den and Rho showed that they also had different dynamic properties. These results demonstrate that protein scaffolds affect the function, structure, and dynamics of their RGD motif. PMID:23033223

  5. Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther-Klaus, Ellen

    Deutschland hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten den internationalen Ruf erworben, auf dem Gebiet der Technologie führend zu sein. Große, weitreichende Erfindungen sind in Deutschland gemacht worden. Viele Nobelpreise gehen nach Deutschland: Robert Bosch, Nikolaus Otto und Konrad Zuse gehören genauso zu den großen Erfindern, wie Melitta Bentz und Emmy Noether. 85 % aller Nobelpreise, die seit 1901 nach Deutschland gingen, sind in den Kategorien Chemie, Physik und Medizin vergeben worden. Allein im Jahr 2007 wurden in Deutschland fast 50.000 Patente angemeldet.

  6. Dynamics and functional differences between dendroaspin and rhodostomin: Insights into protein scaffolds in integrin recognition

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chun-Ho; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shiu, Jia-Hau; Chang, Yao-Tsung; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hau; Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2012-01-01

    Dendroaspin (Den) and rhodostomin (Rho) are snake venom proteins containing a PRGDMP motif. Although Den and Rho have different 3D structures, they are highly potent integrin inhibitors. To study their structure, function, and dynamics relationships, we expressed Den and Rho in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Den and Rho inhibited platelet aggregation with the KI values of 149.8 and 83.2 nM. Cell adhesion analysis showed that Den was 3.7 times less active than Rho when inhibiting the integrin αIIbβ3 and 2.5 times less active when inhibiting the integrin αvβ3. In contrast, Den and Rho were similarly active when inhibiting the integrin α5β1 with the IC50 values of 239.8 and 256.8 nM. NMR analysis showed that recombinant Den and Rho have different 3D conformations for their arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. However, the comparison with Rho showed that the docking of Den into integrin αvβ3 resulted in a similar number of contacts. Analysis of the dynamic properties of the RGD loop in Den and Rho showed that they also had different dynamic properties. These results demonstrate that protein scaffolds affect the function, structure, and dynamics of their RGD motif. PMID:23033223

  7. 76 FR 22104 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ..., (Qualifying Individual), Harrison Cutler, Chairman, Application Type: Trade Name Change Den Helder Inc. (NVO... John Crosland Jr. Way, Charlotte, NC 28208, Officers: William A. Pottow, Vice President...

  8. From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Ultrahigh Selectivity - Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard M. Crooks

    2007-04-11

    (A) Synthesis, Characterization, and Fundamental Properties of Bimetallic DENs. AuAg alloy and core/shell bimetallic DENs were synthesized and characterized. Selective extraction was used as a structural characterization tool for these bimetallic nanoparticles. This is significant because there are few easily accessible methods for structure elucidation of bimetallic nanoparticles in this size regime. As a first step towards the synthesis of catalytically active, bimetallic heterogeneous materials we reported the incorporation of Au and Pd monometallic DENs and AuPd bimetallic DENs into amorphous titania networks. The compositional fidelity of the original DENs, and to some extent their size, is retained following dendrimer removal. Gas-phase catalytic activity for CO oxidation is higher for the bimetallic catalysts than for the corresponding Pd-only and Au-only monometallics. (B) Electrocatalysts based on dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles. Platinum dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) were prepared within fourth-generation, hydroxyl-terminated, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes using an electrochemical immobilization strategy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and electrochemical experiments confirm that the Pt DENs are about 1.4 nm in diameter and that they remain within the dendrimer following surface immobilization. The resulting Pt DEN films were electrocatalytically active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The films are also robust, surviving up to 50 consecutive cyclic voltammograms and sonication. Monometallic Pd DENs were also prepared and found to have little catalytic activity for the ORR. However, PtPd bimetallic DENs had catalytic activity nearly identical to that found for Pt-only DENs. This indicates an overall catalytic enhancement for the bimetallic electrocatalysts.

  9. Rede und Gesinnung (Speech and Ways of Thinking)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzle, Bertram

    1974-01-01

    Analyzes some of the basic ideas in Georg Franklin's book "Versuch einer neuen Lehre von den vornehmsten Gegenstanden der deutschen Sprachlehre; nach den Regeln der Vernunftlehre in sechs Abhandlungen verfasst" (1778) and compares them to those of such modern linguists and philosophers a s Searle, Austin and Wunderlich. Concludes that the…

  10. Nationale Roadmap Embedded Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, Werner; Achatz, Reinhold; Beetz, Klaus; Broy, Manfred; Daembkes, Heinrich; Grimm, Klaus; Liggesmeyer, Peter

    Eingebettete Systeme" sind in ihrem Softwareanteil nicht sichtbar und doch hoch relevant für den Wirtschaftsstandort Deutschland. Ihre Bedeutung fasst die vorliegende Nationale Roadmap Embedded Systems in den folgenden 10 Thesen zusammen: These 1 Die zentralen ökonomischen und gesellschaftlichen Herausforderungen in Deutschland lassen sich ohne die Querschnittstechnologie Embedded Systems nicht lösen1.

  11. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  12. Individual variation in space use by female spotted hyenas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Szykman, M.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Large carnivores range more widely than many other terrestrial mammals, and this behavior tends to bring them into frequent conflict with humans. Within any carnivore population, individual variation in patterns of space use should be expected to make some animals more vulnerable than others to risks of mortality from humans and other sources. In this study, our goal was to document variation among individuals in space use by female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). We examined predictions of hypotheses suggesting that space use by female hyenas is affected by reproductive state, social rank, and local prey abundance. Home-range size, distance at which females were found from the current communal den, and distance at which they were found from the nearest territorial boundary all varied significantly with the 3 independent variables. Females with den-dwelling cubs had smaller home ranges, were found closer to the communal den, and were found farther from the territorial boundary than were females with no den-dwelling cubs. Neither social rank nor prey availability significantly influenced the space-use patterns of females with den-dwelling cubs. Among females with no den-dwelling cubs, high-ranking females had smaller home ranges, were closer to the communal den, and were farther from the territorial boundary than were low-ranking females. The females ranging most widely were low-ranking individuals with no den-dwelling cubs when they were observed during periods of prey scarcity.

  13. Molekularbiologische Speziesdifferenzierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäde, Dietrich

    Der Speziesnachweis in Lebensmitteln dient der Analyse, aus welchen Tier- und Pflanzenarten die Erzeugnisse hergestellt wurden. Die Information darüber ist sowohl für den Gesundheitsschutz als auch für den Schutz vor Täuschungspraktiken und zur Information des Verbrauchers wichtig.

  14. 75 FR 24545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Polar Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... bears den infrequently, such as barrier islands that do not contain denning habitat; barrier islands in...-disturbance area around the barrier islands; Norton Sound and Norton Bay; the Seward Peninsula; and sea-ice... critical habitat for the polar bear that we published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2009 (74...

  15. CHIMERIC WEST NILE/DENGUE VIRUS VACCINE CANDIDATE: PRECLINICAL EVALUATION IN MICE, GEESE, AND MONKEYS FOR SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A live attenuated virus vaccine is being developed to protect against West Nile virus (WN) disease in humans. Previously, it was found that chimeric West Nile/dengue viruses (WN/DEN4 and WN/DEN4-delta-30) bearing the membrane precursor and envelope protein genes of WN on a backbone of dengue type 4 ...

  16. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  17. Long-term tocotrienol supplementation and glutathione-dependent enzymes during hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rahmat, A; Wan Ngah, W Z; Gapor, A; Khalid, B A

    1993-09-01

    The effects of long-term administration of tocotrienol on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats induced by diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were investigated by the determination of plasma and liver gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), cytosolic glutathione reductase (GSSG-Rx), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Twenty-eight male Rattus norwegicus rats (120-160g) were divided according to treatments into four groups: control group, tocotrienol - supplemented diet group (30mg/kg food), DEN/AAF-treated group and DEN/AAF treated plus tocotrienol-supplemented-diet group (30mg/kg food). The rats were sacrificed after nine months. The results obtained indicated no difference in the morphology and histology of the livers of control and tocotrienol-treated rats. Greyish-white neoplastic nodules (two per liver) were found in all the DEN/ AAF treated rats (n-10) whereas only one nodule was found in one of the carcinogen treated rats receiving tocotrienol supplementation (n-6). Histological examination showed obvious cellular damage for both the DEN/AAF-treated rats and the tocotrienol-supplemented rats but were less severe in the latter. Treatment with DEN/AAF caused increases in GGT, GSH-Px, GST and GSSG-Rx activities when compared to controls. These increases were also observed when tocotrienol was supplemented with DEN/AAF but the increases were less when compared to the rats receiving DEN/AAF only. PMID:24352144

  18. Qualitätsmanagementsysteme - Teil 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghezzi, Hans-Dieter; Wasmer, René

    Medizinprodukte haben grundsätzlich hohen Sicherheitskriterien zu genügen, zuverlässig zu funktionieren und dadurch den erwarteten Gesundheitsschutz und Patientennutzen zu gewährleisten. Dies erfordert schon beim Hersteller ein gut funktionierendes und systematisches Qualitätsmanagement welches dafür bürgt, dass bereits zum Zeitpunkt der Inverkehrbringung neuer Produkte die Konformität mit den Anforderungen besteht und nachweisbar ist. In den 90er Jahren sind insbesondere in Europa die anzuwendenden technischen Regeln für den Bereich der Medizinprodukte spürbar harmonisiert worden. Der Gesetzgeber hat dabei die Anwendung von Qualitätsmanagementsystemen stark gefördert und in den gesetzlichen Vorgaben verankert. Eigenverantwortung und Eigenkontrolle haben dadurch bei der Herstellung von Medizinprodukten höhere Bedeutung erlangt und sind unabdingbar wenn es um die erfolgreiche Marktzulassung geht.

  19. Evolutionary relationships of endemic/epidemic and sylvatic dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, E; Ni, H; Xu, R; Barrett, A D; Watowich, S J; Gubler, D J; Weaver, S C

    2000-04-01

    Endemic/epidemic dengue viruses (DEN) that are transmitted among humans by the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are hypothesized to have evolved from sylvatic DEN strains that are transmitted among nonhuman primates in West Africa and Malaysia by other Aedes mosquitoes. We tested this hypothesis with phylogenetic studies using envelope protein gene sequences of both endemic/epidemic and sylvatic strains. The basal position of sylvatic lineages of DEN-1, -2, and -4 suggested that the endemic/epidemic lineages of these three DEN serotypes evolved independently from sylvatic progenitors. Time estimates for evolution of the endemic/epidemic forms ranged from 100 to 1,500 years ago, and the evolution of endemic/epidemic forms represents relatively recent events in the history of DEN evolution. Analysis of envelope protein amino acid changes predicted to have accompanied endemic/epidemic emergence suggested a role for domain III in adaptation to new mosquito and/or human hosts. PMID:10708439

  20. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schröder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  1. Dengue 2 genotypes in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, A; Díaz-Badillo, A; Cruz-Martínez, G; Tovar, R; Ramírez-Palacios, L R; Jiménez-Rojas, F; Beaty, B; Black, W C; de Lourdes Muñoz, M

    2006-01-01

    To genetically characterize dengue 2 (DEN-2) viruses in Oaxaca, Mexico, the C protein, and a portion of the prM protein genes of 8 isolates from the 2001 DEN epidemic were sequenced. The sequences were compared to those of prototype DEN-2 viruses from various parts of the world. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the 2001 isolates of DEN-2 were of the American/Asian genotype and were most similar to the Jamaica and Venezuelan isolates MARA3, LARD1996 and LARD1910. Molecular analyses confirmed the origin of the isolates. This study indicates that DEN-2 strains of American/Asian genotype probably from Southeast Asian are circulating in Oaxaca. PMID:16096709

  2. A Microcantilever Sensor Array for the Detection and Inventory of Desert Tortoises

    SciTech Connect

    Venedam, R. J.; Dillingham, T. R.

    2008-07-01

    We have designed and tested a portable instrument consisting of a small infrared camera coupled with an array of piezoresistive microcantilever sensors that is used to provide real-time, non-invasive data on desert tortoise den occupancy. The piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) sensors are used to obtain a chemical “signature” of tortoise presence from the air deep within the dens, and provide data in cases where the camera cannot extend deep enough into the den to provide visual evidence of tortoise presence. The infrared camera was used to verify the PMC data during testing, and in many cases, such as shallower dens, may be used to provide exact numbers on den populations.

  3. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.; D'Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-12-15

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

  4. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity. Final report, September 15, 1988--September 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.; D`Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-12-15

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

  5. Measurements and Predictions for a Distributed Exhaust Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Brown, Martha C.; Schein, David B.; Solomon, W. David, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The acoustic and aerodynamic performance characteristics of a distributed exhaust nozzle (DEN) design concept were evaluated experimentally and analytically with the purpose of developing a design methodology for developing future DEN technology. Aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were made to evaluate the DEN performance and the CFD design tool. While the CFD approach did provide an excellent prediction of the flowfield and aerodynamic performance characteristics of the DEN and 2D reference nozzle, the measured acoustic suppression potential of this particular DEN was low. The measurements and predictions indicated that the mini-exhaust jets comprising the distributed exhaust coalesced back into a single stream jet very shortly after leaving the nozzles. Even so, the database provided here will be useful for future distributed exhaust designs with greater noise reduction and aerodynamic performance potential.

  6. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  7. Enhanced cytokine production and collagen synthesis of gingival fibroblasts from patients with denture fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Nakao, K; Yoneda, K; Osaki, T

    1995-04-01

    The mechanisms of denture-induced gingival hypertrophy remain to be explored. Since fibroblast proliferation and bone resorption characterize this disorder, the possible involvement of cytokines was investigated. Gingival fibroblasts were obtained from six patients with denture fibromatosis (Den-Fb) and six healthy persons (Nor-Fb). Cells were compared for proliferation, collagen synthesis, and cytokine production. Incorporation of [3H]thymidine (TdR) was increased in 3 Den-Fb and 3 Nor-Fb lines in the presence of interleukin-1-beta (IL-1 beta) (10 U/mL) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (from 10 to 100 U/mL). Proline incorporation in Den-Fb was higher than that in Nor-Fb, and the mean collagen synthesis level in Den-Fb was significantly higher than that in Nor-Fb. Although there was no difference between the up-regulation of protein synthesis in Den-Fb and Nor-Fb induced by IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha, the receptors for these cytokines were expressed at higher levels in cell lines which exhibited higher protein synthesis. Between Nor-Fb and Den-Fb, there was no difference in the generation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, most Den-Fb produced more GM-CSF and IL-6 in the presence of TNF-alpha. Enhancement of IL-6 generation by GM-CSF was also more prominent in Den-Fb. GM-CSF and IL-6 were synergistically generated after co-culture of the fibroblasts with gingival keratinocytes. GM-CSF and IL-6 generation of Den-Fb was markedly enhanced by co-culture of Den-Fb with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), especially PBMC from patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7782537

  8. Adult mouse model of early hepatocellular carcinoma promoted by alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ambade, Aditya; Satishchandran, Abhishek; Gyongyosi, Benedek; Lowe, Patrick; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To establish a mouse model of alcohol-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that develops in livers with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 male mice received multiple doses of chemical carcinogen diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 7 wk of 4% Lieber-DeCarli diet. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and liver Cyp2e1 were assessed. Expression of F4/80, CD68 for macrophages and Ly6G, MPO, E-selectin for neutrophils was measured. Macrophage polarization was determined by IL-1β/iNOS (M1) and Arg-1/IL-10/CD163/CD206 (M2) expression. Liver steatosis and fibrosis were measured by oil-red-O and Sirius red staining respectively. HCC development was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging, confirmed by histology. Cellular proliferation was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). RESULTS: Alcohol-DEN mice showed higher ALTs than pair fed-DEN mice throughout the alcohol feeding without weight gain. Alcohol feeding resulted in increased ALT, liver steatosis and inflammation compared to pair-fed controls. Alcohol-DEN mice had reduced steatosis and increased fibrosis indicating advanced liver disease. Molecular characterization showed highest levels of both neutrophil and macrophage markers in alcohol-DEN livers. Importantly, M2 macrophages were predominantly higher in alcohol-DEN livers. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased numbers of intrahepatic cysts and liver histology confirmed the presence of early HCC in alcohol-DEN mice compared to all other groups. This correlated with increased serum alpha-fetoprotein, a marker of HCC, in alcohol-DEN mice. PCNA immunostaining revealed significantly increased hepatocyte proliferation in livers from alcohol-DEN compared to pair fed-DEN or alcohol-fed mice. CONCLUSION: We describe a new 12-wk HCC model in adult mice that develops in livers with alcoholic hepatitis and defines ALD as co-factor in HCC. PMID:27122661

  9. Capture, Anesthesia, and Disturbance of Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) during Hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Alina L.; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Fahlman, Åsa; Brunberg, Sven; Madslien, Knut; Fröbert, Ole; Swenson, Jon E.; Arnemo, Jon M.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted thirteen immobilizations of previously collared hibernating two- to four-year-old brown bears (Ursus arctos) weighing 21–66 kg in central Sweden in winter 2010 and 2011 for comparative physiology research. Here we report, for the first time, an effective protocol for the capture and anesthesia of free-ranging brown bears during hibernation and an assessment of the disturbance the captures caused. Bears were darted in anthill, soil, or uprooted tree dens on eleven occasions, but two bears in rock dens fled and were darted outside the den. We used medetomidine at 0.02–0.06 mg/kg and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.9–2.8 mg/kg for anesthesia. In addition, ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg was hand-injected intramuscularly in four bears and in six it was included in the dart at 1.1–3.0 mg/kg. Once anesthetized, bears were removed from the dens. In nine bears, arterial blood samples were analyzed immediately with a portable blood gas analyzer. We corrected hypoxemia in seven bears (PaO2 57–74 mmHg) with supplemental oxygen. We placed the bears back into the dens and antagonized the effect of medetomidine with atipamezole. Capturing bears in the den significantly increased the risk of den abandonment. One of twelve collared bears that were captured remained at the original den until spring, and eleven, left their dens (mean ± standard deviation) 3.2±3.6 (range 0.5–10.5) days after capture. They used 1.9±0.9 intermediate resting sites, during 6.2±7.8 days before entering a new permanent den. The eleven new permanent dens were located 730±589 m from the original dens. We documented that it was feasible and safe to capture hibernating brown bears, although they behaved differently than black bears. When doing so, researchers should use 25% of the doses used for helicopter darting during the active period and should consider increased energetic costs associated with den abandonment. PMID:22815757

  10. Capture, anesthesia, and disturbance of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alina L; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Fahlman, Åsa; Brunberg, Sven; Madslien, Knut; Fröbert, Ole; Swenson, Jon E; Arnemo, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    We conducted thirteen immobilizations of previously collared hibernating two- to four-year-old brown bears (Ursus arctos) weighing 21-66 kg in central Sweden in winter 2010 and 2011 for comparative physiology research. Here we report, for the first time, an effective protocol for the capture and anesthesia of free-ranging brown bears during hibernation and an assessment of the disturbance the captures caused. Bears were darted in anthill, soil, or uprooted tree dens on eleven occasions, but two bears in rock dens fled and were darted outside the den. We used medetomidine at 0.02-0.06 mg/kg and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.9-2.8 mg/kg for anesthesia. In addition, ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg was hand-injected intramuscularly in four bears and in six it was included in the dart at 1.1-3.0 mg/kg. Once anesthetized, bears were removed from the dens. In nine bears, arterial blood samples were analyzed immediately with a portable blood gas analyzer. We corrected hypoxemia in seven bears (PaO(2) 57-74 mmHg) with supplemental oxygen. We placed the bears back into the dens and antagonized the effect of medetomidine with atipamezole. Capturing bears in the den significantly increased the risk of den abandonment. One of twelve collared bears that were captured remained at the original den until spring, and eleven, left their dens (mean ± standard deviation) 3.2±3.6 (range 0.5-10.5) days after capture. They used 1.9±0.9 intermediate resting sites, during 6.2±7.8 days before entering a new permanent den. The eleven new permanent dens were located 730±589 m from the original dens. We documented that it was feasible and safe to capture hibernating brown bears, although they behaved differently than black bears. When doing so, researchers should use 25% of the doses used for helicopter darting during the active period and should consider increased energetic costs associated with den abandonment. PMID:22815757

  11. Microbial fuel cell cathode with dendrimer encapsulated Pt nanoparticles as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Lu, Jindan; Zhu, Yihua; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianmei; Chen, Cheng; Li, Chunzhong

    In this paper, we investigated the use of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-encapsulated platinum nanoparticles (Pt-DENs) as a promising type of cathode catalyst for air-cathode single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs). The Pt-DENs, prepared via template synthesis method, have uniform diameter distribution with size range of 3-5 nm. The Pt-DENs then loaded on to a carbon substrate. For comparison, we also electrodeposited Pt on carbon substrate. The calculation shows that the loading amount of Pt-DENs on carbon substrate is about 0.1 mg cm -2, which is three times lower than that of the electrodeposited Pt (0.3 mg cm -2). By measuring batch experiments, the results show that Pt-DENs in air-cathode SCMFCs have a power density of 630 ± 5 mW m -2 and a current density of 5200 ± 10 mA m -2 (based on the projected anodic surface area), which is significantly better than electrodeposited Pt cathodes (power density: 275 ± 5 mW m -2 and current density: 2050 ± 10 mA m -2). Additionally, Pt-DENs-based cathodes resulted in a higher power production with 129.1% as compared to cathode with electrodeposited Pt. This finding suggests that Pt-DENs in MFC cathodes is a better catalyst and has a lower loading amount than electrodeposited Pt, and may serve as a novel and alternative catalyst to previously used noble metals in MFC applications.

  12. Clinical differences among PCR-proven dengue serotype infections.

    PubMed

    Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Yingsakmongkon, Sangchai; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Chuananon, Somchai; Kongphrai, Yuphin; Kowasupathr, Surasak; Rojanawatsirivit, Chaiyaporn; Mammen, Mammen P; Jampangern, Wipawee

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical spectra of the dengue serotypes proven by the PCR technique. This retrospective study reviewed the clinical information of dengue-infected patients who were admitted to northeastern provincial hospitals in Thailand from June to September 2002. Dengue infection and viral serotypes were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Paired anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM from paired sera were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ninety-nine PCR-proven dengue-infected Thai patients were studied. Their ages ranged from 3-30 years. They were infected with DEN1, DEN2, DEN3 and DEN4 in 21, 55, 12, and 12%, respectively. Twenty-two percent had primary and 78% had secondary infections. Dengue fever was the most common presentation for both primary (77.2%) and secondary infections (46.7%). The ratios of dengue fever:dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF:DHF) and non-dengue shock syndrome:dengue shock syndrome (non-DSS:DSS) for DEN2 was the lowest of the dengue serotypes. There was no difference in the duration of fever, percentage of hepatomegaly and bleeding among the serotypes in both DF and DHF. The trends in the white blood cells, lymphocyte and atypical lymphocyte counts in DEN3 were the highest, while those of DEN1 were the lowest of the dengue serotypes. PMID:16610645

  13. Awareness of changing trends in epidemiology of dengue fever is essential for epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, A; Matlani, M; Kashyap, B; Kumar, A

    2012-01-01

    Dengue has become endemic in India with outbreaks occurring almost every year. The seroprevalence and serotypic data of the last 7 years in samples obtained from suspected dengue patients from a tertiary care hospital were analyzed. Out of 7846 serum samples received in the virology laboratory from suspected dengue cases during 2002 to 2008, 2366 (30.15%) were serologically confirmed. Serotyping was done using mRT-PCR. All the four serotypes were detected in 2003, while data in 2004, 2005 and 2006 revealed the the predominance of Den-3. In the year 2007 predominance of Den-2 was observed, whereas in 2008 Den-1 was the most common serotype isolated. Overall, Den-2 and Den-3 were the most predominant serotypes during 2003-2007 but Den-1 replaced these strains in the year 2008. Since the emergence of a new predominant strain can lead to the occurrence of an outbreak, presence of Den-1 in the year 2008 would pose an alarming situation before us. Well-targeted population-based epidemiological studies are urgently required to control dengue menace. PMID:22664443

  14. Calligonum comosum extract inhibits diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    ABDO, WALIED; HIRATA, AKIHIRO; SHUKRY, MOSTAFA; KAMAL, TAREK; ABDEL-SATTAR, ESSAM; MAHROUS, ENGI; YANAI, TOKUMA

    2015-01-01

    Calligonum comosum (C. comosum) is an Egyptian desert plant that contains polyphenol antioxidants. The present study examined the chemopreventive effect of an extract of C. comosum in a rat model of hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats (n=40) were administered 100 mg/kg diethylnitrosamine (DEN) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection once a week for 3 weeks. Subsequently, depending on whether the rats received further administration of 0.8 mg/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) i.p. once a week for 7 weeks and 100 mg/kg C. comosum extract in their diet for 7 weeks, the rats were divided into four groups as follows: Group 1, treatment with DEN alone; group 2, treatment with DEN and C. comosum extract; group 3, treatment with DEN and CCl4; and group 4, treatment with DEN, CCl4 and C. comosum extract. The supplementation of C. comosum extract significantly suppressed the elevation in serum liver enzyme levels, including aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase and γ-glutamyl transferase, and reduced the degree of oval cell proliferation induced by DEN and CCl4. In addition, C. comosum extract significantly decreased the number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive preneoplastic hepatic foci induced by DEN, with or without CCl4 treatment. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to provide definitive evidence of the hepatoprotective and chemopreventive effects of C. comosum. PMID:26622559

  15. Dengue viruses can infect human primary lung epithelia as well as lung carcinoma cells, and can also induce the secretion of IL-6 and RANTES.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ying-Ray; Su, Ching-Yao; Chow, Nan-Haw; Lai, Wu-Wei; Lei, Huan-Yao; Chang, Chia-Lun; Chang, Tsuey-Yu; Chen, Shun-Hua; Lin, Yee-Shin; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2007-06-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV) are herein demonstrated for the first time as being able to infect and replicate in human primary lung epithelium and various lung cancer cell lines. The detection of dengue virus particles and viral negative strand RNA synthesis in the cell, in conjunction with the release of viral progenies in culture supernatants, support the notion that lung cells are susceptible to dengue virus infection. The replication efficiency of DENV in lung cancer cells from high to low is: DEN-2 (dengue virus type-2), DEN-3, DEN-4 and DEN-1. Moreover, the susceptibility of the six lung cancer cell lines to DEN-2 infection is: SW1573>A549>H1435; H23; H520; Bes2B. DEN-2 infection significantly increased the expression levels of IL-6 and RANTES in four of the six lung cancer cell lines, which is consistent with the high expression levels of these molecules in DHF/DSS patients. IL-6 expression induced by DEN-2 infection was NF-kappaB dependent. In summary, our results indicate that lung epithelial cell is a possible target of dengue viruses and IL-6 and RANTES may play pivotal roles in lung related immuno-pathogenesis. PMID:17416433

  16. A spring aerial census of red foxes in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Pfeifer, W.K.; Allen, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic aerial searches were flown on transects to locate adult red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pups, and rearing dens on 559.4 km2 (six townships) in eastern North Dakota during mid-May and mid-June each year from 1969 through 1973 and during mid-April 1969 and early May 1970. The combined sightings of foxes and fox dens from the mid-May and mid-June searches were used to identify individual fox families. The number of fox families was used as the measurement of density. Dens, highly visible during the mid-May searches, were the most reliable family indicator; 84 percent of 270 families identified during the study were represented by dens. Adult foxes second in importance, were most observable during the mid-May searches when 20 to 35 percent of those estimated to be available were sighted. Adult sightings during other search periods ranged from 4 to 17 percent of those available. Pup sightings were the most variable family indicator, but they led to the discovery of some dens. Sources of error for which adjustment factors were determined are: den moves exceeding criterion established for the spacing of dens in a single family, overestimation of the number of fox families living near township boundaries, and the percentage of fox families overlooked during the aerial searches. These adjustment factors appeared to be largely compensatory.

  17. Early activation of natural killer and B cells in response to primary dengue virus infection in A/J mice.

    PubMed

    Shresta, Sujan; Kyle, Jennifer L; Robert Beatty, P; Harris, Eva

    2004-02-20

    Dengue virus (DEN) causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans worldwide. Immune mechanisms that are involved in protection and pathogenesis of DEN infection have not been fully elucidated due largely to the lack of an adequate animal model. Therefore, as a first step, we characterized the primary immune response in immunocompetent inbred A/J mice that were infected intravenously with a non-mouse-adapted DEN type 2 (DEN2) strain. A subset (55%) of infected mice developed paralysis by 14 days post-infection (p.i.), harbored infectious DEN in the central nervous system (CNS), and had an elevated hematocrit and a decreased white blood cell (WBC) count. Immunologic studies detected (i). increased numbers of CD69(+) splenic natural killer (NK) and B cells at day 3 p.i., (ii). DEN-specific IgM and IgG responses by days 3 and 7 p.i., respectively, and (iii). splenocyte production of IFNgamma at day 14 p.i. We conclude that the early activities of NK cells, B cells and IgM, and later actions of IFNgamma and IgG likely play a role in the defense against DEN infection. PMID:14980486

  18. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  19. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  20. Modeling and experimental assessment of a buried Leu-Ile mutation in dengue envelope domain III.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manjiri R; Numoto, Nobutaka; Ito, Nobutoshi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2016-02-26

    Envelope protein domain III (ED3) of the dengue virus is important for both antibody binding and host cell interaction. Here, we focused on how a L387I mutation in the protein core could take place in DEN4 ED3, but cannot be accommodated in DEN3 ED3 without destabilizing its structure. To this end, we modeled a DEN4_L387I structure using the Penultimate Rotamer Library and taking the DEN4 ED3 main-chain as a fixed template. We found that three out of seven Ile(387) conformers fit in DEN4 ED3 without introducing the severe atomic clashes that are observed when DEN3 serotype's ED3 is used as a template. A more extensive search using 273 side-chain rotamers of the residues surrounding Ile(387) confirmed this prediction. In order to assess the prediction, we determined the crystal structure of DEN4_L387I at 2 Å resolution. Ile(387) indeed adopted one of the three predicted rotamers. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of single mutations are to a large extent successfully predicted by systematically modeling the side-chain structures of the mutated as well as those of its surrounding residues using fixed main-chain structures and assessing inter-atomic steric clashes. More accurate and reliable predictions require considering sub-angstrom main-chain deformation, which remains a challenging task. PMID:26826384

  1. Expression of heat shock protein 72 in atrophied rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Talmadge, R. J.; Ohira, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) in response to atrophic-inducing perturbations of muscle involving chronic mechanical unloading and denervation were determined. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a sedentary cage control (CON), hind limb unloading (HU, via tail suspension), HU plus tenotomy (HU + TEN), HU plus denervation (HU + DEN), or HU + TEN + DEN group. Tenotomy and DEN involved cutting the Achilles tendon and removing a segment of the sciatic nerve, respectively. After 5 days, HSP72 levels in the soleus of the HU + DEN and HU + TEN + DEN groups were 42 (P < 0.05) and 53% (P < 0.01) less than CON, respectively. Soleus weight decreased in both groups. Heat shock protein 72 levels in the plantaris of the HU + TEN, HU + DEN, and HU + TEN + DEN groups were 31, 25, and 30% lower than CON, respectively (P < 0.05). Plantaris weight decreased in the HU + DEN and HU + TEN + DEN, but not in the HU + TEN group. Hind limb unloading alone had little effect on the HSP72 level in either muscle. Reduced levels of HSP72 were associated with a decreased soleus (r=0.62, P < 0.01) and plantaris (r=0.78, P < 0.001) weight. These results indicate that the levels of HSP72 in both a slow and a fast rat plantarflexor are responsive to a chronic decrease in the levels of loading and/or activation and suggest that the neuromuscular activity level and the presence of innervation of a muscle are important factors that induce HSP72 expression.

  2. Targeted Mutagenesis as a Rational Approach to Dengue Virus Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, Joseph E.; Durbin, Anna P.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    The recombinant dengue virus type 4 (rDEN4) vaccine candidate, rDEN4Δ30, was found to be highly infectious, immunogenic and safe in human volunteers. At the highest dose (105 PFU) evaluated in volunteers, 25% of the vaccinees had mild elevations in liver enzymes that were rarely seen at lower doses. Here, we describe the generation and selection of additional mutations that were introduced into rDEN4Δ30 to further attenuate the virus in animal models and ultimately human vaccinees. Based on the elevated liver enzymes associated with the 105 PFU dose of rDEN4Δ30 and the known involvement of liver infection in dengue virus pathogenesis, a large panel of mutant viruses was screened for level of replication in the HuH-7 human hepatoma cell line, a surrogate for human liver cells and selected viruses were further analyzed for level of viremia in SCID-HuH-7 mice. It was hypothesized that rDEN4Δ30 derivatives with restricted replication in vitro and in vivo in HuH-7 human liver cells would be restricted in replication in the liver of vaccinees. Two mutations identified by. this screen, NS3 4995 and NS5 200,201, were separately introduced into rDEN4Δ30 and found to further attenuate the vaccine candidate for SCID-HuH-7 mice and rhesus monkeys while retaining sufficient immunogenicity in rhesus monkeys to confer protection. In humans, the rDEN4Δ30-200,201 vaccine candidate administered at 105 PFU exhibited greatly reduced viremia, high infectivity and lacked liver toxicity while inducing serum neutralizing antibody at a level comparable to that observed in volunteers immunized with rDEN4Δ30. Clinical studies of rDEN4Δ30-4995 are ongoing. PMID:19802584

  3. Vaccination of volunteers with low-dose, live-attenuated, dengue viruses leads to serotype-specific immunologic and virologic profiles.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Janet C; Durbin, Anna P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Pierce, Kristen K; Carmolli, Marya P; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2013-07-18

    There are currently no vaccines or therapeutics to prevent dengue disease which ranges in severity from asymptomatic infections to life-threatening illness. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Division of Intramural Research has developed live, attenuated vaccines to each of the four dengue serotypes (DENV-1-DENV-4). Two doses (10PFU and 1000PFU) of three monovalent vaccines were tested in human clinical trials to compare safety and immunogenicity profiles. DEN4Δ30 had been tested previously at multiple doses. The three dengue vaccine candidates tested (DEN1Δ30, DEN2/4Δ30, and DEN3Δ30/31) were very infectious, each with a human infectious dose 50%≤ 10PFU. Further, infectivity rates ranged from 90 to 100% regardless of dose, excepting DEN2/4Δ30 which dropped from 100% at the 1000PFU dose to 60% at the 10PFU dose. Mean geometric peak antibody titers did not differ significantly between doses for DEN1Δ30 (92 ± 19 vs. 214 ± 97, p=0.08); however, significant differences were observed between the 10PFU and 1000PFU doses for DEN2/4Δ30, 19 ± 9 vs. 102 ± 25 (p=0.001), and DEN3Δ30/31, 119 ± 135 vs. 50 ± 50 (p=0.046). No differences in the incidences of rash, neutropenia, or viremia were observed between doses for any vaccines, though the mean peak titer of viremia for DEN1Δ30 was higher at the 1000PFU dose (0.5 ± 0 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1, p=0.007). These data demonstrate that a target dose of 1000PFU for inclusion of each dengue serotype into a tetravalent vaccine is likely to be safe and generate a balanced immune response for all serotypes. PMID:23735680

  4. Tailoring Catalytic Activity of Pt Nanoparticles Encapsulated Inside Dendrimers by Tuning Nanoparticle Sizes with Subnanometer Accuracy for Sensitive Chemiluminescence-Based Analyses.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyojung; Ju, Youngwon; Kim, Joohoon

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report the size-dependent catalysis of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) having well-defined sizes over the range of 1-3 nm with subnanometer accuracy for the highly enhanced chemiluminescence of the luminol/H2O2 system. This size-dependent catalysis is ascribed to the differences in the chemical states of the Pt DENs as well as in their surface areas depending on their sizes. Facile and versatile applications of the Pt DENs in diverse oxidase-based assays are demonstrated as efficient catalysts for sensitive chemiluminescence-based analyses. PMID:27032992

  5. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  6. Einparksysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Peter

    Bei nahezu allen Fahrzeugen ist die Sicht beim Rangieren stark eingeschränkt. Dies liegt vor allem an den modernen Fahrzeugkarosserien, mit denen möglichst niedrige Luftwiderstandsbeiwerte erreicht werden, um den Kraftstoffverbrauch zu reduzieren. In der Regel entsteht dadurch eine leichte Keilform. Vorhandene Hindernisse sind somit häufig nur schlecht oder überhaupt nicht erkennbar. So sieht der Durchschnittsfahrer beim Blick durch die Heckscheibe die Straßenoberfläche erst in einem Abstand von 8…10 m. Auch direkt vor dem Fahrzeug befindliche Hindernisse entziehen sich dem Blick des Fahrers, da sie durch den Fahrzeugvorbau verdeckt werden.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: nemaline myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bushby K, Van den Bergh P, Iannaccone S, Laing NG, Wallgren-Pettersson C. Identification of 45 novel mutations ... Clement S, Barois A, Muntoni F, Romero NB, Laing NG. Nemaline myopathy caused by absence of alpha-skeletal ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: cone-rod dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Free article on PubMed Central Roosing S, Thiadens AA, Hoyng CB, Klaver CC, den Hollander AI, Cremers ... 2014 May 22. Review. Citation on PubMed Thiadens AA, Phan TM, Zekveld-Vroon RC, Leroy BP, van ...

  9. Auditory Discrimination Between Function Words in Children and Adults: A Mismatch Negativity Study

    PubMed Central

    Strotseva-Feinschmidt, Anna; Cunitz, Katrin; Friederici, Angela D.; Gunter, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous behavioral studies showed that it is not until around the age of seven that German children reliably use case markers for the interpretation of complex sentences. Some explanations of this late development suggested that children might have difficulties in perceptual differentiation between function words that carry case information. We tested this hypothesis by using the neurophysiological index of pre-attentive discrimination, the mismatch negativity (MMN). Our data showed that children at the age of 3 years are able to automatically discriminate between the two determiner forms der and den when presented out of sentential context. The determiner form der elicited a more mature MMN response in children than the form den. In adults, the MMN pattern also differed with der showing an earlier peak than den. These findings indicate that der is easier to process than den, which in turn is related to the occurrence frequency of the determiner forms in language. PMID:26733918

  10. Typical Farmers: The Strategy Galjart Did Not Explain [and] Article Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protas, J. F. da Silva; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Protas and de Andrade state that rural extension efforts in developing nations should not expect the participation of "progressive" farmers to lead to larger participation of other farmers in adopting innovations. Van den Bar offers comments on the article. (SK)

  11. Hurler syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... oligosaccharidoses. In: Saudubray JM, van den Berghe G, Walter JH, eds. Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment . ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  12. Formation and properties of silicon/fluorite heterostructures. Final report, June 1, 1994--May 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Olmstead, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    Our primary goal during the previous support periods was to determine the interrelationship among the structure of the CaF{sub 2}/Si interface, the growth kinetics, the structure and morphology of the overlying film, and the intrinsic dielectric properties of the interface itself. The experiments were designed (i) to determine the CaF{sub 2} overlayer structure and morphology as a function of kinetic conditions [Den93a, Den93b, Won93, Den95, Hes95], (ii) to develop and test models explaining the observed structures [Den95, Hes95], (iii) to investigate the stability of the interface structure [Les97] and (iv) to determine and interpret the photoelectron kinetic energy distributions as a function of the emitting atom location [Rot93, Rot94, Rot96]. As summarized below, we were successful in accomplishing these experiments and in largely fulfilling our original goal.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Pfeiffer syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... individuals with type 1 Pfeiffer syndrome have normal intelligence and a normal life span. Types 2 and ... Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Wilkie AO, Patey SJ, Kan SH, van den ...

  14. Mortality of arctic fox pups in northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Reports of mortality among arctic foxes, Alopex lagopus, generally consist of isolated incidents of predation by bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, snowy owls, Nyctea scandiaca, red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, and dogs, Canis familiaris. This is a report of observations made on mortality of arctic fox pups observed at dens in the Prudhoe Bay and Colville River Delta areas of northern Alaska during summers of 1975 to 1978 and 1976 to 1979, respectively. Pup mortality was noted amng 15 (19%) of 79 families whose dens we visited. Evidence of at least 20 dead pups was found with remains ranging from intact carcasses to a few bone fragments and tufts of hair. Undoubtedly, researchers failed to detect some dead pups, as predators sometimes carry small pups away from the den before consuming them and adult foxes were observed to dispose of bodies of dead pups within den burrows.

  15. Experiments and Analyses of Distributed Exhaust Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Schein, David B.; Solomon, W. David, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and analytical aeroacoustic properties of several distributed exhaust nozzle (DEN) designs are presented. Significant differences between the designs are observed and correlated back to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flowfield predictions. Up to 20 dB of noise reduction on a spectral basis and 10 dB on an overall sound pressure level basis are demonstrated from the DEN designs compared to a round reference nozzle. The most successful DEN designs acoustically show a predicted thrust loss of approximately 10% compared to the reference nozzle. Characteristics of the individual mini-jet nozzles that comprise the DEN such as jet-jet shielding and coalescence are shown to play a major role in the noise signature.

  16. Biokompatible Implantate und Neuentwicklungen in der Gynäkologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Kiechle, Marion

    Für den Einsatz in der Gynäkologie stehen heute eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher, biokompatibler Materialien und Implantate zur Verfügung. Auf eine Auswahl soll hier näher eingegangen werden, die die verschiedenen Materialien und Bauweisen repräsentieren. So sind Brustimplantate seit fast vier Jahrzehnten im Gebrauch für die Brustvergrösserung und den Brustwiederaufbau. Material, Bauweisen und medizinische Aspekte einschliesslich der kontroversen Diskussion um Silikon werden im folgenden erläutert. Neuere Entwicklungen von Verhütungstechniken für permanente Sterilisation wie den Filshie ClipTM für transabdominalen und den STOPTM für intraluminalen Verschluss der Eileiter oder die intrauterin plazierte Hormonspirale MirenaTM für zeitlich begrenzte Verhütung werden beschrieben. Eine neue Perspektive zur Verhinderung postoperativer intraabdominaler Adhäsionen stellt Spray-GelTM, ein Zweikomponenten Hydrogel aus Polyethylenglykol, dar.

  17. Physical, chemical, biological, and biotechnological sciences are incomplete without each other

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques could not separate plasma lipoproteins which are now known as cholesterol- containing, heart-disease related macromolecules in human blood. Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory successfully separated plasma lipoproteins using equilibrium den...

  18. 50 CFR 32.31 - Idaho.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hunting of forest grouse on that portion of the refuge which lies west of Westside Road and west of Lion's... Westside Road and west of Lion's Den Road in accordance with State regulations. D. Sport Fishing. We...

  19. Renaturierung und Management von Heiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; van Diggelen, Rudy; von Oheimb, Goddert

    Heiden zählen zu den ältesten und besonders reizvollen Kulturlandschaften Nordwesteuropas. Sie sind bezeichnend für nährstoffarme Böden in wintermilden Gebieten mit hohen Sommerniederschlägen. Während Heiden vor wenigen Jahrhunderten noch weit verbreitet und für manche Landschaften sogar prägend waren, hat sich ihr Areal heute auf wenige, meist in Naturschutzgebieten gelegene Restbestände verkleinert. Zu diesem Rückgang haben maßgeblich Änderungen der Landnutzung, aber auch Nährstoffeinträge aus umgebenden Agrarflächen und atmogene Depositionen beigetragen. In den meisten Ländern der Europäischen Union sind Heiden heute gesetzlich geschützte Ökosysteme, da diese, neben ihrem Erholungswert für den Menschen, Pflanzen- und Tierarten beherbergen, die außerhalb von Heiden nicht oder kaum überlebensfähig sind.

  20. Der Physik-Nobelpreis vor 100 Jahren Die Entdeckung des trägen Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2004-11-01

    Im Jahr 1904 erhielt der britische Physiker Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt, 1842 bis 1919) den Nobelpreis für seine Untersuchungen über die Dichte von Gasen und die Entdeckung des Edelgases Argon.

  1. Molecular evolution and phylogeny of dengue-4 viruses.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, R S; Gubler, D J; Trent, D W

    1997-09-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the envelope protein genes of 19 geographically and temporally distinct dengue (DEN)-4 viruses were determined. Nucleic acid sequence comparison revealed that the identity among the DEN-4 viruses was greater than 92%. Similarity among deduced amino acids was between 96 and 100%; in most cases identical amino acid substitutions occurred among viruses from similar geographical regions. Alignment of nucleic acid sequences followed by parsimony analysis generated phylogenetic trees, which indicated that geographically independent evolution of DEN-4 viruses had occurred. DEN-4 viruses were separated into two genetically distinct subtypes (genotypes). Genotype-1 contains viruses from the Philippines, Thailand and Sri Lanka; genotype-2 consists of viruses from Indonesia, Tahiti, the Caribbean Islands (Puerto Rico, Dominica) and Central and South America. PMID:9292015

  2. Die Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Ein Beispiel für erfolgreiche „Track-II-Diplomacy“ der Naturwissenschaftler im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    "Kein Zeitalter der Geschichte ist stärker von den Naturwissenschaften durchdrungen und abhängiger von ihnen als das 20. Jahrhundert" schreibt Eric Hobsbawn im Kapitel "Zauberer und Lehrlinge: Die Naturwissenschaften" seines Buches "Zeitalter der Extreme".

  3. 32 CFR 245.5 - Terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... made in a prescribed route or destination for operational or tactical reasons. Domestic event network (DEN). A 24/7 FAA sponsored, telephonic conference call network that includes all of the Air...

  4. Neck x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 385. Van Thielen T, van den Hauwe L, Van Goethem JW, Parizel PM. Imaging techniques and anatomy. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, ...

  5. A Trio of Brownian Donkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broeck, C.; Cleuren, B.; Kawai, R.; Kambon, M.

    A previously introduced model (B. Cleuren and C. Van den Broeck, Europhys. Lett. 54, 1 (2001)) is studied numerically. Pure negative mobility is found for the minimum number of three interacting walkers.

  6. Oxidation of N-Nitrosoalkylamines by human cytochrome P450 2A6: sequential oxidation to aldehydes and carboxylic acids and analysis of reaction steps.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Calcutt, M Wade; Guengerich, F Peter

    2010-03-12

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2A6 activates nitrosamines, including N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) and N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN), to alkyl diazohydroxides (which are DNA-alkylating agents) and also aldehydes (HCHO from DMN and CH(3)CHO from DEN). The N-dealkylation of DMN had a high intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effect ((D)k(app) approximately 10), which was highly expressed in a variety of competitive and non-competitive experiments. The (D)k(app) for DEN was approximately 3 and not expressed in non-competitive experiments. DMN and DEN were also oxidized to HCO(2)H and CH(3)CO(2)H, respectively. In neither case was a lag observed, which was unexpected considering the k(cat) and K(m) parameters measured for oxidation of DMN and DEN to the aldehydes and for oxidation of the aldehydes to the carboxylic acids. Spectral analysis did not indicate strong affinity of the aldehydes for P450 2A6, but pulse-chase experiments showed only limited exchange with added (unlabeled) aldehydes in the oxidations of DMN and DEN to carboxylic acids. Substoichiometric kinetic bursts were observed in the pre-steady-state oxidations of DMN and DEN to aldehydes. A minimal kinetic model was developed that was consistent with all of the observed phenomena and involves a conformational change of P450 2A6 following substrate binding, equilibrium of the P450-substrate complex with a non-productive form, and oxidation of the aldehydes to carboxylic acids in a process that avoids relaxation of the conformation following the first oxidation (i.e. of DMN or DEN to an aldehyde). PMID:20061389

  7. Nano-Qubits für Quantencomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, Gerd; Makhlin, Yuriy

    2000-01-01

    Quantencomputer können gewisse Aufgaben sehr viel schneller bewältigen als klassische Computer. Während die theoretischen Konzepte hierzu schon weit entwickelt sind, stecken die physikalischen Realisierungen noch in den Anfangsstadien. Für logische Operationen und Speicher sowie die Integration in elektronische Schaltungen erscheinen nanoelektronische Bauelemente am besten geeignet. Josephson-Kontakte mit kleiner Kapazität kombinieren die Phasenkohärenz des Supraleiters mit den Kontrollmöglichkeiten von Einzelelektronensystemen.

  8. Rationelle Energienutzung in elektrischen Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brischke, Lars-Arvid

    Der Stromverbrauch in Deutschland ist von 441 TWh im Jahr 1993 auf 528 TWh im Jahr 2007 kontinuierlich gestiegen (Abb. 5.1). Dies entspricht einer Steigerung um 17%. Am stärksten nahm der Stromverbrauch in den Sektoren Industrie (20%) und Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen - GHD - (18%) zu. Im Jahr 2007 wurden 43% des Stroms im Sektor Industrie verbraucht, in den Sektoren GHD und Private Haushalte jeweils 27% und im Sektor Verkehr lediglich 3%.

  9. [Intensive care and legislation].

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Alexander P F; Moroder, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit einem Überblick über den Rechtsrahmen von ärztlicher Behandlung am Lebensende und sodann mit den derzeit gültigen Maßstäben für Sterbehilfe. Dabei wird das neue Gesetz zur Strafbarkeit der geschäftsmäßigen Förderung der Selbsttötung berücksichtigt. PMID:27031200

  10. Essentiality of portal vein receptors in hypoglycemic counterregulation: direct proof via denervation in male canines.

    PubMed

    Ionut, Viorica; Castro, Ana Valeria B; Woolcott, Orison O; Stefanovski, Darko; Iyer, Malini S; Broussard, Josiane L; Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Burch, Miguel; Elazary, Ram; Kirkman, Erlinda; Bergman, Richard N

    2014-04-01

    A major issue of in the treatment of diabetes is the risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is detected both centrally and peripherally in the porto-hepatic area. The portal locus for hypoglycemic detection was originally described using the "local irrigation of the liver" approach in a canine model. Further work using portal vein denervation (DEN) in a rodent model characterized portal hypoglycemic sensing in detail. However, recent controversy about the relevance of rodent findings to large animals and humans prompted us to investigate the effect of portal DEN on the hypoglycemic response in the canine, a species with multiple similarities to human glucose homeostasis. Hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were performed in male canines, before (PRE) and after (POST) portal vein DEN or sham surgery (CON, control). Insulin (30 pmol/kg·min) and glucose (variable) were infused to slowly decrease systemic glycemia to 50 mg/dL over 160 minutes. The average plasma glucose during clamp steady state was: 2.9 ± 0.1 mmol DEN-PRE, 2.9 ± 0.2 mmol DEN-POST, 2.9 ± 0.1 mmol CON-PRE, and 2.8 ± 0.0 mmol CON-POST. There were no significant differences in plasma insulin between DEN and CON, PRE and POST experiments. The epinephrine response to hypoglycemia was reduced by 62% in DEN but not in CON. Steady-state cortisol was 46% lower after DEN but not after CON. Our study shows, in a large animal model, that surgical disconnection of the portal vein from the afferent pathway of the hypoglycemic counterregulatory circuitry results in a substantial suppression of the epinephrine response and a significant impact on cortisol response. These findings directly demonstrate an essential role for the portal vein in sensing hypoglycemia and relating glycemic information to the central nervous system. PMID:24428530

  11. Preclinical and clinical development of a dengue recombinant subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Manoff, Susan B; George, Sarah L; Bett, Andrew J; Yelmene, Michele L; Dhanasekaran, Govindarajan; Eggemeyer, Linda; Sausser, Michele L; Dubey, Sheri A; Casimiro, Danilo R; Clements, David E; Martyak, Timothy; Pai, Vidya; Parks, D Elliot; Coller, Beth-Ann G

    2015-12-10

    This review focuses on a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidate based on a recombinant subunit approach which targets the DENV envelope glycoprotein (E). Truncated versions of E consisting of the N-terminal portion of E (DEN-80E) have been expressed recombinantly in the Drosophila S2 expression system and shown to have native-like conformation. Preclinical studies demonstrate that formulations containing tetravalent DEN-80E adjuvanted with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant induce high titer virus neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ producing T cells in flavivirus-naïve non-human primates. The preclinical data further suggest that administration of such formulations on a 0, 1, 6 month schedule may result in higher maximum virus neutralizing antibody titers and better durability of those titers compared to administration on a 0, 1, 2 month schedule. In addition, the virus neutralizing antibody titers induced by adjuvanted tetravalent DEN-80E compare favorably to the titers induced by a tetravalent live virus comparator. Furthermore, DEN-80E was demonstrated to be able to boost virus neutralizing antibody titers in macaques that have had a prior DENV exposure. A monovalent version of the vaccine candidate, DEN1-80E, was formulated with Alhydrogel™ and studied in a proof-of-principle Phase I clinical trial by Hawaii Biotech, Inc. (NCT00936429). The clinical trial results demonstrate that both the 10 μg and 50 μg formulations of DEN1-80E with 1.25 mg of elemental aluminum were immunogenic when administered in a 3-injection series (0, 1, 2 months) to healthy, flavivirus-naïve adults. The vaccine formulations induced DENV-1 neutralizing antibodies in the majority of subjects, although the titers in most subjects were modest and waned over time. Both the 10 μg DEN1-80E and the 50 μg DEN1-80E formulations with Alhydrogel™ were generally well tolerated. PMID:26458804

  12. Taphonomic and zooarchaeological implications of spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta) bone accumulations in kenya: A modern behavioral ecological approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lansing, S.W.; Cooper, S.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    The significant impact of extant carnivores, particularly spotted hyenas, on the depo-sitional history and physical characteristics of archaeofaunal and paleontological assemblages is well recognized. We focus on the behavioral ecology of extant spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in relation to bone accumulations produced by one East African clan at communal dens. Limbs and skulls of prey animals more frequently appear at dens than do other carcass portions. These items reflect the relative abundance of prey species near dens; carnivore remains are poorly represented. Comparative analysis reveals that bones are deposited far more slowly (<7 carcass portions per month) and accumulations tend to be smaller at Crocuta dens than at dens of either brown (Para-hyaena brunnea) or striped (Hyaena hyaena) hyenas. We propose that extant Crocuta bone accumu-lation rates and sizes are likely affected by prey species abundance, clan size, social interactions within the clan, and the type and availability of den sites. We also suggest that the potential for intraspecific behavioral variability in bone accumulation patterns is important when comparisons are made among spotted hyena populations and across hyena species. For example, accumulation patterns may be dramatically influenced by the temporal span, potentially ranging from days to hundreds or thousands of years, in which bones are collected, depending on the species-specific history of occupation at a given site. Understanding the behavioral and ecological variability likely to influence bone accumulation patterns at dens used by different hyaenids will allow taphonomists and zooarchaeologists to refine their knowledge of mechanisms underlying site formation pro-cesses and potential causes of variability in deeper-time den assemblages. ?? 2009 The Paleontological Society.

  13. Alternative Nachweisverfahren - nicht PCR-basierende Schnellmethoden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalch, Barbara; Wagner, Martin

    Die Erfolge moderner mikrobiologischer Schnellmethoden stellen Sensitivität und Spezifität vieler konventioneller mikrobiologischer Kultivierungsmethoden in Frage. Konventionell ermittelte Keimzahlen und -gruppen pro Untersuchungseinheit scheinen mehr oder weniger unter den realen Gegebenheiten zu liegen. Andererseits schreibt beispielsweise die EU-weit geltende Verordnung (EG) Nr. 2073/2005 über mikrobiologische Kriterien für Lebensmittel den Einsatz einiger dieser Nachweismethoden verbindlich vor.

  14. Identification of B-cell epitope of dengue virus type 1 and its application in diagnosis of patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, H C; Huang, Y L; Chao, T T; Jan, J T; Huang, J L; Chiang, H Y; King, C C; Shaio, M F

    2001-03-01

    Using a serotype-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) of dengue virus type 1 (DEN-1), 15F3-1, we identified the B-cell epitope of DEN-1 from a random peptide library displayed on phage. Fourteen immunopositive phage clones that bound specifically to MAb 15F3-1 were selected. These phage-borne peptides had a consensus motif of HxYaWb (a = S/T, b = K/H/R) that mimicked the sequence HKYSWK, which corresponded to amino acid residues 111 to 116 of the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of DEN-1. Among the four synthetic peptides corresponding to amino acid residues 110 to 117 of the NS1 of DEN-1, -2, -3, and -4, only one peptide, EHKYSWKS (P14M) of DEN-1, was found to bind to 15F3-1 specifically. Furthermore, P14M was shown to inhibit the binding of phage particles to 15F3-1 in a competitive inhibition assay. Histidine(111) (His(111)) was crucial to the binding of P14M to 15F3-1, since its binding activity dramatically reduced when it changed to leucine(111) (Leu(111)). This epitope-based peptide demonstrated its clinical diagnostic potential when it reacted with a high degree of specificity with serum samples obtained from both DEN-1-infected rabbits and patients. Based on these observations, our DEN-1 epitope-based serologic test could be useful in laboratory viral diagnosis and in understanding the pathogenesis of DEN-1. PMID:11230414

  15. A fragment of the envelope protein from dengue-1 virus, fused in two different sites of the meningococcal P64k protein carrier, induces a functional immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Lisset; Rodríguez, Rayner; Lazo, Laura; Bernardo, Lídice; Silva, Ricardo; Zulueta, Aída; López, Carlos; Martín, Jorge; Valdés, Iris; del Rosario, Delfina; Guillén, Gerardo; Guzmán, María G

    2004-02-01

    Previously we have reported the capacity of the fusion protein PD3, composed of the P64k protein and the envelope (E) fragment from amino acids (aa) 286-426 of dengue-2 virus (DEN-2), to induce a functional immune response in mice against the homologous virus. In that case, the E fragment was inserted within the lipoyl-binding domain of the meningococcal P64k protein. In the present study, to test the functionality of the same E region from dengue-1 (DEN-1), a similar construct was made. Furthermore, another alternative of fusion protein was also constructed where the same E fragment from DEN-1 was fused to the C-terminus of the P64k protein. The recombinant proteins obtained (PD11 and PD10) were semi-purified and analysed for their antigenicity, immunogenicity and the ability to protect mice against lethal challenge. Both molecules exhibited the same recognition patterns against anti-DEN-1 polyclonal antibodies. In addition, when administered to mice, they elicited high levels of neutralizing antibodies and induced significant protection against lethal challenge with DEN-1 after intracerebral inoculation. These results reveal the availability of two sites within the P64k for the further insertion of DEN fragments, enabling a construct carrying two fragments from heterologous serotypes within the same molecule of this protein carrier. PMID:12887334

  16. Direct Endoscopic Necrosectomy Versus Step-Up Approach for Walled-Off Pancreatic Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Conwell, Darwin L.; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is a complication of acute pancreatitis requiring intervention. Surgery is associated with considerable morbidity. Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD), initial therapy in the step-up approach, minimizes complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) has demonstrated safety and efficacy. We compared outcome and health care utilization of DEN versus step-up approach. Methods This was a matched cohort study using a prospective registry. Twelve consecutive DEN patients were matched with 12 step-up approach patients. Outcomes were clinical resolution after primary therapeutic modality, new organ failure, mortality, endocrine or exocrine insufficiency, length of stay, and health care utilization. Results Clinical resolution in 11 of 12 patients after DEN versus 3 of 12 step-up approach patients after PCD (P < 0.01). Nine step-up approach patients required surgery; 7 of these experienced complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy resulted in less new antibiotic use, pulmonary failure, endocrine insufficiency, and shorter length of stay (P < 0.05). Health care utilization was lower after DEN by 5.2:1 (P < 0.01). Conclusions Direct endoscopic necrosectomy may be superior to step-up approach for WOPN with suspected or established infection. Primary PCD generally delayed definitive therapy. Given the higher efficacy, shorter length of stay, and lower health care utilization, DEN could be the first-line therapy for WOPN, with primary PCD for inaccessible or immature collections. PMID:25083997

  17. Protective efficiency of dendrosomes as novel nano-sized adjuvants for DNA vaccination against birch pollen allergy.

    PubMed

    Balenga, Nariman Aghaei Bandbon; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Weiss, Richard; Sarbolouki, Mohammad Nabi; Thalhamer, Joseph; Rafati, Sima

    2006-07-25

    We evaluated the use of a novel gene porter (Den123--a nontoxic self-assembled dendritic spheroidal nanoparticle made of biodegradable monomers), aiming to enhance and improve the desired immune response in protection from allergy. Footpad DNA immunization in Balb/c mice was done three times using the Bet v 1a gene with or without Den123 with 2-week intervals followed by sensitization with rBetv1 (5 microg) in alum twice in a weekly interval. Different doses of pCMV-Betv1 were used (10 microg and 100 microg). The protective role of different formulations was evaluated by measuring the IgG1, IgG2a and IgE antibody production, cytokine release of isolated splenocytes and beta-hexosaminidase release from the RBL cells. Higher and increasing ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 were seen in mice which received plasmids in combination with Den123. Den123 and DNA vaccine synergistically enhanced the Interferon gamma released from splenocytes. In the presence of Den123, IgE inhibition was independent of the dose and type of the injected DNA. All DNA-pre-immunized mice demonstrated low basophil degranulation. It is therefore concluded that administration of the DNA entrapped in Den123 nanoparticles results in sustained release of plasmids, Th1/Th2 balanced immune response with promising IgE inhibition. Also higher amounts of DNA contributed to stronger Th1 response. PMID:16515817

  18. Nasal Tumorigenesis in B6C3F1 Mice Following Intraperitoneal Diethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Ju; Wallig, Matthew A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2016-08-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a chemical broadly used in animal models as a hepatocarcinogen, reported to also cause pulmonary neoplasms in mice. The original objective was to evaluate the impact of a Western diet with or without 10% broccoli on DEN-induced on liver cancer. We administered DEN (45 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to young adult male B6C3F1 mice by 6 weekly injections and evaluated liver cancer 6 months after the DEN treatments. Here, we report unexpected primary tumorigenesis in nasal epithelium, independent of dietary treatment. More than 50% of DEN-treated B6C3F1 mice developed nasal neoplasm-related lesions, not reported previously in the literature. Only one of these neoplasms was visible externally prior to postmortem examination. Intraperitoneal DEN treatment used as a model for liver cancer can have a carcinogenic effect on the nasal epithelium in B6C3F1 mice, which should be carefully monitored in future liver cancer studies. PMID:27207684

  19. Biological survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (Buena Vista), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Sauls, M.L.

    1987-06-01

    A field survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Kern County, California, was conducted to determine the distribution and relative abundance of endangered species and other wildlife. Of the 343 San Joaquin kit fox dens found in 40 sections, 33 were observed by surveyors in transit and 310 were found along transects. Of the latter, 264 were typical subterranean dens and 46 were atypical dens in man-made structures. Estimated density of dens was 28.8 +- 4.4 per square mile; relative density was 9.2/1000 acres. The number of typical dens observed per section was inversely correlated with the number of petroleum wells per section (intensity of development). Atypical dens were usually found to be in pipes or pipe culverts and were positively correlated with density of wells. Relative densities of black-tailed jackrabbits (41.9/1000 acres) and desert cottontails (17.1/1000 acres), preferred prey for foxes, were high compared with densities reported on other public lands. Most (81%) of the 19 blunt-nosed leopard lizards were observed in six adjacent sections located in the gentle foothills near Buena Vista Lake playa. Most (86%) of the 275 giant kangaroo rat burrow systems were observed in ten sections containing flat, relatively undeveloped terrain in and around upper Buena Vista Valley. San Joaquin antelope ground squirrels were the second most commonly observed diurnal vertebrate: 761 observations in 45 sections. A total of 6740 observations of 61 species of wildlife were made.

  20. Safety of direct endoscopic necrosectomy in patients with gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Andrew C; Thompson, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of transgastric direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) in patients with walled-off necrosis (WON) and gastric varices. METHODS: A single center retrospective study of consecutive DEN for WON was performed from 2012 to 2015. All DEN cases with gastric fundal varices noted on endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the admission for DEN were collected for analysis. In all cases, external urethral sphincter (EUS) with doppler was used to exclude the presence of intervening gastric varices or other vascular structures prior to 19 gauge fine-needle aspiration (FNA) needle access into the cavity. The tract was serially dilated to 20 mm and was entered with an endoscope for DEN. Pigtail stents were placed to facilitate drainage of the cavity. Procedure details were recorded. Comprehensive chart review was performed to evaluate for complications and WON recurrence. RESULTS: Fifteen patients who underwent DEN for WON had gastric varices at the time of their procedure. All patients had an INR < 1.5 and platelets > 50. Of these patients, 11 had splenic vein thrombosis and 2 had portal vein thrombosis. Two patients had isolated gastric varices, type 1 and the remaining 13 had > 5 mm gastric submucosal varices on imaging by CT, MRI or EUS. No procedures were terminated without completing the DEN for any reason. One patient had self-limited intraprocedural bleeding related to balloon dilation of the tract. Two patients experienced delayed bleeding at 2 and 5 d post-op respectively. One required no therapy or intervention and the other received 1 unit transfusion and had an EGD which revealed no active bleeding. Resolution rate of WON was 100% (after up to 2 additional DEN in one patient) and no patients required interventional radiology or surgical interventions. CONCLUSION: In patients with WON and gastric varices, DEN using EUS and doppler guidance may be performed safely. Successful resolution

  1. Preferential metabolism of N-nitrosodiethylamine by two cell lines derived from human pulmonary adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Falzon, M.; McMahon, J.B.; Gazdar, A.F.; Schuller, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), in common with other nitrosamines, is a carcinogenic agent which produces tumors in a wide variety of tissues in experimental animals. The pulmonary Clara cell is a major target of N-nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in hamsters and rats. DEN is believed to require metabolic activation to elicit its carcinogenic effects. The metabolism of (/sup 14/C)DEN was studied in two cell lines derived from human lung adenocarcinomas and two cell lines derived from human small cell lung cancers by monitoring /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production and covalent binding of radiolabel from (/sup 14/C)DEN to the cell protein and DNA fractions. (/sup 14/C)DEN was metabolized by adenocarcinoma-derived NCI-H322 (with Clara cell features) and NCI-H358 (with features of alveolar type II cells) but not by NCI-H69 and NCI-H128 (derived from small cell carcinoma). Metabolism was markedly inhibited by heat denaturation of the cell protein. (/sup 14/C)DEN metabolism by NCI-H322 was greatly decreased when the incubation was carried out under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of a carbon monoxide enriched atmosphere. These results suggested the involvement of the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase enzyme system. Metabolism by NCI-H358 was also decreased in the absence of oxygen or presence of carbon monoxide although the effects were relatively small compared with the results with NCI-H322. On the other hand, aspirin or indomethacin, which are inhibitors of the fatty acid cyclooxygenase component of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase, preferentially inhibited (/sup 14/C)DEN metabolism by NIC-H358. There were little or no effects of these inhibitors on the metabolism of DEN in NCI-H322. The data suggest that DEN metabolism in different lung cell types may be carried out by different enzyme systems which in turn may contribute to the selective effect of DEN in the lung.

  2. Blueberry treatment attenuated cirrhotic and preneoplastic lesions and oxidative stress in the liver of diethylnitrosamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Bingül, İlknur; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Aydın, A Fatih; Soluk-Tekkeşin, Merva; Olgaç, Vakur; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-09-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer normally develops in stages that progress from cirrhosis and carcinoma. Increased oxidative stress is suggested to play a role in DEN-induced carcinogenicity. Blueberries (BB) contain high antioxidant capacity. We investigated the effect of BB supplementation on development of DEN-induced cirrhosis and neoplastic lesions in the liver. Rats were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg; i.p.) three times with an interval of 15 days at 4, 6, and 8 weeks and sacrificed 8 weeks after the last DEN injection. They were also fed on 8% BB (w/w) containing chow for 16 weeks. Hepatic damage markers in serum were determined together with hepatic histopathological examinations. Hydroxyproline (HYP), malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugate (DC), protein carbonyl (PC), and glutathione (GSH) levels, and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and their mRNA expressions were measured. Protein and mRNA expressions of glutathione transferase-pi (GST-pi) were evaluated as a marker of preneoplastic lesions. BB supplementation decreased hepatic damage markers in serum and hepatic MDA, DC, and PC levels, but SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities and their mRNA expressions remained unchanged in DEN-treated rats. BB attenuated cirrhotic changes and decreased hepatic HYP levels and GST-pi expressions. Our results indicate that BB is effective in decreasing development of DEN-induced hepatic cirrhosis and preneoplastic lesions by acting as an antioxidant (radical scavenger) itself without affecting activities and mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26684621

  3. Fragmentation alters stream fish community structure in dendritic ecological networks.

    PubMed

    Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B

    2012-12-01

    Effects of fragmentation on the ecology of organisms occupying dendritic ecological networks (DENs) have recently been described through both conceptual and mathematical models, but few hypotheses have been tested in complex, real-world ecosystems. Stream fishes provide a model system for assessing effects of fragmentation on the structure of communities occurring within DENs, including how fragmentation alters metacommunity dynamics and biodiversity. A recently developed habitat-availability measure, the "dendritic connectivity index" (DCI), allows for assigning quantitative measures of connectivity in DENs regardless of network extent or complexity, and might be used to predict fish community response to fragmentation. We characterized stream fish community structure in 12 DENs in the Great Plains, USA, during periods of dynamic (summer) and muted (fall) discharge regimes to test the DCI as a predictive model of fish community response to fragmentation imposed by road crossings. Results indicated that fish communities in stream segments isolated by road crossings had reduced species richness (alpha diversity) relative to communities that maintained connectivity with the surrounding DEN during summer and fall. Furthermore, isolated communities had greater dissimilarity (beta diversity) to downstream sites notisolated by road crossings during summer and fall. Finally, dissimilarity among communities within DENs decreased as a function of increased habitat connectivity (measured using the DCI) for summer and fall, suggesting that communities within highly connected DENs tend to be more homogeneous. Our results indicate that the DCI is sensitive to community effects of fragmentation in riverscapes and might be used by managers to predict ecological responses to changes in habitat connectivity. Moreover, our findings illustrate that relating structural connectivity of riverscapes to functional connectivity among communities might aid in maintaining metacommunity

  4. Detection of dengue viral RNA in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to sticky lures using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Bangs, M J; Tan, R; Listiyaningsih, E; Kay, B H; Porter, K R

    2001-09-01

    Active surveillance for dengue (DEN) virus infected mosquitoes can be an effective way to predict the risk of dengue infection in a given area. However, doing so may pose logistical problems if mosquitoes must be kept alive or frozen fresh to detect DEN virus. In an attempt to simplify mosquito processing, we evaluated the usefulness of a sticky lure and a seminested reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) for detecting DEN virus RNA under laboratory conditions using experimentally infected Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. In the first experiment, 40 male mosquitoes were inoculated with 0.13 microl of a 10(4) pfu/ml DEN-2 stock solution. After a 7-d incubation period, the mosquitoes were applied to the sticky lure and kept at room temperatures of 23-30 degrees C. Following 7, 10, 14, and 28 d application, 10 mosquitoes each were removed from the lure, pooled, and assayed for virus. DEN virus nucleic acid was clearly detectable in all pools up to 28 d after death. A second study evaluated sensitivity and specificity using one, two, and five DEN-infected mosquitoes removed after 7,10, 14, 21, and 30 d application and tested by RT-PCR. All four DEN serotypes were individually inoculated in mosquitoes and evaluated using the same procedures as experiment 1. The four serotypes were detectable in as few as one mosquito 30 d after applications to the lure with no evidence of cross-reactivity. The combination of sticky lures and RT-PCR show promise for mosquito and dengue virus surveillance and warrant further evaluation. PMID:11580045

  5. Carcinogen treatment increases glutathione hydrolysis by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    PubMed

    Conway, J G; Neptun, D A; Garvey, L K; Popp, J A

    1987-07-01

    The effect of carcinogen treatment on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-mediated hydrolysis of GSH to glutamate and cysteinylglycine in the blood and bile compartments was investigated in livers perfused in situ. Treatment of rats with 40 p.p.m. diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in the drinking water or 0.02% 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) in the diet for 50-60 days increased GGT activity in liver homogenates by 100 and 800% respectively. Bile flow and the sum of glutamate and glutathione (GSH) efflux into the bile of perfused livers was not affected by carcinogen treatment. However, the ratio of GSH to glutamate in bile was 2.1, 1.1 and 0.2 in livers from control, DEN- and AAF-treated rats respectively. Pretreatment with L-(alpha S,5S)-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid (AT125) decreased GGT activity in liver homogenates by about 85% and elevated the ratio of GSH to glutamate in the bile to 3.2 in all groups. Thus, the hydrolysis of GSH to glutamate in the bile of perfused livers correlated with the degree of induction of GGT by DEN and AAF treatments. Exogenous GSH (10 microM) infused into the portal vein of perfused livers from control, DEN- and AAF-treated rats was recovered completely in the effluent perfusate. Pretreatment with AT125 had no effect on the recovery of exogenous GSH in the effluent perfusate. Thus, metabolism of GSH in the blood space was not detected after short-term carcinogen treatment. To increase the possible hydrolysis of GSH in the perfusate, rats were treated for 130-180 days with DEN and GSH (60 microM) was infused into the hepatic artery of livers perfused simultaneously via the hepatic artery and portal vein. Only 50% of the infused GSH was recovered in the effluent perfusate of perfused livers from DEN-treated rats. In contrast, significantly more GSH (80-90%) was recovered from livers from control rats or DEN-treated rats that had received AT125 pretreatment. In addition AT125 pretreatment increased the basal rates of GSH

  6. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  7. Spatial Heterogeneity in Human Activities Favors the Persistence of Wolves in Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mohsen; López-Bao, José Vicente; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As human populations expand, there is increasing demand and pressure for land. Under this scenario, behavioural flexibility and adaptation become important processes leading to the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems. A growing interest has recently emerged on the outcome of the coexistence between wolves and humans in these systems. It has been suggested that spatial heterogeneity in human activities would be a major environmental factor modulating vulnerability and persistence of this contentious species in agroecosystems. Here, we combined information from 35 den sites detected between 2011 and 2012 in agroecosystems of western Iran (Hamedan province), a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of den site selection by wolves in a highly-modified agroecosystem. On a landscape level, wolves selected a mixture of rangelands with scattered dry-farms on hillsides (showing a low human use) to locate their dens, avoiding areas with high densities of settlements and primary roads. On a fine spatial scale, wolves primarily excavated dens into the sides of elevated steep-slope hills with availability of water bodies in the vicinity of den sites, and wolves were relegated to dig in places with coarse-soil particles. Our results suggest that vulnerability of wolves in human-dominated landscapes could be compensated by the existence of spatial heterogeneity in human activities. Such heterogeneity would favor wolf persistence in agroecosystems favoring a land sharing model of coexistence between wolves and people. PMID:25251567

  8. Induction of Neutralization Antibodies in Mice by Dengue-2 Envelope DNA Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-VÉLEZ, MARIEL E.; GARCÍA-NIEVES, TERESITA; COLÓN-SÁNCHEZ, CANDIMAR; MARTÍNEZ, IDALÍ

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue (DEN) viruses have become a public health problem that affects approximately 100 million people worldwide each year. Prevention measures rely on vector control programs, which are inefficient. Therefore, a vaccine is urgently needed. Methods The main goal of our laboratory is to develop an efficient tetravalent DEN DNA vaccine. In this study, we constructed four DEN-2 DNA vaccines expressing prM/env genes, using the homologous leader sequence (VecD2, VRD2E) or the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) secretory signal (VecD2tpa, VRD2tpa). In vitro expression was tested by transient transfections and Western blot. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine candidates was evaluated in BALB/c mice, using intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) vaccination routes. Results Envelope (E) protein expression was detected in transfected COS-7 or 293T cells. We found statistical differences in the antibody responses induced by these vaccine candidates. In addition, the strongest antibody responses and protection were observed when the vaccines were delivered intramuscularly. Moreover, the tPA leader sequence did not significantly improve the vaccine immunogenicity since VecD2 and VecD2tpa induced similar antibody responses. Conclusions We demonstrated that most of our DNA vaccine candidates could induce antibody responses and partial protection against DEN-2 virus in mice. These results provide valuable information for the design and construction of a tetravalent DEN DNA vaccine. PMID:19715116

  9. Dopant Enriched Nitrogen Gas Combined with Sheathless Capillary Electrophoresis-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Improved Sensitivity and Repeatability in Glycopeptide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kammeijer, Guinevere S M; Kohler, Isabelle; Jansen, Bas C; Hensbergen, Paul J; Mayboroda, Oleg A; Falck, David; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Over the last years, numerous strategies have been proposed to enhance both ionization efficiency and spray stability in electrospray ionization (ESI), in particular for nanospray applications. In nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS), a better ESI performance has been observed when a coaxial gas flow is added around the ESI emitter. Moreover, enrichment of the gas with an organic dopant has led to an improved desolvation and ionization efficiency with an overall enhanced sensitivity. In this study, the use of a dopant enriched nitrogen (DEN)-gas combined with sheathless capillary electrophoresis (CE)-ESI-MS was evaluated for glycopeptide analysis. Using acetonitrile as a dopant, an increased sensitivity was observed compared to conventional sheathless CE-ESI-MS. Up to 25-fold higher sensitivities for model glycopeptides were obtained, allowing for limits of detection unachieved by state-of-the-art nano-LC-ESI-MS. The effect of DEN-gas on the repeatability and intermediate precision was also investigated. When compared to previously reported nano-LC-ESI-MS measurements, similar values were found for CE-ESI-MS with DEN-gas. The enhanced repeatability fosters the use of DEN-gas sheathless CE-ESI-MS in protein glycosylation analysis, where precision is essential. The use of DEN-gas opens new avenues for highly sensitive sheathless CE-ESI-MS approaches in glycoproteomics research, by significantly improving sensitivity and precision. PMID:27119460

  10. Alcoholic hepatitis accelerates early hepatobiliary cancer by increasing stemness and miR-122-mediated HIF-1α activation

    PubMed Central

    Ambade, Aditya; Satishchandran, Abhishek; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops with advanced alcoholic liver disease and liver fibrosis. Using adult mice, we evaluate the effect of alcoholic steatohepatitis on early hepatobiliary carcinoma after initiation by diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN). Here we show that alcohol-fed DEN-injected mice have higher ALT and liver-to-body weight ratio compared to pair-fed DEN-injected mice. Alcohol feeding results in steatohepatitis indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic genes. MRI and liver histology of alcohol+DEN mice shows hepatobiliary cysts, early hepatic neoplasia and increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein. Proliferation makers (BrdU, cyclin D1, p53) and cancer stem cell markers (CD133 and nanog) are significantly up-regulated in livers of alcohol-fed DEN-injected mice compared to controls. In livers with tumors, loss of miR-122 expression with a significant up-regulation of miR-122 target HIF-1α is seen. We conclude that alcoholic steatohepatitis accelerates hepatobiliary tumors with characteristic molecular features of HCC by up-regulating inflammation, cell proliferation, stemness, and miR-122 loss. PMID:26888602

  11. Dengue-4 envelope domain III fused twice within the meningococcal P64k protein carrier induces partial protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Laura; Zulueta, Aída; Hermida, Lisset; Blanco, Aracelys; Sánchez, Jorge; Valdés, Iris; Gil, Lázaro; López, Carlos; Romero, Yaremis; Guzmán, María G; Guillén, Gerardo

    2009-04-01

    A vaccine against dengue virus must be able to induce an effective and equivalent immune response to the four viral serotypes; however, some studies have revealed that DEN4 (dengue-virus serotype 4) induces a weaker immune response than the others in quadrivalent (tetravalent') formulations. We have previously reported the protective capacity, in a viral encephalitis murine model, of fusion protein P64k-envelope domain III of DEN1, DEN2 and DEN3. We also reported that the P64k protein can be used as a carrier in two different positions: the insertion following the first 45 amino acids and the fusion at the C-terminus. Considering the low immunogenicity described for DEN4, in the present study we obtained a novel chimaeric protein by inserting two dengue-4 envelope domains III in both sites of P64k (PD24), and hence increasing the presence of the virus in the final construct. After expression in Escherichia coli and semipurification, the protein exhibited a pattern of high molecular mass and was well recognized by human and murine polyclonal antibodies. The protein was finally evaluated in mice, Al(OH)(3) being employed as the adjuvant. Even though the animals exhibited low levels of antiviral antibodies, the recombinant protein induced significant protection against lethal challenge with dengue-4 virus. PMID:18636968

  12. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) footprints and bone records from open air sites in northern Germany - Evidence of hyena-lion antagonism and scavenging in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2011-07-01

    Bone remains and a trackway of Pantheraichnus bottropensis nov. ichg. ichnsp. of the Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea ( Goldfuss, 1810) have been recovered from Bottrop and other open air sites in northern Germany. Some of these bones are from open air hyena den sites. A relative high proportion of lion bones (20%) exhibit bite, chew or nibble marks, or bone crushing and nibbling caused by a large carnivore. Repeated patterns of similar bone damage have been compared to bone remains found at hyena dens in gypsum karst areas and cave sites in northern Germany. Ice Age spotted hyenas have been the main antagonists and the main scavengers on lion carcasses. The remains appear to have been imported often by hyenas into their communal dens, supporting the theory of strong hyena-lion antagonism, similar to the well documented antagonism between modern African lions and spotted hyenas. Most of the lion bones from the open air hyena den at Bottrop are probably a result of such antagonism, as are the rare remains of these carnivores found within large hyena prey bone accumulations along the Pleistocene rivers. The Emscher River terrace also has the largest quantity of hyena remains from open air river terrace sites in northern Germany. Their cub remains, and incomplete chewed prey bones from mammoths and woolly rhinoceroses, typical of hyena activity, underline the character of these sites as cub-raising and communal dens, where their prey was accumulated along the riverbanks in a similar manner to modern African hyenas.

  13. Messsysteme für die Bildgebung mit Röntgenstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    Nach einem kurzen Überblick über die heute verwendeten Detektorsysteme zur Erzeugung von Röntgenbildern in der Projektionsradiografie folgt die ausführliche Darstellung der klassischen Kombination von Röntgenfilm und Verstärkungsfolien. Der nächste Abschnitt befasst sich mit den Ausführungen zu Bildverstärkern, den Speicherfolien und den anderen digitalen Festkörperdetektoren. Der Dosisbedarf eines bildgebenden Systems kann bei Film-Folien- Kombinationen durch die Angabe von Empfindlichkeitsklassen definiert werden, bei den digitalen Detektoren geschieht dies mit Hilfe der Dosisindikatoren (Exposure Indicator EI, Abweichungsindikator DI). Im zweiten großen Abschnitt dieses Kapitels werden die Grundlagen der Computertomografie erläutert. Dazu werden zunächst die CT-Gerätegenerationen und die CT-Detektoren besprochen. Nach einer Erläuterung der Rechenverfahren zur Bilderzeugung folgt die Definition der Hounsfield-Einheiten. Den Abschluss bildet eine ausführliche Darstellung der Bildartefakte bei der Computertomografie.

  14. Carbon electrodes modified with ruthenium metallodendrimer multilayers for the mediated oxidation of methionine and insulin at physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Pacey, G E; Cox, J A

    2001-11-15

    A pentaerythritol-based metallodendrimer with ruthenium(II) terpyridine units, Ru(II)Den, catalyzed the oxidation of L-methionine and insulin at pH 7.0. The Ru(II)Den was immobilized on a carbon surface through layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition; the negatively charged polymer, poly(styrene sulfonate), was its counterpart. These bilayers were assembled on a glassy carbon electrode that was first modified by deposition of a layer of the conjugate base of sulfanilic acid and then with quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine). Reversible voltammetry for the Ru(II/III) redox couple was observed, the current for which increased linearly with layer number, n, of Ru(II)Den up to n = 12. Cyclic voltammetry was used to demonstrate the mediation of L-methionine oxidation by a Ru(II)Den-containing multilayer assembly. Flow injection amperometric determination of insulin at pH 7.0 at this modified electrode yielded a calibration curve with the following characteristics: linear dynamic range, 6 nM-0.4 microM; sensitivity, 225 nA microM(-1); detection limit (k = 3 criterion), 2 nM. Of particular importance was that the sensitivity was proportional to the number of Ru(II)Den layers. PMID:11816594

  15. Characterization of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver carcinogenesis in Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo; Dai, Zhi-Kai; Liang, Rong-Gan; Xiao, Sheng-Jun; He, Song-Qing; Zhao, Hai-Lu; Xu, Qing

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize hepatocarcinogenesis in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated hamsters. Syrian golden hamsters (n=36) were administered DEN by hypodermic injection and addition to drinking water. Morphological analyses, including light microscopy and immunohistochemistry of α-fetal protein (AFP), were performed on liver and lung tissues. Primary cell culture and tumor transplantation were carried out to evaluate the potential application in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) research. From 25 to 50 weeks of treatment, liver tumors, including macronodular HCC and ascites, were found in one-third (4/12) of the animals treated with DEN. HCC was characterized by poor differentiation, frequent mitosis, AFP reaction, vessel invasion and potential application in primary cell culture and xenotransplantation. Pre-neoplastic lesions were hyperplastic nodules comprised of clear cells, bile duct proliferation, fatty metamorphosis and multilocular cysts. The DEN-treated hamsters also showed lung tumors consisting of AFP-negative, well-differentiated neoplastic cells. Characterization of DEN-induced HCC in hamsters provides insights into human hepatocarcinogenesis. This animal model has potential applications in HCC research. PMID:22969883

  16. Organisationsübergreifendes Management von Föderations-Sicherheitsmetadaten auf Basis einer Service-Bus-Architektur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Stephan; Hommel, Wolfgang

    In service-orientierten Architekturen wird die herkömmliche web-service-basierte Punkt-zu-Punkt-Kommunikation zunehmend durch den Einsatz eines Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) abgelöst, der den sicheren und zuverlässigen Nachrichtentransport realisiert. Der Einsatzbereich eines ESB endet jedoch an den Grenzen der ihn einsetzenden Institution. In diesem Artikel analysieren wir aktuelle Herausforderungen bei der organisationsübergreifenden Verwaltung von Sicherheitsmetadaten, zu denen insbesondere Serverzertifikate und Privacy Policies gehören. Als konkretes Szenario wird dabei das Federated Identity Management im Rahmen der deutschen Hochschulföderation DFN-AAI aufgegriffen. Als standardbasierte, einheitliche Lösung, die proprietäre sowie metadatentyp-spezifische Ansätze integriert und den damit verbundenen Administrationsaufwand reduziert, schlagen wir einen organisationsübergreifenden ESB vor, den wir als Federation Service Bus (FedSB) bezeichnen. Wir diskutieren seine technischen Eigenschaften, das zugrunde liegende Kommunikationsmodell und die organisatorischen Schritte zur Einführung.

  17. Antiviral effects of an iminosugar derivative on flavivirus infections.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Fen; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Liao, Ching-Len; Dwek, Raymond A; Zitzmann, Nicole; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2002-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, which block the trimming step of N-linked glycosylation, have been shown to eliminate the production of several ER-budding viruses. Here we investigated the effects of one such inhibitor, N-nonyl-deoxynojirimycin (NN-DNJ), a 9-carbon alkyl iminosugar derivative, on infection by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2). In the presence of NN-DNJ, JEV and DEN-2 infections were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect appeared to influence DEN-2 infection more than JEV infection, since lower concentrations of NN-DNJ substantially blocked DEN-2 replication. Secretion of the flaviviral glycoproteins E and NS1 was greatly reduced, and levels of DEN-2 viral RNA replication measured by fluorogenic reverse transcription-PCR were also decreased, by NN-DNJ. Notably, the viral glycoproteins, prM, E, and NS1 were found to associate transiently with the ER chaperone calnexin, and this interaction was affected by NN-DNJ, suggesting a potential role of calnexin in the folding of flaviviral glycoproteins. Additionally, in a mouse model of lethal challenge by JEV infection, oral delivery of NN-DNJ reduced the mortality rate. These findings show that NN-DNJ has an antiviral effect on flavivirus infection, likely through interference with virus replication at the posttranslational modification level, occurring mainly in the ER. PMID:11907199

  18. Evaluation of protective efficacy and immune mechanisms of using a non-structural protein NS1 in DNA vaccine against dengue 2 virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Fen; Liao, Ching-Len; Lin, Yi-Ling; Yeh, Chia-Tsui; Chen, Li-Kuang; Huang, Yung-Feng; Chou, Hsin-Ying; Huang, Jau-Ling; Shaio, Men-Fang; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the potential of DNA vaccine against dengue (DEN) infection, we characterize the protective efficacy and immune responses of mice intramuscularly injected with plasmid encoding DEN-2 non-structural protein 1 (NS1). Intravenously challenged by lethal DEN-2, mice vaccinated with NS1-DNA exhibited a delay onset of paralysis, a marked decrease of morbidity, and a significant enhancement of survival. In addition to a moderate increase of NS1-specific antibody titer from immunized mice measured by ELISA, a strong priming effect on anti-NS1 response was also noticed in plasmid NS1-vaccinated mice by radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) or immunoblot analysis. Interestingly, newborn mice from NS1-DNA-immunized dam showed stronger resistance to viral challenge, as compared to those from vector DNA or PBS-immunized dams, indicating the protective role of NS1-specific antibody. In contrast to humoral immune response, DNA immunization can elicit strong cellular immune responses, including NS1-specific T cell proliferation and cytolytic activity. The NS1-DNA-induced protection can be further augmented by co-injection of plasmid encoding interleukin 12 (IL-12), suggesting an effector role of Th1 immunity against DEN infection. In summary, our results suggest the potential of NS1-DNA vaccine against DEN infection, and indicate both NS1-specific humoral and cellular immune responses contribute to the protection. PMID:12922127

  19. Characterization of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver carcinogenesis in Syrian golden hamsters

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GUO; DAI, ZHI-KAI; LIANG, RONG-GAN; XIAO, SHENG-JUN; HE, SONG-QING; ZHAO, HAI-LU; XU, QING

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize hepatocarcinogenesis in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated hamsters. Syrian golden hamsters (n=36) were administered DEN by hypodermic injection and addition to drinking water. Morphological analyses, including light microscopy and immunohistochemistry of α-fetal protein (AFP), were performed on liver and lung tissues. Primary cell culture and tumor transplantation were carried out to evaluate the potential application in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) research. From 25 to 50 weeks of treatment, liver tumors, including macronodular HCC and ascites, were found in one-third (4/12) of the animals treated with DEN. HCC was characterized by poor differentiation, frequent mitosis, AFP reaction, vessel invasion and potential application in primary cell culture and xenotransplantation. Pre-neoplastic lesions were hyperplastic nodules comprised of clear cells, bile duct proliferation, fatty metamorphosis and multilocular cysts. The DEN-treated hamsters also showed lung tumors consisting of AFP-negative, well-differentiated neoplastic cells. Characterization of DEN-induced HCC in hamsters provides insights into human hepatocarcinogenesis. This animal model has potential applications in HCC research. PMID:22969883

  20. Dienstleistung Instandhaltung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Wolfgang

    Die gravierenden Veränderungen des Marktes und des Wettbewerbes infolge der Globalisierung Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts hatten auch einschneidende Auswirkungen auf die industrielle Instandhaltung. Dies galt sowohl für die unternehmensinterne Instandhaltung als auch für die externen Instandhaltungsdienstleister. Die Instandhaltung, die sich in der Vergangenheit schon ständig den sich verändernden wirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen in der Regel auch erfolgreich angepasst hatte, stand vor einer neuen Herausforderung. Sie wurde erneut hinsichtlich ihrer Schnittstellen, Arbeitsteilung und Organisation sowie der Flexibilität, Qualität, Nachhaltigkeit und Gesamteffizienz in vielen Unternehmen sowohl intern als auch extern zunehmend sehr kritisch betrachtet. Es wurde in vielen Unternehmen prinzipiell alles auf den Prüfstand gestellt und bisherige Strukturen, Abläufe, Strategien und Prozesse hinsichtlich des vorhandenen Verbesserungspotenzials hinterfragt. Dabei wurde auch sehr oft über den "eigenen Tellerrand“ geschaut und externer Sachverstand genutzt.

  1. Euthanasia for Detainees in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Devolder, Katrien

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, Frank Van Den Bleeken became the first detainee to request euthanasia under Belgium's Euthanasia Act of 2002. This article investigates whether it would be lawful and morally permissible for a doctor to accede to this request. Though Van Den Bleeken has not been held accountable for the crimes he committed, he has been detained in an ordinary prison, without appropriate psychiatric care, for more than 30 years. It is first established that Van Den Bleeken's euthanasia request plausibly meets the relevant conditions of the Euthanasia Act and that, consequently, a doctor could lawfully fulfill it. Next, it is argued that autonomy-based reasons for euthanizing him outweigh complicity-based reasons against doing so, and that, therefore, it is also morally permissible for a doctor to carry out the euthanasia request. PMID:27348823

  2. Der neue Kosmos. Einführung in die Astronomie und Astrophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsöld, Albrecht; Baschek, Bodo

    Der neue Kosmos bietet in überschaubarem Umfang eine zusammenhängende Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Astronomie und Astrophysik. Aus den Bereichen: Klassische Astronomie und Planetensystem, Instrumente und Beobachtungsverfahren, Sonne und Sterne, Milchstraße und Galaxien, Kosmologie, Entstehung des Planetensystems, Entwicklung der Erde und des Lebens werden die Beobachtungsmethoden und die Ergebnisse astronomischer Forschung sowie deren theoretische Grundlagen und wechselseitigen Zusammenhänge vermittelt. Die aktualisierte 7. Auflage berücksichtigt den raschen Fortschritt astronomischer Forschung der letzten drei Jahre von unserem Planetensystem und den Entdeckungen zahlreicher Planeten bei anderen Sternen, über die fernsten Galaxien und Quasare bis zur Entwicklung der modernen Kosmologie.

  3. Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kovarik, Libor; Bowden, Mark E.; Li, Shari; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-12-01

    Dendrimer-encapsulated ruthenium nanoparticles (DEN-Ru) have been used as catalysts in lithium-O2 batteries for the first time. Results obtained from UV-vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the nanoparticles synthesized by the dendrimer template method are ruthenium oxide instead of metallic ruthenium reported earlier by other groups. The DEN-Ru significantly improve the cycling stability of lithium (Li)-O2 batteries with carbon black electrodes and decrease the charging potential even at low catalyst loading. The monodispersity, porosity and large number of surface functionalities of the dendrimer template prevent the aggregation of the ruthenium nanoparticles making their entire surface area available for catalysis. The potential of using DEN-Ru as stand-alone cathode materials for Li-O2 batteries is also explored.

  4. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  5. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, R.; Ramesh, V.; Sridhar, M. P.; Sasikala, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a disease that evokes wide spread fear among people and is one of the leading causes of deaths in the world. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a known carcinogen in rodent liver. DENs reported to undergo metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form reactive electrophiles that cause oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (EETC) in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was assessed by the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Result: A significant levels of LPO was increased as the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants values were decreased in liver cancer bearing animals. Conclusions: The administration of EETC to cancer bearing animals reverted the LPO levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants to near normal PMID:26015745

  6. Gauß' Theoria motus: Entstehung, Quellen, Rezeption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, K.

    Die Entstehung von Gauß' Theoria motus steht in engem Zusammenhang mit den Ereignissen der Jahre 1801 und 1802: Giuseppe Piazzi hatte erstmals die Ceres beobachtet; diese konnte auf Grund der Berechnungen von Gauß um die Jahreswende 1801/2 sowohl von Franz Xaver von Zach als auch von Wilhelm Olbers wiederentdeckt werden. Gauß hatte seine Theoria motus auf der Basis der Keplerschen Gesetze, als Zweikörperproblem, behandelt. Er war sich aber sehr wohl darüber im klaren, daß diese Betrachtungsweise nur Bahnen liefern würde, die nur für relativ kurze Zeit mit den Beobachtungen übereinstimmen würden. Um den so errechneten Bahnen dennoch eine länger währende Gültigkeit zu ermöglichen, berücksichtigte er im letzten Kapitel seiner Theoria motus die unweigerlich auftretenden Störungen.

  7. Räumliches Hören

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauert, Jens; Braasch, Jonas

    Unsere Hörereignisse (Hörobjekte, Laute) existieren jeweils zu ihrer Zeit an ihrem Ort und sind mit jeweils spezifischen Eigenschaften ausgerüstet. "Räumliches Hören“ als wissenschaftliches Fachgebiet erforscht und beschreibt die Beziehungen zwischen den Orten sowie den räumlichen Ausdehnungen der Hörereignisse untereinander und zu den korrelierten Merkmalen anderer Ereignisse - vorwiegend Schallereignisse, aber z. B. auch physiologische Vorgänge, Ereignisse anderer Sinnesgebiete usw. (s. hierzu Blauert 1974 etc., woraus einige der folgenden Bilder entnommen sind). Übersichtsdarstellungen findet man z. B. auch bei (Bloch 1893, Pierce 1901, von Hornbostel 1926, Trimble 1928, Kietz 1953, Woodworth u. Schlosberg 1954, von Békésy 1960, Aschoff 1963, Keidel 1966, Erulkar 1972, Durlach u. Colburn 1978, Gatehouse 1979, Blauert 1983, Yost u. Gourevitch 1987, Wightman u. Kistler 1993, Begault 1994, Gilkey u. Anderson 1996).

  8. Notizen zur Wissenschaftsentwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmellenmeier, Heinz

    Wissenschaft und Technik sind eine Einheit. Heute läßt sich eine Grenze zwischen den Bereichen schwer finden. Es wird versucht, zu zeigen, wie moderne sozialistische Formen der Wissenschaftsorganisation den Fortschritt fördern. Unter den heutigen Bedingungen der Klassenauseinandersetzung der beiden Weltsysteme auf dem Gebiet der Wissenschaft kann es eine echte Internationalität der Wissenschaft nicht geben.Translated AbstractNotes on the Development of ScienceScience and Technology are a unity. There is no frontier between them. It will be shown, that modern socialist forms of organisation of science further its development. In our time, with its class-struggle between the two social systems in the world, a real internationality of science is impossible.

  9. Kosteneffiziente Honbearbeitung durch intelligente und flexible Verknüpfung von autarken Honzentren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Günther

    Die Planungsabteilungen in der Automobilindustrie werden vor immer größere Herausforderungen gestsellt. Der zur Verfügung stehende Zeitraum zu einer seriensicheren Umsetzung der entwicklungs- und produktionstechnischen Forderungen wird von Projekt zu Projekt kürzer. Aufgrund des hohen Wettbewerbsdrucks und daraus resultierenden erforderlichen Kostenoptimierungen, die schnelleren Timeto-market-und Innovationszyklen und die vermeintlich zur Kundenbindung erforderlichen, kaum mehr überschaubaren Diversifizierungen in den Modellpaletten lassen den Planungshorizont immer kürzer werden. Die zu beschaffenden Fertigungsanlagen sollen aber in den nächsten 8-12 Jahren all die Varianten produzieren können, die heute nur teilweise oder noch gar nicht bekannt sind.

  10. SARCOPTERYGII, Fleischflosser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    Unter den rezenten und fossilen Fischen sind die Sarcopterygier durch fleischige Loben an den paarigen Flossen charakterisiert. Fossil gehen sie bis in das Obere Silur (vor 420 Mio. Jahren) zurück. Einige Gruppen (†Onychodontida, †Porolepiformes, †Elpistostegalia) waren auf das Devon beschränkt, andere verschwanden gegen Ende des Paläozoikums (†Rhizodontida, †Osteolepiformes). Nur wenige Arten der Dipnoi (Lungenfische) und Actinistia (Hohlstachler) haben überlebt; aus einer ausgestorbenen Teilgruppe evolvierten die erfolgreichen Tetrapoda. Im Devon waren die Sarcopterygier weltweit verbreitet; ihre rezenten fischartigen Formen sind dagegen auf die Südkontinente bzw. den Indischen Ozean beschränkt. Ursprünglich waren alle Formen marin. Mehrmals unabhängig wurde von ihnen das Süßwasser und innerhalb der Tetrapoden vor allem das Land erobert.

  11. Niob

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettner, H. W.; Franssen, H.; Giesen, K.; Hayes, E. T.; Holetzko, H.; Keysselitz, B.; Loebich, O.; Pelzel, E.; Reinsch, W.; Rostoker, W.; Saur, G.; Volk, K. E.; Wallbaum, H. J.; Borchers, Heinz; Schmidt, Ernst

    Niob — im angelsächsischen Schrifttum vielfach auch als "Columbium" (chemisches Zeichen "Cb") bezeichnet — wurde bis vor wenigen Jahren vorwiegend als Legierungselement in den sog. "Superalloys" oder zur Stabilisierung austenitischer Stähle verwendet. In neuerer Zeit wurden zahlreiche hochwarmfeste Legierungen auf Niobbasis für den Triebwerksbau und korrosionsbeständige Legierungen u. a. für die Verwendung als Hüllenwerkstoff im Reaktorbau entwickelt [D 2, G 1, H 2]. Niob-Uran-Legierungen scheinen sich zur Herstellung von Brennstoffelementen in Reaktoren zu bewähren. Vereinzelt wird Niob auch an Stelle des Tantals für hochwertige Senderöhren, Röntgenröhren und Hochspannungsgleichrichter verwendet. In der Vakuumtechnik dient es als wirksames "bulk getter" (nicht verdampfendes Getter) für den Temperaturbereich zwischen 400 und 900 °C [E 5].

  12. Zusatz- und Weiterqualifikation nach dem Studium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnick, Ivonne

    Ist der Bachelor geschafft, stellt sich die Frage nach einer Weiterqualifizierung. Neben einem Einstieg ins Berufsleben kann auch ein Masterstudium eventuell weitere entscheidende Bonuspunkte für den Lebenslauf bringen. Mit Zusatzqualifikationen aus fachfremden Bereichen wie Betriebswirtschaft oder Marketing ist es für Naturwissenschaftler leichter, den Einstieg ins Berufsleben zu schaffen. Viele Arbeitgeber sehen gerade bei Naturwissenschaftlern eine Promotion gerne. Hier sollte genau abgewogen werden, ob sie innerhalb einer bestimmten Zeitspanne zu schaffen ist. Auch nach einem Einstieg in den Job lässt sich der Doktortitel unter Umständen noch nachholen. Ebenso ist eine Weiterbildung neben dem Beruf in Teilzeit oder in einem Fernkurs möglich. Zusätzlich gibt es viele mehrwöchige oder mehrmonatige Kurse privater Anbieter, in denen man BWL-Grundkenntnisse erwerben kann.

  13. Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer in rats by Rhizoma paridis saponin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Xin; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-09-01

    Rhizoma Paridis saponin (RPS) had been regarded as the main active components responsible for the anti-tumor effects of the herb Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. In the present research, we set up a rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatoma to evaluate antitumor effect of RPS. After 20 weeks treatment, rats were sacrificed to perform histopathological examinations, liver function tests, oxidative stress assays and so forth. As a result, DEN-induced hepatoma formation. RPS alleviated levels of liver injury through inhibiting liver tissues of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) formation, increasing superoxide dismutases (SOD) production, and up-regulating expression of GST-α/μ/π in DEN-induced rats. All in all, RPS would be a potent agent inhibiting chemically induced liver cancer in the prospective application. PMID:27451357

  14. Relationship between hepatocyte necrosis, proliferation, and initiation induced by diethylnitrosamine in the male F344 rat.

    PubMed

    Kato, M; Popp, J A; Conolly, R B; Cattley, R C

    1993-02-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is commonly used as an initiator in rodent models of multistage carcinogenesis. Because the initiating activity of DEN has been attributed, in part, to its induction of regenerative cell proliferation, the temporal and quantitative relationships among necrosis, replication, and initiation were characterized in livers of male F344 rats subsequent to administration of a single dose of 10 or 150 mg DEN/kg. Following a dose of 150 mg DEN/kg body weight, maximal hepatocellular necrosis was observed 2 days postinjection and amounted to 9% of the hepatic volume being necrotic by light microscopic criteria. Changes in serum levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, indicators of hepatocellular necrosis, paralleled changes in the necrotic volume fraction. Hepatocyte replication was estimated using nuclear labeling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), which was constantly infused for 2 or 7 days by osmotic minipump. BrdU labeling was maximally increased at 4 days with 2-day infusion (26.1% in treated vs 0.5% in controls) and at 7 days with 7-day infusion (46% in treated vs 2% in controls). Initiation was quantitated by enumeration of hepatocytes which stained positive for placental glutathione-S-transferase (GST-P). Increased numbers of GST-P-positive hepatocytes were observed on Day 4 and increased to a maximum of 109/cm2 section area, or 0.077% of all hepatocytes. Thus, the temporal pattern changes following 150 mg DEN/kg body wt are consistent with the attribution of regenerative cell proliferation contributing to the yield of initiated cells. A comparison of the peak BrdU (2-day) labeling index and the peak GST-P staining frequency suggests a rate of initiation of roughly 10(-3)-10(-4)/cell division following 150 mg DEN/kg body wt.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8449386

  15. Identification of novel biomarkers for preeclampsia on the basis of differential expression network analysis

    PubMed Central

    WU, YUFANG; FU, XIUHUA; WANG, LIN

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a severe pregnancy complication, which is a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality. The present study aimed to screen potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of PE and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of PE development based on the differential expression network (DEN). The microarray datasets E-GEOD-6573 and E-GEOD-48424 were downloaded from the European Bioinformatics Institute database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the PE and normal groups were screened by Significant Analysis of Microarrays with the cutoff value of a |log2 fold change| of >2, and a false discovery rate of <0.05. The DEN was constructed based on the differential and non-differential interactions observed. In addition, genes with higher connectivity degrees in the DEN were identified on the basis of centrality analysis, while disease genes were also extracted from the DEN. In order to understand the functional roles of genes in DEN, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were performed. The present results indicated that a total of 225 genes were considered as DEGs in the PE group, while 466 nodes and 314 gene interactions were involved in the DEN. Among these 466 nodes, 4 nodes with higher degrees were identified, including ubiquitin C (UBC), small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO1), SUMO2 and RAD21 homolog (S. pombe) (RAD21). Notably, UBC was also found to be a disease gene. UBC, RAD21, SUMO2 and SUMO1 were markedly enriched in the regulation of programmed cell death, as well as in the regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle and chromosomal part. In conclusion, based on these results, we suggest that UBC, RAD21, SUMO2 and SUMO1 may be reliable biomarkers for the prediction of the development and progression of PE. PMID:27347039

  16. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  17. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Anita

    Der Zweck dieser Studie (zwecks Überblick siehe dazu Abb. 9.1) war zu untersuchen, wie die Schüler der Sekundarstufe II ein Verständnis von der Theorie der biologischen Evolution entwickeln. Vom Ausgangspunkt "Vorurteile der Schüler“ ausgehend wurden Unterrichtssequenzen entwickelt und drei verschiedene Lernexperimente in einem zyklischen Prozess durchgeführt. Das Wissen der Schüler wurde vor, während und nach den Unterrichtssequenzen mit Hilfe von schriftlichen Tests, Interviews und Diskussionsrunden in kleinen Gruppen abgefragt. Etwa 80 % der Schüler hatten vor dem Unterricht alternative Vorstellungen von Evolution, und in dem Nachfolgetest erreichten circa 75 % ein wissenschaftliches Niveau. Die Argumentation der Schüler in den verschiedenen Tests wurde sorgfältig unter Rücksichtnahme auf Vorurteile, der konzeptionellen Struktur der Theorie der Evolution und den Zielen des Unterrichts analysiert. Daraus konnten Einsichten in solche Anforderungen an Lehren und Lernen gewonnen werden, die Herausforderungen an Schüler und Lehrer darstellen, wenn sie anfangen, evolutionäre Biologie zu lernen oder zu lehren. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis war, dass das Verständnis existierender Variation in einer Population der Schlüssel zum Verständnis von natürlicher Selektion ist. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: 1) den inhaltsspezifischen Aspekten, die einzigartig für jedes wissenschaftliche Feld sind; 2) den Aspekten, die die Natur der Wissenschaft betreffen; und 3) den allgemeinen Aspekten. Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

  18. Genetic determinants of dengue type 4 virus neurovirulence for mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, H; Rostapshov, V; Rosen, L; Lai, C J

    1993-01-01

    Mouse-adapted dengue type 4 virus (DEN4) strain H241 is highly neurovirulent for mice, whereas its non-mouse-adapted parent is rarely neurovirulent. The genetic basis for the neurovirulence of the mouse-adapted mutant was studied by comparing intratypic chimeric viruses that contained the three structural protein genes from the parental virus or the neurovirulent mutant in the background sequence of nonneurovirulent DEN4 strain 814669. The chimera that contained the three structural protein genes from mouse neurovirulent DEN4 strain H241 proved to be highly neurovirulent in mice, whereas the chimera that contained the corresponding genes from its non-mouse-adapted parent was not neurovirulent. This finding indicates that most of the genetic loci for the neurovirulence of the DEN4 mutant lie within the structural protein genes. A comparison of the amino acid sequences of the parent and its mouse neurovirulent mutant proteins revealed that there were only five amino acid differences in the structural protein region, and three of these were located in the envelope (E) glycoprotein. Analysis of chimeras which contained one or two of the variant amino acids of the mutant E sequence substituting for the corresponding sequence of the parental virus identified two of these amino acid changes as important determinants of mouse neurovirulence. First, the single substitution of Ile for Thr-155 which ablated one of the two conserved glycosylation sites in parental E yielded a virus that was almost as neurovirulent as the mouse-adapted mutant. Thus, the loss of an E glycosylation site appears to play a role in DEN4 neurovirulence. Second, the substitution of Leu for Phe-401 also yielded a neurovirulent virus, but it was less neurovirulent than the glycosylation mutant. These findings indicate that at least two of the genetic loci responsible for DEN4 mouse neurovirulence map within the structural protein genes. Images PMID:8411360

  19. The live attenuated dengue vaccine TV003 elicits complete protection against dengue in a human challenge model.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Whitehead, Stephen S; Pierce, Kristen K; Tibery, Cecilia M; Grier, Palmtama L; Hynes, Noreen A; Larsson, Catherine J; Sabundayo, Beulah P; Talaat, Kawsar R; Janiak, Anna; Carmolli, Marya P; Luke, Catherine J; Diehl, Sean A; Durbin, Anna P

    2016-03-16

    A dengue human challenge model can be an important tool to identify candidate dengue vaccines that should be further evaluated in large efficacy trials in endemic areas. Dengue is responsible for about 390 million infections annually. Protective efficacy results for the most advanced dengue vaccine candidate (CYD) were disappointing despite its ability to induce neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. TV003 is a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine currently in phase 2 evaluation. To better assess the protective efficacy of TV003, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which recipients of TV003 or placebo were challenged 6 months later with a DENV-2 strain, rDEN2Δ30, was conducted. The primary endpoint of the trial was protection against dengue infection, defined as rDEN2Δ30 viremia. Secondary endpoints were protection against rash and neutropenia. All 21 recipients of TV003 who were challenged with rDEN2Δ30 were protected from infection with rDEN2Δ30. None developed viremia, rash, or neutropenia after challenge. In contrast, 100% of the 20 placebo recipients who were challenged with rDEN2Δ30 developed viremia, 80% developed rash, and 20% developed neutropenia. TV003 induced complete protection against challenge with rDEN2Δ30 administered 6 months after vaccination. TV003 will be further evaluated in dengue-endemic areas. The controlled dengue human challenge model can accelerate vaccine development by evaluating the protection afforded by the vaccine, thereby eliminating poor candidates from further consideration before the initiation of large efficacy trials. PMID:27089205

  20. A preliminary study of dengue infection in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Devi, Shamala

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line. PMID:17642533

  1. Antitumor Effect of the Mannich Base(1,3-bis-((3-Hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)phenylmethyl)urea) on Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vedarethinam, Vadanasundari; Dhanaraj, Karthik; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Choi, Ki Choon; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srisesharam, Srigopalram; Lee, Kyung Dong; Kim, Da Hye; Dhanapal, Tamilvenvendan; Sivanesan, Ravikumar; Choi, Han Sung; Kim, Young Ock

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effects of the synthetic Mannich base 1,3-bis-((3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)phenylmethyl)urea (1,3-BPMU) against HEP-G2 hepatoma cells and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC) in albino rats. In vitro analysis results revealed that 1,3-BPMU showed significant cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in HEP-G2 hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry results indicated that 1,3-BPMU enhanced early and late apoptosis. The maximum apoptosis was exhibited at a concentration of 100 μg/mL of 1,3-BPMU. In in vivo analysis, DEN treatment increased the content of nucleic acids, LPO and the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, γGT and 5'NT with decreased antioxidant activity as compared to control rats. However, 1,3-BPMU treatment to DEN-induced rats decreased the content of nucleic acids, LPO and the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, γGT and 5'NT and increased the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and GR (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 1,3-BPMU enhanced the apoptosis via upregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and the downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL mRNA expression as compared to DEN-induced rats. Histological and ultrastructural investigation showed that 1,3-BPMU treatment renovated the internal architecture of the liver in DEN-induced rats. In this study, the molecular and pre-clinical results obtained by treatment of DEN-induced rats with 1,3-BPMU suggested that 1,3-BPMU might be considered as an antitumor compound in the future. PMID:27187346

  2. Vernetzung im Kfz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Konrad

    Elektrische und elektronische Systeme im Kfz sind vielfach nicht voneinander unabhängig, sondern beeinflussen und ergänzen sich gegenseitig. Deshalb wurden schon bei den frühen Einspritz- und Zündsystemen Signalleitungen eingesetzt, um eine einfache Kommunikation zwischen diesen beiden Systemen zu ermöglichen. Die zunehmende Anzahl elektronischer Systeme erhöhte jedoch rasch den Bedarf und die Vielfalt an auszutauschenden Informationen. Die Anzahl der hierzu erforderlichen Signalleitungen und Stecker anschlüsse stiegen gleichermaßen, so dass die bis dahin angewandte Technik an ihre Grenzen stieß.

  3. Geoinformation und Staat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zypries, Brigitte

    2002-09-01

    Geoinformationen besaßen als Grundlage militärischer Interventionen schon immer einen hohen Stellenwert für den Staat. Im Zeitalter der modernen Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien wächst in demokratischen Staaten die Bedeutung von Geodaten weit über den Verteidigungsbereich hinaus. Brigitte Zypries, Staatssekretärin im Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) und Vorsitzende des Interministeriellen Ausschusses für Geoinformationswesen (IMAGI), sprach mit Dipl.-Geogr. Ute C. Bauerüber die Anwendung und Koordinierung von Geodaten in Politik und Staat.

  4. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  5. Large Trapezium-type systems

    SciTech Connect

    Giulbudagian, A.L.

    1984-04-01

    Data on 11 Trapezium-type systems (TTSs) identified among the SAO-catalog OB stars in the region alpha 6-8 h, delta -40 - +5 deg and on 10 TTSs associated with reflection nebulas in the catalogs of van den Bergh (1966) and van den Bergh and Herbst (1975) are presented in tables and discussed along with other individual potential TTSs mentioned in the literature. The dimensions of the 21 TTSs range from 0.22 to 5.4 pc, as compared to an average of about 0.1 pc for the TTSs listed by Salukvadze (1978). 14 references.

  6. Qualitätsmanagement in der Lebensmittelindustrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, Volker

    Die wesentlichen Kunden der Lebensmittelindustrie sind der Einzel- und Großhandel und die Verbraucher. Jedes Unternehmen kann mittel- und langfristig nur existieren, wenn seine Kunden zufrieden sind. Kunden sind zufrieden, wenn ihre Erwartungen, die sie an Produkt, Service und Preis stellen, erfüllt werden. Also die bestimmte erwartete Qualität (Leistung) sichergestellt wird. Trotz aller Bemühungen und Anstrengungen der Anbieter, Qualitätsprodukte auf den Markt zu bringen, kames in den letzten Jahren immer wieder zu Lebensmittelskandalen.

  7. KSC-04PD-0203

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. A moss-covered alligator stretches out on the waters edge at a bank on the west side of NASAs Kennedy Space Center. Nearly 5,000 alligators can be found in canals, ponds and waterways throughout the Center and the surrounding Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Wildlife Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  8. KSC-04PD-0201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. An alligator makes a splashy entrance into the water on the west side of NASAs Kennedy Space Center. Nearly 5,000 alligators can be found in canals, ponds and waterways throughout the Center and the surrounding Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Wildlife Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  9. KSC-04PD-0050

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An alligator is spotted sunning on the muddy bank of a canal in KSC. Nearly 5,000 alligators can be found in canals, ponds, and waterways throughout the Center and the surrounding Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Wildlife Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  10. KSC-04PD-0049

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An alligator is spotted sunning on the muddy bank of a canal in KSC. Nearly 5,000 alligators can be found in canals, ponds, and waterways throughout the Center and the surrounding Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Wildlife Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  11. KSC-05PD-0309

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. An alligator strolls across the ground near the Vehicle Assembly Building (in the background). Nearly 5,000 alligators can be found in canals, ponds and waterways throughout the Center and the surrounding Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Wildlife Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  12. KSC-04PD-0200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. An alligator slides off a bank into the water on the west side of NASAs Kennedy Space Center. Nearly 5,000 alligators can be found in canals, ponds and waterways throughout the Center and the surrounding Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Wildlife Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  13. Movements of radio-instrumented grizzly bears within the Yellowstone area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judd, Steven L.; Knight, Richard R.

    1980-01-01

    Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) movement patterns were studied with the aid of 18 radio-instrumented grizzly bears in 1975 and 1976. Five bears gave minimal information because of death, transmitter failure, or loss of transmitters. Seasonal home range information is presented for 13 bears. Two bears, trapped inside Yellowstone National Park, included areas outside of the park in their home ranges. Twelve bears trapped outside included parts of the park in their home ranges. Three females with young gave no indication of having smaller home ranges than other individuals. Movement patterns prior to denning and dates of denning varied among individual bears.

  14. Acteoside-mediates chemoprevention of experimental liver carcinogenesis through STAT-3 regulated oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Peerzada, Kaiser J; Faridi, Aamir H; Sharma, Love; Bhardwaj, Subhash C; Satti, Naresh K; Shashi, Bhushan; Tasduq, Sheikh A

    2016-07-01

    In the absence of an effective therapy against Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), chemoprevention remains an important strategy to circumvent morbidity and mortality. Here, we examined chemopreventive potential of Acteoside (ACT), a plant derived phenylethanoid glycoside against an environmental and dietary carcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. ACT treatment (0.1 and 0.3% supplemented with diet) started 2 weeks before DEN challenge and continued for 18 weeks thereafter, showed a remarkable chemopreventive activity. ACT treatment resulted in reduced HCC nodules. Histopathology showed progressive tissue damage, necrosis (5 weeks), hepatocytic injury (10 weeks), anisonucleosis with presence of prominent nucleoli, sinusidal dilations, and lymphomono nuclear inflammation (18 weeks). Biochemical analysis showed hepatocytic injury (raised ALT, p < 0.001), inflammation [IL-6, IFN-γ (p < 0.05), and TNF-α (p < 0.001)], apoptosis [elevated Caspase-3 (p < 0.001)]. ACT at 0.1 and 0.3% ameliorated DEN-induced pre-hepatocarcinogenic manifestations. Mechanistic studies of ACT chemoprevention was elucidated using Hep3B cells with an aim to develop an in vitro DEN-induced toxicity model. Hep3B was found to be a reliable and more sensitive towards DEN toxicity compared to HepG2 and HuH7 cells. ACT prevented DEN-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.001), DNA damage, and genotoxicity (micronuclei test, DNA ladder test, Hoechst staining, cell cycle analysis). ACT significantly (p < 0.001) scavenged DEN-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss. Immunoblotting showed ACT treatment reversed DEN-induced NF-κB, Bax, Cytochrome C, Bcl-2, and Stat-3 levels. We conclude that chemoprotective effect of ACT is mediated by STAT-3 dependent regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis and ACT has potential to be developed as a chemopreventive agent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ

  15. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Global climate change may affect wolves in Canada's High Arctic (80DG N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena.

  16. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Gobal climate change may affect wolves in Canada's High Arctic (80?? N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However, when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  17. Nanophysik: Wärmeübertrag auf der Nanometerskala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Achim

    2006-01-01

    Gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts waren die grundlegenden Prozesse des Wärmeaustauschs verstanden. Die Gesetze dienten dann als Grundlage für die Quantenmechanik. Doch gelten diese Gesetze auch auf der Nanometerskala? In den 1970er-Jahren wurde eine Theorie für den Wärmeübertrag im atomaren Bereich entwickelt. Physiker der Universität Oldenburg überprüften deren Vorhersagen und stießen dabei auf signifikante Abweichungen, welche auf einen Zusammenbruch der klassischen, makroskopischen Elektrodynamik hindeuten.

  18. Multiferroicity due to Charge Ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    2012-02-01

    In this contribution I discuss multiferroicity that is driven by different forms of charge ordering, presenting first the generic mechanisms by which charge ordering can induce ferroelectricity in magnetic systems. In type-I multiferroics [1], ferroelectricity and magnetism have different origins and occur at different temperatures. There is a number of specific classes of materials for which this is relevant. Discussed will be in some detail (i) perovskite manganites of the type (PrCa)MnO3 [2,3], (ii) the complex and interesting situation in magnetite Fe3O4, (iii) strongly ferroelectric frustrated LuFe2O4 and (iv) an example of a quasi-one-dimensional organic system [4]. In type-II multiferroics [1], ferroelectricity is completely due to magnetism, but with charge ordering playing an important role [5], such as (v) multiferroic Ca3CoMnO6, (vi) possible ferroelectricity in rare earth perovskite nickelates of the type RNiO3 [6,7], (vii) multiferroic properties of manganites of the type RMn2O5 [8], (viii) perovskite manganites with magnetic E-type ordering. [4pt] [1] J. van den Brink and D. Khomskii, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 434217 (2008).[0pt] [2] D.V. Efremov, J. van den Brink and D.I. Khomskii, Nature Materials 3, 853 (2004).[0pt] [3] G. Giovannetti, S. Kumar, J. van den Brink, S. Picozzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 037601 (2009).[0pt] [4] G. Giovannetti, S. Kumar, A. Stroppa, J. van den Brink and S. Picozzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 266401 (2009). [0pt] [5] J. Betouras G. Giovannetti and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 257602 (2007).[0pt] [6] G. Giovannetti, S. Kumar, D. Khomskii, S. Picozzi and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 156401 (2009).[0pt] [7] S. Kumar, G. Giovannetti, J. van den Brink and S. Picozzi, Phys. Rev. B 82, 134429 (2010).[0pt] [8] G. Giovannetti and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 227603 (2008).

  19. Unser griechisches Erbe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Es wird dargelegt, daß fundamentale Konzeptionen der Physik auf die griechische Naturphilosophie zurückgeführt werden können, speziell auf Pythagoreismus, Platonismus und auf den Atomismus Demokrits. Am Ende des Artikels wird ein kurzer Blick auf den Zusammenhang zwischen Aristotelismus und Physik geworfen.Translated AbstractOur Greek InheritanceIt is shown that fundamental concepts of physics may be traced back to Greek Natural Philosophy, especially to Pythagoreism, Platonism, and to Demokrit's Atomism. At the end of the paper a brief glance is thrown on the relation between Aristotelism and physics.

  20. Mit Mathematik zu Mehr Intelligenz in der Logistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhring, Rolf H.; Schenk, Michael

    Die Lösung logistischer Probleme ist ein wichtiger Aspekt menschlichen Handelns seit Menschen gemeinsam zielgerichtet tätig wurden. Die Grundlagen dessen, was wir heute Logistik nennen, entstammen dem militärischen Bereich. So basierte z. B. das römische Imperium in starkem Maße auf militärisch-logistischen Glanzleistungen. Ob damals bereits mathematische Überlegungen eine Rolle spielten, wissen wir heute nicht. Jedoch versuchte z. B. Napoleon, der mit den bedeutendsten Mathematikern seiner Zeit befreundet war, den Transport seiner Truppen und die Verbreitung von Informationen zu optimieren und strategisch einzusetzen.1,2

  1. Parapsyche species (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae: Arctopsychinae) of western North America.

    PubMed

    Givens, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    The adult female, pupa, and larva of the 5 western North American species of the arctopsychine genus Parapsyche-P. almota Ross 1938, P. elsis Milne 1936, P. extensa Denning 1949a, P. spinata Denning 1949b, and P. turbinata Schmid 1968-are reviewed. The female and larva of P. extensa are described for the first time. The larvae of P. spinata and P. turbinata are described for the first time. The chaetotaxy of the larval forms of western North American Parapsyche is discussed and scanning electron micrographs are presented. Keys to the females, known pupae, and larvae are provided. Distributional and biological data are also included. PMID:26701494

  2. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Konrad

    Die adaptive Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung (ACC, Adaptive Cruise Control) ist eine Weiterentwicklung der konventionellen Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung, die eine konstante Fahrgeschwindigkeit einstellt. ACC überwacht mittels eines Radarsensors den Bereich vor dem Fahrzeug und passt die Geschwindigkeit den Gegebenheiten an. ACC reagiert auf langsamer vorausfahrende oder einscherende Fahrzeuge mit einer Reduzierung der Geschwindigkeit, sodass der vorgeschriebene Mindestabstand zum vorausfahrenden Fahrzeug nicht unterschritten wird. Hierzu greift ACC in Antrieb und Bremse ein. Sobald das vorausfahrende Fahrzeug beschleunigt oder die Spur verlässt, regelt ACC die Geschwindigkeit wieder auf die vorgegebene Sollgeschwindigkeit ein (Bild 1). ACC steht somit für eine Geschwindigkeitsregelung, die sich dem vorausfahrenden Verkehr anpasst.

  3. Identification of amino acids involved in recognition by dengue virus NS3-specific, HLA-DR15-restricted cytotoxic CD4+ T-cell clones.

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, L; Kurane, I; Okamoto, Y; Ennis, F A; Brinton, M A

    1996-01-01

    The majority of T-cell clones derived from a donor who experienced dengue illness following receipt of a live experimental dengue virus type 3 (DEN3) vaccine cross-reacted with all four serotypes of dengue virus, but some were serotype specific or only partially cross-reactive. The nonstructural protein, NS3, was immuno-dominant in the CD4+ T-cell response of this donor. The epitopes of four NS3-specific T-cell clones were analyzed. JK15 and JK13 recognized only DEN3 NS3, while JK44 recognized DEN1, DEN2, and DEN3 NS3 and JK5 recognized DEN1, DEN3, and West Nile virus NS3. The epitopes recognized by these clones on the DEN3 NS3 protein were localized with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing truncated regions of the NS3 gene, and then the minimal recognition sequence was mapped with synthetic peptides. Amino acids critical for T-cell recognition were assessed by using peptides with amino acid substitutions. One of the serotype-specific clones (JK13) and the subcomplex- and flavivirus-cross-reactive clone (JK5) recognized the same core epitope, WITDFVGKTVW. The amino acid at the sixth position of this epitope is critical for recognition by both clones. Sequence analysis of the T-cell receptors of these two clones showed that they utilize different VP chains. The core epitopes for the four HLA-DR15-restricted CD4+ CTL clones studied do not contain motifs similar to those proposed by previous studies on endogenous peptides eluted from HLA-DR15 molecules. However, the majority of these dengue virus NS3 core epitopes have a positive amino acid (K or R) at position 8 or 9. Our results indicate that a single epitope can induce T cells with different virus specificities despite the restriction of these T cells by the same HLA-DR15 allele. This finding suggests a previously unappreciated level of complexity for interactions between human T-cell receptors and viral epitopes with very similar sequences on infected cells. PMID:8627790

  4. Building a Probabilistic Denitrification Model for an Oregon Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J. B.; Stecher, H. A.; DeWitt, T.; Nahlik, A.; Regutti, R.; Michael, L.; Fennessy, M. S.; Brown, L.; Mckane, R.; Naithani, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite abundant work starting in the 1950s on the drivers of denitrification (DeN), mechanistic complexity and methodological challenges of direct DeN measurements have resulted in a lack of reliable rate estimates across landscapes, and a lack of operationally valid, robust models. Measuring and modeling DeN are particularly challenging in tidal systems, which play a vital role in buffering adjacent coastal waters from nitrogen inputs. These systems are hydrologically and biogeochemically complex, varying on fine temporal and spatial scales. We assessed the spatial and temporal variability of soil nitrate (NO3-) levels and O2 availability, two primary drivers of DeN, in surface soils of Winant salt marsh located in Yaquina estuary, OR during the summers of 2013 and 2014. We found low temporal variability in soil NO3- concentrations across years, tide series, and tide cycles, but high spatial variability linked to elevation gradients (i.e., habitat types); spatial variability within the high marsh habitat (0 - 68 μg N g-1 dry soil) was correlated with distance to major tide creek channels and connectivity to upslope N-fixing red alder. Soil O2 measurements collected at 5 cm below ground across three locations on two spring tide series showed that O2 drawdown rates were also spatially variable. Depending on the marsh location, O2 draw down ranged from sub-optimal for DeN (> 80 % O2 saturation) across an entire tide series (i.e., across days) to optimum (i.e., ~ 0 % O2 saturation) within one overtopping tide event (i.e., within hours). We are using these results, along with empirical relationships created between DeN and soil NO3- concentrations for Winant to improve on a pre-existing tidal DeN model. We will develop the first version of a fully probabilistic hierarchical Bayesian tidal DeN model to quantify parameter and prediction uncertainties, which are as important as determining mean predictions in order to distinguish measurable differences across the marsh.

  5. Spatial organization of northern flying squirrels, Glaucomys sabrinus: Territoriality in females?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.R.; Vuren, D.H.V.; Kelt, D.A.; Johnson, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    We determined home-range overlap among northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) to assess their spatial organization. We found extensive home-range overlap among females, and though this overlap could reflect social behavior, we found no evidence of attraction among females, with only one instance of den sharing. Instead, our results suggest that females share foraging areas but may be territorial in portions of the home range, especially around den trees and during young-rearing. Home-range overlap could also result from, the extrinsic effect of forest fragmentation due to timber harvest, which might impede dispersal and force squirrels to cluster on remaining fragments of suitable habitat.

  6. Five-year resurvey for endangered species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Otten, M.R.M.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Briden, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    A transect survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1), Kern County, California, was conducted between July 3 and August 5, 1989 to determine the distribution and relative density of endangered species and other wildlife. Results were compared with other reported results, particularly the 1979 and 1984 surveys of NPR-1. A total of 589.8 miles of transects were walked through approximately 47,235 acres in all or parts of 81 sections. Of the 516 San Joaquin kit fox dens observed, 496 were typical subterranean dens and 20 were atypical dens in man-made structures. Estimated den density was 36.7 [plus minus] 4.1 per square mile; and relative den density was 10.5/1,000 acres for all of NPR-1. Characteristics of typical kit fox dens were comparable to characteristics reported for other studies, except mean number of entrances per den, which was lower. Observers counted a total of 300 dens previously marked with an identification sign, 191 of which contained at least one complete entrance and would have been observed without a sign. Relative densities of preferred kit fox prey, black-toiled jackrabbits (40.1/1,000 acres) and desert cottontails (14.1/1,000 acres), were lower than previously recorded. Five blunt-nosed leopard lizards were observed along the southwest and northeast perimeter of the Reserve. Most of the 59 giant kangaroo rat burrow systems were observed in the flat terrain along the northeast and south perimeters of the Reserve. San Joaquin antelope squirrels were observed in the central and western parts of NPR- 1. A total of 73 antelope squirrels were observed, and the relative density was 1.511,000 acres. A total.of 30 possible environmental hazards were observed during transect surveys. Most of these were oil and water leaks of small size and appeared to pose little risk to endangered species. Results of this survey indicate that NPR-1 is supporting less wildlife than it did during either the 1979 or 1984 surveys.

  7. Five-year resurvey for endangered species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Otten, M.R.M.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Briden, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    A transect survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1), Kern County, California, was conducted between July 3 and August 5, 1989 to determine the distribution and relative density of endangered species and other wildlife. Results were compared with other reported results, particularly the 1979 and 1984 surveys of NPR-1. A total of 589.8 miles of transects were walked through approximately 47,235 acres in all or parts of 81 sections. Of the 516 San Joaquin kit fox dens observed, 496 were typical subterranean dens and 20 were atypical dens in man-made structures. Estimated den density was 36.7 {plus_minus} 4.1 per square mile; and relative den density was 10.5/1,000 acres for all of NPR-1. Characteristics of typical kit fox dens were comparable to characteristics reported for other studies, except mean number of entrances per den, which was lower. Observers counted a total of 300 dens previously marked with an identification sign, 191 of which contained at least one complete entrance and would have been observed without a sign. Relative densities of preferred kit fox prey, black-toiled jackrabbits (40.1/1,000 acres) and desert cottontails (14.1/1,000 acres), were lower than previously recorded. Five blunt-nosed leopard lizards were observed along the southwest and northeast perimeter of the Reserve. Most of the 59 giant kangaroo rat burrow systems were observed in the flat terrain along the northeast and south perimeters of the Reserve. San Joaquin antelope squirrels were observed in the central and western parts of NPR- 1. A total of 73 antelope squirrels were observed, and the relative density was 1.511,000 acres. A total.of 30 possible environmental hazards were observed during transect surveys. Most of these were oil and water leaks of small size and appeared to pose little risk to endangered species. Results of this survey indicate that NPR-1 is supporting less wildlife than it did during either the 1979 or 1984 surveys.

  8. Instructional Aspects of Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieters, Jules M., Ed.

    This collection contains three papers addressing the instructional aspects of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS): (1) "Some Experiences with Two Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Teaching Computer Programming: Proust and the LISP-Tutor" (van den Berg, Merrienboer, and Maaswinkel); (2) "Some Issues on the Construction of Cooperative ITS" (Kanselaar,…

  9. Test Review: "Test of Language Development-Intermediate" by D. D. Hammill and P. L. Newcomer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Nordstokke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Oral language skills are important to consider in school psychology practice, as they are directly tied to many areas of academic functioning. For example, research has demonstrated that oral language skills in early elementary school predict reading comprehension in later grades (Kendeou, van den Broek, White, & Lynch, 2009). With a…

  10. Incorporating Critical Thinking and Authenticity into Business German Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Maria; Maxim, Hiram

    1998-01-01

    Proposes to integrate critical thinking and problem-solving into two existing international tests of business German (Prufung Wirtschaftsdeutsch International and Zertifikat Deutsch fur den Beruf), and to contextualize the tests' tasks in a more authentic business setting without compromising their content. Parallels are drawn with the American…

  11. Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

  12. Haftung in der Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ute; Lücker, Volker

    Die Unversehrtheit von Leib und Leben ist das größte Rechtsgut unserer Gesellschaft. Dies macht schon das Grundgesetz in Art. 2 Abs. Satz 1 GG deutlich. Die Öffentlichkeit zeigt daher größtes Interesse an Produkten, welche der Gesundheit dienen und Leben retten oder erhalten. Dieses Interesse gilt einerseits der Entwicklung und Bereitstellung leistungsfähiger Medizinprodukte, andererseits zielt es auf deren Sicherheit. Um vor allem letztere zu gewährleisten, nimmt der Gesetzgeber alle Beteiligten in die Pflicht, die auftretenden Risiken auf das geringstmögliche Maß zu begrenzen. Dies spiegelt sich in den rechtlichen Vorgaben ebenso wie in den Haftungsfolgen, die bei Verletzung dieser Vorgaben greifen, wieder. Diese Folgen können dementsprechend gravierend ausfallen, von Geldstrafen bis zu Freiheitsstrafen, von Bußgeldzahlungen bis zum Schadenersatzansprüchen, die schnell ein wirtschaftliches Aus bedeuten können. Den Beteiligten, allen voran den Herstellern, muss deshalb daran gelegen sein, nicht nur die Produkte, sondern auch deren Sicherheit stetig weiter zu entwickeln.

  13. Holografie: Speicherscheibe für 300 Gigabyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wengenmayr, Roland

    2006-09-01

    Die optisch-digitalen Datenspeicher CD und DVD haben unsere Lebensgewohnheiten stark verändert. Schon sind die Nachfolgesysteme Blue Ray Disk und HD-DVD in einigen Ländern auf dem Markt. In den USA wird noch in diesem Jahr das Unternehmen InPhase Technologies in Longmond, Colorado, das erste holografische Datenspeichersystem herausbringen.

  14. Bewertung und Verbesserung der Zuverlässigkeit von mikroelektronischen Komponenten in mechatronischen Systemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, Hans-Joachim; Elm, Melanie; Kochte, Michael

    In den letzten Jahrzehnten hat der Anteil der informationsverarbeitenden Komponenten an den Herstellungskosten mechatronischer Systeme rapide zugenommen. In den 70er Jahren machte die Informationsverarbeitung noch ca. 15% des Systems aus. Zu Beginn dieses Jahrtausends sind es bereits über 60% [8.9], wie auch aus Abb. 8.1 hervorgeht. Dieser Zuwachs in den Herstellungskosten ist auf die Zunahme der durch die Informationsverarbeitung realisierten Funktionen zurückzuführen. Sehr deutlich ist diese Zunahme im Automobil zu beobachten. Während das Antiblockiersystem und die digitale Motorsteuerung schon seit Jahren zum Standard gehören, werden nun zunehmend auch Fahrerassistenz- und Infotainmentsysteme ins Kraftfahrzeug integriert. Bei diesen Systemen beginnt die Grenze zwischen klassischer Sicherheits- und Komfortfunktion zu verschwimmen. Die Bandbreite möglichen Fehlverhaltens reicht vom Ausfall des Navigationssystems über Störungen der Zentralverriegelung bis hin zum automatischen Einleiten von Bremsmanövern bei hohen Geschwindigkeiten. Entsprechend ergeben sich hier hohe Anforderungen an die Zuverlässigkeit dieser Systeme.

  15. Der Physik-Nobelpreis vor 100 Jahren Eine neue Eigenschaft der Materie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Im Jahre 1903 erhielten Henri Becquerel sowie Marie und Pierre Curie den Physik-Nobelpreis für die Entdeckung der Radioaktivität. Schon damals stellte Pierre Curie die Frage nach Nutzen und Gefahr dieser neuen Eigenschaft von Materie. Er war der Überzeugung, dass der Fortschritt letztlich mehr zum Nutzen als zum Schaden der Menschen beitrage.

  16. Constrained versus Unconstrained Estimation in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savalei, Victoria; Kolenikov, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Recently, R. D. Stoel, F. G. Garre, C. Dolan, and G. van den Wittenboer (2006) reviewed approaches for obtaining reference mixture distributions for difference tests when a parameter is on the boundary. The authors of the present study argue that this methodology is incomplete without a discussion of when the mixtures are needed and show that they…

  17. A Problem Based Learning Meta Analysis: Differences across Problem Types, Implementation Types, Disciplines, and Assessment Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Andrew; Leary, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) in its most current form originated in Medical Education but has since been used in a variety of disciplines (Savery & Duffy, 1995) at a variety of educational levels (Savery, 2006). Although recent meta analyses have been conducted (Dochy, Segers, Van den Bossche, & Gijbels, 2003; Gijbels, Dochy, Van den…

  18. Different roles for homologous interneurons in species exhibiting similar rhythmic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akira; Newcomb, James M; Lillvis, Joshua L; Katz, Paul S

    2011-06-21

    It is often assumed that similar behaviors in related species are produced by similar neural mechanisms. To test this, we examined the neuronal basis of a simple swimming behavior in two nudibranchs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia), Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris. The side-to-side swimming movements of Dendronotus [1] strongly resemble those of Melibe [2, 3]. In Melibe, it was previously shown that the central pattern generator (CPG) for swimming is composed of two bilaterally symmetric pairs of identified interneurons, swim interneuron 1 (Si1) and swim interneuron 2 (Si2), which are electrically coupled ipsilaterally and mutually inhibit both contralateral counterparts [2, 4]. We identified homologs of Si1 and Si2 in Dendronotus. (Henceforth, homologous neurons in each species will be distinguished by the subscripts (Den) and (Mel).) We found that Si2(Den) and Si2(Mel) play similar roles in generating the swim motor pattern. However, unlike Si1(Mel), Si1(Den) was not part of the swim CPG, was not strongly coupled to the ipsilateral Si2(Den), and did not inhibit the contralateral neurons. Thus, species differences exist in the neuronal organization of the swim CPGs despite the similarity of the behaviors. Therefore, similarity in species-typical behavior is not necessarily predictive of common neural mechanisms, even for homologous neurons in closely related species. PMID:21620707

  19. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Science and Technology Libraries Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The six papers in this collection focus on science and technology libraries: (1) "Human Aspects of Electronically-Stored Information: The Library User" (A. J. Meadows, United Kingdom); (2) "Untersuchung Menschlicher Aspekte bei den Elektronisch Gespeicherten Informationen: Ansichten des Leiters eines Bibliothekskollektives = Human Aspects of…

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Morphology and structure of BCG (Zhao+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Conselice, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    To study the structural properties of BCGs in galaxy groups and clusters, we use the BCG catalogue published by von den Linden (2007MNRAS.379..867V, Cat. J/MNRAS/379/867, hereafter L07). The 625 BCGs in L07 sample were visually classified by careful inspection of the SDSS images. (1 data file).

  1. Astronaut Norman Thagard changes tray in RAHF for rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Norman Thagard changes a tray in the research animal holding facility (RAHF) for rodents at the Ames double rack facility aboard the Spacelab 3 science module in the cargo bay of the shuttle Challenger. Lending a hand is payload specialist Lodewijk van den Berg. Both men are wearing protective clothing and surgical masks for this procedure.

  2. Water facts and figures for planners and managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feth, John Henry Frederick

    1973-01-01

    The units commonly used by hydrologists with respect to quantities and quality of water are denned; their significance in water management is outlined, and metric-english equivalents are given for many. A glossary of terms concludes the report which is intended as a reference work for use by planners and managers.

  3. A New Method for Identifying Essential Proteins Based on Network Topology Properties and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chao; Sun, Yongqi; Dong, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    Essential proteins are indispensable to the viability and reproduction of an organism. The identification of essential proteins is necessary not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular life but also for disease diagnosis, medical treatments and drug design. Many computational methods have been proposed for discovering essential proteins, but the precision of the prediction of essential proteins remains to be improved. In this paper, we propose a new method, LBCC, which is based on the combination of local density, betweenness centrality (BC) and in-degree centrality of complex (IDC). First, we introduce the common centrality measures; second, we propose the densities Den1(v) and Den2(v) of a node v to describe its local properties in the network; and finally, the combined strategy of Den1, Den2, BC and IDC is developed to improve the prediction precision. The experimental results demonstrate that LBCC outperforms traditional topological measures for predicting essential proteins, including degree centrality (DC), BC, subgraph centrality (SC), eigenvector centrality (EC), network centrality (NC), and the local average connectivity-based method (LAC). LBCC also improves the prediction precision by approximately 10 percent on the YMIPS and YMBD datasets compared to the most recently developed method, LIDC. PMID:27529423

  4. Patient's Guide to Living Confidently with Chronic Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... shock. Circulation . 2005 ; 111 : e380 – e382 . OpenUrl FREE Full Text 8. ↵ van den Broek KC , Habibovic M , Pedersen SS . ... perspective. Circulation . 2002 ; 105 : 1022 – 1024 . OpenUrl FREE Full Text 10. Hazelton A , Sears S , Kirian K , Matchett M , ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: 7q11.23 duplication syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome dup(7)(q11.23) Somerville-Van der Aa syndrome trisomy 7q11.23 WBS duplication syndrome Williams- ... or Free article on PubMed Central Van der Aa N, Rooms L, Vandeweyer G, van den Ende ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: achromatopsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... 25(3):289-93. Citation on PubMed Thiadens AA, Slingerland NW, Roosing S, van Schooneveld MJ, van Lith- ... Epub 2009 Jul 9. Citation on PubMed Thiadens AA, den Hollander AI, Roosing S, Nabuurs SB, Zekveld-Vroon ...

  7. Much ado about zero.

    PubMed

    Boeke, Jef D; Fenyo, David

    2015-10-22

    LINE retrotransposons actively shape mammalian genomes. Denli et al. reveal a new open reading frame, ORF0, on the antisense strand of human LINE-1 encoding a small regulatory protein. This finding may represent the birth of an emerging retrotransposon gene that can adopt various fates, as it can be fused to adjacent host sequences. PMID:26496595

  8. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  9. Makin' Stories: From New York to Monterey and Now to D.C., Dutch Crew Documents Best "2.0" Practices in U.S. Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Jaap van de Geer, Erik Boekesteijn, Michael Stephens, and Geert van den Boogaard toured the U.S. last fall and interviewed librarians about how they are revitalizing their libraries. These four Dutch men are representatives of the Delft (the Netherlands) Public Library Concept Center and they came to the U.S. for their "Shanachie Tour." Their trip…

  10. Investigation of denitrifying microbe communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a potential best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. This study examined microbe community abundance and diversity involved in den...

  11. Configuring Historical Facts through Historical Fiction: Agency, Art-in-Fact, and Imagination as Stepping Stones between Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent; Fidyk, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    The historical fiction novel straddles the factual and the fictive recreation of past motivations that animate historical events. Through reading a work of historical fiction, Ursula Hegi's novel "Stones from the River," Kent den Heyer and Alexandra Fidyk offer a theoretical consideration of the following questions and their classroom…

  12. 40 CFR 63.620 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., granulators, dryers, coolers, screens, and mills. (2) Each granular triple superphosphate process line. The... superphosphate process line: mixers, curing belts (dens), reactors, granulators, dryers, coolers, screens, and.../or monoammonium phosphate process line. The requirements of this subpart apply to the...

  13. 77 FR 6136 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Extension of Bond for Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Extension of Bond for Temporary Importation AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Application for Extension of Bond for Temporary Importation (CBP Form 3173). This...: Direct all written comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations...

  14. “&ldots;how the right technique emerged at the right time” Zur Geschichte der fotografischen Methode im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengler, Silke

    Die Frühgeschichte der fotografischen Methode, die als Nachweisinstrument kernphysikalischer und kosmischer Strahlung in den 1950er Jahren zur Blüte kam, hat das Interesse vieler Wissenschaftshistoriker gefunden. Peter Galison hat gezeigt, wie fragil das Experimentalsystem lange Zeit war, das sich um die Methode bildete, und wie prekär die mit ihr aufgezeichneten Ergebnisse.

  15. Redescriptions of the Oxyethira aeola Group species in North America (Trichoptera:Hydroptilidae): Clarification of a taxonomic enigma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, S.R., II; Harris, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Oxyethira aeola Group at present contains 8 species distributed among Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Neotropical regions. The 4 North American species of this group, O. abacatia Denning, O. aeola Ross, O. anabola Blickle, and O. mirabills Morton, are similar and difficult to identify. The males of each of the 4 species are redescribed, illustrated, and keyed to clarify the confusing taxonomy.

  16. Spanish Pre-University Students' Use of English: CEA Results from the University Entrance Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez-Bedmar, Maria Belen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an updated overview of the main errors that Spanish students make when writing the English exam in the University Entrance Examination is provided. To do so, a Computer-aided Error Analysis (CEA) (Dagneaux, Denness & Granger, 1998) was conducted on a representative sample of the students who took the exam in June 2008 in Jaen, and…

  17. The role of hemagglutinins in the midgut extracts of two lines of Aedes aegypti in their susceptibility to Dengue-2 virus.

    PubMed

    Barde, P V; Khan, M I; Gokhale, M D; Mishra, A C; Mourya, D T

    2004-01-01

    Hemagglutinin activity (HA) was studied in the midgut extracts from highly (h) and lowly susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to Dengue-2 virus (DEN-2). HA in the midgut extracts from these two isofemale strains of mosquitoes was high in as compared to (h) mosquitoes. HA was found to be higher with chicken red blood cells (RBCs) than with rabbit and human RBCs of O group. Larval midgut extracts showed higher activity than those from adult female mosquitoes. Exposure of midgut extracts to 100 degrees C for 10 mins destroyed the activity. The activity was observed between pH 6 and pH 10. HA in midgut extracts was also studied using twenty different carbohydrates; five of them showed an inhibition of HA. The inhibitory carbohydrates, when incorporated into DEN-2-infected bloodmeal, showed a reduction in the susceptibility of mosquitoes to the virus as compared to the control ones fed on the virus alone. Similarly, when these carbohydrates were incorporated in the DEN-2-infected inoculum, the inoculated mosquitoes showed a reduction in the susceptibility to the virus. HA in the virus-infected midgut extracts was higher than that in the uninfected controls. These results suggest that the presence of HA in the midgut may be one of the factors that affect the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes to DEN-2. PMID:15462286

  18. A brief overview of current relationships of geography, statistics, and taxonomy with the classical integrated control concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A classic paper on the integrated control concept appeared in the later part of the 1950’s, led by Vernon Stern, Ray Smith, Robert van den Bosch, and Kenneth Hagen. Numerous concepts and definitions were formulated at that time. In this presentation, a short philosophical summary will be presented...

  19. Tomato oleoresin inhibits DNA damage but not diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Scolastici, Clarissa; Lopes, Gisele A D; Barbisan, Luís F; Salvadori, Daisy M F

    2008-06-01

    Various studies have shown that lycopene, a non-provitamin A carotenoid, exerts antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities in different in vitro and in vivo systems. However, the results concerning its chemopreventive potential on rat hepatocarcinogenesis are ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic effects of dietary tomato oleoresin adjusted to lycopene concentration at 30, 100 or 300 ppm (administered 2 weeks before and during or 8 weeks after carcinogen exposure) on liver of male Wistar rats treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 20 or 100mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN), respectively. The level of DNA damage in liver cells and the development of putative preneoplastic single hepatocytes, minifoci and foci of altered hepatocytes (FHA) positive for glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) were used as endpoints. Significant reduction of DNA damage was detected when the highest lycopene concentration was administered before and during the DEN exposure (20mg/kg). However, the results also showed that lycopene consumption did not reduce cell proliferation in normal hepatocytes or the growth of initiated hepatocytes into minifoci positive for GST-P during early regenerative response after 70% partial hepatectomy, or the number and area of GST-P positive FHA induced by DEN (100mg/kg) at the end of week 10. Taken together, the data suggest a chemopreventive effect of tomato oleoresin against DNA damage induced by DEN but no clear effectiveness in initiating or promoting phases of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:18434113

  20. Does the U in the U-Shaped Curve Also Stand for Universal? Reflections on Provisional Doubts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jessica

    1997-01-01

    Critiques the attempt by David Pariser and Axel van den Berg to apply the author's methods to a cross-cultural study. Argues that their study is too flawed to be definitive. Suggests means to test the universality of the U-curve as a cognitive development pattern or an artifact of culturally defined aesthetics. (DSK)

  1. 78 FR 64523 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Vessel Entrance or Clearance Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Vessel Entrance or Clearance Statement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  2. Arzt und Hobby-Astronom in stürmischen Zeiten Der Büchernachlass des Doktor Johannes Häringshauser, Viertelsmedicus in Mistelbach (1630-1641) in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Giles; Glaßner, Gottfried

    2009-06-01

    Auf der Suche nach astronomischer Literatur stieß Giles Davison in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek auf den Namen "Doctor Johannes Häringshauser“ als Besitzer seltener und interessanter astronomischer Werke u.a. von Johannes Regiomontan, Georg von Peuerbach, Michael Mästlin, Johannes Kepler und Daniel Sennert. Weitere in den Jahren 2007-2009 durchgeführte Nachforschungen ergaben, dass es sich um den von 1630-1641 in Mistelbach, Niederösterreich, als Landschaftsarzt tätigen Vater des Melker Konventualen und Bibliothekars Sigismund Häringshauser (1631-1698) handelt. Er wurde 1603 als Sohn des aus Magdeburg stammenden Apothekers Johannes Häringshauser geboren und starb 1642 in Mistelbach. Johannes Häringshauser Sen. bekleidete von 1613-1640 eine Reihe wichtiger Ämter in der Wiener Stadtregierung und starb 1647. Der Studienaufenthalt von Dr. Johannes Häringshauser Jun. in Padua (1624-1626) dürfte das Interesse für Astronomie geweckt haben, das sich in seiner in die Bestände der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eingegangenen Privatbibliothek widerspiegelt. Der Großteil der 10 dem Fachbereich der Astronomie und Astrologie zuzuweisenden Titel wurde von ihm in den Jahren 1636 und 1637 erworben.

  3. Die Gasultrazentrifuge als mediale Projektion des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbold, Bernd

    Studien der letzten Dekaden nach der Wiedervereinigung von BRD und DDR erweitern die Perspektive der Wissenschaftsgeschichte vom Fokus des Big Science und der technisch-militärisch-industriellen Auseinandersetzung zwischen den zwei Blöcken zu einer globalen Transformation im Konflikt der Supermächte geprägt durch lokale und auch interne Ausformungen.

  4. How to Measure and Explain Achievement Change in Large-Scale Assessments: A Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickendorff, Marian; Heiser, Willem J.; van Putten, Cornelis M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, we discuss substantive and methodological validity issues of large-scale assessments of trends in student achievement, commenting on the discussion paper by Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Robitzsch, Treffers, and Koller (2009). We focus on methodological challenges in deciding what to measure, how to measure it, and how to foster…

  5. Managing Large Volumes of Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, James; Hagen, John, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In spring 2003, the Distance Education Network (DEN), Viterbi School of Engineering at the University of Southern California (USC), had 860 students and more than 1,000 enrollments in 70 courses toward 10 different degrees. Typically, for assignments in engineering courses, professors require students to show how their answers are derived so that…

  6. Reply to "Comment on `Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients' "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Chikashi; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone

    2016-07-01

    We reply to the Comment of Becker, Nelissen, Cleuren, Partoens, and Van den Broeck [Phys. Rev. E 93, 046101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.046101] on our article [Arita, Krapivsky, and Mallick, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052108 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052108] about the transport properties of a class of generalized exclusion processes.

  7. The Recess Renaissance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2015-01-01

    The author tells of his work around the country and world on transforming how schools do recess, free play, and outside time by transforming their outdoor spaces to match. Instead of a playground of fixed structures like traditional school grounds, newer spaces are filled with loose materials that children can use to build forts, dens, and tree…

  8. View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  9. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  11. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  12. View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian Church and the Federated Church of Christ - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  18. Wolfram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettner, H. W.; Franssen, H.; Giesen, K.; Hayes, E. T.; Holetzko, H.; Keysselitz, B.; Loebich, O.; Pelzel, E.; Reinsch, W.; Rostoker, W.; Saur, G.; Volk, K. E.; Wallbaum, H. J.; Borchers, Heinz; Schmidt, Ernst

    In diesem Abschnitt werden Angaben über die Eigenschaften des reinen Wolframs gemacht. Die Eigenschaften der Kobalt- und Nickellegierungen mit mittlerem Wolframgehalt werden in den Abschnitten 43 4 und 43 5 und die der wolframreichen Legierungen — Hartmetalle, Kontaktwerkstorfe usw. — im Abschnitt 43 5 beschrieben.

  19. Using Avatars and Virtual Environments in Learning: What Do They Have to Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falloon, Garry

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores and discusses arguments for the use of virtual environments and interactive avatars in supporting the achievement of student learning goals within conventional educational contexts. It describes and evaluates arguments promoted by some authors (eg, van den Brekel, 2007; Deuchar & Nodder, 2003; Dickey, 2003; Facer, 2004; de…

  20. Morphological evidence for phages of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), phage particles of Xylella fastidiosa strain Temecula-1 grown in PW broth were observed in ultrathin sections of bacterial cell-containing low speed centrifugation pellets and in partially purified preparations from CsCl equilibrium centrifugation dens...

  1. Recent observations of intraspecific predation and cannibalism among polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.; Smith, T.S.; Perham, C.; Thiemann, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    Intraspecific killing has been reported among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus). Although cannibalism is one motivation for such killings, the ecological factors mediating such events are poorly understood. Between 24 January and 10 April 2004, we confirmed three instances of intraspecific predation and cannibalism in the Beaufort Sea. One of these, the first of this type ever reported for polar bears, was a parturient female killed at her maternal den. The predating bear was hunting in a known maternal denning area and apparently discovered the den by scent. A second predation event involved an adult female and cub recently emerged from their den, and the third involved a yearling male. During 24 years of research on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea region of northern Alaska and 34 years in northwestern Canada, we have not seen other incidents of polar bears stalking, killing, and eating other polar bears. We hypothesize that nutritional stresses related to the longer ice-free seasons that have occurred in the Beaufort Sea in recent years may have led to the cannibalism incidents we observed in 2004. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  2. A Look at Psychometrics in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Swaminathan, H.

    Comments are made on the review papers presented by six Dutch psychometricians: Ivo Molenaar, Wim van der Linden, Ed Roskam, Arnold Van den Wollenberg, Gideon Mellenbergh, and Dato de Gruijter. Molenaar has embraced a pragmatic viewpoint on Bayesian methods, using both empirical and pure approaches to solve educational research problems. Molenaar…

  3. First identification of regulatory B cell subsets expressing IL-10 in teleost fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine with a potent anti-inflammatory activity, thus inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines as well as processes of antigen presentation. IL-10 is produced by variety of cells, including antigen presentation cells (i.e., monocytes, macrophages and den...

  4. Europäisches Organ der Festkörperforschung und DDR-Devisenbringer Die Zeitschrift Physica Status Solidi im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    Mit dem Ziele, ein einheitliches internationales Organ der Festkörperphysik für den europäischen Raum zu schaffen, das eine rasche Publikation der für das Festkörpergebiet repräsentative Arbeiten ermöglicht, wird durch ein internationales Herausgebergremium eine neue wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift gegründet.

  5. Kapselung sicherheitskritischer Funktionen in automobilen Steuergeräten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard, Denis

    Die Kapselung von Software-Teilen von Fahrzeug-Software sicherheitskritischer Systeme ist derzeit nicht üblich. Es werden die Grundlagen der Kapslung beschrieben und abgegrenzt. Exemplarisch wird Speicherschutz hinsichtlich Anforderungen, Autosar-Spezifikationen und Anwendung untersucht. Aus den Unterschieden der Theorie von Kapselung und aktuellen Spezifikation lassen sich Spezifikationslücken bzw. Verbesserungspotentiale für Autosar ableiten.

  6. Therapeutisches Management kutaner und genitaler Warzen.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    Mindestens 10 % der Bevölkerung erkranken während ihres Lebens an einer Infektion mit humanen Papillomaviren (HPV), welche sich klinisch anhand der Ausbildung kutaner oder genitaler Warzen manifestiert. Obwohl Warzen ubiquitär sind, existieren keine definierten Behandlungen. Warzen zeigen, insbesondere in den ersten sechs Monaten, eine erhöhte Selbstheilungsrate. Dieser Umstand erschwert die Interpretation von Studien, da häufig Patienten mit Neuinfektionen zusammen mit Patienten mit Altinfektionen behandelt werden. Lokalisationen, Größe und Dicke der Warzen sind ebenfalls in den meisten Fällen nicht berücksichtigt. Ziel dieses Übersichtsartikels ist eine Analyse des vorliegenden Studienmaterials, unter der für den klinischen Alltag so wichtigen Berücksichtigung von Subtypen und Lokalisationen. Insbesondere die Abgrenzung zwischen frischen und chronisch-therapieresistenten Verrucae vulgares spiegelt sich in einem Therapiealgorithmus wider. Bei genitalen Warzen wird der Therapiealgorithmus deutlicher durch das Ausmaß der infizierten Fläche als durch das Alter der Warzen bestimmt. Bei immunkompetenten Personen muss es mit den hier aufgezeigten therapeutischen Methoden immer das Ziel sein, eine komplette Abheilung zu erzielen. PMID:27607029

  7. A Multiplexed Cell-Based Assay for the Identification of Modulators of Pre-Membrane Processing as a Target against Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Stolp, Zachary D.; Smurthwaite, Cameron A.; Reed, Connor; Williams, Wesley; Dharmawan, Andre; Djaballah, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    The DenV pre-membrane protein (prM) is a crucial chaperone for the viral envelope protein, preventing premature fusion with vesicles during viral export. prM molecules in immature particles are cleaved by host proteases, leading to mature fusogenic virions. Blockade of prM cleavage would restrict fusion and represents a novel druggable opportunity against DenV. We have thus established a cell-based platform to monitor prM processing that relies on an engineered two-tag scaffold that travels to the cell surface through the secretory pathway. The assay discriminates between a single cell-surface tag when prM is cleaved and two tags when it is not, as detected through fluorescent-coupled antibodies by flow cytometry. The assay, miniaturized into a 96-well plate format, was multiplexed with the HIV-1 envelope boundary, also cleaved in the same pathway. A pilot screen against 1280 compounds was executed, leading to the identification of a potential active and corroborating the robustness of our assay for large-scale screening. We describe for the first time a cell-based assay that monitors DenV prM processing within the classical secretory pathway, which was exploited to identify a potential novel drug against DenV. PMID:25724189

  8. Energetische Müllverwertung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    In den 1970er Jahren entstand in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland das Bewusstsein für die Problematik von Mülldeponien mit ihren Sickerwässern und entweichenden Gasen. Die lokalen Müllkippen wurden zugunsten weniger zentraler, überwachter Anlagen geschlossen (Faustregel: Eine Zentraldeponie pro Landkreis).

  9. Archivalische Quellen zum Leben und Werk von Franz Xaver von Zach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattenberg, D.; Brosche, P.

    Franz Xaver von Zach (1754 - 1832) gehörte um die Wende vom 18. zum 19. Jahrhundert zu den angesehensten und profiliertesten Astronomen. Anliegen dieser Untersuchung ist es, handschriftliche Quellen von Zachs nachzuweisen - auch wenn Vollständigkeit vorläufig nicht erreicht werden kann.

  10. Conservation of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, on the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were performed to assess the possible impacts of increased production activities on the San Joaquin kit fox population inhabiting the US Department of Energy's Naval Petroleum Reserves in western Kern County, California, and to develop guidelines to lessen negative effects. Densities of breeding adults were between 1 and 2 pairs per 260 hectares. Relative abundance of fox, indicated by density of dens, was negatively correlated with increasing intensity of development, indicated by density of oil wells. About 75% of the puppies died within 7 months of their births; only 4 to 5% reached sexual maturity at 22 months of age. Most puppies remained within the denning ranges of their parents. Kit fox that dispersed more than 5 km died before they could establish new home ranges. Predation by coyotes, Canis latrans, was the greatest source of mortality; human activities, such as vehicle accidents, caused only 10% of the known deaths. Destruction of dens, and excessive removal of vegetation resulting in reduced prey populations, posed the greatest threats to kit fox. Conservation procedures included: preconstruction surveys to eliminate destruction of major dens; reducing off-road-vehicle travel; minimizing habitat destruction associated with construction projects; restoration of habitat through enhanced natural revegetation; and surveys to determine prey base, density, reproduction, sources of mortality and dispersal patterns of resident kit fox.

  11. Modeling the Effects of Climate Change on Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Denitrification in an Oregon Salt Marsh

    EPA Science Inventory

    The highest uncertainties in net nitrogen (N) fluxes between the atmosphere and biologically active pools are predominately due to denitrification (DeN). This diminishes confidence in our assessment of wetland N removal at transition zones between upland and aquatic systems. This...

  12. Diethylnitrosamine-induced expression of germline-specific genes and pluripotency factors, including vasa and oct4, in medaka somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jialing; Yokota, Shinpei; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2016-09-16

    Various methods have been developed to reprogram mammalian somatic cells into pluripotent cells as well as to directly reprogram somatic cells into other cell lineages. We are interested in applying these methods to fish, and here, we examined whether mRNA expression of germline-specific genes (vasa, nanos2, -3) and pluripotency factors (oct4, sox2, c-myc, nanog) is inducible in somatic cells of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). We found that the expression of vasa is induced in the gut and regenerating fin by exposure to a carcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Induction of vasa in the gut started on the 5th day of treatment with >50 ppm DEN. In addition, nanos2, -3, oct4, sox2, klf4, c-myc, and nanog were also expressed simultaneously in some vasa-positive gut and regenerating fin samples. Vasa-positive cells were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the muscle surrounding the gut and in the wound epidermis, blastema, and fibroblast-like cells in regenerating fin. In vasa:GFP transgenic medaka, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence appeared in the wound epidermis and fibroblast-like cells in the regenerating fin following DEN exposure, in agreement with the IHC data. Our data show that mRNA expression of genes relevant to germ cell specification and pluripotency can be induced in fish somatic cells by exposure to DEN, suggesting the possibility of efficient and rapid cell reprogramming of fish somatic cells. PMID:27514449

  13. Enhancing Florida strawberry shelf life using peroxiacetic acid pre-harvest treatments and postharvest edible coatings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry is an important fruit crop in Florida. Yearly losses can be attributed to pre- and postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea, and postharvest decay due primarily to Rhizopus stolonifer. Postharvest applications of edible coatings and sanitizers were tested. Among them, a medium-dens...

  14. Inhibitory Control in Childhood Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether previously reported parental questionnaire-based differences in inhibitory control (IC; Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) would be supported by direct measurement of IC using a computer task. Method: Participants were 30 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 7;05 years) and 30…

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (9th, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, July 22-29, 1985), Volume 1: Individual Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streefland, Leen, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "Calculators in Primary Education" (van den Brink); "Microworlds and Van Hiele Levels" (Dreyfus, Thompson); "Dynamical Mazes and the Ob-Serving Computer" (Harmegnies, Lowenthal); "Iterative…

  16. Praktikerporträts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herber, Kamilla; Kramer, Regine; Voigt, Bernd

    Wie vielfältig die beruflichen Möglichkeiten von MINT-Absolventen sind, zeigen die nachfolgenden Praktikerporträts. Aus sämtlichen Branchen und in den verschiedensten Positionen berichten die Praktiker über ihr Studium, die unterschiedlichsten Karrierewege und ihre Erfahrungen im Berufsleben.

  17. Beginn des Studiums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnick, Ivonne

    Ihr Herz schlägt für die Naturwissenschaften? Die Arbeitsmarktaussichten sind gut. Das Studium einer der vier MINT-Disziplinen ist daher eine gute Investition in die Zukunft. Wie Sie erfolgreich in das Studium starten, erfahren Sie auf den folgenden Seiten.

  18. Dendrimer-Capped Gold Nanoparticles for Highly Reliable and Robust Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanghyun; Lee, Jeongyeop; Jo, Gyeongcheon; Shin, Seungmin; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2016-08-10

    Dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-Den) were prepared by a facile solution based method for a highly reliable and robust surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. Au-Den was selectively attached on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by noncovalent interactions between the Au capping dendrimer and the graphene surface. Au-Den/rGO exhibits the outstandingly stable and highly magnified Raman signal with an enhancement factor (EF) of 3.9 × 10(7) that enables detection of R6G dyes with concentration as low as 10 nM, retaining 95% of the Raman signal intensity after 1 year. The remarkable stability and enhancement originated not only from a simple combination of the electromagnetic and chemical mechanism of SERS but also from intensified packing density of stable Au-Den on the graphene substrate due to the firm binding between the dendrimer capped metal nanoparticles and the graphene substrate. This method is not limited to the gold nanoparticles and G4 dendrimer used herein, but also can be applied to other dendrimers and metal nanoparticles, which makes the material platform suggested here superior to other SERS substrates. PMID:27403733

  19. Spatial variability in denitrification rates in an Oregon tidal salt marsh

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling denitrification (DeN) is particularly challenging in tidal systems, which play a vital role in buffering adjacent coastal waters from nitrogen inputs. These systems are hydrologically and biogeochemically complex, varying on fine temporal and spatial scales. As part of a...

  20. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  1. Interacting binaries. Lecture notes 1992.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, H.; Orr, A.

    These lecture notes represent a unique collection of information and references on current research on interacting binaries: S. N. Shore puts the emphasis on observations and their connection to relevant physics. He also discusses symbiotic stars. Cataclysmic variables are the subject of M. Livio's course, whereas E. P. J. van den Heuvel concentrates on more massive binaries and X-ray binaries.

  2. A Multiplexed Cell-Based Assay for the Identification of Modulators of Pre-Membrane Processing as a Target against Dengue Virus.

    PubMed

    Stolp, Zachary D; Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Reed, Connor; Williams, Wesley; Dharmawan, Andre; Djaballah, Hakim; Wolkowicz, Roland

    2015-06-01

    The DenV pre-membrane protein (prM) is a crucial chaperone for the viral envelope protein, preventing premature fusion with vesicles during viral export. prM molecules in immature particles are cleaved by host proteases, leading to mature fusogenic virions. Blockade of prM cleavage would restrict fusion and represents a novel druggable opportunity against DenV. We have thus established a cell-based platform to monitor prM processing that relies on an engineered two-tag scaffold that travels to the cell surface through the secretory pathway. The assay discriminates between a single cell-surface tag when prM is cleaved and two tags when it is not, as detected through fluorescent-coupled antibodies by flow cytometry. The assay, miniaturized into a 96-well plate format, was multiplexed with the HIV-1 envelope boundary, also cleaved in the same pathway. A pilot screen against 1280 compounds was executed, leading to the identification of a potential active and corroborating the robustness of our assay for large-scale screening. We describe for the first time a cell-based assay that monitors DenV prM processing within the classical secretory pathway, which was exploited to identify a potential novel drug against DenV. PMID:25724189

  3. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of bacoside A against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver toxicity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2009-10-01

    N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) is a notorious carcinogen, present in many environmental factors. DEN induces oxidative stress and cellular injury due to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species; free radical scavengers protect the membranes from DEN-induced damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of bacoside A (the active principle isolated from Bacopa monniera Linn.) on carcinogen-induced damage in rat liver. Adult male albino rats were pretreated with 15 mg/kg body weight/day of bacoside A orally (for 14 days) and then intoxicated with single necrogenic dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (200 mg/kg bodyweight, intraperitonially) and maintained for 7 days. The liver weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and activity of serum marker enzymes (aspartate transaminases, alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were markedly increased in carcinogen-administered rats, whereas the activities of marker enzymes were near normal in bacoside A-pretreated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutatione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione) in liver also decreased in carcinogen-administered rats, which were significantly elevated in bacoside A-pretreated rats. It is concluded that pretreatment of bacoside A prevents the elevation of LPO and activity of serum marker enzymes and maintains the antioxidant system and thus protects the rats from DEN-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:18679812

  5. The UK Edition of "The Little Red Schoolbook": A Paper Tiger Reflects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limond, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns "The Little Red Schoolbook," an English translation of the Danish book "Den lille rode bog fur skoleelever." After the book's publication in the UK, opponents were successful in pressing for its publisher's prosecution. The ensuing trial led to its withdrawal and its bowdlerisation. It is argued that the work played some part…

  6. Race, Intelligence, and Learning: Some Consequences of the Misuse of Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Edgar G.

    Arthur R. Jensen's article presented no new data: it only reorganized a biased sample of already existent data. Nevertheless, it has been taken by opponents of school integration as definitive scientific evidence of the innate inequality of black and white students. Jensen and Van Den Haag advocate additional studies on individual learning ability…

  7. Light-sampling behavior in photoentrainment of a rodent circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    DeCoursey, P J

    1986-08-01

    Behavioral aspects of photoentrainment of circadian locomotor activity rhythms were recorded for a nocturnal den-dwelling rodent, the flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans. Methods included both telemetric monitoring and infrared observations of animals under constant dark (DD) or light-dark (LD) schedules in either standard wheel cages or in newly developed simulated den cages. By means of the den cages, several aspects of a circadian activity cycle could be simultaneously measured emphasizing the arousal from rest, the light-sampling behavior by which a squirrel assessed the environmental photoregimen, and the phase-shifting by which photoentrainment was achieved. Each animal in a den cage remained for 12 or more hours of its rest period almost exclusively in the darkened nest box, then at an abrupt arousal time moved to the light-sampling porthole. In darkness each animal initiated wheel activity immediately after arousal; light at arousal time, however, induced a return to the nest box for a nap and a delay phase-shift in onset of activity of approximately 40 min. On subsequent days, each animal appeared to be free-running (tau FR less than 24 h) until onset again advanced into the light period. A squirrel usually viewed only a few minutes light per day, and on free-running days occasionally saw none of the 12-h light period. The significance of these data for theories of circadian photoentrainment is discussed. PMID:3761222

  8. GENDER-SPECIFIC GROWTH AND HEPATIC NEOPLASIA IN MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES). (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brief exposure of hatchling medaka (Oryzias latipes), to diethylnitrosamine (DEN), resulted in hepatic tumor formation in female medaka at an incidence of 2–3-fold higher than that of their male cohorts. Spontaneous liver tumor incidence was reported in unexposed...

  9. The Quest for Quality--Towards Joint European Quality Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomeus, Yvonne, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following papers about considerations in developing joint European quality norms for vocational guidance: "Joint Quality Norms in Guidance"; "Careers Guidance in the Information Society" (Frans Meijers); "The Changing Nature of Guidance" (J. Chamberlain); "Quality with Policy: Beyond Calimero?" (Saskia den Broeder); "Ethical…

  10. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  11. Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branon, Rovy F., III

    2011-01-01

    Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

  12. Physik gestern und heute Spurensuche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Wolfgang; Heering, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Im Jahre 1927 erhielt Charles Thomson Rees Wilson für die von ihm entwickelte Methode zur Visualisierung der Spuren ionisierender Strahlung den Nobelpreis für Physik. Die nach ihm benannte Nebelkammer wurde in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts zu einem Standardinstrument für Untersuchungen subatomarer Prozesse.

  13. Science. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda Easley, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Color & Light: Design and Evaluation of a Multimedia-Case for Elementary Teacher-Education" (Peter Blijleven and Ellen van den Berg); (2) "Standards-Based Design of Technology-Integrated Science…

  14. Efficacy of Anakinra for Various Types of Crystal-Induced Arthritis in Complex Hospitalized Patients: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Aouba, A.; Deshayes, S.; Frenzel, L.; Decottignies, A.; Pressiat, C.; Bienvenu, B.; Boue, F.; Damaj, G.; Hermine, O.; Georgin-Lavialle, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are few data on anakinra use after failure of conventional medications for crystal-induced peripheral arthritis and/or crowned dens syndrome among complex hospitalized patients. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of six patients affected with subacute crystal-induced arthritis who had received anakinra in second or third line therapy, including three patients with crowned dens syndrome and three others with gouty arthritis. Patients' comorbidities, reasons for anakinra use and associated drugs, and outcomes were recorded. Results. All patients presented with elevated inflammatory syndrome, systemic symptoms with poly/oligoarthritis. Except for absolute contraindications, all patients were previously treated with full or decreased dose of NSAID, colchicine, and/or glucocorticoids, with unsatisfactory response. All three gouty patients exhibited complete responses in all acute involvements under anakinra within 3 to 5 days, including one of them who needed the reintroduction of colchicine treatment that was previously unsuccessful. Crowned dens syndrome patients, including two with pseudogout and one with subacute hydroxyapatite deposition disease, needed 9 to 11 days to achieve complete response. Tolerance to anakinra was good. Conclusion. In case series of complex hospitalized patients, anakinra showed good activity in crowned dens syndrome and associated crystal-induced peripheral arthritis, with longer treatment duration than in gouty arthritis. PMID:25922564

  15. Datenqualitäts-Audits in Projekten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Marcus; Mielke, Michael

    Datenqualität leidet zumeist schon in der Entstehung der Daten und ihrer zugrunde liegenden Datenhaushalte. Datenqualität ist üblicherweise der letzte Bereich, der in Projekten berücksichtigt wird, wenn diese Projekte in Schwierigkeiten geraten. Daher ist es notwendig, Datenqualität in den verschiedenen Stadien eines Projektes strukturell zu verankern.

  16. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  17. Energieeffizienz im Rechenzentrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hintemann, Ralph; Skurk, Holger

    In den stark automatisierten, arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsystemen der Industrienationen ist die eine effiziente und zuverlässige zentrale Informationstechnik (IT) der Unternehmen entscheidend für den Geschäftserfolg. Immer mehr Unternehmensabläufe werden durch die IT unterstützt. Vielfach ist es sogar nur noch durch die umfassende IT-Unterstützung der Geschäftsprozesse möglich, im globalen Wettbewerb erfolgreich zu sein. Die installierte Rechenleistung in modernen Unternehmen steigt dabei ständig an. Neue und verbesserte Anwendungen und Programm-Features erfordern leistungsfähige Server. In den Rechenzentren kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen sind heute Rechenleistungen installiert, die vor wenigen Jahren ausschließlich einigen Großunternehmen vorbehalten waren. Diese im Grundsatz positive Entwicklung kann aber auch zu hohen Strom- und Kühlleistungen in Rechenzentren führen. Damit stellen sich neue Herausforderungen an die Planung, Ausführung und den Betrieb einer IT-Infrastruktur.

  18. Zivilisationsdynamik: Treiber Technik, Folgen und Konsequenzen. Civilisation dynamics: driving force technology, results and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jischa, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    Die Menschheitsgeschichte ist untrennbar mit der Nutzung von Materie, Energie und Information verbunden. Im Laufe der Geschichte sind Produktivität, Bevölkerung und Ressourcenverbrauch ständig angestiegen, seit dem vergangenen Jahrhundert mit zunehmender Beschleunigung. In den früh industrialisierten Ländern entwickelte sich vor wenigen Jahrzehnten eine Bewusstseinswende, die Segnungen der Technik wurden zunehmend kritisch beurteilt. Das führte zur Formulierung des Leitbildes Nachhaltigkeit und unterschiedlichen Ansätzen, dieses zu operationalisieren, aus Sicht der Ingenieure mit dem Konzept Technikbewertung. Nach den Natur- und den Ingenieurwissenschaften haben die Gesellschaftswissenschaften diese Themen aufgegriffen, was zu einer teilweisen Annäherung der Zwei Kulturen geführt hat. Weiter sind Überlegungen entstanden, Lehr- und Forschungsinhalte zu überdenken, um auf die Weltprobleme (in der Sprache des Club of Rome) angemessen reagieren zu können. In jüngerer Zeit wurden Energieszenarien vorgestellt, deren Kernaussage unmissverständlich lautet: Die Zukunft gehört den erneuerbaren Energien.

  19. THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOS FOLLOWING A CRACK AND CREVICE TYPE APPLICATION IN THE U.S. EPA INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted in the U.S. EPA Indoor Air Quality Test House to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorpyrifos following a professional crack and crevice application in the kitchen. Following the application, measurements were made in the kitchen, den a...

  20. Influence of nitrogen rate and drip application method on pomegranate fruit yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. Developing more efficient methods of water and fertilizer application are important in reducing production costs. In 2012, a pomegranate orchard established in 2010 with a den...

  1. Figures of Disengagement: Charles Taylor, Scientific Parenting, and the Paradox of Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berge, Luc; Ramaekers, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Luc Van den Berge and Stefan Ramaekers take the idea(l) of "scientific parenting" as an example of ambiguities that are typical of our late-modern condition. On the one hand, parenting seems like a natural thing to do, which makes "scientific parenting" sound like an oxymoron; on the other hand, a disengaged…

  2. 78 FR 61379 - Proposed Information Collection; Incidental Take of Marine Mammals During Specified Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Observation Reports......... 300 1.5 450 Final Monitoring Report 30 10 300 Polar Bear Den Report 4 40 160... their incidental taking of polar bears and Pacific walruses in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. The Marine... conditions should be in the LOA. In addition, we analyze the information to determine impacts to polar...

  3. Use of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Imaging for Quantifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided Tomography (CT) imaging was utilized to quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, NY) and mineral (North Inlet, SC) Spartina alterniflora soils. Calibration rods composed of materials with standard dens...

  4. Regular and homeward travel speeds of arctic wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Single wolves (Canis lupus arctos), a pair, and a pack of five habituated to the investigator on an all-terrain vehicle were followed on Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, during summer. Their mean travel speed was measured on barren ground at 8.7 km/h during regular travel and 10.0 km/h when returning to a den.

  5. Flexible Strategy Use by Students Who Learn Much versus Little from Text: Transitions within Think-Aloud Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Wills, Theodore W.

    2016-01-01

    Van den Broek's landscape model explicitly posits sequences of moves during reading in real time. Two other models that implicitly describe sequences of processes during reading are tested in the present research. Coded think-aloud data from 24 undergraduate students reading scientific text were analysed with lag-sequential techniques to compare…

  6. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF BASEMENT DEN, SLOPING GOTHIC CEILING OF CARVED, PRESSED LEATHER. WINDOWS ON SOUTH SIDE OF ROOM ARE MADE FROM MULTI-SIZED AND STAINED BOTTLES SET IN WROUGHT IRON. Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  7. DENEDDYLASE1 Deconjugates NEDD8 from Non-Cullin Protein Substrates in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Mergner, Julia; Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Kuster, Bernhard; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved 8-kD protein NEDD8 (NEURAL PRECURSOR CELL EXPRESSED, DEVELOPMENTALLY DOWN-REGULATED8) belongs to the family of ubiquitin-like modifiers. Like ubiquitin, NEDD8 is conjugated to and deconjugated from target proteins. Many targets and functions of ubiquitylation have been described; by contrast, few targets of NEDD8 have been identified. In plants as well as in non-plant organisms, the cullin subunits of cullin-RING E3 ligases are NEDD8 conjugates with a demonstrated functional role for the NEDD8 modification. The existence of other non-cullin NEDD8 targets has generally been questioned. NEDD8 is translated as a precursor protein and proteolytic processing exposes a C-terminal glycine required for NEDD8 conjugation. In animals and yeast, DENEDDYLASE1 (DEN1) processes NEDD8. Here, we show that mutants of a DEN1 homolog from Arabidopsis thaliana have no detectable defects in NEDD8 processing but do accumulate a broad range of NEDD8 conjugates; this provides direct evidence for the existence of non-cullin NEDD8 conjugates. We further identify AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AXR1), a subunit of the heterodimeric NEDD8 E1 activating enzyme, as a NEDD8-modified protein in den1 mutants and wild type and provide evidence that AXR1 function may be compromised in the absence of DEN1 activity. Thus, in plants, neddylation may serve as a regulatory mechanism for cullin and non-cullin proteins. PMID:25783028

  8. Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Data: A Monte Carlo Investigation of a Three Level Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Corina M.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous ways to meta-analyze single-case data have been proposed in the literature, however, consensus on the most appropriate method has not been reached. One method that has been proposed involves multilevel modeling. This study used Monte Carlo methods to examine the appropriateness of Van den Noortgate and Onghena's (2008) raw data multilevel…

  9. Soy protein isolate protects against ethanol mediated tumor progression in diethylnitrosamine treated male mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, DEN-treated male mice were assigned to 3 groups: a 35% high fat ethanol liquid diet (EtOH) with casein as the protein source, the same EtOH liquid diet with soy protein isolate as the sole protein source (EtOH/soy) and a chow group. EtOH feeding continued for 16 wks. As expected, E...

  10. Does Learning in Clinical Context in Anatomical Sciences Improve Examination Results, Learning Motivation, or Learning Orientation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Böckers, Anja; Mayer, Christian; Böckers, Tobias Maria

    2014-01-01

    The preclinical compulsory elective course "Ready for the Operating Room (OR)!?" [in German]: "Fit für den OP (FOP)"] was implemented for students in their second year, who were simultaneously enrolled in the gross anatomy course. The objective of the study was to determine whether the direct practical application of anatomical…

  11. 78 FR 65248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... distinct population segment of the North American wolverine (78 FR 7864) under the Endangered Species Act... determination that wolverines are dependent on persistent late spring snow. Some commenters thought that wolverine distribution was not restricted by access to snow dens and that wolverine distribution...

  12. TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF ACUTE CHLORPYRIFOS ADMINISTRATION ON SPATIAL DELAYED ALTERNATION AND CHOLINERGIC NEUROCHEMISTRY IN WEANLING RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On postnatal day 21 (PND21), Long-Evans rat pups received a single subcutaneous injection of either 0 (corn oil), 90, 120, or 240 mg/kg chlorpyrifos and were then tested for T-maze delayed alternation on PND23 or 26. cetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity and muscarinic receptor den...

  13. A New Method for Identifying Essential Proteins Based on Network Topology Properties and Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chao; Sun, Yongqi; Dong, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    Essential proteins are indispensable to the viability and reproduction of an organism. The identification of essential proteins is necessary not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular life but also for disease diagnosis, medical treatments and drug design. Many computational methods have been proposed for discovering essential proteins, but the precision of the prediction of essential proteins remains to be improved. In this paper, we propose a new method, LBCC, which is based on the combination of local density, betweenness centrality (BC) and in-degree centrality of complex (IDC). First, we introduce the common centrality measures; second, we propose the densities Den1(v) and Den2(v) of a node v to describe its local properties in the network; and finally, the combined strategy of Den1, Den2, BC and IDC is developed to improve the prediction precision. The experimental results demonstrate that LBCC outperforms traditional topological measures for predicting essential proteins, including degree centrality (DC), BC, subgraph centrality (SC), eigenvector centrality (EC), network centrality (NC), and the local average connectivity-based method (LAC). LBCC also improves the prediction precision by approximately 10 percent on the YMIPS and YMBD datasets compared to the most recently developed method, LIDC. PMID:27529423

  14. Assessments of Intellectually Gifted Students With(out) Characteristic(s) of ASD: An Explorative Evaluation among Diagnosticians in Various Psycho-Educational Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger-Veltmeijer, Agnes E. J.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Burger-Veltmeijer, Minnaert & Van den Bosch (2014) constructed a conceptual framework, called the Strengths and Weaknesses Heuristic ("S&W Heuristic") which might provide systematicity and coherence in research as well as psycho-educational praxis, regarding assessments of Intellectually Gifted (IG) students with…

  15. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  16. Status of tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae), a larval parasitoid of muscoid flies, in the U.S. and Denmark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of the muscoid fly parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus in the U.S. and Denmark 40 years after this species was introduced from Australia as a classical biological control agent. No T. zealandicus were recovered from any of the collections made in Den...

  17. Synthesis and Catalytic Evaluation of Dendrimer-Encapsulated Cu Nanoparticles: An Undergraduate Experiment Exploring Catalytic Nanomaterials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Lyon, Jennifer L.; Croley, J. Sawyer; Crooks, Richard M.; Vanden Bout, David A.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using generation 4 hydroxyl-terminated (G4-OH) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as templates. The synthesis is conducted by coordinating copper ions with the interior amines of the dendrimer, followed by chemical reduction to form dendrimer-encapsulated copper nanoparticles (Cu-DEN). The catalytic…

  18. Morphological and molecular description of Heterodera zeae from a corn field in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae was first described from India, where it has wide distribution. This nematode has also been reported from Pakistan, Egypt, Thailand, Nepal, and Portugal. Within the U.S., H. zeae was first found in Maryland, primarily in heavy silt-clay soils at fairly low dens...

  19. Physik gestern und heute Der Spion, der die Wärme untersuchte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2003-11-01

    Der in Massachusetts geborene Benjamin Thompson, der ab 1792 auch den Titel eines Grafen von Rumford führte, ist eine der schillerndsten Figuren der Physikgeschichte. Berühmt wurde er insbesondere wegen seiner Experimente zur Wärmetheorie.http://www.famousamericans.net/benjaminthompsonrumford

  20. SSR LINKAGES TO EIGHT ADDITIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL MARKER TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 1000 morphological markers have been identified in barley. Less than half of these markers have been incorporated into the barley consensus linkage maps. We characterized and mapped eight additional morphological marker traits in this report including one eceriferum (cer-zt.389, three dens...

  1. Annual summary of endangered species preconstruction surveys conducted during 1986 on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.T.

    1987-07-01

    Preconstruction surveys were implemented as part of the US Department of Energy's compensation/mitigation plan to offset possible effects of petroleum developments on the endangered San Joaquin kit fox and blunt-nosed leopard lizard, and the proposed endangered giant kangaroo rat. These surveys were conducted to gather information that could be used to assess potential impacts of construction activity on endangered species and their habitats, and to formulate alternatives that resulted in avoiding or minimizing the effects. During 1986 a total of 130 preconstruction surveys covering approximately 665 acres were conducted. Approximately 273.5 acres of the area surveyed were subsequently disturbed by construction or maintenance activities. A total of 45 kit fox dens, numerous giant kangaroo rat burrow systems, and 47 washes representing habitat for blunt-nosed leopard lizards were found. Three kit fox dens and one wash were not considered to be threatened by construction, but all giant kangaroo rat burrows were. Impacts to 41 kit fox dens, all of the burrows, and 46 of the washes were avoided by 27 project modifications. One den was excavated to prevent potential burial of a kit fox or other wildlife during construction. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. A theoretical and experimental approach for correlating nanoparticle structure and electrocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rachel M; Yancey, David F; Zhang, Liang; Chill, Samuel T; Henkelman, Graeme; Crooks, Richard M

    2015-05-19

    The objective of the research described in this Account is the development of high-throughput computational-based screening methods for discovery of catalyst candidates and subsequent experimental validation using appropriate catalytic nanoparticles. Dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs), which are well-defined 1-2 nm diameter metal nanoparticles, fulfill the role of model electrocatalysts. Effective comparison of theory and experiment requires that the theoretical and experimental models map onto one another perfectly. We use novel synthetic methods, advanced characterization techniques, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to approach this ideal. For example, well-defined core@shell DENs can be synthesized by electrochemical underpotential deposition (UPD), and the observed deposition potentials can be compared to those calculated by DFT. Theory is also used to learn more about structure than can be determined by analytical characterization alone. For example, density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) was used to show that the core@shell configuration of Au@Pt DENs undergoes a surface reconstruction that dramatically affects its electrocatalytic properties. A separate Pd@Pt DENs study also revealed reorganization, in this case a core-shell inversion to a Pt@Pd structure. Understanding these types of structural changes is critical to building correlations between structure and catalytic function. Indeed, the second principal focus of the work described here is correlating structure and catalytic function through the combined use of theory and experiment. For example, the Au@Pt DENs system described earlier is used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as for the electro-oxidation of formic acid. The surface reorganization predicted by theory enhances our understanding of the catalytic measurements. In the case of formic acid oxidation, the deformed nanoparticle structure leads to reduced CO binding energy and therefore

  3. Dose-dependent carcinogenicity and frequent Ki-ras proto-oncogene activation by dietary N-nitrosodiethylamine in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, J D; Cheng, R; Shelton, D W; Pereira, C B; Bailey, G S

    1994-07-01

    While the experimental data upon which current concepts in mechanistically based risk assessment and molecular epidemiology are grounded derive almost entirely from rodent models, fish models have several attributes (e.g., low background incidence, extremely low cost tumor studies, nonmammalian comparative status for extrapolation of mechanisms to humans) that make them valuable adjuncts for addressing these concepts. This report provides an initial characterization of the dose dependency of dietary N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) hepatocarcinogenicity in Shasta strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the potential of DEN to elicit ras proto-oncogene activation in this species. Carcinogen was administered in the diet at five concentrations for 12 months. Necropsies were performed at 9, 12, and 18 months, the latter on fish maintained on control diet for 6 months after cessation of DEN exposure. The incidence of hepatic neoplasms at the lower dietary concentrations (< or = 70 ppm) did not consistently exceed that for control groups, which were higher in this particular study (2%) than expected (historically 0.1%). For the higher DEN concentrations, a linear relationship between the hepatic tumor incidence (expressed as log odds, log [p/(1-p)], where p = proportion of fish bearing tumors), and the logarithm of total cumulative dose was observed, with response being independent of the length of time (9 or 12 months) during which the dose was accumulated. The dose-response curve for fish maintained an additional 6 months postexposure was shifted toward higher incidence but was parallel to the curve for fish killed at cessation of exposure. The model predicts that doubling the dose will produce somewhat more than a doubling of the odds (p/(100-p)) for tumor incidence and that the odds for lesions 6 months postexposure will be approximately double those at cessation of exposure. Comparison of these results with previous studies using rats suggests an overall

  4. TLR4 Deficiency Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis and Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Pre-Carcinogenic Liver Injury in Fibrotic Liver

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Susanne Nicole; Bohner, Annika; Dapito, Dianne H.; Schwabe, Robert F.; Lammert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common consequence of advanced liver fibrosis but the interactions between fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. Recently it has been shown that HCC promotion depends on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Pre-cancerogenous events can be modelled in mice by the administration of a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN), with HCC formation depending amongst others on interleukin (IL) 6 production. Mice lacking the hepatocanalicular phosphatidylcholine transporter ABCB4 develop liver fibrosis spontaneously, resemble patients with sclerosing cholangitis due to mutations of the orthologous human gene, and represent a valid model to study tumour formation in pre-injured cholestatic liver. The aim of this study was to investigate DEN-induced liver injury in TLR4-deficient mice with biliary fibrosis. Methods ABCB4-deficient mice on the FVB/NJ genetic background were crossed to two distinct genetic backgrounds (TLR4-sufficient C3H/HeN and TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ) for more than 10 generations. The two congenic knockout and the two corresponding wild-type mouse lines were treated with a single dose of DEN for 48 hours. Phenotypic differences were assessed by measuring hepatic collagen contents, inflammatory markers (ALT, CRP, IL6) as well as hepatic apoptosis (TUNEL) and proliferation (Ki67) rates. Results Hepatic collagen accumulation is significantly reduced in ABCB4-/-:TLR4-/-double-deficient mice. After DEN challenge, apoptosis, proliferation and inflammatory markers are decreased in TLR4-deficient in comparison to TLR4-sufficient mice. When combining ABCB4 and TLR4 deficiency with DEN treatment, hepatic IL6 expression and proliferation rates are lowest in fibrotic livers from the double-deficient line. Consistent with these effects, selective digestive tract decontamination in ABCB4-/- mice also led to reduced tumor size and number after DEN. Conclusion This study demonstrates that liver

  5. Ultrastructural and Metabolic Determinants of Resistance to Azo-dye and Susceptibility to Nitrosamine Carcinogenesis of the Guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, G. M.; Sohal, R. S.; Argus, M. F.; Arcos, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    During diethylnitrosamine (DEN) administration, a distinctive difference was observed between rats and guinea-pigs in the sequence of ultrastructural changes in the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In DEN-induced hepatic tumour cells in the guinea-pig there was extensive proliferation of the rough ER, while the smooth ER was quite sparse; in the premalignant liver the opposite was noted. This is in contrast to the rat, in which administration of either DEN or 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3′-Me-DAB) brings about, in both premalignant and malignant hepatic tissue, proliferation of the smooth ER and sparsity of the rough ER. Yet, as in the rat, the number of ribosomes on the outer surface of the guinea-pig liver rough ER is greatly reduced and this is paralleled by a 49% decrease of the RNA/protein ratio as early as 4 weeks of nitrosamine administration. The decrease of RNA/protein ratio and ultrastructurally observed loss of ribosomes from the ER, following nitrosamine administration, correlate with a decrease of photometric response of microsomal suspensions to the sulphydryl probe, p-chloromercuribenzoate. While azo-dye-reductase activity is higher in untreated rats than in untreated guinea-pigs, feeding 3′-Me-DAB for 6 weeks brings about a 76% decrease in the rat, but no significant decrease in the guinea-pig, which is refractory to azo-dye carcinogenesis. Thus, the ability of the liver to inactivate the dye is greatly decreased in the rat, but not in the guinea-pig, as administration progresses toward the threshold dose for tumorigenesis. On the other hand, constitutive levels of nitrosamine dealkylase are identical in the 2 species and remain essentially unchanged following administration of DEN for 10 weeks. Inasmuch as nitrosamine dealkylation represents activating metabolism, this provides a rationale for the comparable susceptibility of the rat and guinea-pig to DEN carcinogenesis. Of the 2 enzymes in the 2 species, it is only azo

  6. Does exposure to aircraft noise increase the mortality from cardiovascular disease in the population living in the vicinity of airports? Results of an ecological study in France.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Bouaoun, Liacine; Champelovier, Patricia; Lambert, Jacques; Laumon, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The impact of aircraft noise on health is of growing concern. We investigated the relationship between this exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. We performed an ecological study on 161 communes (commune being the smallest administrative unit in France) close to the following three major French airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Lyon Saint-Exupéry, and Toulouse-Blagnac. The mortality data were provided by the French Center on Medical Causes of Death for the period 2007-2010. Based on the data provided by the French Civil Aviation Authority, a weighted average exposure to aircraft noise (L den AEI) was computed at the commune level. A Poisson regression model with commune-specific random intercepts, adjusted for potential confounding factors including air pollution, was used to investigate the association between mortality rates and L den AEI. Positive associations were observed between L den AEI and mortality from cardiovascular disease [adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) per 10 dB(A) increase in L den AEI = 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.25], coronary heart disease [MRR = 1.24 (1.12-1.36)], and myocardial infarction [MRR = 1.28 (1.11-1.46]. Stroke mortality was more weakly associated with L den AEI [MRR = 1.08 (0.97-1.21]. These significant associations were not attenuated after the adjustment for air pollution. The present ecological study supports the hypothesis of an association between aircraft noise exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. However, the potential for ecological bias and the possibility that this association could be due to residual confounding cannot be excluded. PMID:26356375

  7. Comparative Neuropathogenesis and Neurovirulence of Attenuated Flaviviruses in Nonhuman Primates▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Maximova, Olga A.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Asher, David M.; St. Claire, Marisa; Finneyfrock, Brad W.; Speicher, James M.; Murphy, Brian R.; Pletnev, Alexander G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on previous preclinical evaluation in mice and monkeys, the chimeric TBEV/DEN4Δ30 virus, carrying the prM and E protein genes from a highly virulent Far Eastern strain of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) on the backbone of a nonneuroinvasive dengue type 4 virus (DEN4), has been identified as a promising live attenuated virus vaccine candidate against disease caused by TBEV. However, prior to use of this vaccine candidate in humans, its neurovirulence in nonhuman primates needed to be evaluated. In the present study, we compared the neuropathogeneses of the chimeric TBEV/DEN4Δ30 virus; Langat virus (LGTV), a former live TBEV vaccine; and yellow fever 17D virus vaccine (YF 17D) in rhesus monkeys inoculated intracerebrally. TBEV/DEN4Δ30 and YF 17D demonstrated remarkably similar spatiotemporal profiles of virus replication and virus-associated histopathology in the central nervous system (CNS) that were high in cerebral hemispheres but progressively decreased toward the spinal cord. In contrast, the neurovirulence of LGTV exhibited the reverse profile, progressing from the site of inoculation toward the cerebellum and spinal cord. Analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of viral antigens in the CNS of monkeys revealed a prominent neurotropism associated with all three attenuated viruses. Nevertheless, TBEV/DEN4Δ30 virus exhibited higher neurovirulence in monkeys than either LGTV or YF 17D, suggesting insufficient attenuation. These results provide insight into the neuropathogenesis associated with attenuated flaviviruses that may guide the design of safe vaccines. PMID:18353947

  8. Effects of early enteral nutrition on immune function of severe acute pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Kui; Mu, Xin-Wei; Li, Wei-Qin; Tong, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zheng, Shu-Yun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on the immune function and clinical outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated to receive EEN or delayed enteral nutrition (DEN). Enteral nutrition was started within 48 h after admission in EEN group, whereas from the 8th day in DEN group. All the immunologic parameters and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were collected on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after admission. The clinical outcome variables were also recorded. RESULTS: Sixty SAP patients were enrolled to this study. The CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the CRP levels in EEN group became significantly lower than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. In contrast, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in EEN group became significantly higher than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. No difference of CD8+ T-lymphocyte percentage, IgM and IgA levels was found between the two groups. The incidences of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and pancreatic infection as well as the duration of intensive care unit stay were significantly lower in EEN group than in DEN group. However, there was no difference of hospital mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSION: EEN moderates the excessive immune response during the early stage of SAP without leading to subsequent immunosuppression. EEN can improve the clinical outcome, but not decrease the hospital mortality of SAP patients. PMID:23431120

  9. The Ser176 of T4 endonuclease IV is crucial for the restricted and polarized dC-specific cleavage of single-stranded DNA implicated in restriction of dC-containing DNA in host Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Nobutaka; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Sakashita, Hidenori; Takahashi, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Endonuclease (Endo) IV encoded by denB of bacteriophage T4 is an enzyme that cleaves single-stranded (ss) DNA in a dC-specific manner. Also the growth of dC-substituted T4 phage and host Escherichia coli cells is inhibited by denB expression presumably because of the inhibitory effect on replication of dC-containing DNA. Recently, we have demonstrated that an efficient cleavage by Endo IV occurs exclusively at the 5′-proximal dC (dC1) within a hexameric or an extended sequence consisting of dC residues at the 5′-proximal and the 3′-proximal positions (dCs tract), in which a third dC residue within the tract affects the polarized cleavage and cleavage rate. Here we isolate and characterize two denB mutants, denB(W88R) and denB(S176N). Both mutant alleles have lost the detrimental effect on the host cell. Endo IV(W88R) shows no enzymatic activity (<0.4% of that of wild-type Endo IV). On the other hand, Endo IV(S176N) retains cleavage activity (17.5% of that of wild-type Endo IV), but has lost the polarized and restricted cleavage of a dCs tract, indicating that the Ser176 residue of Endo IV is implicated in the polarized cleavage of a dCs tract which brings about a detrimental effect on the replication of dC-containing DNA. PMID:17913749

  10. Enhancement of preneoplastic lesion yield by Chios Mastic Gum in a rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Kenichiro Wei, Min; Kitano, Mitsuaki; Uematsu, Naomi; Inoue, Masayo; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    The mastic (Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) tree is native throughout the Mediterranean region and has long proved a source of food additives and medical treatments. To investigate the modifying effects of Chios Mastic Gum on rat liver carcinogenesis, 6-week-old male F344 rats were subjected to the established rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay (Ito-test). At the commencement, rats (groups 1-4) were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg/kg body weight of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). After two weeks, mastic was added to CRF (Charles River Formula)-1 powdered basal diet at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1% in groups 1-4, respectively. At week 3, all rats were underwent two-thirds partial hepatectomy. The experiment was terminated at week 8. As results show, liver weights were significantly increased in a mastic dose-dependent manner among groups 1-4. The numbers (/cm{sup 2}) and the areas (mm{sup 2}/cm{sup 2}) of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive cell foci ({>=} 0.2 mm in diameter) were significantly increased in the DEN-1% group compared to the DEN-alone group, along with the average areas per foci and larger-sized foci ({>=} 0.4 mm). 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) + GST-P double-immunohistochemistry showed the highest BrdU-labeling indices within GST-P foci in the DEN-1% group. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in liver DNA did not vary, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of livers revealed many up- or down-regulated genes in the DEN-1% group. In conclusion, this is the first report to display a promotion potential of Chios Mastic Gum on the formation of preneoplastic lesions in the established rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay.

  11. Unusual Reversible Oligomerization of Unfolded Dengue Envelope Protein Domain 3 at High Temperatures and Its Abolition by a Point Mutation.

    PubMed

    Saotome, Tomonori; Nakamura, Shigeyoshi; Islam, Mohammad M; Nakazawa, Akiko; Dellarole, Mariano; Arisaka, Fumio; Kidokoro, Shun-Ichi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2016-08-16

    We report differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments between 10 and 120 °C of Dengue 4 envelope protein domain 3 (DEN4 ED3), a small 107-residue monomeric globular protein domain. The thermal unfolding of DEN4 ED3 was fully reversible and exhibited two peculiar endothermic peaks. AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) experiments at 25 °C indicated that DEN4 ED3 was monomeric. Detailed thermodynamic analysis indicated that the two endothermic peaks separated with an increasing protein concentration, and global fitting of the DSC curves strongly suggested the presence of unfolded tetramers at temperatures around 80-90 °C, which dissociated to unfolded monomers at even higher temperatures. To further characterize this rare thermal unfolding process, we designed and constructed a DEN4 ED3 variant that would unfold according to a two-state model, typical of globular proteins. We thus substituted Val 380, the most buried residue at the dimeric interface in the protein crystal, with less hydrophobic amino acids (Ala, Ser, Thr, Asn, and Lys). All variants showed a single heat absorption peak, typical of small globular proteins. In particular, the DSC thermogram of DEN4 V380K indicated a two-state reversible thermal unfolding independent of protein concentration, indicating that the high-temperature oligomeric state was successfully abolished by a single mutation. These observations confirmed the standard view that small monomeric globular proteins undergo a two-state unfolding. However, the reversible formation of unfolded oligomers at high temperatures is a truly new phenomenon, which was fully inhibited by an accurately designed single mutation. PMID:27433922

  12. An evaluation of independent component analyses with an application to resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Risk, Benjamin B; Matteson, David S; Ruppert, David; Eloyan, Ani; Caffo, Brian S

    2014-03-01

    We examine differences between independent component analyses (ICAs) arising from different assumptions, measures of dependence, and starting points of the algorithms. ICA is a popular method with diverse applications including artifact removal in electrophysiology data, feature extraction in microarray data, and identifying brain networks in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). ICA can be viewed as a generalization of principal component analysis (PCA) that takes into account higher-order cross-correlations. Whereas the PCA solution is unique, there are many ICA methods-whose solutions may differ. Infomax, FastICA, and JADE are commonly applied to fMRI studies, with FastICA being arguably the most popular. Hastie and Tibshirani (2003) demonstrated that ProDenICA outperformed FastICA in simulations with two components. We introduce the application of ProDenICA to simulations with more components and to fMRI data. ProDenICA was more accurate in simulations, and we identified differences between biologically meaningful ICs from ProDenICA versus other methods in the fMRI analysis. ICA methods require nonconvex optimization, yet current practices do not recognize the importance of, nor adequately address sensitivity to, initial values. We found that local optima led to dramatically different estimates in both simulations and group ICA of fMRI, and we provide evidence that the global optimum from ProDenICA is the best estimate. We applied a modification of the Hungarian (Kuhn-Munkres) algorithm to match ICs from multiple estimates, thereby gaining novel insights into how brain networks vary in their sensitivity to initial values and ICA method. PMID:24350655

  13. An evaluation of independent component analyses with an application to resting-state fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Matteson, David S.; Ruppert, David; Eloyan, Ani; Caffo, Brian S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We examine differences between independent component analyses (ICAs) arising from different as-sumptions, measures of dependence, and starting points of the algorithms. ICA is a popular method with diverse applications including artifact removal in electrophysiology data, feature extraction in microarray data, and identifying brain networks in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). ICA can be viewed as a generalization of principal component analysis (PCA) that takes into account higher-order cross-correlations. Whereas the PCA solution is unique, there are many ICA methods–whose solutions may differ. Infomax, FastICA, and JADE are commonly applied to fMRI studies, with FastICA being arguably the most popular. Hastie and Tibshirani (2003) demonstrated that ProDenICA outperformed FastICA in simulations with two components. We introduce the application of ProDenICA to simulations with more components and to fMRI data. ProDenICA was more accurate in simulations, and we identified differences between biologically meaningful ICs from ProDenICA versus other methods in the fMRI analysis. ICA methods require nonconvex optimization, yet current practices do not recognize the importance of, nor adequately address sensitivity to, initial values. We found that local optima led to dramatically different estimates in both simulations and group ICA of fMRI, and we provide evidence that the global optimum from ProDenICA is the best estimate. We applied a modification of the Hungarian (Kuhn-Munkres) algorithm to match ICs from multiple estimates, thereby gaining novel insights into how brain networks vary in their sensitivity to initial values and ICA method. PMID:24350655

  14. Validation study of the combined repeated-dose toxicity and genotoxicity assay using gpt delta rats

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Jun-ichi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Cho, Young-Man; Mizuta, Yasuko; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic rodents carrying reporter genes to detect organ-specific in vivo genetic alterations are useful for risk assessment of genotoxicity that causes cancer. Thus, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has established the guideline for genotoxicity tests using transgenic animals, which may be combined with repeated-dose toxicity studies. Here, we provide evidence to support equivalence of gpt delta and wild type (WT) rats in terms of toxicological responses to a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), and a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). gpt delta rats treated with DEHP showed similar increases in liver and kidney weights, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratios, and incidence of diffuse hepatocyte hypertrophy compared to WT F344 and Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. DEN-treated gpt delta rats showed equivalent increases in the number and area of precancerous GST-P-positive foci in the liver compared to WT rats. The livers of DEN-treated gpt delta rats also showed increased frequencies of gpt and Spi− mutations; such changes were not observed in DEHP-treated gpt delta rats. These results indicated that gpt delta rats (both F344 and SD backgrounds) showed comparable DEHP-induced toxicity and DEN-induced genotoxicity to those observed in WT rats. With regard to the administration period, the general toxicity of 1.2% DEHP was evident throughout the experimental period, and the genotoxicity of 10 p.p.m. DEN could be detected after 2 weeks of administration and further increased at 4 weeks. These results suggested that combined assays using gpt delta rats could detect both general toxicity and genotoxicity by the canonical 4-week administration protocol. Therefore, this assay using gpt delta rats would be applicable for risk assessment including early detection of genotoxic carcinogens and ultimately serve to reduce cancer risks in humans from environmental chemicals. PMID:25683344

  15. Validation study of the combined repeated-dose toxicity and genotoxicity assay using gpt delta rats.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Jun-Ichi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Cho, Young-Man; Mizuta, Yasuko; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic rodents carrying reporter genes to detect organ-specific in vivo genetic alterations are useful for risk assessment of genotoxicity that causes cancer. Thus, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has established the guideline for genotoxicity tests using transgenic animals, which may be combined with repeated-dose toxicity studies. Here, we provide evidence to support equivalence of gpt delta and wild type (WT) rats in terms of toxicological responses to a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), and a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). gpt delta rats treated with DEHP showed similar increases in liver and kidney weights, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratios, and incidence of diffuse hepatocyte hypertrophy compared to WT F344 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. DEN-treated gpt delta rats showed equivalent increases in the number and area of precancerous GST-P-positive foci in the liver compared to WT rats. The livers of DEN-treated gpt delta rats also showed increased frequencies of gpt and Spi(-) mutations; such changes were not observed in DEHP-treated gpt delta rats. These results indicated that gpt delta rats (both F344 and SD backgrounds) showed comparable DEHP-induced toxicity and DEN-induced genotoxicity to those observed in WT rats. With regard to the administration period, the general toxicity of 1.2% DEHP was evident throughout the experimental period, and the genotoxicity of 10 p.p.m. DEN could be detected after 2 weeks of administration and further increased at 4 weeks. These results suggested that combined assays using gpt delta rats could detect both general toxicity and genotoxicity by the canonical 4-week administration protocol. Therefore, this assay using gpt delta rats would be applicable for risk assessment including early detection of genotoxic carcinogens and ultimately serve to reduce cancer risks in humans from environmental chemicals. PMID:25683344

  16. Effect of Boschniakia rossica on expression of GST-P, p53 and p21(ras)proteins in early stage of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and its anti-inflammatory activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zong-Zhu; Jin, Hai-Ling; Yin, Xue-Zhe; Li, Tian-Zhu; Quan, Ji-Shu; Jin, Zeng-Nan

    2000-12-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of Boschniakia rossica (BR) extract on expression of GST-P, p53 and p21(ras) proteins in early stage of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and its anti-inflammatory activities.METHODS:The expression of tumor marker-placental form glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), p53 and p21(ras) proteins were investigated by immunohisto-chemical techniques and ABC method. Anti-inflammatory activities of BR were studied by xylene and croton oil-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenin, histamine and hot scald-induced rat pow edema, adjuvant-induced rat arthritis and cotton pellet induced mouse granuloma formation methods.RESULTS:The 500mg/kg of BR-H2O extract frac-tionated from BR-Methanol extract had inhibitory effect on the formation of DEN-induced GST-P-positive foci in rat liver (GST-P staining was 78% positive in DEN+AAF group vs 20% positive in DEN+AAF+BR group, P<0.05) and the expression of mutant p53 and p21(ras) protein was lower than that of hepatic preneoplastic lesions (33% and 22% positive respectively in DEN+AAF group vs negative in DEN+AAF+BR group). Both CH(2)Cl(2) and H(2)O extracts from BR had anti-inflamatory effect in xylene and crotonoil induced mouse ear edema (inhibitory rates were 26%-29% and 35%-59%, respectively). BR H(2)O extract exhibited inhibitory effect in carrageenin, histamine and hot scald-induced hind paw edema and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice.CONCLUSION:BR extract exhibited inhibitory effect on formation of preneoplastic hepatic foci in early stage of rat chemical hepato-carcinogenesis.Both CH(2)Cl(2) and H(2)O extracts from BR exerted anti-inflammatory effect in rats and mice. PMID:11819701

  17. Late winter and early spring home range and habitat use of the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in western North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, W. Mark; Kelly, Christine A.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Odom, Richard H.; Newcomb, Douglas; Gilley, L. Michelle; Diggins, Corinne A.

    2014-01-01

    The Carolina northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus is an endangered subspecies that is restricted to high elevation forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Owing to rugged terrain and nocturnal habits, the subspecies’ natural history, home range characteristics and habitat preferences are poorly known. We radio-tracked 3 female and 2 male Carolina northern flying squirrels during late winter through spring 2012 in the Pisgah National Forest, North Carolina, USA. Tracked squirrels used 13 yellow birch Betula alleghaniensis and 9 red spruce Picea rubens as diurnal dens. Ten of the yellow birch dens were in cavities, whereas the remainders were dreys. Conversely, 8 of the red spruce dens were dreys and one was in a cavity. Mean (±SE) female 95 and 50% adaptive kernel home ranges were 6.50 ± 2.19 and 0.93 ± 0.33 ha, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for males were 12.6 ± 0.9 and 1.45 ± 0.1 ha, respectively. Squirrels used red spruce stands with canopies >20 m more than expected based on availability at the landscape and home range scales. Results should be interpreted cautiously because of small sample sizes and seasonal observations; however, they provide evidence that although northern hardwoods such as yellow birch are an important den habitat component, mature red spruce-dominated habitats with complex structure provide foraging habitats and are also den habitat. Our findings support efforts to improve the structural condition of extant red spruce forests and/or increase red spruce acreage to potentially benefit Carolina northern flying squirrels.

  18. Serotype-Specific Structural Differences in the Protease-Cofactor Complexes of the Dengue Virus Family

    SciTech Connect

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Daudenarde, Sophie; Gatchalian, Jovylyn; Cornillez-Ty, Cromwell; Kuhn, Peter

    2010-03-04

    With an estimated 40% of the world population at risk, dengue poses a significant threat to human health, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Preventative and curative efforts, such as vaccine development and drug discovery, face additional challenges due to the occurrence of four antigenically distinct serotypes of the causative dengue virus (DEN1 to -4). Complex immune responses resulting from repeat assaults by the different serotypes necessitate simultaneous targeting of all forms of the virus. One of the promising targets for drug development is the highly conserved two-component viral protease NS2B-NS3, which plays an essential role in viral replication by processing the viral precursor polyprotein into functional proteins. In this paper, we report the 2.1-{angstrom} crystal structure of the DEN1 NS2B hydrophilic core (residues 49 to 95) in complex with the NS3 protease domain (residues 1 to 186) carrying an internal deletion in the N terminus (residues 11 to 20). While the overall folds within the protease core are similar to those of DEN2 and DEN4 proteases, the conformation of the cofactor NS2B is dramatically different from those of other flaviviral apoprotease structures. The differences are especially apparent within its C-terminal region, implicated in substrate binding. The structure reveals for the first time serotype-specific structural elements in the dengue virus family, with the reported alternate conformation resulting from a unique metal-binding site within the DEN1 sequence. We also report the identification of a 10-residue stretch within NS3pro that separates the substrate-binding function from the catalytic turnover rate of the enzyme. Implications for broad-spectrum drug discovery are discussed.

  19. Estradiol-induced promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis in medaka: Relationship of foci of cellular alteration to neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, J.B.; Hinton, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    In some laboratory and field studies, female fish have higher prevalences of liver tumors than do males. The authors hypothesize gender and site-specific differences in prevalence are due to variable exposures of previously initiated fish to tumor modulating compounds. Estradiol, a growth promoter, increases incidences of hepatic tumors in carcinogen-treated rainbow trout and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Estradiol also increases incidences of hepatic foci of cellular alteration (FCA) in medaka. FCA are found in subadults of tumor-bearing feral populations. Lack of knowledge about the relationship of various phenotypes of FCA to eventual tumors, however, has prevented use of FCA as a biomarker. The authors examined fate and growth of liver FCA using a 2-step, initiation-promotion protocol. Three week old medaka were exposed to 200 ppm diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 24 hr. and then fed 0.1 ppm 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) continuously through sampling at weeks 4--26. Percent volume of FCA and morphometric characteristics of normal and focal hepatocytes, including numerical density and average hepatocyte volume were quantified using computer-assisted stereology. E2 increased percentage of liver occupied by DEN-initiated amphophilic, basophilic and eosinophilic FCA in both sexes. Focal parameters of young, DEN-initiated and estradiol-treated medaka were not reached until much later in fish given only DEN. Non-focal hepatocytes in estradiol-treated medaka were smaller and more numerous than in DEN-only counterparts. Morphometric analysis is quantitatively tracking the fate of specific phenotypes of FCA to determine their role in progression to cancer.

  20. Factors influencing Dipylidium sp. infection in a free-ranging social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)☆

    PubMed Central

    East, Marion L.; Kurze, Christoph; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first genetic sequence data for a Dipylidium species from a wild carnivore plus an analysis of the effects of ecological, demographic, physiological and behavioural factors on Dipylidium sp. infection prevalence in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Our sequence data from a mitochondrial gene fragment (1176 base pair long) had a similarity of between 99% and 89% to Dipylidium caninum. We determined infection prevalence in 146 faecal samples from 124 known animals in three social groups (termed clans) using molecular screening and Dipylidium proglottid presence. Our analysis revealed significantly higher infection prevalence in juveniles (55%) than adults (15.8%), indicating that predominantly juveniles maintained infection in clans. The likelihood of infection in juveniles significantly: (1) increased as the number of adults and older juveniles (>6 months) at communal dens increased, implying a positive relationship between this factor and the size of the intermediate host (probably a flea species) population at communal dens; (2) decreased as the number of younger juveniles (<6 months) increased, suggesting that the chance of susceptible juveniles ingesting infected fleas during self-grooming declined as the number of infected fleas per younger juvenile declined; and (3) decreased during periods of low prey abundance in clan territories when an increased reliance on long-distances foraging excursions reduces the number of clan members visiting communal dens, possibly resulting in a decline in flea populations at dens. Long-distance foraging also increases the intervals (in days) between nursing visits by lactating females to their offspring. Lengthy intervals between milk intake by infected juveniles may reduce adult Dipylidium fecundity and hence decrease infection prevalence in the den flea population. Our study provides useful insights into Dipylidium epidemiology in a social